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Sample records for adequate iodine intake

  1. Determining median urinary iodine concentration that indicates adequate iodine intake at population level.

    PubMed Central

    Delange, François; de Benoist, Bruno; Burgi, Hans

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Urinary iodine concentration is the prime indicator of nutritional iodine status and is used to evaluate population-based iodine supplementation. In 1994, WHO, UNICEF and ICCIDD recommended median urinary iodine concentrations for populations of 100- 200 micro g/l, assuming the 100 micro g/l threshold would limit concentrations <50 micro g/l to iodine in iodine-replete populations (schoolchildren and adults) and the proportion of concentrations <50 micro g/l. METHOD: A questionnaire on frequency distribution of urinary iodine in iodine-replete populations was circulated to 29 scientific groups. FINDINGS: Nineteen groups reported data from 48 populations with median urinary iodine concentrations >100 micro g/l. The total population was 55 892, including 35 661 (64%) schoolchildren. Median urinary iodine concentrations were 111-540 (median 201) micro g/l for all populations, 100-199 micro g/l in 23 (48%) populations and >/=200 micro g/l in 25 (52%). The frequencies of values <50 micro g/l were 0-20.8 (mean 4.8%) overall and 7.2% and 2.5% in populations with medians of 100-199 micro g/l and >200 micro g/l, respectively. The frequency reached 20% only in two places where iodine had been supplemented for <2 years. CONCLUSION: The frequency of urinary iodine concentrations <50 micro g/l in populations with median urinary iodine concentrations >/=100 micro g/l has been overestimated. The threshold of 100 micro g/l does not need to be increased. In populations, median urinary iodine concentrations of 100-200 micro g/l indicate adequate iodine intake and optimal iodine nutrition. PMID:12219154

  2. Adequate iodine levels in healthy pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey of dietary intake in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kasap, Burcu; Akbaba, Gülhan; Yeniçeri, Emine N.; Akın, Melike N.; Akbaba, Eren; Öner, Gökalp; Turhan, Nilgün Ö.; Duru, Mehmet E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess current iodine levels and related factors among healthy pregnant women. Methods: In this cross-sectional, hospital-based study, healthy pregnant women (n=135) were scanned for thyroid volume, provided urine samples for urinary iodine concentration and completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics and dietary habits targeted for iodine consumption at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Muğla, Turkey, between August 2014 and February 2015. Sociodemographic data were analyzed by simple descriptive statistics. Results: Median urinary iodine concentration was 222.0 µg/L, indicating adequate iodine intake during pregnancy. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 28.1% of subjects had iodine deficiency, 34.1% had adequate iodine intake, 34.8% had more than adequate iodine intake, and 3.0% had excessive iodine intake during pregnancy. Education level, higher monthly income, current employment, consuming iodized salt, and adding salt to food during, or after cooking were associated with higher urinary iodine concentration. Conclusion: Iodine status of healthy pregnant women was adequate, although the percentage of women with more than adequate iodine intake was higher than the reported literature. PMID:27279519

  3. Simulation model accurately estimates total dietary iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; van 't Veer, Pieter; Ocké, Marga C

    2009-07-01

    One problem with estimating iodine intake is the lack of detailed data about the discretionary use of iodized kitchen salt and iodization of industrially processed foods. To be able to take into account these uncertainties in estimating iodine intake, a simulation model combining deterministic and probabilistic techniques was developed. Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (1997-1998) and an update of the Food Composition database were used to simulate 3 different scenarios: Dutch iodine legislation until July 2008, Dutch iodine legislation after July 2008, and a potential future situation. Results from studies measuring iodine excretion during the former legislation are comparable with the iodine intakes estimated with our model. For both former and current legislation, iodine intake was adequate for a large part of the Dutch population, but some young children (<5%) were at risk of intakes that were too low. In the scenario of a potential future situation using lower salt iodine levels, the percentage of the Dutch population with intakes that were too low increased (almost 10% of young children). To keep iodine intakes adequate, salt iodine levels should not be decreased, unless many more foods will contain iodized salt. Our model should be useful in predicting the effects of food reformulation or fortification on habitual nutrient intakes.

  4. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8-10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100-199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  5. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  6. Recent data on iodine intake in Germany and Europe.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. These regulate metabolism, promote growth, development and maturation of all organs, especially the brain. Most iodine is found in oceans and most continental soil and ground water is deficient in iodine. Therefore, around 2 billion individuals are estimated to have insufficient iodine intake and are at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. The best carrier for save iodine supplementation is salt, as the daily intake of salt is mainly constant. Due to the collaboration between international and national organisations and the salt industry, many developing and developed countries introduced universal salt iodization (USI) or have mandatory or voluntary fortification programs. In Germany as in most European countries the use of iodized salt is voluntary not only in household but also in the food industry. Two recent epidemiological surveys in Germany revealed that 33% of children and 32% of adults are still suffering from mild to moderate iodine deficiency. The best surrogate parameter for iodine deficiency is goitre. The goitre prevalence is around 30% in children as well as in adults which is in accordance with the documented iodine deficiency. From other European countries epidemiological derived data on iodine intake are only available from Denmark and Poland. Further efforts are under way to reveal the iodine status with proper methods in all European countries. On this background it might be possible to establish adequate iodine fortification programs in all European countries. PMID:27421794

  7. Amniotic fluid iodine concentrations do not vary in pregnant women with varying iodine intake.

    PubMed

    García-Fuentes, Eduardo; Gallo, Manuel; García, Laureano; Prieto, Stephanie; Alcaide-Torres, Javier; Santiago, Piedad; Velasco, Inés; Soriguer, Federico

    2008-06-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important clinical and public health problem. Its prevention begins with an adequate intake of iodine during pregnancy. International agencies recommend at least 200 microg iodine per d for pregnant women. We assessed whether iodine concentrations in the amniotic fluid of healthy pregnant women are independent of iodine intake. This cross-sectional, non-interventional study included 365 consecutive women who underwent amniocentesis to determine the fetal karyotype. The amniocentesis was performed with abdominal antisepsis using chlorhexidine. The iodine concentration was measured in urine and amniotic fluid. The study variables were the intake of iodized salt and multivitamin supplements or the prescription of a KI supplement. The mean level of urinary iodine was 139.0 (SD 94.5) microg/l and of amniotic fluid 15.81 (SD 7.09) microg/l. The women who consumed iodized salt and those who took a KI supplement had significantly higher levels of urinary iodine than those who did not (P = 0.01 and P = 0.004, respectively). The urinary iodine levels were not significantly different in the women who took a multivitamin supplement compared with those who did not take this supplement, independently of iodine concentration or multivitamin supplement. The concentrations of iodine in the amniotic fluid were similar, independent of the dietary iodine intake. Urine and amniotic fluid iodine concentrations were weakly correlated, although the amniotic fluid values were no higher in those women taking a KI supplement. KI prescription at recommended doses increases the iodine levels in the mother without influencing the iodine levels in the amniotic fluid.

  8. Does iodine gas released from seaweed contribute to dietary iodine intake?

    PubMed

    Smyth, P P A; Burns, R; Huang, R J; Hoffman, T; Mullan, K; Graham, U; Seitz, K; Platt, U; O'Dowd, C

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid hormone levels sufficient for brain development and normal metabolism require a minimal supply of iodine, mainly dietary. Living near the sea may confer advantages for iodine intake. Iodine (I(2)) gas released from seaweeds may, through respiration, supply a significant fraction of daily iodine requirements. Gaseous iodine released over seaweed beds was measured by a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based method and iodine intake assessed by measuring urinary iodine (UI) excretion. Urine samples were obtained from female schoolchildren living in coastal seaweed rich and low seaweed abundance and inland areas of Ireland. Median I(2) ranged 154-905 pg/L (daytime downwind), with higher values (~1,287 pg/L) on still nights, 1,145-3,132 pg/L (over seaweed). A rough estimate of daily gaseous iodine intake in coastal areas, based upon an arbitrary respiration of 10,000L, ranged from 1 to 20 μg/day. Despite this relatively low potential I(2) intake, UI in populations living near a seaweed hotspot were much higher than in lower abundance seaweed coastal or inland areas (158, 71 and 58 μg/L, respectively). Higher values >150 μg/L were observed in 45.6% of (seaweed rich), 3.6% (lower seaweed), 2.3% (inland)) supporting the hypothesis that iodine intake in coastal regions may be dependent on seaweed abundance rather than proximity to the sea. The findings do not exclude the possibility of a significant role for iodine inhalation in influencing iodine status. Despite lacking iodized salt, coastal communities in seaweed-rich areas can maintain an adequate iodine supply. This observation brings new meaning to the expression "Sea air is good for you!"

  9. Iodine and pregnancy - a UK cross-sectional survey of dietary intake, knowledge and awareness.

    PubMed

    Combet, E; Bouga, M; Pan, B; Lean, M E J; Christopher, C O

    2015-07-14

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones, which are critical for healthy growth, development and metabolism. The UK population is now classified as mildly iodine-insufficient. Adequate levels of iodine during pregnancy are essential for fetal neurodevelopment, and mild iodine deficiency is linked to developmental impairments. In the absence of prophylaxis in the UK, awareness of nutritional recommendations during pregnancy would empower mothers to make the right dietary choices leading to adequate iodine intake. The present study aimed to: estimate mothers' dietary iodine intake in pregnancy (using a FFQ); assess awareness of the importance of iodine in pregnancy with an understanding of existing pregnancy dietary and lifestyle recommendations with relevance for iodine; examine the level of confidence in meeting adequate iodine intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and questionnaires were distributed between August 2011 and February 2012 on local (Glasgow) and national levels (online electronic questionnaire); 1026 women, UK-resident and pregnant or mother to a child aged up to 36 months participated in the study. While self-reported awareness about general nutritional recommendations during pregnancy was high (96 %), awareness of iodine-specific recommendations was very low (12 %), as well as the level of confidence of how to achieve adequate iodine intake (28 %). Median pregnancy iodine intake, without supplements, calculated from the FFQ, was 190 μg/d (interquartile range 144-256μg/d), which was lower than that of the WHO's recommended intake for pregnant women (250 μg/d). Current dietary recommendations in pregnancy, and their dissemination, are found not to equip women to meet the requirements for iodine intake.

  10. Iodine intake in human nutrition: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Dahl, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    The present literature review is a part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) issued in 2004. The main objective of the review is to assess the influence of different intakes of iodine at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation) in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. The literature search resulted in 1,504 abstracts. Out of those, 168 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Full paper selection resulted in 40 papers that were quality assessed (A, B, or C). The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, and no conclusion. We found suggestive evidence for improved maternal iodine status and thyroid function by iodine supplementation during pregnancy. Suggestive evidence was found for the relationship between improved thyroid function (used as an indicator of iodine status) during pregnancy and cognitive function in the offspring up to 18 months of age. Moderately to severely iodine-deficient children will probably benefit from iodine supplementation or improved iodine status in order to improve their cognitive function, while only one study showed improved cognitive function following iodine supplementation in children from a mildly iodine-deficient area (no conclusion). No conclusions can be drawn related to other outcomes included in our review. There are no new data supporting changes in dietary reference values for children or adults. The rationale for increasing the dietary reference values for pregnant and lactating women in the NNR5 needs to be discussed in a broader perspective, taking iodine status of pregnant women in the Nordic countries into account. PMID:23060737

  11. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Cho, Mi Sook; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC) from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA); dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted. PMID:27240399

  12. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Cho, Mi Sook; Song, Won O

    2016-01-01

    Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC) from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA); dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted.

  13. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Cho, Mi Sook; Song, Won O

    2016-01-01

    Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC) from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA); dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted. PMID:27240399

  14. The Importance of Adequate Iodine during Pregnancy and Infancy.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased ≥50% during pregnancy. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy can cause maternal and fetal hypothyroidism and impair neurological development of the fetus. The consequences depend upon the timing and severity of the hypothyroidism; the most severe manifestation is cretinism. In iodine-deficient areas, controlled studies have demonstrated that iodine supplementation before or during early pregnancy eliminates new cases of cretinism, increases birth weight, reduces rates of perinatal and infant mortality and generally increases developmental scores in young children by 10-20%. Mild-to-moderate maternal iodine deficiency can cause thyroid dysfunction, but whether it impairs cognitive and/or neurological function in the offspring remains uncertain. In nearly all regions affected by iodine deficiency, salt iodization is the most cost-effective way of delivering iodine and improving maternal and infant health. PMID:27198746

  15. Dietary intake of nutrients with adequate intake values in the dietary reference intakes for Japanese.

    PubMed

    Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Takizawa, Asuka; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Nakade, Makiko; Imai, Eri; Kondo, Akiko; Yoshida, Kazue; Okuda, Nagako; Nishi, Nobuo; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2013-01-01

    The Adequate Intake (AI) values in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (DRIs-J) 2010 were mainly determined based on the median intakes from 2 y of pooled data (2005-2006) from the National Health and Nutrition Survey-Japan (NHNS-J). However, it remains unclear whether 2 y of pooled data from the NHNS-J are appropriate for evaluating the intake of the population. To clarify the differences in nutrient intakes determined from 2 and 7 y of pooled data, we analyzed selected nutrient intake levels by sex and age groups using NHNS-J data. Intake data were obtained from 64,624 individuals (age: ≥1 y; 47.4% men) who completed a semi-weighed 1-d household dietary record that was part of the NHNS-J conducted annually in Japan from 2003 to 2009. There were no large differences between the median intakes calculated from 2 or 7 y of pooled data for n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin D, pantothenic acid, potassium, or phosphorus. When the AI values and median intakes were compared, there was no large difference in the values for n-6 or n-3 PUFAs, pantothenic acid, or phosphorus. Conversely, the AI values for vitamin D and potassium differed from the median intakes of these nutrients for specific sex and age groups, because values were not based on NHNS-J data. Our results indicate that 2 y of pooled data from the NHNS-J adequately reflect the population's intake, and that the current system for determination of AI values will be applicable for future revisions.

  16. Research needs for assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ershow, Abby G; Goodman, Gay; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    The Office of Dietary Supplements of the NIH convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in Rockville, Maryland, in 2014. The purpose of the current article is to summarize and briefly discuss a list of research and resource needs developed with the input of workshop participants. This list is composed of the basic, clinical, translational, and population studies required for characterizing the benefits and risks of iodine supplementation, along with related data, analyses, evaluations, methods development, and supporting activities. Ancillary studies designed to use the participant, biological sample, and data resources of ongoing and completed studies (including those not originally concerned with iodine) may provide an efficient, cost-effective means to address some of these research and resource needs. In the United States, the foremost question is whether neurobehavioral development in the offspring of mildly to moderately iodine-deficient women is improved by maternal iodine supplementation during pregnancy. It is important to identify the benefits and risks of iodine supplementation in all population subgroups so that supplementation can be targeted, if necessary, to avoid increasing the risk of thyroid dysfunction and related adverse health effects in those with high iodine intakes. Ultimately, there will be a need for well-designed trials and other studies to assess the impact of maternal supplementation on neurodevelopmental outcomes in the offspring. However, 2 basic information gaps loom ahead of such a study: the development of robust, valid, and convenient biomarkers of individual iodine status and the identification of infant and toddler neurobehavioral development endpoints that are sensitive to mild maternal iodine deficiency during pregnancy and its reversal by supplementation. PMID:27534640

  17. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  18. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Karakochuk, Crystal D.; Michaux, Kristina D.; Chai, Tze L.; Chan, Benny B.; Whitfield, Kyly C.; Barr, Susan I.; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18–45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100–199 and 150–249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  19. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-03

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization.

  20. Salt intake and iodine status of women in Samoa.

    PubMed

    Land, Mary-Anne; Webster, Jacqui L; Ma, Gary; Li, Mu; Su'a, Sarah Asi Faletoese; Ieremia, Merina; Viali, Satu; Faeamani, Gavin; Bell, A Colin; Quested, Christine; Neal, Bruce C; Eastman, Creswell J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine iodine nutrition status and whether iodine status differs across salt intake levels among a sample of women aged 18-45 years living in Samoa. A cross-sectional survey was completed and 24-hr urine samples were collected and assessed for iodine (n=152) and salt excretion (n=119). The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among the women was 88 μg/L (Interquartile range (IQR)=54-121 μg/L). 62% of the women had a UIC <100 μg/L. The crude estimated mean 24-hr urinary salt excretion was 6.6 (standard deviation 3.2) g/day. More than two-thirds (66%) of the women exceeded the World Health Organization recommended maximum level of 5 g/day. No association was found between median UIC and salt excretion (81 μg/L iodine where urinary salt excretion >=5 g/day versus 76 μg/L where urinary salt excretion <5 g/day; p=0.4). Iodine nutrition appears to be insufficient in this population and may be indicative of iodine deficiency disorders in Samoan women. A collaborative approach in monitoring iodine status and salt intake will strengthen both programs and greatly inform the level of iodine fortification required to ensure optimal iodine intake as population salt reduction programs take effect. PMID:26965773

  1. Salt intake and iodine status of women in Samoa.

    PubMed

    Land, Mary-Anne; Webster, Jacqui L; Ma, Gary; Li, Mu; Su'a, Sarah Asi Faletoese; Ieremia, Merina; Viali, Satu; Faeamani, Gavin; Bell, A Colin; Quested, Christine; Neal, Bruce C; Eastman, Creswell J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine iodine nutrition status and whether iodine status differs across salt intake levels among a sample of women aged 18-45 years living in Samoa. A cross-sectional survey was completed and 24-hr urine samples were collected and assessed for iodine (n=152) and salt excretion (n=119). The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among the women was 88 μg/L (Interquartile range (IQR)=54-121 μg/L). 62% of the women had a UIC <100 μg/L. The crude estimated mean 24-hr urinary salt excretion was 6.6 (standard deviation 3.2) g/day. More than two-thirds (66%) of the women exceeded the World Health Organization recommended maximum level of 5 g/day. No association was found between median UIC and salt excretion (81 μg/L iodine where urinary salt excretion >=5 g/day versus 76 μg/L where urinary salt excretion <5 g/day; p=0.4). Iodine nutrition appears to be insufficient in this population and may be indicative of iodine deficiency disorders in Samoan women. A collaborative approach in monitoring iodine status and salt intake will strengthen both programs and greatly inform the level of iodine fortification required to ensure optimal iodine intake as population salt reduction programs take effect.

  2. Iodine intake and status during pregnancy and lactation before and after government initiatives to improve iodine status, in Palmerston North, New Zealand: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brough, Louise; Jin, Ying; Shukri, Nurul Husna; Wharemate, Zirsha Roimata; Weber, Janet L; Coad, Jane

    2015-10-01

    Iodine deficiency during pregnancy and lactation may adversely affect fetal and infant development. Two initiatives were introduced in New Zealand to prevent deficiency: (1) mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt; and (2) provision of a subsidised iodine supplement (150 μg) for all pregnant and breastfeeding women. The aim of this study was to assess iodine intake and status among a self-selecting sample of pregnant and lactating women in Palmerston North, both before and after the two initiatives. Pregnant and breastfeeding women were recruited before (n = 25 and 32; 2009) and after (n = 34 and 36; 2011) the initiatives. Iodine concentration was determined in 24-h urine and breast milk samples using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Use of supplements and salt, knowledge of iodine deficiency, and awareness of the initiatives were determined by questionnaire. Median urine iodine concentration (UIC) was higher in 2011 compared with 2009 for both pregnant (85 and 47 μg L(-1) ) and breastfeeding (74 and 34 μg L(-1) ) participants; median UIC were below the cut-offs for adequate iodine status. However, in 2011, the estimated daily iodine intake during pregnancy was 217 μg day(-1) ; 74% of women achieved the Estimated Average Requirement. Knowledge of the initiatives was low, only 28-56% were aware of the need for iodine supplements and only 15-22% were aware of the mandatory addition of iodised salt to bread. Despite initiatives, UIC of these women indicates iodine deficiency, however, dietary intakes appear adequate. Ongoing surveillance of supplement use and iodine status among pregnant and lactating women throughout New Zealand is needed to fully assess the efficacy of the initiatives. Alternative strategies may require evaluation to ensure all women have adequate iodine during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  3. Bioelement effects on thyroid gland in children living in iodine-adequate territory.

    PubMed

    Gorbachev, Anatoly L; Skalny, Anatoly V; Koubassov, Roman V

    2007-01-01

    Endemic goitre is a primary pathology of thyroid gland and critical medico social problem in many countries. A dominant cause of endemic goitre is iodine deficiency. However, besides primary iodine deficiency, the goitre may probably develop due to effects of other bioelement imbalances, essential to thyroid function maintenance. Here we studied 44 cases of endemic goitre in prepubertal children (7-10 y.o.) living in iodine-adequate territory. Thyroid volume was estimated by ultrasonometry. Main bioelements (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, Mg, Mn, Pb, Se, Si, Zn) were determined in hair samples by ICP-OES/ICP-MS method. Relationships between hair content of bioelements and thyroid gland size were estimated by multiple regressions. The regression model revealed significant positive relations between thyroid volume and Cr, Si, Mn contents. However, the actual factor of thyroid gland increase was only Si excess in organism. Significant negative relations of thyroid volume were revealed with I, Mg, Zn, Se, Co and Cd. In spite of this, the actual factors of thyroid gland volume increasing were I, Co, Mg and Se deficiency. Total bioelement contribution in thyroid impairment was estimated as 24%. Thus, it was suggested that endemic goitre in iodine-adequate territory can be formed by bioelement imbalances, namely Si excess and Co, Mg, Se shortage as well as endogenous I deficiency in spite of iodine-adequate environment.

  4. Effects of iodine intake and teat-dipping practices on milk iodine concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castro, S I Borucki; Berthiaume, R; Robichaud, A; Lacasse, P

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of dietary iodine and teat-dipping practices on iodine concentrations in milk. In the first study, 63 cows in mid lactation were assigned to a 3×3 factorial design in which the main effects were dietary iodine levels (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mg of dietary I/kg of dry matter) and 3 different postdip managements (chlorhexidine with dip cup, 1% iodine dip cup, and 1% iodine by manual spray). During the 13-d pre-experimental period and the 15-d experimental period, noniodized sanitizers were used in premilking management. During the pre-experimental period, the levels of milk iodine averaged 241.2±5.8 μg/kg, and no relationship was found with lactation number, days in milk, or milk production. Milk iodine concentrations increased linearly with iodine intake. Although teat dipping with 1% iodine had no effect on milk iodine concentration, the same solution applied by spraying greatly increased milk iodine levels. The second study was conducted to determine the effects of udder preparation before milking on milk iodine concentrations. Thirty-two lactating cows were assigned to 4 treatments: no predip (Con); predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+complete cleaning (Comp); predip with a postdip solution containing 1% iodine+complete cleaning (Post); and predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+incomplete cleaning (Inc). During the 14-d pre-experimental period and the 19-d experimental period, cows were fed the same diet, and noniodized sanitizers were used for postmilking dipping. During the last week of treatment, milk iodine averaged 164, 189, 218, and 252±9.8 μg/kg for Con, Comp, Post, and Inc, respectively. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts indicated that predipping with a 0.5% iodine predip solution completely wiped off (Comp) tended to increase milk iodine content above that of the control and that the iodine content of Post and Inc were higher than that of the Comp treatment. The results of

  5. Effects of iodine intake and teat-dipping practices on milk iodine concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castro, S I Borucki; Berthiaume, R; Robichaud, A; Lacasse, P

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of dietary iodine and teat-dipping practices on iodine concentrations in milk. In the first study, 63 cows in mid lactation were assigned to a 3×3 factorial design in which the main effects were dietary iodine levels (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mg of dietary I/kg of dry matter) and 3 different postdip managements (chlorhexidine with dip cup, 1% iodine dip cup, and 1% iodine by manual spray). During the 13-d pre-experimental period and the 15-d experimental period, noniodized sanitizers were used in premilking management. During the pre-experimental period, the levels of milk iodine averaged 241.2±5.8 μg/kg, and no relationship was found with lactation number, days in milk, or milk production. Milk iodine concentrations increased linearly with iodine intake. Although teat dipping with 1% iodine had no effect on milk iodine concentration, the same solution applied by spraying greatly increased milk iodine levels. The second study was conducted to determine the effects of udder preparation before milking on milk iodine concentrations. Thirty-two lactating cows were assigned to 4 treatments: no predip (Con); predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+complete cleaning (Comp); predip with a postdip solution containing 1% iodine+complete cleaning (Post); and predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+incomplete cleaning (Inc). During the 14-d pre-experimental period and the 19-d experimental period, cows were fed the same diet, and noniodized sanitizers were used for postmilking dipping. During the last week of treatment, milk iodine averaged 164, 189, 218, and 252±9.8 μg/kg for Con, Comp, Post, and Inc, respectively. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts indicated that predipping with a 0.5% iodine predip solution completely wiped off (Comp) tended to increase milk iodine content above that of the control and that the iodine content of Post and Inc were higher than that of the Comp treatment. The results of

  6. Thyroid Function among Breastfed Children with Chronically Excessive Iodine Intakes.

    PubMed

    Aakre, Inger; Strand, Tor A; Bjøro, Trine; Norheim, Ingrid; Barikmo, Ingrid; Ares, Susana; Alcorta, Marta Duque; Henjum, Sigrun

    2016-01-01

    Iodine excess may impair thyroid function and trigger adverse health consequences for children. This study aims to describe iodine status among breastfed infants with high iodine exposure in the Saharawi refugee camps Algeria, and further assess thyroid function and iodine status among the children three years later. In 2010, a cross-sectional study among 111 breastfed children aged 0-6 months was performed (baseline study). In 2013, a second cross-sectional study (follow-up study) was conducted among 289 children; 213 newly selected and 76 children retrieved from baseline. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) were measured at baseline. UIC, thyroid hormones and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) were measured at follow-up. At baseline and follow-up, 88% and 72% had excessive iodine intakes (UIC ≥ 300 µg/L), respectively. At follow-up, 24% had a thyroid hormone disturbance and/or elevated serum Tg, including 9% with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), 4% with elevated fT3 and 14% with elevated Tg. Children with SCH had poorer linear growth and were more likely to be underweight than the children without SCH. Excessive iodine intakes and thyroid disturbances were common among children below four years of age in our study. Further, SCH seemed to be associated with poor growth and weight. PMID:27367720

  7. Thyroid Function among Breastfed Children with Chronically Excessive Iodine Intakes

    PubMed Central

    Aakre, Inger; Strand, Tor A.; Bjøro, Trine; Norheim, Ingrid; Barikmo, Ingrid; Ares, Susana; Alcorta, Marta Duque; Henjum, Sigrun

    2016-01-01

    Iodine excess may impair thyroid function and trigger adverse health consequences for children. This study aims to describe iodine status among breastfed infants with high iodine exposure in the Saharawi refugee camps Algeria, and further assess thyroid function and iodine status among the children three years later. In 2010, a cross-sectional study among 111 breastfed children aged 0–6 months was performed (baseline study). In 2013, a second cross-sectional study (follow-up study) was conducted among 289 children; 213 newly selected and 76 children retrieved from baseline. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) were measured at baseline. UIC, thyroid hormones and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) were measured at follow-up. At baseline and follow-up, 88% and 72% had excessive iodine intakes (UIC ≥ 300 µg/L), respectively. At follow-up, 24% had a thyroid hormone disturbance and/or elevated serum Tg, including 9% with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), 4% with elevated fT3 and 14% with elevated Tg. Children with SCH had poorer linear growth and were more likely to be underweight than the children without SCH. Excessive iodine intakes and thyroid disturbances were common among children below four years of age in our study. Further, SCH seemed to be associated with poor growth and weight. PMID:27367720

  8. US Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study: dietary intake of perchlorate and iodine.

    PubMed

    Murray, Clarence William; Egan, Sara Kathleen; Kim, Henry; Beru, Nega; Bolger, Philip Michael

    2008-11-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has conducted the Total Diet Study (TDS) since 1961, which designed to monitor the US food supply for chemical contaminants, nutritional elements, and toxic elements. Recently, perchlorate was analyzed in TDS samples. Perchlorate is used as an oxidizing agent in rocket propellant, is found in other items (e.g., explosives, road flares, fireworks, and car airbags), occurs naturally in some fertilizers, and may be generated under certain climatic conditions. It has been detected in surface and groundwater and in food. Perchlorate at high (e.g., pharmacological) doses can interfere with iodide uptake into the thyroid gland, disrupting its function. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) has identified that "the fetuses of pregnant women who might have hypothyroidism or iodide deficiency as the most sensitive population." This study reports on intake estimates of perchlorate and iodine, a precursor to iodide, using the analytical results from the TDS. Estimated average perchlorate and iodine daily intakes as well as the contribution of specific food groups to total intakes were estimated for 14 age/sex subgroups of the US population. The estimated smallest lower bound to the largest upper bound average perchlorate intakes by the 14 age/sex groups range from 0.08 to 0.39 micrograms per kilogram body weight per day (microg/kg bw/day), compared with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference dose (RfD) of 0.7 microg/kg bw/day. Infants and children demonstrated the highest estimated intakes of perchlorate on a body weight basis. The estimated average iodine intakes by the 14 age/sex groups reveal a lower bound (ND=0) and upper bound (ND=LOD) range of average intakes from 138 to 353 microg/person/day. Estimated iodine intakes by infants 6-11 months exceed their adequate intake (AI), and intakes by children and adult age/sex groups exceed their relevant estimated average requirement (EAR).

  9. Assessment of spatial variation in drinking water iodine and its implications for dietary intake: a new conceptual model for Denmark.

    PubMed

    Voutchkova, Denitza Dimitrova; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Hansen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Brian Lyngby; Zhang, Chaosheng; Kristiansen, Søren Munch

    2014-09-15

    Iodine is essential for human health. Many countries have therefore introduced universal salt iodising (USI) programmes to ensure adequate intake for the populations. However, little attention has been paid to subnational differences in iodine intake from drinking water caused by naturally occurring spatial variations. To address this issue, we here present the results of a Danish nationwide study of spatial trends of iodine in drinking water and the relevance of these trends for human dietary iodine intake. The data consist of treated drinking water samples from 144 waterworks, representing approx. 45% of the groundwater abstraction for drinking water supply in Denmark. The samples were analysed for iodide, iodate, total iodine (TI) and other major and trace elements. The spatial patterns were investigated with Local Moran's I. TI ranges from <0.2 to 126 μg L(-1) (mean 14.4 μg L(-1), median 11.9 μg L(-1)). Six speciation combinations were found. Half of the samples (n = 71) contain organic iodine; all species were detected in approx. 27% of all samples. The complex spatial variation is attributed both to the geology and the groundwater treatment. TI >40 μg L(-1) originates from postglacial marine and glacial meltwater sand and from Campanian-Maastrichtian chalk aquifers. The estimated drinking water contribution to human intake varies from 0% to >100% of the WHO recommended daily iodine intake for adults and from 0% to approx. 50% for adolescents. The paper presents a new conceptual model based on the observed clustering of high or low drinking-water iodine concentrations, delimiting zones with potentially deficient, excessive or optimal iodine status. Our findings suggest that the present coarse-scale nationwide programme for monitoring the population's iodine status may not offer a sufficiently accurate picture. Local variations in drinking-water iodine should be mapped and incorporated into future adjustment of the monitoring and/or the USI programmes.

  10. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P; Woodruff, Bradley A; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-02-01

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world's population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women's urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001). Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women's education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency. PMID:26848685

  11. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P.; Woodruff, Bradley A.; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S.; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H.; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women’s urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001). Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women’s education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency. PMID:26848685

  12. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P; Woodruff, Bradley A; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-02-03

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world's population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women's urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001). Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women's education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency.

  13. Iodine concentration of milk in a dose-response study with dairy cows and implications for consumer iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Schöne, Friedrich; Leiterer, Matthias; Lebzien, Peter; Bemmann, Doreen; Spolders, Markus; Flachowsky, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Most feed is poor in iodine and iodine supplementation of cow's diets must guarantee milk iodine concentrations for humans that contribute to prevention of the deficiency and minimize the risk of exceeding an upper limit of iodine intake. Five Holstein cows were fed four iodine doses (via Ca(Iota O(3))(2).6H(2)O). In four sequential 14-d periods, doses of 0.2 (basal diet), 1.3, 5.1, and 10.1 mg iodine kg(-1) diet dry matter (DM) were administered. Samples of milk were collected during each period; blood was also sampled from each cow for each iodine dosage. In an 18-d depletion period, a non-supplemented diet was provided. Iodine was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The iodine content of milk and serum reflected the iodine dosages in feed significantly. The levels for the four doses tested in milk were 101+/-32, 343+/-109, 1215+/-222, and 2762+/-852 microg iodine kg(-1). The total amount of iodine in milk per day was 30-40% of ingested supplemental iodine. Omitting additional iodine resulted in a short-term reduction of serum and milk iodine following an exponential decay function. The iodine supplementation of 0.5-1.5 mg kg(-1) diet DM represents the requirement of the cow, resulting in 100-300 microg iodine L(-1) milk, which optimally contributes to human supply. The maximum dietary levels of former and present EU legislations (10 and 5 mg iodine kg(-1) cow feed) increase the risk of iodine excess in humans.

  14. [Factors associated with adequate fruit and vegetable intake by schoolchildren in Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Larissa da Cunha Feio; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de; Corso, Arlete Catarina Tittoni

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to estimate fruit and vegetable intake and identify associated factors among schoolchildren in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 4,964 students from public and private schools in eight districts in the State, analyzing socioeconomic and anthropometric data and dietary intake. Adequate fruit and vegetable intake was defined as five or more servings per day. Poisson regression was performed to test associations between fruit and vegetable intake and independent variables (p < 0.05). Adequate intake was found in 2.7% of children, while 26.6% of the sample did not consume any fruits and vegetables. In the analysis of the association between independent variables and adequate fruit and vegetable intake in the total sample, only geographic region (residents in western Santa Catarina) and consumption of candy were significantly associated. In the stratified analysis by sex, for boys, only geographic region was associated, while among girls, region and candy consumption were significantly associated with adequate fruit and vegetable intake. The findings indicate the need for specific strategies in the school community to improve fruit and vegetable intake by schoolchildren.

  15. Effect of radish (Raphanus sativus Linn.) on thyroid status under conditions of varying iodine intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Amar K; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjukta; Ghosh, Dishari; Tripathy, Smritiratan

    2006-08-01

    Cruciferous plants viz. cabbage, cauliflower, turnip, radish, mustard etc. that contain goitrogenic/antithyroid substances, constitute a portion of regular human diet. The effect of chronic feeding of fresh and cooked radish, R. sativus under varying state of iodine intake on morphological and functional status of thyroid in albino rats was evaluated by thyroid gland morphology and histology, thyroid peroxidase activity, serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine and thyrotropin levels. The consumption pattern of iodine and goitrogens of cyanogenic origin was evaluated by measuring urinary iodine and thiocyanate levels respectively. After chronic radish feeding, increased weight of thyroid gland, decreased thyroid peroxidase activity, reduced thyroid hormone profiles and elevated level of thyrotropin were observed resembling a relative state of hypoactive thyroid gland in comparison to control even after supplementation of adequate iodine. PMID:16924836

  16. Effects of excessive intakes of iodine upon growth and thyroid function of growing Holstein heifers.

    PubMed

    Fish, R E; Swanson, E W

    1982-04-01

    Thirty Holstein heifer calves averaging 120 days of age and 102 kg of body weight were allocated to one control and four treatment groups of six each. Iodine, as ethylenediamine dihydriodide, was mixed 1:9 with dextrose and administered once daily atop feed at .625, 1.25, 2.5, or 5.0 mg iodine per kilogram body weight. Calves were housed individually in unheated, well-ventilated barns and fed complete mixed feeds containing less than 1 ppm iodine. Feed intakes were recorded daily and body weights weekly. Jugular venous blood was collected from iodine treated calves at 0, 4, 8, and 12 wk of the experiment and analyzed for iodine, thyroxine, and triiodothyronine of plasma. Feed intake per unit body weight and per unit gain were not significantly different between treated and control calves. However, daily feed intake and average daily gain decreased slightly at the highest iodine intake. Thyroxine and triiodothyronine were not different among treatments. Thyroxine declined in all calves from 0 to 12 wk. Thyroxine of calves fed 5.0 mg of iodine per kilogram body weight decreased more than of calves fed less iodine. Iodine intake as high as 5.0 mg/kg body weight was tolerated without morbidity, although a minor effect on performance and thyroid activity was indicated.

  17. Iodine environmental availability and human intake in oceanic islands: Azores as a case-study.

    PubMed

    Linhares, Diana Paula Silva; Garcia, Patrícia Ventura; Almada, Alexandra; Ferreira, Teresa; Queiroz, Gabriela; Cruz, José Virgílio; Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos

    2015-12-15

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment. Although several studies have established an association between ocean proximity and iodine environmental availability, recent studies revealed an inadequate iodine intake in the Azorean islands. In this study, we aim to understand the underlying causes of iodine environmental availability in oceanic islands and its association with iodine intake in schoolchildren, using the Azores as case-study. Iodine concentration in soil and grass pasture was measured by INAA and in drinking water by spectrophotometry. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in schoolchildren was assessed by ICP-MS in a randomized cross-sectional survey with 315 participants from S. Miguel (study group) and Sta. Maria islands (reference group). A validated diet questionnaire assessing sources of iodine was recorded. The iodine concentration in soils of the reference group was significantly higher than in the study group (58.1ppm vs. 14.5ppm, respectively; p=0.001). The prevalence of schoolchildren with inadequate UIC was significantly higher in the study group than in the reference one (63.0% vs. 37.8%, respectively; p<0.001). Chronic exposure to low iodine environmental availability was significantly associated with the exacerbation in iodine deficiency, with a risk 4.94 times higher in the study group. The differences observed in the studied islands are related with each island geomorphology (soil properties and orography) and climate, which can promote or inhibit iodine environmental availability, contributing distinctively to iodine bioavailability and human intake. These findings draw attention to an urgent need for a full investigation of Azores iodine status to apply evidence-based recommendations for iodine supplementation.

  18. Iodine environmental availability and human intake in oceanic islands: Azores as a case-study.

    PubMed

    Linhares, Diana Paula Silva; Garcia, Patrícia Ventura; Almada, Alexandra; Ferreira, Teresa; Queiroz, Gabriela; Cruz, José Virgílio; Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos

    2015-12-15

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment. Although several studies have established an association between ocean proximity and iodine environmental availability, recent studies revealed an inadequate iodine intake in the Azorean islands. In this study, we aim to understand the underlying causes of iodine environmental availability in oceanic islands and its association with iodine intake in schoolchildren, using the Azores as case-study. Iodine concentration in soil and grass pasture was measured by INAA and in drinking water by spectrophotometry. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in schoolchildren was assessed by ICP-MS in a randomized cross-sectional survey with 315 participants from S. Miguel (study group) and Sta. Maria islands (reference group). A validated diet questionnaire assessing sources of iodine was recorded. The iodine concentration in soils of the reference group was significantly higher than in the study group (58.1ppm vs. 14.5ppm, respectively; p=0.001). The prevalence of schoolchildren with inadequate UIC was significantly higher in the study group than in the reference one (63.0% vs. 37.8%, respectively; p<0.001). Chronic exposure to low iodine environmental availability was significantly associated with the exacerbation in iodine deficiency, with a risk 4.94 times higher in the study group. The differences observed in the studied islands are related with each island geomorphology (soil properties and orography) and climate, which can promote or inhibit iodine environmental availability, contributing distinctively to iodine bioavailability and human intake. These findings draw attention to an urgent need for a full investigation of Azores iodine status to apply evidence-based recommendations for iodine supplementation. PMID:26318689

  19. Estimation of habitual iodine intake in Japanese adults using 16 d diet records over four seasons with a newly developed food composition database for iodine.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Miura, Ayako; Todoriki, Hidemi; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2015-08-28

    Although habitual seaweed consumption in Japan would suggest that iodine intake in Japanese is exceptionally high, intake data from diet records are limited. In the present study, we developed a composition database of iodine and estimated the habitual intake of iodine among Japanese adults. Missing values for iodine content in the existing composition table were imputed based on established criteria. 16 d diet records (4 d over four seasons) from adults (120 women aged 30-69 years and 120 men aged 30-76 years) living in Japan were collected, and iodine intake was estimated. Habitual intake was estimated with the Best-power method. Totally, 995 food items were imputed. The distribution of iodine intake in 24 h was highly skewed, and approximately 55 % of 24 h values were < 300 μg/d. The median iodine intake in 24 h was 229 μg/d for women and 273 μg/d for men. All subjects consumed iodine-rich foods (kelp or soup stock) on one or more days of the sixteen survey days. The mean (median) habitual iodine intake was 1414 (857) μg/d for women and 1572 (1031) μg/d for men. Older participants had higher intake than younger participants. The major contributors to iodine intake were kelp (60 %) and soup stock (30 %). Habitual iodine intake among Japanese was sufficient or higher than the tolerable upper intake level, particularly in older generations. The association between high iodine intake as that observed in the present study and thyroid disease requires further study.

  20. Need for coordinated programs to improve global health by optimizing salt and iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Norm R C; Dary, Omar; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Neufeld, Lynnette M; Harding, Kim B; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2012-10-01

    High dietary salt is a major cause of increased blood pressure, the leading risk for death worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that salt intake be less than 5 g/day, a goal that only a small proportion of people achieve. Iodine deficiency can cause cognitive and motor impairment and, if severe, hypothyroidism with serious mental and growth retardation. More than 2 billion people worldwide are at risk of iodine deficiency. Preventing iodine deficiency by using salt fortified with iodine is a major global public health success. Programs to reduce dietary salt are technically compatible with programs to prevent iodine deficiency through salt fortification. However, for populations to fully benefit from optimum intake of salt and iodine, the programs must be integrated. This review summarizes the scientific basis for salt reduction and iodine fortification programs, the compatibility of the programs, and the steps that need to be taken by the WHO, national governments, and nongovernmental organizations to ensure that populations fully benefit from optimal intake of salt and iodine. Specifically, expert groups must be convened to help countries implement integrated programs and context-specific case studies of successfully integrated programs; lessons learned need to be compiled and disseminated. Integrated surveillance programs will be more efficient and will enhance current efforts to optimize intake of iodine and salt. For populations to fully benefit, governments need to place a high priority on integrating these two important public health programs. PMID:23299289

  1. Effects of increased iodine intake on thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2014-09-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient essential for the production of thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. Universal salt iodization (USI) has been introduced in many countries as a cost-effective and sustainable way to eliminate iodine deficiency disorders for more than 25 years. Currently, the relationship between USI and iodine excess has attracted more attention. Iodine excess can lead to hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, especially for susceptible populations with recurring thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses, and neonates. Nationwide USI was introduced in China in 1996. This review focused on the effects of iodine excess worldwide and particularly in China. PMID:25309781

  2. Too much versus too little: the implications of current iodine intake in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lee, K; Bradley, R; Dwyer, J; Lee, S L

    1999-06-01

    Iodine intake influences the health of Americans today, but in different ways than it has in the past. In the early 1900s, iodine deficiency was responsible for widespread endemic goiter in the United States. The incidence of goiter was markedly reduced by the introduction of iodine supplementation of salt and other foods in the 1920s. By the middle of this century iodine-related problems in the Unites States were more likely to be associated with too much rather than too little of this essential nutrient. Recent and disturbing new data suggest that there has been a sharp decline in iodine intake during the last 20 years, especially in women of reproductive age. A brief comparison of thyroid response to insufficient and excessive intakes in normal and diseased thyroid tissue is presented. The population affected and the implications for therapy are also reviewed.

  3. Assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation: introduction to articles arising from 3 workshops held by the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Ershow, Abby G; Goodman, Gay; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in 2014, each held in Rockville, Maryland. These workshops were part of the ongoing ODS Iodine Initiative, begun in 2011 in response to concerns that US pregnant women may be at risk of iodine deficiency and that a high fraction of prenatal dietary supplements do not contain the recommended amounts of iodine. The primary purpose of the workshops was to consider the data and resources necessary to evaluate the clinical and public health benefits and risks of maternal iodine supplementation in the United States. The first workshop focused on the assessment of iodine intake, the second focused on the assessment of iodine status, and the third focused on the design and interpretation of clinical trials of maternal iodine supplementation. Here we provide the background of the ODS Iodine Initiative, summarize the 3 workshops held in 2014, and introduce the articles that arose from the workshops and are published in this supplement issue. PMID:27534646

  4. Systematic review using meta-analyses to estimate dose-response relationships between iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status in different population groups.

    PubMed

    Ristić-Medić, Danijela; Dullemeijer, Carla; Tepsić, Jasna; Petrović-Oggiano, Gordana; Popović, Tamara; Arsić, Aleksandra; Glibetić, Marija; Souverein, Olga W; Collings, Rachel; Cavelaars, Adriënne; de Groot, Lisette; van't Veer, Pieter; Gurinović, Mirjana

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to identify studies investigating iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status, to assess the data of the selected studies, and to estimate dose-response relationships using meta-analysis. All randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, nested case-control studies, and cross-sectional studies that supplied or measured dietary iodine and measured iodine biomarkers were included. The overall pooled regression coefficient (β) and the standard error of β were calculated by random-effects meta-analysis on a double-log scale, using the calculated intake-status regression coefficient (β) for each individual study. The results of pooled randomized controlled trials indicated that the doubling of dietary iodine intake increased urinary iodine concentrations by 14% in children and adolescents, by 57% in adults and the elderly, and by 81% in pregnant women. The dose-response relationship between iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status indicated a 12% decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone and a 31% decrease in thyroglobulin in pregnant women. The model of dose-response quantification used to describe the relationship between iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status may be useful for providing complementary evidence to support recommendations for iodine intake in different population groups.

  5. Twenty-Four-Hour Urine Osmolality as a Physiological Index of Adequate Water Intake

    PubMed Central

    Perrier, Erica T.; Buendia-Jimenez, Inmaculada; Vecchio, Mariacristina; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Tack, Ivan; Klein, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    While associations exist between water, hydration, and disease risk, research quantifying the dose-response effect of water on health is limited. Thus, the water intake necessary to maintain optimal hydration from a physiological and health standpoint remains unclear. The aim of this analysis was to derive a 24 h urine osmolality (UOsm) threshold that would provide an index of “optimal hydration,” sufficient to compensate water losses and also be biologically significant relative to the risk of disease. Ninety-five adults (31.5 ± 4.3 years, 23.2 ± 2.7 kg·m−2) collected 24 h urine, provided morning blood samples, and completed food and fluid intake diaries over 3 consecutive weekdays. A UOsm threshold was derived using 3 approaches, taking into account European dietary reference values for water; total fluid intake, and urine volumes associated with reduced risk for lithiasis and chronic kidney disease and plasma vasopressin concentration. The aggregate of these approaches suggest that a 24 h urine osmolality ≤500 mOsm·kg−1 may be a simple indicator of optimal hydration, representing a total daily fluid intake adequate to compensate for daily losses, ensure urinary output sufficient to reduce the risk of urolithiasis and renal function decline, and avoid elevated plasma vasopressin concentrations mediating the increased antidiuretic effort. PMID:25866433

  6. Iodine intake and status of UK women of childbearing age recruited at the University of Surrey in the winter

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Sarah C.; Sleeth, Michelle L.; McKenna, Marianne; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Rayman, Margaret P.

    2015-01-01

    As intra-thyroidal iodine stores should be maximised before conception to facilitate the increased thyroid-hormone production of pregnancy, women who may become pregnant should ideally consume 150 μg iodine/day [US Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)]. As few UK data exist in this population group, our aim was to assess iodine intake and status in women of childbearing age in a cross-sectional study at the University of Surrey. Total iodine excretion was measured from 24-h urine samples in 57 women; iodine intake was estimated by assuming that 90% of ingested iodine was excreted. Average iodine intake was also estimated from 48-h food diaries that the women completed. The median urinary-iodine concentration (63.1 μg/L) classified the group as mildly iodine deficient by WHO criteria. By contrast, the median 24-h iodine excretion (149.8 μg/24-h), suggested a relatively low risk of iodine deficiency. Median estimated iodine intake, extrapolated from urinary excretion, was 167 μg/day, whereas it was lower, at 123 μg/day, when estimated from the 48-h food-diaries. Iodine intake from food diaries and 24-h iodine excretion were strongly correlated (r=0.75, p<0.001). Intake of milk, eggs and dairy products was positively associated with iodine status. The iodine status of this UK cohort is probably a best-case scenario as the women were mostly nutrition students and were recruited in the winter when milk-iodine content is at its highest; further study in more representative cohorts of UK women is required. Our study highlights a need for revised cut-offs for iodine deficiency that are method- and age-group specific. PMID:25274294

  7. Current status of iodine intake in Croatia--the results of 2009 survey.

    PubMed

    Kusić, Zvonko; Jukić, Tomislav; Rogan, Suncica Andreja; Juresa, Vesna; Dabelić, Nina; Stanicić, Josip; Borić, Marta; Lukinac, Ljerka; Mihaljević, Ivan; Punda, Ante; Smokvina, Aleksandar; Topalović, Zlatko; Katalenić, Marijan

    2012-03-01

    In 1996, due to persistence of mild to moderate iodine deficiency, new law on obligatory salt iodination with 25 mg of potassium iodide (KI) per kg of salt was implemented in Croatia. Along with a new law, a new program for monitoring of iodine prophylaxis was implemented. Investigations of goiter and iodine intake performed in 2002, demonstrated sufficient iodine intake in Croatia with overall median of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) for schoolchildren in Croatia of 140 microg/L. In 2002, thyroid volumes (TV) measured by ultrasound in schoolchildren from all four geographic regions of Croatia were for the first time within the normal range according to ICCIDD reference values. Nowadays, Croatia is internationally recognized as iodine sufficient country. The aim of the present study was to assess current status of iodine intake in Croatia. The investigation was carried out in 2009. A total of 386 schoolchildren aged 7-10 years from all four major geographic regions of Croatia, 103 euthyroid pregnant women and 36 women of child-bearing age from Zagreb, the capital, were included in the survey. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured in all participants. Thyroid volumes were measured by ultrasound in schoolchildren from the capital of Zagreb (N = 101) and the village of Rude (N = 56). In the time period 2002-2009, the content of KI was analyzed in 384 salt samples from Croatian salt plants and samples of imported salt. An overall median UIC for schoolchildren in Croatia was 248 microg/L. Median UIC in pregnant women was 159 microg/L, with 50% of samples below and under 150 microg/L. Median UIC in women of child-bearing age was 136 microg/L. Thyroid volumes in schoolchildren were within the normal range according to the new reference values. Mean value of KI/kg of salt in samples from Croatian salt plants was 25.5 mg/kg and 24.9 mg/kg in samples of imported salt. A total of 72/384 (18.8%) of salt samples didn't corresponded to the Croatian law on

  8. Iodine supplementation in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Ghirri, Paolo; Lunardi, Sara; Boldrini, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Iodine deficiency can be defined as the world's greatest single cause of preventable brain damage. Fetal and neonatal hypothyroidism, caused by iodine deficiency can be prevented prior to conception and then during pregnancy and lactation when an adequate iodine supplementation is ensured. Extremely low birth weight preterm babies risk having a negative iodine balance status in the first weeks of life, exacerbating the hypothyroxinaemia of the prematurity. It is important to ensure that these babies are provided with an adequate iodine intake from the first days of life. Mothers and newborns should avoid environmental iodine excess during pregnancy or lactation.

  9. Estimation of population iodine intake from iodized salt consumed through bouillon seasoning in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Spohrer, Rebecca; Knowles, Jacqueline; Jallier, Vincent; Ndiaye, Banda; Indorf, Caroline; Guinot, Philippe; Kupka, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Universal salt iodization (USI) is the main global strategy to eliminate iodine deficiency. Regulation of USI programs often omits salt used in processed foods, despite their increasing contribution to salt intake. In West Africa, bouillon seasoning is a widely consumed source of salt and is therefore relevant to USI effectiveness. To develop program guidance around iodine in bouillon, iodine retention in 13 bouillon brands commercially available in Senegal was measured over 6 months. Iodine content was measured in broth using various water volumes and cooking times, as well as in rice cooked in the broth. Average iodine loss in bouillon over 6 months in 95% humidity at 40-40.5 °C was 4.5% (13.6% for cubes and 0.8% for powder sachets). Iodine was retained in broth with cooking times of up to an hour and in rice cooked in broth. Modeling of contribution to iodine intake revealed that bouillon is an important source of dietary iodine in Senegal. Results may inform salt iodization standards and regulation in Senegal and countries with similar bouillon consumption levels. PMID:26767583

  10. Estimation of population iodine intake from iodized salt consumed through bouillon seasoning in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Spohrer, Rebecca; Knowles, Jacqueline; Jallier, Vincent; Ndiaye, Banda; Indorf, Caroline; Guinot, Philippe; Kupka, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Universal salt iodization (USI) is the main global strategy to eliminate iodine deficiency. Regulation of USI programs often omits salt used in processed foods, despite their increasing contribution to salt intake. In West Africa, bouillon seasoning is a widely consumed source of salt and is therefore relevant to USI effectiveness. To develop program guidance around iodine in bouillon, iodine retention in 13 bouillon brands commercially available in Senegal was measured over 6 months. Iodine content was measured in broth using various water volumes and cooking times, as well as in rice cooked in the broth. Average iodine loss in bouillon over 6 months in 95% humidity at 40-40.5 °C was 4.5% (13.6% for cubes and 0.8% for powder sachets). Iodine was retained in broth with cooking times of up to an hour and in rice cooked in broth. Modeling of contribution to iodine intake revealed that bouillon is an important source of dietary iodine in Senegal. Results may inform salt iodization standards and regulation in Senegal and countries with similar bouillon consumption levels.

  11. [Bone and joint diseases in children. Adequate calcium intake and dietary habit especially breakfast in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Kodama, Momoko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2010-06-01

    Childhood and adolescence are important periods for body growth. Calcium is one of the critical dietary factors especially for bone growth. Although recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of calcium has been determined higher in Dietary reference intakes for Japanese, 2010, calcium intake of Japanese children and adolescent are not necessarily adequate. Furthermore, breakfast skippers in this period tend to increase. So, it is very important to acquire an adequate dietary habit from childhood and adolescent. PMID:20513944

  12. The relationship between iodine nutrition and thyroid disease in lactating women with different iodine intakes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lixiang; Wang, Dandan; Liu, Peng; Meng, Fangang; Wen, Da; Jia, Qingzhen; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Xiaoye; Jiang, Peng; Shen, Hongmei

    2015-11-14

    Areas with low, adequate and excessive I content in water co-exist in China. Limited data are currently available on I nutrition and thyroid disease in lactating women and their breast-fed infants with different I intakes. This study aimed to evaluate I nutrition in both lactating women and their infants and the prevalence of thyroid disease in areas with different levels of I in water. From January to June 2014, a total of 343 healthy lactating women (excluding those taking anti-thyroid drugs or I supplements within a year of the study, consuming seafood at the time of the study or those diagnosed with congenital thyroid disease) from Beihai in Guangxi province and Jiajiazhuang, Yangcheng, Jicun and Pingyao townships in Shanxi province were selected. Compared with the I-sufficient group, median urinary I concentrations in both lactating women and infants as well as breast milk I levels were significantly lower in the I-deficient group (P<0·001). The prevalence of thyroid disease in lactating women, particularly subclinical hypothyroidism, was higher in the I-excess group than in the I-sufficient group (P<0·05). In areas with excessive water I content, high thyroid peroxidase antibody and high thyroglobulin levels were risk factors for abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Our data collectively suggest that excessive I intake potentially causes subclinical hypothyroidism in lactating women. Moreover, enhanced monitoring of I status is important to avoid adverse effects of I deficiency or excess, particularly in susceptible populations such as pregnant or lactating women and infants.

  13. Remission rates with antithyroid drug therapy: continuing influence of iodine intake?

    PubMed

    Solomon, B L; Evaul, J E; Burman, K D; Wartofsky, L

    1987-10-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the therapeutic efficacy of antithyroid drugs for Graves disease. Sixty-nine patients were divided into three categories according to their response: 28 (40.6%) were unable to achieve a remission; 6 (8.7%) achieved a remission and subsequently had a relapse; and 35 (50.7%) were able to sustain a remission. The mean duration for sustained remissions was 33 months. Our earlier review of outcome of antithyroid therapy showed markedly reduced remission rates, which appeared to be related to increases in dietary iodine intake. Although the greater percentage of patients entering remission today is in marked contrast to the 1973 report, average dietary iodine content has been decreasing. A continuing role for antithyroid drugs should be maintained as an option in the management of Graves disease. Daily dietary iodine intake may influence the anticipated remission rate after antithyroid drug therapy. PMID:2443050

  14. The relationship between iodine intake and serum thyroglobulin in the general population.

    PubMed

    Bílek, R; Čeřovská, J; Zamrazil, V

    2015-01-01

    The relationship is shown between a concentration of urinary iodine and serum thyroglobulin in population studies carried out on a general population that was randomly selected from the registry of the General Health Insurance Company (individuals aged 6-98 years, 1751 males, 2420 females). The individuals were divided into subgroups with a urinary iodine concentration of <50, 50-99, 100-199, 200-299 and >/=300 microg/l. The mean and median of thyroglobulin were calculated in these subgroups. Tg concentrations were dependent on gender (malesiodine in individuals with urinary iodine <300 microg/l and the age under 65 years. Upper nonparametric tolerance limits of thyroglobulin in relation to iodine intake were calculated in subgroup of normal individuals (n=1858, thyroglobulin, urinary iodine, thyrotropin and free thyroxine were within the normal reference range). Upper limits were dependent on gender and age. The total value of upper limits is 44 microg/l; for individuals aged 6-17 years it is 39.1 microg/l; 18-65 years = 51.4 microg/l and 66-98 years = 60.6 microg/l. In general, thyroglobulin serum concentrations higher than 40 microg/l should be an indicator for determining urinary iodine.

  15. Iodine intake in Somalia is excessive and associated with the source of household drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Ismail A R; Moloney, Grainne; Busili, Ahono; Nur, Abukar Yusuf; Paron, Paolo; Jooste, Pieter; Gadain, Hussein; Seal, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Few data on iodine status in Somalia are available, but it is assumed that deficiency is a public health problem due to the limited access to iodized salt. We aimed to describe the iodine status of the population of Somalia and to investigate possible determinants of iodine status. A national 2-stage, stratified household cluster survey was conducted in 2009 in the Northwest, Northeast, and South Central Zones of Somalia. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined in samples from women (aged 15-45 y) and children (aged 6-11 y), and examination for visible goiter was performed in the Northwest and South Central strata. A 24-h household food-frequency questionnaire was conducted, and salt samples were tested for iodization. The median UICs for nonpregnant women and children were 329 and 416 μg/L, respectively, indicating excessive iodine intake (>300 μg/L). The prevalence of visible goiter was <4%. The coverage of salt iodization was low, with a national average of 7.7% (95% CI: 3.2%, 17.4%). Spatial analysis revealed localized areas of relatively high and low iodine status. Variations could not be explained by food consumption or salt iodization but were associated with the main source of household drinking water, with consumers of borehole water having a higher UIC (569 vs. 385 μg/L; P < 0.001). Iodine intake in Somalia is among the highest in the world and excessive according to WHO criteria. Further work is required to investigate the geochemistry and safety of groundwater sources in Somalia and the impact on human nutrition and health.

  16. Human intake of arsenic and iodine from seaweed-based food supplements and health foods available in the UK.

    PubMed

    Norman, J A; Pickford, C J; Sanders, T W; Waller, M

    1988-01-01

    A number of seaweed-based products were analysed for total and 'reducible' arsenic and total iodine. Maximum potential intakes of the two elements were estimated using the manufacturers' recommended does. The levels of reducible arsenic found were generally low and, with one exception, ingestion of the products is unlikely to lead to the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) Tolerable Daily Intake being exceeded. Iodine levels varied widely even between different samples of the same product. In a number of these cases the potential iodine intake is very high.

  17. Effect of Dietary Intake of Stable Iodine on Dose-per-unit-intake Factors for 99Tc

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    It is well-known that the human thyroid concentrates iodine more than 100 times the concentration in plasma. Also well-known is the fact that large amounts of stable iodine in the diet can limit thyroid uptake of total iodine; this is the basis for administering potassium iodide following a release of radioiodine from a nuclear reactor accident or nuclear weapon detonation. Many researchers have shown enhanced concentrations of both organic and inorganic iodine in saliva and breast milk. Technetium-99 is a long-lived (231,000 year half-life) radionuclide of concern in the management of high-level radioactive waste. There is no doubt that 99Tc, if it is in groundwater, will be found in the chemical form of pertechnetate, 99TcO4?. Pertechnetate is a large anion, almost identical in size to iodide, I?. The nuclear medicine literature shows that pertechnetate concentrates in the thyroid, salivary glands, and lactating breast in addition to the stomach, liver, and alimentary tract as currently recognized by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The fact that large intakes of stable iodine (127I) in the diet limit uptake of iodine by the thyroid leads one to generalize that stable iodine in the diet may also limit thyroid uptake of pertechnetate. While there is at least one report that iodine in the diet blocks uptake of 99mTcO4? by the thyroid and salivary glands (which have the same Na/I symporter, the biochemical concentration mechanism), the level of protective effect seen for blocking radioactive iodine is not expected for 99TcO4? because pertechnetate does not become organically bound in the thyroid and thus is not retained for months the way iodide is. While it does account for Tc concentration in the thyroid, the existing ICRP biokinetic model for technetium does not take enhanced concentrations in salivary gland and breast tissue into account. From the survey of the nuclear medicine literature, it is not possible to compute the effect

  18. Randomised trial of iodine intake and thyroid status in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Rogahn, J.; Ryan, S.; Wells, J.; Fraser, B.; Squire, C.; Wild, N.; Hughes, A.; Amegavie, L.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Low levels of circulating thyroid hormones have been associated with poorer general and neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm babies and it has been speculated that the association is causal. Low levels of circulating thyroid hormone have been reported after inadequate intake of iodine in preterm infants being fed milk formula.
AIM—To investigate whether increased iodine intake from supplemented preterm formula would improve thyroid hormone levels in preterm babies (this study) and hence improve neurodevelopmental status (planned subsequent study).
METHOD—A total of 121 preterm infants were entered into a randomised controlled trial of standard (68 µg/l) versus increased (272µg/l) iodine in preterm formula.
RESULTS—The two groups were comparable at recruitment. No evidence of an effect of the intervention on thyroid hormone levels was seen up to 41 weeks after conception.
CONCLUSION—Calls for increased iodine content of preterm infant formulas are not justified by this study.
 PMID:10952698

  19. Assessment of the effects of iodine value on fatty acid digestibility, feed intake, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Firkins, J L; Eastridge, M L

    1994-08-01

    Data were pooled from 11 studies evaluating supplemental fat sources differing primarily in degree of saturation (tallow, animal-vegetable fat, vegetable oil, and hydrogenated fats). Data were standardized as proportions of the respective controls to reduce variation among individual studies and were subjected to stepwise multiple regression against the iodine value of fats, the percentage increases of total fatty acids in diets above the respective controls, or the ratio of total C16 to C18 fatty acids in fats (only for hydrogenated fats). Increased iodine value (increasing unsaturation) of fats increased apparent fatty acid digestibility, especially as iodine value increased from 11 to 27. For partially hydrogenated fat sources, as the ratio of C16 to C18 fatty acids increased, digestibility also increased, especially with increasing iodine value (positive interaction). Beneficial effects of higher C16:C18 ratio were reduced as amount of added fat increased (negative interaction). Dry matter intake and FCM production decreased as iodine value increased, perhaps because of inhibition of fiber digestion or metabolic regulation of DMI. Milk protein percentage depression averaged .2 percentage units for most fats. However, as partially hydrogenated fat sources became more saturated, milk protein depression appeared to be less evident; increased ratio of C16:C18 of fatty acids appeared to increase milk protein percentage. Despite the lower apparent digestibility of fatty acids of hydrogenated fats, increased milk production and percentages of fat and protein appeared to make them more economical than more unsaturated fats.

  20. SUFFICIENT IODINE INTAKE IN SCHOOLCHILDREN FROM THE ZAGREB AREA: ASSESSMENT WITH DRIED BLOD SPOT THYROGLOBULIN AS A NEW FUNCTIONAL BIOMARKER FOR IODINE DEFICIENCY.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Tomislav; Zimmermann, Michael Bruce; Granić, Roko; Prpić, Marin; Krilić, Drazena; Juresa, Vesna; Katalenić, Marijan; Kusić, Zvonko

    2015-12-01

    Current methods for assessment of iodine intake in a population comprise measurements of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), thyroid volume by ultrasound (US-Tvol), and newborn TSH. Serum or dried blood spot thyroglobulin (DBS-Tg) is a new promising functional iodine status biomarker in children. In 1996, a new act on universal salt iodination was introduced in Croatia with 25 mg of potassium iodideper kg of salt. In 2002, Croatia finally reached iodine sufficiency. However, in 2009, median UIC in 101 schoolchildren from Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, was 288 µg/L, posing to be excessive. The aim of the study was to assess iodine intake in schoolchildren from the Zagreb area and to evaluate the value of DBS-Tg in schoolchildren as a new functional biomarker of iodine deficiency (and iodine excess). The study was part of a large international study in 6- to 12-year-old children supported by UNICEF, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD). According to international study results, the median cut-off Tg < 13 µg/L and/or < 3% Tg values > 40 µg/L indicate iodine sufficiency. The study included 159 schoolchildren (median age 9.1 ± 1.4 years) from Zagreb and a nearby small town of Jastrebarsko with measurements of UIC, US-Tvol, DBS-Tg, T4, TSH and iodine content in salt from households of schoolchildren (KI/kg of salt). Overall median UIC was 205 µg/L (range 1-505 µg/L). Thyroid volumes in schoolchildren measured by US were within the normal range according to reference values. Median DBS-Tg in schoolchildren was 12.1 µg/L with 3% of Tg values > 40 µg/L. High Tg values were in the UIC range < 50 µg/L and > 300 µg/L (U-shaped curve of Tg plotted against UIC). All children were euthyroid with geometric mean TSH 0.7 ± 0.3 mU/L and arithmetic mean T4 62 ± 12.5 nmol/L. The mean KI content per kg of salt was 24.9 ± 3.1 mg/kg (range 19-36 mg/kg). Study results

  1. SUFFICIENT IODINE INTAKE IN SCHOOLCHILDREN FROM THE ZAGREB AREA: ASSESSMENT WITH DRIED BLOD SPOT THYROGLOBULIN AS A NEW FUNCTIONAL BIOMARKER FOR IODINE DEFICIENCY.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Tomislav; Zimmermann, Michael Bruce; Granić, Roko; Prpić, Marin; Krilić, Drazena; Juresa, Vesna; Katalenić, Marijan; Kusić, Zvonko

    2015-12-01

    Current methods for assessment of iodine intake in a population comprise measurements of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), thyroid volume by ultrasound (US-Tvol), and newborn TSH. Serum or dried blood spot thyroglobulin (DBS-Tg) is a new promising functional iodine status biomarker in children. In 1996, a new act on universal salt iodination was introduced in Croatia with 25 mg of potassium iodideper kg of salt. In 2002, Croatia finally reached iodine sufficiency. However, in 2009, median UIC in 101 schoolchildren from Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, was 288 µg/L, posing to be excessive. The aim of the study was to assess iodine intake in schoolchildren from the Zagreb area and to evaluate the value of DBS-Tg in schoolchildren as a new functional biomarker of iodine deficiency (and iodine excess). The study was part of a large international study in 6- to 12-year-old children supported by UNICEF, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD). According to international study results, the median cut-off Tg < 13 µg/L and/or < 3% Tg values > 40 µg/L indicate iodine sufficiency. The study included 159 schoolchildren (median age 9.1 ± 1.4 years) from Zagreb and a nearby small town of Jastrebarsko with measurements of UIC, US-Tvol, DBS-Tg, T4, TSH and iodine content in salt from households of schoolchildren (KI/kg of salt). Overall median UIC was 205 µg/L (range 1-505 µg/L). Thyroid volumes in schoolchildren measured by US were within the normal range according to reference values. Median DBS-Tg in schoolchildren was 12.1 µg/L with 3% of Tg values > 40 µg/L. High Tg values were in the UIC range < 50 µg/L and > 300 µg/L (U-shaped curve of Tg plotted against UIC). All children were euthyroid with geometric mean TSH 0.7 ± 0.3 mU/L and arithmetic mean T4 62 ± 12.5 nmol/L. The mean KI content per kg of salt was 24.9 ± 3.1 mg/kg (range 19-36 mg/kg). Study results

  2. Iodine

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6 weeks increases the healing rate. Also, applying povidone-iodine in addition to compression seems help heal ... Catheter-related infection. Some evidence suggests that applying povidone-iodine reduces the risk of blood stream infections ...

  3. Iodine

    MedlinePlus

    ... the amount depends on the iodine in the soil where they grew and in any fertilizer that ... babies. People living in regions with iodine-deficient soils who eat mostly local foods. These soils produce ...

  4. Iodine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krukowski, S.T.

    2006-01-01

    In descending order, Chile, Japan and the United States have the largest iodine reserves. Chile produces iodine from iodate minerals while Japan and the United States produce it from sodium iodide solutions found in underground iodide solutions. Iodine is also produced from subterranean brines in Azerbaijan, Russia, Turkmenista, Indonesia and Uzbekistan. In 2005, iodine prices increased sharply to US$19 to US$23 then leveled off at US$23 to US$25.

  5. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained. PMID:16614427

  6. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained.

  7. Dietary assessment methods for intakes of iron, calcium, selenium, zinc and iodine.

    PubMed

    Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pfrimer, Karina; Doreste-Alonso, Jorge; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortiz-Andrellucchi, Adriana; Henríquez-Sánchez, Patricia

    2009-12-01

    The EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence is working towards developing aligned micronutrient recommendations across Europe. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a review of methods used in validation studies carried out in adults assessing dietary intake of EURRECA priority minerals. A search strategy and inclusion criteria were defined and a scoring system was developed to rate the quality of each validation study that produced a quality index with possible scores obtained ranging from 0.5 to 7. A MEDLINE and EMBASE literature review was conducted. Articles/validation studies meeting the inclusion criteria included: 79/88 for Fe; 95/104 for Ca; 13/15 for Se; 29/30 for Zn; 7/9 for iodine. The most frequently used method to ascertain dietary intake was the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), whereas dietary records (DR) and 24 h recalls were the most used reference methods. The correlation coefficients (CC) between study mineral intakes estimated by FFQ and the reference method were weighted according to the study's quality index and obtained acceptable to good ratings, ranging from 0.36 to 0.60 when the reference method was DR and from 0.41 to 0.58 when the reference was 24 h recalls. A minority of studies (n 9) used biomarkers for validation and among these, five included iodine obtaining a CC of 0.47. The FFQ was seen as a valid method for assessing mineral intake, particularly for Ca and, to a lower extent, for iodine and Zn. Se and Fe showed only acceptable correlations. The present review provides new insights regarding the characteristics that assessment methods for dietary mineral intakes should fulfil.

  8. The National Coalition for Sustained Optimal Iodine intake (NSOI): a case study of a successful experience from India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kapil; Chakrabarty, Arijit; Rah, Jee Hyun; Kumar, Rakesh; Aguayo, Victor; Ansari, Mohammad Anas; Sankar, Rajan; Karmarkar, Madhu Ganesh; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2014-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single most important preventable cause of mental handicap at global level. Recognizing the importance of coordination and synergy of the activities of wide range of universal salt iodisation (USI) stakeholders, WHO/ Unicef/ ICCIDD has prescribed a national multi-sectoral coalition as one of the ten indicators essential for attaining sustainable elimination of IDD at national level. Challenge for coordination among different stakeholders of IDD/USI is even greater in democratic and diverse country like India. In the present article we present successful experience from India regarding formation of a national coalition and contributions made by the coalition towards promoting USI in India. The activities of the national coalition in India are classified into three phases; 1) Phase 1- year 2006 to 2009- the inception; 2) Phase 2- year 2009 to 2012- consolidation; 3) Phase 3- year 2013 and ongoing- expansion. The National coalition for Sustained Optimal Iodine Intake (NSOI) has been instrumental in ensuring greater coordination and synergy amongst IDD and USI stakeholders in India and partially responsible for the current 71 percentage household level coverage of adequately iodised salt. The most significant contribution of the national coalition has been to act as a high level advocacy channel and provide a platform for regular dialogue for all partners of the coalition. With "mission" approach and allocation of optimal resource, India can achieve and should achieve USI by 2015, an apt culmination of a decade of existence of the national coalition. PMID:25384725

  9. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    PubMed

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in non-consumers. The PANDiet index was significantly higher in yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p < 0.001). The adequacy sub-score for 17 nutrients for which usual intake should be above the reference value was significantly higher among yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet. PMID:26906103

  10. Cultural and environmental barriers to adequate iron intake among northern Kenyan schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Shell-Duncan, Bettina; McDade, Thomas

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the context of iron deficiency and feeding patterns of iron-rich foods among northern Kenyan school-aged children. A nutrition survey was conducted among 300 subjects in two Rendille communities, Korr and Karare. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency as it relates to parasitic infection, dietary intake, and sociodemographic factors, as well as cultural food proscriptions influencing child feeding. Sociodemographic and qualitative data on food beliefs and child-feeding practices were obtained from the primary caretaker of each subject. From pediatric subjects, 24-hour dietary recall data were obtained with the help of the primary caretaker, and capillary blood from a fingerstick was used to detect iron deficiency based on measures of hemoglobin, the zinc protoporphyrin-to-heme ratio, C-reactive protein, and transferrin receptor. With an overall prevalence of 31.2%, iron deficiency was found to be associated with dietary iron intakes constrained by diverse economic, cultural, and environmental factors among Rendille children. In Karare, where children's iron intake approached recommended levels, iron deficiency was found to be attributable to low bioavailability of iron (only 4.3% of total iron intake), rather than low dietary intake per se. By contrast, in Korr the average daily iron intake was estimated at only 65% of recommended allowances, indicating that iron deficiency was the outcome not merely of low bioavailability, but rather of overall inadequate iron intake. Sociodemographic analysis showed a significant interaction between sex and economic status, revealing that girls in economically sufficient households were 2.4 times as likely to have iron deficiency as boys. This difference in risk parallels culturally defined gender-based proscriptions for child feeding: girls are believed to benefit from "soft foods," including rice, maize porridge, and tea, whereas boys benefitfrom "hard foods

  11. Misclassification of iodine intake level from morning spot urine samples with high iodine excretion among Inuit and non-Inuit in Greenland.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stig; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Laurberg, Peter

    2015-05-14

    Iodine nutrition is commonly assessed from iodine excretion in urine. A 24 h urine sample is ideal, but it is cumbersome and inconvenient. Hence, spot urine samples with creatinine to adjust for differences in void volume are widely used. Still, the importance of ethnicity and the timing of spot urine samples need to be settled. We, thus, collected 104 early morning spot urine samples and 24 h urine samples from Inuit and non-Inuit living in Greenland. Diet was assessed by a FFQ. Demographic data were collected from the national registry and by questionnaires. Iodine was measured using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction, creatinine using the Jaffe method and para-amino benzoic acid by the HPLC method for the estimation of completeness of urine sampling and compensation of incomplete urine samples to 24 h excretion. A population-based recruitment was done from the capital city, a major town and a settlement (n 36/48/20). Participants were seventy-eight Inuit and twenty-six non-Inuit. The median 24 h iodine excretion was 138 (25th-75th percentile 89-225) μg/97 (25th-75th percentile 72-124) μg in Inuit/non-Inuit (P= 0.030), and 153 (25th-75th percentile 97-251) μg/102 (25th-75th percentile 73-138) μg (P= 0.026) when including compensated iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in 24 h urine samples increased with a rising intake of traditional Inuit foods (P= 0.005). Iodine excretion was lower in morning spot urine samples than in 24 h urine samples (P< 0.001). This difference was associated with iodine intake levels (P< 0.001), and was statistically significant when the iodine excretion level was above 150 μg/24 h. In conclusion, the iodine intake level was underestimated from morning spot urine samples if iodine excretion was above the recommended level.

  12. Iodine intake and the seasonal incidence of thyrotoxicosis in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ford, H C; Johnson, L A; Feek, C M; Newton, J D

    1991-03-01

    We explored a possible relationship between the seasonal variation in the incidence of thyrotoxicosis in our area and iodine intake, as assessed by measuring the 24-h urinary iodide excretion rate eight times at 3-month intervals in a group of normal subjects and in 992 outpatient specimens over a 2-year period (1988-1990). For the period 1978-1990, 139 cases of thyrotoxicosis were diagnosed during the warmer half of the year (November-April) and 100 cases during the cooler half (May-October). This difference was statistically highly significant (P = 0.013). A similar disproportionality in the incidence of thyrotoxicosis was observed between the warmer (57%) and cooler (43%) halves of the year for the period 1988-1990. During the 1988-1990 period there was no discernible seasonal variation in either the milk iodide concentration or in the cumulative mean 24-h urinary iodide excretion rates for the normal subjects or the outpatients. We conclude that the higher proportion of thyrotoxic patients diagnosed during the warmer 6-month period of the year in our area is best explained by the fact that symptoms tend to be less tolerable in warm weather. A comparison of our findings on 24-h urinary iodide excretion rates with data collected in our area 25 years ago suggested that iodine intake may have declined.

  13. Thyroid and iodine nutritional status: a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Vanderpump, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones, which play a crucial role in brain and neurological development. At least one-third of the world's population is estimated to be iodine deficient predominantly in developing countries. Recently concern had also been expressed about the iodine status in industrialised countries such as the UK. A recent survey of the UK iodine status found that that more than two-thirds of schoolgirls aged 14-15 years were iodine deficient due to the reduced milk intake. Maternal iodine deficiency in pregnancy is correlated with cognitive outcomes such as intelligence quotient and reading ability in offspring. No randomised trial data exist for iodine supplementation in mild-moderate iodine-deficient pregnant women. It is possible to combine population interventions to reduce population salt intake with salt iodisation programmes in order to maintain adequate levels of iodine nutrition.

  14. Healthcare Costs Associated with an Adequate Intake of Sugars, Salt and Saturated Fat in Germany: A Health Econometrical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Toni; Senftleben, Karolin; Deumelandt, Peter; Christen, Olaf; Riedel, Katja; Langer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany—in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar—and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS) were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002–2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3–24.1 billion EUR) in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10%) of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR). This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0–12.1); salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2–7.3) and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million—4.7 billion). Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR. PMID:26352606

  15. Healthcare Costs Associated with an Adequate Intake of Sugars, Salt and Saturated Fat in Germany: A Health Econometrical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Meier, Toni; Senftleben, Karolin; Deumelandt, Peter; Christen, Olaf; Riedel, Katja; Langer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany--in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar--and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS) were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002-2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3-24.1 billion EUR) in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10%) of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR). This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0-12.1); salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2-7.3) and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million-4.7 billion). Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR.

  16. Reference intervals of thyroid hormones in a previously iodine-deficient but presently more than adequate area of Western China: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jing; Fang, Yujie; Jing, Da; Xu, Shaoyong; Ming, Jie; Gao, Bin; Shen, Han; Zhang, Rong; Ji, Qiuhe

    2016-04-25

    The aim of our study is to establish the reference intervals (RIs) of thyroid hormones in a previously iodine-deficient area but presently more than iodine-adequate area of Western China, and also to investigate the factors which affect thyroid function. The cross-sectional study conducted in Xi'an, was based on 2007-2008 China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Survey. Among 1286 participating adults, 717 were finally included as reference population. Thyrotropin (TSH), total triiodothyronine (T3), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroperoxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) and thyroglobulin antibody (Tg-Ab) were measured. Thyroid ultrasound examination was also performed. The present study established the new RIs of serum TSH (0.43-5.51 mIU/L), FT4 (11.0-20.4 pmol/L), FT3 (3.63-5.73 pmol/L), T4 (67.8-157 mmol/L) and T3 (1.08-2.20 mmol/L), which were different from the data provided by the manufacturers. Significant differences among all the age groups were observed in FT3, but neither in TSH nor in FT4. The TSH levels in adults with pathologic ultrasonography results or positive thyroid autoantibody were significantly higher than those in reference adults. Our present results provide valuable references for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases in population of Western China. Considering that most inland areas of China have faced the challenge of the transition from iodine deficiency to adequacy or more than adequacy, we recommend physicians utilize our RIs to determine thyroid diseases in the similar areas with Xi'an in China. PMID:26842591

  17. Reference intervals of thyroid hormones in a previously iodine-deficient but presently more than adequate area of Western China: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jing; Fang, Yujie; Jing, Da; Xu, Shaoyong; Ming, Jie; Gao, Bin; Shen, Han; Zhang, Rong; Ji, Qiuhe

    2016-04-25

    The aim of our study is to establish the reference intervals (RIs) of thyroid hormones in a previously iodine-deficient area but presently more than iodine-adequate area of Western China, and also to investigate the factors which affect thyroid function. The cross-sectional study conducted in Xi'an, was based on 2007-2008 China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Survey. Among 1286 participating adults, 717 were finally included as reference population. Thyrotropin (TSH), total triiodothyronine (T3), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroperoxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) and thyroglobulin antibody (Tg-Ab) were measured. Thyroid ultrasound examination was also performed. The present study established the new RIs of serum TSH (0.43-5.51 mIU/L), FT4 (11.0-20.4 pmol/L), FT3 (3.63-5.73 pmol/L), T4 (67.8-157 mmol/L) and T3 (1.08-2.20 mmol/L), which were different from the data provided by the manufacturers. Significant differences among all the age groups were observed in FT3, but neither in TSH nor in FT4. The TSH levels in adults with pathologic ultrasonography results or positive thyroid autoantibody were significantly higher than those in reference adults. Our present results provide valuable references for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases in population of Western China. Considering that most inland areas of China have faced the challenge of the transition from iodine deficiency to adequacy or more than adequacy, we recommend physicians utilize our RIs to determine thyroid diseases in the similar areas with Xi'an in China.

  18. Iodine in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... are good sources. Kelp is the most common vegetable-seafood that is a rich source of iodine. ... iodine deficiency is generally not a problem. Iodine poisoning is rare in the U.S. Very high intake ...

  19. Perchlorate, iodine and the thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2014-01-01

    In pharmacologic doses, perchlorate inhibits thyroidal iodine uptake and subsequently decreases thyroid hormone production. Although pharmacologic doses may be used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, recent literature has focussed on the detection of low levels of perchlorate in the environment, groundwater and foodstuffs and their potential adverse effects on human thyroid function. This is of particular concern to the developing foetus and infant, whose normal neurodevelopment depends on adequate iodine intake for the production of thyroid hormones. Further research is needed to clarify the potential health effects of low-level chronic environmental perchlorate exposure. The health impact of environmental perchlorate may be dependent upon adequate iodine intake and should be interpreted in combination with other environmental exposures that are also potential thyroidal endocrine disruptors. PMID:20172477

  20. [Iodine deficiency in infancy - a risk for cognitive development].

    PubMed

    Remer, T; Johner, S A; Gärtner, R; Thamm, M; Kriener, E

    2010-08-01

    Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy seriously influences fetal brain development and in the worst case induces cretinism. Recent studies have shown that even a mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy and during the first years of life adversely affects brain development. The World Health Organisation (WHO) considers iodine deficiency as the most common preventable cause of early childhood mental deficiency. In this context, the insufficient production of the four iodine atoms containing thyroxine seems to play a causal role, i. e., due to the iodine substrate deficiency the neuronally particularly relevant free-thyroxine level falls. Due to the very limited iodine storage capacity, the infantile thyroid is eminently dependent on an adequate and steady iodine supply. In the first month of life, when milk is the only energy- and nutrient provider, infants fed a commercial formula regularly have a sufficient iodine supply. However, breastfed infants, who depend on maternal iodine status, frequently show an inadequate iodine intake. Furthermore, iodine intake is critical when complementary food (CF) is introduced. Especially homemade CF is poor in iodine, but also commercial CFs are only partly fortified. A simultaneous inadequate iodine supply of the breastfeeding mother and the preferential use of mostly iodine-poor organic milk cannot ensure an adequate iodine supply of the infant. In terms of an improvement of nutrient supply, especially concerning an unhindered brain development, the corresponding German reference value for iodine intake of infants until age 4 month should be raised from currently 40 microg/d to at least 60 microg/d (WHO-reference: 90 microg/d). PMID:20665419

  1. The deuterium oxide-to-the-mother method documents adequate breast-milk intake among Sri Lankan infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The WHO recommends that exclusive breastfeeding should last up to 6 months. However, human milk intake of Sri Lankan infants has not been quantified scientifically. The objectives of this study were to measure the human milk intake of Sri Lankan infants during the first 6 months of age and to docume...

  2. Prebiotic supplementation and adequate calcium intake have beneficial effects on body mass index changes during early adolescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prebiotics have been shown to enhance bone and gastrointestinal health. Recent data suggest a benefit to weight maintenance as well. However, few data are available in children or adolescents. The interactive effects of prebiotic intake and calcium intake on weight maintenance are unknown. Our objec...

  3. [Experimental studies on effects of excessive iodine intake on morphology and function of kidney in mice].

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Yin, G

    1996-11-01

    To understand that if excessive iodine can cause damage to tissues other than thyroid gland, mice were fed with iodine-excess water and iodine-excess goiter was caused in them. Hisitomorphology and function of the kidney, in addition to the thyroid gland, in goiter mice were observed. Results showed that two hundred days after being fed with 3,000 micrograms iodine per liter water, in addition to causing iodine-excess goiter characterized with proliferation of large amount of colloid in thyroid follicles, morphology and function of the kidneys in mice were significantly damaged, with prominent pathomorphological changes of crescent formation and metabolic inhibition in microsome membrane Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activities in their kidneys. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activities were 21.95 +/- 7.50 mumolPi/mg Pr.hr in low iodine group, and 17.64 +/- 8.63 mumolPi/mg Pr.hr in excessive iodine group, with significant difference. It suggests that excessive iodine can cause damage not only to thyroid, but to the whole body.

  4. Current global iodine status and progress over the last decade towards the elimination of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Maria; Takkouche, Bahi; Egli, Ines; Allen, Henrietta E.; de Benoist, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate worldwide iodine nutrition and monitor country progress towards sustained elimination of iodine deficiency disorders. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on urinary iodine (UI) and total goitre prevalence (TGP) in school-age children from 1993-2003 compiled in the WHO Global Database on Iodine Deficiency were analysed. The median UI was used to classify countries according to the public health significance of their iodine nutrition status. Estimates of the global and regional populations with insufficient iodine intake were based on the proportion of each country's population with UI below 100 microg/l. TGP was computed for trend analysis over 10 years. FINDINGS: UI data were available for 92.1% of the world's school-age children. Iodine deficiency is still a public health problem in 54 countries. A total of 36.5% (285 million) school-age children were estimated to have an insufficient iodine intake, ranging from 10.1% in the WHO Region of the Americas to 59.9% in the European Region. Extrapolating this prevalence to the general population generated an estimate of nearly two billion individuals with insufficient iodine intake. Iodine intake was more than adequate, or excessive, in 29 countries. Global TGP in the general population was 15.8%. CONCLUSION: Forty-three countries have reached optimal iodine nutrition. Strengthened UI monitoring is required to ensure that salt iodization is having the desired impact, to identify at-risk populations and to ensure sustainable prevention and control of iodine deficiency. Efforts to eliminate iodine deficiency should be maintained and expanded. PMID:16175826

  5. Symposium on 'Geographical and geological influences on nutrition': Iodine deficiency in industrialised countries.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B

    2010-02-01

    Iodine deficiency is not only a problem in developing regions; it also affects many industrialised countries. Globally, two billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and approximately 50% of continental Europe remains mildly iodine deficient. Iodine intakes in other industrialised countries, including the USA and Australia, have fallen in recent years. Iodine deficiency has reappeared in Australia, as a result of declining iodine residues in milk products because of decreased iodophor use by the dairy industry. In the USA, although the general population is iodine sufficient, it is uncertain whether iodine intakes are adequate in pregnancy, which has led to calls for iodine supplementation. The few available data suggest that pregnant women in the Republic of Ireland and the UK are now mildly iodine deficient, possibly as a result of reduced use of iodophors by the dairy industry, as observed in Australia. Representative data on iodine status in children and pregnant women in the UK are urgently needed to inform health policy. In most industrialised countries the best strategy to control iodine deficiency is carefully-monitored salt iodisation. However, because approximately 90% of salt consumption in industrialised countries is from purchased processed foods, the iodisation of household salt only will not supply adequate iodine. Thus, in order to successfully control iodine deficiency in industrialised countries it is critical that the food industry use iodised salt. The current push to reduce salt consumption to prevent chronic diseases and the policy of salt iodisation to eliminate iodine deficiency do not conflict; iodisation methods can fortify salt to provide recommended iodine intakes even if per capita salt intakes are reduced to <5 g/d. PMID:19968908

  6. Iodine status in the Nordic countries – past and present

    PubMed Central

    Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Erlund, Iris; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Hulthén, Lena; Laurberg, Peter; Mattisson, Irene; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Virtanen, Suvi; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2016-01-01

    Background Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. Objectives The objectives are threefold: 1) to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2) to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3) to highlight differences among the Nordic countries’ iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Design Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries’ strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. Results In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO) report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50–75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. Conclusion The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all. PMID:27283870

  7. Effect of Iodine Intake on p14ARF and p16INK4a Expression in Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ruimei; Wang, Jinde; Li, Xiaojiang; Li, Lei; Yang, Jie; Ren, Yanxin; Xi, Yan; Sun, Chuanzheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Iodine intake is related to thyroid disease. This study investigated the effect of the amount of iodine intake on p14ARF and p16INK4a expression of thyroid papillary carcinoma in rats. Material/Methods A cohort of 240 SD rats were randomly divided into control group, low iodine, normal iodine, and high iodine groups (n=60 per group). We inoculated 2×105 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cells on the left side of the thyroid gland. After 6 and 12 weeks, serum thyroid hormone level and urine iodine level were measured in addition to morphological observations of tumor tissues. Expression of p14ARF, p16INK4a was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results The expression of p14ARF, p16INK4a, FT3, and FT4 levels in all iodine-treated animals were significantly lower than in the control group, while TSH level was significantly higher (P<0.05). Compared to the normal iodine group, the low and high groups had lower p14ARF and p16INK4a expression, lower FT3 and FT4 levels, higher TSH levels, and heavier tumors (P<0.05). In a further between-group comparison, p14ARF and p16INK4a expression and FT3 and FT4 levels at 12 weeks were lower than at 6 weeks. Expression of p14ARF and p16INK4a were positively correlated with FT3 and FT4, and negatively correlated with TSH and tumor weight. Conclusions Low and high iodine diet intake could reduce p14ARF and p16INK4a expressions and promote tumor development. PMID:26248224

  8. Urinary iodine concentrations of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Rydbeck, Filip; Bottai, Matteo; Tofail, Fahmida; Persson, Lars-Åke; Kippler, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is an essential dietary element required for normal fetal growth and development. We aimed to explore intraindividual and interindividual variations in iodine intake in pregnant women and whether non-dietary factors might influence the intake. Iodine intake was assessed in 271 women, residing in Matlab, rural Bangladesh, by measuring their urinary iodine concentration (UIC) at gestational week (GW) 8, 14, 19, and 30 with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The women's UIC increased significantly during pregnancy (median 241 (GW8) and 300 μg/l (GW30)). About 6% of the women had insufficient iodine intake (UIC<150 μg/l) and 10% had excessive iodine intake (UIC≥500 μg/l) at all of their four sampling occasions. The women's UIC were dependent on their education, socio-economic status, and BMI, as well as the season of sampling and iodine concentrations in drinking water. Supplementation with a multi-micronutrient capsule, including 150 μg potassium iodine, increased the UIC in women with the lowest UIC (10th percentile) at GW30 but decreased the UIC in women with the highest UIC (90th percentile) at GW30. In conclusion, median UIC throughout pregnancy indicated adequate intake of iodine among pregnant women in Matlab, but, notably, consistently insufficient and excessive intake was also prevalent. PMID:24220214

  9. Monitoring and effects of iodine deficiency in pregnancy: still an unsolved problem?

    PubMed

    Pearce, E N

    2013-05-01

    Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormone affects many metabolic processes in the body, including maturation of the central nervous system. In early pregnancy, the fetus is dependent on maternal thyroid hormone for normal brain development. If iodine deficiency leads to inadequate production of thyroid hormone during pregnancy, irreversible brain damage can result in the fetus. Therefore, achieving adequate iodine nutrition during pregnancy is an important public health objective. Although there have been tremendous gains over the last several decades in our understanding of the effects of iodine deficiency in pregnancy and how to combat them, a number of questions remain about how best to monitor the iodine status of pregnant populations, the effects of mild to moderate iodine deficiency on maternal and child outcomes, the safe upper limit of daily iodine intake in pregnant women and the risks and benefits of iodine supplementation for mildly iodine-deficient pregnant women.

  10. Urinary iodine concentrations indicate iodine deficiency in pregnant Thai women but iodine sufficiency in their school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Wyss, Laura; Tong, Bennan; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2009-06-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women. But iodine requirements sharply increase during pregnancy. In this study, our aim was to measure UI in pairs of pregnant women and their school-aged children from the same family, who were sharing meals, to directly assess whether a household food basket that supplies adequate iodine to school-aged children also meets the needs of pregnant women. UI was measured in spot urine samples from pairs (n = 302) of healthy pregnant mothers and their school-aged children in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. A dietary questionnaire was completed. The UI [median (range)] in the pregnant women {108 (11-558) microg/L [0.85 (0.086-4.41) micromol/L]} were lower than those of their school-aged children {200 (25-835) microg/L [1.58 (0.20-6.52) micromol/L]} (P < 0.001), indicating optimal iodine status in the children but mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in their pregnant mothers. The estimated iodine intakes in the 2 groups were in the range of 130-170 microg/d. There was a modest positive correlation between UI in the pairs (r = 0.253; P < 0.01). A higher frequency of seafood meals was a significant predictor of UI in both groups, but household use of iodized salt was not. These data suggest the median UI in school-aged children should not be used as a surrogate for monitoring iodine status in pregnancy in central Thailand; pregnant women should be directly monitored.

  11. The importance of iodine in public health.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, John H

    2015-08-01

    Iodine (I) deficiency has been known for more than a century and is known to cause cretinism at the extreme end of the spectrum but also, importantly, impaired development and neurocognition in areas of mild deficiency. The WHO has indicated that median urinary iodine of 100-199 μg/l in a population is regarded as indicative of an adequate iodine intake. The understanding of the spectrum of iodine deficiency disorders led to the formation of The International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders which has promulgated the use of household iodized salt and the use of such salt in food processing and manufacture. Iodine deficiency is particularly important in pregnancy as the fetus relies on maternal thyroxine (T4) exclusively during the first 14 weeks and also throughout gestation. As this hormone is critical to brain and nervous system maturation, low maternal T4 results in low child intelligence quotient. The recommendation for I intake in pregnancy is 250 μg/day to prevent fetal and child brain function impairment. During the past 25 years, the number of countries with I deficiency has reduced to 32; these still include many European developed countries. Sustainability of adequate iodine status must be achieved by continuous monitoring and where this has not been performed I deficiency has often recurred. More randomized controlled trials of iodine supplementation in pregnancy are required in mild iodine-deficient areas to inform public health strategy and subsequent government action on suitable provision of iodine to the population at risk. PMID:25663362

  12. The importance of iodine in public health.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, John H

    2015-08-01

    Iodine (I) deficiency has been known for more than a century and is known to cause cretinism at the extreme end of the spectrum but also, importantly, impaired development and neurocognition in areas of mild deficiency. The WHO has indicated that median urinary iodine of 100-199 μg/l in a population is regarded as indicative of an adequate iodine intake. The understanding of the spectrum of iodine deficiency disorders led to the formation of The International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders which has promulgated the use of household iodized salt and the use of such salt in food processing and manufacture. Iodine deficiency is particularly important in pregnancy as the fetus relies on maternal thyroxine (T4) exclusively during the first 14 weeks and also throughout gestation. As this hormone is critical to brain and nervous system maturation, low maternal T4 results in low child intelligence quotient. The recommendation for I intake in pregnancy is 250 μg/day to prevent fetal and child brain function impairment. During the past 25 years, the number of countries with I deficiency has reduced to 32; these still include many European developed countries. Sustainability of adequate iodine status must be achieved by continuous monitoring and where this has not been performed I deficiency has often recurred. More randomized controlled trials of iodine supplementation in pregnancy are required in mild iodine-deficient areas to inform public health strategy and subsequent government action on suitable provision of iodine to the population at risk.

  13. The Current Recommended Vitamin D Intake Guideline for Diet and Supplements During Pregnancy Is Not Adequate to Achieve Vitamin D Sufficiency for Most Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Field, Catherine J.; Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Rabi, Doreen M.; Maggiore, Jack A.; O’Beirne, Maeve; Hanley, David A.; Eliasziw, Misha; Dewey, Deborah; Weinberg, Amy; Ross, Sue J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to determine if pregnant women consumed the recommended vitamin D through diet alone or through diet and supplements, and if they achieved the current reference range vitamin D status when their reported dietary intake met the current recommendations. Methods Data and banked blood samples collected in second trimester from a subset of 537 women in the APrON (Alberta Pregnant Outcomes and Nutrition) study cohort were examined. Frozen collected plasma were assayed using LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) to determine 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations. Dietary data were obtained from questionnaires including a Supplement Intake Questionnaire and a 24-hour recall of the previous day’s diet. Results Participants were 87% Caucasian; mean (SD) age of 31.3 (4.3); BMI 25.8 (4.7); 58% were primiparous; 90% had education beyond high school; 80% had a family income higher than CAN $70,000/year. 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, and 3-epi-25(OH)D3) were identified in all of the 537 plasma samples;3-epi-25(OH)D3 contributed 5% of the total vitamin D. The median (IQR) total 25(OH)D (D2+D3) was 92.7 (30.4) nmol/L and 20% of women had 25(OH)D concentration < 75 nmol/L. The median (IQR) reported vitamin D intake from diet and supplements was 600 (472) IU/day. There was a significant relationship between maternal reported dietary vitamin D intake (diet and supplement) and 25(OH)D and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations in an adjusted linear regression model. Conclusions We demonstrated the current RDA (600 IU/ day) may not be adequate to achieve vitamin D status >75 nmol/L in some pregnant women who are residing in higher latitudes (Calgary, 51°N) in Alberta, Canada and the current vitamin D recommendations for Canadian pregnant women need to be re-evaluated. PMID:27367800

  14. The Prevalence of Using Iodine-Containing Supplements Is Low among Reproductive-Age Women, NHANES 1999–200612

    PubMed Central

    Gahche, Jaime J.; Bailey, Regan L.; Mirel, Lisa B.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2013-01-01

    During pregnancy, the iodine requirement rises to meet demands for neurological development and fetal growth. If these requirements are not met, irreversible pathological cognitive and behavioral changes to the fetus may ensue. This study estimated the prevalence of iodine-containing dietary supplement (DS) use and intakes of iodine from DSs among pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15–39 y) who were interviewed and examined in NHANES 1999–2006 (n = 6404). Although 77.5% of pregnant women reported taking one or more DSs in the past 30 d, only 22.3% consumed an iodine-containing supplement. Most pregnant women reported using one DS and reported taking this product daily. The vast majority of iodine-containing DSs reported by pregnant women claimed an iodine content of 150 μg iodine/serving on the label. Pregnant women using at least one DS containing iodine had a mean daily iodine intake of 122 μg/d from supplements; the median value was 144 μg/d. Median urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) were similar for pregnant and nonpregnant women in the population aged 15–39 y. The median UIC was 148 μg/L for pregnant women and 133 μg/L for nonpregnant women. The WHO has established a cutoff for insufficient iodine intake at <150 μg/L for pregnant women and <100 mg/L for those who are not pregnant. This suggests that as a population, we may not be meeting adequate intakes of iodine for pregnant women. More research is needed on the iodine intakes of pregnant women and women of reproductive age on their total iodine intake from all sources, not just DSs. PMID:23616501

  15. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South East of the UK: the influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status.

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Wright, John; Rayman, Margaret P

    2014-05-01

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones which are crucial for brain development. Adequate intake of iodine in pregnancy is important as in utero deficiency may have lifelong consequences for the offspring. Data on the iodine status of UK pregnant women are sparse, and there are no such data for pregnant women in the South East of the UK. A total of 100 pregnant women were recruited to a cross-sectional study carried out at the Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, at their first-trimester visit for an ultrasound scan. The participants provided a spot-urine sample (for the measurement of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and creatinine concentration) and 24 h iodine excretion was estimated from the urinary iodine:creatinine ratio. Women completed a general questionnaire and a FFQ. The median UIC (85·3 μg/l) indicated that the group was iodine deficient by World Health Organisation criteria. The median values of the iodine:creatinine ratio (122·9 μg/g) and of the estimated 24 h iodine excretion (151·2 μg/d) were also suggestive of iodine deficiency. UIC was significantly higher in women taking an iodine-containing prenatal supplement (n 42) than in those not taking such a supplement (P< 0·001). In the adjusted analyses, milk intake, maternal age and iodine-containing prenatal supplement use were positively associated with the estimated 24 h urinary iodine excretion. Our finding of iodine deficiency in these women gives cause for concern. We suggest that women of childbearing age and pregnant women should be given advice on how to improve their iodine status through dietary means. A national survey of iodine status in UK pregnant women is required.

  16. Iodine concentration in commercial cat foods from three regions of the USA, 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Edinboro, Charlotte H; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Pino, Sam; Braverman, Lewis E

    2013-08-01

    Fluctuations in iodine concentration in food have been suggested as one risk factor for the development of feline hyperthyroidism, an epidemic disease first described in 1979. Three international studies have examined iodine concentrations of commercial cat foods. The iodine concentration of 112 commercial cat foods from across the USA was measured, and the daily iodine intake by hypothetical 4.5 kg adult cats or 1.4 kg kittens calculated in this descriptive epidemiologic study to examine differences in feline iodine intake due to (i) geographical source of foods, (ii) packaging type, (iii) brand-to-brand variation, (iv) form of iodine supplementation, (v) types and numbers of seafood ingredients and (vi) kitten and 'therapeutic' diets. Dramatic variation among canned foods (resulting in ingestion of approximately 49-9639 μg iodine/day) suggests that the disparity in iodine concentrations may lead to development of nodular hyperplasia and, later, clinical hyperthyroidism, if cats consume diets that are at first iodine-deficient and later contain excessive iodine. Manufacturers are encouraged to ensure adequate iodine supplementation across all products and areas of the USA. PMID:23439761

  17. Iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Boelaert, Kristien

    2015-04-01

    Iodine deficiency early in life impairs cognition and growth, but iodine status is also a key determinant of thyroid disorders in adults. Severe iodine deficiency causes goitre and hypothyroidism because, despite an increase in thyroid activity to maximise iodine uptake and recycling in this setting, iodine concentrations are still too low to enable production of thyroid hormone. In mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, increased thyroid activity can compensate for low iodine intake and maintain euthyroidism in most individuals, but at a price: chronic thyroid stimulation results in an increase in the prevalence of toxic nodular goitre and hyperthyroidism in populations. This high prevalence of nodular autonomy usually results in a further increase in the prevalence of hyperthyroidism if iodine intake is subsequently increased by salt iodisation. However, this increase is transient because iodine sufficiency normalises thyroid activity which, in the long term, reduces nodular autonomy. Increased iodine intake in an iodine-deficient population is associated with a small increase in the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity; whether these increases are also transient is unclear. Variations in population iodine intake do not affect risk for Graves' disease or thyroid cancer, but correction of iodine deficiency might shift thyroid cancer subtypes toward less malignant forms. Thus, optimisation of population iodine intake is an important component of preventive health care to reduce the prevalence of thyroid disorders.

  18. Hair Iodine for Human Iodine Status Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Prejac, Juraj; Višnjević, Vjeran; Skalnaya, Margarita G.; Mimica, Ninoslav; Drmić, Stipe; Skalny, Anatoly V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Today, human iodine deficiency is, after iron, the most common nutritional deficiency in developed European and underdeveloped third world countries. A current biological indicator of iodine status is urinary iodine, which reflects very recent iodine exposure; a long-term indicator of iodine status remains to be identified. Methods: We analyzed hair iodine in a prospective, observational, cross-sectional, and exploratory study involving 870 apparently healthy Croatians (270 men and 600 women). Hair iodine was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: The hair iodine median was 0.499 μg/g, and was 0.482 and 0.508 μg/g for men and women respectively, suggesting no sex-related difference. We studied hair iodine uptake by analyzing the logistic sigmoid saturation curve of the median derivatives to assess iodine deficiency, adequacy, and excess. We estimated overt iodine deficiency to occur when hair iodine concentration was below 0.1–0.15 μg/g. Then there was a saturation range interval of about 0.1–2.0 μg/g where the deposition of iodine in the hair was linearly increasing (R2=0.994). Eventually, the sigmoid curve became saturated at about 2.0 μg/g and upward, suggesting excessive iodine exposure. Conclusion: Hair appears to be a valuable and robust biological indicator tissue for assessing long-term iodine status. We propose that an adequate iodine status corresponds with hair iodine uptake saturation of 0.565–0.739 μg/g (55–65%). PMID:24446669

  19. Iodine Concentration in Breastmilk and Urine among Lactating Women of Bhaktapur, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Henjum, Sigrun; Kjellevold, Marian; Ulak, Manjeswori; Chandyo, Ram K.; Shrestha, Prakash S.; Frøyland, Livar; Strydom, Emmerentia E.; Dhansay, Muhammad A.; Strand, Tor A.

    2016-01-01

    Adequate iodine concentration in breastmilk (BMIC) is essential for optimal neonatal thyroid hormone synthesis and neurological development in breastfed infants. For many decades, iodine deficiency has been a public health problem in Nepal. However, recently, excessive iodine intakes among Nepali infants have been reported. This study aimed to measure BMIC and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among lactating women in a peri-urban area of Nepal. Iodine concentration was measured in spot urine (n = 485) and breastmilk samples (n = 291) of 500 randomly selected lactating women. The median (p25, p75) BMIC and median UIC were 250 (130, 370) µg/L and 230 (135–377) µg/L, respectively. Around 82% had BMIC > 100 µg/L, 61% had BMIC > 200 µg/L and 81% had UIC > 100 µg/L, 37% had >300 µg/L and 20% had >500 µg/L. In multiple linear regression models, time since birth (β 3.0, 95% CI (0.2, 5.0)) and UIC (β 1.0, 95% CI (0.1, 2.0)) were associated with BMIC, explaining 26% of the variance. A large proportion of the women had adequate BMIC and UIC; however, a subset had high iodine concentrations. These findings emphasize the importance of carefully monitoring iodine intake to minimize the risk of iodine excess and subsequently preventing transient iodine-induced hypothyroidism in breastfed infants. PMID:27136582

  20. Consequences of excess iodine

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient that is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. The primary source of iodine is the diet via consumption of foods that have been fortified with iodine, including salt, dairy products and bread, or that are naturally abundant in the micronutrient, such as seafood. Recommended daily iodine intake is 150 μg in adults who are not pregnant or lactating. Ingestion of iodine or exposure above this threshold is generally well-tolerated. However, in certain susceptible individuals, including those with pre-existing thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses and neonates, or patients with other risk factors, the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction might be increased. Hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism as a result of supraphysiologic iodine exposure might be either subclinical or overt, and the source of the excess iodine might not be readily apparent. PMID:24342882

  1. Consequences of excess iodine.

    PubMed

    Leung, Angela M; Braverman, Lewis E

    2014-03-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient that is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. The primary source of iodine is the diet via consumption of foods that have been fortified with iodine, including salt, dairy products and bread, or that are naturally abundant in the micronutrient, such as seafood. Recommended daily iodine intake is 150 µg in adults who are not pregnant or lactating. Ingestion of iodine or exposure above this threshold is generally well-tolerated. However, in certain susceptible individuals, including those with pre-existing thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses and neonates, or patients with other risk factors, the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction might be increased. Hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism as a result of supraphysiologic iodine exposure might be either subclinical or overt, and the source of the excess iodine might not be readily apparent.

  2. Post-production losses in iodine concentration of salt hamper the control of iodine deficiency disorders: a case study in northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Shawel, Dawit; Hagos, Seifu; Lachat, Carl K; Kimanya, Martin E; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2010-06-01

    Iodine is essential for good function of the thyroid, and its deficiency is of public-health importance in Ethiopia. Iodization of salt is an effective and sustainable strategy to prevent and control iodine deficiency in large populations. The effectiveness of salt-iodization programmes depends on the conservation of iodine concentration in salt at various stages of the supply-chain. The overall objective of the study was to assess the loss of iodine in salt from production to consumption and to estimate the proportion of adults, especially pregnant women, at risk of dietary iodine insufficiency. A cross-sectional study was conducted during February-April 2007 in northern Ethiopia. Iodine concentrations of salt samples from producers (n=41), retailers (n=7), and consumers (n=32) were determined using iodiometric titration. A risk assessment was conducted for dietary iodine insufficiency among adults, including pregnant women, using a semi-probabilistic approach. The concentration of iodine in the sampled salts decreased by 57% from the production site to the consumers. The assessment of exposure showed that adults in 63% (n=20) of the households, including 90% (n=29) with pregnant women, were at risk of insufficient iodine intake. A monitoring and evaluation system needs to be established to ensure adequate supply of iodine along the distribution chain. Special attention is needed for the retailers and consumers. At these levels, dissemination of information regarding proper storage and handling of iodized salt is necessary to address the reported loss of iodine from salt.

  3. Epidemiological trends of iodine-related thyroid disorders: an example from Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Gaberšček, Simona; Zaletel, Katja

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiology of thyroid disorders is significantly associated with iodine supply. In 1999, Slovenia increased iodine content in kitchen salt from 10 mg to 25 mg of potassium iodide per kg of salt. According to the WHO criteria, Slovenia shifted from a mildly iodine-deficient country to a country with adequate iodine intake. Ten years after the increase in iodine intake, the incidence of diffuse goitre and thyroid autonomy decreased. Now patients with diffuse goitre and thyroid autonomy reach older age than the patients before the increase in iodine intake. In addition, patients with thyroid autonomy are less frequently hyperthyroid than ten years ago and iodine-induced hyperthyroidism is less severe. The incidence of highly malignant thyroid carcinoma has also dropped. However, the incidence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis increased, most probably in genetically predisposed individuals. Over the last ten years, many animal and in vitro studies evaluated the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) on various aspects of the thyroid function. They mostly studied the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, bisphenol A, perfluorinated chemicals, and perchlorate. However, human studies on the effects of EDCs on the thyroid function are very scarce, especially the long-term ones. What they do suggest is that PCBs and dioxins interfere with the transport of thyroid hormones and adversely affect the thyroid function. Many authors agree that iodine deficiency predisposes the thyroid gland to harmful effects of EDCs. Therefore the effects of EDCs in iodine-deficient areas could be more severe than in areas with adequate iodine intake. PMID:27331296

  4. Iodine supplementation and drinking-water perchlorate mitigation.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Thomas A; Peterson, Michael K; Charnley, Gail

    2015-06-01

    Ensuring adequate iodine intake is important, particularly among women of reproductive age, because iodine is necessary for early life development. Biologically based dose-response modeling of the relationships among iodide status, perchlorate dose, and thyroid hormone production in pregnant women has indicated that iodide intake has a profound effect on the likelihood that exposure to goitrogens will produce hypothyroxinemia. We evaluated the possibility of increasing iodine intake to offset potential risks from perchlorate exposure. We also explored the effect of dietary exposures to nitrate and thiocyanate on iodine uptake and thyroid hormone production. Our modeling indicates that the level of thyroid hormone perturbation associated with perchlorate exposures in the range of current regulatory limits is extremely small and would be overwhelmed by other goitrogen exposures. Our analysis also shows that microgram levels of iodine supplementation would be sufficient to prevent the goitrogenic effects of perchlorate exposure at current regulatory limits among at risk individuals. The human health risks from supplementing drinking water with iodine are negligible; therefore, this approach is worthy of regulatory consideration. PMID:25796570

  5. Iodine supplementation and drinking-water perchlorate mitigation.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Thomas A; Peterson, Michael K; Charnley, Gail

    2015-06-01

    Ensuring adequate iodine intake is important, particularly among women of reproductive age, because iodine is necessary for early life development. Biologically based dose-response modeling of the relationships among iodide status, perchlorate dose, and thyroid hormone production in pregnant women has indicated that iodide intake has a profound effect on the likelihood that exposure to goitrogens will produce hypothyroxinemia. We evaluated the possibility of increasing iodine intake to offset potential risks from perchlorate exposure. We also explored the effect of dietary exposures to nitrate and thiocyanate on iodine uptake and thyroid hormone production. Our modeling indicates that the level of thyroid hormone perturbation associated with perchlorate exposures in the range of current regulatory limits is extremely small and would be overwhelmed by other goitrogen exposures. Our analysis also shows that microgram levels of iodine supplementation would be sufficient to prevent the goitrogenic effects of perchlorate exposure at current regulatory limits among at risk individuals. The human health risks from supplementing drinking water with iodine are negligible; therefore, this approach is worthy of regulatory consideration.

  6. Adequate Intake levels of choline are sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in Mexican American men but are not optimal for minimizing plasma total homocysteine increases after a methionine load2

    PubMed Central

    Veenema, Kristin; Solis, Claudia; Li, Rui; Wang, Wei; Maletz, Charles V; Abratte, Christian M; Caudill, Marie A

    2009-01-01

    Background An adequate intake of 550 mg choline/d was established for the prevention of liver dysfunction in men, as assessed by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations. Objective This controlled feeding study investigated the influence of choline intakes ranging from 300 to 2200 mg/d on biomarkers of choline status. The effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype on choline status was also examined. Design Mexican American men (n = 60) with different MTHFR C677T genotypes (29 677TT, 31 677CC) consumed a diet providing 300 mg choline/d plus supplemental choline intakes of 0, 250, 800, or 1900 mg/d for total choline intakes of 300, 550, 1100, or 2200 mg/d, respectively, for 12 wk; 400 μg/d as dietary folate equivalents and 173 mg betaine/d were consumed throughout the study. Results Choline intake affected the response of plasma free choline and betaine (time × choline, P < 0.001); the highest concentrations were observed in the 2200 mg/d group. Phosphatidylcholine (P = 0.026) and total cholesterol (P = 0.002) were also influenced by choline intake; diminished concentrations were observed in the 300 mg/d group. Phosphatidylcholine was modified by MTHFR genotype (P = 0.035; 677TT < 677CC). After a methionine load (100 mg/kg body wt), choline intakes of 1100 and 2200 mg/d attenuated (P = 0.016) the rise in plasma homocysteine, as did the MTHFR 677TT genotype (P < 0.001). Serum alanine aminotransferase was not influenced by the choline intakes administered in this study. Conclusions These data suggest that 550 mg choline/d is sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in this population under the conditions of this study; higher intakes may be needed to optimize other endpoints. PMID:18779284

  7. Role of iodine, selenium and other micronutrients in thyroid function and disorders.

    PubMed

    Triggiani, Vincenzo; Tafaro, Emilio; Giagulli, Vito Angelo; Sabbà, Carlo; Resta, Francesco; Licchelli, Brunella; Guastamacchia, Edoardo

    2009-09-01

    Micronutrients, mostly iodine and selenium, are required for thyroid hormone synthesis and function. Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormones and its deficiency is considered as the most common cause of preventable brain damage in the world. Nowadays about 800 million people are affected by iodine deficiency disorders that include goiter, hypothyroidism, mental retardation, and a wide spectrum of other growth and developmental abnormalities. Iodine supplementation, under form of iodized salt and iodized vegetable oil, produced dramatic improvements in many areas, even though iodine deficiency is still a problem not only for developing countries. In fact, certain subpopulations like vegetarians may not reach an adequate iodine intake even in countries considered iodine-sufficient. A reduction in dietary iodine content could also be related to increased adherence to dietary recommendations to reduce salt intake for preventing hypertension. Furthermore, iodine intakes are declining in many countries where, after endemic goiter eradication, the lack of monitoring of iodine nutrition can lead to a reappearance of goiter and other iodine deficiency disorders. Three different selenium-dependent iodothyronine deiodinases (types I, II, and III) can both activate and inactivate thyroid hormones, making selenium an essential micronutrient for normal development, growth, and metabolism. Furthermore, selenium is found as selenocysteine in the catalytic center of enzymes protecting the thyroid from free radicals damage. In this way, selenium deficiency can exacerbate the effects of iodine deficiency and the same is true for vitamin A or iron deficiency. Substances introduced with food, such as thiocyanate and isoflavones or certain herbal preparations, can interfere with micronutrients and influence thyroid function. Aim of this paper is to review the role of micronutrients in thyroid function and diseases. PMID:19594417

  8. [Effects of the iodine deficiency on intellectual variables among children].

    PubMed

    Muela Martínez, José Antonio; García León, Ana; Torres Barahona, Rosario; Santiago Fernández, Piedad; Sóriguer Escofet, Federico

    2008-05-01

    An association between severe iodine deficiency and poor mental development has been found in many studies. We examined the relationship between moderate or mild iodine deficiency and intellectual capacity in order to determine whether problems common to severe iodine deficiency (including mental retardation) also emerge in a more subtle form. We also wished to know whether the classic methodology (comparing iodine-deficient zones with nondeficient zones) is the most adequate, and propose to combine this grouping by zones with urinary iodine presented by individuals in each zone. We measured IQ, manipulative and verbal capacity, attention, visual motor ability and disruptive behaviour, variables that have barely been studied in this kind of investigations. The sample comprised 760 schoolchildren from the province of Jaén (southern Spain). Our results show that children with low levels of iodine intake and with urinary iodine concentration lower than 100 microg/litre had a lower IQ and displayed more disruptive behaviour than children with high levels of the criteria. The other variables were not associated with iodine deficiency. PMID:18413091

  9. Nutritional status of iodine in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain): study on hygiene-dietetic habits and iodine in urine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation and irrreversible cerebral lesions around the world. However, few studies have been published on the nutritional status of iodine in the pregnant population within the Primary Care setting, a health care level which plays an essential role in the education and control of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of the present study is: 1.- To know the hygiene-dietetic habits related to the intake of foods rich in iodine and smoking during pregnancy. 2.- To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and the factors associated with its appearance during pregnancy. Methods/design We will perform a cluster randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Randomisation unit: Primary Care Team. Study population: 898 pregnant women over the age of 17 years attending consultation to a midwife during the first trimester of pregnancy in the participating primary care centres. Outcome measures: consumption of iodine-rich foods and iodine deficiency. Points of assessment: each trimester of the gestation. Intervention: group education during the first trimester of gestation on healthy hygiene-dietetic habits and the importance of an adequate iodine nutritional status. Statistical analysis: descriptive analysis of all variables will be performed as well as multilevel logistic regression. All analyses will be done carried out on an intention to treat basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Discussion Evidence of generalised iodine deficiency during pregnancy could lead to the promotion of interventions of prevention such as how to improve and intensify health care

  10. Adequately Diversified Dietary Intake and Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy Is Associated with Reduced Occurrence of Symptoms Suggestive of Pre-Eclampsia or Eclampsia in Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sutapa; Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective Pre-eclampsia or Eclampsia (PE or E) accounts for 25% of cases of maternal mortality worldwide. There is some evidence of a link to dietary factors, but few studies have explored this association in developing countries, where the majority of the burden falls. We examined the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E in Indian women. Methods Cross-sectional data from India’s third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-06) was used for this study. Self-reported symptoms suggestive of PE or E during pregnancy were obtained from 39,657 women aged 15-49 years who had had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E after adjusting for maternal, health and lifestyle factors, and socio-demographic characteristics of the mother. Results In their most recent pregnancy, 1.2% (n=456) of the study sample experienced symptoms suggestive of PE or E. Mothers who consumed an adequately diversified diet were 34% less likely (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.51-0.87) to report PE or E symptoms than mothers with inadequately diversified dietary intake. The likelihood of reporting PE or E symptoms was also 36% lower (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88) among those mothers who consumed iron and folic acid supplementation for at least 90 days during their last pregnancy. As a sensitivity analysis, we stratified our models sequentially by education, wealth, antenatal care visits, birth interval, and parity. Our results remained largely unchanged: both adequately diversified dietary intake and iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were associated with a reduced occurrence of PE or E symptoms. Conclusion Having a adequately diversified dietary

  11. Iodine-deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Jooste, Pieter L; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2008-10-01

    2 billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed iodine-deficiency disorders. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. Assessment methods include urinary iodine concentration, goitre, newborn thyroid-stimulating hormone, and blood thyroglobulin. In nearly all countries, the best strategy to control iodine deficiency is iodisation of salt, which is one of the most cost-effective ways to contribute to economic and social development. When iodisation of salt is not possible, iodine supplements can be given to susceptible groups. Introduction of iodised salt to regions of chronic iodine-deficiency disorders might transiently increase the proportion of thyroid disorders, but overall the small risks of iodine excess are far outweighed by the substantial risks of iodine deficiency. International efforts to control iodine-deficiency disorders are slowing, and reaching the third of the worldwide population that remains deficient poses major challenges. PMID:18676011

  12. Successful efforts toward elimination iodine deficiency disorders in India.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Umesh

    2010-10-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) is the world's single most important preventable cause of brain damage and mental retardation. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) is a public health problem in 130 countries, affecting 13% of the world population. The simplest solution to prevent the IDD is to consume iodized common salt every day. In India, significant progress has been achieved toward elimination of IDD, in the last 30 years. Satisfactory levels of urinary iodine excretion and iodine content of salt have been documented by the research surveys conducted by research scientists. The results indicate that we are progressing toward elimination of IDD. IDD is due to a nutritional deficiency, which is prima-rily that of iodine, in soil and water. IDD is known to re-appear if the IDD Control Program is not sustained. To ensure that the population continues to have intake of adequate amount of iodine, there is a need of i) periodic surveys to assess the magnitude of the IDD with respect to impact of iodized salt (IS) intervention; ii) strengthening the health and nutrition education activities to create demand for IS and iii) development of a monitoring information system (MIS) for ensuring that the adequately IS is available to the beneficiaries. PMID:21278862

  13. Assessment of urinary iodine excretion among normal Kuwaiti adults.

    PubMed

    Al-Yatama, Fatma I; Al-Bader, Maie D; Al-Mazidi, Zaidan M; Ali, Ameena; Al-Omair, Ali S; Al-Jehma, Nasser A; Mohammed, Fawziah

    2009-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the status of iodine intake among the Kuwaiti population and its effect on thyroid function. The study group was comprised of 139 females and 86 males with a mean age of 33 and 35 years, respectively. Urinary iodine excretion (UIE) and serum free T4 (FT4), thyrotropin hormone (TSH), antiperoxidase antibodies (anti- TPOAb), and antithyroglobulin antibodies (anti-TGAb) were determined. Median UIE was 148 μg/L (within the recommended level by the World Health Organization [WHO]). However, UIE levels of <100 and <50 μg/L were detected in both male and female groups, respectively. Serum levels of TSH and FT4 were normal for all except one of the participants who suffered from hyperthyroidism, possibly as a result of elevated iodine intake, which was reflected in an increased UIE of 590 μg/L. Elevated anti-TPOAb >75 IU/mL and anti-TGAb >150 IU/mL were detected in 15% and 34% of subjects; only 10% of them had elevated levels of both anti-TPOAb and anti-TGAb. Thus, based on the WHO recommendations, the iodine intake for the Kuwaiti population is adequate. However, it is recommended that a national study be conducted by the appropriate authority in order to eliminate any artifacts which may have appeared in this study.

  14. Use of Iodine to Biofortify and Promote Growth and Stress Tolerance in Crops

    PubMed Central

    Medrano-Macías, Julia; Leija-Martínez, Paola; González-Morales, Susana; Juárez-Maldonado, Antonio; Benavides-Mendoza, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is not considered essential for land plants; however, in some aquatic plants, iodine plays a critical role in antioxidant metabolism. In humans, iodine is essential for the metabolism of the thyroid and for the development of cognitive abilities, and it is associated with lower risks of developing certain types of cancer. Therefore, great efforts are made to ensure the proper intake of iodine to the population, for example, the iodization of table salt. In the same way, as an alternative, the use of different iodine fertilization techniques to biofortify crops is considered an adequate iodine supply method. Hence, biofortification with iodine is an active area of research, with highly relevant results. The agricultural application of iodine to enhance growth, environmental adaptation, and stress tolerance in plants has not been well explored, although it may lead to the increased use of this element in agricultural practice and thus contribute to the biofortification of crops. This review systematically presents the results published on the application of iodine in agriculture, considering different environmental conditions and farming systems in various species and varying concentrations of the element, its chemical forms, and its application method. Some studies report beneficial effects of iodine, including better growth, and changes in the tolerance to stress and antioxidant capacity, while other studies report that the applications of iodine cause no response or even have adverse effects. We suggested different assumptions that attempt to explain these conflicting results, considering the possible interaction of iodine with other trace elements, as well as the different physicochemical and biogeochemical conditions that give rise to the distinct availability and the volatilization of the element.

  15. Use of Iodine to Biofortify and Promote Growth and Stress Tolerance in Crops

    PubMed Central

    Medrano-Macías, Julia; Leija-Martínez, Paola; González-Morales, Susana; Juárez-Maldonado, Antonio; Benavides-Mendoza, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is not considered essential for land plants; however, in some aquatic plants, iodine plays a critical role in antioxidant metabolism. In humans, iodine is essential for the metabolism of the thyroid and for the development of cognitive abilities, and it is associated with lower risks of developing certain types of cancer. Therefore, great efforts are made to ensure the proper intake of iodine to the population, for example, the iodization of table salt. In the same way, as an alternative, the use of different iodine fertilization techniques to biofortify crops is considered an adequate iodine supply method. Hence, biofortification with iodine is an active area of research, with highly relevant results. The agricultural application of iodine to enhance growth, environmental adaptation, and stress tolerance in plants has not been well explored, although it may lead to the increased use of this element in agricultural practice and thus contribute to the biofortification of crops. This review systematically presents the results published on the application of iodine in agriculture, considering different environmental conditions and farming systems in various species and varying concentrations of the element, its chemical forms, and its application method. Some studies report beneficial effects of iodine, including better growth, and changes in the tolerance to stress and antioxidant capacity, while other studies report that the applications of iodine cause no response or even have adverse effects. We suggested different assumptions that attempt to explain these conflicting results, considering the possible interaction of iodine with other trace elements, as well as the different physicochemical and biogeochemical conditions that give rise to the distinct availability and the volatilization of the element. PMID:27602033

  16. Use of Iodine to Biofortify and Promote Growth and Stress Tolerance in Crops.

    PubMed

    Medrano-Macías, Julia; Leija-Martínez, Paola; González-Morales, Susana; Juárez-Maldonado, Antonio; Benavides-Mendoza, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is not considered essential for land plants; however, in some aquatic plants, iodine plays a critical role in antioxidant metabolism. In humans, iodine is essential for the metabolism of the thyroid and for the development of cognitive abilities, and it is associated with lower risks of developing certain types of cancer. Therefore, great efforts are made to ensure the proper intake of iodine to the population, for example, the iodization of table salt. In the same way, as an alternative, the use of different iodine fertilization techniques to biofortify crops is considered an adequate iodine supply method. Hence, biofortification with iodine is an active area of research, with highly relevant results. The agricultural application of iodine to enhance growth, environmental adaptation, and stress tolerance in plants has not been well explored, although it may lead to the increased use of this element in agricultural practice and thus contribute to the biofortification of crops. This review systematically presents the results published on the application of iodine in agriculture, considering different environmental conditions and farming systems in various species and varying concentrations of the element, its chemical forms, and its application method. Some studies report beneficial effects of iodine, including better growth, and changes in the tolerance to stress and antioxidant capacity, while other studies report that the applications of iodine cause no response or even have adverse effects. We suggested different assumptions that attempt to explain these conflicting results, considering the possible interaction of iodine with other trace elements, as well as the different physicochemical and biogeochemical conditions that give rise to the distinct availability and the volatilization of the element. PMID:27602033

  17. Iodine: deficiency and therapeutic considerations.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Lyn

    2008-06-01

    Iodine deficiency is generally recognized as the most commonly preventable cause of mental retardation and the most common cause of endocrinopathy (goiter and primary hypothyroidism). Iodine deficiency becomes particularly critical in pregnancy due to the consequences for neurological damage during fetal development as well as during lactation. The safety of therapeutic doses of iodine above the established safe upper limit of 1 mg is evident in the lack of toxicity in the Japanese population that consumes 25 times the median intake of iodine consumption in the United States. Japan's population suffers no demonstrable increased incidence of autoimmune thyroiditis or hypothyroidism. Studies using 3.0- to 6.0-mg doses to effectively treat fibrocystic breast disease may reveal an important role for iodine in maintaining normal breast tissue architecture and function. Iodine may also have important antioxidant functions in breast tissue and other tissues that concentrate iodine via the sodium iodide symporter. PMID:18590348

  18. Iodised salt contribution to iodine nutrition status of pregnant and lactating women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haihong; Lv, Shengmin; Mu, Zhenguo; Li, Weihong; Zhang, Xia; Wang, Yuchun; Rutherford, Shannon

    2015-07-14

    Sufficient iodine intake by pregnant and lactating women is crucial to their offspring's cognitive development. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of iodised salt intake on the iodine status of pregnant and lactating women. Thirty towns were selected from 211 towns in the rural areas of Shijiazhuang city using probability proportionate to size sampling in this cross-sectional survey. In each selected town, forty pregnant women and forty lactating women were randomly selected to contribute urine samples to determine iodine content. The median urinary iodine content (UIC) of 1200 pregnant women in all was 146 (interquartile range (IQR) 88-239) μg/l. The median UIC in the first, second and third trimesters were 166 (IQR 92-276) μg/l, 145 (IQR 83-248) μg/l and 134 (IQR 79-221) μg/l, respectively. The median UIC in the first trimester was significantly higher than that in the third trimester (P= 0.04). The median UIC of 1200 lactating women in all was 120 (IQR 66-195) μg/l. Their median UIC in every 4-week block was higher than the WHO criteria except in weeks 25-28 and weeks 33-36 of lactation. Pregnant women's median UIC did not correlate with median salt iodine (MSI) (P= 0.402); however, there was a linear correlation between MSI and the lactating women's median UIC (P= 0.007). Iodised salt failed to provide adequate iodine to pregnant women possibly due to limited intake of iodised salt during pregnancy, though it was found to provide adequate iodine to lactating women in the rural areas of Shijiazhuang city.

  19. Mineral resource of the month: iodine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Polyak, Désirée E.

    2009-01-01

    The article focuses on iodine, its benefits and adverse effects, and its production and consumption. It states that iodine is essential to humans for it produces thyroid hormones to nourish thyroid glands but excessive intake could cause goiter, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. U.S. laws require salt iodization to help prevent diseases. Chile and Japan are the world's leading iodine producer while in the U.S. iodine is mined from deep well brines in northern Oklahoma.

  20. History of U.S. iodine fortification and supplementation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Angela M; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2012-11-13

    Iodine is a micronutrient required for thyroid hormone production. This review highlights the history of the discovery of iodine and its uses, discusses the sources of iodine nutrition, and summarizes the current recommendations for iodine intake with a focus on women of childbearing age.

  1. History of U.S. Iodine Fortification and Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2012-01-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient required for thyroid hormone production. This review highlights the history of the discovery of iodine and its uses, discusses the sources of iodine nutrition, and summarizes the current recommendations for iodine intake with a focus on women of childbearing age. PMID:23201844

  2. Effect of salt reduction on iodine status assessed by 24 hour urinary iodine excretion in children and their families in northern China: a substudy of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    He, Feng J; Ma, Yuan; Feng, Xiangxian; Zhang, Wanqi; Lin, Laixiang; Guo, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jing; Niu, Wenyi; Wu, Yangfeng; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of salt reduction on iodine status and to determine whether iodine consumption was still adequate after salt reduction in a population where universal salt iodisation is mandatory. Design A substudy of a cluster randomised controlled trial, with schools randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control group. Setting 28 primary schools in Changzhi, northern China. Participants 279 children in grade 5 of primary school (mean age: 10.1); 553 adults (age: 43.8). Intervention Children were educated about the harmful effects of salt and how to reduce salt intake using the schools' usual health education lessons. Children then delivered the message to their families. The duration was 1 school term (≈3.5 months). Main outcome measure Difference between the intervention and control groups in the change of iodine intake as measured by repeat 24 hour urinary iodine from baseline to the end of the trial. Results At baseline, the mean salt intake was 7.0±2.5 g/day in children and 11.7±4.4 g/day in adults and the median iodine intake was 165.1 μg/day (IQR: 122.6–216.7) and 280.7 μg/day (IQR: 205.1–380.9) in children and adults, respectively. At the end of the study, salt and iodine decreased in the intervention compared with control group. The mean effect on salt for intervention versus control was −1.9 g/day (95% CI −2.6 to −1.3) in children and −2.9 g/day (95% CI −3.7 to −2.2) in adults. The mean effect on iodine was −19.3% (95% CI −29.4% to −7.7%) in children and −11.4% (95% CI −20.3% to −1.5%) in adults. Conclusions With ≈25% reduction in salt intake, there was a significant reduction in iodine consumption in northern China where salt is iodised. Despite this, iodine intake was still adequate, and well above the estimated average requirement. Our findings indicate that reducing salt to the WHO's target—30% reduction by 2025—will not compromise iodine status. Trial registration

  3. Estimation of thyroid doses and health risks resulting from the intake of radioactive iodine in foods and drinking water by the citizens of Tokyo after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio; Oki, Taikan

    2012-06-01

    The release of radioactive materials from the Fukushima nuclear power plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 poses health risks. In this study, the intake of iodine 131 (I-131) in drinking water and foods (milk, dairy products, and vegetables) by citizens of Tokyo was estimated. The effects of countermeasures (restrictions on the distribution of foods and the distribution of bottled water for infants) on reducing intake were also evaluated. The average thyroid equivalent doses without countermeasures from 21 March 2011 were 0.42 mSv in adults, 1.49 mSv in children, and 2.08 mSv in infants. Those with countermeasures were 0.28, 0.97, and 1.14 mSv respectively, reductions of 33%, 35%, and 45%. Drinking water contributed more to intake by adults and children than foods. The intake of I-131 within the first 2 weeks was more than 80% of the estimated intake, owing to its short half-life, indicating that rapid countermeasures are important in reducing intake. The average risks of cancer incidence and mortality due to I-131 for infants were estimated to be 3×10(-5) and 0.2×10(-5), respectively, lower than the annual risks of traffic accidents, naturally occurring radioactive material (potassium 40), and environmental pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles.

  4. A new HPLC method for the detection of iodine applied to natural samples of edible seaweeds and commercial seaweed food products.

    PubMed

    Nitschke, Udo; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2015-04-01

    Rich in micronutrients and considered to contain high iodine levels, seaweeds have multiple applications as food/supplements and nutraceuticals with potential health implications. Here, we describe the development and validation of a new analytical method to quantify iodine as iodide (I(-)) using an isocratic HPLC system with UV detection; algal iodine was converted to I(-) via dry alkaline incineration. The method was successfully applied to 19 macroalgal species from three taxonomic groups and five commercially available seaweed food products. Fesh kelps contained highest levels, reaching >1.0% per dry weight (DW), but concentrations differed amongst thallus parts. In addition to kelps, other brown (Fucales: ∼ 0.05% DW) and some red species (∼ 0.05% DW) can also serve as a rich source of iodine; lowest iodine concentrations were detected in green macroalgae (∼ 0.005% DW), implying that quantities recommended for seaweed consumption may require species-specific re-evaluation to reach adequate daily intake levels.

  5. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kaganov, Boris; Caroli, Margherita; Mazur, Artur; Singhal, Atul; Vania, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population. PMID:25984741

  6. Iodine poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Iodine is found in: Amiodarone (Cordarone) Chemicals (catalysts) for photography and engraving Dyes and inks Lugol's solution Pima syrup Potassium iodide Radioactive iodine used for certain medical tests or the treatment ...

  7. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy: the effect on neurodevelopment in the child.

    PubMed

    Skeaff, Sheila A

    2011-02-01

    Iodine is an integral part of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T(4)) and tri-iodothyronine (T(3)), necessary for normal growth and development. An adequate supply of cerebral T(3), generated in the fetal brain from maternal free T(4) (fT(4)), is needed by the fetus for thyroid hormone dependent neurodevelopment, which begins in the second half of the first trimester of pregnancy. Around the beginning of the second trimester the fetal thyroid also begins to produce hormones but the reserves of the fetal gland are low, thus maternal thyroid hormones contribute to total fetal thyroid hormone concentrations until birth. In order for pregnant women to produce enough thyroid hormones to meet both her own and her baby's requirements, a 50% increase in iodine intake is recommended. A lack of iodine in the diet may result in the mother becoming iodine deficient, and subsequently the fetus. In iodine deficiency, hypothyroxinemia (i.e., low maternal fT(4)) results in damage to the developing brain, which is further aggravated by hypothyroidism in the fetus. The most serious consequence of iodine deficiency is cretinism, characterised by profound mental retardation. There is unequivocal evidence that severe iodine deficiency in pregnancy impairs brain development in the child. However, only two intervention trials have assessed neurodevelopment in children of moderately iodine deficient mothers finding improved neurodevelopment in children of mothers supplemented earlier rather than later in pregnancy; both studies were not randomised and were uncontrolled. Thus, there is a need for well-designed trials to determine the effect of iodine supplementation in moderate to mildly iodine deficient pregnant women on neurodevelopment in the child. PMID:22254096

  8. A model to secure a stable iodine concentration in milk

    PubMed Central

    Trøan, Gisken; Dahl, Lisbeth; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Abel, Marianne Hope; Indahl, Ulf Geir; Haug, Anna; Prestløkken, Egil

    2015-01-01

    Background Dairy products account for approximately 60% of the iodine intake in the Norwegian population. The iodine concentration in cow's milk varies considerably, depending on feeding practices, season, and amount of iodine and rapeseed products in cow fodder. The variation in iodine in milk affects the risk of iodine deficiency or excess in the population. Objective The first goal of this study was to develop a model to predict the iodine concentration in milk based on the concentration of iodine and rapeseed or glucosinolate in feed, as a tool to securing stable iodine concentration in milk. A second aim was to estimate the impact of different iodine levels in milk on iodine nutrition in the Norwegian population. Design Two models were developed on the basis of results from eight published and two unpublished studies from the past 20 years. The models were based on different iodine concentrations in the fodder combined with either glucosinolate (Model 1) or rapeseed cake/meal (Model 2). To illustrate the impact of different iodine concentrations in milk on iodine intake, we simulated the iodine contribution from dairy products in different population groups based on food intake data in the most recent dietary surveys in Norway. Results The models developed could predict iodine concentration in milk. Cross-validation showed good fit and confirmed the explanatory power of the models. Our calculations showed that dairy products with current iodine level in milk (200 µg/kg) cover 68, 49, 108 and 56% of the daily iodine requirements for men, women, 2-year-old children, and pregnant women, respectively. Conclusions Securing a stable level of iodine in milk by adjusting iodine concentration in different cow feeds is thus important for preventing excess intake in small children and iodine deficiency in pregnant and non-pregnant women. PMID:26689316

  9. Speciation of iodine in high iodine groundwater in china associated with goitre and hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stig; Guan, Haixia; Teng, Weiping; Laurberg, Peter

    2009-05-01

    Iodine intake affects the occurrence of disease in a population. Excessive iodine intake may be caused by a high iodine content of drinking water. Tap water in few locations in Europe contains up to 139 microg/L mostly bound to humic substances, probably leaching from marine sediments in the aquifers. Even higher iodine contents have been found in Chinese waters, previously shown to associate with goitre and hypothyroidism. The aims were to elucidate speciation of high iodine groundwater from deep wells in China and to compare with high iodine waters from Europe. Water was sampled from eight wells in five villages along Bohai Bay, China. Macro-molecules and low molecular weight (MW) substances were separated by size exclusion chromatography (high performance liquid chromatography, Superose 12 HR 10/30, buffer 0.1 M Tris, pH 7.0). Organic material was evaluated by A280 and iodine in fractions measured by the Ce/As method after alkaline incineration. Iodine content of well water varied from 135 to 880 microg/L (median 287 microg/L). The amount of organic material in water was low with A280, <1-5 mAU. The chromatographic traces were similar between samples: One peak of iodine eluted around K (AV) 0.65 corresponding to MW 5 kDa (humic substances) and one peak at V (total) (iodide/low MW substances). The fraction of iodine in macro-molecules, suggested to be humic substances, varied from 8% to 70% (median 27%). Iodine and peak absorbance were associated (p = 0.006). In conclusion, iodine in iodine-rich deep well water in northern China may have marine origin and may associate with humic substances, comparable to shallow well iodine-rich water in Europe. High iodine intake from iodine-rich water suggests the cause of endemic goitre and hypothyroidism in some areas in China being iodine.

  10. Iodine requirements and the risks and benefits of correcting iodine deficiency in populations.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B

    2008-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production that are termed the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). IDD remains the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. IDD assessment methods include urinary iodine concentration, goiter, thyroglobulin and newborn thyrotropin. In nearly all iodine-deficient countries, the best strategy to control IDD is salt iodization, one of the most cost-effective ways to contribute to economic and social development. When salt iodization is not possible, iodine supplements can be targeted to vulnerable groups. Introduction of iodized salt to regions of chronic IDD may transiently increase the incidence of thyroid disorders, and programs should include monitoring for both iodine deficiency and excess. Although more data on the epidemiology of thyroid disorders caused by differences in iodine intake are needed, overall, the relatively small risks of iodine excess are far outweighed by the substantial risks of iodine deficiency. PMID:18565420

  11. Health consequences of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Umesh

    2007-12-01

    Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) are one of the biggest worldwide public health problem of today. Their effect is hidden and profoundly affects the quality of human life. Iodine deficiency occurs when the soil is poor in iodine, causing a low concentration in food products and insufficient iodine intake in the population. When iodine requirements are not met, the thyroid may no longer be able to synthesize sufficient amounts of thyroid hormone. The resulting low-level of thyroid hormones in the blood is the principal factor responsible for the series of functional and developmental abnormalities, collectively referred to as IDD. Iodine deficiency is a significant cause of mental developmental problems in children, including implications on reproductive functions and lowering of IQ levels in school-aged children. The consequence of iodine deficiency during pregnancy is impaired synthesis of thyroid hormones by the mother and the foetus. An insufficient supply of thyroid hormones to the developing brain may result in mental retardation. Brain damage and irreversible mental retardation are the most important disorders induced by iodine deficiency. Daily consumption of salt fortified with iodine is a proven effective strategy for prevention of IDD. PMID:21748117

  12. The changing epidemiology of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Mu; Eastman, Creswell J

    2012-07-01

    Globally, about 2 thousand million people are affected by iodine deficiency. Although endemic goitre is the most visible sign of iodine deficiency, its most devastating consequence is brain damage causing mental retardation in children. The relationship between iodine deficiency and brain damage was not clearly established until the 1980s when the term iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs), which encompass a spectrum of conditions caused by iodine deficiency, was introduced. This paradigm shift in the understanding of the clinical consequences of iodine deficiency led to a change in iodine deficiency assessment. The median urinary iodine excretion level has been recommended as the preferred indicator for monitoring population iodine deficiency status since 2001. The 2007 WHO urinary iodine data in schoolchildren from 130 countries revealed that iodine intake is still insufficient in 47 countries. Furthermore, about one-third of countries lack national estimates of the prevalence of iodine deficiency. The picture that has emerged from available data worldwide over the past two decades is that IDDs are not confined to remote, mountainous areas in developing countries, but are a global public health problem that affects most countries, including developed countries and island nations. The recognition of the universality of iodine deficiency highlights the need to develop and apply new strategies to establish and maintain sustainable IDD elimination and strengthen regular monitoring programmes. PMID:22473332

  13. EURRECA-Estimating iodine requirements for deriving dietary reference values.

    PubMed

    Ristić-Medić, Danijela; Novaković, Romana; Glibetić, Maria; Gurinović, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormones, and current recommendations for intake are based on urinary iodine excretion, assessment of thyroid size, thyroidal iodine accumulation and turnover, radioactive iodine uptake, balance studies, and epidemiological studies. Dietary iodine is rapidly and almost completely absorbed. The prevalence of inadequate iodine intake is high: 29% of the world's population lives in iodine-deficient areas and 44% of Europe remains mildly iodine deficient. To assess current data and update evidence for setting dietary recommendations for iodine, the EURRECA Network of Excellence has undertaken systematic review and evaluation of (i) the usefulness of iodine status biomarkers (ii) the relationship between iodine status biomarkers and dietary iodine intake, and (iii) the relationship between iodine intake and health outcomes (endemic goiter, hypothyroidism, and cognitive function). This review summarizes the main research outputs: the key findings of the literature review, results of the meta-analyses, and discussion of the main conclusions. Currently, data for relevant intake-status-health relationships for iodine are limited, particularly for population groups such as children under two years, pregnant women, and the elderly. The EURRECA Network developed best practice guidelines for the identification of pertinent iodine studies based on a systematic review approach. This approach aimed to identify comparable data, suitable for meta-analysis, for different countries and across all age ranges. When new data are available, the EURRECA Network best practice guidelines will provide a better understanding of iodine requirements for different health outcomes which could be used to set evidence-based dietary iodine recommendations for optimal health. PMID:23952087

  14. Iodine in drinking water varies by more than 100-fold in Denmark. Importance for iodine content of infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, K M; Laurberg, P; Nohr, S; Jorgensen, A; Andersen, S

    1999-05-01

    The iodine intake level of the population is of major importance for the occurrence of thyroid disorders in an area. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of drinking water iodine content for the known regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark and for the iodine content of infant formulas. Iodine in tap water obtained from 55 different locations in Denmark varied from <1.0 to 139 microg/l. In general the iodine content was low in Jutland (median 4.1 microg/l) with higher values on Sealand (23 microg/l) and other islands. Preparation of coffee or tea did not reduce the iodine content of tap water with a high initial iodine concentration. A statistically significant correlation was found between tap water iodine content today and the urinary iodine excretion measured in 41 towns in 1967 (r=0.68, P<0.001). The correlation corresponded to a basic urinary iodine excretion in Denmark of 43 microg/24h excluding iodine in water and a daily water intake of 1.7 l. The iodine content of infant formulas prepared by addition of demineralized water varied from 37 to 138 microg/l (median 57 microg/l, n=18). Hence the final iodine content would depend heavily on the source of water used for preparation. We found that iodine in tap water was a major determinant of regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark. Changes in water supply and possibly water purification methods may influence the population iodine intake level and the occurrence of thyroid disorders.

  15. The implications of iodine and its supplementation during pregnancy in fetal brain development.

    PubMed

    Puig-Domingo, Manel; Vila, Lluis

    2013-05-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element for life. Its biological effects are a consequence of its incorporation to the thyroid hormones, which play a crucial role in fetal organogenesis, and in particular in brain development. This takes place during early gestation and involves delicate targeting throughout the central nervous system, including adequate neuronal growth, migration and myelinization at different sites, such as the cerebral cortex and neocortex, visual and auditory cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. Pregnancy is characterized by an increased demand of thyroid hormones by the feto-placental unit in order to fulfill the necessary requirements of thyroid hormone action for normal fetal development. Up until week 20, the fetal thyroid is not fully active and therefore is completely dependent on the maternal thyroxine supply. Thus, the maternal thyroid has to adapt to this situation by producing about 1.5 fold more thyroxine. This requires that enzymatic gland machinery works normally as well as an adequate iodine intake, the principal substrate for thyroid hormone synthesis. Biological consequences of iodine related maternal hypothyroxinemia are currently very well known, by both experimental models and by clinical and epidemiological evidences. The associated disturbances parallel the degree of maternal thyroxine deficiency, ranging from increased neonatal morbi-mortality and severe mental dysfunction, to hyperactivity, attention disorders and a substantial decrease of IQ of an irreversible nature in the progeny of mothers suffering a deprivation of iodine during pregnancy. As a consequence, iodine deficiency is the leading preventable cause of mental impaired function in the world, affecting as many as 2 billion people (35.2% of the entire population). Prevention of fetal iodine deficiency - a problem of pandemic proportions- is feasible, provided that an iodine supply of 200-300 μg/day to the mother is ensured, before and throughout gestation as well

  16. Urinary Iodine and Goiter Prevalence in Belarus: Experience of the Belarus–American Cohort Study of Thyroid Cancer and Other Thyroid Diseases Following the Chornobyl Nuclear Accident

    PubMed Central

    Polyanskaya, Olga; McConnell, Robert; Gong, Zhihong; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Rozhko, Alexander; Prokopovich, Alexander; Petrenko, Sergey; Brenner, Alina; Zablotska, Lydia

    2011-01-01

    Background Because iodine deficiency can influence background rates of thyroid disease or modify radiation dose–response relationships, we compiled descriptive data on iodine status among participants in a Belarusian–American screening study who were exposed in childhood to radioiodine fallout from the Chornobyl nuclear accident. We have used the data from two consecutive screening cycles to examine whether indicators of iodine status changed before and after documented government initiatives to improve iodine intake. Methods Urinary iodine concentrations in spot samples and prevalence of diffuse goiter by palpation were assessed in 11,676 exposed subjects who were 18 years or younger at the time of the accident on April 26, 1986, and were screened beginning 11 years later in connection with the Belarus–American Thyroid Study. Data for the first (January 1997–March 2001) and second (April 2001–December 2004) screening cycles, which largely correspond to time periods before and after official iodination efforts in 2000/2001, were compared for the cohort overall as well as by oblast of residence (i.e., state) and type of residency (urban/rural). Results Median urine iodine levels among cohort members increased significantly in the later period (111.5 μg/L) compared to the earlier (65.3 μg/L), with the cycle 2 level in the range defined as adequate iodine intake by the World Health Organization. During the same period, a significant decline in diffuse goiter prevalence was also observed. In both cycles, urinary iodine levels were lower in rural than in urban residents. Urinary iodine levels, but not rates of goiter, varied by oblast of residence. In both periods, adjusted median urine iodine concentrations were similar in Gomel and Minsk oblasts, where ∼89% of cohort members resided, and were lowest in Mogilev oblast. Yet Mogilev oblast and rural areas showed the most marked increases over time. Conclusions Trends in urinary iodine concentrations and

  17. Growth and metabolism of fetal and maternal muscles of adolescent sheep on adequate or high feed intake: possible role of protein kinase C-alpha in fetal muscle growth.

    PubMed

    Palmer, R M; Thompson, M G; Meallet, C; Thom, A; Aitken, R P; Wallace, J M

    1998-04-01

    From days 4-104 of pregnancy, adolescent sheep, weighing 43.7 (SE 0.87) kg were offered a complete diet at two different intakes (approximately 5 or 15 kg/week) designed to meet slightly, or well above, maternal maintenance requirements. The fetal and maternal muscles were taken on day 104 of pregnancy and analysed for total DNA, RNA and protein. Ewes offered a high intake to promote rapid maternal weight gain, weighed more (76.5 (SE 4.5) v 50.0 (SE 1.7) kg) and had muscles with a greater fresh weight, whilst their fetuses had smaller muscles, than those fed at a lower intake. Plantaris muscle of the ewes fed at the high intake contained more RNA and protein; again the opposite situation was found in the fetal muscle. On the higher maternal intakes, the DNA, RNA and protein contents of the fetal plantaris muscle were less than in fetuses of ewes fed at the lower intake. To investigate the possible mechanisms involved in this decrease in fetal muscle mass, cytosolic and membrane-associated muscle proteins were subjected to Western immunoblotting with antibodies to nine isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), a family of enzymes known to play an important role in cell growth. Five PKC isoforms (alpha, epsilon, theta, mu, zeta) were identified in fetal muscle. One of these, PKC-alpha was located predominantly in the cytosolic compartment in the smaller fetuses of the ewes fed at a high plane of nutrition, but was present to a greater extent in the membranes of the more rapidly growing fetuses of the ewes fed at the lower intake. This was the only isoform to demonstrate nutritionally related changes in it subcellular compartmentation suggesting that it may mediate some aspects of the change in fetal growth rate.

  18. Iodine Deficiency in School Children in Aligarh District, India.

    PubMed

    Aslami, Ahmad Nadeem; Ansari, Mohammed A; Khalique, N; Kapil, Umesh

    2016-08-01

    We carried out this study to assess iodine deficiency disorders among school children of 6-12 years age group in Aligarh district of India. The prevalence of goiter was 5.2%. Median Urinary Iodine Excretion level was 150 ug/L; 22.5% of students had biochemical iodine deficiency. 50.4% households were consuming adequately iodized salt. PMID:27567653

  19. Iodine Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlargement of the thyroid (goiter – see Goiter brochure ), hypothyroidism (see Hypothyroidism brochure ) and to mental retardation in infants and ... when lying down, and difficulty swallowing and breathing. HYPOTHYROIDISM – As the body’s iodine levels fall, hypothyroidism may ...

  20. The Role of Iodine and Selenium in Autoimmune Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Duntas, L H

    2015-09-01

    Iodine and selenium (Se) are both essential elements to thyroid hormone economy, while they represent key players in the development of autoimmune thyroiditis.Chronic high iodine intake has been associated in various studies with increased frequency of autoimmune thyroiditis. In susceptible individuals, iodine excess increases intra-thyroid infiltrating Th17 cells and inhibits T regulatory (TREG) cells development, while it triggers an abnormal expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in thyrocytes, thus inducing apoptosis and parenchymal destruction. As was shown in a mouse model, high iodine supply leads to changes in the immunogenicity of the thyroglobulin molecule, upregulation of vascular intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the thyrocytes. Serum Se levels were found decreased in Hashimoto thyroiditis and especially in Graves' disease as well as in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy patients, the levels being related to the pathogenesis and outcome. Selenium is strongly involved, via the variable selenoproteins, in antioxidant, redox, and anti-inflammatory processes. Selenium enhances CD4+/CD25 FOXP3 and T regulatory cells activity while suppressing cytokine secretion, thus preventing apoptosis of the follicular cells and providing protection from thyroiditis. Selenium supplementation may be useful in autoimmune thyroid diseases, though, while usually well-tolerated, it should not be universally recommended, and it is also likely to be helpful for those with low Se status and autoimmunity. Broadly speaking, the achievement and maintenance of "selenostasis" as well as adequate urinary iodine excretion are mandatory to control disease, while, putatively, they may additionally be critical to preventing disease. PMID:26361258

  1. The Role of Iodine and Selenium in Autoimmune Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Duntas, L H

    2015-09-01

    Iodine and selenium (Se) are both essential elements to thyroid hormone economy, while they represent key players in the development of autoimmune thyroiditis.Chronic high iodine intake has been associated in various studies with increased frequency of autoimmune thyroiditis. In susceptible individuals, iodine excess increases intra-thyroid infiltrating Th17 cells and inhibits T regulatory (TREG) cells development, while it triggers an abnormal expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in thyrocytes, thus inducing apoptosis and parenchymal destruction. As was shown in a mouse model, high iodine supply leads to changes in the immunogenicity of the thyroglobulin molecule, upregulation of vascular intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the thyrocytes. Serum Se levels were found decreased in Hashimoto thyroiditis and especially in Graves' disease as well as in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy patients, the levels being related to the pathogenesis and outcome. Selenium is strongly involved, via the variable selenoproteins, in antioxidant, redox, and anti-inflammatory processes. Selenium enhances CD4+/CD25 FOXP3 and T regulatory cells activity while suppressing cytokine secretion, thus preventing apoptosis of the follicular cells and providing protection from thyroiditis. Selenium supplementation may be useful in autoimmune thyroid diseases, though, while usually well-tolerated, it should not be universally recommended, and it is also likely to be helpful for those with low Se status and autoimmunity. Broadly speaking, the achievement and maintenance of "selenostasis" as well as adequate urinary iodine excretion are mandatory to control disease, while, putatively, they may additionally be critical to preventing disease.

  2. Low Iodine Content in the Diets of Hospitalized Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Braverman, Lewis E.; He, Xuemei; Brown, Rosalind S.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Iodine is critical for normal thyroid hormone synthesis and brain development during infancy, and preterm infants are particularly vulnerable to the effects of both iodine deficiency and excess. Use of iodine-containing skin antiseptics in intensive care nurseries has declined substantially in recent years, but whether the current dietary iodine intake meets the requirement for hospitalized preterm infants is unknown. Objective: The aim of the study was to measure the iodine content of enteral and parenteral nutrition products commonly used for hospitalized preterm infants and estimate the daily iodine intake for a hypothetical 1-kg infant. Methods: We used mass spectrometry to measure the iodine concentration of seven preterm infant formulas, 10 samples of pooled donor human milk, two human milk fortifiers (HMF) and other enteral supplements, and a parenteral amino acid solution and soy-based lipid emulsion. We calculated the iodine provided by typical diets based on 150 ml/kg · d of formula, donor human milk with or without HMF, and parenteral nutrition. Results: Preterm formula provided 16.4–28.5 μg/d of iodine, whereas unfortified donor human milk provided only 5.0–17.6 μg/d. Adding two servings (six packets) of Similac HMF to human milk increased iodine intake by 11.7 μg/d, whereas adding two servings of Enfamil HMF increased iodine intake by only 0.9 μg/d. The other enteral supplements contained almost no iodine, nor did a parenteral nutrition-based diet. Conclusions: Typical enteral diets for hospitalized preterm infants, particularly those based on donor human milk, provide less than the recommended 30 μg/d of iodine, and parenteral nutrition provides almost no iodine. Additional iodine fortification should be considered. PMID:22337912

  3. Iodine Supplementation: Usage "with a Grain of Salt".

    PubMed

    Prete, Alessandro; Paragliola, Rosa Maria; Corsello, Salvatore Maria

    2015-01-01

    Iodine supplementation through salt iodization is a worldwide, effective strategy for preventing iodine deficiency-related problems. Its safety and efficacy profile has been extensively investigated, and benefits far outweigh the potential iodine-induced risks. Moreover, iodine supplementation during pregnancy in order to avoid brain damage in the newborn is considered a mainstay of preventive medicine. Exposure to high amounts of iodine is actually well tolerated in most cases and can be unrecognized. Nevertheless, at-risk individuals may develop thyroid dysfunction even when they are exposed to increases in iodine intake universally considered as safe. Iodine-induced thyroid disorders include thyroid autoimmunity, thyrotoxicosis, iodine-induced goiter, and hypothyroidism. Moreover, a relationship between iodine intake and histotype distribution of differentiated thyroid cancer has been observed, with a progressive shift from follicular to papillary thyroid cancer. To date, evaluating iodine status in a clinical setting has limitations, and assessing the actual risk for each individual can be challenging, since it is influenced by personal history, genetics, and environmental factors. In conclusion, iodine supplementation programs need to be continued and strengthened, but iodine should be used "with a grain of salt," because a growing number of susceptible individuals will be exposed to the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid disorders. PMID:25873950

  4. Teratology public affairs committee position paper: iodine deficiency in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Obican, Sarah G; Jahnke, Gloria D; Soldin, Offie P; Scialli, Anthony R

    2012-09-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important nutritional deficiency, with more than 2 billion people worldwide estimated to be at risk. The developing fetus and young children are particularly at risk. During pregnancy and lactation, iodine requirements increase, whether in iodine-poor or iodine-sufficient countries, making the mother and the developing fetus vulnerable. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) recommends 250 micrograms per day of iodine intake for pregnant and lactating women. The thyroid gland is able to adapt to the changes associated with pregnancy as long as sufficient iodine is present. Dietary intake is the sole source of iodine, which is essential to the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Iodine is found in multiple dietary sources including iodized salt, dairy products, seaweed, and fish. Prenatal vitamins containing iodine are a good source of iodine, but iodine content in multivitamin supplements is highly variable. Congenital hypothyroidism is associated with cretinism. Clinical hypothyroidism has been associated with increased risk of poor perinatal outcome including prematurity, low birth weight, miscarriage, preeclampsia, fetal death, and impaired fetal neurocognitive development. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with poor pregnancy outcomes and potential fetal neurocognitive deficits, but the data are more variable than those for clinical hypothyroidism. We concur with the ATA recommendation that all pregnant and lactating women should ingest (through diet and supplements) 250 micrograms of iodine daily. To achieve this goal, we recommend that all pregnant and lactating women take daily iodine supplementation of 150 micrograms.

  5. Thiocyanate in food and iodine in milk: from domestic animal feeding to improved understanding of cretinism.

    PubMed

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stig; Knudsen, Nils; Ovesen, Lars; Nøhr, Susanne B; Bülow Pedersen, Inge

    2002-10-01

    Transport of iodine in the mammary gland into breast milk plays a central role in various fields of prevention of thyroid diseases. First, a sufficient content of iodine in the mother's milk is necessary for normal brain development in the breastfed child. This is attained by expression during lactation in the mammary gland of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS), also responsible for iodine transport in the thyroid. Milk iodine content varies with the iodine intake of the mother, and urinary iodine excretion in groups of mothers seems to be a valuable indicator of the iodine status of their breastfed children. Second, iodine in dairy products provides a considerable part of iodine intake in many populations. Thiocyanate from rapeseed feeding of cows decreases milk iodine content, probably by competitive inhibition of NIS in the mammary gland. Alterations in feeding of dairy cows may alter the iodine content of consumer milk, and this may influence the risk of thyroid diseases in the population. Thiocyanate inhibition of iodine transport into milk may also be operative in humans with a high thiocyanate intake. This could further impair iodine status in breastfed children in low-iodine intake areas of the world. It can be speculated that a low-iodine content of mother's milk because of inhibition of NIS in the mammary gland may be one factor of importance for development of myxedematous cretinism.

  6. Low fatness, reduced fat intake and adequate plasmatic concentrations of LDL-cholesterol are associated with high bone mineral density in women: a cross-sectional study with control group

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several parameters are associated with high bone mineral density (BMD), such as overweight, black background, intense physical activity (PA), greater calcium intake and some medications. The objectives are to evaluate the prevalence and the main aspects associated with high BMD in healthy women. Methods After reviewing the database of approximately 21,500 BMD scans performed in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, from June 2005 to October 2010, high BMD (over 1400 g/cm2 at lumbar spine and/or above 1200 g/cm2 at femoral neck) was found in 421 exams. Exclusion criteria were age below 30 or above 60 years, black ethnicity, pregnant or obese women, disease and/or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. A total of 40 women with high BMD were included and matched with 40 healthy women with normal BMD, paired to weight, age, skin color and menopausal status. Medical history, food intake and PA were assessed through validated questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated through a GE-Lunar DPX MD + bone densitometer. Radiography of the thoracic and lumbar spine was carried out to exclude degenerative alterations or fractures. Biochemical parameters included both lipid and hormonal profiles, along with mineral and bone metabolism. Statistical analysis included parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression models. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results The mean age was 50.9 (8.3) years. There was no significant difference between groups in relation to PA, smoking, intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as laboratory tests, except serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX), which was lower in the high BMD group (p = 0.04). In the final model of multivariate regression, a lower fat intake and body fatness as well a better profile of LDL-cholesterol predicted almost 35% of high BMD in women. (adjusted R2 = 0.347; p < 0.001). In addition, greater amounts of lean mass and higher IGF-1 serum concentrations played a

  7. National trends in iodine nutrition: is everyone getting enough?

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2007-09-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important public health problem worldwide. Until the 1920s, endemic iodine deficiency disorders were prevalent in the Great Lakes, Appalachian, and Northwestern regions of the United States. Iodized salt was responsible for eliminating endemic goiter in the United States and remains the mainstay of iodine deficiency disorder eradication efforts worldwide. Although urinary iodine values have decreased by 50% since the early 1970s, the United States remains iodine sufficient. However, U.S. iodine nutrition, particularly among women of childbearing age, may remain an area worthy of public health concern. There is a wide amount of variation in the iodine content of some common foods, and the iodine content of foods is not well reflected by package labeling. There needs to be increased awareness of the importance of adequate iodine nutrition, particularly during pregnancy and lactation, among the U.S. public.

  8. Lipid compositional changes in calves fed excess iodine.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, K J

    1990-09-01

    Calves were fed milk replacer containing .57, 10, or 200 ppm iodine (from ethylenediaminedihydriodide) to determine the effects of excess dietary iodine on composition of lipids in blood plasma, liver, and heart. High iodine intakes had no effect on plasma total lipids or lipid classes, but caused lipid class concentration changes in liver and heart. Both 10 and 200 ppm iodine increased concentration of liver phosphatidylethanolamine and heart phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and total lipids, and the 200 ppm intake also increased concentration of liver phosphatidylcholine, total lipids, and heart phosphatidylethanolamine. Both iodine treatments tended to increase all the other minor lipid classes in liver and heart as well. Both 10 and 200 ppm iodine treatments increased some of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the major phospholipids of plasma, liver, and heart. For the preruminant calf, liver and heart may be more useful than blood plasma for indicating excess iodine effects on lipid metabolism.

  9. Iodine deficiency in vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Bucková, K; Klimes, I; Seboková, E

    2003-01-01

    Iodine content in food of plant origin is lower in comparison with that of animal origin due to a low iodine concentration in soil. Urinary iodine excretion was assessed in 15 vegans, 31 lacto- and lacto-ovovegetarians and 35 adults on a mixed diet. Iodine excretion was significantly lower in alternative nutrition groups - 172 microg/l in vegetarians and 78 microg/l in vegans compared to 216 microg/l in subjects on a mixed diet. One fourth of the vegetarians and 80% of the vegans suffer from iodine deficiency (iodine excretion value below 100 microg/l) compared to 9% in the persons on a mixed nutrition. The results show that under conditions of alternative nutrition, there is a higher prevalence of iodine deficiency, which might be a consequence of exclusive or prevailing consumption of food of plant origin, no intake of fish and other sea products, as well as reduced iodine intake in the form of sea salt. PMID:12748410

  10. Urinary iodine, thyroid function, and thyroglobulin as biomarkers of iodine status.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Caldwell, Kathleen L

    2016-09-01

    The accurate assessment of population iodine status is necessary to inform public health policies and clinical research on iodine nutrition, particularly the role of iodine adequacy in normal neurodevelopment. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) directly reflects dietary iodine intake and is the most common indicator used worldwide to assess population iodine status. The CDC established the Ensuring the Quality of Iodine Procedures program in 2001 to provide laboratories that measure urinary iodine with an independent assessment of their analytic performance; this program fosters improvement in the assessment of UIC. Clinical laboratory tests of thyroid function (including serum concentrations of the pituitary hormone thyrotropin and the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine) are sometimes used as indicators of iodine status, although such use is often problematic. Even in severely iodine-deficient regions, there is a great deal of intraindividual variation in the ability of the thyroid to adapt. In most settings and in most population subgroups other than newborns, thyroid function tests are not considered sensitive indicators of population iodine status. However, the thyroid-derived protein thyroglobulin is increasingly being used for this purpose. Thyroglobulin can be measured in either serum or dried blood spot (DBS) samples. The use of DBS samples is advantageous in resource-poor regions. Improved methodologies for ascertaining maternal iodine status are needed to facilitate research on developmental correlates of iodine status. Thyroglobulin may prove to be a useful biomarker for both maternal and neonatal iodine status, but validated assay-specific reference ranges are needed for the determination of iodine sufficiency in both pregnant women and neonates, and trimester-specific ranges are possibly needed for pregnant women. UIC is currently a well-validated population biomarker, but individual biomarkers that could be used for research, patient care

  11. Current challenges in meeting global iodine requirements.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Creswell J; Jooste, Pieter

    2012-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a global problem of immense magnitude afflicting 2 billion of the world's population. The adverse effects of iodine deficiency in humans, collectively termed iodine deficiency disorders, result from decreased thyroid hormone production and action, and vary in severity from thyroid enlargement (goiter) to severe, irreversible brain damage, termed endemic cretinism. Thyroid hormone is essential throughout life, but it is critical for normal brain development in the fetus and throughout childhood. During pregnancy, maternal thyroid hormone production must increase by 25-50% to meet maternal-fetal requirements. The principal sources of iodine in the diet include milk and dairy products, seafoods and foods with added iodized salt. Vegetables, fruits and cereals are generally poor sources of iodine because most of our soils and water supplies are deficient in iodine. The accepted solution to the problem is Universal Salt Iodization where all salt for human and animal consumption is iodized at a level of 20-40 µg/g. In principle, mandatory fortification represents the most effective public health strategy where safety and efficacy can be assured and there is a demonstrated need for the nutrient in the population. Voluntary fortification of salt and other foods has many limitations and few benefits. Iodine supplementation is a useful, but expensive, inefficient and unsustainable strategy for preventing iodine deficiency. The current worldwide push to decrease salt intake to prevent cardiovascular disease presents an entirely new challenge in addressing iodine deficiency in both developing and developed countries. PMID:25825304

  12. Iodine Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  13. Iodine deficiency: Physiological, clinical and epidemiological features, and pre-analytical considerations.

    PubMed

    Doggui, Radhouene; El Atia, Jalila

    2015-02-01

    Low dietary intake is associated with severe pathologies (especially goiter and cretinism) that affect life quality. Iodine deficiency disorders are a major public health problem worldwide. In fact, 246 million school-aged children have insufficient iodine intake (data from 2012). Extrapoling this value to general population leads to the estimation that 1.9 billion people have insufficient iodine intake. So, it is crucial to interpret correctly data from iodine status survey. The World Health Organization recommends urinary iodine as the main indicator for the assessment of iodine status in epidemiological surveys. To improve the result, some considerations can be taken into account by the biologist, epidemiologist or public health physician for the realization of epidemiological surveys. After a reminder about the physiological and physiopathological feature of iodine, a description of some useful parameters was made to improve the exploration of iodine status in epidemiological surveys.

  14. Iodine Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Dilemma of Ambiguous Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy, predominantly caused by an increase in renal iodide clearance and in the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. Because iodine deficiency (ID) in pregnancy may be associated with neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring, a pertinent question is at what level of iodine intake pregnant women should be advised to take iodine-containing supplements. The consensus reached by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 was that pregnant women should not be recommended to take iodine-containing supplements if the population in general had been iodine sufficient for at least 2 years. However, guidance on this differs between scientific societies. This review discusses iodine supplementation in pregnancy. Based on current evidence, the recommendations given by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 provide a valid guidance on the use of iodine supplements in pregnant women. Women living in a population with a median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) at or above 100 µg/l are not in need of iodine supplementation in pregnancy. On the other hand, if the population median UIC is below 100 µg/l, pregnant women should take iodine-containing supplements until the population in general has been iodine sufficient for at least 2 years by way of universal salt iodization. PMID:27099837

  15. Iodine Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Dilemma of Ambiguous Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy, predominantly caused by an increase in renal iodide clearance and in the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. Because iodine deficiency (ID) in pregnancy may be associated with neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring, a pertinent question is at what level of iodine intake pregnant women should be advised to take iodine-containing supplements. The consensus reached by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 was that pregnant women should not be recommended to take iodine-containing supplements if the population in general had been iodine sufficient for at least 2 years. However, guidance on this differs between scientific societies. This review discusses iodine supplementation in pregnancy. Based on current evidence, the recommendations given by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 provide a valid guidance on the use of iodine supplements in pregnant women. Women living in a population with a median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) at or above 100 µg/l are not in need of iodine supplementation in pregnancy. On the other hand, if the population median UIC is below 100 µg/l, pregnant women should take iodine-containing supplements until the population in general has been iodine sufficient for at least 2 years by way of universal salt iodization. PMID:27099837

  16. [Iodine and thyroid: what a clinic should know].

    PubMed

    Santana Lopes, Maria; Jácome de Castro, João; Marcelino, Mafalda; Oliveira, Maria João; Carrilho, Francisco; Limbert, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organization considers iodine deficiency as a major worldwide cause of mental and development diseases, estimating that about 13% of the world population is affected by diseases caused by iodine deficiency. Iodine is a trace element necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormones which, since it cannot be formed by the organism, must be taken regularly with food. Fish and shellfish are generally a good source, because the ocean contains a considerable amount of iodine. On the contrary, plants which grow in iodine-deficient soils are poor in this element, as well as meat and other animal products fed in plants low in iodine. Salt is the best way for iodine supplementation. Cooking the food with iodized salt is a desirable practice because it guarantees the presence of this element. There are also other methods to provide iodine to the general population, such as adding iodine to drinking water or taking supplements of iodine. In pregnancy is recommended iodine supplementation, except in patients with known thyroid disorders. Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormones (T4 and T3). Inadequate iodine intake leads to inadequate thyroid hormone production. The most important consequences of iodine deficiency, in the general population are goiter and hypothyroidism, and in the severe cases, mental retardation, cretinism and increased neo-natal and infant mortality. The International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD) formed in 1985, with the only aim of achieving optimal iodine nutrition in the world, in cooperation with UNICEF and WHO. In Portugal, recent studies show significant deficiencies in pregnancy and The Portuguese Society of Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism, in partnership with General Directorate of Health, proposed an iodine supplementation during pregnancy with 150-200µg/day. PMID:23069238

  17. Evaluation of Accessibility of Iodinated Salt and Nutritional Iodine Status during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, R; Beiranvand, A; Khakhali, HR; Salary, S; Aghasi, MR; Nourooz-Zadeh, J

    2012-01-01

    Background: To assess accessibility of iodinated salt and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) during pregnancy. This cross-sectional study was carried out between October and December, 2009 in Urmia County, West Azerbaijan (WA), Iran. Methods: Data on demographic characteristics and iodinated salt accessibility were gathered through a questionnaire at 1st trimester. Household salt samples and urine samples (1st –and 3rd trimesters) were analyzed for iodine content. Pregnant women (n=490) at 1st trimester were interviewed. Of these, 490 subjects (12 prenatal care centers) were enrolled. Results: All participants declared that they were exclusive users of iodinated salt. Segregation of the household salt samples according to iodine content (0, 8, 15 and 30 ppm) revealed that the respective distributions were 3.3%, 1.4%, 23.7% and 71.6%. Median UIC levels at 1st and 3rd trimesters were 73.5 μg/L and 114μg/L respectively. Accordingly, 86% and 70% of participants exhibited UIC < 150 μg/L. Conclusion: Median UIC during pregnancy in WA is markedly lower than those previously reported for regions with adequate iodine status in the country. Thus, extra iodine is needed to maintain adequate iodine store during gestation. In addition, this preliminary study reveals that a significant proportion (28%) of the household salt samples had low iodine content (≤ 15 ppm) although a level (>20 and <40 ppm) is mandatory in Iran. Further studies are deemed necessary to elucidate the cause(s) for manifestation iodine deficiency among pregnant women despite 20 years after iodine fortification strategy. PMID:23113225

  18. [Dietary reference intakes of trace elements for Japanese and problems in clinical fields].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshifumi

    2016-07-01

    In the dietary reference intakes, EAR(estimated average requirement), RDA(recommended dietary allowance), AL(adequate intake), DG(tentative dietary goal for preventing life style related diseases) and UL(tolerable upper intake level) of eight types of trace elements (iron: Fe, zinc: Zn, copper: Cu, manganese: Mn, iodine: I, selenium: Se, chromium: Cr, molybdenum: Mo) have been set. However, in the meals of hospitals, only iron of which has been taken into account. The content of these trace elements in the enteral nutrient released after 2000 was determined by considering the content of dietary reference intakes of trace elements for Japanese and considered so not fall into deficiency. However, enteral nutrient must be used considering the content of Zn, Cu and the Zn/Cu ratio, the selenium content, and the route of administration, in order to avoid falling into deficiency.

  19. Modeling the complex bromate-iodine reaction.

    PubMed

    Machado, Priscilla B; Faria, Roberto B

    2009-05-01

    In this article, it is shown that the FLEK model (ref 5 ) is able to model the experimental results of the bromate-iodine clock reaction. Five different complex chemical systems, the bromate-iodide clock and oscillating reactions, the bromite-iodide clock and oscillating reactions, and now the bromate-iodine clock reaction are adequately accounted for by the FLEK model. PMID:19361181

  20. Metabolic engineering of the iodine content in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Landini, Martina; Gonzali, Silvia; Kiferle, Claudia; Tonacchera, Massimo; Agretti, Patrizia; Dimida, Antonio; Vitti, Paolo; Alpi, Amedeo; Pinchera, Aldo; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2012-01-01

    Plants are a poor source of iodine, an essential micronutrient for human health. Several attempts of iodine biofortification of crops have been carried out, but the scarce knowledge on the physiology of iodine in plants makes results often contradictory and not generalizable. In this work, we used a molecular approach to investigate how the ability of a plant to accumulate iodine can be influenced by different mechanisms. In particular, we demonstrated that the iodine content in Arabidopsis thaliana can be increased either by facilitating its uptake with the overexpression of the human sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) or through the reduction of its volatilization by knocking-out HOL-1, a halide methyltransferase. Our experiments show that the iodine content in plants results from a balance between intake and retention. A correct manipulation of this mechanism could improve iodine biofortification of crops and prevent the release of the ozone layer-threatening methyl iodide into the atmosphere.

  1. Thyroid function and prevalence of anti-thyroperoxidase (TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin (Tg) antibodies in outpatients hospital setting in an area with sufficient iodine intake: influences of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Legakis, Ioannis; Manousaki, Mina; Detsi, Stela; Nikita, Dimitra

    2013-01-01

    In order to examine the prevalence of thyroid disease in a hospital outpatient setting, in an area of sufficient iodine intake, serum levels of TSH, T4, T3, anti-Tg and anti-TPO antibodies were examined in 909 individuals with an age range of 12.4 to 88.5 years, participating in a checkup outpatient setting. The study was conducted in Henry Dynant Hospital located in the metropolitan area of Athens, Greece, during a 2 year period. Hormonal parameters were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Overt thyrotoxicosis was found in 4.95% of the total population and subclinical thyrotoxicosis in 5.5%. Overt hypothyroidism was found in 1.43% and subclinical hypothyroidism in 4.51%. In male population, overt thyrotoxicosis was found in 4.4 % and subclinical thyrotoxicosis was also found in 4.4%. On the other hand, overt hypothyroidism was found in 1.4% and subclinical hypothyroidism was found in 3.7% in males. In female population, overt thyrotoxicosis was found in 5.2% whereas subclinical thyrotoxicosis was found in 6.0%. Overt hypothyroidism was found in 1.5% and subclinical hypothyroidism was found in 4,9% in females. Positive anti-TPO antibodies were detected more often (30.4%) than anti-Tg (15.4%) in the tested population. The positivity in both anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibodies was correlated with abnormally high TSH concentrations after the age of 50 years, especially in female population. In conclusion distinct profile of thyroid hormonal parameters was observed in inhabitants in the metropolitan area of Athens, with overt thyrotoxicosis strikingly overcome overt hypothyroidism while subclinical forms of each dysfunction also exhibit analogous results.

  2. Dietary Intake In Adult Female Coeliac Disease Patients In Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Mičetić-Turk, Dušanka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to assess dietary intake of coeliac disease (CD) patients and to determine if they are meeting the dietary reference values for a balanced diet. Subjects/Methods 40 women with CD, aged from 23 to 76 participated in our study. Total daily intake was assessed by a three-day food diary. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation. Considering physical activity level (PAL) 1.4, the recommended total energy expenditure (TEE) value was determined. The data was evaluated with professional evaluation software Prodi and statistically analysed. Results 40 participants returned the food diary. The average energy intake was significantly too low to ensure the meeting of all-day energy needs (p<0.05). The meals contained a recommended proportion of protein, but a statistically significantly higher proportion of fat (p<0.05), lower proportion of carbohydrates and a significantly lower intake of dietary fibre (p<0.05). Regarding macro-, micro- elements and vitamins, there was a significant lack in the intake of calcium and iodine, folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin A (p<0.05), meanwhile iron intake was at the lower limit of the recommended intake, whereas zinc, potassium and vitamin K intake were significantly higher according to the recommended values, but were comparable with the intake of the general population in the Central European area. Conclusion Even in subjects with adequate or low daily energy intake, their meals contained too much fat, too few carbohydrates and dietary fibre as well as inorganic substances. The patients with CD should get regular nutritional monitoring and education on the quality and balance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:27284377

  3. Influence of various iodine supplementation levels and two different iodine species on the iodine content of the milk of cows fed rapeseed meal or distillers dried grains with solubles as the protein source.

    PubMed

    Franke, K; Meyer, U; Wagner, H; Flachowsky, G

    2009-09-01

    Supplementation of animal feed with iodine influences the iodine content of milk and therefore, in addition to salt iodination, provides another possibility for improving the human iodine supply. On the other hand, excessive iodine intake by humans through drinking milk must be avoided. Furthermore, the iodine content of milk varies, depending on the presence of iodine antagonists in feed (e.g., glucosinolates in rapeseed) and the applied iodine species. This study evaluated the impact of various feed iodine supplementation levels up to the permitted maximum level, the effect of applying rapeseed compared with a glucosinolate-free ration, and the impact of 2 different iodine species on the iodine content of milk. A total of 32 dairy cows were divided into 4 groups with 8 animals each. Two groups received distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as the protein source, and the others received rapeseed meal (RSM, 16.5% of total diet). In each case, half the animals received feed supplemented with iodine in the form of potassium iodide, and the other half received feed supplemented with iodine in the form of calcium iodate. Iodine supplementation levels of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mg/kg of dry matter (DM) were tested in consecutive periods of 21 d each. The milk iodine concentration increased with increasing iodine supplementation of the feed. Rapeseed meal in the ration (0.58 mmol of glucosinolates/kg of diet DM) diminished the milk iodine concentration by up to one-half to one-third of the concentration achieved by DDGS. At iodine supplementation levels of 2 mg/kg of DM and higher, the differences were significant. The application of iodate predominantly resulted in higher milk iodine concentrations compared with iodide, but not significantly in any period. At the highest tested iodine supplementation (5 mg/kg of DM), the milk iodine concentration increased up to 1,464 (iodide) and 1,578 microg/kg (iodate) when feeding DDGS and up to 718 (iodide) and 620 microg

  4. Consequences of iodine deficiency and excess in pregnant women: an overview of current knowns and unknowns.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Lazarus, John H; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2016-09-01

    Severe iodine deficiency during development results in maternal and fetal hypothyroidism and associated serious adverse health effects, including cretinism and growth retardation. Universal salt iodization is the first-line strategy for the elimination of severe iodine deficiency. Iodine supplementation is recommended for vulnerable groups in severely iodine-deficient regions where salt iodization is infeasible or insufficient. A recent clinical trial has informed best practices for iodine supplementation of severely iodine-deficient lactating mothers. Because of successful programs of universal salt iodization in formerly severely iodine-deficient regions around the world, public health concern has shifted toward mild to moderate iodine deficiency, which remains prevalent in many regions, especially among pregnant women. Observational studies have shown associations between both mild maternal iodine deficiency and mild maternal thyroid hypofunction and decreased child cognition. Iodine supplementation has been shown to improve indexes of maternal thyroid function, even in marginally iodine-deficient areas. However, no data are yet available from randomized controlled trials in regions of mild to moderate iodine insufficiency on the relation between maternal iodine supplementation and neurobehavioral development in the offspring; thus, the long-term benefits and safety of such supplementation are uncertain. Although it is clear that excessive iodine intake can cause alterations in thyroid function in susceptible individuals, safe upper limits for iodine intake in pregnancy have not been well defined. Well-designed, prospective, randomized controlled trials that examine the effects of iodine supplementation on maternal thyroid function and infant neurobehavioral development in mildly to moderately iodine-deficient pregnant women are urgently needed. In addition, clinical data on the effects of iodine excess in pregnant and lactating women are needed to inform

  5. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice

    PubMed Central

    Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall’s W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001), a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible solution

  6. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice.

    PubMed

    Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001), a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible solution

  7. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice.

    PubMed

    Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001), a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible solution

  8. Iodine and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Yarrington, Christina; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2011-01-01

    Iodine is a necessary element for the production of thyroid hormone. We will review the impact of dietary iodine status on thyroid function in pregnancy. We will discuss iodine metabolism, homeostasis, and nutritional recommendations for pregnancy. We will also discuss the possible effects of environmental contaminants on iodine utilization in pregnant women. PMID:21765996

  9. Iodine volatility. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Shockley, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this program is to couple experimental aqueous iodine volatilities to a fission product release model. Iodine partition coefficients, for inorganic iodine, have been measured during hydrolysis and radiolysis. The hydrolysis experiments have illustrated the importance of reaction time on iodine volatility. However, radiolysis effects can override hydrolysis in determining iodine volatility. In addition, silver metal in radiolysis samples can react to form silver iodide accompanied by a decrease in iodine volatility. Experimental data are now being coupled to an iodine transport and release model that was developed in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  10. A novel concept to derive iodine status of human populations from frequency distribution properties of a hair iodine concentration.

    PubMed

    Prejac, J; Višnjević, V; Drmić, S; Skalny, A A; Mimica, N; Momčilović, B

    2014-04-01

    Today, human iodine deficiency is next to iron the most common nutritional deficiency in developed European and underdeveloped third world countries, respectively. A current biological indicator of iodine status is urinary iodine that reflects the very recent iodine exposure, whereas some long term indicator of iodine status remains to be identified. We analyzed hair iodine in a prospective, observational, cross-sectional, and exploratory study involving 870 apparently healthy Croatians (270 men and 600 women). Hair iodine was analyzed with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). Population (n870) hair iodine (IH) respective median was 0.499μgg(-1) (0.482 and 0.508μgg(-1)) for men and women, respectively, suggesting no sex related difference. We studied the hair iodine uptake by the logistic sigmoid saturation curve of the median derivatives to assess iodine deficiency, adequacy and excess. We estimated the overt iodine deficiency to occur when hair iodine concentration is below 0.15μgg(-1). Then there was a saturation range interval of about 0.15-2.0μgg(-1) (r(2)=0.994). Eventually, the sigmoid curve became saturated at about 2.0μgg(-1) and upward, suggesting excessive iodine exposure. Hair appears to be a valuable and robust long term biological indicator tissue for assessing the iodine body status. We propose adequate iodine status to correspond with the hair iodine (IH) uptake saturation of 0.565-0.739μgg(-1) (55-65%).

  11. Iodine supplementation and the prevention of cretinism.

    PubMed

    Dunn, J T

    1993-03-15

    Normal development of the CNS requires adequate thyroid hormone exposure. Since iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormone molecule, its deficiency during fetal development can cause hypothyroidism and irreversible mental retardation. The full-blown syndrome, called cretinism, includes deaf-mutism, short stature, spasticity, and profound mental retardation. The clinical spectrum can vary in degree and combination of these features. Screening programs in iodine-deficient countries show that up to 10% of neonates have elevated serum TSH levels, putting them at theoretical risk for permanent brain damage. About one billion people worldwide risk the consequences of iodine deficiency, all of which can be prevented by adequate maternal and infant iodine nutrition. Iodized salt is usually the preferred prophylactic vehicle, but iodized vegetable oil, iodized water, and iodine tablets are also occasionally used. The United Nations and the heads of state of most countries have pledged the virtual elimination of iodine deficiency by the year 2000. This goal is technically feasible if pursued with sufficient vigor and resources. PMID:8494259

  12. Iodine and thyroid hormones during pregnancy and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Faustino R

    2007-07-01

    Iodine is a trace element essential for synthesis of the thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine and thyroxine. These hormones play a vital role in the early growth and development stages of most organs, especially the brain. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared that, after famine, iodine deficiency is the most avoidable cause of cerebral lesions including different degrees of mental retardation and cerebral paralysis. The main function of iodine in vertebrates is to interact with the thyroid hormones. During pregnancy sufficient quantities of iodine are required to prevent the appearance of hypothyroidism, trophoblastic and embryonic or fetal disorders, neonatal and maternal hypothyroidism, and permanent sequelae in infants. Thyroid hormone receptors and iodothyronine deiodinases are present in placenta and central nervous tissue of the fetus. A number of environmental factors influence the epidemiology of thyroid disorders, and even relatively small abnormalities and differences in the level of iodine intake in a population have profound effects on the occurrence of thyroid abnormalities. The prevalence of disorders related to iodine deficit during pregnancy and postpartum has increased. Iodine supplementation is an effective measure in the case of pregnant and lactating women. However, it is not implemented and the problem is still present even in societies with theoretically advanced health systems. During pregnancy and postpartum, the WHO recommends iodine intake be increased to at least 200 microg/day. Side-effects provoked by iodine supplementation are rare during pregnancy at the recommended doses. PMID:17701774

  13. Tomato fruits: a good target for iodine biofortification

    PubMed Central

    Kiferle, Claudia; Gonzali, Silvia; Holwerda, Harmen T.; Ibaceta, Rodrigo Real; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2013-01-01

    Iodine is a trace element that is fundamental for human health: its deficiency affects about two billion people worldwide. Fruits and vegetables are usually poor sources of iodine; however, plants can accumulate iodine if it is either present or exogenously administered to the soil. The biofortification of crops with iodine has therefore been proposed as a strategy for improving human nutrition. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the possibility of biofortifying tomato fruits with iodine. Increasing concentrations of iodine supplied as KI or KIO3 were administered to plants as root treatments and the iodine accumulation in fruits was measured. The influences of the soil organic matter content or the nitrate level in the nutritive solution were analyzed. Finally, yield and qualitative properties of the biofortified tomatoes were considered, as well as the possible influence of fruit storage and processing on the iodine content. Results showed that the use of both the iodized salts induced a significant increase in the fruit’s iodine content in doses that did not affect plant growth and development. The final levels ranged from a few mg up to 10 mg iodine kg - 1 fruit fresh weight and are more than adequate for a biofortification program, since 150 μg iodine per day is the recommended dietary allowance for adults. In general, the iodine treatments scarcely affected fruit appearance and quality, even with the highest concentrations applied. In contrast, the use of KI in plants fertilized with low doses of nitrate induced moderate phytotoxicity symptoms. Organic matter-rich soils improved the plant’s health and production, with only mild reductions in iodine stored in the fruits. Finally, a short period of storage at room temperature or a 30-min boiling treatment did not reduce the iodine content in the fruits, if the peel was maintained. All these results suggest that tomato is a particularly suitable crop for iodine biofortification programs

  14. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South-East of the UK: the influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Sarah C.; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Wright, John; Rayman, Margaret P.

    2015-01-01

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones which are crucial for brain development. Pregnant women are vulnerable to iodine deficiency because their requirement for iodine is higher than that of non-pregnant adults. Data on the iodine status of UK pregnant women are sparse and there are no such data in the South East. One hundred pregnant women were recruited to a cross-sectional study at the Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, at their first-trimester visit for an ultrasound scan. Participants provided a spot-urine sample (for the measurement of urinary iodine and creatinine concentrations) and 24-hour excretion of iodine was estimated from the urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio. Women completed a general questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire. The median urinary iodine concentration (85·3 μg/l) indicated that the group was iodine deficient by WHO criteria. The median values of the iodine-to-creatinine ratio (122·9 μg/g) and of the estimated 24-hr iodine excretion (151·2 μg/day) were also suggestive of iodine deficiency. Urinary iodine concentration was significantly higher in women taking an iodine-containing prenatal supplement (n=42) than in those not taking such a supplement (P<0·001). In adjusted analyses, milk intake, maternal age and iodine-containing prenatal supplement use were positively associated with estimated 24-hour urinary iodine excretion. Our finding of iodine deficiency in these women gives cause for concern. We suggest that women of childbearing age and pregnant women should be given advice on how to improve their iodine status through dietary means. A national survey of iodine status in UK pregnant women is required. PMID:24398008

  15. Pilot study: tendency of increasing iodine content in human milk and cow's milk.

    PubMed

    Bader, N; Möller, U; Leiterer, M; Franke, K; Jahreis, G

    2005-01-01

    The iodine supply in Germany has improved throughout the last decade, albeit with enormous differences between individuals and regions. In the Thuringian city of Jena, analyses of the iodine content of human milk have been undertaken regularly since 1982. Significantly increasing iodine concentrations in human and cow's milk have been found. Therefore, the current situation and the effectiveness of measures to prevent iodine deficiency demands re-evaluation. The iodine content of human milk from 32 lactating mothers was analysed on the 5th day (mean) postpartum and mothers' dietary iodine intake during the last two months of pregnancy was assessed by means of a food frequency questionnaire. To corroborate the assumption that the increasing iodine levels of cow's milk are one of the main reasons for the improved iodine supply, the iodine concentration of 34 cow's milk bulk-samples was also determined. Both human and cow's milk samples were analysed by the ICP-MS method. Twenty women took iodine supplements (mean daily intake = 175 microg). The average daily iodine intake of the 20 supplemented and 12 non-supplemented women was 258 microg and 116 microg, respectively. Daily iodine intake from food and beverages was significantly lower in supplemented women (83 microg/day). The average iodine content of human milk was 169 +/- 88 microg/l with a range of 33 - 348 microg/l. This content is two times higher than levels from 1994 in the same area. There was no difference in the human milk iodine content between mothers taking supplements and those who did not. Cow's milk samples showed a mean iodine concentration of 178 +/- 131 microg/l (range 48 - 661 microg/l).

  16. Iodine source apportionment in the Malawian diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, M. J.; Joy, E. J. M.; Young, S. D.; Broadley, M. R.; Chilimba, A. D. C.; Gibson, R. S.; Siyame, E. W. P.; Kalimbira, A. A.; Chilima, B.; Ander, E. L.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise nutritional-I status in Malawi. Dietary-I intakes were assessed using new datasets of crop, fish, salt and water-I concentrations, while I status was assessed for 60 women living on each of calcareous and non-calcareous soils as defined by urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Iodine concentration in staple foods was low, with median concentrations of 0.01 mg kg-1 in maize grain, 0.008 mg kg-1 in roots and tubers, but 0.155 mg kg-1 in leafy vegetables. Freshwater fish is a good source of dietary-I with a median concentration of 0.51 mg kg-1. Mean Malawian dietary-Iodine intake from food, excluding salt, was just 7.8 μg d-1 compared to an adult requirement of 150 μg d-1. Despite low dietary-I intake from food, median UICs were 203 μg L-1 with only 12% defined as I deficient whilst 21% exhibited excessive I intake. Iodised salt is likely to be the main source of dietary I intake in Malawi; thus, I nutrition mainly depends on the usage and concentration of I in iodised salt. Drinking water could be a significant source of I in some areas, providing up to 108 μg d-1 based on consumption of 2 L d-1.

  17. Iodine source apportionment in the Malawian diet

    PubMed Central

    Watts, M. J.; Joy, E. J. M.; Young, S. D.; Broadley, M. R.; Chilimba, A. D. C.; Gibson, R. S.; Siyame, E. W. P.; Kalimbira, A. A.; Chilima, B.; Ander, E. L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise nutritional-I status in Malawi. Dietary-I intakes were assessed using new datasets of crop, fish, salt and water-I concentrations, while I status was assessed for 60 women living on each of calcareous and non-calcareous soils as defined by urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Iodine concentration in staple foods was low, with median concentrations of 0.01 mg kg−1 in maize grain, 0.008 mg kg−1 in roots and tubers, but 0.155 mg kg−1 in leafy vegetables. Freshwater fish is a good source of dietary-I with a median concentration of 0.51 mg kg−1. Mean Malawian dietary-Iodine intake from food, excluding salt, was just 7.8 μg d−1 compared to an adult requirement of 150 μg d−1. Despite low dietary-I intake from food, median UICs were 203 μg L−1 with only 12% defined as I deficient whilst 21% exhibited excessive I intake. Iodised salt is likely to be the main source of dietary I intake in Malawi; thus, I nutrition mainly depends on the usage and concentration of I in iodised salt. Drinking water could be a significant source of I in some areas, providing up to 108 μg d−1 based on consumption of 2 L d−1. PMID:26503697

  18. Iodine source apportionment in the Malawian diet.

    PubMed

    Watts, M J; Joy, E J M; Young, S D; Broadley, M R; Chilimba, A D C; Gibson, R S; Siyame, E W P; Kalimbira, A A; Chilima, B; Ander, E L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise nutritional-I status in Malawi. Dietary-I intakes were assessed using new datasets of crop, fish, salt and water-I concentrations, while I status was assessed for 60 women living on each of calcareous and non-calcareous soils as defined by urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Iodine concentration in staple foods was low, with median concentrations of 0.01 mg kg(-1) in maize grain, 0.008 mg kg(-1) in roots and tubers, but 0.155 mg kg(-1) in leafy vegetables. Freshwater fish is a good source of dietary-I with a median concentration of 0.51 mg kg(-1). Mean Malawian dietary-Iodine intake from food, excluding salt, was just 7.8 μg d(-1) compared to an adult requirement of 150 μg d(-1). Despite low dietary-I intake from food, median UICs were 203 μg L(-1) with only 12% defined as I deficient whilst 21% exhibited excessive I intake. Iodised salt is likely to be the main source of dietary I intake in Malawi; thus, I nutrition mainly depends on the usage and concentration of I in iodised salt. Drinking water could be a significant source of I in some areas, providing up to 108 μg d(-1) based on consumption of 2 L d(-1).

  19. Iodine source apportionment in the Malawian diet.

    PubMed

    Watts, M J; Joy, E J M; Young, S D; Broadley, M R; Chilimba, A D C; Gibson, R S; Siyame, E W P; Kalimbira, A A; Chilima, B; Ander, E L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise nutritional-I status in Malawi. Dietary-I intakes were assessed using new datasets of crop, fish, salt and water-I concentrations, while I status was assessed for 60 women living on each of calcareous and non-calcareous soils as defined by urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Iodine concentration in staple foods was low, with median concentrations of 0.01 mg kg(-1) in maize grain, 0.008 mg kg(-1) in roots and tubers, but 0.155 mg kg(-1) in leafy vegetables. Freshwater fish is a good source of dietary-I with a median concentration of 0.51 mg kg(-1). Mean Malawian dietary-Iodine intake from food, excluding salt, was just 7.8 μg d(-1) compared to an adult requirement of 150 μg d(-1). Despite low dietary-I intake from food, median UICs were 203 μg L(-1) with only 12% defined as I deficient whilst 21% exhibited excessive I intake. Iodised salt is likely to be the main source of dietary I intake in Malawi; thus, I nutrition mainly depends on the usage and concentration of I in iodised salt. Drinking water could be a significant source of I in some areas, providing up to 108 μg d(-1) based on consumption of 2 L d(-1). PMID:26503697

  20. Combined Effects of Perchlorate, Thiocyanate, and Iodine on Thyroid Function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-8

    PubMed Central

    Steinmaus, Craig; Miller, Mark D.; Cushing, Lara; Blount, Benjamin C.; Smith, Allan H.

    2013-01-01

    Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine intake can all decrease iodide intake into the thyroid gland. This can reduce thyroid hormone production since iodide is a key component of thyroid hormone. Previous research has suggested that each of these factors alone may decrease thyroid hormone levels, but effect sizes are small. We hypothesized that people who have all three factors at the same time have substantially lower thyroid hormone levels than people who do not, and the effect of this combined exposure is substantially larger than the effects seen in analyses focused on only one factor at a time. Using data from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, subjects were categorized into exposure groups based on their urinary perchlorate, iodine, and thiocyanate concentrations, and mean serum thyroxine concentrations were compared between groups. Subjects with high perchlorate (n=1939) had thyroxine concentrations that were 5.0% lower (mean difference = 0.40 µg/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.14-0.65) than subjects with low perchlorate (n=2084). The individual effects of iodine and thiocyanate were even smaller. Subjects with high perchlorate, high thiocyanate, and low iodine combined (n=62) had thyroxine concentrations 12.9% lower (mean difference = 1.07 µg/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.55-1.59) than subjects with low perchlorate, low thiocyanate, and adequate iodine (n=376). Potential confounders had little impact on results. Overall, these results suggest that concomitant exposure to perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine markedly reduces thyroxine production. This highlights the potential importance of examining the combined effects of multiple agents when evaluating the toxicity of thyroid-disrupting agents. PMID:23473920

  1. Combined effects of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodine on thyroid function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–08

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmaus, Craig; Miller, Mark D.; Cushing, Lara; Blount, Benjamin C.; Smith, Allan H.

    2013-05-15

    Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine intake can all decrease iodide intake into the thyroid gland. This can reduce thyroid hormone production since iodide is a key component of thyroid hormone. Previous research has suggested that each of these factors alone may decrease thyroid hormone levels, but effect sizes are small. We hypothesized that people who have all three factors at the same time have substantially lower thyroid hormone levels than people who do not, and the effect of this combined exposure is substantially larger than the effects seen in analyses focused on only one factor at a time. Using data from the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, subjects were categorized into exposure groups based on their urinary perchlorate, iodine, and thiocyanate concentrations, and mean serum thyroxine concentrations were compared between groups. Subjects with high perchlorate (n=1939) had thyroxine concentrations that were 5.0% lower (mean difference=0.40 μg/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.14–0.65) than subjects with low perchlorate (n=2084). The individual effects of iodine and thiocyanate were even smaller. Subjects with high perchlorate, high thiocyanate, and low iodine combined (n=62) had thyroxine concentrations 12.9% lower (mean difference=1.07 μg/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.55–1.59) than subjects with low perchlorate, low thiocyanate, and adequate iodine (n=376). Potential confounders had little impact on results. Overall, these results suggest that concomitant exposure to perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine markedly reduces thyroxine production. This highlights the potential importance of examining the combined effects of multiple agents when evaluating the toxicity of thyroid-disrupting agents. -- Highlights: ► Recent data suggest that essentially everyone in the US is exposed to perchlorate. ► Perchlorate exposure may be associated with lower thyroid hormone levels. ► Some groups may be more susceptible to

  2. Iodine in food- and dietary supplement-composition databases.

    PubMed

    Pehrsson, Pamela R; Patterson, Kristine Y; Spungen, Judith H; Wirtz, Mark S; Andrews, Karen W; Dwyer, Johanna T; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of the USDA Agricultural Research Service have worked independently on determining the iodine content of foods and dietary supplements and are now harmonizing their efforts. The objective of the current article is to describe the harmonization plan and the results of initial iodine analyses accomplished under that plan. For many years, the FDA's Total Diet Study (TDS) has measured iodine concentrations in selected foods collected in 4 regions of the country each year. For more than a decade, the NDL has collected and analyzed foods as part of the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program; iodine analysis is now being added to the program. The NDL recently qualified a commercial laboratory to conduct iodine analysis of foods by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. Co-analysis of a set of samples by the commercial laboratory using the ICP-MS method and by the FDA laboratory using its standard colorimetric method yielded comparable results. The FDA recently reviewed historical TDS data for trends in the iodine content of selected foods, and the NDL analyzed samples of a limited subset of those foods for iodine. The FDA and the NDL are working to combine their data on iodine in foods and to produce an online database that can be used for estimating iodine intake from foods in the US population. In addition, the NDL continues to analyze dietary supplements for iodine and, in collaboration with the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, to publish the data online in the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database. The goal is to provide, through these 2 harmonized databases and the continuing TDS focus on iodine, improved tools for estimating iodine intake in population studies.

  3. Iodine in food- and dietary supplement-composition databases.

    PubMed

    Pehrsson, Pamela R; Patterson, Kristine Y; Spungen, Judith H; Wirtz, Mark S; Andrews, Karen W; Dwyer, Johanna T; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of the USDA Agricultural Research Service have worked independently on determining the iodine content of foods and dietary supplements and are now harmonizing their efforts. The objective of the current article is to describe the harmonization plan and the results of initial iodine analyses accomplished under that plan. For many years, the FDA's Total Diet Study (TDS) has measured iodine concentrations in selected foods collected in 4 regions of the country each year. For more than a decade, the NDL has collected and analyzed foods as part of the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program; iodine analysis is now being added to the program. The NDL recently qualified a commercial laboratory to conduct iodine analysis of foods by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. Co-analysis of a set of samples by the commercial laboratory using the ICP-MS method and by the FDA laboratory using its standard colorimetric method yielded comparable results. The FDA recently reviewed historical TDS data for trends in the iodine content of selected foods, and the NDL analyzed samples of a limited subset of those foods for iodine. The FDA and the NDL are working to combine their data on iodine in foods and to produce an online database that can be used for estimating iodine intake from foods in the US population. In addition, the NDL continues to analyze dietary supplements for iodine and, in collaboration with the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, to publish the data online in the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database. The goal is to provide, through these 2 harmonized databases and the continuing TDS focus on iodine, improved tools for estimating iodine intake in population studies. PMID:27534627

  4. Computation of iodine species concentrations in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, John R.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Flanagan, David T.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    During an evaluation of the use of iodine as a water disinfectant and the development of methods for measuring various iodine species in water onboard Space Freedom, it became necessary to compute the concentration of the various species based on equilibrium principles alone. Of particular concern was the case when various amounts of iodine, iodide, strong acid, and strong base are added to water. Such solutions can be used to evaluate the performance of various monitoring methods being considered. The authors of this paper present an overview of aqueous iodine chemistry, a set of nonlinear equations which can be used to model the above case, and a computer program for solving this system of equations using the Newton-Raphson method. The program was validated by comparing results over a range of concentrations and pH values with those previously presented by Gottardi for a given pH. Use of this program indicated that there are multiple roots to many cases and selecting an appropriate initial guess is important. Comparison of program results with laboratory results for the case when only iodine is added to water indicates the program gives high pH values for the iodine concentrations normally used for water disinfection. Extending the model to include the effects of iodate formation results in the computer pH values being closer to those observed, but the model with iodate does not agree well for the case in which base is added in addition to iodine to raise the pH. Potential explanations include failure to obtain equilibrium conditions in the lab, inaccuracies in published values for the equilibrium constants, and inadequate model of iodine chemistry and/or the lack of adequate analytical methods for measuring the various iodine species in water.

  5. A physiological systems model for iodine for use in radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the biokinetic database for iodine in the human body and proposes a biokinetic model for use in dose assessments for radioiodine. The model unifies and extends existing physiological systems models describing three subsystems of the iodine cycle in the body: circulating (extrathyroidal) inorganic iodide; thyroidal iodine (trapping and organic binding of iodide, and synthesis, storage, and secretion of thyroid hormones); and extrathyroidal organic iodine. Thyroidal uptake of iodide is described as a function of daily stable iodine intake and requirements for thyroid hormones. Baseline parameter values are developed for adults with typical iodine intakes and hormone requirements. Estimated thyroid doses derived from the baseline parameter values and reference thyroid weights are higher than values predicted by the current model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for adults for intake of iodine isotopes with half-lives up to a few hours but consistent with ICRP predictions for longer-lived isotopes. For nearly all iodine isotopes, the proposed model yields order-of-magnitude differences from the ICRP s current iodine model for adults for stomach wall, salivary gland, and kidneys. Dose estimates for intravenously injected 131I-labeled thyroid hormones based on the present model differ substantially from current ICRP values for adult patients for some organs, including the thyroid. Subsequent studies will address age-specific biokinetics of iodine, reduction of doses from radioiodine due to thyroid blocking, and effects of dietary iodine levels and thyroid hormone requirements on thyroid doses from radioiodine.

  6. Low-level seaweed supplementation improves iodine status in iodine-insufficient women.

    PubMed

    Combet, Emilie; Ma, Zheng Feei; Cousins, Frances; Thompson, Brett; Lean, Michael E J

    2014-09-14

    Iodine insufficiency is now a prominent issue in the UK and other European countries due to low intakes of dairy products and seafood (especially where iodine fortification is not in place). In the present study, we tested a commercially available encapsulated edible seaweed (Napiers Hebridean Seagreens® Ascophyllum nodosum species) for its acceptability to consumers and iodine bioavailability and investigated the impact of a 2-week daily seaweed supplementation on iodine concentrations and thyroid function. Healthy non-pregnant women of childbearing age, self-reporting low dairy product and seafood consumption, with no history of thyroid or gastrointestinal disease were recruited. Seaweed iodine (712 μg, in 1 g seaweed) was modestly bioavailable at 33 (interquartile range (IQR) 28-46) % of the ingested iodine dose compared with 59 (IQR 46-74) % of iodine from the KI supplement (n 22). After supplement ingestion (2 weeks, 0·5 g seaweed daily, n 42), urinary iodine excretion increased from 78 (IQR 39-114) to 140 (IQR 103-195) μg/l (P< 0·001). The concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone increased from 1·5 (IQR 1·2-2·2) to 2·1 (IQR 1·3-2·9) mIU/l (P< 0·001), with two participants having concentrations exceeding the normal range after supplement ingestion (but normal free thyroxine concentrations). There was no change in the concentrations of other thyroid hormones after supplement ingestion. The seaweed was palatable and acceptable to consumers as a whole food or as a food ingredient and effective as a source of iodine in an iodine-insufficient population. In conclusion, seaweed inclusion in staple foods would serve as an alternative to fortification of salt or other foods with KI. PMID:25006699

  7. Low-level seaweed supplementation improves iodine status in iodine-insufficient women.

    PubMed

    Combet, Emilie; Ma, Zheng Feei; Cousins, Frances; Thompson, Brett; Lean, Michael E J

    2014-09-14

    Iodine insufficiency is now a prominent issue in the UK and other European countries due to low intakes of dairy products and seafood (especially where iodine fortification is not in place). In the present study, we tested a commercially available encapsulated edible seaweed (Napiers Hebridean Seagreens® Ascophyllum nodosum species) for its acceptability to consumers and iodine bioavailability and investigated the impact of a 2-week daily seaweed supplementation on iodine concentrations and thyroid function. Healthy non-pregnant women of childbearing age, self-reporting low dairy product and seafood consumption, with no history of thyroid or gastrointestinal disease were recruited. Seaweed iodine (712 μg, in 1 g seaweed) was modestly bioavailable at 33 (interquartile range (IQR) 28-46) % of the ingested iodine dose compared with 59 (IQR 46-74) % of iodine from the KI supplement (n 22). After supplement ingestion (2 weeks, 0·5 g seaweed daily, n 42), urinary iodine excretion increased from 78 (IQR 39-114) to 140 (IQR 103-195) μg/l (P< 0·001). The concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone increased from 1·5 (IQR 1·2-2·2) to 2·1 (IQR 1·3-2·9) mIU/l (P< 0·001), with two participants having concentrations exceeding the normal range after supplement ingestion (but normal free thyroxine concentrations). There was no change in the concentrations of other thyroid hormones after supplement ingestion. The seaweed was palatable and acceptable to consumers as a whole food or as a food ingredient and effective as a source of iodine in an iodine-insufficient population. In conclusion, seaweed inclusion in staple foods would serve as an alternative to fortification of salt or other foods with KI.

  8. Iodine Nutritional Status of School Children in Nauru 2015.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jui; Tseng, Chi-Lung; Chen, Harn-Shen; Garabwan, Chanda; Korovo, Samuela; Tang, Kam-Tsun; Won, Justin Ging-Shing; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Wang, Fan-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt) were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6-12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively). The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru. PMID:27563920

  9. Iodine Nutritional Status of School Children in Nauru 2015.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jui; Tseng, Chi-Lung; Chen, Harn-Shen; Garabwan, Chanda; Korovo, Samuela; Tang, Kam-Tsun; Won, Justin Ging-Shing; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Wang, Fan-Fen

    2016-08-23

    Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt) were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6-12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively). The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru.

  10. Iodine Nutritional Status of School Children in Nauru 2015

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Jui; Tseng, Chi-Lung; Chen, Harn-Shen; Garabwan, Chanda; Korovo, Samuela; Tang, Kam-Tsun; Won, Justin Ging-Shing; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Wang, Fan-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt) were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6–12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively). The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru. PMID:27563920

  11. The energy and nutrient intakes of different types of vegetarian: a case for supplements?

    PubMed

    Draper, A; Lewis, J; Malhotra, N; Wheeler, E

    1993-01-01

    Vegetarians of three types were studied in Greater London: thirty-four meat-avoiders, fifty-two lacto-ovo-vegetarians, and thirty-eight vegans. Weighed dietary intake measures were made over 3 d. Cereals were the mainstay of the diet, supplemented by dairy products (demi-vegetarians and lacto-ovo-vegetarians), vegetables and fruit, and soya-bean products (vegans). Many vegans progressed by stages to complete avoidance of animal foods; some had retreated, but most were highly committed. Demi-vegetarians were the least involved in a 'vegetarian lifestyle'. All groups had mean energy intakes close to the current dietary reference values (DRV), with adequate protein intakes. Only vegans had fat intakes close to current recommendations; all groups had high dietary polyunsaturated:saturated fatty acid ratios. Mean intakes of all micronutrients studied for demi- and lacto-ovo-vegetarians met the UK DRV. Intakes of iodine, riboflavin, and vitamin B12 for vegans were below DRV; more than half considered their diets supplied all necessary vitamins. About 25% took some type of dietary supplement during the survey. The impact of low I intakes should be further studied, and it is recommended that 'new' vegetarians and vegans should use appropriate dietary supplements.

  12. The standard, intervention measures and health risk for high water iodine areas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Liu, Lixiang; Shen, Hongmei; Jia, Qingzhen; Wang, Jinbiao; Zheng, Heming; Ma, Jing; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Shoujun; Su, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    Our study aims to clarify the population nutrient status in locations with different levels of iodine in the water in China; to choose effective measurements of water improvement(finding other drinking water source of iodine not excess) or non-iodised salt supply or combinations thereof; to classify the areas of elevated water iodine levels and the areas with endemic goiter; and to evaluate the risk factors of water iodine excess on pregnant women, lactating women and the overall population of women. From Henan, Hebei, Shandong and Shanxi province of China, for each of 50 ∼ 99 µg/L, 100 ∼ 149 µg/L, 150 ∼ 299 µg/L, and ≥ 300 µg/L water iodine level, three villages were selected respectively. Students of 6-12 years old and pregnant were sampled from villages of each water-iodine level of each province, excluded iodized salt consumer. Then the children's goiter volume, the children and pregnant's urinary iodine and water iodine were tested. In addition, blood samples were collected from pregnant women, lactating women and other women of reproductive age for each water iodine level in the Shanxi Province for thyroid function tests. These indicators should be matched for each person. When the water iodine exceeds 100 µg/L; the iodine nutrient of children are iodine excessive, and are adequate or more than adequate for the pregnant women. It is reasonable to define elevated water iodine areas as locations where the water iodine levels exceed 100 µg/L. The supply of non-iodised salt alone cannot ensure adequate iodine nutrition of the residents, and water improvement must be adopted, as well. Iodine excess increases the risk of certain thyroid diseases in women from one- to eightfold.

  13. Geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level and association between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre: a Chinese national investigation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hongmei; Liu, Shoujun; Sun, Dianjun; Zhang, Shubin; Su, Xiaohui; Shen, Yanfeng; Han, Hepeng

    2011-07-01

    Excessive iodine intake can cause thyroid function disorders as can be caused by iodine deficiency. There are many people residing in areas with high iodine levels in drinking-water in China. The main aim of the present study was to map the geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level in China and to determine the relationship between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre prevalence. Iodine in drinking-water was measured in 1978 towns of eleven provinces in China, with a total of 28,857 water samples. We randomly selected children of 8-10 years old, examined the presence of goitre and measured their urinary iodine in 299 towns of nine provinces. Of the 1978 towns studied, 488 had iodine levels between 150 and 300 μg/l in drinking-water, and in 246 towns, the iodine level was >300 μg/l. These towns are mainly distributed along the original Yellow River flood areas, the second largest river in China. Of the 56 751 children examined, goitre prevalence was 6.3 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine levels of 150-300 μg/l and 11.0 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine >300 μg/l. Goitre prevalence increased with water and urinary iodine levels. For children with urinary iodine >1500 μg/l, goitre prevalence was 3.69 times higher than that for those with urinary iodine levels of 100-199 μg/l. The present study suggests that drinking-water with high iodine levels is distributed in eleven provinces of China. Goitre becomes more prevalent with the increase in iodine level in drinking-water. Therefore, it becomes important to prevent goitre through stopping the provision of iodised salt and providing normal drinking-water iodine through pipelines in these areas in China.

  14. A case of consciousness disturbance resulting from severe hypothyroidism due to chronic thyroiditis and excess iodine absorption.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masayuki; Onodera, Kazunari; Suzuki, Kengo; Kataoka, Yuko; Tachikawa, Kazushige; Riku, Shigeo; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    An 82-year-old Japanese man had consciousness disturbance due to severe hypothyroidism triggered by percutaneous absorption of iodine from an iodine-containing ointment used in diabetic gangrene treatment. Laboratory data revealed extremely high urinary iodine concentrations, and chronic thyroiditis-induced hypothyroidism. Excess iodine intake can also cause hypothyroidism. It was unlikely that iodine intoxication or Hashimoto's encephalopathy had caused the consciousness disturbance. The patient regained consciousness after discontinuing the use of the ointment and commencing thyroid hormone therapy. We conclude that consciousness disturbance resulted from severe hypothyroidism caused by chronic thyroiditis and excess iodine absorption. PMID:22041370

  15. Iodine insufficiency: a global health problem?

    PubMed

    Swanson, Christine A; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2013-09-01

    As a result of collaborative efforts with international organizations and the salt industry, many developing and developed countries practice universal salt iodization (USI) or have mandatory salt fortification programs. As a consequence, the prevalence of iodine deficiency decreased dramatically. The United States and Canada are among the few developed countries that do not practice USI. Such an undertaking would require evidence of deficiency among vulnerable population groups, including pregnant women, newborns, and developing infants. Government agencies in the United States rely heavily on data from NHANES to assess the iodine status of the general population and pregnant women in particular. NHANES data suggest that pregnant women in the United States remain mildly deficient. This is important, because the developing fetus is dependent on maternal iodine intake for normal brain development throughout pregnancy. Professional societies have recommended that pregnant and lactating women, or those considering pregnancy, consume a supplement providing 150 μg iodine daily. The United States and Canada collaborate on the daily recommended intake and are also confronted with the challenge of identifying the studies needed to determine if USI is likely to be beneficial to vulnerable population groups without exposing them to harm.

  16. Iodine insufficiency: a global health problem?

    PubMed

    Swanson, Christine A; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2013-01-01

    As a result of collaborative efforts with international organizations and the salt industry, many developing and developed countries practice universal salt iodization (USI) or have mandatory salt fortification programs. As a consequence, the prevalence of iodine deficiency decreased dramatically. The United States and Canada are among the few developed countries that do not practice USI. Such an undertaking would require evidence of deficiency among vulnerable population groups, including pregnant women, newborns, and developing infants. Government agencies in the United States rely heavily on data from NHANES to assess the iodine status of the general population and pregnant women in particular. NHANES data suggest that pregnant women in the United States remain mildly deficient. This is important, because the developing fetus is dependent on maternal iodine intake for normal brain development throughout pregnancy. Professional societies have recommended that pregnant and lactating women, or those considering pregnancy, consume a supplement providing 150 μg iodine daily. The United States and Canada collaborate on the daily recommended intake and are also confronted with the challenge of identifying the studies needed to determine if USI is likely to be beneficial to vulnerable population groups without exposing them to harm. PMID:24038248

  17. [Iodine deficiency during pregnancy ].

    PubMed

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O

    2005-09-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient, it would be administered every day with our diet. The main role of this micronutrient is the synthesis of thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormones are related with brain development and metabolic regulation. Iodine deficit is related with goitre, and an important problem "diseases related with iodine deficiency", including high rate of neonatal mortality, decrease of intelligence, delayed of growth, high rate of aborts and congenital abnormalities.A risk group is pregnant women. Some authors have been demonstrated the utility of iodine supplementation during pregnancy. A systematic review of Cochrane group has shown that iodine supplementation during pregnancy decreased neonatal mortality RR 0.71 (0.56-0.9), and decrease the incidence of cretinism in children under 4 years RR 0.27 (0.12-0.6). As final recommendations, a program in pregnant women must be development to treat with iodine such as we make with folic acid. Pills with iron and iodine (1 mg iron and 25 ug iodine) have been demonstrated better results that pills with iodine. Tablets are the main presentation due to the role of the women in our Society and the work time. Programs of iodine enriched salt have been demonstrated a follow up of 50%. PMID:16386080

  18. Recommended energy and nutrient intakes for Filipinos 2002.

    PubMed

    Barba, Corazon V C; Cabrera, Ma Isabel Z

    2008-01-01

    The Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), as in the past, led the review and revision of the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Filipinos, a vital and essential tool recognized in the nutrition and health community as the source of information on recommended energy and nutrient intakes for the maintenance of good health. This set of dietary standards is periodically evaluated and updated to keep pace with new knowledge on energy and nutrient requirements and metabolism. The set of updated standards is now called Recommended Energy and Nutrient Intakes (RENIs), defined as levels of intakes of energy and nutrients which, on the basis of current scientific knowledge, are considered adequate for the maintenance of good health and well-being of nearly all healthy Filipinos. As in the 1989 edition, intakes of energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, iodine, zinc, vitamins A, C, D and E, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, pyridoxine, water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride) are recommended in this new edition. The desirable proportions of protein, fats, carbohydrates as well as fiber are also provided, in addition to information on recommended intake levels for selenium, magnesium, manganese, fluoride, cobalamin, and vitamin K. These recommendations were derived from a review of current evidences, principally the UN-FAO/WHO's 2002 human vitamin and mineral requirements and the US-Institute of Medicine-Food and Nutrition Board (IOM-FNB)'s series of Dietary Reference Intakes, taking into consideration applicability in and achievability among specific population groups. PMID:18460438

  19. Poor knowledge and practices related to iodine nutrition during pregnancy and lactation in Australian women: pre- and post-iodine fortification.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Karen; Yeatman, Heather; Lucas, Catherine; Axford, Samantha; Gemming, Luke; Houweling, Fiona; Goodfellow, Alison; Ma, Gary

    2012-09-01

    A before-after review was undertaken to assess whether knowledge and practices related to iodine nutrition, supplementation and fortification has improved in Australian women since the introduction of mandatory iodine fortification in 2009. Surveys of pregnant (n = 139) and non-pregnant (n = 75) women in 2007-2008 are compared with surveys of pregnant (n = 147) and lactating women (n = 60) one to two years post-fortification in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia. A self-administered questionnaire was completed and dietary intake of iodine was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. A generally poor knowledge about the role and sources of iodine in the diet remained after fortification. Post-fortification, iodine-containing supplements were being taken by 60% (up from 20% pre-fortification) and 45% of pregnant and lactating women, respectively. Dairy foods were the highest contributors to dietary iodine intake (57%-62%). A low intake of fish and seafood resulted in this food group contributing only 3%-8% of total intake. A low level of public awareness regarding the role of iodine in health supports the need for public health strategies in addition to fortification, such as an accompanying consumer education campaign, increased uptake of supplementation, and on-going monitoring.

  20. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  1. Iodine deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Elliott, T C

    1987-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) affects 800 million people in the world, yet iodine supplementation is one of the most cost-effective nutritional interventions known. Iodine is incorporated into thyroid hormones, necessary for regulating metabolic rate, growth, and development of the brain and nervous system. IDD may appear as goiter in adults, usually not a serious problem, or in cretinism in children, which is marked by severe mental and physical retardation, with irreversible hearing and speech defects and either deaf-mutism, squint and paralysis, or stunting and edema. Children supplemented by age 1 or 2 can sometimes be helped. Foods contain variable amounts of iodine dependent on the soil where they are grown, hence mountainous and some inland regions have high goiter and IDD incidence. There are also goitrogenic foods, typically those of the cabbage family. Diagnosis is clinical or by blood tests for thyroid hormone levels and ratios. Finger-stick methods are available. Prevention of IDD is simple with either iodized salt or flour, iodinated central water supplies, injectable or oral iodine-containing oil. All cost about $.04 per person per year, except injections, which cost about $1 per person, but have the advantage that they could be combined with immunizations. Local problems with supplements are loss of iodine in salt with storage in tropics, and local production of cheaper uniodinated salt. Emphasis should be given to pregnant women and young children. There is no harm in giving pregnant women iodine injections in 2nd or 3rd trimester. PMID:12343033

  2. Opposite variations in maternal and neonatal thyroid function induced by iodine supplementation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P

    2000-02-01

    Whereas the consequences of extremes in iodine intake are well described, much less is known about the effect of more moderate variations in maternal iodine intake on fetal thyroid function. The present study performed in Denmark with mild to moderate iodine deficiency dealt with the effect of maternal iodine supplementation on thyroid function in the mother at term and in the fetus/neonate. Serum was collected consecutively from pregnant women at term (n = 144) and from cord blood (n = 139). Forty-nine women had a regular intake of vitamin and mineral tablets with iodine (150 microg/day) during pregnancy, and 95 took no artificial iodine supplementation. Iodine supplementation (+I) induced opposite variations in thyroid function in the mother and the fetus. In +I mothers, TSH was 7.6% lower than in mothers with no supplementation (P < 0.05). In cord blood, on the contrary, TSH was 27.3% higher in the +I group (P < 0.05). The variations were caused by opposite shifts in TSH frequency distribution in mothers and neonates. The association between iodine supplementation and high serum TSH in the neonates was further substantiated by an inverse correlation between thyroglobulin and TSH in cord blood (P < 0.001), whereas no specific pattern was observed in the mothers. High serum thyroglobulin was a marker of low iodine intake in both mothers and neonates. The results suggest that the fetal thyroid, at least in areas of mild iodine deficiency, is more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of iodine than hitherto anticipated.

  3. Iodine generator for reclaimed water purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The system disclosed is for controlling the iodine level in a water supply in a spacecraft. It includes an iodine accumulator which stores crystalline iodine, an electrochemical valve to control the input of iodine to the drinking water and an iodine dispenser. A pump dispenses fluid through the iodine dispenser and an iodine sensor to a potable water tank storage. The iodine sensor electronically detects the iodine level in the water, and through electronic means, produces a correction current control. The correction current control operates the electro-chemical iodine valve to release iodine from the iodine accumulator into the iodine dispenser.

  4. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy, infancy and childhood and its consequences for brain development.

    PubMed

    Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Jaiswal, Nidhi

    2010-02-01

    Iodine deficiency during foetal development and early childhood is associated with cognitive impairment. Randomised clinical studies in school-aged children encountered in the literature indicate that cognitive performance can be improved by iodine supplementation, but most studies suffer from methodological constraints. Tests to assess cognitive performance in the domains that are potentially affected by iodine deficiency need to be refined. Maternal iodine supplementation in areas of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency may improve cognitive performance of the offspring, but randomised controlled studies with long-term outcomes are lacking. Studies in infants or young children have not been conducted. The best indicators for iodine deficiency in children are thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in newborns and thyroglobulin (Tg) in older children. Urinary iodine may also be useful but only at the population level. Adequate salt iodisation will cover the requirements of infants and children as well as pregnant women. However, close monitoring remains essential.

  5. Incorporation of iodine in polymeric microparticles and emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolontaeva, Olga A.; Khokhlova, Anastasia R.; Markina, Natalia E.; Markin, Alexey V.; Burmistrova, Natalia A.

    2016-04-01

    Application of different methods for formation of microcontainers containing iodine is proposed in this paper. Two types of microcontainers: microemulsions and microparticles have been investigated, conditions and methods for obtaining microcontainers were optimized. Microparticles were formed by layer-by-layer method with cores of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as templates. Incorporation of complexes of iodine with polymers (chitosan, starch, polyvinyl alcohol) into core, shell and hollow capsules was investigated and loadings of microparticles with iodine were estimated. It was found that the complex of iodine with chitosan adsorbed at CaCO3 core is the most stable under physiological conditions and its value of loading can be 450 μg of I2 per 1 g of CaCO3. Moreover, chitosan was chosen as a ligand because of its biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as very low toxicity while its complex with iodine is very stable. A small amount of microparticles containing a iodine-chitosan complex can be used for prolonged release of iodine in the human body since iodine daily intake for adults is around 100 μg. "Oil-in-water" emulsions were prepared by ultrasonication of iodinated oils (sunflower and linseed) with sodium laurilsulfate (SLS) as surfactant solution. At optimal conditions, the homogenous emulsions remained stable for weeks, with total content of iodine in such emulsion being up to 1% (w/w). The oil:SLS ratio was equal to 1:10 (w/w), optimal duration and power of ultrasound exposure were 1.5 min and 7 W, correspondingly. Favorable application of iodized linseed oil for emulsion preparation with suitable oil microdroplets size was proved.

  6. Low Urinary Iodine Concentration among Mothers and Children in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Laillou, Arnaud; Sophonneary, Prak; Kuong, Khov; Hong, Rathavuth; Un, Samoeurn; Chamnan, Chhoun; Poirot, Etienne; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank

    2016-01-01

    A 2014 national assessment of salt iodization coverage in Cambodia found that 62% of samples were non-iodized, suggesting a significant decline in daily iodine intakes. The Cambodian Micronutrient Survey conducted in 2014 (CMNS-2014) permitted obtaining national data on urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) to assess iodine status and whether iodized salt use had an impact. Urine samples were collected from mothers (n = 736) and children (n = 950). The median UIC was 63 µg/L and 72 µg/L in mothers and children respectively. More than 60% of mothers and their children had a UIC < 100 µg/L, thereby indicating a serious public health problem. Iodine status was significantly lower among mothers and children living in rural areas, belonging to the poorest socioeconomic category, or living in a household not using iodized salt. The limited enforcement of the legislation for iodized salt has resulted in a major decrease in the prevalence of iodized salt, which in turn has compromised iodine status in Cambodia. It is essential for the government to enhance enforcement of the iodized salt legislation, and implement short term strategies, such as iodine supplementation, to prevent an increase of severe complications due to iodine deficiency in the Cambodian population. PMID:27058551

  7. Iodine nutrition among indigenous Tarahumara schoolchildren in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Monárrez-Espino, J; Greiner, T

    2005-10-01

    This paper adds iodine data to the nutritional survey recently published in the Eur J Clin Nutr (2004;58:532-540) to identify growth retardation and micronutrient deficiencies among Tarahumara children from five selected indigenous boarding schools in Mexico. Total goiter rate (TGR) (n=384), urinary iodine concentrations (UI) (n = 100), and iodine content of salt were measured. Overall, TGR was 7.0% (grade 1 = 6.8%, grade 2 = 0.2%). The median UI of the group was 125 microg/l, while the median UI across the schools ranged from 92.0-156.5 microg/l, with 32 and 6% of the children having UI between 50-99 microg/l and 20-49 microg/l, respectively. The iodine content in all the salt packages checked at the schools was above 25 parts per million. Based on TGR and UI, there is a marginal iodine deficiency in this sample of children, probably due to an insufficient iodine intake. These results add to existing evidence that iodine deficiency still constitutes a public health problem in certain populations living in the mountainous regions in Mexico.

  8. Low Urinary Iodine Concentration among Mothers and Children in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Laillou, Arnaud; Sophonneary, Prak; Kuong, Khov; Hong, Rathavuth; Un, Samoeurn; Chamnan, Chhoun; Poirot, Etienne; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank

    2016-01-01

    A 2014 national assessment of salt iodization coverage in Cambodia found that 62% of samples were non-iodized, suggesting a significant decline in daily iodine intakes. The Cambodian Micronutrient Survey conducted in 2014 (CMNS-2014) permitted obtaining national data on urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) to assess iodine status and whether iodized salt use had an impact. Urine samples were collected from mothers (n = 736) and children (n = 950). The median UIC was 63 µg/L and 72 µg/L in mothers and children respectively. More than 60% of mothers and their children had a UIC < 100 µg/L, thereby indicating a serious public health problem. Iodine status was significantly lower among mothers and children living in rural areas, belonging to the poorest socioeconomic category, or living in a household not using iodized salt. The limited enforcement of the legislation for iodized salt has resulted in a major decrease in the prevalence of iodized salt, which in turn has compromised iodine status in Cambodia. It is essential for the government to enhance enforcement of the iodized salt legislation, and implement short term strategies, such as iodine supplementation, to prevent an increase of severe complications due to iodine deficiency in the Cambodian population. PMID:27058551

  9. Permeation of iodide from iodine-enriched yeast through porcine intestine.

    PubMed

    Ryszka, Florian; Dolińska, Barbara; Zieliński, Michał; Chyra, Dagmara; Dobrzański, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a common phenomenon, threatening the whole global human population. Recommended daily intake of iodine is 150 μg for adults and 250 μg for pregnant and breastfeeding women. About 50% of human population can be at risk of moderate iodine deficiency. Due to this fact, increased iodine supplementation is recommended, through intake of iodized mineral water and salt iodization. The aim of this study was to investigate permeation and absorption of iodide from iodine bioplex (experimental group) in comparison with potassium iodide (controls). Permeation and absorption processes were investigated in vitro using a porcine intestine. The experimental model was based on a standard Franz diffusion cell (FD-Cell). The iodine bioplex was produced using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and whey powder: iodine content - 388 μg/g, total protein - 28.5%, total fat - 0.9%., glutamic acid - 41.2%, asparaginic acid - 29.4%, lysine - 24.8%; purchased from: F.Z.N.P. Biochefa, Sosnowiec, Poland. Potassium iodide was used as controls, at 388 μg iodine concentration, which was the same as in iodine-enriched yeast bioplex. A statistically significant increase in iodide permeation was observed for iodine-enriched yeast bioplex in comparison with controls - potassium iodide. After 5h the total amount of permeated iodide from iodine-enriched yeast bioplex was 85%, which is ~ 2-fold higher than controls - 37%. Iodide absorption was by contrast statistically significantly higher in controls - 7.3%, in comparison with 4.5% in experimental group with iodine-enriched yeast bioplex. Presented results show that iodide permeation process dominates over absorption in case of iodine-enriched yeast bioplex.

  10. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  11. Radioactive iodine uptake

    MedlinePlus

    ... much radioactive iodine is taken up by your thyroid gland in a certain time period. A similar test ... over the area of your neck where the thyroid gland is located. The probe detects the location and ...

  12. Iodine Clock Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a combination of solutions that can be used in the study of kinetics using the iodine clock reaction. The combination slows down degradation of the prepared solutions and can be used successfully for several weeks. (JRH)

  13. Iodine Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).

  14. Iodine supplementation during pregnancy: a public health challenge.

    PubMed

    Berbel, Pere; Obregón, María Jesús; Bernal, Juan; Escobar del Rey, Francisco; Morreale de Escobar, Gabriella

    2007-11-01

    Iodine deficiency remains the most frequent cause worldwide, after starvation, of preventable mental retardation in children. It causes maternal hypothyroxinemia, which affects pregnant women even in apparently iodine-sufficient areas, and often goes unnoticed because L-thyroxine (T4) levels remain within the normal range, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is not increased. Even a mild hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy increases the risk of neurodevelopmental abnormalities, and experimental data clearly demonstrate that it damages the cortical cytoarchitecture of the fetal brain. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) recommends a supplement of 150 microg iodine/day during pregnancy and lactation, in addition to the use of iodized salt. We discuss the importance of iodine supplementation to ensure adequate T4 levels in all women who are considering conception and throughout pregnancy and lactation. PMID:17962037

  15. Spatial variability of drinking water iodine in Denmark: implications for future policy making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voutchkova, Denitza; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Kristiansen, Søren; Hansen, Birgitte

    2014-05-01

    The iodine-an essential component of human thyroid hormones-is provided to our organisms naturally from the food and water and/or is added artificially to the diet. One of the major natural contributors to the dietary iodine intake in Denmark is the drinking water. Both insufficient or excessive iodine intake can cause health problems however the attention falls mainly on the iodine deficiency (ID). Denmark is classified to have mild ID, which is based on sub-national data only. On a bigger scale, in Europe, about 40% of the general population is estimated to suffer from insufficient iodine intake (based on recent update on the iodine status worldwide). A mandatory addition of iodine to the salt was introduced in 2001 in Denmark to address the population's mild deficiency. One of the components of the Danish monitoring program investigating the effect of the salt iodizing (DanThyr) was based on the geographical variation of drinking water iodine levels. More specifically, the location of the two DanThyr cohort studies was chosen to reflect the low concentrations in the western part of Denmark and higher concentration in the eastern part. However, the knowledge about the spatial variability of iodine in Danish ground- and drinking water at that time was quite limited and misrepresentation of the natural variability is suspected. The presented sampling campaign was completed in 2013, and includes 144 waterworks with annual abstraction of about 175 mio m3 groundwater (~45% of the total groundwater abstraction by all active public and private Danish waterworks). The results show a surprisingly complex spatial pattern concerning both the iodine concentrations and speciation. By estimating the dietary iodine intake from water and comparing it to the WHO recommendations, it becomes possible to recognize potentially deficient/excessive geographical areas. Moreover, it is demonstrated that drinking water iodine levels (major dietary iodine contributor in Denmark) can be

  16. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India

    PubMed Central

    Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

  17. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate evidence. 85.900 Section 85.900 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support...

  18. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  19. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  20. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  1. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  2. Choices for achieving adequate dietary calcium with a vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C M; Proulx, W R; Heaney, R

    1999-09-01

    To achieve adequate dietary calcium intake, several choices are available that accommodate a variety of lifestyles and tastes. Liberal consumption of dairy products in the diet is the approach of most Americans. Some plants provide absorbable calcium, but the quantity of vegetables required to reach sufficient calcium intake make an exclusively plant-based diet impractical for most individuals unless fortified foods or supplements are included. Also, dietary constituents that decrease calcium retention, such as salt, protein, and caffeine, can be high in the vegetarian diet. Although it is possible to obtain calcium balance from a plant-based diet in a Western lifestyle, it may be more convenient to achieve calcium balance by increasing calcium consumption than by limiting other dietary factors.

  3. Iodine Status in Pregnant Women in the National Children's Study and in U.S. Women (15–44 Years), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yi; Mortensen, Mary E.; Makhmudov, Amir; Merrill, Lori; Moye, John

    2013-01-01

    Background This report presents iodine data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and from a sample of pregnant women in the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard Study. Methods Urinary iodine (UI) was measured in a one third subsample of NHANES 2005–2006 and 2009–2010 participants and in all 2007–2008 participants age 6 years and older. These measurements are representative of the general U.S. population. UI was also measured in a convenience sample of 501 pregnant women enrolled in the NCS initial Vanguard Study from seven study sites across the United States. Results NHANES median UI concentration in 2009–2010 (144 μg/L) was significantly lower than in 2007–2008 (164 μg/L). Non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest UI concentrations (131 μg/L) compared with non-Hispanic whites or Hispanics (147 and 148 μg/L, respectively). The median for all pregnant women in NHANES 2005–2010 was less than adequate (129 μg/L), while third trimester women had UI concentrations that were adequate (median UI 172 μg/L). Third trimester women participating in the NCS similarly had an adequate level of iodine intake, with a median UI concentration of 167 μg/L. Furthermore, NCS median UI concentrations varied by geographic location. Conclusions Dairy, but not salt, seafood, or grain consumption, was significantly positively associated with median UI concentration in women of childbearing age. Pregnant women in their third trimester in the NHANES 2005–2010 had adequate median UI concentrations, but pregnant women in NHANES who were in their first or second trimesters had median UI concentrations that were less than adequate. Non-Hispanic black pregnant women from both the NHANES 2005–20010 and the NCS consistently had lower UI median concentrations than non-Hispanic whites or Hispanics. PMID:23488982

  4. Formulas providing adequate pantothenic acid, vitamin D, manganese, iron and vitamin A for infants fed with mother's milk (aged 6-11 months) according to the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes prepared by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (2005 edition).

    PubMed

    Tsutie, Setsuko; Kurihara, Nobutaka; Sasaki, Aki; Takagi, Arisa; Seguti, Harumiti; Inatome, Tetsuya

    2010-04-01

    Weaning formulas served in hospitals and care facilities in Japan should conform to dietary reference intakes (DRIs). We examined whether the DRI for breastfed infants aged 6-11 months can be satisfied in dietary practice, with a particular focus on the fulfilment rates for vitamins, minerals, trace elements and electrolytes in weaning formulas containing energy and protein at levels either greater than or equal to the DRIs, as well as on the dietary profiles of weaning formulas to achieve the DRI for every nutrient. The results showed that no weaning formulas examined in this study fulfilled the DRI for pantothenic acid (5 mg), vitamin D (4 microg), manganese (1.2 mg) or iron (5.5 mg). Furthermore, their vitamin A content exceeded the DRI (350 microg RE). The discrepancy between the guidelines and actual dietary practice is probably because of the fact that the estimated reference values poorly reflect the actual dietary intake in the target population; for example, the pantothenic acid and manganese DRIs for breastfed infants aged 6-11 months were set based on the breast milk intake of younger infants (0-5 months) in combination with the breast milk contents. Our results suggest that dietary guidance for infants should include information to promote proper intakes of vitamins A and D, and iron by reducing the amount of vitamin A-rich foods and utilizing dietary vitamin D and iron supplements including government-approved specified health foods.

  5. Iodine-Induced hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Markou, K; Georgopoulos, N; Kyriazopoulou, V; Vagenakis, A G

    2001-05-01

    Iodine is an essential element for thyroid hormone synthesis. The thyroid gland has the capacity and holds the machinery to handle the iodine efficiently when the availability of iodine becomes scarce, as well as when iodine is available in excessive quantities. The latter situation is handled by the thyroid by acutely inhibiting the organification of iodine, the so-called acute Wolff-Chaikoff effect, by a mechanism not well understood 52 years after the original description. It is proposed that iodopeptide(s) are formed that temporarily inhibit thyroid peroxidase (TPO) mRNA and protein synthesis and, therefore, thyroglobulin iodinations. The Wolff-Chaikoff effect is an effective means of rejecting the large quantities of iodide and therefore preventing the thyroid from synthesizing large quantities of thyroid hormones. The acute Wolff-Chaikoff effect lasts for few a days and then, through the so-called "escape" phenomenon, the organification of intrathyroidal iodide resumes and the normal synthesis of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) returns. This is achieved by decreasing the intrathyroidal inorganic iodine concentration by down regulation of the sodium iodine symporter (NIS) and therefore permits the TPO-H202 system to resume normal activity. However, in a few apparently normal individuals, in newborns and fetuses, in some patients with chronic systemic diseases, euthyroid patients with autoimmune thyroiditis, and Graves' disease patients previously treated with radioimmunoassay (RAI), surgery or antithyroid drugs, the escape from the inhibitory effect of large doses of iodides is not achieved and clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism ensues. Iodide-induced hypothyroidism has also been observed in patients with a history of postpartum thyroiditis, in euthyroid patients after a previous episode of subacute thyroiditis, and in patients treated with recombinant interferon-alpha who developed transient thyroid dysfunction during interferon-a treatment. The

  6. Development of Standard Reference Materials to support assessment of iodine status for nutritional and public health purposes.

    PubMed

    Long, Stephen E; Catron, Brittany L; Boggs, Ashley Sp; Tai, Susan Sc; Wise, Stephen A

    2016-09-01

    The use of urinary iodine as an indicator of iodine status relies in part on the accuracy of the analytical measurement of iodine in urine. Likewise, the use of dietary iodine intake as an indicator of iodine status relies in part on the accuracy of the analytical measurement of iodine in dietary sources, including foods and dietary supplements. Similarly, the use of specific serum biomarkers of thyroid function to screen for both iodine deficiency and iodine excess relies in part on the accuracy of the analytical measurement of those biomarkers. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has been working with the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements for several years to develop higher-order reference measurement procedures and Standard Reference Materials to support the validation of new routine analytical methods for iodine in foods and dietary supplements, for urinary iodine, and for several serum biomarkers of thyroid function including thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin, total and free thyroxine, and total and free triiodothyronine. These materials and methods have the potential to improve the assessment of iodine status and thyroid function in observational studies and clinical trials, thereby promoting public health efforts related to iodine nutrition. PMID:27534629

  7. [Iodinated contrast media and iodine allergy: myth or reality?].

    PubMed

    Meunier, B; Joskin, J; Damas, F; Meunier, P

    2013-09-01

    The term "iodine allergy" is an old phrase that refers to a reaction to iodinated contrast media. After a brief review of definitions, pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors of this clinical entity, management is urged immediate and delayed according to the most recent recommendations from the literature. We underline that iodine allergy, as such, does not really exist.

  8. Volatilization of iodine from vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiro, B. D.; Johnston, F. L.

    Gaseous emissions of iodine were measured from bean plant foliage. A gamma-emitting iodine tracer, Na 125I, was taken up by the plants from a hydroponic growth medium and released to a cuvette atmosphere. The dynamics of the flux were studied using a flow-through gamma detector. The relationship between leaf radioactive tracer activity and growth-medium activity was linear, as was the relationship between the iodine flux and both leaf and growth-medium activity. Iodine flux and leaf conductance to water responded similarly to changes in light levels, suggesting that the stomata may partially control the flux. The flux was inhibited by aeration of the hydroponic growth medium, and we postulate that methylation causes the iodine flux. Iodine emissions from living vegetation probably contribute <0.1 % to the stable iodine concentration in the atmosphere above terrestrial areas. However, this pathway may be a direct route for radioactive iodine transport from contaminated soils to the atmosphere.

  9. [Bone and Nutrition. Bone and phosphorus intake].

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidekazu; Sakuma, Masae

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus is necessary for bone mineralization. Although adequate phosphorus intake is essential for skeletal mineralization, it is reported that excessive phosphorus intake can induce deleterious effect on bone. Recently, since the Japanese diet has been westernized, phosphorus intake by the meat and dairy products has increased. Furthermore, along with the development of processed foods, excessive intake of inorganic phosphorus from food additives has become a problem. An adverse effect on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from high phosphorus intake was seen only when calcium intake was inadequate. Dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio can be considered as one of the indicators that can predict the health of the bone.

  10. [Bone and Nutrition. Bone and phosphorus intake].

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidekazu; Sakuma, Masae

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus is necessary for bone mineralization. Although adequate phosphorus intake is essential for skeletal mineralization, it is reported that excessive phosphorus intake can induce deleterious effect on bone. Recently, since the Japanese diet has been westernized, phosphorus intake by the meat and dairy products has increased. Furthermore, along with the development of processed foods, excessive intake of inorganic phosphorus from food additives has become a problem. An adverse effect on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from high phosphorus intake was seen only when calcium intake was inadequate. Dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio can be considered as one of the indicators that can predict the health of the bone. PMID:26119308

  11. Bioavailability of iodine from normal diets rich in dairy products--results of balance studies in women.

    PubMed

    Jahreis, G; Hausmann, W; Kiessling, G; Franke, K; Leiterer, M

    2001-01-01

    During the last decade the iodine supply in Germany has increased significantly, but there is still a high frequency of goitre. Therefore the question of iodine bioavailability has arisen. In a two-period study 12 women were given a mixed diet of ordinary foods with milk and milk products of different batches. None of the volunteers suffered from an iodine deficiency according to WHO-criteria. Each period ended with a 9-day balance-study protocol in which all foods were provided. Food and fluid intake were registered, and urine and faeces were quantitatively collected. The iodine content was determined by ICP-MS. The mean intake in the form of solid food amounted to 175 +/- 10 micrograms I/d and to 27 +/- 15 micrograms I/d in fluid form. Milk and dairy products represented the main source of iodine (37%). Iodine was predominantly excreted in the urine (89%, 171 +/- 45 micrograms I/d) and the faeces 11% (20 +/- 11 micrograms I/d). The resulting iodine balance was approximately . In one case an iodine-rich erythrosine preparation with a low iodine bioavailability was used. Between the two periods of consuming different batches of milk and milk products no differences were observed concerning the high bioavailability of iodine.

  12. Iodine distribution in the environment as a limiting factor for roe deer antler development.

    PubMed

    Lehoczki, Róbert; Erdélyi, Károly; Sonkoly, Krisztina; Szemethy, László; Csányi, Sándor

    2011-02-01

    The iodine-containing hormones produced by the thyroid gland play a role in the complex neuro-hormonal regulation of antler development. The proper function of the thyroid depends on the adequate iodine supply of the organism, which is directly related to the iodine content of food and drinking water. The purpose of this study was to explore the connection between the iodine content of the water base, which has a strong correlation with the iodine concentration of environmental components available to animals, and the antler weight of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) shot in Hungarian hunting areas. Using a general linear model, controlling for the collective effects of other environmental factors (deer population density, harvest rate, land use, and soil fertility information), the iodine content of the water base explained 51.4% of the total variance of antler weights. The results suggest that antler weights increase with increasing iodine concentration regardless of other factors; thus, the environmental iodine distribution can be a limiting factor suppressing roe deer performance assessed here as antler weight. Further experimental studies of controlled iodine uptake are needed to define the exact physiological iodine requirements of roe deer bucks.

  13. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6-9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study.

    PubMed

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-12-18

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6-9 years) in 2013-2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children's dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson's chi-square and Student's t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies.

  14. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6–9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6–9 years) in 2013–2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children’s dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson’s chi-square and Student’s t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443

  15. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6-9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study.

    PubMed

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-12-01

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6-9 years) in 2013-2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children's dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson's chi-square and Student's t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443

  16. Effect of dietary iodine on production of iodine enriched eggs

    PubMed Central

    Sumaiya, Shaikh; Nayak, Sunil; Baghel, R. P. S.; Nayak, Anju; Malapure, C. D.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of iodine supplementation on iodine content of eggs in laying hens. Materials and Methods: In the experiment, 135 laying hens (White Leghorn) of 55 weeks age were randomly distributed to 5 dietary treatments; each group contained 27 laying hens distributed in three replicates of 9 birds each. Diet T1 was control basal layer diet without iodine enrichment in which iodine content (I2) was as per NRC recommendation. Basal diets were supplemented with calcium iodate (Ca (IO3)2) at 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/kg in T2, T3, T4 and T5 groups, respectively. The iodine content in the calcium iodate is 65.21%, therefore, the diets T2, T3, T4 and T5 contained 3.25, 6.50, 9.75 and 13.0 ppm iodine, respectively. The laying hens were fed the respective experimental diets ad libitum during the experimental period of 10-week. The iodine content of egg yolk and albumen was analyzed at the end of 5th and 10th week of the experiment. Economics of feeding for the production of iodine enriched egg was calculated at the end of the experiment. Results: Increasing iodine levels in diet of hens from 0.45 to 13.0 ppm significantly increased egg iodine concentration, the highest concentration of egg iodine was observed in the group fed diet supplemented with 13.0 ppm iodine followed by those fed 9.75, 6.50, 3.25 and 0.45 ppm iodine in diet. There was no significant difference in the iodine levels of unboiled versus boiled eggs. Therefore, the consumers are ensured to receive the optimal levels of iodine from boiled iodine-enriched eggs. Among different diets, minimum and significantly lower feeding cost (Rs. per dozen or per kg eggs) was noticed in hens allotted T3 diet (6.50 ppm I2). However, feeding cost of hens receiving 3.25 and 9.25 ppm I2 was statistically (p<0.05) similar to control group (T1). Further, it was noticed that feeding cost (Rs. per dozen or per kg eggs) was significantly increased due to the inclusion

  17. Iodine in raw and pasteurized milk of dairy cows fed different amounts of potassium iodide.

    PubMed

    Norouzian, M A

    2011-02-01

    Relation between iodine (I) intake by lactating Holstein cows and iodine concentrations in raw and pasteurized milk were investigated. Four treatment groups with eight cows assigned to each treatment were fed a basal diet containing 0.534 mg I/kg alone or supplemented with potassium iodide at 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg in 7-week period. Iodine concentrations in raw milk increased with each increase in dietary I from 162.2 ng/ml for basal diet to 534.5, 559.8 and 607.5 ng/ml when 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/kg was fed as potassium iodide (P < 0.05). This trend was found for blood plasma and urine iodine concentration. Iodine supplementation had no significant effect on thyroidal hormones. high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization process reduced I concentration. The mean iodine content found in the milk prior to heating processing was 466.0 ± 205.0 ng/ml, whereas for the processed milk this level was 349.5 ± 172.8 ng/ml. It was concluded that iodine supplementation above of NRC recommendation (0.5 mg/kg diet DM) resulted in significant increases in iodine concentrations in milk, although the effect of heating in HTST pasteurization process on iodine concentration was not negligible.

  18. Dietary exposure and trends of exposure to nutrient elements iodine, iron, selenium and sodium from the 2003-4 New Zealand Total Diet Survey.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Barbara M; Vannoort, Richard W; Haslemore, Roger M

    2008-03-01

    The mean dietary exposure to the nutrient elements iodine, Fe, Se and Na by eight age-sex groups of the New Zealand population was estimated from foods purchased and prepared as for consumption. A total of 968 samples comprising 121 foods were collected and analysed. Mean daily exposures were calculated from mean concentration levels of the selected nutrients in each food combined with simulated diets for a 25+-year-old male and female, a 19-24-year-old male, a 11-14-year-old boy and girl, a 5-6-year-old child, a 1-3-year-old toddler and a 6-12-month-old infant. Food concentrations and dietary exposures are reported and compared with nutrient reference values (for example, recommended daily intakes, adequate intakes or upper limits). Dietary iodine exposures for all age-sex groups were well below recommended levels and have steadily decreased since 1982, raising concern especially for the physical and mental development of infants and young children. Fe exposures meet the recommended daily intake for the average male and 11-14 year olds but are only about half that recommended for adult females. Se exposure is about 20 % less than optimal for females. Na exposures, excluding discretionary salt, are above the acceptable exposure level for all age-sex groups, and exceed the upper intake limits for 25+-year-old males, 19-24-year-old young males, and 11-14-year-old boys and girls by up to 125 % for an average consumer. PMID:17925056

  19. The perinatal thyroid in iodine deficient regions: risks of radioiodines--hazards of stable iodine overload. A study in the newborn rat.

    PubMed

    Hindié, E; Walker, F; Petiet, A; Bourahla, K; Galle, P; Colas-Linhart, N

    2001-05-01

    Administration of large quantities of stable iodine is an effective means of reducing the radiation burden on the thyroid in the event of a nuclear power-plant accident. Such administration may involve countries with low baseline dietary iodine intake. It is questioned whether stable iodine overload is safe, and in particular, what are its effects in newborn infants? Iodine-deficient newborn rats were submitted to a single acute administration of stable iodine (100 microg) on the second day of life. The effects on thyroid structure were studied, after 24 hr and after 7 days, using light microscopy. Compared to controls, the thyroids of animals submitted to stable iodine overload showed, 7 days after treatment, signs of acute toxicity including marked desquamation of epithelial cells and rupture of a large number of thyroid follicles. Our findings in iodine deficient newborn rats suggest that stable iodine overload may have side effects during perinatal life. This prophylactic measure should, therefore, be accompanied by follow-up of thyroid function. Thyroid hormones are critical for brain development, during the first period of life. PMID:11441946

  20. [Allergy to iodinated drugs and to foods rich in iodine: Iodine is not the allergenic determinant].

    PubMed

    Dewachter, Pascale; Mouton-Faivre, Claudie

    2015-11-01

    "Iodine allergy" does not exist. The concept of "iodine allergy" should be abandoned since it may result in inappropriate measures such as drug, food or environmental eviction. Immediate or non-immediate allergic hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast media is not infrequent. The corresponding allergens have not been identified. Iodine is not involved. Immediate or non-immediate allergic hypersensitivity to povidone iodine is rare. The corresponding allergen is povidone in case of immediate hypersensitivity while nonoxynol might be involved during non-immediate hypersensitivity. Seafood allergens belong to a group of muscle proteins. Immediate drug hypersensitivity or food hypersensitivity is assessed by immediate-reading skin tests while non-immediate drug hypersensitivity is investigated by delayed-reading skin testing. Combined histamine and tryptase measurement is invaluable during the diagnostic approach of immediate hypersensitivity. Other biological tests are being evaluated. Allergic hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast agents does not contraindicate the use of other iodinated drugs.

  1. [Allergy to iodinated drugs and to foods rich in iodine: Iodine is not the allergenic determinant].

    PubMed

    Dewachter, Pascale; Mouton-Faivre, Claudie

    2015-11-01

    "Iodine allergy" does not exist. The concept of "iodine allergy" should be abandoned since it may result in inappropriate measures such as drug, food or environmental eviction. Immediate or non-immediate allergic hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast media is not infrequent. The corresponding allergens have not been identified. Iodine is not involved. Immediate or non-immediate allergic hypersensitivity to povidone iodine is rare. The corresponding allergen is povidone in case of immediate hypersensitivity while nonoxynol might be involved during non-immediate hypersensitivity. Seafood allergens belong to a group of muscle proteins. Immediate drug hypersensitivity or food hypersensitivity is assessed by immediate-reading skin tests while non-immediate drug hypersensitivity is investigated by delayed-reading skin testing. Combined histamine and tryptase measurement is invaluable during the diagnostic approach of immediate hypersensitivity. Other biological tests are being evaluated. Allergic hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast agents does not contraindicate the use of other iodinated drugs. PMID:26387623

  2. Effect of iodine supplementation during pregnancy on infant neurodevelopment at 1 year of age.

    PubMed

    Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Estarlich, Marisa; Plaza, Belén; Barona-Vilar, Carmen; Espada, Mercedes; Vioque, Jesús; Ballester, Ferran

    2011-04-01

    Iodine is the main constituent of thyroid hormones, which in turn are required for fetal brain development. However, the relation between iodine intake during pregnancy, thyroid function, and child neurodevelopment needs further evaluation. The authors assessed the association of maternal iodine intake from diet and supplements during pregnancy and of maternal and neonatal thyroid function with infant neurodevelopment. The Mental Development Index and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) for 691 children were obtained between 2005 and 2007 using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at age 1 year in a prebirth cohort in Valencia, Spain. In multivariate analyses, a maternal thyrotropin level >4 μU/mL was associated with an increased risk of a PDI <85 (odds ratio = 3.5, P = 0.02). Maternal intake of ≥150 μg/day, compared with <100 μg/day, of iodine from supplements was associated with a 5.2-point decrease in PDI (95% confidence interval: -8.1, -2.2) and a 1.8-fold increase in the odds of a PDI <85 (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 3.3). When analyses were stratified by sex, this association was intensified for girls but was not observed for boys. Further evidence on the safety and effectiveness of iodine supplementation during pregnancy is needed before it is systematically recommended in iodine-sufficient or mildly deficient areas. PMID:21385833

  3. Iodine Status of New Zealand Elderly Residents in Long-Term Residential Care

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jody C.; MacDonell, Sue O.; Gray, Andrew R.; Reid, Malcolm R.; Barr, David J.; Thomson, Christine D.; Houghton, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    In response to the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in New Zealand, in 2009 the government mandated that all commercially made breads be fortified with iodized salt. There has been no evaluation of the impact of the program on iodine status of the elderly, despite this population group being vulnerable to iodine deficiency or excess. The aim of this study was to describe the iodine status of elderly New Zealanders in residential aged-care homes following the implementation of the bread fortification program. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, involving 309 residents (median age 85 years) from 16 aged-care homes throughout NZ. Information on socio-demographic, anthropometric, dietary and health characteristics were collected. Casual spot urine samples were analysed for urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Blood samples were analysed for serum thyroglobulin, thyroglobulin antibodies, and other biochemical indices. The median UIC (MUIC) of the residents was 72 μg/L, indicating mild iodine deficiency, and 29% had a UIC < 50 μg/L. Median thyroglobulin concentration was 18 ng/mL and 26% had elevated thyroglobulin concentration (>40 ng/mL), suggesting iodine insufficiency. Diuretic use was associated with lower MUIC (p = 0.043). Synthetic thyroxine use was associated with lower odds of having a UIC < 50 μg/L (OR 0.32, p = 0.030)) and lower median thyroglobulin (−15.2 ng/mL, p = 0.001), compared with untreated participants. Frailty was associated with elevated thyroglobulin (p = 0.029), whereas anemia was associated with lower thyroglobulin (p = 0.016). Iodine insufficiency persists in New Zealanders residing in residential aged-care homes despite increasing iodine intake from fortified bread. Research is required to establish optimal iodine intake and status in the elderly. PMID:27455319

  4. Screening for thyroid disease and iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Creswell J

    2012-02-01

    The high global prevalence of iodine deficiency and autoimmune thyroid disorders and the mental and physical consequences of these disorders creates a huge human and economic burden that can be prevented, in large part, by early detection and appropriate preventative or therapeutic measures. The availability of sophisticated, sensitive and accurate laboratory testing procedures provides an efficient and effective platform for the application of screening for these disorders. Measurement of urine iodine concentration (UIC) in school children or pregnant women is the recommended indicator for screening populations for iodine deficiency. The severity of the iodine deficiency is classified according to the UIC. Measurement of serum thyrotropin (TSH) as an indicator for population iodine deficiency is used only in neonates and is supplementary to UIC screening. Other indicators such as goitre rates, thyroid function and serum thyroglobulin levels are useful adjunctive but not frontline process indicators. The human and economic benefits of screening for congenital hypothyroidism by measurement of heel-prick TSH have been well documented and justify its universal application. Using this measurement for monitoring population iodine intake is recommended by the World Health Organization but further validation is required before it can be universally recommended. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is readily detected by current highly sensitive serum TSH assays and its prevalence appears to increase with age, varies with iodine intake and ethnicity and may occur in up to 20% of older age people. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is the less common disorder and screening cannot be justified because of its low prevalence and minimal or insignificant clinical effects. The argument for screening for subclinical hypothyroidism in middle-aged and older women is stronger but lacks evidence of benefit from randomised controlled trials or cost benefit analyses of therapeutic intervention, so

  5. Intraluminal iodination of thyroglobulin

    SciTech Connect

    Ofverholm, T.; Ericson, L.E.

    1984-03-01

    The intraluminal distribution of newly synthesized (injection of (/sup 3/H)leucine) and newly iodinated (injection of Na/sup 125/I) proteins in thyroids of rats given T4 for 2 days was studied with quantitative electron microscopic autoradiography. Three, 4.5, and 6 h after (/sup 3/H)leucine about 90%, 85%, and 65%, respectively, of the luminal label was confined to the microvillus region. This distribution differed from that of newly iodinated protein; already 2 min after injection only about 30% of the grains was located over the microvillus region. The remaining 70% of the grains located outside the microvillus region formed a gradient towards the center of the lumen. The grain distributions 30 min and 2 h after Na/sup 125/I were similar to that present after 2 min. The distribution of grains after pulse labeling with Na/sup 125/I (injected 2 min before propylthiouracil and 2 h before fixation) was also similar to that found in rats injected with Na/sup 125/I alone, indicating that diffusion of labeled proteins in the lumen was very slow in T4-treated rats. A slow diffusion was also suggested by the presence of an unlabeled peripheral ring in follicle lumens of T4-treated rats injected with Na/sup 125/I 48 h before fixation. In normal rats given (/sup 3/H)leucine 3 h before fixation or Na/sup 125/I 1 h or 48 h before fixation the grains were homogeneously distributed in most follicle lumens. Together our findings indicate that (1) administration of T4 has effects on the diffusion properties of the colloid; (2) iodine is incorporated not only into newly synthesized thyroglobulin recently delivered to the follicle lumen but also into molecules already stored in the lumen; (3) a portion of the iodine incorporated into proteins is bound to molecules which are not in direct contact with thyroperoxidase in the apical plasma membrane.

  6. Iodine addition using triiodide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Muckle, Susan V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    The study develops: a triiodide solution for use in preparing ground service equipment (GSE) water for Shuttle support, an iodine dissolution method that is reliable and requires minimal time and effort to prepare, and an iodine dissolution agent with a minimal concentration of sodium salt. Sodium iodide and hydriodic acid were both found to dissolve iodine to attain the desired GSE iodine concentrations of 7.5 +/- 2.5 mg/L and 25 +/- 5 mg/L. The 1.75:1 and 2:1 sodium iodide solutions produced higher iodine recoveries than the 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution. A two-hour preparation time is required for the three sodium iodide solutions. The 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution can be prepared in less than 5 min. Two sodium iodide stock solutions (2.5:1 and 2:1) were found to dissolve iodine without undergoing precipitation.

  7. Consequences of bacterial resistance to disinfection by iodine in potable water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfeters, Gordon A.; Pyle, Barry H.

    1987-01-01

    This study was done to quantify the sensitivity of bacteria to iodine under controlled laboratory conditions. When exposed to 1 mg/1 I2 for 1 min, bacteria isolated from the Shuttle were more resistant than a P. aeruginosa isolated from a povidine-iodine solution. Cultures grown in rich media were more sensitive than those grown in low nutrient solutions. The P. aeruginosa and a P. cepacia isolated from the Shuttle were resuspended in PBW after exposure to iodine. Iodinated cells recovered better than uniodinated controls. Pseudomonads in biofilms developed on coupons of stainless steel were more resistant to iodine than cells suspended in buffered water. Although resistant bacteria may colonize spacecraft water systems, multiple treatment barriers should provide adequate control of these contaminants.

  8. [Characteristics of hypothyroidism correction and lipid metabolism disorder in iodine deficiency].

    PubMed

    Voronych-Semchenko, N M

    2007-01-01

    The serum biochemical indexes (level of triiodthyronine, thyroxin, thyrothropic hormone of adenohypophysis, level of cholesterol, triglycerides) and the level of iodine excretion with urine in rats with hypothyrosis corrected by "Iodid-100" and along with excessive intake of chlorine and fluorine ions into the organism had been studied. It has been revealed that hypothyrosis has negative influence on lipid metabolism indexes. "Iodid- 100" usage stabilized hormonal and lipid status. Excessive intake of chlorine and fluorine ions by the organism decreased the effectiveness of iodine containing drugs.

  9. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  10. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  11. A summary of the iodine supplementation study protocol (I2S2): a UK multicentre randomised controlled trial in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Williams, Fiona; Hume, Robert; Ogston, Simon; Brocklehurst, Peter; Morgan, Kayleigh; Juszczak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarises the study protocol for the randomised controlled trial of iodine supplementation in preterm infants. Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroxine, and thyroxine is essential for normal brain development in utero and for the first 2-3 years of life. The recommended iodine intake in parenteral nutrition regimens is 1 μg/kg/day and commercially available parenteral solutions for infants reflect these recommendations. In the absence of other iodine sources, infants are vulnerable to negative iodine balance and insufficiency. As many preterm infants are fed parenterally for prolonged periods with solutions which have been shown to be iodine-deficient, the I2S2 Trial was designed to establish whether iodine supplementation of preterm infants benefits neurodevelopment.

  12. Prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders among school children in Saudi Arabia: results of a national iodine nutrition study.

    PubMed

    Al-Dakheel, M H; Haridi, H K; Al-Bashir, B M; Al-Shingiti, A; Al-Shehri, S; Gassem, M A; Hussein, I

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at establishing updated data on iodine nutrition among schoolchildren in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional cluster survey among schoolchildren aged 8-10 years was conducted during February-April 2012. Children were clinically examined for goitre, urine and household salt samples were collected to estimate urinary iodine concenteration (UIC) and iodine content in salt. The overall goitre prevalence at the national level among 4 016 children was 4.2%. The prevalence was < 5% in all regions of the country except southern region with a prevalence of 12.7%. The median UIC of 2224 samples was 133 μg/L, with 74.3% of the surveyed children with UIC ≥ 100 μg/L. Analysis of salt samples (n = 4242) revealed that 69.8% of households were consuming adequately iodized salt. The findings suggest iodine sufficiency at the national level, however southern region still has a goitre prevalence of mild degree severity and the proportion of households consuming adequately iodized salt is still below recommendations. PMID:27553396

  13. Prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders among school children in Saudi Arabia: results of a national iodine nutrition study.

    PubMed

    Al-Dakheel, M H; Haridi, H K; Al-Bashir, B M; Al-Shingiti, A; Al-Shehri, S; Gassem, M A; Hussein, I

    2016-08-18

    This study aimed at establishing updated data on iodine nutrition among schoolchildren in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional cluster survey among schoolchildren aged 8-10 years was conducted during February-April 2012. Children were clinically examined for goitre, urine and household salt samples were collected to estimate urinary iodine concenteration (UIC) and iodine content in salt. The overall goitre prevalence at the national level among 4 016 children was 4.2%. The prevalence was < 5% in all regions of the country except southern region with a prevalence of 12.7%. The median UIC of 2224 samples was 133 μg/L, with 74.3% of the surveyed children with UIC ≥ 100 μg/L. Analysis of salt samples (n = 4242) revealed that 69.8% of households were consuming adequately iodized salt. The findings suggest iodine sufficiency at the national level, however southern region still has a goitre prevalence of mild degree severity and the proportion of households consuming adequately iodized salt is still below recommendations.

  14. Supervision of Student Teachers: How Adequate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Ken

    This study attempted to ascertain how adequately student teachers are supervised by college supervisors and supervising teachers. Questions to be answered were as follows: a) How do student teachers rate the adequacy of supervision given them by college supervisors and supervising teachers? and b) Are there significant differences between ratings…

  15. Small Rural Schools CAN Have Adequate Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Martha

    The small rural school's foremost and largest problem is providing an adequate curriculum for students in a changing world. Often the small district cannot or is not willing to pay the per-pupil cost of curriculum specialists, specialized courses using expensive equipment no more than one period a day, and remodeled rooms to accommodate new…

  16. Toward More Adequate Quantitative Instructional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1986-01-01

    Sets an agenda for improving instructional research conducted with classical quantitative experimental or quasi-experimental methodology. Includes guidelines regarding the role of a social perspective, adequate conceptual and operational definition, quality instrumentation, control of threats to internal and external validity, and the use of…

  17. An Adequate Education Defined. Fastback 476.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Donald; Davis, E. E. (Gene)

    Court decisions historically have dealt with educational equity; now they are helping to establish "adequacy" as a standard in education. Legislatures, however, have been slow to enact remedies. One debate over education adequacy, though, is settled: Schools are not financed at an adequate level. This fastback is divided into three sections.…

  18. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  19. Dietary Iodine Sufficiency and Moderate Insufficiency in the Lactating Mother and Nursing Infant: A Computational Perspective.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W; Wang, Jian; George, Nysia I; Gearhart, Jeffery M; McLanahan, Eva D

    2016-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends that lactating women ingest 290 μg iodide/d and a nursing infant, less than two years of age, 110 μg/d. The World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders recommend population maternal and infant urinary iodide concentrations ≥ 100 μg/L to ensure iodide sufficiency. For breast milk, researchers have proposed an iodide concentration range of 150-180 μg/L indicates iodide sufficiency for the mother and infant, however no national or international guidelines exist for breast milk iodine concentration. For the first time, a lactating woman and nursing infant biologically based model, from delivery to 90 days postpartum, was constructed to predict maternal and infant urinary iodide concentration, breast milk iodide concentration, the amount of iodide transferred in breast milk to the nursing infant each day and maternal and infant serum thyroid hormone kinetics. The maternal and infant models each consisted of three sub-models, iodide, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). Using our model to simulate a maternal intake of 290 μg iodide/d, the average daily amount of iodide ingested by the nursing infant, after 4 days of life, gradually increased from 50 to 101 μg/day over 90 days postpartum. The predicted average lactating mother and infant urinary iodide concentrations were both in excess of 100 μg/L and the predicted average breast milk iodide concentration, 157 μg/L. The predicted serum thyroid hormones (T4, free T4 (fT4), and T3) in both the nursing infant and lactating mother were indicative of euthyroidism. The model was calibrated using serum thyroid hormone concentrations for lactating women from the United States and was successful in predicting serum T4 and fT4 levels (within a factor of two) for lactating women in other countries. T3 levels were adequately predicted. Infant serum thyroid hormone levels were adequately

  20. Dietary Iodine Sufficiency and Moderate Insufficiency in the Lactating Mother and Nursing Infant: A Computational Perspective.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W; Wang, Jian; George, Nysia I; Gearhart, Jeffery M; McLanahan, Eva D

    2016-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends that lactating women ingest 290 μg iodide/d and a nursing infant, less than two years of age, 110 μg/d. The World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders recommend population maternal and infant urinary iodide concentrations ≥ 100 μg/L to ensure iodide sufficiency. For breast milk, researchers have proposed an iodide concentration range of 150-180 μg/L indicates iodide sufficiency for the mother and infant, however no national or international guidelines exist for breast milk iodine concentration. For the first time, a lactating woman and nursing infant biologically based model, from delivery to 90 days postpartum, was constructed to predict maternal and infant urinary iodide concentration, breast milk iodide concentration, the amount of iodide transferred in breast milk to the nursing infant each day and maternal and infant serum thyroid hormone kinetics. The maternal and infant models each consisted of three sub-models, iodide, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). Using our model to simulate a maternal intake of 290 μg iodide/d, the average daily amount of iodide ingested by the nursing infant, after 4 days of life, gradually increased from 50 to 101 μg/day over 90 days postpartum. The predicted average lactating mother and infant urinary iodide concentrations were both in excess of 100 μg/L and the predicted average breast milk iodide concentration, 157 μg/L. The predicted serum thyroid hormones (T4, free T4 (fT4), and T3) in both the nursing infant and lactating mother were indicative of euthyroidism. The model was calibrated using serum thyroid hormone concentrations for lactating women from the United States and was successful in predicting serum T4 and fT4 levels (within a factor of two) for lactating women in other countries. T3 levels were adequately predicted. Infant serum thyroid hormone levels were adequately

  1. Dietary Iodine Sufficiency and Moderate Insufficiency in the Lactating Mother and Nursing Infant: A Computational Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, W.; Wang, Jian; George, Nysia I.; Gearhart, Jeffery M.; McLanahan, Eva D.

    2016-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends that lactating women ingest 290 μg iodide/d and a nursing infant, less than two years of age, 110 μg/d. The World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund, and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders recommend population maternal and infant urinary iodide concentrations ≥ 100 μg/L to ensure iodide sufficiency. For breast milk, researchers have proposed an iodide concentration range of 150–180 μg/L indicates iodide sufficiency for the mother and infant, however no national or international guidelines exist for breast milk iodine concentration. For the first time, a lactating woman and nursing infant biologically based model, from delivery to 90 days postpartum, was constructed to predict maternal and infant urinary iodide concentration, breast milk iodide concentration, the amount of iodide transferred in breast milk to the nursing infant each day and maternal and infant serum thyroid hormone kinetics. The maternal and infant models each consisted of three sub-models, iodide, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). Using our model to simulate a maternal intake of 290 μg iodide/d, the average daily amount of iodide ingested by the nursing infant, after 4 days of life, gradually increased from 50 to 101 μg/day over 90 days postpartum. The predicted average lactating mother and infant urinary iodide concentrations were both in excess of 100 μg/L and the predicted average breast milk iodide concentration, 157 μg/L. The predicted serum thyroid hormones (T4, free T4 (fT4), and T3) in both the nursing infant and lactating mother were indicative of euthyroidism. The model was calibrated using serum thyroid hormone concentrations for lactating women from the United States and was successful in predicting serum T4 and fT4 levels (within a factor of two) for lactating women in other countries. T3 levels were adequately predicted. Infant serum thyroid hormone levels were adequately

  2. Iodine-Catalyzed Polysaccharide Esterification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review is provided of the recent reports to use iodine-catalyzed esterification reaction to produce esters from polysaccharides. The process entails reaction of the polysaccharide with an acid anhydride in the presence of a catalytic level of iodine, and in the absence of additional solvents. T...

  3. Atmospheric iodine abates smog ozone.

    PubMed

    HAMILTON, W F; LEVINE, M; SIMON, E

    1963-04-12

    Traces of iodine in test samples of irradiated photochemical smog atmospheres either inhibit ozone formation or lower its concentration. Eye and respiratory irritation are reduced qualitatively. Iodine is more effective in suppressing ozone in a photochemical smog atmosphere than it is in purified air.

  4. Hypothyroidism following iodine-131 therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, M.T.

    1982-02-01

    A teaching editorial dealing with the hypothyroidism side effect of Iodine-131 radiotherapy is presented. The author reviews two articles in this issue of the Journal of Nuclear Medicine on the subject, discusses Graves' disease, Iodine 125 radiotherapy, and the patient-physician relationship when dealing with the problem. (JMT)

  5. Prevalence of goitre and urinary iodine status of primary-school children in Lesotho.

    PubMed Central

    Sebotsa, Masekonyela Linono Damane; Dannhauser, Andre; Jooste, Pieter L.; Joubert, Gina

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of goitre, urinary iodine status, coverage of supplementation of iodized oil capsules, and current use of iodized salt in children in Lesotho. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of children from 50 primary schools in Lesotho. Thyroid glands of children aged 8-12 years were measured by palpation and graded according to the WHO, UNICEF, and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency's (ICCIDD) joint criteria. The use of iodized oil capsules was determined by a structured questionnaire and verified with the children's health booklets. Iodine content of household salt samples was analysed. Casual urine samples were analysed for urinary iodine. FINDINGS: Median urinary iodine concentrations of 26.3 microg/l (range 22.3-47.9 microg/l) indicated moderate iodine deficiency. More children in the mountains than in the lowlands were severely iodine deficient (17.7% vs 1.9%). Adjusted prevalence of goitre (4.9%) increased with age, was higher in girls than boys, and ranged from 2.2% to 8.8% in the different districts; this indicated no public health problem. Overall, 94.4% of salt samples were iodized, and coverage of supplementation with iodized oil capsules was 55.1%. CONCLUSION: Mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency exists in Lesotho. Iodine deficiency was more severe in the mountains than the lowlands and is still a concern for public health. Use of iodized salt coupled with iodized oil supplementation effectively controls iodine deficiency disorders. Effective monitoring programmes would ensure the use of adequately iodized salt throughout Lesotho and serve to evaluate progress towards optimal iodine nutrition. Iodized oil capsule supplementation should continue in the mountains. PMID:12640473

  6. Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Cristiane Franco; da Silveira, Carla Rosane; Beghetto, Mariur; de Mello, Paula Daniel; de Mello, Elza Daniel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake. METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg) or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg), parametric and nonparametric tests were used. RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg) and only 25 students (11.7%) had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ≥3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence. PMID:25119753

  7. Low Urinary Iodine Concentrations Associated with Dyslipidemia in US Adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-03-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormone which plays crucial roles in healthy thyroid function and lipid metabolism. However, the association between iodine status and dyslipidemia has not been well established at a population level. We aimed to test the hypothesis that the odds of dyslipidemia including elevated total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein B, and lowered high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and HDL/LDL ratio are associated with urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in a population perspective. Data of 2495 US adults (≥20 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2012 were used in this study. Two subgroups (i.e., UIC below vs. above the 10th percentile) were compared of dyslipidemia as defined based on NCEP ATP III guidelines. The differences between the groups were tested statistically by chi-square test, simple linear regressions, and multiple logistic regressions. Serum lipid concentrations differed significantly between two iodine status groups when sociodemographic and lifestyle covariates were controlled (all, p < 0.05). Those with the lowest decile of UIC were more likely to be at risk for elevated total cholesterol (>200 mg/dL) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-2.23) and elevated LDL cholesterol (>130 mg/dL) (AOR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.11-2.23) and lowered HDL/LDL ratio (<0.4) (AOR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.18-2.33), compared to those with UIC above the 10th percentile. In US adults, low UIC was associated with increased odds for dyslipidemia. Findings of the present cross-sectional study with spot urine samples highlight the significant association between UIC and serum lipids at population level, but do not substantiate a causal relationship. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the causal relationship among iodine intakes, iodine status, and serum lipid profiles. PMID:26999198

  8. Trace iodine quantitation in biological samples by mass spectrometric methods: the optimum internal standard.

    PubMed

    Dyke, Jason V; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Kirk, Andrea B

    2009-07-15

    Accurate quantitation of iodine in biological samples is essential for studies of nutrition and medicine, as well as for epidemiological studies for monitoring intake of this essential nutrient. Despite the importance of accurate measurement, a standardized method for iodine analysis of biological samples is yet to be established. We have evaluated the effectiveness of (72)Ge, (115)In, and (129)I as internal standards for measurement of iodine in milk and urine samples by induction coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and of (35)Cl(18)O(4)(-), (129)I(-), and 2-chlorobenzenesulfonate (2-CBS) as internal standards for ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (IC-MS/MS). We found recovery of iodine to be markedly low when IC-MS/MS was used without an internal standard. Percent recovery was similarly low using (35)Cl(18)O(4) as an internal standard for milk and unpredictable when used for urine. 2-Chlorobenzebenzenesulfonate provided accurate recovery of iodine from milk, but overestimated iodine in urine samples by as much as a factor of 2. Percent recovery of iodine from milk and urine using ICP-MS without an internal standard was approximately 120%. Use of (115)In predicted approximately 60% of known values for both milk and urine samples. (72)Ge provided reasonable and consistent percent recovery for iodine in milk samples (approximately 108%) but resulted in approximately 80% recovery of iodine from urine. Use of (129)I as an internal standard resulted in excellent recovery of iodine from both milk and urine samples using either IC-MS/MS and ICP-MS.

  9. A modified ICRP 66 iodine gas uptake model and its parametric uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Harvey, R P; Hamby, D M; Palmer, T S

    2004-11-01

    Intakes via inhalation may occur from radionuclides released in the form of a gas. The chemical characteristics pertaining to the release influence the intake and subsequent dose to an exposed individual. Gases are taken up or absorbed in the entire respiratory tract and the associated uptake mechanisms are quite different from deposition of particulates. Gaseous iodine can exist in various chemical forms, e.g., elemental iodine, inorganic, and organic iodine compounds. These different chemical species play an integral role in the gaseous uptake o f iodine in t he respiratory tract. Gas uptake in the various regions of the respiratory tract results in the intake of iodinated material into the body. The radioactive iodine taken up in the gas-exchange tissues is absorbed into the bloodstream of an individual and subsequently transferred to other organs. Iodine in the circulatory system can then be taken up by the thyroid gland, with resulting dose to the thyroid. The magnitude and uncertainty in regional gas uptake is important in the assessment of individuals exposed to airborne releases of radioiodine. The current ICRP 66 model is rudimentary and estimates regional gas uptake based on solubility and reactivity of the different radionuclides entering the respiratory tract. The modified model proposed here employs methodology and a mathematical structure to determine estimates of fractional gas uptake rather than defaulting to literature values, as in the current ICRP model. Model parameters have been assigned input distributions and estimates of uncertainty have been determined. A sensitivity analysis of these parameters has been performed to demonstrate the importance of each of these parameters. The sensitivity analysis ranks the model-input parameters by their importance to estimates of regional gas uptake. The model developed herein may be used for improved estimation of gas uptake in the respiratory tract and subsequent dose estimates from the different

  10. Studies in iodine metabolism. Progress report and publications, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Van Middlesworth, L

    1980-01-01

    Research programs for the years 1978-1980 is reported. The following subject areas are discussed: (1) iodine 131 monitoring in thyroids of sheep, cattle and humans; (2) radium monitoring in cattle thyroids; (3) the relationship of thyroid function to seizures in rats; (4) the effect of KSCN on thyroglobulin in mice; and (5) studies on excessive iodide intake. (ACR)

  11. The Extrathyronine Actions of Iodine as Antioxidant, Apoptotic, and Differentiation Factor in Various Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Anguiano, Brenda; Delgado, Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    Background Seaweed is an important dietary component and a rich source of iodine in several chemical forms in Asian communities. Their high consumption of this element (25 times higher than in Western countries) has been associated with the low incidence of benign and cancerous breast and prostate disease in Japanese people. Summary We review evidence showing that, in addition to being a component of the thyroid hormone, iodine can be an antioxidant as well as an antiproliferative and differentiation agent that helps to maintain the integrity of several organs with the ability to take up iodine. In animal and human studies, molecular iodine (I2) supplementation exerts a suppressive effect on the development and size of both benign and cancerous neoplasias. Investigations by several groups have demonstrated that these effects can be mediated by a variety of mechanisms and pathways, including direct actions, in which the oxidized iodine dissipates the mitochondrial membrane potential, thereby triggering mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis, and indirect effects through iodolipid formation and the activation of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors type gamma, which, in turn, trigger apoptotic or differentiation pathways. Conclusions We propose that the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficient Disorders recommend that iodine intake be increased to at least 3 mg/day of I2 in specific pathologies to obtain the potential extrathyroidal benefits described in the present review. PMID:23607319

  12. [An approach to a sanitary and social problem: urinary iodine excretion in pregnant women from a iodine deficient region].

    PubMed

    Olivares, Jorge L; Ortiz, Valeria A; Mayer, Marcos; Demaria, Cecilia I; Nancucheo, Ester; Cresto, Juan C

    2009-12-01

    The urinary iodine excretion (UIE) assay is an effective method to detect reduced iodine intake. UIE was measured in two different samples (morning and evening) from 121 pregnant women, with a turbid-metric method modified by Pino (normal value =150 ugl/1). Furthermore, thyroid function was evaluated in pregnant women with UIE <100 ug/l. From 121 pregnant women, the UIE was normal in 75 with similar morning and evening samples (morning: 305.2 +/- 7.0; evening: 319.2 +/- 8.8; p: NS). The UIE did no showed differences in different trimesters and in morning and evening samples. The UIE was low in 46 women (36.9%), without significant differences between morning and evening (morning: 88.12 +/- 5.07 microg/l; evening: 88.7 +/- 6.2 microg/l; p: NS). Normal or low UIE were not influenced by the age of pregnant women and 45% of pregnant women with UIE < 100 ug/l showed impaired thyroid function. Morning and evening study of UIE allowed us to detect a higher number of pregnant women with low iodine intake. This study let us to find thyroid function abnormalities likes a screening method, because in our state there is not a public screening program for gestational hypothyroidism.

  13. Deep Bed Iodine Sorbent Testing FY 2011 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2011-08-01

    with pure N2 to drive loosely or physisorbed iodine species off of the sorbent. Post-test calculations determine the control efficiencies for each bed, iodine loadings on the sorbent, and mass transfer zone depths. Portions of the iodine-laden sorbent from the first bed of two of the tests have been shipped to SNL for waste form studies. Over the past three years, we have explored a full range of inlet iodine and methyl iodide concentrations ranging from {approx}100 ppb to {approx}100 ppm levels, and shown adequate control efficiencies within a bed depth as shallow as 2 inches for lower concentrations and 4 inches for higher concentrations, for the AgZ-type sorbents. We are now performing a limited number of tests in the NC-77 sorbent from SNL. Then we plan to continue to (a) fill in data gaps needed for isotherms and dynamic sorbent modeling, and (b) test the performance of additional sorbents under development.

  14. Statistical design considerations applicable to clinical trials of iodine supplementation in pregnant women who may be mildly iodine deficient.

    PubMed

    Troendle, James F

    2016-09-01

    No large, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of iodine supplementation in pregnant women in a region of mild or moderate iodine deficiency has been completed in which a primary outcome measure was an assessment of the neurobehavioral development of the offspring at age ≥2 y. In this article, I discuss considerations for the design of such a trial in a region of mild iodine deficiency, with a focus on statistical methods and approaches. Exposure and design issues include the ethics of using a placebo, the potential for overexposure to iodine, and the possibility of community randomization. The main scientific goal of the trial is important in determining the follow-up period. If the goal is to determine whether iodine supplementation during pregnancy improves neurobehavioral development in the offspring, then follow-up should continue until a reasonably reliable assessment can be conducted, which might be at age ≥2 y. Once the timing of assessment is decided, the impact of potential loss to follow-up should be considered so that appropriate statistical methods can be incorporated into the design. The minimum sample size can be calculated by using a sample size formula that incorporates noncompliance and assumes that a certain proportion of study participants do not have any outcome observed. To have sufficient power to detect a reasonably modest difference in neurobehavioral development scores using an assessment tool with an SD of 15, a large number of participants (>500/group) is required. The minimum adequate number of participants may be even larger (>1300/group) depending on the magnitude of the difference in outcome between the supplementation and placebo groups, the estimated proportion of the iodine-supplementation group that fails to take the supplement, and the estimated proportion of pregnancies that do not produce outcome measurements. PMID:27534639

  15. Statistical design considerations applicable to clinical trials of iodine supplementation in pregnant women who may be mildly iodine deficient.

    PubMed

    Troendle, James F

    2016-09-01

    No large, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of iodine supplementation in pregnant women in a region of mild or moderate iodine deficiency has been completed in which a primary outcome measure was an assessment of the neurobehavioral development of the offspring at age ≥2 y. In this article, I discuss considerations for the design of such a trial in a region of mild iodine deficiency, with a focus on statistical methods and approaches. Exposure and design issues include the ethics of using a placebo, the potential for overexposure to iodine, and the possibility of community randomization. The main scientific goal of the trial is important in determining the follow-up period. If the goal is to determine whether iodine supplementation during pregnancy improves neurobehavioral development in the offspring, then follow-up should continue until a reasonably reliable assessment can be conducted, which might be at age ≥2 y. Once the timing of assessment is decided, the impact of potential loss to follow-up should be considered so that appropriate statistical methods can be incorporated into the design. The minimum sample size can be calculated by using a sample size formula that incorporates noncompliance and assumes that a certain proportion of study participants do not have any outcome observed. To have sufficient power to detect a reasonably modest difference in neurobehavioral development scores using an assessment tool with an SD of 15, a large number of participants (>500/group) is required. The minimum adequate number of participants may be even larger (>1300/group) depending on the magnitude of the difference in outcome between the supplementation and placebo groups, the estimated proportion of the iodine-supplementation group that fails to take the supplement, and the estimated proportion of pregnancies that do not produce outcome measurements.

  16. Heating Process in Pasteurization and not in Sterilization Decreases the Iodine Concentration of Milk

    PubMed Central

    Nazeri, Pantea; Norouzian, Mohammad Ali; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hedayati, Mehdi; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Iodine is a vital component of the thyroid hormones and is required for normal growth, development, and tissue metabolism in humans and animals. Objectives: This study for the first time compares the effects of heating during pasteurization and sterilization on the iodine concentration of milk for an adequate provision of dietary iodine. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on multiparous Holstein Friesian lactating cows. Thirty Holstein dairy cows were fed with a diet containing 10 mg of potassium iodide (KI) per kilogram dry matter of diet. Milk samples were obtained on days 4 and 2 before and again on days 2, 4, 6, and 8 after the inclusion of KI into the total mixed ration diet of the dairy cows. The milk samples were sterilized using ultra-high temperature, following which the effect of the heating process during sterilization on the cows’ iodine concentration was compared to that in the only previous documented study from Iran in which milk supplementation with KI was the same as ours. Milk in that study was pasteurized via the high-temperature short-time method, a method which involves temperatures in excess of 73°C for durations longer than 15 seconds. Results: The inclusion of KI in the diet of the dairy cows in these 2 separate experiments increased their milk iodine levels. Pasteurization decreased the iodine content of the milk (P < 0.05), while no significant difference was observed in the iodine concentration of the sterilized milk. Conclusions: The present study showed that the iodine concentration is not decreased during the heating process in sterilization, indicating that supplemented sterilized milk could be a good alternative vehicle for dietary iodine in the prevention of iodine deficiency. PMID:26587031

  17. [Iodine excess induced thyroid dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Egloff, Michael; Philippe, Jacques

    2016-04-20

    The principle sources of iodine overload, amiodarone and radiologic contrast media, are frequently used in modern medicine. The thyroid gland exerts a protective effect against iodine excess by suppressing iodine internalization into the thyrocyte and iodine organification, the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. Insufficiency of this effect or lack of escape from it leads to hypo- or hyperthyroidism respectively. Amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis is a complex condition marked by two different pathophysiological mechanisms with different treatments. Thyroid metabolism changes after exposure to radiologic contrast media are frequent, but they rarely need to be treated. High risk individuals need to be identifed in order to delay the exam or to monitor thyroid function or apply prophylactic measures in selected cases. PMID:27276725

  18. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Walter E.; Thompson, Clarence T.

    1977-04-12

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3-20 wt. % iodine as Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of, or under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. It relates in general to reactor waste solidification and more specifically to the immobilization of fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel for underground storage.

  19. [Iodine excess induced thyroid dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Egloff, Michael; Philippe, Jacques

    2016-04-20

    The principle sources of iodine overload, amiodarone and radiologic contrast media, are frequently used in modern medicine. The thyroid gland exerts a protective effect against iodine excess by suppressing iodine internalization into the thyrocyte and iodine organification, the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. Insufficiency of this effect or lack of escape from it leads to hypo- or hyperthyroidism respectively. Amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis is a complex condition marked by two different pathophysiological mechanisms with different treatments. Thyroid metabolism changes after exposure to radiologic contrast media are frequent, but they rarely need to be treated. High risk individuals need to be identifed in order to delay the exam or to monitor thyroid function or apply prophylactic measures in selected cases.

  20. Observing iodine monoxide from satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Begoin, Mathias; Wittrock, Folkard; Burrows, John P.

    Iodine and iodine monoxide (IO) belong to the group of reactive halogen species, and they may impact on atmospheric chemical composition and the radiation budget. Vice versa, sur-rounding conditions may influence the emissions and pathways of iodine compounds. Although atmospheric amounts of iodine are typically fairly small, the impact may still be substantial. Iodine radicals are photolytically released from precursors and may then cause catalytic ozone depletion. In this reaction with ozone, IO is produced, a molecule which plays a central role in the iodine cycling. Via self reactions of IO, higher iodine oxides form and initiate the formation of new particles, which may change the atmospheric radiation balance. Apart from that, many living species, including human beings, vertebrates in general, but also micro-and macroalgae species, e.g., depend on the supply with iodine. Consequently, it is necessary to understand the cycling of iodine through the different components of the Earth system. Although increas-ing research effort in the form of field, laboratory and modeling studies has strongly improved our knowledge and understanding of iodine abundances and impact, still many open questions remain. The relevance of iodine on a global scale is not well known yet; sources are not well quantified and release processes are not fully understood. Since recently, IO may be observed from space by the SCIAMACHY instrument on the EN-VISAT satellite, which is in a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit. Nadir observations from SCIAMACHY have been analysed for the IO absorption signature in the visible wavelength range for several mission years. IO amounts are typically close to the limit of detectability of SCIAMACHY. Detecting such small quantities, careful attention needs to be paid to system-atic errors, spectral correlations and resulting retrieval artefacts. Subsequently, appropriate temporal averaging is utilised to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The resulting

  1. Lithium-iodine pacemaker cell

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.A.; Snyder, S.E.; DeVan, T.; Harney, M.J.; Harney, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The lithium-iodine pacemaker cell is described as supplied by several manufacturers. The features of each design are discussed along with their effect on energy density, self-discharge and shape of the discharge curve. Differences in performance characteristics are related to morphology of the lithium iodine electrolyte and to the form of the cathode. A new, high-drain cell is mentioned which can supply 60 /mu/a/cm/sup 2/. 10 refs.

  2. [Iodine deficiency in cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Molnár, I; Magyari, M; Stief, L

    1998-08-30

    The thyroid hormone deficiency on cardiovascular function can be characterized with decreased myocardial contractility and increased peripheral vascular resistance as well as with the changes in lipid metabolism. 42 patients with cardiovascular disease (mean age 65 +/- 13 yr, 16 males) were investigated if iodine insufficiency can play a role as a risk factor for the cardiovascular diseases. The patients were divided in 5 subgroups on the ground of the presence of hypertension, congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, coronary disfunction and arrhythmia. Urine iodine concentration (5.29 +/- 4.52 micrograms/dl) was detected with Sandell-Kolthoff colorimetric reaction. The most decreased urine iodine concentration was detected in the subgroups with arrhythmia and congestive heart failure (4.7 +/- 4.94 micrograms/dl and 4.9 +/- 4.81 micrograms/dl, respectively). An elevated TSH level was found by 3 patients (5.3 +/- 1.4 mlU/l). An elevation in lipid metabolism (cholesterol, triglyceride) associated with all subgroups without arrhythmia. In conclusion, the occurrence of iodine deficiency in cardiovascular disease is frequent. Iodine supplementation might prevent the worsing effect of iodine deficiency on cardiovascular disease.

  3. High-Performance Water-Iodinating Cartridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard; Gibbons, Randall E.; Flanagan, David T.

    1993-01-01

    High-performance cartridge contains bed of crystalline iodine iodinates water to near saturation in single pass. Cartridge includes stainless-steel housing equipped with inlet and outlet for water. Bed of iodine crystals divided into layers by polytetrafluoroethylene baffles. Holes made in baffles and positioned to maximize length of flow path through layers of iodine crystals. Resulting concentration of iodine biocidal; suppresses growth of microbes in stored water or disinfects contaminated equipment. Cartridge resists corrosion and can be stored wet. Reused several times before necessary to refill with fresh iodine crystals.

  4. PRODUCTION OF RADIOACTIVE IODINE.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHLYER,D.J.

    2001-08-08

    Probably the most widely used cyclotron produced radiohalogen is I-123. It has gradually replaced I-131 as the isotope of choice for diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals containing radioiodine. It gives a much lower radiation dose to the patient and the gamma ray energy of 159 keV is ideally suited for use in a gamma camera. The gamma ray will penetrate tissue very effectively without excessive radiation dose. For this reason, it has in many instances replaced the reactor produced iodine-131 (Lambrecht and Wolf 1973). A great number of radiopharmaceuticals have been labeled using I-123 and the number is increasing. One of the most promising uses of I-123 is in the imaging of monoclonal antibodies to localize and visualize tumors. However, preclinical and clinical experiences with radiolabeled antibodies have not realized the expectations regarding specificity and sensitivity of tumor localization with these agents. It appears that much of the administered activity is not associated with the tumor site and only a small fraction actually accumulates there. Work continues in this area and tumor-associated antigens can be targets for specific antibody reagents.

  5. [Contribution of natural mineral water to the iodine supply of the population].

    PubMed

    Kirchner, S; Stelz, A; Muskat, E

    1996-10-01

    Most parts of Germany are iodine deficiency areas. Daily iodine intake may be increased by food with high iodine content. Therefore determination of iodine in different foodstuffs is of importance. Aim of our work was to develop a method for mineral waters. Besides, we wanted to find out to what extent natural mineral waters can contribute to the iodine supply of the population. The method is based on the reaction of the halogenids iodide and bromide with ethylene oxide in a sulfuric acid medium while converting into 2-iodo- and 2-bromoethanol. After extraction, the reaction products are determined by capillary gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The method was modified for mineral waters. Single results were confirmed by ICP-MS. For mineral waters the limits of determination are 3 micrograms/L for iodide and 42 micrograms/L for bromide. The investigation of mineral waters from Hessen showed, that only few sources contain iodide in remarkable amounts. Therefore a considerable improvement of iodide intake is possible only with single mineral waters.

  6. Short communication: Iodine concentrations in serum, milk, and tears after feeding Ascophyllum nodosum to dairy cows-A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sorge, U S; Henriksen, M; Bastan, A; Cremers, N; Olsen, K; Crooker, B A

    2016-10-01

    Kelp (Ascophyllum nodosum) is rich in iodine and often fed by organic dairy producers as a mineral supplement to support animal health. A commonly held belief is that kelp supplementation decreases susceptibility to infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis due to increased iodine concentrations in tears. Whereas serum and milk iodine concentrations are positively correlated and modulated by oral iodine supplementation, nothing is known about the iodine concentration of tears. Therefore, the 3 objectives of this pilot study were to determine (1) the iodine content of tears, milk, and serum of cows after being fed kelp for 30d; (2) the trace mineral and thyroid status of cows before (d 0) and after being fed kelp for 30d; and (3) the in vitro growth rate of bacteria in tears (Moraxella bovis) or milk (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus uberis) collected from cows fed no kelp (d 0) or kelp (d 30). Cows (n=3/treatment) were individually fed 56g of kelp per day (n=3/treatment) or not (n=3/no treatment) for 30 d. Daily feed intake of the TMR was recorded and weekly TMR, kelp, milk, blood and tear samples were collected and analyzed for iodine. The feed samples were pooled and further analyzed for other minerals. On d 0 and 30, liver biopsies and blood samples were collected and analyzed for mineral content and thyroid hormone concentrations, respectively. An inhibition test used milk and tear-soaked plates from kelp-fed cows (d 0 and 30) as well as 1 and 7.5% iodine as positive and distilled water as negative control. As expected, serum iodine concentrations were positively correlated with milk and tear iodine concentrations. Whereas the iodine concentrations in serum increased significantly in the kelp-fed cows during the 30-d study, milk and tear iodine concentrations increased only numerically in these cows compared with the control group. Liver mineral profiles were comparable between groups and generally did not change over the course of the study

  7. Protein intake and bone health.

    PubMed

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe

    2011-03-01

    Adequate nutrition plays an important role in the development and maintenance of bone structures resistant to usual mechanical stresses. In addition to calcium in the presence of an adequate supply of vitamin D, dietary proteins represent key nutrients for bone health and thereby function in the prevention of osteoporosis. Several studies point to a positive effect of high protein intake on bone mineral density or content. This fact is associated with a significant reduction in hip fracture incidence, as recorded in a large prospective study carried out in a homogeneous cohort of postmenopausal women. Low protein intake (< 0.8 g/kg body weight/day) is often observed in patients with hip fractures and an intervention study indicates that following orthopedic management, protein supplementation attenuates post-fracture bone loss, tends to increase muscle strength, and reduces medical complications and rehabilitation hospital stay. There is no evidence that high protein intake per se would be detrimental for bone mass and strength. Nevertheless, it appears reasonable to avoid very high protein diets (i. e. more than 2.0 g/kg body weight/day) when associated with low calcium intake (i. e. less than 600 mg/day). In the elderly, taking into account the attenuated anabolic response to dietary protein with ageing, there is concern that the current dietary protein recommended allowance (RDA), as set at 0.8 g/kg body weight/day, might be too low for the primary and secondary prevention of fragility fractures. PMID:22139564

  8. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise.

  9. The epidemiology of iodine-deficiency diseases in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, T; Guo, J; Wang, F

    1993-02-01

    Iodine-deficiency diseases (IDDs) are wide-spread in China, distributed mainly in the inland and mountainous regions. About one-third of the total Chinese population lives in IDD-endemic areas. The severity of IDD is related to the severity of iodine deficiency. All the selenium-deficient areas of China are also IDD-endemic areas; however, IDD can be very severe in areas where selenium status is thought to be adequate. The distribution of myxedematous cretinism in China is not related to selenium deficiency. In the Tarim Basin, the selenium status of the population is normal and myxedematous cretinism is prevalent. In the northeastern regions of China, selenium deficiency is common and neurological cretinism is very rare.

  10. NOVEL INSIGHTS ON INTAKE OF MEAT AND PREVENTION OF SARCOPENIA: ALL REASONS FOR AN ADEQUATE CONSUMPTION.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena Anna; Peroni, Gabriella; Infantino, Vittoria; Pozzi, Raffaella

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: la sarcopenia se define como un síndrome caracterizado por la pérdida progresiva y generalizada de la masa muscular y de la fuerza. La principal causa de la sarcopenia es la alteración del metabolismo de las proteínas, en la que los procesos proteolíticos no van acompañados de una síntesis de proteínas y células musculares adecuadas, con lo que se pierde progresivamente la sensibilidad al estímulo anabólico. El enfoque más racional para retrasar la progresión de la sarcopenia y contrarrestar la resistencia anabólica es una nutrición adecuada. La carne contiene compuestos biológicamente activos, tales como creatina, carnitina y ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA) que tienen impactos significativos sobre el metabolismo de la proteína humana. Métodos: se realizó una revisión de la literatura narrativa para evaluar la evidencia hasta ahora, en relación con: 1. ingesta adecuada de carne en ancianos como prevención de la sarcopenia; 2. la ingesta correcta de compuestos biológicamente activos que contiene la carne, que tienen impactos significativos sobre el metabolismo de la proteína humana y para así obtener efectos beneficiosos en la prevención de la sarcopenia. Esta revisión incluyó 62 estudios elegibles. Resultados: los resultados demostraron que en personas de edad avanzada la terapia óptima con dieta para la prevención y tratamiento de la sarcopenia, que debe apuntar al logro de los objetivos metabólicos específicos, debe recomendar el consumo de 113 g de carne (220 kcal; 30 g de proteínas) cinco veces a la semana. Conclusión: en una dieta variada y equilibrada, para prevenir la sarcopenia, se recomienda consumir la carne 4-5 veces a la semana (carne blanca 2 veces por semana, carne roja magra menos de 2 veces por semana, carne procesada menos de 1 vez por semana), como se sugiere en la pirámide de la dieta para personas mayores.

  11. Applications of Dietary Reference Intakes in dietary assessment and planning.

    PubMed

    Barr, Susan I

    2006-02-01

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are used for assessing and planning diets of individuals and groups. Assessing individual intakes is complicated by the fact that neither the individual's usual nutrient intake nor their individual requirement is known. However, the degree of confidence that intakes are adequate or excessive can be estimated. Assessing diets of groups requires information on the group's usual nutrient intake distribution, which can be obtained by statistically adjusting 1 d intake distributions to remove within-person variability. For most nutrients with an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), the group prevalence of inadequate intakes can be approximated by the percent whose usual intakes are less than the EAR. However, the prevalence of inadequacy cannot be determined for nutrients with an Adequate Intake (AI). The goals of planning are a low risk (for individuals) or low prevalence (for groups) of inadequate or excessive nutrient intakes. For individuals, these goals are met by planning intakes that meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or AI, are below the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), and fall within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs). For groups, planning involves estimating a "target" usual intake distribution with an acceptably low prevalence less than the EAR and greater than the UL, planning menus to achieve the target distribution, and assessing the results.

  12. Effect of thiocyanate levels in milk on thyroid function in iodine deficient subjects.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, P A; Bergmark, A; Eltom, M; Björck, L; Claesson, O

    1985-05-01

    To utilize the antibacterial effect of the lactoperoxidase system to prevent bacterial spoilage of raw milk it is necessary to increase the thiocyanate concentration of the milk. Thiocyanate has, however, a potent antithyroid effect which is enhanced by iodine deficiency. In this study the thyroid function has been studied, before and after 4 weeks daily administration of 250 ml of such treated milk, in 55 goitrous subjects living in an endemic goiter region of western Sudan. The iodine content was 0.1 mg/l and the thiocyanate content was either 3.6 mg/l (n 19) or 19 mg/l (n 36) in the milk. At the start of the experiment all subjects were iodine deficient with a urinary excretion of 40-50 micrograms/g creatinine. After 4 weeks daily intake of 4.75 mg of thiocyanate by way of milk the serum thiocyanate level increased by approximately 1.7 mg/l. Both at the beginning and at the end of the experimental period the serum levels of thyroxine, triiodothyronine and TSH were in the normal range for all subjects. After 4 weeks the TSH levels had decreased significantly, (from 2.6 +/- 0.2 to 2.1 +/- 0.2 mU/l, p less than 0.001) probably as an effect of the supplementary intake of iodine. The thyroid hormone levels remained unchanged during the experimental period. In conclusion, the intake of milk with an iodine concentration of 0.1 mg/l and a thiocyanate concentration of 19 mg/l does not have a negative effect on the thyroid function in iodine deficient subjects.

  13. Trace mineral intake from food sources of a collegiate team

    SciTech Connect

    Spillman, D.M.; Angello, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    The collegiate wrestler must maintain a delicate weight balance in order to wrestle in his optimum division. The wrestler constantly restricts dietary intake to maintain the best wrestling weight but often sacrifices good nutrition in order to do this. Twenty members of the Miami University Wrestling Team kept diaries for 3 or 5 days. These diets were analyzed for total calories, carbohydrate, fat and protein intakes as well as copper, iodine, fluoride, chromium, molybdenum, selenium, zinc and manganese. The diets averaged 55% carbohydrate, 16% protein and 29% fat. However, all of the investigated minerals were found to be consumed in low quantities. The following are averages of the mineral intake: copper-1.51 mg, iodine-79.91 ug, fluoride-601,06 ug, chromium-0.0115 mg, molybdenum-46.56 ug, selenium-0.035 mg, zinc-7.46 mg and manganese-1.36 mg. These low mineral intakes may be due to the low calorie intake of the wrestlers. A low caloric intake is typical for wrestlers and thus these low mineral intakes may also be typical.

  14. Development of a chemical oxygen - iodine laser with production of atomic iodine in a chemical reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Censky, M; Spalek, O; Jirasek, V; Kodymova, J; Jakubec, I

    2009-11-30

    The alternative method of atomic iodine generation for a chemical oxygen - iodine laser (COIL) in chemical reactions with gaseous reactants is investigated experimentally. The influence of the configuration of iodine atom injection into the laser cavity on the efficiency of the atomic iodine generation and small-signal gain is studied. (lasers)

  15. Synthetic applications of pseudocyclic hypervalent iodine compounds.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Akira; Yusubov, Mekhman S; Zhdankin, Viktor V

    2016-06-01

    Hypervalent iodine compounds have found wide practical application as versatile, efficient, and sustainable reagents for organic synthesis. Pseudocyclic hypervalent iodine derivatives are characterized by the presence of additional intramolecular non-covalent coordination at the iodine center, which leads to significant alteration of their physical and chemical properties. In comparison with common hypervalent iodine reagents, these pseudocyclic compounds have higher thermal stability, better solubility, and improved reactivity. In recent years, pseudocyclic hypervalent iodine reagents are increasingly used in organic synthesis as environmentally friendly selective oxidants and electrophiles. Furthermore, numerous enantioselective reactions mediated by chiral pseudocyclic hypervalent iodine species have been recently developed. In the present review, the preparation and structural features of pseudocyclic iodine(iii) and iodine(v) derivatives are discussed, and recent developments in their synthetic applications are summarized. PMID:27143521

  16. The Absorption Spectrum of Iodine Vapour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetlow, K. S.

    1972-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described which presents some molecular parameters of iodine molecule by studying iodine spectrum. Points out this experiment can be conducted by sixth form students in high school laboratories. (PS)

  17. Carbohydrate intake.

    PubMed

    Leturque, Armelle; Brot-Laroche, Edith; Le Gall, Maude

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates represent more than 50% of the energy sources present in most human diets. Sugar intake is regulated by metabolic, neuronal, and hedonic factors, and gene polymorphisms are involved in determining sugar preference. Nutrigenomic adaptations to carbohydrate availability have been evidenced in metabolic diseases, in the persistence of lactose digestion, and in amylase gene copy number. Furthermore, dietary oligosaccharides, fermentable by gut flora, can modulate the microbiotal diversity to the benefit of the host. Genetic diseases linked to mutations in the disaccharidase genes (sucrase-isomaltase, lactase) and in sugar transporter genes (sodium/glucose cotransporter 1, glucose transporters 1 and 2) severely impact carbohydrate intake. These diseases are revealed upon exposure to food containing the offending sugar, and withdrawal of this sugar from the diet prevents disease symptoms, failure to thrive, and premature death. Tailoring the sugar composition of diets to optimize wellness and to prevent the chronic occurrence of metabolic diseases is a future goal that may yet be realized through continued development of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics approaches. PMID:22656375

  18. Towards graphene iodide: iodination of graphite oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimek, Petr; Klímová, Kateřina; Sedmidubský, David; Jankovský, Ondřej; Pumera, Martin; Sofer, Zdeněk

    2014-11-01

    Halogenated graphene derivatives are interesting owing to their outstanding physical and chemical properties. In this paper, we present various methods for the synthesis of iodinated graphene derivatives by the iodination of graphite oxides prepared according to either the Hummers or Hofmann method. Both graphite oxides were iodinated by iodine or hydroiodic acid under reflux or in an autoclave at elevated temperatures (240 °C) and pressures (over 100 bar). The influence of both graphite oxide precursors on the properties of resulting iodinated graphenes was investigated by various techniques, including SEM, SEM-EDS, high-resolution XPS, FTIR, STA, and Raman spectroscopy. Electrical resistivity was measured by a standard four point technique. In addition, the electrochemical properties were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Although the iodinated graphenes were structurally similar, they had remarkably different concentrations of iodine. The most highly iodinated graphenes (iodine concentration above 30 wt%) exhibited relatively high C/O ratios, confirming high degrees of reduction. Iodine is incorporated in the form of covalent bonds to carbon atoms or as polyiodide anions non-covalently bonded through the charge transfer reaction with the graphene framework. Iodinated graphenes with such properties could be used as the starting material for further chemical modifications or as flame-retardant additives.Halogenated graphene derivatives are interesting owing to their outstanding physical and chemical properties. In this paper, we present various methods for the synthesis of iodinated graphene derivatives by the iodination of graphite oxides prepared according to either the Hummers or Hofmann method. Both graphite oxides were iodinated by iodine or hydroiodic acid under reflux or in an autoclave at elevated temperatures (240 °C) and pressures (over 100 bar). The influence of both graphite oxide precursors on the properties of resulting iodinated graphenes was

  19. [Iodine levels in food and soil in different regions in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Taga, Ibrahim; Sameza, Modeste Lambert; Kayo, Anne Valerie; Ngogang, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Iodine deficiency diseases (IDD) are a public health problem in many developing countries, such as Cameroon. They are often the consequence of insufficient iodine intake and/or the effect of thiocyanate in foods such as cassava; this chemical inhibits iodine fixation by the thyroid gland. One method of combatting these diseases is to counsel and encourage the consumptions of iodine-rich foods. We accordingly undertook an evaluation of the iodine content of staple foods, the soil, and the salt in some zones of western Cameroon and in the capital. Food (63), salt (04) and soil (05) samples were collected in four villages of western Cameroon, and food (20), water (18) and salt samples (14) were collected in Yaoundé (central province). Iodine content in foods and soils was assessed by the catalytic destructive testing of thiocyanate by nitrate in the presence of iodine. Iodine content in water was determined colorimetrically after mineralization and in salt by volumetric methods. Results show that iodine levels in salt depend on its origin, but was much lower than the 50-100 ppm recommended by the WHO. Soil and water levels depended on the stream and the origin. Several of the more than 20 foods sampled from Yaoundé had iodine concentrations higher than 10 microg/100 g: plantain (22.5 microg/100 g), wheat flour (21 microg/100 g), corn flour (17.75 microg/100 g), groundnuts (12.5 microg/100 g), sweet potatoes (12.25 microg/100 g), zoom (11.34 microg/100 g) and rice (10.45 microg /100 g). In western villages, we noted that iodine levels in food crops depended on the soil levels. Nevertheless, it was high in cocoyam (79.5 microg/100 g), yarns (68 microg/100 g), potatoes (62 microg/100 g), plantains (58.15 microg/100 g), and red beans (53.93 microg/100 g). In general, these crops contain more iodine than the food in Yaoundé; these results can be used to combat IDD, especially among young children, teenagers and pregnant women.

  20. Adequate mathematical modelling of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    In environmental observations and laboratory visualization both large scale flow components like currents, jets, vortices, waves and a fine structure are registered (different examples are given). The conventional mathematical modeling both analytical and numerical is directed mostly on description of energetically important flow components. The role of a fine structures is still remains obscured. A variety of existing models makes it difficult to choose the most adequate and to estimate mutual assessment of their degree of correspondence. The goal of the talk is to give scrutiny analysis of kinematics and dynamics of flows. A difference between the concept of "motion" as transformation of vector space into itself with a distance conservation and the concept of "flow" as displacement and rotation of deformable "fluid particles" is underlined. Basic physical quantities of the flow that are density, momentum, energy (entropy) and admixture concentration are selected as physical parameters defined by the fundamental set which includes differential D'Alembert, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations and closing equation of state. All of them are observable and independent. Calculations of continuous Lie groups shown that only the fundamental set is characterized by the ten-parametric Galilelian groups reflecting based principles of mechanics. Presented analysis demonstrates that conventionally used approximations dramatically change the symmetries of the governing equations sets which leads to their incompatibility or even degeneration. The fundamental set is analyzed taking into account condition of compatibility. A high order of the set indicated on complex structure of complete solutions corresponding to physical structure of real flows. Analytical solutions of a number problems including flows induced by diffusion on topography, generation of the periodic internal waves a compact sources in week-dissipative media as well as numerical solutions of the same

  1. Sublimation of Iodine at Various Pressures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenson, Ilya A.

    2005-01-01

    Various phenomena that are observed in the process of heating solid iodine in closed vessels at different pressures and temperatures are described. When solid iodine is heated in an evacuated ampoule where the pressure is less than 10(super -3), no noticeable color appears and immediate condensation of tiny iodine crystals is visible higher up on…

  2. Iodine losses during Winkler titrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, George P.; Stalcup, Marvel C.; Stanley, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment designed to measure iodine loss during the aliquot version of the Winkler titration for dissolved oxygen in seawater shows that 0.01-0.03 ml l -1 equivalent oxygen is lost at typical oceanic concentrations in the method presently used. A standardization technique, which mimics that employed during the titration of seawater samples, compensates for this iodine loss throughout the oceanic range. This result, contradicting an earlier report by GREEN and CARRITT (1966, Analyst, 91, 207-208), demonstrates that the whole-bottle method of oxygen titration is not to be preferred over the aliquot method.

  3. Role of dietary iodine and cruciferous vegetables in thyroid cancer: a countrywide case-control study in New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thérèse; Baron-Dubourdieu, Dominique; Rougier, Yannick; Guénel, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Exceptionally high incidence rates of thyroid cancer have been reported in New Caledonia, particularly in Melanesian women. To clarify the reasons of this elevated incidence, we conducted a countrywide population-based case-control study in the multiethnic population of Caledonian women. The study included 293 cases of thyroid cancer and 354 population controls. Based on a food frequency questionnaire, we investigated the role in thyroid cancer of food items rich in iodine – such as seafood – and of vegetables containing goitrogens – such as cruciferous vegetables. A measure of total daily iodine intake based on a food composition table was also used. Our findings provided little support for an association between thyroid cancer and consumption of fish and seafood. We found that high consumption of cruciferous vegetables was associated with thyroid cancer among women with low iodine intake (OR=1.86; 95% CI: 1.01–3.43 for iodine intake < 96 μg/day). The high consumption of cruciferous vegetables among Melanesian women, a group with mild iodine deficiency, may contribute to explain the exceptionally high incidence of thyroid cancer in this group. PMID:20361352

  4. Advanced prototype automated iodine monitor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The technique of detecting and measuring parts-per-million concentrations of aqueous iodine by direct spectrophotometric means is discussed, and development of a prototype Automated Iodine Monitoring/Controller System (AIMS) is elaborated. The present effort is directed primarily toward reducing the power requirement and the weight of the AIMS. Other objectives include determining the maximum concentration of iodine that can be dissolved in an alcohol solution, and in an aqueous potassium iodide solution. Also discussed are the effects of a no flow condition on iodine measurements and the effect of pH on spectrophotometric iodine determinations.

  5. Does iodine supplementation of the prepartum dairy cow diet affect serum immunoglobulin G concentration, iodine, and health status of the calf?

    PubMed

    Conneely, M; Berry, D P; Sayers, R; Murphy, J P; Doherty, M L; Lorenz, I; Kennedy, E

    2014-01-01

    Absorption of adequate IgG from colostrum is critical to provide the newborn calf with adequate immunological protection and resistance to disease. Excessive iodine supplementation of the prepartum ewe reduces IgG absorption of her offspring; it is possible that excessive iodine supplementation of the prepartum dairy cow may similarly impair the ability of the calf to acquire immunological protection. The objectives of this study were to determine whether the iodine status, health status, and ability of calves to absorb IgG from colostrum were affected by prepartum iodine supplementation strategies of their dams. Dairy cows (n=127) received one of the following levels of iodine supplementation precalving: 15mg of iodine/kg of dietary dry matter (DM) (HI); no additional iodine supplementation (MI); 5mg/kg of dietary DM (SI); and 15mg of iodine/kg of DM for the first 3.5wk of the precalving period and no additional supplementation for the second 3.5wk (HMI). Calves were assigned to 1 of 6 experimental treatments, based on the prepartum iodine supplementation treatment of their dam and the precalving treatment group of the cows from which the colostrum fed was obtained: (1) HI_HI: born to HI dams, fed HI colostrum (i.e., colostrum produced by cows in the HI group); (2) MI_MI: born to MI dams, fed MI colostrum; (3) SI_SI: born to SI dams, fed SI colostrum; (4) HI_MI: born to HI dams, fed MI colostrum; (5) MI_HI: born to MI dams, fed HI colostrum; and (6) HMI_HMI: born to HMI dams, fed HMI colostrum. Concentration of calf serum IgG and plasma inorganic iodine (PII) was measured at 0 and 24h of age. Apparent efficiency of absorption for IgG was determined. Health scores were assigned to calves twice weekly and all episodes of disease were recorded. Cow experimental treatment group affected calf PII at 0h of age; the PII of calves born to HI dams (987.2µg/L) was greater than that of calves born to MI dams (510.1µg/L), SI (585.2µg/L), and HMI dams (692.9µg/L). Calf

  6. Iodine supplementation in pregnancy - is it time?

    PubMed

    Taylor, P N; Vaidya, B

    2016-07-01

    Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormone and optimal foetal neurological development. Pregnant women living in borderline or moderate-severe iodine deficient areas are at particularly high risk of being iodine deficient, and this may have important clinical consequences, particularly for the neurocognitive development of the offspring. It is a substantial problem and many countries including the United Kingdom are mild-moderately iodine deficient. Although the detrimental effects of severe iodine deficiency are well recognized, the benefits of correcting mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency are unclear due to a lack of randomized controlled trials in this area. However, observational data increasingly indicate that there may be substantial health and economic benefits from correcting iodine deficiency in pregnancy. There is now a growing trend from learned societies that iodine supplementation should be utilized in pregnancy in countries with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. The dose of iodine supplement needs to reflect local iodine status and iodization policies and will need careful monitoring at the population level to ensure doses to prevent under/excess dosing which would undermine the potential benefits. National tailored guidance is therefore essential. PMID:26998765

  7. Summary of an NIH workshop to identify research needs to improve the monitoring of iodine status in the United States and to inform the DRI.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Christine A; Zimmermann, Michael B; Skeaff, Sheila; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Dwyer, Johanna T; Trumbo, Paula R; Zehaluk, Christina; Andrews, Karen W; Carriquiry, Alicia; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Egan, S Kathleen; Long, Stephen E; Bailey, Regan Lucas; Sullivan, Kevin M; Holden, Joanne M; Betz, Joseph M; Phinney, Karen W; Brooks, Stephen P J; Johnson, Clifford L; Haggans, Carol J

    2012-06-01

    The Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the NIH sponsored a workshop on May 12-13, 2011, to bring together representatives from various NIH institutes and centers as a first step in developing an NIH iodine research initiative. The workshop also provided an opportunity to identify research needs that would inform the dietary reference intakes for iodine, which were last revised in 2001. Iodine is required throughout the life cycle, but pregnant women and infants are the populations most at risk of deficiency, because iodine is required for normal brain development and growth. The CDC monitors iodine status of the population on a regular basis, but the status of the most vulnerable populations remains uncertain. The NIH funds very little investigator-initiated research relevant to iodine and human nutrition, but the ODS has worked for several years with a number of other U.S. government agencies to develop many of the resources needed to conduct iodine research of high quality (e.g., validated analytical methods and reference materials for multiple types of samples). Iodine experts, scientists from several U.S. government agencies, and NIH representatives met for 2 d to identify iodine research needs appropriate to the NIH mission. PMID:22551802

  8. [Case of the month. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis due to an iodinated contrast radiodiagnostic agent].

    PubMed

    Paquet, P; Vandenbossche, G; Nikkels, A F; Henry, F; Piérard, G E

    2009-12-01

    Iodinated contrast agents are frequently involved in delayed polymorphic adverse skin reactions. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis following administration of iodinated contrast agents is a rare but severe form of such reactions. The disease is characterized by the sudden occurrence of an erosive and pustular erythroderma with fever, leukocytosis and sometimes peripheral adenopathies and liver involvement. This condition is considered as an immunologic reaction, primarily involving T lymphocytes. The overall mortality reaches about 1%. Elucidating the differential diagnosis with other acute paroxysmal drug eruptions (toxic epidermal necrolysis, Steven-Johnson syndrome and drug hypersensitivity syndrome) is of paramount importance for establishing the adequate treatment of PEAG.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Ultrarapidly Dissolving Orodispersible Films for Treating and Preventing Iodine Deficiency in the Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Rustemkyzy, Cholpon; Belton, Peter; Qi, Sheng

    2015-11-11

    Iodine deficiency is a public health problem that is easily prevented in many countries through having a salt iodization program. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that particular population groups including infants and young children have a sufficient level of daily iodine intake, while also reducing salt consumption in their diet. While many iodine supplements are available, swallowing tablet supplements is physically difficult for young children; thus, there is a need for the development of novel iodine delivery systems for pediatric patients. In this study a novel, ultrarapidly dissolving, nanofiber-based orodispersible film formulation containing iodine which is constructed from nanofibers was manufactured using an electrospinning technique. The potassium iodate (KIO3)-loaded poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) fiber orodispersible films dissolve within seconds on wetting (applying on the tongue) without the need for the consumption of water. The electrospinning process and KIO3 loading did not alter the crystallinity and conformation of PEO. With high loading, KIO3 nanocrystals are present in the fibers. This formulation design allows easy administration of iodine for preventing childhood iodine deficiency. We have also described a novel and easy method for producing and harvesting nanocrystals of inorganic salts that can be potentially adopted for use in other relevant fields.

  10. Iodine concentration in household salt in South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Jooste, P. L.; Weight, M. J.; Lombard, C. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the iodine concentration in household salt, the coverage of adequately iodized salt, the use of non-iodized agricultural and producers' salt, and the usefulness of salt as a carrier of iodine, and to relate these observations to socioeconomic status in South Africa. METHOD: The iodometric titration method was used to analyse 2043 household salt samples collected using a national, multistage, stratified, cluster survey. FINDINGS: The national mean and median iodine concentrations of household salt were 27 mg/kg (95% confidence interval (CI): 25-29 mg/kg) and 30 mg/kg (range = 0-155 mg/kg), respectively. There was considerable variation within and between geographical areas. Coverage of adequately iodized household salt, i.e. iodized at > 15 mg/kg, was 62.4% of households (95% CI: 58.8-66.0%) two years after the introduction of compulsory iodization at a level of 40-60 mg/kg. A total of 7.3% of households used non-iodized agricultural salt and salt obtained directly from producers. People at the lower end of the socioeconomic spectrum were more likely to suffer the consequences of using under-iodized salt because more of them used agricultural or coarse salt than did people in the higher socioeconomic categories. The iodine concentration in salt was lower in rural areas than in urban and periurban areas. CONCLUSIONS: The consequences of using under-iodized or non-iodized salt were most likely to be experienced in the country's three northern provinces, among people in the low socioeconomic categories, and in rural households. Since 95.4% of households in South Africa use salt regularly and 2.9% use it occasionally, the national iodization programme has the potential to meet the iodine requirements of the population. However, this can only be achieved if the primary reasons for the inadequate iodization of salt are eliminated and if special attention is given to vulnerable groups. PMID:11436475

  11. Geochemical Cycling of Iodine Species in Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Moran, J E; Blackwood, V

    2007-08-23

    Iodine is an important element in studies of environmental protection and human health, global-scale hydrologic processes and nuclear nonproliferation. Biogeochemical cycling of iodine in soils is complex, because iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states and as inorganic and organic species that may be hydrophilic, atmophilic, and biophilic. In this study, we applied new analytical techniques to study the content and speciation of stable iodine in representative surface soils, and sorption and transport behavior of iodine species (iodide, iodate, and 4-iodoaniline) in sediments collected at numerous nuclear facilities in the United States, where anthropogenic {sup 129}I from prior nuclear fuel processing activities poses an environmental risk. The surface soil samples were chosen for their geographic locations (e.g., near the ocean or nuclear facilities) and for their differing physico-chemical characteristics (organic matter, texture, etc). Extracted solutions were analyzed by IC and ICP-MS methods to determine iodine concentrations and to examine iodine speciation (iodide, iodate, and organic iodine). In natural soils, iodine is mostly (nearly 90% of total iodine) present as organic species, while inorganic iodine becomes important (up to 50%) only in sediments with low organic matter. Results from laboratory column studies, aimed at examining transport of different iodine species, showed much greater retardation of 4-iodoaniline than iodide or iodate. Careful attention must be given to potential interconversion among species when interpreting the biogeochemical behavior of iodine in the environment. In addition to speciation, input concentration and residence time effects will influence the biogeochemical cycling of anthropogenic 129I deposited on surface soils.

  12. The geochemistry of iodine - a review.

    PubMed

    Fuge, R; Johnson, C C

    1986-06-01

    Iodine has long been recognised as an important element environmentally. Despite this there are many gaps in our knowledge of its geochemistry and even where information is available much of this is based on old data which, in the light of recent data, are suspect.Iodine forms few independent minerals and is unlikely to enter most rock-forming minerals. In igneous rocks its concentration is fairly uniform and averages 0.24 mg/kg. Sedimentary rocks tend to have higher concentrations with average iodine contents of:-recent sediments 5-200 mg/kg, carbonates 2.7 mg/kg, shales 2.3 mg/kg and sandstones 0.8 mg/kg. Organic-rich sediments are particularly enriched in iodine.Soils, generally, are much richer in iodine than the parent rocks with the actual level being decided mainly by soil type and locality. Little soil iodine is water-soluble and much iodine is thought to be associated with organic matter, clays and aluminium and iron oxides. Most iodine in soils is derived from the atmosphere where, in turn, it has been derived from the oceans. Seawater has a mean iodine content of 58 μg/L, while non-saline surface waters have lower and very variable levels. Subsurface brines and mineral waters are generally strongly enriched in iodine.Marine plants are frequently enriched in iodine while terrestrial plants have generally low contents. Iodine is essential for all mammals.Consideration of the geochemical cycle of iodine reveals that its transfer from the oceans to the atmosphere is probably the most important process in its geochemistry.

  13. Salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: what is the most adequate preventive strategy? A Swiss perspective

    PubMed Central

    Burnier, Michel; Wuerzner, Gregoire; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-01-01

    Among the various strategies to reduce the incidence of non-communicable diseases reduction of sodium intake in the general population has been recognized as one of the most cost-effective means because of its potential impact on the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Yet, this strategic health recommendation of the WHO and many other international organizations is far from being universally accepted. Indeed, there are still several unresolved scientific and epidemiological questions that maintain an ongoing debate. Thus what is the adequate low level of sodium intake to recommend to the general population and whether national strategies should be oriented to the overall population or only to higher risk fractions of the population such as salt-sensitive patients are still discussed. In this paper, we shall review the recent results of the literature regarding salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk and we present the recommendations recently proposed by a group of experts of Switzerland. The propositions of the participating medical societies are to encourage national health authorities to continue their discussion with the food industry in order to reduce the sodium intake of food products with a target of mean salt intake of 5–6 grams per day in the population. Moreover, all initiatives to increase the information on the effect of salt on health and on the salt content of food are supported. PMID:26321959

  14. Review of analytical methods for the quantification of iodine in complex matrices.

    PubMed

    Shelor, C Phillip; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2011-09-19

    Iodine is an essential element of human nutrition. Nearly a third of the global population has insufficient iodine intake and is at risk of developing Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD). Most countries have iodine supplementation and monitoring programs. Urinary iodide (UI) is the biomarker used for epidemiological studies; only a few methods are currently used routinely for analysis. These methods either require expensive instrumentation with qualified personnel (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, instrumental nuclear activation analysis) or oxidative sample digestion to remove potential interferences prior to analysis by a kinetic colorimetric method originally introduced by Sandell and Kolthoff ~75 years ago. The Sandell-Kolthoff (S-K) method is based on the catalytic effect of iodide on the reaction between Ce(4+) and As(3+). No available technique fully fits the needs of developing countries; research into inexpensive reliable methods and instrumentation are needed. There have been multiple reviews of methods used for epidemiological studies and specific techniques. However, a general review of iodine determination on a wide-ranging set of complex matrices is not available. While this review is not comprehensive, we cover the principal developments since the original development of the S-K method.

  15. Iodine Status in Turkish Populations and Exposure to Iodide Uptake Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ozpinar, Aysel; Kelestimur, Fahrettin; Songur, Yildiran; Can, Ozge; Valentin, Liza; Caldwell, Kathleen; Arikan, Ender; Unsal, Ibrahim; Serteser, Mustafa; Inal, Tamer; Erdemgil, Yigit; Coskun, Abdurrahman; Bakirci, Nadi; Sezgin, Ozlem; Blount, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate are competitive inhibitors of the sodium iodide symporter of the thyroid membrane. These inhibitors can decrease iodine uptake by the symporter into the thyroid gland and may disrupt thyroid function. This study assesses iodine status and exposure to iodide uptake inhibitors of non-pregnant and non-lactating adult women living in three different cities in Turkey (Istanbul, Isparta and Kayseri). We measured iodine and iodide uptake inhibitors in 24-hr urines collected from study participants (N = 255). All three study populations were mildly iodine deficient, with median urinary iodine (UI) levels of 77.5 µg/L in Istanbul, 58.8 µg/L in Isparta, and 69.8 µg/L in Kayseri. Perchlorate doses were higher in the study population (median 0.13 µg/kg/day), compared with a reference population (median 0.059 µg/kg/day), but lower than the U.S. EPA reference dose (0.7 µg/kg/day). Urinary thiocyanate levels increased with increasing exposure to tobacco smoke, with non-smokers (268 µg/L) significantly lower than light smokers (1110 µg/L), who were significantly lower than heavy smokers (2410 µg/L). This pilot study provides novel data indicating that study participants were moderately iodine deficient and had higher intakes of the iodide uptake inhibitor perchlorate compared with a reference population. Further investigation is needed to characterize the thyroid impact resulting from iodine deficiency coupled with exposure to iodide uptake inhibitors such as perchlorate, thiocyanate and nitrate. PMID:24505430

  16. Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A secondary aim was to characterize the study population in terms of determinants of the total fluid intake requirements. Methods A child friendly “fluids and liquid food” diary was used to prospectively record the volume and frequency of beverage consumption over 7 days from 1045 schoolchildren. This diary also recorded the practice of physical activity. An adequate fluid intake was defined as an intake ≥ 75% of the age-specific adequate intake recommended by the EFSA. Results The median (P25-P75) of habitual daily fluid intake was 864 (608–1104) ml/day, with 355 (194–579) coming from drinking water. This habitual daily fluid intake varied significantly among the three investigated EFSA groups (girls and boys aged from 8 years, girls from 9 to 13 and boys from 9 to 13), except for the drinking water (P = 0.906). The highest medians of fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and milk and derivatives were found among boys of 9–13. Only 9.5% of the children had an adequate fluid intake, with a value of 19.2% among the 8 years old girls and boys, 7.0% among girls of 9–13 and 8.4% among boys of 9–13. In the whole sample, 27.7% of the children declared to drink less than 3-4x/day, 56% drunk water less than 2x/day and 7.7% drunk no water at all. Every day, 27.1% and 34.1% of the children drank respectively one fruit juice and one sugar-sweetened beverage. Conclusion Belgian schoolchildren have an inadequate total fluid intake. Given the potential health

  17. Graphs for 53-I (Iodine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides a graphic representation of nucleon separation energies and residual interaction parameters for isotopes of the chemical element 53-I (Iodine, atomic number Z = 53).

  18. Effect of iodine disinfectant source and water quality parameters on soluble iodine speciation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Joann; Hurst, Charles; Barkley, Robert; Dunham, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    Investigations of iodine species distribution of various aqueous solutions of iodine disinfectants and water from equilibrated suspensions of triodide and pentaiodide resins were done at the University of Colorado for the Center for Space Environmental Health during 1992 and 1993. Direct measurements of three individual iodine species: I(-), I2 and I3(-), were made. In addition three measures of total titratable iodine species were used. It has been found that I2 and I3(-) solutions produce a significant fraction of the non-disinfecting species iodine I(-), ranging from 50 to 80% of added iodine, respectively, at pH values of approximately 5. Correspondingly, I2 solutions produce more than twice the concentration of disinfecting iodine species per mass iodine dose than I3(-) solutions. Both I(-) and I2 species were found in aqeuous extracts of pentaiodide resin, although no soluble species were detected with triiodide resin.

  19. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) and their eradication.

    PubMed

    Hetzel, B S

    1983-11-12

    Disorders resulting from severe iodine deficiency affect more than 400 million people in Asia alone. These disorders include stillbirths, abortions, and congenital anomalies; endemic cretinism, characterised most commonly by mental deficiency, deaf mutism, and spastic diplegia and lesser degrees of neurological defect related to fetal iodine deficiency; and impaired mental function in children and adults with goitre associated with subnormal concentrations of circulating thyroxine. Use of the term iodine deficiency disorders, instead of "goitre", would help to bridge the serious gap between knowledge and its application. Iodised salt and iodised oil (by injection or by mouth) are suitable for the correction of iodine deficiency on a mass scale. A single dose of iodised oil can correct severe iodine deficiency for 3-5 years. Iodised oil offers a satisfactory immediate measure for primary care services until an iodised salt programme can be implemented. The complete eradication of iodine deficiency is therefore feasible within 5-10 years. PMID:6138653

  20. Atmospheric science: marine aerosols and iodine emissions.

    PubMed

    McFiggans, Gordon

    2005-02-10

    O'Dowd et al. describe the formation of marine aerosols from biogenic iodine and the growth of these aerosols into cloud-condensation nuclei (CCN). Based on chamber and modelling results, the authors suggest that biogenic organic iodine compounds emitted from macroalgae may be responsible for coastal particle bursts and that production of these compounds in the open ocean could increase CCN there too. It has since been shown that coastal particles are more likely to be produced from the photooxidation of molecular iodine. Moreover, I contend that open-ocean particle production and cloud enhancement do not result from emissions of organic iodine at atmospheric levels. For iodine particles to affect cloud properties over the remote ocean, an additional source of iodine is necessary as organic precursors cannot be responsible.

  1. Discovery and Early Uses of Iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2000-08-01

    The ancient Chinese recognized goiter and the therapeutic effects of burnt sponge and seaweed in reducing its size or causing its disappearance. The modern use of iodine in the prevention of goiter dates from 1830, when it was proposed that goiter is an iodine deficiency disease due to lack of iodine in the water supply. But unfavorable symptoms of iodism were frequent owing to overenthusiastic use and overdose of iodine. Consequently, iodide prophylaxis was discredited and abandoned. The presence of iodine in organic combination as a normal constituent of the thyroid was established in 1896 and the use of iodine in treatment and prevention of goiter was revived. In 1917 the general use of iodized salt in goitrous areas was shown to be effective in preventing simple endemic goiter.

  2. Injection of iodine to the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Baidar, S.; Cuevas, C. A.; Koenig, T. K.; Fernandez, R. P.; Dix, B.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Rodriguez-Lloveras, X.; Campos, T. L.; Volkamer, R.

    2015-08-01

    We report a new estimation of the injection of iodine into the stratosphere based on novel daytime (solar zenith angle < 45°) aircraft observations in the tropical tropopause layer and a global atmospheric model with the most recent knowledge about iodine photochemistry. The results indicate that significant levels of total reactive iodine (0.25-0.7 parts per trillion by volume), between 2 and 5 times larger than the accepted upper limits, can be injected into the stratosphere via tropical convective outflow. At these iodine levels, modeled iodine catalytic cycles account for up to 30% of the contemporary ozone loss in the tropical lower stratosphere and can exert a stratospheric ozone depletion potential equivalent to, or even larger than, that of very short-lived bromocarbons. Therefore, we suggest that iodine sources and chemistry need to be considered in assessments of the historical and future evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer.

  3. Atmospheric science: marine aerosols and iodine emissions.

    PubMed

    McFiggans, Gordon

    2005-02-10

    O'Dowd et al. describe the formation of marine aerosols from biogenic iodine and the growth of these aerosols into cloud-condensation nuclei (CCN). Based on chamber and modelling results, the authors suggest that biogenic organic iodine compounds emitted from macroalgae may be responsible for coastal particle bursts and that production of these compounds in the open ocean could increase CCN there too. It has since been shown that coastal particles are more likely to be produced from the photooxidation of molecular iodine. Moreover, I contend that open-ocean particle production and cloud enhancement do not result from emissions of organic iodine at atmospheric levels. For iodine particles to affect cloud properties over the remote ocean, an additional source of iodine is necessary as organic precursors cannot be responsible. PMID:15703706

  4. Disposal of radioactive iodine in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.; Defield, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of space disposal of iodine waste from nuclear power reactors is investigated. The space transportation system utilized relies upon the space shuttle, a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen orbit transfer vehicle, and a solid propellant final stage. The iodine is assumed to be in the form of either an iodide or an iodate, and calculations assume that the final destination is either solar orbit or solar system escape. It is concluded that space disposal of iodine is feasible.

  5. Salivary gland dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesenfeld, D.; Webster, G.; Cameron, F.; Ferguson, M.M.; MacFadyen, E.E.; MacFarlane, T.W.

    1983-02-01

    Radioactive iodine is used extensively for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid carcinoma. Iodine is actively taken up by the salivary glands and, following its use, salivary dysfunction may result as a consequence of radiation damage. The literature is reviewed and a case is reported in which a patient presented with a significant increase in caries rate attributed to salivary dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy for a thyroid carcinoma.

  6. Towards the eradication of iodine-deficiency disorders in Brazil through a salt iodination programme.

    PubMed

    Medeiros-Neto, G A

    1988-01-01

    Iodine-deficiency disorders have been a serious public health problem in Brazil because of the failure of a salt iodination programme established in 1953. The reasons for this failure were logistical, e.g., potassium iodide was not supplied to all salt-producers, iodination of salt was largely erratic, and part of the population at risk used only non-refined salt, which was not iodinated. In 1978 a task force was therefore formed to implement measures to eliminate iodine-deficiency disorders from the country. For this purpose, potassium iodate was distributed, free-of-charge, to all salt mills and an iodate dosing spray was supplied without cost to small salt producers. Also, regional laboratories for determining iodine in salt were set up, inspectors made regular visits to the salt mills, and samples of salt from commerce and from the producers were analysed. More than 90% of the samples contained 10-30 mg iodine per kg. In three typical areas of the country with endemic goitre the urinary excretion of iodine increased from an average of less than 40 mug iodine to 125 +/- 38 mug iodine per g creatinine. In conclusion, the salt iodination programme was a complete success and could serve as a model for other countries with a high prevalence of iodine-deficiency disorders.

  7. Chalcogenide aerogels as sorbents for radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Subrahmanyam, Kota S.; Sarma, Debajit; Malliakas, Christos; Polychronopoulou, Kyriaki; Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2015-04-14

    Iodine (129I) is one of the radionuclides released in nuclear fuel reprocessing and poses risk to public safety due to its involvement in human metabolic processes. In order to prevent the leaching of hazardous radioactive iodine into the environment, its effective capture and sequestration is pivotal. In the context of finding a suitable matrix for capturing radioactive iodine the chalcogels, NiMoS4, CoMoS4, Sb4Sn4S12, Zn2Sn2S6, and CoSx (x = 4-5) were explored as iodine sorbents. All the chalcogels showed high uptake, reaching up to 225 mass% (2.25 g/g) of the final mass owing to strong chemical and physical iodine-chalcogen interactions. Analysis of the iodine-loaded specimens revealed that the iodine chemically reacted with Sb4Sn4S12, Zn2Sn2S6, and CoSx to form metal complexes SbI3, SnI4, and, KI respectively. The NiMoS4 and CoMoS4 chalcogels did not appear to undergo a chemical reaction with iodine since iodide complexes were not observed with these samples. Once heated, the iodine-loaded chalcogels released iodine in the temperature range of 75 °C to 220 °C, depending on the nature of iodine speciation. In the case of Sb4Sn4S12 and Zn2Sn2S6 iodine release was observed around 150 °C in the form of SnI4 and SbI3, respectively. The NiMoS4, CoMoS4, and CoSx released iodine at ~75 °C, which is consistent with physisorbed iodine. Preliminary investigations on consolidation of iodine-loaded Zn2Sn2S6 with Sb2S3 as a glass forming additive showed the content of iodine in consolidated glass ingots at around 25 mass%.

  8. Injection of iodine to the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Baidar, Sunil; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Koening, Theodore; Fernandez, Rafael P.; Dix, Barbara; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Campos, Teresa L.; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    There are still many uncertainties about the influence of iodine chemistry in the stratosphere, as the real amount of reactive iodine injected to this layer the troposphere and the partitioning of iodine species are still unknown. In this work we report a new estimation of the injection of iodine into the stratosphere based on novel daytime (SZA < 45°) aircraft observations in the tropical tropopause layer (TORERO campaign) and a 3D global chemistry-climate model (CAM-Chem) with the most recent knowledge about iodine photochemistry. The results indicate that significant levels of total reactive iodine (0.25-0.7 pptv), between 2 and 5 times larger than the accepted upper limits, could be injected into the stratosphere via tropical convective outflow. At these iodine levels, modelled iodine catalytic cycles account for up to 30% of the contemporary ozone loss in the tropical lower stratosphere and can exert a stratospheric ozone depletion potential equivalent or even larger than that of very short-lived bromocarbons. Therefore, we suggest that iodine sources and chemistry need to be considered in assessments of the historical and future evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer.

  9. Automated iodine monitor system. [for aqueous solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of a direct spectrophotometric measurement of iodine in water was established. An iodine colorimeter, was built to demonstrate the practicality of this technique. The specificity of this method was verified when applied to an on-line system where a reference solution cannot be used, and a preliminary design is presented for an automated iodine measuring and controlling system meeting the desired specifications. An Automated iodine monitor/controller system based on this preliminary design was built, tested, and delivered to the Johnson Space Center.

  10. Gestational changes in iodine status in a cohort study of pregnant women from the United Kingdom: season as an effect modifier123

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Sarah C; Furmidge-Owen, Victoria L; Redman, Christopher WG

    2015-01-01

    Background: Iodine is required throughout pregnancy for thyroid hormone production, which is essential for fetal brain development. Studies of iodine status in pregnant women from the United Kingdom (UK) have focused on early gestation (<16 wk). Data on the effect of advancing gestation on urinary iodine excretion are conflicting, with suggestions of both an increase and a decrease. Objectives: The aims were to evaluate iodine status in a cohort of UK pregnant women and to explore how it changes throughout gestation. Design: We used samples and data from 230 UK pregnant women who were recruited to the Selenium in PRegnancy INTervention study. Iodine concentration was measured in spot-urine samples that were collected at ∼12, 20, and 35 wk of gestation; creatinine concentration was also measured to correct for urine dilution. A linear mixed model was used to explore the effect of gestational week on iodine-to-creatinine ratio, with change in season, body mass index, daily milk intake, and maternal age controlled for. Results: The median urinary iodine concentration from urine samples collected at all time points (n = 662) was 56.8 μg/L, and the iodine-to-creatinine ratio was 116 μg/g, thus classifying this cohort as mildly-to-moderately iodine deficient. The median iodine-to-creatinine ratios at 12, 20, and 35 wk were 102.5, 120.0, and 126.0 μg/g, respectively. Only 3% of women were taking iodine-containing prenatal supplements. The iodine-to-creatinine ratio increased with advancing gestation, and there was a significant interaction between gestational week and season (P = 0.026). For a 1-wk increase in gestation, the iodine-to-creatinine ratio increased by a factor of 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.08) in winter and by a factor of 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) in summer. Conclusions: This group of UK pregnant women was mildly-to-moderately iodine deficient at all trimesters, which is of public health concern. The finding that the iodine-to-creatinine ratio increased over

  11. Short communication: Feed iodine concentrations on farms with contrasting levels of iodine in milk.

    PubMed

    Castro, S I Borucki; Lacasse, P; Fouquet, A; Beraldin, F; Robichaud, A; Berthiaume, R

    2011-09-01

    In a previous study, milk iodine concentration from 501 farms across Canada was found to vary considerably and appeared to be influenced by feeding practices. Farms with contrasting levels of milk iodine from a subset of 200 participating farms were used to determine the relationship between milk iodine concentration and the concentration of this mineral in different feeds and complete diets given to lactating dairy cows. The 30 farms with the lowest levels of iodine in milk (low group) and the 30 farms with the highest levels (high group) were selected. Samples of bulk tank milk, all feed ingredients, and water were collected. Additionally, each farmer completed a questionnaire providing information on feeding management. The iodine offered on each of the farms was estimated from the amount of the feed in the diet recommended by the Ration'L software (Valacta, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada) and the iodine concentration in the feed sampled and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The dietary concentration of iodine offered daily was 33% lower for the low group compared with the high group; that is, 1.20±0.099 versus 1.81±0.195 mg/kg of dry matter (DM), respectively. Milk iodine concentrations averaged 146±13.9 μg/kg for the low group and 487±44.6 μg/kg for the high group. A linear relationship was found between dietary iodine concentration and milk iodine level, as follows: milk iodine (μg/kg)=145 (±66.9)+113 (±39.4) dietary iodine concentration (mg/kg DM). However, the low R(2) value (0.15) indicates that other factors, such as milking management and the presence of goitrogens, may have affected the concentrations of iodine in milk. Forages supplied approximately 17% of iodine requirements in the average lactating cow diet. Therefore, variations in the iodine content of forages are unlikely to cause iodine overfeeding. In contrast, 27% of the mineral mix samples presented iodine concentrations >100,000 μg/kg of DM (and up to

  12. Tanzania national survey on iodine deficiency: impact after twelve years of salt iodation

    PubMed Central

    Assey, Vincent D; Peterson, Stefan; Kimboka, Sabas; Ngemera, Daniel; Mgoba, Celestin; Ruhiye, Deusdedit M; Ndossi, Godwin D; Greiner, Ted; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2009-01-01

    Background In many low-income countries, children are at high risk of iodine deficiency disorders, including brain damage. In the early 1990s, Tanzania, a country that previously suffered from moderate to severe iodine deficiency, adopted universal salt iodation (USI) as an intervention strategy, but its impact remained unknown. Methods We report on the first national survey in mainland Tanzania, conducted in 2004 to assess the extent to which iodated salt was used and its apparent impact on the total goitre prevalence (TGP) and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) among the schoolchildren after USI was initiated. In 2004, a cross-sectional goitre survey was conducted; covering 140,758 schoolchildren aged 6 - 18 years were graded for goitre according to new WHO goitre classification system. Comparisons were made with district surveys conducted throughout most of the country during the 1980s and 90s. 131,941 salt samples from households were tested for iodine using rapid field test kits. UIC was determined spectrophotometrically using the ammonium persulfate digestion method in 4523 sub-sampled children. Results 83.6% (95% CI: 83.4 - 83.8) of salt samples tested positive for iodine. Whereas the TGP was about 25% on average in the earlier surveys, it was 6.9% (95%CI: 6.8-7.0) in 2004. The TGP for the younger children, 6-9 years old, was 4.2% (95%CI: 4.0-4.4), n = 41,965. In the 27 goitre-endemic districts, TGP decreased from 61% (1980s) to 12.3% (2004). The median UIC was 204 (95% CF: 192-215) μg/L. Only 25% of children had UIC <100 μg/L and 35% were ≥ 300 μg/L, indicating low and excess iodine intake, respectively. Conclusion Our study demonstrates a marked improvement in iodine nutrition in Tanzania, twelve years after the initiation of salt iodation programme. The challenge in sustaining IDD elimination in Tanzania is now two-fold: to better reach the areas with low coverage of iodated salt, and to reduce iodine intake in areas where it is excessive

  13. The evaluation of the iodine content of table salt in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Sebotsa, Masekonyela L D; Adjei, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the iodine content of salt at both retail and household levels before the introduction of the universal salt iodisation legislation in Lesotho. A cross sectional study was conducted. 300 salt samples were collected from systematically selected households and 100 salt samples were collected from retailers situated in the same villages as the households selected for this study, in all ten districts of Lesotho. An iodometric titration method was used for analyzing the iodine content of the salt samples. The mean iodine content of salt at both retail and household level of 37 ppm ranged from 29 ppm to 48 ppm and from 31 ppm to 45 ppm in the different districts at retail and household level respectively. Uniformity of iodisation was lacking as indicated by the large variation in the mean iodine content among brands (ranging from 1-46 ppm at household level and 1-53 ppm at retail level as well as within brands (ranging from 7-97 ppm at household level and 12-76 ppm at retail level). 4% of households used non iodised salt. 18.2% of the household salt samples were below the adequate iodisation level of 15 ppm. 81.8% of the households use adequately iodised salt. This however does not meet WHO criteria for elimination of IDD as a public health problem since less than 90% of effectively iodised salt is being used at household level.

  14. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  15. FDA regulations regarding iodine addition to foods and labeling of foods containing added iodine.

    PubMed

    Trumbo, Paula R

    2016-09-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the addition of iodine to infant formulas, the iodization of salt, and the addition of salt and iodine to foods. The required amount of iodine in infant formulas is based on caloric content, and the label must provide the iodine content per 100 kcal. Cuprous iodide and potassium iodide may be added to table salt as a source of dietary iodine at a maximum amount of 0.01%; if added, the label must indicate that the salt is iodized. Table salt to which iodine has not been added must bear the statement, "This salt does not supply iodide, a necessary nutrient." If a nutrient is to be appropriately added to a food for the purpose of correcting a dietary insufficiency, there should be sufficient scientific information available to demonstrate a nutritional deficiency and/or identify a public health problem. Furthermore, the population groups that would benefit from the proposed fortification should be identified. If iodine is added to a food, the percent Daily Value of iodine must be listed. There are no FDA regulations governing ingredient standards for dietary supplements. As a result, some dietary supplements include iodine and others do not. If a supplement contains iodine, the Supplement Facts label must list iodine as a nutrient ingredient. If iodine is not listed on the Supplement Facts label, then it has not been added. There are similarities between the FDA, which establishes US food regulations and policies, and the Codex Alimentarius (Codex), which develops international food standards and guidelines under the aegis of the FAO and the WHO. Both the FDA and Codex call for the labeling of table salt to indicate fortification with iodine, voluntary labeling of iodine on foods, and a Daily Value (called a Nutrient Reference Value by Codex) of 150 μg for iodine. PMID:27534626

  16. Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. Results The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 μg per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 μg for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 μg/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 μg/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 μg/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. Conclusions The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to fortify iodine in the diet for

  17. [The radioiodine test for the evaluation of iodine deficiency in the district of Karl-Marx-Stadt and in East Germany].

    PubMed

    Bauch, K; Weiss, O; Möckel, G; Gerlach, J; Seitz, W; Ulrich, F E; Dempe, A

    1981-10-01

    The values of the per cent 24 h radioiodine uptake in the GDR are above 60--70% and speak for a low alimentary intake of iodine or renal excretion of iodine below 40 micrograms J/d. Like the struma prevalences they show a tendency increasing from north to south and characterize the whole European situation of iodine deficiency including its decrease from west to east. The mean values of radioiodine uptake of 71.7 +/- 13.2% (n = 110) in euthyroids of the district of Karl-Marx-Stadt correspond to the iodine deficiency as it occurs approximately in the districts of Erfurt, Dresden, Munich or Freiburg/B. The alimentary iodine intake of 38.4 +/- 17.2 micrograms J/d and the renal iodine excretion of 29.9 +/- 16.1 micrograms J/d, calculated from the 24 h radioiodine accumulation values of 40 euthyroid persons by means of a mathematical model developed by Oddie and co-workers were low. The latter only slightly differed (P less than 0.05) from its chemically estimated excretion of iodine in the urine: 23.1 +/- 16.9 micrograms J/g creatinine (n = 73). Between the calculated and chemically estimated excretion of iodine there was a relatively strict correlation of r = 0.68 (n = 26; P less than 0.001). The introduction of an iodine prophylaxis is regarded as an urgent necessity. Later on a new estimation of the regional "normal values" is necessary for the per cent radioiodine uptake.

  18. Synergism between exposure to mercury and use of iodine supplements on thyroid hormones in pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Llop, Sabrina; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Murcia, Mario; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Vioque, Jesús; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Julvez, Jordi; and others

    2015-04-15

    Objective: To evaluate the association between mercury exposure and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total triiodothyronine (TT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels during pregnancy as well as to explore if there is any synergic action between mercury and intake of iodine from different sources. Methods: The study population was 1407 pregnant women participating in the Spanish INMA birth cohort study. Total mercury concentrations were analyzed in cord blood. Thyroid hormones (THs) were measured in serum samples collected at 13.2±1.5 weeks of gestation. The association between mercury and TH levels was evaluated with multivariate linear regression models. Effect modification caused by iodine intake from supplements and diet was also evaluated. Results: The geometric means of TSH, TT3, FT4 and mercury were 1.1 μU/L, 2.4 nmol/L, 10.5 pmol/L and 7.7 μg/L, respectively. Mercury levels were marginally significantly associated with TT3 (β: −0.05; 95%CI: −0.10, 0.01), but were neither associated with TSH nor FT4. The inverse association between mercury and TT3 levels was stronger among the iodine supplement consumers (−0.08; 95%CI: −0.15, −0.02, interaction p-value=0.07). The association with FT4 followed the same pattern, albeit not significant. Conclusion: Prenatal mercury exposure was inversely associated with TT3 levels among women who took iodine supplements during pregnancy. These results could be of public health concern, although further research is needed. - Highlights: • We studied the relationship between mercury and thyroid hormones among pregnant. • Mercury was marginally significantly associated with TT3, but not with TSH or FT4. • This association was stronger among the iodine supplement. • These results could be of public health concern, but further research is needed.

  19. Atmospheric iodine levels influenced by sea surface emissions of inorganic iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Lucy J.; MacDonald, Samantha M.; Shaw, Marvin D.; Kumar, Ravi; Saunders, Russell W.; Parthipan, Rajendran; Wilson, Julie; Plane, John M. C.

    2013-02-01

    Naturally occurring bromine- and iodine-containing compounds substantially reduce regional, and possibly even global, tropospheric ozone levels. As such, these halogen gases reduce the global warming effects of ozone in the troposphere, and its capacity to initiate the chemical removal of hydrocarbons such as methane. The majority of halogen-related surface ozone destruction is attributable to iodine chemistry. So far, organic iodine compounds have been assumed to serve as the main source of oceanic iodine emissions. However, known organic sources of atmospheric iodine cannot account for gas-phase iodine oxide concentrations in the lower troposphere over the tropical oceans. Here, we quantify gaseous emissions of inorganic iodine following the reaction of iodide with ozone in a series of laboratory experiments. We show that the reaction of iodide with ozone leads to the formation of both molecular iodine and hypoiodous acid. Using a kinetic box model of the sea surface layer and a one-dimensional model of the marine boundary layer, we show that the reaction of ozone with iodide on the sea surface could account for around 75% of observed iodine oxide levels over the tropical Atlantic Ocean. According to the sea surface model, hypoiodous acid--not previously considered as an oceanic source of iodine--is emitted at a rate ten-fold higher than that of molecular iodine under ambient conditions.

  20. Altering iodine metabolism in the calf by feeding iodine-binding agents.

    PubMed

    Miller, J K; Swanson, E W; Lyke, W A; Byrne, W F

    1975-06-01

    Effects of feeding cottonseed meal and anion-exchange resin on iodine absorption and excretion by calves were investigated. Each additional amount of resin fed from .3 to 3.5 g/kg body weight further increased fecal excretion from single oral iodine-131 and intravenous iodine-125 doses. By feeding 3 to 10 g cottonseed meal/kg body weight, excretion of oral iodine-131 given daily was increased 7 to 94% in feces and reduced as much as 35% in urine, but plasma iodine-131 was not changed. Introducing 1 g resin/kg body weight daily into the diet increased fecal iodine-131 excretion three to five times that with cottonseed meal alone and reduced both plasma and urinary iodine-131. The same amount of resin fed daily had similar effects on excretion of iodine-131 injected subcutaneously each day. Although iodine depletion by a highly efficient iodine binder (resin) in the gastrointestinal tract is probable, iodine binding by a natural feed constituent (cottonseed meal) was relatively inefficient.

  1. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  2. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  3. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  4. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  5. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order to... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for...

  6. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  7. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  8. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  9. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  10. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  11. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  12. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  13. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  14. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  15. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  16. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  17. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  18. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  19. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  20. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  1. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  2. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  3. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  4. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital...

  5. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  6. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  7. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  8. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  9. Lasing characteristics of iodine monofluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Young, R. J.

    1980-10-01

    Lasing has been observed at 491 and 484 nm from iodine monofluoride in mixtures of He/CF3I/NF3. The emission and lasing spectrum were investigated as well as conditions for optimum lasing. Optimum lasing at E/N of 1.8 x 10 to the -16th occurred at 1277/0.65/2 torr with an output reflector of 32% transmission. A media gain of 2% per cm was measured at optimum lasing conditions. Passivation with CF3I was found to be important for longer-lifetime operation.

  10. Iodine generator for disinfecting reclaimed water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    System dispenses iodine into water tank automatically in quantities varying from 0.5 to 20 ppm. It stores 180-day supply of iodine crystals, sufficient to support six people consuming water at rate of 4.5 to 13.6 kg per person per day.

  11. Chiral hypervalent iodine reagents: synthesis and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Parra, Alejandro; Reboredo, Silvia

    2013-12-16

    Chiral hypervalent iodine chemistry has been steadily increasing in importance in recent years. This review catalogues enantioselective transformations triggered by chiral hypervalent iodine(III/V) reagents, in stoichiometric or catalytic quantities, highlighting the different reactivities in terms of yield and enantioselectivity. Moreover, the synthesis of the most remarkable and successful catalysts has been illustrated in detail.

  12. An Iodine Fluorescence Quenching Clock Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Richard B.; Muyskens, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Clock reactions based upon competing oxidation and reduction reactions of iodine and starch as the most popular type of chemistry example is presented to illustrate the redox phenomena, reaction kinetics, and principles of chemical titration. The examination of the photophysical principles underlying the iodine fluorescence quenching clock…

  13. Iodine transport analysis in the ESBWR.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinich, Donald A.; Gauntt, Randall O.; Young, Michael Francis; Longmire, Pamela

    2009-03-01

    A simplified ESBWR MELCOR model was developed to track the transport of iodine released from damaged reactor fuel in a hypothesized core damage accident. To account for the effects of iodine pool chemistry, radiolysis of air and cable insulation, and surface coatings (i.e., paint) the iodine pool model in MELCOR was activated. Modifications were made to MELCOR to add sodium pentaborate as a buffer in the iodine pool chemistry model. An issue of specific interest was whether iodine vapor removed from the drywell vapor space by the PCCS heat exchangers would be sequestered in water pools or if it would be rereleased as vapor back into the drywell. As iodine vapor is not included in the deposition models for diffusiophoresis or thermophoresis in current version of MELCOR, a parametric study was conducted to evaluate the impact of a range of iodine removal coefficients in the PCCS heat exchangers. The study found that higher removal coefficients resulted in a lower mass of iodine vapor in the drywell vapor space.

  14. Immobilization of iodine in soil-water systems and its relation to iodine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamoto, Y.; Takahashi, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Iodine tends to accumulate in thyroid, and radioactive 131I and 129I are threatening to human health both short-term and long-term, respectively. It is thus important to understand iodine behavior in surface environments. Possible iodine species are I-, IO3-, I2, and organo-iodine species. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) connected to ICP-MS were used to determine iodine species in soil and pore water, respectively. Soil and pore water samples were collected at depths of 0 to 12 cm near a tube well in Yoro, Chiba, Japan, where surface soil is flooded with brine containing iodine of 5.8 mg/L. Soil samples were also collected at depths of 0 to 90 cm in Yakushima Island, Kagoshima, Japan. The soil samples were frozen, and iodine K-edge XANES were measured at BL01B1, SPring-8 (Hyogo, Japan). Soil samples were buried into resin and prepared as thin sections, and mapping of iodine in soil grain was obtained using μ-XRF analysis at BL37XU, SPring-8. HPLC-ICP-MS, equipped with anion exchange or size exclusion column, was used to determine iodine species in pore water. Yoro: The depth profile of iodine concentration in soil correlates quite well with that of organic carbon content. XANES spectra are almost identical to that of humic substances at any depth (Fig. 1). Iodine mapping shows that iodine exists in organic matter more than clay minerals and iron rich mineral. Iodine in pore water exists as I- and organic iodine bound to dissolved humic substances at 0-6 cm, and mainly as I- at 9-12 cm, respectively. Thus, iodine tends to be bound to organic materials in soil as organic iodine, where as iodine in pore water exists mainly as I-. Yakushima: Iodine concentration is higher in volcanic ash soil layer (25-55 cm) than surface organic rich soil layer (0-25 cm). XANES spectrum of volcanic ash soil was different from those of reference materials (Fig. 1). Volcanic ash soil in Yakushima contains imogolite and

  15. Fluorescence analysis of iodinated acetophenone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Crivelaro, F; Oliveira, M R S; Lima, S M; Andrade, L H C; Casagrande, G A; Raminelli, C; Caires, A R L

    2015-03-15

    In the present paper the synthesis and optical characterization of iodinated acetophenone, 4-hydroxy-3-iodoacetophenone and 4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodoacetophenone obtained from 4-hydroxyacetophenone, were carried out. The optical features of iodinated molecules were determined by performing the UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence and thermal lens spectroscopies. The results showed that the optical properties of the 4-hydroxyacetophenone is altered when the iodine atom is inserted, as substituent, in the aromatic ring. Although it was determined that the optical feature was changed when one iodine atom was inserted in the aromatic ring (4-hydroxy-3-iodoacetophenone), the results revealed that emission behavior was strongly altered when two iodine atoms (4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodoacetophenone) were acting as substituents: the fluorescence quantum efficiency increases approximately 60%.

  16. Global modeling of tropospheric iodine aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwen, Tomás. M.; Evans, Mat J.; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Chance, Rosie; Baker, Alex R.; Schmidt, Johan A.; Breider, Thomas J.

    2016-09-01

    Natural aerosols play a central role in the Earth system. The conversion of dimethyl sulfide to sulfuric acid is the dominant source of oceanic secondary aerosol. Ocean emitted iodine can also produce aerosol. Using a GEOS-Chem model, we present a simulation of iodine aerosol. The simulation compares well with the limited observational data set. Iodine aerosol concentrations are highest in the tropical marine boundary layer (MBL) averaging 5.2 ng (I) m-3 with monthly maximum concentrations of 90 ng (I) m-3. These masses are small compared to sulfate (0.75% of MBL burden, up to 11% regionally) but are more significant compared to dimethyl sulfide sourced sulfate (3% of the MBL burden, up to 101% regionally). In the preindustrial, iodine aerosol makes up 0.88% of the MBL burden sulfate mass and regionally up to 21%. Iodine aerosol may be an important regional mechanism for ocean-atmosphere interaction.

  17. Eliminating iodine deficiency: obstacles and their removal.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Carmencita David; Fagela-Domingo, Carmelita

    2008-12-01

    Iodine deficiency remains a global concern for developing countries and some industrialised countries. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental retardation, posing a threat to the social and economic development of countries. Initiatives were developed and instituted to accelerate progress to achieve the goal of universal salt iodisation (USI). However, these efforts were not successful in eliminating iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) in some countries. Every year, 50 million children are born without the protection that iodine offers to the growing brain and body and about 18 million suffer some significant degree of mental impairment. The World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and non-governmental organisations assist to ensure that populations at risk have access to iodised salt. This paper will review the highlights of iodine deficiency and present the experiences in the various countries in Asia, i.e. assessments of the situation, action plans, and obstacles to implementation. PMID:19904447

  18. Nutrient Intake in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; O’Brien, Marian C.; Clark, Patricia C.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Research Objective Approximately 50% of heart failure (HF) patients are thought to be malnourished, and macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies may potentially aggravate HF symptoms. Thus, concerns have been raised about the overall nutrient composition of diets in HF populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the macronutrient and micronutrient intake by caloric adequacy among community-dwelling adults with HF. Participants and Methods A secondary analysis of baseline data of participants in an HF lifestyle intervention study was conducted. Participants (n = 45) were predominantly male (55.6%), white, and non-Hispanic (64.4%); had a mean age of 61 years (SD, 11 years) and mean body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2 (SD, 7.3 kg/m2); were of New York Heart Association functional classes II and III (77.8%); and had a mean ejection fraction of 31.9% (SD,13.2%); and 69% had a college or higher level of education. The Block Food Habits Questionnaire was used to assess the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and Conclusions Individuals reporting inadequate daily caloric intake reported a lower intake of macronutrients and micronutrients as well as other differences in dietary patterns compared with individuals reporting adequate daily caloric intake. More than half of the individuals reporting adequate caloric intake did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and vitamin E. Interventions aimed at increasing overall intake and nutrient density are suggested. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between dietary factors and outcomes in HF. PMID:18596500

  19. Thermochemistry of small iodine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šulková, K.; Federič, J.; Louis, F.; Cantrel, L.; Demovič, L.; Černušák, I.

    2013-11-01

    We present a systematic study of the thermochemistry for a set of iodine species relevant to atmospheric chemistry. The reactions include H, O and I atoms and H2, OH, HI, I2, iodine monoxide, hypoiodous acid (HOI) and H2O species. The calculations presented were performed using completely renormalized coupled cluster theory including single, double and non-iterative triple substitutions in conjunction with the ANO-RCC basis sets developed for scalar relativistic calculations. The second-order spin-free Douglas-Kroll-Hess Hamiltonian was used to account for the scalar relativistic effects. The calculations also included spin-orbit corrections and semi-core correlation contributions. The resulting reaction enthalpies and Gibbs energies at 298 K have been compared with the experimental data. On the basis of a set of selected reactions we suggest an updated value for Δ f H298K° of HOI based on the set of isogyric reactions: -69.0 ± 3.7 kJ mol-1.

  20. Changes in the regulation of iodine crystals and chemical mixtures containing over 2.2 percent iodine. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2007-07-01

    This rulemaking changes the regulation of the listed chemical iodine under the chemical regulatory provisions of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) believes that this action is necessary to remove deficiencies in the existing regulatory controls, which have been exploited by drug traffickers who divert iodine (in the form of iodine crystals and iodine tincture) for the illicit production of methamphetamine in clandestine drug laboratories. This rulemaking moves iodine from List II to List I; reduces the iodine threshold from 0.4 kilograms to zero kilograms; adds import and export regulatory controls; and controls chemical mixtures containing greater than 2.2 percent iodine. This rulemaking establishes regulatory controls that will apply to iodine crystals and iodine chemical mixtures that contain greater than 2.2 percent iodine. This regulation therefore controls iodine crystals and strong iodine tinctures/solutions (e.g., 7 percent iodine) that do not have common household uses and instead have limited application in livestock, horses, and for disinfection of equipment. Household products such as 2 percent iodine tincture/solution and household disinfectants containing iodine complexes will not be adversely impacted by this regulation. Additionally, the final rule exempts transactions of up to one-fluid-ounce (30 ml) of Lugol's Solution. Persons handling regulated iodine materials are required to register with DEA, are subject to the import/export notification requirements of the CSA, and are required to maintain records of all regulated transactions involving iodine regardless of size.

  1. [Bone and Nutrition. Vitamin D intake and bone].

    PubMed

    Tsugawa, Naoko

    2015-07-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is one of the risk factors of osteoporosis. To know the vitamin D intake for the prevention of bone loss and fracture, it is necessary to evaluate the appropriate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-D) concentration for bone health, and the vitamin D intake to maintain its concentration. Although vitamin D intake 15 and 20 μg/d have been set as RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance) in USA/Canada DRIs (Dietary reference intakes), 5.5 μg/d has been set as AI (adequate intake) in Japanese DRIs (2015). While reference values in Japan and USA/Canada were quite different, both DRIs are common in that it aim to maintain the serum 25-D concentration to more than 50 nmol/L. In the present review, vitamin D intakes and bone health, vitamin D status in Japanese people, DRIs for vitamin D and improvement of vitamin D insufficiency are reviewed. PMID:26119309

  2. Developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism impair neural development, upregulate caveolin-1, and downregulate synaptotagmin-1 in the rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Zhong, Jiapeng; Wei, Wei; Gong, Jian; Dong, Jing; Yu, Fei; Wang, Yuan; Chen, Jie

    2011-12-01

    Adequate thyroid hormone is critical for cerebellar development. Developmental hypothyroidism induced by iodine deficiency during gestation and postnatal period results in permanent impairments of cerebellar development with an unclear mechanism. In the present study, we implicate cerebellar caveolin-1 and synaptotagmin-1, the two important molecules involved in neuronal development, in developmental iodine deficiency, and in developmental hypothyroidism. Two developmental rat models were created by administrating dam rats with either iodine-deficient diet or propylthiouracil (PTU, 5 or 15 ppm)-added drinking water from gestational day 6 till postnatal day (PN) 28. Nissl staining and the levels of caveolin-1 and synaptotagmin-1 in cerebella were assessed on PN28 and PN42. The results show that the numbers of Purkinje cells were reduced in the iodine-deficient and PTU-treated rats. The upregulation of caveolin-1 and the downregulation of synaptotagmin-1 were observed in both iodine-deficient and PTU-treated rats. These findings may implicate decreases in the number of Purkinje cells and the alterations in the levels of caveolin-1 and synaptotagmin-1 in the impairments of cerebellar development induced by developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism.

  3. Rechargeable Lithium-Iodine Batteries with Iodine/Nanoporous Carbon Cathode.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Lu, Yanying; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Rechargeable Li-iodine batteries are attractive electrochemical energy storage systems because iodine cathode provides the possibility of high energy density, wide abundance and low cost. However, the safety risk caused by low thermostability of iodine and the self-discharge reaction due to high solvency of iodine in aprotic solvent are target issues to be considered. Herein, we designed a room-temperature "solution-adsorption" method to prepare a thermostable iodine-carbon cathode by utilizing the strong adsorption of nanoporous carbon. Meanwhile, Li-iodine batteries constructed by the as-prepared cathode and ether-based electrolyte with the addition of LiNO3 showed negligible self-discharge reaction, high rate and long cycling performance. The reversible reactions of I2/LiI3 and LiI3/LiI in Li-iodine batteries were also proved with in situ Raman measurement. For the demonstration of application, soft-package batteries with Al-plastic film were assembled, displaying energy densities of 475 Wh/kg by mass of Li and iodine, and 136 Wh/kg by total mass of the battery. The use of nanoporous carbon to adsorb iodine at room-temperature represents a new and promising direction for realizing high-performance cathode for rechargeable Li-iodine batteries.

  4. Rechargeable Lithium-Iodine Batteries with Iodine/Nanoporous Carbon Cathode.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Lu, Yanying; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Rechargeable Li-iodine batteries are attractive electrochemical energy storage systems because iodine cathode provides the possibility of high energy density, wide abundance and low cost. However, the safety risk caused by low thermostability of iodine and the self-discharge reaction due to high solvency of iodine in aprotic solvent are target issues to be considered. Herein, we designed a room-temperature "solution-adsorption" method to prepare a thermostable iodine-carbon cathode by utilizing the strong adsorption of nanoporous carbon. Meanwhile, Li-iodine batteries constructed by the as-prepared cathode and ether-based electrolyte with the addition of LiNO3 showed negligible self-discharge reaction, high rate and long cycling performance. The reversible reactions of I2/LiI3 and LiI3/LiI in Li-iodine batteries were also proved with in situ Raman measurement. For the demonstration of application, soft-package batteries with Al-plastic film were assembled, displaying energy densities of 475 Wh/kg by mass of Li and iodine, and 136 Wh/kg by total mass of the battery. The use of nanoporous carbon to adsorb iodine at room-temperature represents a new and promising direction for realizing high-performance cathode for rechargeable Li-iodine batteries. PMID:26241461

  5. Iodine nutritional status and risk factors for goitre among schoolchildren in South Tajikistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Iodine deficiency affects nearly 1.9 billion people worldwide, but it can be prevented by salt iodization. This cross-sectional survey assessed current iodine status, iodized salt coverage and risk factors for goitre among schoolchildren in South Tajikistan. Methods Ten primary schools in four districts in South Tajikistan were randomly selected. In schoolchildren aged 7 to 11 years, a spot urine sample was collected for measurement of urinary iodine, dried blood spots were collected for measurement of thyroglobulin, and goitre was assessed by palpation. Iodine content of salt samples and local selling points was determined by coloration using rapid test kits and titration method. Results Of 623 schoolchildren enrolled, complete data was obtained from 589. The overall median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 51.2 μg/L indicating mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. Among all children, 46.6% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 42.4%-50.6%) of children were found to be goitrous (grade 1 goitre: 30.6%, 95% CI = 26.9%-34.5%; grade 2 goitre: 16.0%, 95% CI = 13.1%-19.2%). The risk factor for goitre remaining significant in the multivariable logistic regression model was 'buying salt once a month’ (OR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.01-8.22) and 'buying salt once every six months’ (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.01-5.04) compared to 'buying salt every one or two weeks’. The overall median thyroglobulin concentration was elevated at 13.9 μg/L. Of the salt samples from households and selling points, one third were adequately iodised, one third insufficiently and one third were not iodised. Conclusion Iodine deficiency remains a serious health issue among children in southern Tajikistan. There is a persisting high prevalence of goitre, elevated thyroglobulin and low UIC despite interventions implemented by Tajikistan and international partners. Quality control of salt iodine content needs to be improved. Continued efforts to raise awareness of the

  6. Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans (KDRIs).

    PubMed

    Paik, Hee Young

    2008-01-01

    For more than 40 years, Recommended Dietary Allowances for Koreans (KRDA) were used as references for nutrient intake. In 2002, the Korean Nutrition Society organized a committee to revise the KRDA, which were transformed into the new Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans (KDRIs) in 2005. KDRIs include Estimated Average Requirements (EAR), Recommended Intake (RI), Adequate Intake (AI) and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for protein, essential amino acids and micronutrients, Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) for energy and Acceptable Macronutrients Distribution Ranges (AMDR) for macronutrients. Evidence-based methods were used to determine the reference value (s) and the levels of nutrient intake for each nutrient. The KDRIs expanded significantly the number of nutrients and the basic concepts of nutrient recommendations compared to the previously used KRDA. In addition, a new food guide, depicted as Food Tower for Koreans, was developed and appended to the KDRIs publication. Continued efforts are needed to facilitate the application of KDRIs as well as to improve the understanding of the concepts. Additional modifications will be made as more scientific data become available.

  7. Dietary intake in clients with chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, Agnieszka; Atkins, Marlis; Mager, Diana R

    2011-01-01

    To assess relationships among food intake, anthropometrics, and wound severity, we studied 31 home care clients with pressure ulcers (PUs) or venous stasis ulcers (VSUs). Anthropometric variables (weight, height, waist circumference [WC]) were measured according to standard methodologies. Risk for PU development was assessed using the Braden Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment score and wound severity according to the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. Three-day food records were analyzed to assess dietary adequacy. Adults with VSUs (65.8 ± 18.4 years) had a higher body mass index (48.1 vs. 25.9), WC (146.6 vs. 98.4 cm), and Braden score (20.2 vs. 17.5) than did those with PUs (67.8 ± 17.9 years) (p <0.05). Energy, protein, and zinc intake by diet alone did not meet estimated requirements in 41%, 32%, and 54.5% of clients, respectively. Intake by diet alone met the Estimated Average Requirement/Adequate Intake for all nutrients except fibre, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, folate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Nutrient supplementation resolved this for all nutrients except fibre, vitamin K, and potassium. In multivariate analysis, increasing wound severity was associated with decreased intakes of vitamin A, vitamin K, magnesium, and protein (r2=0.90, p<0.001). Optimizing nutrient intake may be an important strategy to promote wound healing and decrease wound severity in home care clients with chronic wounds.

  8. Dietary reference intakes for DHA and EPA.

    PubMed

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Grieger, Jessica A; Etherton, Terry D

    2009-01-01

    Various organizations worldwide have made dietary recommendations for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and fish intake that are primarily for coronary disease risk reduction and triglyceride (TG) lowering. Recommendations also have been made for DHA intake for pregnant women, infants, and vegetarians/vegans. A Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), specifically, an Adequate Intake (AI), has been set for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of The National Academies. This amount is based on an intake that supports normal growth and neural development and results in no nutrient deficiency. Although there is no DRI for EPA and DHA, the National Academies have recommended that approximately 10% of the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for ALA can be consumed as EPA and/or DHA. This recommendation represents current mean intake for EPA and DHA in the United States ( approximately 100mg/day), which is much lower than what many groups worldwide are currently recommending. Global recommendations for long-chain omega-3 fatty acids underscore the pressing need to establish DRIs for DHA and EPA because DRIs are recognized as the "official" standard by which federal agencies issue dietary guidance or policy directives for the health and well-being of individuals in the United States and Canada. Because of the many health benefits of DHA and EPA, it is important and timely that the National Academies establish DRIs for the individual long-chain (20 carbons or greater) omega-3 fatty acids.

  9. Acquired hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency in an American child.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Merrian J; Post, Ernest M

    2014-11-01

    Acquired hypothyroidism secondary to iodine deficiency is rarely reported in iodine-replete environments. The case of a 9-year-old patient with severe acquired hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency is presented. His deficiency occurred because of a restrictive diet used to control eosinophilic esophagitis. Hypothyroidism and iodine deficiency were quickly corrected with a kelp supplement.

  10. Method and apparatus for removing iodine from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Martin H.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing iodine-131 and iodine-125 from a liquid sodium reactor coolant. Non-radioactive iodine is dissolved in hot liquid sodium to increase the total iodine concentration. Subsequent precipitation of the iodine in a cold trap removes both the radioactive iodine isotopes as well as the non-radioactive iodine.

  11. Inadequate status of iodine nutrition among pregnant women residing in three districts of Niamey, the Niger Republic's capital.

    PubMed

    Sadou, Hassimi; Seyfoulaye, Amina; Malam Alma, Mousbahou; Daouda, Hamani

    2014-10-01

    Universal dietary salt iodisation (UDSI) programme was implemented in Niger in 1996. However, since 2000, there has been a slowdown in progress against iodine deficiency. The aim of our study was to assess the iodine status among pregnant women in a context where national controls are not effective at ensuring universal availability of adequately iodised salt. This is mainly to assess the impact of the slowdown in the fight against iodine deficiency in this vulnerable group. The study was centred on 240 healthy pregnant women volunteers recruited in three districts primary health centres. A control group of 60 non-pregnant, non-lactating healthy women was also studied and compared. Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of all pregnant women was 119 μg L(-1) , and 61.67% had UIC below 150 μg L(-1) . Median UIC for the first, second and third trimester were 144, 108 and 92 μg L(-1) , respectively. The percentage of pregnant women with UIC below 150 μg L(-1) increased from 52% in the first trimester to 66% in the third trimester. The median UIC of the control group was 166 μg L(-1) , and 28.33% had UIC below 100 μg L(-1) . No significant relationship was found between nutritional iodine status and provenance, age and parity. However, significant relationship was found between iodine status and stage of pregnancy, gestational age and educational level (P < 0.05). Iodine nutrition status thus observed was inadequate in 61.67% of all the pregnant women. It is therefore urgent to revitalise implementation of the UDSI programme, and in the short term to consider iodine supplementation for pregnant women.

  12. [Effect water intake on body weight].

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska, Klaudia; Kurowska, Ewa; Okręglicka, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Water is essential for life. There wouldn't be the proper functioning of body processes without it. An inadequate water intake relative to recommendation contributes to the decline in physical capacity and adversely effects on cognitive function and mood. On the other hand, an adequate water intake helps maintain the balance between total energy intake and daily energy expenditure and determines the correct rate of fat oxidation. This might be useful and commonly used in weight reduction and thus might favorably affect on body composition in overweight and obese people by increasing the total body water and lean muscle mass and might contribute to a decrease in body fat. Research results indicate clearly that drinking water instead of caloric beverages might be an effective way to reduce daily total energy consumption and in this way might may contribute to the reduction of weight, body circumferences and body fat.

  13. Mineral intake and blood levels in vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Levin, N; Rattan, J; Gilat, T

    1986-02-01

    Concern has been raised that a long-term high-fiber diet may lead to mineral deficiencies. In this study, mineral intake and blood levels were investigated in 92 ovolacto vegetarians and 113 omnivores. The intake of iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium was adequate in both groups. The intake of iron and magnesium was significantly higher in the vegetarians. Mean blood levels of iron, iron binding capacity, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, zinc and magnesium were within normal limits in both groups. Serum magnesium levels were significantly higher in male vegetarians. Iron binding capacity was significantly lower in vegetarians of both sexes. It is concluded that a long-term ovolacto vegetarian diet does not lead to mineral deficiencies.

  14. Effect of chronic douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine on iodine absorption and thyroid function

    SciTech Connect

    Safran, M.; Braverman, L.E.

    1982-07-01

    Daily vaginal douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine in 12 euthyroid volunteers for 14 days resulted in a significant increase in serum total iodine concentration and urine iodine excretion. The increase in serum total iodine was associated with a marked decrease in 24-hour /sup 123/I uptake by the thyroid and a small but significant increase in serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentration. However, values for serum TSH never rose above the normal range. No significant changes in serum thyroxine (T4), free T4 index (FTI), or triiodothyronine concentrations were observed, although serum T4 and FTI did decrease slightly during treatment. The findings suggest that iodine is absorbed across the vaginal mucosa and that the subsequent increase in serum total iodine does induce subtle increases in serum TSH concentration. There was no evidence, however, of overt hypothyroidism in these euthyroid women.

  15. Probing starch-iodine interaction by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiongwei; An, Hongjie; Liu, Zhongdong; Yang, Hongshun; Wei, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    We explored the interaction of iodine with three crystalline type starches, corn, potato, and sweet potato starches using atomic force microscopy. Results revealed that starch molecules aggregated through interaction with iodine solution as well as iodine vapor. Detailed fine structures such as networks, chains, and super-helical structures were found in iodide solution tests. The nanostructures formed due to iodine adsorption could help to understand the formation and properties of the starch-iodine complex.

  16. Probing starch-iodine interaction by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiongwei; An, Hongjie; Liu, Zhongdong; Yang, Hongshun; Wei, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    We explored the interaction of iodine with three crystalline type starches, corn, potato, and sweet potato starches using atomic force microscopy. Results revealed that starch molecules aggregated through interaction with iodine solution as well as iodine vapor. Detailed fine structures such as networks, chains, and super-helical structures were found in iodide solution tests. The nanostructures formed due to iodine adsorption could help to understand the formation and properties of the starch-iodine complex. PMID:24338992

  17. Method for immobilizing radioactive iodine

    DOEpatents

    Babad, Harry; Strachan, Denis M.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive iodine, present as alkali metal iodides or iodates in an aqueous solution, is incorporated into an inert solid material for long-term storage by adding to the solution a stoichiometric amount with respect to the formation of a sodalite (3M.sub.2 O.3Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. 6SiO.sub.2.2MX, where M=alkali metal; X=I.sup.- or IO.sub.3.sup.-) of an alkali metal, alumina and silica, stirring the solution to form a homogeneous mixture, drying the mixture to form a powder, compacting and sintering the compacted powder at 1073 to 1373 K (800.degree. to 1100.degree. C.) for a time sufficient to form sodalite.

  18. Autoradiography for iodine-125 seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Alberti, W.; Divoux, S. ); Pothmann, B.; Tabor, P. ); Hermann, K.P.; Harder, D. )

    1993-04-02

    To study the interior design of model 6702 and 6711 iodine-125 seeds, contact autoradiographs were performed using mammography film. Improved resolution was obtained using a pin-hole camera with a hole of 0.1 mm [times] 0.1 mm. With these techniques, qualitative determination of the relative activity distribution within each seed was possible. The number of the activated resin spheres and the positions of the centers of these spheres can be exactly determined. A model calculation shows that variations in the arrangement of the activated spheres within a seed have a moderate influence on the dose distribution at source distances below 10 mm. Knowing the exact source configuration may be useful when comparing dose calculations with measured data for model 6702 [sup 125]I seeds which are currently employed in ophthalmic plaque and implant therapy of other tumors. 16 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Iodine binding to humic acid.

    PubMed

    Bowley, H E; Young, S D; Ander, E L; Crout, N M J; Watts, M J; Bailey, E H

    2016-08-01

    The rate of reactions between humic acid (HA) and iodide (I(-)) and iodate (IO3(-)) have been investigated in suspensions spiked with (129)I at concentrations of 22, 44 and 88 μg L(-1) and stored at 10 °C. Changes in the speciation of (129)I(-), (129)IO3(-) and mixed ((129)I(-) + (129)IO3(-)) spikes were monitored over 77 days using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). In suspensions spiked with (129)I(-) 25% of the added I(-) was transformed into organic iodine (Org-(129)I) within 77 days and there was no evidence of (129)IO3(-) formation. By contrast, rapid loss of (129)IO3(-) and increase in both (129)I(-) and Org-(129)I was observed in (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions. However, the rate of Org-(129)I production was greater in mixed systems compared to (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions with the same total (129)I concentration, possibly indicating IO3(-)I(-) redox coupling. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) demonstrated that Org-(129)I was present in both high and low molecular weight fractions of the HA although a slight preference to bond with the lower molecular weight fractions was observed indicating that, after 77 days, the spiked isotope had not fully mixed with the native (127)I pool. Iodine transformations were modelled using first order rate equations and fitted rate coefficients determined. However, extrapolation of the model to 250 days indicated that a pseudo-steady state would be attained after ∼200 days but that the proportion of (129)I incorporated into HA was less than that of (127)I indicating the presence of a recalcitrant pool of (127)I that was unavailable for isotopic mixing. PMID:27231879

  20. Micronutrient Intakes from Food and Supplements in Australian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Caroline M.; Black, Lucinda J.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n = 991). We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements), along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) where appropriate. Results: Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Conclusions: Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements. PMID:24424459

  1. Ultrasound-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis for iodinated amino acid extraction from edible seaweed before reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Romarís-Hortas, Vanessa; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2013-09-27

    The combination of reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the determination of monoiodotyrosine (MIT) and diiodotyrosine (DIT) in edible seaweed. A sample pre-treatment based on ultrasound assisted enzymatic hydrolysis was optimized for the extraction of these iodinated amino acids. Pancreatin was selected as the most adequate type of enzyme, and parameters affecting the extraction efficiency (pH, temperature, mass of enzyme and extraction time) were evaluated by univariate approaches. In addition, extractable inorganic iodine (iodide) was also quantified by anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography (AE-HPLC) coupled with ICP-MS. The proposed procedure offered limits of detection of 1.1 and 4.3ngg(-1) for MIT and DIT, respectively. Total iodine contents in seaweed, as well as total iodine in enzymatic digests were measured by ICP-MS after microwave assisted alkaline digestion with tetramethylamonium hydroxide (TMAH) for total iodine assessment, and also by treating the pancreatin extracts (extractable total iodine assessment). The optimized procedure was successfully applied to five different types of edible seaweed. The highest total iodine content, and also the highest iodide levels, was found in the brown seaweed Kombu (6646±45μgg(-1)). Regarding iodinated amino acids, Nori (a red seaweed) was by far the one with the highest amount of both species (42±3 and 0.41±0.024μgg(-1) for MIT and DIT, respectively). In general, MIT concentrations were much higher than the amounts of DIT, which suggests that iodine from iodinated proteins in seaweed is most likely bound in the form of MIT residues.

  2. Critical evaluation of cadexomer-iodine ointment and povidone-iodine sugar ointment.

    PubMed

    Noda, Yasuhiro; Fujii, Kiori; Fujii, Satoshi

    2009-05-01

    Topical iodine forms are used for infected and necrotic pressure ulcers. Despite antimicrobial advantages several potential disadvantages were observed with controversial results. To clarify the controversy, the reactivity of povidone-iodine (PI) sugar ointment and cadexomer-iodine (CI) ointment toward biological components was investigated. L-Tyrosine as a component of proteins and egg lecithin as a component of lipid membranes were reacted with forms of iodine. Furthermore, water absorption abilities of ointments were investigated. The reactions of PI sugar ointment and CI ointment with L-tyrosine were reversely dependent on iodine concentrations. CI ointment reacted with lecithin in an iodine concentration dependent manner, while PI sugar ointment reacted with lecithin in an iodine concentration independent steady manner. However, at the clinically relevant iodine concentration (0.1, w/v%) PI sugar ointment reacted efficiently with L-tyrosine and less efficiently with lecithin, while CI ointment reacted efficiently with lecithin and less efficiently with L-tyrosine. Water absorption rate constant was 29.9 mg/cm(2)/min(0.5) for PI sugar ointment and 15.3 for CI ointment. Water absorption capacity per weight over 24 h was 26% forPI sugar ointment and 76% for CI ointment [corrected]. These results suggest that PI sugar ointment and CI ointment have different characteristics for iodine reactivity and water absorption.

  3. Nutritional modelling: distributions of salt intake from processed foods in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Barbara M

    2009-09-01

    The salt content of processed foods is important because of the high intake of Na by most New Zealanders. A database of Na concentrations in fifty-eight processed foods was compiled from existing and new data and combined with 24 h diet recall data from two national nutrition surveys (5771 respondents) to derive salt intakes for seven population groups. Mean salt intakes from processed foods ranged from 6.9 g/d for young males aged 19-24 years to 3.5 g/d for children aged 5-6 years. A total of > or = 50 % of children aged 5-6 years, boys aged 11-14 years and young males aged 19-24 years had salt intakes that exceeded the upper limit for Na, calculated as salt (3.2-5.3 g/d), from processed foods only. Bread accounted for the greatest contribution to salt intake for each population group (35-43 % of total salt intake). Other foods that contributed 2 % or more and common across most age groups were sausage, meat pies, pizza, instant noodles and cheese. The Na concentrations of key foods have changed little over the 16-year period from 1987 to 2003 except for corned beef and whole milk that have decreased by 34 and 50 % respectively. Bread is an obvious target for salt reduction but the implication on iodine intake needs consideration as salt is used as a vehicle for iodine fortification of bread.

  4. The Electronic Spectrum of Iodine Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaught, Ian J.

    1980-01-01

    Presents equations and techniques for calculating and interpreting many of the spectroscopically important parameters associated with the ground and second excited states of the iodine molecule. (Author/CS)

  5. Teaching the Rovibronic Spectroscopy of Molecular Iodine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, J. Charles

    2007-01-01

    The rovibronic spectroscopy of molecular iodine provides a clearer understanding of the electronic potential parameters of various systems to the undergraduate students. The technique also helps them to test the various other quantum mechanical concepts.

  6. Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about tositumomab and iodine I 131 tositumomab and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug combination, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  7. Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy for Hyperthyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Iodine (I-131) Therapy Radioiodine therapy is a nuclear medicine treatment for an overactive thyroid, a condition ... locally overactive in producing too much thyroid hormone. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  8. The atmospheric chemistry of iodine monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Laszlo, B.; Huie, R.E.

    1995-12-01

    The possible role of iodine on tropospheric ozone arid, more recently, stratospheric ozone has been of considerable interest. There have been, however relatively few experimental determination of the chemistry of the important radical, IO. Laser flash photolysis with two-wavelength transient absorption experiments were performed on N{sub 2}O/I{sub 2}+X{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixtures (X{sub 2} = halogen) at room temperature and total pressure between 8 and 80 kPa. An extended IO absorption spectrum, experimental rate coefficients of IO+IO, IO+O({sup 3}P), IO+BrO, BrO+I and IO+ClO reactions will be presented. Preliminary results show the atmospheric importance of reaction between alkylperoxy radicals and iodine atoms or iodine monoxide radicals. These reactions seem to be important tropospheric iodine sinks.

  9. Estimation of daily micronutrient intake of Filipinos.

    PubMed

    Natera, Erlinda; Trinidad, Trinidad; Valdez, Divina; Kawamura, Hisao; Palad, Lorna; Shiraishi, Kunio

    2002-09-01

    The Fourth National Nutrition Survey of the Food and Nutrition Research Institute conducted in 1993 showed an increasing prevalence of micronutrient-related diseases in various age groups. Hence, the daily diet consumed by the average Filipino was examined for its nutrient content. A total of 19 regional diet samples were collected and analyzed for phosphorous, iron, zinc, magnesium, manganese, calcium, potassium, and sodium by using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Iodine was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Benchmark data for the abovementioned micronutrients showed decreased intake values as compared to the recommended dietary allowance established in 1989. The information will be useful in assessing the existing nutritional status so that appropriate nutrient interventions can possibly be put in place. PMID:12362801

  10. The chlorate-iodine clock reaction.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, André P; Faria, Roberto B

    2005-12-28

    A clock reaction produced by mixing chlorate and iodine solutions in perchloric acid media is reported. This is the first example of a clock reaction using chlorate as a reagent. Increasing chlorate and acid concentration reduces the induction period. Changing the initial iodine concentration does not affect the length of the induction period. The discovery of this clock reaction opens the possibility that a new family of oscillation reactions can be built using chlorate as reagent. PMID:16366551

  11. Regenerable Iodine Water-Disinfection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Jolly, Clifford D.

    1994-01-01

    Iodinated resin bed for disinfecting water regenerated to extend useful life. Water flows through regeneration bed of crystalline iodine during regeneration. At other times, flow diverted around regeneration bed. Although regeneration cycle manually controlled readily automated to start and stop according to signals from concentration sensors. Further benefit of regeneration is bed provides highly concentrated biocide source when needed. Concentrated biocide used to superiodinate system after contamination from routine maintenance or unexpected introduction of large concentration of microbes.

  12. Intake of intense sweeteners in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bär, A; Biermann, C

    1992-03-01

    values. No subject exceeded the ADI of aspartame or saccharin on any day of the study. For cyclamate, the mean daily intake over the 7-day period exceeded the ADI in 4 subjects. The results indicate that at the time of the study the then valid German sweetener regulation protected the consumer adequately, and that the sweetener intake was in 99.8% of all examined persons within recommended limits.

  13. Modern and past volcanic degassing of iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, H.; Auzende, A.-L.; Marocchi, M.; Raepsaet, C.; Munsch, P.; Testemale, D.; Mézouar, M.; Kubsky, S.; Carrière, M.; Ricolleau, A.; Fiquet, G.

    2016-01-01

    We have monitored iodine degassing from a melt to a water vapor during decompression (i.e. magma ascent). Experiments have been performed by combining diamond anvil cells experiments with synchrotron X-rays fluorescence analysis. Partition coefficients DIfluid/melt measured for a pressure and temperature range of 0.1-1.8 GPa and 500-900 °C, range from 41 to 1.92, values for room conditions DIfluid/glass (quenched samples) are equal to or higher than 350. We show that iodine degassing with water is earlier and much more efficient than for lighter halogen elements, Cl and Br. Iodine is totally degassed from the silicate melt at room conditions. By applying these results to modern volcanology, we calculate an annual iodine flux for subduction related volcanism of 0.16-2.4 kt yr-1. We suggest that the natural iodine degassing may be underestimated, having possible consequences on the Earth's ozone destruction cycle. By applying this results to the Early Earth, we propose a process that may explain the contrasted signature of I, Br and Cl, strongly depleted in the bulk silicate Earth, the most depleted being iodine, whereas fluorine is almost enriched. The Earth may have lost heavy halogen elements during an early water degassing process from the magma ocean.

  14. Iodine-induced thyroid blockade: role of selenium and iodine in the thyroid and pituitary glands.

    PubMed

    Basalaeva, Nadezdha L

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the content of iodine and selenium in the thyroid and pituitary glands of rats under iodine-induced blockade of the thyroid gland. Electron probe microanalysis, wavelength-dispersive spectrometry, and point analysis were used in this investigation. We also determined the expression of sodium iodide symporter and caspase 32 in the thyroid and pituitary glands and the expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the pituitary. The samples for iodine analysis must be thoroughly dehydrated, and for this purpose, we developed a method that produced samples of constant mass with minimal loss of substrate (human thyroid gland was used for the investigation). Normal levels of iodine and selenium were found in the thyroid, pituitary, ovaries, testes hypothalamus, and pancreas of healthy rats. The levels of iodine and selenium in I- or Se-positive points and the percentage of positive points in most of these organs were similar to those of controls (basal level), except for the level of iodine in the thyroid gland and testes. Blockade of the thyroid gland changed the iodine level in iodine-positive points of the thyroid and the pituitary glands. On the sixth day of blockage, the iodine level in iodine-positive points of the thyroid gradually decreased to the basal level followed by an abrupt increase on the seventh day, implying a rebound effect. The opposite was found in the pituitary, in which the level of iodine in iodine-positive points increased during the first 6 days and then abruptly decreased on the seventh day. Expression of the thyroid-stimulating hormone in the pituitary decreased during the first 5 days but sharply increased on the sixth day, with a minimum level of iodine in the thyroid and maximum in the pituitary, before normalization of the iodine level in both glands preceding the rebound effect. The expression of sodium iodide symporter increased during the first 4 days of blockage and then decreased in both

  15. Occurrence and variability of iodinated trihalomethanes concentrations within two drinking-water distribution networks.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Panagiotis; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2016-02-01

    Non-iodo-containing trihalomethanes (TTHM) are frequently detected in chlorinated tap water and currently regulated against their carcinogenic potential. Iodinated THM (ITHM) may also form in disinfected with chlorine waters that are high in iodine content, but little is known about their magnitude and variability within the drinking-water pipe distribution network of urban areas. The main objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and variability of ITHM and TTHM levels and their corresponding daily intake estimates within the drinking water distribution systems of Limassol and Nicosia cities of Cyprus, using tap samples collected from individual households (n=37). In Limassol, mean household tap water ITHM and TTHM levels was 0.58 and 38 μg L(-1), respectively. Dichloroiodomethane (DCIM) was the dominant species of the two measured ITHM compounds accounting for 77% of total ITHM and in the range of 0.032 and 1.65 μg L(-1). The range of DCIM concentrations in Nicosia tap water samples was narrower (0.032 - 0.848 μg L(-1)). Mean total iodine concentration in tap water samples from the seaside city of Limassol was 15 μg L(-1) and approximately twice to those observed in samples from the mainland Nicosia city. However, iodine concentrations did not correlate with the ITHM levels. The calculated chronic daily intake rates of ITHM were low when compared with those of TTHM, but because of their widespread occurrence in tap water and their enhanced mammalian cell toxicity, additional research is warranted to assess the magnitude and variability of human ITHM exposures.

  16. Occurrence and variability of iodinated trihalomethanes concentrations within two drinking-water distribution networks.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Panagiotis; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2016-02-01

    Non-iodo-containing trihalomethanes (TTHM) are frequently detected in chlorinated tap water and currently regulated against their carcinogenic potential. Iodinated THM (ITHM) may also form in disinfected with chlorine waters that are high in iodine content, but little is known about their magnitude and variability within the drinking-water pipe distribution network of urban areas. The main objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and variability of ITHM and TTHM levels and their corresponding daily intake estimates within the drinking water distribution systems of Limassol and Nicosia cities of Cyprus, using tap samples collected from individual households (n=37). In Limassol, mean household tap water ITHM and TTHM levels was 0.58 and 38 μg L(-1), respectively. Dichloroiodomethane (DCIM) was the dominant species of the two measured ITHM compounds accounting for 77% of total ITHM and in the range of 0.032 and 1.65 μg L(-1). The range of DCIM concentrations in Nicosia tap water samples was narrower (0.032 - 0.848 μg L(-1)). Mean total iodine concentration in tap water samples from the seaside city of Limassol was 15 μg L(-1) and approximately twice to those observed in samples from the mainland Nicosia city. However, iodine concentrations did not correlate with the ITHM levels. The calculated chronic daily intake rates of ITHM were low when compared with those of TTHM, but because of their widespread occurrence in tap water and their enhanced mammalian cell toxicity, additional research is warranted to assess the magnitude and variability of human ITHM exposures. PMID:26599150

  17. Effect of iodine disinfection products on higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janik, D.; Macler, B.; Macelroy, R. D.; Thorstenson, Y.; Sauer, R.

    1989-01-01

    Iodine is used to disinfect potable water on United States spacecraft. Iodinated potable water will likely be used to grow plants in space. Little is known about the effects of iodine disinfection products on plants. Seeds of select higher plants were germinated in water iodinated using the Shuttle Microbial Check Valve, and water to which measured amounts of iodine was added. Percent germination was decreased in seeds of most species germinated in iodinated water. Beans were most affected. Germination rates, determined from germination half-times, were decreased for beans germinated in iodinated water, and water to which iodide was added. Development was retarded and rootlets were conspicuously absent in bean and several other plant species germinated in iodinated water. Iodide alone did not elicit these responses. Clearly iodine disinfection products can affect higher plants. These effects must be carefully considered for plant experimentation and cultivation in space, and in design and testing of closed environmental life support systems.

  18. Effect of long-term administration of arsenic (III) and bromine with and without selenium and iodine supplementation on the element level in the thyroid of rat.

    PubMed

    Kotyzová, Dana; Eybl, Vladislav; Mihaljevic, Martin; Glattre, Eystein

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of arsenic and bromine exposure with or without iodine and selenium supplementation on the element level in the thyroid of rats. Four major groups of Wistar female rats were fed with respective diets: group A - standard diet, group B - iodine rich diet (10 mg I/kg food), group C - selenium rich diet (1 mg Se/kg) and group D - iodine and selenium rich diet (as in group B and C). Each group was divided into four subgroups per 7 animals each receiving either NaAsO(2) ip (6.5 mg.kg(-1) twice a week for two weeks and 3.25 mg.kg(-1) for six weeks) or KBr in drinking water (58.8 mg.l(-1)) for 8 weeks or combined administration of both substances. Remaining subgroup served as controls. After 8 weeks thyroid glands were analyzed by ICP-MS for As, Br, Se, and I content. The exposition of rat to arsenic or bromine causes the accumulation of these elements in the thyroid gland ( approximately 18 ppm of As, approximately 90 ppm of Br) and significantly affects iodine and selenium concentration in the thyroid. In iodine and/or selenium supplemented rats the bromine intake into the thyroid was lowered to approximately 50% of the level in unsupplemented animals. Also selenium thyroid level elevated due to KBr administration was lowered by iodine supplementation in the diet. The accumulation of arsenic in the thyroid was not influenced by selenium or iodine supplementation; however, As(III) administration increased iodine thyroid level and suppressed selenium thyroid level in selenium or iodine supplemented group of animals.

  19. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation Rates.…

  20. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  1. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  2. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  3. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  4. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  5. Adequate Schools and Inadequate Education: An Anthropological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolcott, Harry F.

    To illustrate his claim that schools generally do a remarkably good job of schooling while the society makes inadequate use of other means to educate young people, the author presents a case history of a young American (identified pseudonymously as "Brad") whose schooling was adequate but whose education was not. Brad, jobless and homeless,…

  6. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  7. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan,...

  8. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  9. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... identifiable personal data and automated systems shall be adequately trained in the security and privacy of... records in which identifiable personal data are processed or maintained, including all reports and output... personal records or data; must minimize, to the extent practicable, the risk that skilled technicians...

  10. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  11. Addition of chlorine during water purification reduces iodine content of drinking water and contributes to iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Samson, L; Czegeny, I; Mezosi, E; Erdei, A; Bodor, M; Cseke, B; Burman, K D; Nagy, E V

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water is the major natural source of iodine in many European countries. In the present study, we examined possible sites of iodine loss during the usual water purification process.Water samples from 6 sites during the technological process were taken and analyzed for iodine content. Under laboratory circumstances, prepared iodine in water solution has been used as a model to test the effect of the presence of chlorine. Samples from the purification sites revealed that in the presence of chlorine there is a progressive loss of iodine from the water. In the chlorine concentrations employed in the purification process, 24-h chlorine exposure eliminated more than 50% of iodine when the initial iodine concentration was 250 μg/l or less. Iodine was completely eliminated if the starting concentration was 16 μg/l.We conclude that chlorine used during water purification may be a major contributor to iodine deficiency in European communities.

  12. [Application of iodine metabolism analysis methods in thyroid diseases].

    PubMed

    Han, Jian-hua; Qiu, Ling

    2013-08-01

    The main physiological role of iodine in the body is to synthesize thyroid hormone. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can lead to severe thyroid diseases. While its role in thyroid diseases has increasingly been recognized, few relevant platforms and techniques for iodine detection have been available in China. This paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of currently iodine detection methods including direct titration, arsenic cerium catalytic spectrophotometry, chromatography with pulsed amperometry, colorimetry based on automatic biochemistry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, so as to optimize the iodine nutrition for patients with thyroid diseases.

  13. [Application of iodine metabolism analysis methods in thyroid diseases].

    PubMed

    Han, Jian-hua; Qiu, Ling

    2013-08-01

    The main physiological role of iodine in the body is to synthesize thyroid hormone. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can lead to severe thyroid diseases. While its role in thyroid diseases has increasingly been recognized, few relevant platforms and techniques for iodine detection have been available in China. This paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of currently iodine detection methods including direct titration, arsenic cerium catalytic spectrophotometry, chromatography with pulsed amperometry, colorimetry based on automatic biochemistry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, so as to optimize the iodine nutrition for patients with thyroid diseases. PMID:23987480

  14. Iodine-129 Dose in LLW Disposal Facility Performance Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1999-10-15

    Iodine-129 has the lowest Performance Assessment derived inventory limit in SRS disposal facilities. Because iodine is concentrated in the body to one organ, the thyroid, it has been thought that dilution with stable iodine would reduce the dose effects of 129I.Examination of the dose model used to establish the Dose conversion factor for 129I shows that, at the levels considered in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities, the calculated 129I dose already accounts for ingestion of stable iodine. At higher than normal iodine ingestion rates, the uptake of iodine by the thyroid itself decrease, which effectively cancels out the isotopic dilution effect.

  15. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine....

  16. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine....

  17. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine....

  18. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine....

  19. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine....

  20. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  1. Mixed-layered bismuth--oxygen--iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2015-01-06

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  2. Dietary Reference Intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as ...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air... Release to Sewerage B Appendix B to Part 20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION... Hydrogen H 1 Indium In 49 Iodine I 53 Iridium Ir 77 Iron Fe 26 Krypton Kr 36 Lanthanum La 57 Lead Pb...

  4. Iodine nutrition and toxicity in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae

    PubMed Central

    Penglase, S; Harboe, T; Sæle, Ø; Helland, S; Nordgreen, A

    2013-01-01

    Copepods as feed promote better growth and development in marine fish larvae than rotifers. However, unlike rotifers, copepods contain several minerals such as iodine (I), at potentially toxic levels. Iodine is an essential trace element and both under and over supply of I can inhibit the production of the I containing thyroid hormones. It is unknown whether marine fish larvae require copepod levels of I or if mechanisms are present that prevent I toxicity. In this study, larval Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were fed rotifers enriched to intermediate (26 mg I kg-1 dry weight; MI group) or copepod (129 mg I kg-1 DW; HI group) I levels and compared to cod larvae fed control rotifers (0.6 mg I kg-1 DW). Larval I concentrations were increased by 3 (MI) and 7 (HI) fold compared to controls during the rotifer feeding period. No differences in growth were observed, but the HI diet increased thyroid follicle colloid to epithelium ratios, and affected the essential element concentrations of larvae compared to the other groups. The thyroid follicle morphology in the HI larvae is typical of colloid goitre, a condition resulting from excessive I intake, even though whole body I levels were below those found previously in copepod fed cod larvae. This is the first observation of dietary induced I toxicity in fish, and suggests I toxicity may be determined to a greater extent by bioavailability and nutrient interactions than by total body I concentrations in fish larvae. Rotifers with 0.6 mg I kg-1 DW appeared sufficient to prevent gross signs of I deficiency in cod larvae reared with continuous water exchange, while modelling of cod larvae versus rotifer I levels suggests that optimum I levels in rotifers for cod larvae is 3.5 mg I kg-1 DW. PMID:23638355

  5. Are the current Australian sun exposure guidelines effective in maintaining adequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D?

    PubMed

    Kimlin, Michael; Sun, Jiandong; Sinclair, Craig; Heward, Sue; Hill, Jane; Dunstone, Kimberley; Brodie, Alison

    2016-01-01

    An adequate vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, is important in humans for maintenance of healthy bones and muscle function. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed in participants from Melbourne, Australia (37.81S, 144.96E), who were provided with the current Australian guidelines on sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy (25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L). Participants were interviewed in February (summer, n=104) and August (winter, n=99) of 2013. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was examined as a function of measures of sun exposure and sun protection habits with control of key characteristics such as dietary intake of vitamin D, body mass index (BMI) and skin colour, that may modify this relationship. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in participants who complied with the current sun exposure guidelines was 67.3 nmol/L in summer and 41.9 nmol/L in winter. At the end of the study, 69.3% of participants who complied with the summer sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate, while only 27.6% of participants who complied with the winter sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate at the end of the study. The results suggest that the current Australian guidelines for sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy are effective for most in summer and ineffective for most in winter. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  6. A comparative study on the effects of excess iodine and herbs with excess iodine on thyroid oxidative stress in iodine-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tianshu; Shi, Rui; Qi, Tengche; Yin, Huisi; Mei, Lan; Han, Xiaoqing; Cui, Peng

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of excess iodine and herbs with excess iodine on treating iodine deficiency-induced goiter from the perspective of oxidative stress and to measure selenium values in Chinese herbs. One hundred twenty 4-week-old Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups after inducing iodine-deficiency goiter: normal control group (NC), model control group (MC), iodine excess group (IE), and herbs with iodine excess group (HIE). The activities of oxidative enzymes and levels of oxidative products were measured using biochemical tests. The expression of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) in the thyroid was detected by immunohistochemistry and the expression of peroxiredoxin 5 (PRDX5) by the Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Selenium values in iodine-excessive herbs were measured by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The herbs with iodine excess were tested to contain rich selenium. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and PRDX5 increased markedly, and the values of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-HNE decreased significantly in the HIE group. In conclusion, compared with excess iodine, herbs with excess iodine damaged thyroid follicular cells less, which may be related to the increase of antioxidant capacity and rich selenium values in iodine-excessive herbs.

  7. Iodine chemical forms in LWR severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1991-01-01

    Calculated data from seven severe accident sequences in light water reactor plants were used to assess the chemical forms of iodine in containment. In most of the calculations for the seven sequences, iodine entering containment from the reactor coolant system was almost entirely in the form of CsI with very small contributions of I or HI. The largest fraction of iodine in forms other than CsI was a total of 3.2% as I plus HI. Within the containment, the CsI will deposit onto walls and other surfaces, as well as in water pools, largely in the form of iodide (I{sup {minus}}). The radiation-induced conversion of I{sup {minus}} in water pools into I{sub 2} is strongly dependent on pH. In systems where the pH was controlled above 7, little additional elemental iodine would be produced in the containment atmosphere. When the pH falls below 7, it may be assumed that it is not being controlled and large fractions of iodine as I{sub 2} within the containment atmosphere may be produced. 17 refs., 5 tabs.

  8. Iodine chemical forms in LWR severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Kress, T.S.; Parker, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    Calculated data from seven severe accident sequences in light-water reactor plants were used to assess the chemical forms of iodine in containment. In most of the calculations for the seven sequences, iodine entering containment from the reactor coolant system was almost entirely in the form of CsI with very small contributions of I or HI. The largest fraction of iodine in forms other than CsI was a total of 3.2% as I plus HI. Within the containment, the CsI will deposit onto walls and other surfaces, as well as in water pools, largely in the form of iodide (I{sup {minus}}). The radiation induced conversion of I{sup {minus}} in water pools into I{sub 2} is strongly dependent on pH. In systems where the pH was controlled above 7, little additional elemental iodine would be produced in the containment atmosphere. When the pH falls below 7, it may be assumed that it is not being controlled, and large fractions of iodine as I{sub 2} within the containment atmosphere may be produced. 16 refs.

  9. Iodine - Its possible role in tropospheric photochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chameides, W. L.; Davis, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed study of the photochemistry of iodine and its oxides indicates that iodine species may play an important role in the tropospheric photochemical system. Methyl iodide, often observed in the marine troposphere with an average concentration of 5-10 ppt, is photolyzed and thereby produces I atoms. Chemical interactions with O3, HxOy, and NOx cause I to be converted to other inorganic compounds such as IO, HOI, IONO2, and I2. The production of these species and their subsequent recycling back to I can lead to the catalytic removal of tropospheric O3, the enhancement of the NO2/NO ratio, the destruction of HxOy free radicals, and the conversion of HO2 to OH. Ultimately, tropospheric inorganic iodine is removed by heterogeneous processes. Calculations using a numerical model to simulate tropospheric photochemistry indicate that iodine may have a strong impact upon the atmospheric O3-NOx-HxOy system. The magnitude of these effects is dependent upon the value of several uncertain rate constants and the primary source distributions of CH3I and other organic and inorganic iodine compounds.

  10. Calcium intake is not associated with increased coronary artery calcification: The Framingham Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate calcium intake is known to protect the skeleton. However, studies that have reported adverse effects of calcium supplementation on vascular events have raised widespread concern. We assessed the association between calcium intake (from diet and supplements) and coronary artery calcification...

  11. Chemical template directed iodine patterns on the octadecyltrichlorosilane surface.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yuguang

    2008-01-01

    A carboxylic-terminated nanometer-scale chemical pattern on an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) surface can guide the deposition and crystallization of iodine, forming an iodine pattern on the chemical pattern. The iodine in the pattern is gel-like when fabricated by the solution-deposit method. In contrast, a dendritic, snowflake-shaped polycrystalline iodine sheet is formed by the vapor-phase condensation method. The data demonstrate that iodine is a good tracing and visualizing agent for studying liquid behavior at the nano scale. The topography of the iodine stain reveals that the "coffee ring" effect can be suppressed by reducing the pattern size and increasing the evaporation rate. The chemical template-bound iodine pattern has an unusually low vapor pressure and it can withstand prolonged baking at elevated temperature, which differs significantly from bulk iodine crystals.

  12. Iodine Propulsion Advantages for Low Cost Mission Applications and the Iodine Satellite (ISAT) Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Schumacher, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Science and Technology Office is continuously exploring technology options to increase performance or reduce cost and risk to future NASA missions including science and exploration. Electric propulsion is a prevalent technology known to reduce mission costs by reduction in launch costs and spacecraft mass through increased post launch propulsion performance. The exploration of alternative propellants for electric propulsion continues to be of interest to the community. Iodine testing has demonstrated comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density resulting in higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's unique properties also allow for unpressurized storage yet sublimation with minimal power requirements to produce required gas flow rates. These characteristics make iodine an ideal propellant for secondary spacecraft. A range of mission have been evaluated with a focus on low-cost applications. Results highlight the potential for significant cost reduction over state of the art. Based on the potential, NASA has been developing the iodine Satellite for a near-term iodine Hall propulsion technology demonstration. Mission applications and progress of the iodine Satellite project are presented.

  13. Calcium Intake, Major Dietary Sources and Bone Health Indicators in Iranian Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Nasrin; Neyestani, Tirang-Reza; Hajifaraji, Majid; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Armin, Saloumeh; Haidari, Homa; Zowghi, Telma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate calcium intake may have a crucial role with regards to prevention of many chronic diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, different types of cancer, obesity and osteoporosis. In children, sufficient calcium intake is especially important to support the accelerated growth spurt during the preteen and teenage years and to increase bone mineral mass to lay the foundation for older age. Objectives: This study aimed to assess daily calcium intake in school-age children to ensure whether they fulfill the FGP dairy serving recommendations, the recommended levels of daily calcium intake and to assess the relationship between dietary calcium intake and major bone health indicators. Patients and Methods: A total of 501 Iranian school-age children were randomly selected. Calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone health indicators were also assessed. Results: Dairy products contributed to 69.3% of the total calcium intake of the children. Daily adequate intake of calcium was achieved by 17.8% of children. Only 29.8% met the Food guide pyramid recommendations for dairy intake. Dietary calcium intake was not significantly correlated with serum calcium and other selected biochemical indicators of bone health. Conclusions: The need for planning appropriate nutrition strategies for overcoming inadequate calcium intake in school age children in the city of Tehran is inevitable. PMID:26199684

  14. The Ozone-Iodine-Chlorate Clock Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Sant'Anna, Rafaela T. P.; Monteiro, Emily V.; Pereira, Juliano R. T.; Faria, Roberto B.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a new clock reaction based on ozone, iodine, and chlorate that differs from the known chlorate-iodine clock reaction because it does not require UV light. The induction period for this new clock reaction depends inversely on the initial concentrations of ozone, chlorate, and perchloric acid but is independent of the initial iodine concentration. The proposed mechanism considers the reaction of ozone and iodide to form HOI, which is a key species for producing non-linear autocatalytic behavior. The novelty of this system lies in the presence of ozone, whose participation has never been observed in complex systems such as clock or oscillating reactions. Thus, the autocatalysis demonstrated in this new clock reaction should open the possibility for a new family of oscillating reactions. PMID:24386257

  15. The ozone-iodine-chlorate clock reaction.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Rafaela T P; Monteiro, Emily V; Pereira, Juliano R T; Faria, Roberto B

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a new clock reaction based on ozone, iodine, and chlorate that differs from the known chlorate-iodine clock reaction because it does not require UV light. The induction period for this new clock reaction depends inversely on the initial concentrations of ozone, chlorate, and perchloric acid but is independent of the initial iodine concentration. The proposed mechanism considers the reaction of ozone and iodide to form HOI, which is a key species for producing non-linear autocatalytic behavior. The novelty of this system lies in the presence of ozone, whose participation has never been observed in complex systems such as clock or oscillating reactions. Thus, the autocatalysis demonstrated in this new clock reaction should open the possibility for a new family of oscillating reactions. PMID:24386257

  16. Selenium and Iodine in Autoimmune Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Guastamacchia, Edoardo; Giagulli, Vito Angelo; Licchelli, Brunella; Triggiani, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Selenium and iodine are essential for thyroid hormone synthesis and function. Selenium, in form of selenocysteine, is found either in the catalytic center of enzymes involved in the protection of the thyroid gland from free radicals originating during thyroid hormone synthesis, and in three different iodothyronine deiodinases catalyzing the activation and the inactivation of thyroid hormones. Iodine is an essential constituent of thyroid hormones and its deficiency causes different disorders that include goiter, hypothyroidism, reduced fertility and alteration in growth, physical and neurological development. These two micronutrients could be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases, a spectrum of pathological conditions including Hashimoto's thryoiditis, post-partum thyroiditis, the so-called painless thyroiditis, Graves' disease and Graves' ophtalmopathy. Aim of this paper is to review the role played by selenium and iodine in autoimmune thyroiditis.

  17. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Kim, K. H.; Stock, L. V.

    1987-01-01

    The improvement on the collection system of the Tarmarack Solar Simulator beam was attemped. The basic study of evaluating the solid state laser materials for the solar pumping and also the work to construct a kinetic model algorithm for the flashlamp pumped iodine lasers were carried out. It was observed that the collector cone worked better than the lens assembly in order to collect the solar simulator beam and to focus it down to a strong power density. The study on the various laser materials and their lasing characteristics shows that the neodymium and chromium co-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (Nr:Cr:GSGG) may be a strong candidate for the high power solar pumped solid state laser crystal. On the other hand the improved kinetic modeling for the flashlamp pumped iodine laser provides a good agreement between the theoretical model and the experimental data on the laser power output, and predicts the output parameters of a solar pumped iodine laser.

  18. The ozone-iodine-chlorate clock reaction.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Rafaela T P; Monteiro, Emily V; Pereira, Juliano R T; Faria, Roberto B

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a new clock reaction based on ozone, iodine, and chlorate that differs from the known chlorate-iodine clock reaction because it does not require UV light. The induction period for this new clock reaction depends inversely on the initial concentrations of ozone, chlorate, and perchloric acid but is independent of the initial iodine concentration. The proposed mechanism considers the reaction of ozone and iodide to form HOI, which is a key species for producing non-linear autocatalytic behavior. The novelty of this system lies in the presence of ozone, whose participation has never been observed in complex systems such as clock or oscillating reactions. Thus, the autocatalysis demonstrated in this new clock reaction should open the possibility for a new family of oscillating reactions.

  19. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon; Stock, Larry V.

    1989-01-01

    This semiannual progress report covers the period from September 1, 1988 to February 28, 1989 under NASA grant NAG-1-441 entitled, Direct Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser Amplifier. During this period, the research effort was concentrated on the solar pumped master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system using n-C3F7I. In the experimental work, the amplification measurement was conducted to identify the optimum conditions for amplification of the center's Vortek solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier. A modeling effort was also pursued to explain the experimental results in the theoretical work. The amplification measurement of the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier is the first amplification experiment on the continuously pumped amplifier. The small signal amplification of 5 was achieved for the triple pass geometry of the 15 cm long solar simulator pumped amplifier at the n-C3F7I pressure of 20 torr, at the flow velocity of 6 m/sec and at the pumping intensity of 1500 solar constants. The XeCl laser pumped iodine laser oscillator, which was developed in the previous research, was employed as the master oscillator for the amplification measurement. In the theoretical work, the rate equations of the amplifier was established and the small signal amplification was calculated for the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier. The amplification calculated from the kinetic equations with the previously measured rate coefficients reveals very large disagreement with experimental measurement. Moreover, the optimum condition predicted by the kinetic equation is quite discrepant with that measured by experiment. This fact indicates the necessity of study in the measurement of rate coefficients of the continuously pumped iodine laser system.

  20. Particles and iodine compounds in coastal Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscoe, Howard K.; Jones, Anna E.; Brough, Neil; Weller, Rolf; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Schoenhardt, Anja; Burrows, John P.; Fleming, Zoe L.

    2015-07-01

    Aerosol particle number concentrations have been measured at Halley and Neumayer on the Antarctic coast, since 2004 and 1984, respectively. Sulphur compounds known to be implicated in particle formation and growth were independently measured: sulphate ions and methane sulphonic acid in filtered aerosol samples and gas phase dimethyl sulphide for limited periods. Iodine oxide, IO, was determined by a satellite sensor from 2003 to 2009 and by different ground-based sensors at Halley in 2004 and 2007. Previous model results and midlatitude observations show that iodine compounds consistent with the large values of IO observed may be responsible for an increase in number concentrations of small particles. Coastal Antarctica is useful for investigating correlations between particles, sulphur, and iodine compounds, because of their large annual cycles and the source of iodine compounds in sea ice. After smoothing all the measured data by several days, the shapes of the annual cycles in particle concentration at Halley and Neumayer are approximated by linear combinations of the shapes of sulphur compounds and IO but not by sulphur compounds alone. However, there is no short-term correlation between IO and particle concentration. The apparent correlation by eye after smoothing but not in the short term suggests that iodine compounds and particles are sourced some distance offshore. This suggests that new particles formed from iodine compounds are viable, i.e., they can last long enough to grow to the larger particles that contribute to cloud condensation nuclei, rather than being simply collected by existing particles. If so, there is significant potential for climate feedback near the sea ice zone via the aerosol indirect effect.

  1. A quantitative model of the biogeochemical transport of iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, H.; Ji, Z.; Weng, J.

    2010-12-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are among the world’s most prevalent public health problems yet preventable by dietary iodine supplements. To better understand the biogeochemical behavior of iodine and to explore safer and more efficient ways of iodine supplementation as alternatives to iodized salt, we studied the behavior of iodine as it is absorbed, accumulated and released by plants. Using Chinese cabbage as a model system and the 125I tracing technique, we established that plants uptake exogenous iodine from soil, most of which are transported to the stem and leaf tissue. The level of absorption of iodine by plants is dependent on the iodine concentration in soil, as well as the soil types that have different iodine-adsorption capacity. The leaching experiment showed that the remainder soil content of iodine after leaching is determined by the iodine-adsorption ability of the soil and the pH of the leaching solution, but not the volume of leaching solution. Iodine in soil and plants can also be released to the air via vaporization in a concentration-dependent manner. This study provides a scientific basis for developing new methods to prevent IDD through iodized vegetable production.

  2. Micronutrient Intake in Healthy Toddlers: A Multinational Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hilger, Jennifer; Goerig, Tatiana; Weber, Peter; Hoeft, Birgit; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Costa Carvalho, Nina; Goldberger, Ursula; Hoffmann, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Adequate nutrient intake during early childhood is of particular importance for optimal growth and future health. However, cross-national comparative research on nutrient intake of toddlers is still limited. We conducted a literature review to examine the nutrient intake in healthy toddlers from some of the world’s most populous nations currently on different stages of socioeconomic development: Brazil, Germany, Russia and the United States. We aimed to identify national surveys reporting mean intakes of the following nutrients: vitamins A, D, E, folate, calcium, iron and zinc. To calculate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake, we used a modified version of the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Overall, five studies with 6756 toddlers were eligible for inclusion in this review. In countries where data were available, a prevalence of inadequate intake higher than 20% was found for vitamins A, D, E and calcium. In Germany, folate intake also appeared to be inadequate. The results of our review indicate that inadequate micronutrient intake in toddlers might be a global challenge affecting also affluent countries. However, to explore the full scope of this important public health issue joint efforts of researchers worldwide are needed to combine existing data and fill in data gaps. PMID:26295254

  3. Hydrolysis of iodine: equilibria at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.A.; Ramette, R.W.; Mesmer, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrolysis (or disproportionation) of molecular iodine to form iodate and iodide ions has been studied by emf measurements over the temperature range, 3.8/sup 0/ to 209.0/sup 0/C. The interpretation of these results required a knowledge of the formation constant for triiodide ion and the acid dissociation constant of iodic acid, both of which were measured as a function of temperature. The resulting thermodynamic data have been incorporated into a general computer model describing the hydrolysis equilibria of iodine as a function of initial concentration, pH and temperature.

  4. Regenerable Iodine Water-Disinfection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Jolly, Clifford D.

    1994-01-01

    Iodinated resin bed for disinfecting water regenerated to extend its useful life. Water flows through regeneration bed of crystalline iodine during regeneration. At other times, flow diverted around regeneration bed. Although regeneration cycle was manually controlled in demonstration, readily automated to start and stop according to signals and stop according to signals from concentration sensors. Further benefit of regeneration is that regeneration bed provides highly concentrated biocide source (200 mg/L) when needed. Concentrated biocide used to superiodinate system after contamination from routine maintenance or unexpected introduction of large concentration of microbes.

  5. Oxygen centered radicals in iodine chemical oscillators.

    PubMed

    Stanisavljev, Dragomir R; Milenković, Maja C; Mojović, Milos D; Popović-Bijelić, Ana D

    2011-07-14

    The existence of free radicals in iodine-based oscillatory systems has been debated for some time. Recently, we have reported the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the iodide-peroxide system in acidic medium, which is common to all iodine--based oscillatory systems ( J. Phys. Chem. A 2011 , 115 , 2247--2249 ). In this work, the goal was to identify the ROS produced in this system using an EPR spin trap which can distinguish between hydroxyl (HO(•)) and hydroperoxyl (HOO(•)) radicals. The formation of the hydroperoxyl radical was observed and a possible explanation for the low EPR signal of hydroxyl radical was proposed. PMID:21692499

  6. Mysterious iodine-overabundance in Antarctic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreibus, G.; Waenke, H.; Schultz, L.

    1986-01-01

    Halogen as well as other trace element concentrations in meteorite finds can be influenced by alteration processes on the Earth's surface. The discovery of Antarctic meteorites offered the opportunity to study meteorites which were kept in one of the most sterile environment of the Earth. Halogen determination in Antartic meteorites was compared with non-Antarctic meteorites. No correlation was found between iodine concentration and the weathering index, or terrestrial age. The halogen measurements indicate a contaminating phase rich in iodine and also containing chlorine. Possible sources for this contamination are discussed.

  7. [Overall child development: beyond pharmacological iodine supplementation].

    PubMed

    Gavilán, Enrique; Jiménez de Gracia, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Iodine deficiency is a factor that may compromise child development, but is not the only one. Other health determinants, some of them outside the healthcare system, are able to influence development. Fighting iodine deficiency may be a pragmatic and useful strategy if it is found to be not maleficent, beneficial to health, and cost-effective, and does not make us lose the notion that child development goes beyond psychomotor or cognitive performance. This article analyzes such constraints from a critical point of view. PMID:23916171

  8. [Overall child development: beyond pharmacological iodine supplementation].

    PubMed

    Gavilán, Enrique; Jiménez de Gracia, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Iodine deficiency is a factor that may compromise child development, but is not the only one. Other health determinants, some of them outside the healthcare system, are able to influence development. Fighting iodine deficiency may be a pragmatic and useful strategy if it is found to be not maleficent, beneficial to health, and cost-effective, and does not make us lose the notion that child development goes beyond psychomotor or cognitive performance. This article analyzes such constraints from a critical point of view.

  9. [Abdominal cure procedures. Adequate use of Nobecutan Spray].

    PubMed

    López Soto, Rosa María

    2009-12-01

    Open abdominal wounds, complicated by infection and/or risk of eventration tend to become chronic and usually require frequent prolonged cure. Habitual changing of bandages develop into one of the clearest risk factors leading to the deterioration of perilesional cutaneous integrity. This brings with it new complications which draw out the evolution of the process, provoking an important deterioration in quality of life for the person who suffers this and a considerable increase in health costs. What is needed is a product and a procedure which control the risk of irritation, which protect the skin, which favor a patient's comfort and which shorten treatment requirements while lowering health care expenses. This report invites medical personnel to think seriously about the scientific rationale, and treatment practice, as to why and how to apply Nobecutan adequately, this reports concludes stating the benefits in the adequate use of this product. The objective of this report is to guarantee the adequate use of this product in treatment of complicated abdominal wounds. This product responds to the needs which are present in these clinical cases favoring skin care apt isolation and protection, while at the same time, facilitating the placement and stability of dressings and bandages used to cure wounds. In order for this to happen, the correct use of this product is essential; medical personnel must pay attention to precautions and recommendations for proper application. The author's experiences in habitual handling of this product during various years, included in the procedures for standardized cures for these wounds, corroborates its usefulness; the author considers use of this product to be highly effective while being simple to apply; furthermore, one succeeds in providing quality care and optimizes resources employed.

  10. High prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroiditis in adolescents after elimination of iodine deficiency in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bastemir, Mehmet; Emral, Rifat; Erdogan, Gurbuz; Gullu, Sevim

    2006-12-01

    In the present study we evaluated the effects of iodine intake on the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction, autoimmunity, and goiter in two regions with different iodine status after two years of iodization in Turkey. In total 1733 adolescent subjects were enrolled into the study (993 from an iodine-sufficient area--the Eastern Black Sea Region (group 1) and 740 from an iodine-deficient area--Middle Anatolia (group 2)). We measured free thyroxine (FT(4)), thyrotropin (TSH), antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (Anti-TPO), antithyroglobulin antibodies (Anti-Tg), and urinary iodine (UI), and examined the thyroid gland by ultrasound. Median urinary iodine excretion was found to be significantly different in group 1 and group 2 (139 micro/l vs 61micro/l, p < 0.001). Hyperthyroidism was more frequent in group 1 (3.6% vs 0.7%; p < 0.001), but the hypothyroidism rate was similar between groups (1.8% vs 1.4 %; p>0.05). The percentage of anti-Tg positive subjects was found to be 17.6% in group 1 and 6.4% in group 2; that of anti-TPO positive subjects was 4.3% in group 1 and 1.5% in group 2. The prevalence of antithyroid antibody (anti-Tg and/or anti-TPO) positivity was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (18.52% vs 6.62%; p < 0.001). Thyroid volumes of the hyperthyroid subjects in both groups were significantly higher than hypo- and euthyroid subjects. In conclusion, iodine supplementation in Turkey has resulted in the elimination of iodine deficiency in the Eastern Black Sea Region, and this has been accompanied by an increase in the prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid dysfunction.

  11. Seasonal variability of iodine and selenium in surface and groundwater as a factor that may contribute to iodine isotope balance in the thyroid gland and its irradiation in case of radioiodine contamination during accidents at the NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobova, Elena; Kolmykova, Lyudmila; Ryzhenko, Boris; Berezkin, Viktor; Saraeva, Anastasia

    2016-04-01

    Radioiodine release to the environment during the accident at the Chernobyl NPP led to the increased risk of the thyroid cancer cases within the contaminated areas, the effect being aggravated in conditions of stable iodine and selenium deficiency in local food chains. Although the drinking water iodine is usually believed to contribute not more than 10% to local diet, our estimations accounting of water content in other products and several regional studies (e.g. India and Australia) proved its portion to be at least twice as much. As radioiodine isotopes are short-lived, their absorption depends greatly on stable iodine and selenium sufficiency in thyroid gland in the first few days of contamination and seasonal variation of stable iodine and selenium in local sources of drinking water may be significant as modifying the resulting thyroid irradiation in different seasons of the year. The main goal of the study was to evaluate seasonal variation of levels of iodine and selenium in natural waters of the Bryansk region as a possible factor affecting the radioiodine intake by thyroid gland of animals and humans in case of radioiodine contamination during the accident. Seasonal I and Se concentration was measured in the years of 2014 and 2015 at 14 test points characterizing surface (river and lake) and drinking groundwater. Obtained data proved considerable seasonal variation of I and Se concentration in natural waters (3,7-8,1 μg/l and 0,04-0,4 μg/l respectively) related to physico-chemical water parameters, such as pH, Eh and fluctuations in concentration of dissolved organic matter. The widest I and Se seasonal variability was observed in surface and well waters, maximum I level being found in autumn at the end of vegetation period characterized by active I leaching from the decomposed organic residues by long lasting precipitations. The content of selenium in the surface waters during summer-autumn (0,06-0,3 μg/l) was higher than in spring (0,04-0,05

  12. Estimated nutrient intakes from food generally do not meet dietary reference intakes among adult members of Pacific Northwest tribal nations.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie K; McCrory, Megan A; Roberts, Sparkle M; Tracy, J Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M; Boushey, Carol J

    2010-05-01

    Diet is influential in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations including Native Americans. The objective of this report is to present the first comprehensive dietary survey, to our knowledge, of a representative sample of nonpregnant adults from Pacific Northwest tribal nations participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Only participants who completed 1-4 d of dietary records and had weights and heights measured in the laboratory were eligible for this analysis (n = 418). Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by gender for the total sample, those with plausibly reported energy intakes (rEI), and those with implausibly rEI. Estimates of nutrient intakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Nutrient estimates from NHANES 2001-2002 were used as a reference. Among both men and women, total fat contributed 34-37% of energy intake and saturated fat contributed 11-12% of energy intake. Daily cholesterol intakes ranged from 262 to 442 mg. A majority of men and women were not meeting recommendations for vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, and sodium. For a majority of the nutrients examined, plausibility resulted in higher mean estimates. The CoASTAL cohort nutrient profile is similar to NHANES 2001-2002, with a majority of DRI recommendations not being met. Adequate dietary intake information may be more important for this population, because Native Americans experience a disproportionate burden for diseases.

  13. Estimated nutrient intakes from food generally do not meet dietary reference intakes among adult members of Pacific Northwest tribal nations.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie K; McCrory, Megan A; Roberts, Sparkle M; Tracy, J Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M; Boushey, Carol J

    2010-05-01

    Diet is influential in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations including Native Americans. The objective of this report is to present the first comprehensive dietary survey, to our knowledge, of a representative sample of nonpregnant adults from Pacific Northwest tribal nations participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Only participants who completed 1-4 d of dietary records and had weights and heights measured in the laboratory were eligible for this analysis (n = 418). Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by gender for the total sample, those with plausibly reported energy intakes (rEI), and those with implausibly rEI. Estimates of nutrient intakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Nutrient estimates from NHANES 2001-2002 were used as a reference. Among both men and women, total fat contributed 34-37% of energy intake and saturated fat contributed 11-12% of energy intake. Daily cholesterol intakes ranged from 262 to 442 mg. A majority of men and women were not meeting recommendations for vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, and sodium. For a majority of the nutrients examined, plausibility resulted in higher mean estimates. The CoASTAL cohort nutrient profile is similar to NHANES 2001-2002, with a majority of DRI recommendations not being met. Adequate dietary intake information may be more important for this population, because Native Americans experience a disproportionate burden for diseases. PMID:20237069

  14. Determination of the width of the absorption line of atomic iodine in optimization of the parameters of an iodine switch

    SciTech Connect

    Eroshenko, V.A.; Kirillov, G.A.; Mochalov, M.R.; Shemyakin, V.I.; Shurygin, V.K.

    1981-09-01

    A theoretical basis is given for the optimization of the parameters of an iodine switch. The results are reported of an experimental study of the pressure dependence of the width of the absorption line of atomic iodine. The broadening coefficient of molecular iodine is 3.2 MHz/Torr in the temperature range 800--1000 /sup 0/C.

  15. The Effect of Breakfast Type on Total Daily Energy Intake and Body Mass Index Among Thai School Children.

    PubMed

    Purttiponthanee, Sasiumphai; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen; Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Senaprom, Sayamon; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The study investigated the association between breakfast types consumed, daily energy intake, and body mass index for age Z-score (BAZ). Cross-sectional data from 1258 children aged 7 to 12.9 years were analyzed for breakfast type, nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight or obesity. Analysis of covariance was used to compare energy and nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight/obese children between breakfast groups. Only 19% of children had adequate energy intake from breakfast. Those consuming snacks had a significantly lower BAZ (Z = -0.73), with 5% of them being overweight/obese. Those consuming beverages and desserts had the lowest total daily energy intake (1314 kcal) and lowest protein intake (8.4 g). The results suggest that breakfast type is associated with daily energy intake and BAZ. Most breakfasts are not adequate. School-based nutrition education programs involving families, teachers, and health professionals can contribute to improve this situation. PMID:27183975

  16. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  17. Neuropeptide Y fails to normalize food intake in zinc-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Williamson, P S; Browning, J D; Sullivan, M J; O'Dell, B L; Macdonald, R S

    2002-02-01

    Zinc deprivation results in decreased and cyclic food intake in rats. We determined the response of zinc-deprived rats to neuropeptide Y (NPY). In a preliminary experiment, rats were fed a low (-Zn; <1 mg/kg) or adequate zinc diet (+Zn; 100 mg/kg) for 4 days. NPY (5 or 10 microg) was then administered via an intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula and food intake measured for 4 h. NPY stimulated food intake in all rats, but the difference in food intake due to zinc deprivation persisted. In a subsequent experiment, rats were fed the low zinc and adequate zinc diets for 4, 5 or 6 days. Food intake was suppressed in rats fed the low zinc compared to the adequate zinc diet on all of these days. When NPY (10 microg) was administered at the onset of the light cycle, the food intake was approximately 2.5-fold greater regardless of dietary zinc status, but the amount of food consumed by rats fed low zinc was approximately one-half the quantity consumed by NPY-stimulated zinc-adequate rats. NPY administered at the onset of dark failed to stimulate food intake in either dietary group although the total intake difference due to zinc status persisted. ICV administration of 5 nmol of zinc prior to NPY injection failed to correct the food intake response of the zinc-deficient rats. We conclude that the basis of the reduced food intake of zinc-deficient rats does not relate to NPY quantity or release, or to impairment of its signal transduction. There appears to be another undefined factor that limits food intake in zinc deficiency.

  18. Characteristics of the electron beam pumped iodine monofluoride laser

    SciTech Connect

    Champagne, L.F.; Ehrlich, J.E.

    1983-02-01

    Electron beam pumping of Ar/CF/sub 3/I/NF/sub 3/ mixtures yields optical pulse lengths about 0.5 ..mu..s from iodine monofluoride. Laser efficiency in this system is about0.04 percent. Laser performance is limited by the formation of molecular iodine. The formation of molecular iodine in the excited state (I/sub 2/) reduces the number of iodine atoms available to form IF. In the ground state, molecular iodine (I/sub 2/) absorbs the IF laser emission at 485 and 491 nm.

  19. Characteristics of the electron beam pumped iodine monofluoride laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, L. F.; Ehrlich, J. E.

    1983-02-01

    Electron beam pumping of Ar/CF3I/NF3 mixtures yields optical pulse lengths approximately 0.5 microsec from iodine monofluoride. Laser efficiency in this system is approximately 0.04 percent. Laser performance is limited by the formation of molecular iodine. The formation of molecular iodine in the excited state reduces the number of iodine atoms available to form excited-state IF. In the ground state, molecular iodine absorbs the excited-state IF laser emission at 485 and 491 nm.

  20. Source And Sink Of Iodine For Drinking Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Flanagan, David T.; Gibbons, Randall E.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed system for controlling concentration of iodine in potable water exploits temperature dependence of equilibrium partition of iodine between solution in water and residence in ion-exchange resin. Used to maintain concentration of iodine sufficient to kill harmful microbes, but not so great to make water unpalatable. Requires little attention, yet controls concentration of iodine more precisely than iodination and deiodination by manual techniques. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, system has terrestrial applications in regions where water must be kept potable, resupply difficult, and system must operate largely unattended.

  1. Dry method for recycling iodine-loaded silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Thomas R.; Staples, Bruce A.; Murphy, Llewellyn P.

    1978-05-09

    Fission product iodine is removed from a waste gas stream and stored by passing the gas stream through a bed of silver-exchanged zeolite until the zeolite is loaded with iodine, passing dry hydrogen gas through the bed to remove the iodine and regenerate the bed, and passing the hydrogen stream containing the hydrogen iodide thus formed through a lead-exchanged zeolite which adsorbs the radioactive iodine from the gas stream and permanently storing the lead-exchanged zeolite loaded with radioactive iodine.

  2. Arthur von Hubl and the Iodine Value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The iodine value is still one of the most commonly applied indices in fatty acid chemistry. Its introduction was a milestone in analyzing fats and oils as well as describing their structure-property relationships, although it can be considered largely outdated because modern analytical methods such...

  3. 21 CFR 558.295 - Iodinated casein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.295 Iodinated casein. (a) Approvals. See 017762 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  4. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In H.; Stock, Larry V.

    1988-01-01

    A XeCl laser which was developed earlier for an iodine laser oscillator was modified in order to increase the output pulse energy of XeCl laser so that the iodine laser output energy could be increased. The electrical circuit of the XeCl laser was changed from a simple capacitor discharge circuit of the XeCl laser to a Marx system. Because of this improvement the output energy from the XeCl laser was increased from 60 mj to 80 mj. Subsequently, iodine laser output energy was increased from 100 mj to 3 mj. On the other hand, the energy storage capability and amplification characteristics of the Vortek solar simulator-pumped amplifier was calculated expecting the calculated amplification factor is about 2 and the energy extraction efficiency is 26 percent due to the very low input energy density to the amplifier. As a result of an improved kinetic modeling for the iodine solar simulator pumped power amplifier, it is found that the I-2 along the axis of the tube affects seriously the gain profile. For the gas i-C3F7I at the higher pressures, the gain will decrease due to the I-2 as the pumping intensity increases, and at these higher pressures an increase in flow velocity will increase the gain.

  5. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon

    1990-01-01

    The optimum conditions of a solar pumped iodine laser are found in this research for the case of a continuous wave operation and a pulsed operation. The optimum product of the pressure(p) inside the laser tube and the tube diameter(d) was pd=40 approx. 50 torr-cm on the contrary to the case of a high intensity flashlamp pumped iodine laser where the optimum value of the product is known to be pd=150 torr-cm. The pressure-diameter product is less than 1/3 of that of the high power iodine laser. During the research period, various laser materials were also studied for solar pumping. Among the laser materials, Nd:YAG is found to have the lowest laser threshold pumping intensity of about 200 solar constant. The Rhodamine 6G was also tested as the solar pumped laser material. The threshold pumping power was measured to be about 20,000 solar constant. The amplification experiment for a continuously pumped iodine laser amplifier was performed using Vortek solar simulator and the amplification factors were measured for single pass amplification and triple pass amplification of the 15 cm long amplifier tube. The amplification of 5 was obtained for the triple pass amplification.

  6. METHOD OF REMOVING RADIOACTIVE IODINE FROM GASES

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, L.

    1962-01-23

    A method of removing radioactive iodine from a gaseous medium is given in which the gaseous medium is adjusted to a temperature not exceeding 400 deg C and then passed over a copper fibrous pad having a coating of cupric sulfide deposited thereon. An ionic exchange on the pad results in the formation of cupric iodide and the release of sulfur. (AEC)

  7. Iodine retention during evaporative volume reduction

    DOEpatents

    Godbee, H.W.; Cathers, G.I.; Blanco, R.E.

    1975-11-18

    An improved method for retaining radioactive iodine in aqueous waste solutions during volume reduction is disclosed. The method applies to evaporative volume reduction processes whereby the decontaminated (evaporated) water can be returned safely to the environment. The method generally comprises isotopically diluting the waste solution with a nonradioactive iodide and maintaining the solution at a high pH during evaporation.

  8. Halogen Bonding in Hypervalent Iodine Compounds.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Luca; Cavallo, Gabriella; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Resnati, Giuseppe; Terraneo, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Halogen bonds occur when electrophilic halogens (Lewis acids) attractively interact with donors of electron density (Lewis bases). This term is commonly used for interactions undertaken by monovalent halogen derivatives. The aim of this chapter is to show that the geometric features of the bonding pattern around iodine in its hypervalent derivatives justify the understanding of some of the longer bonds as halogen bonds. We suggest that interactions directionality in ionic and neutral λ(3)-iodane derivatives is evidence that the electron density distribution around iodine atoms is anisotropic, a region of most positive electrostatic potential exists on the extensions of the covalent bonds formed by iodine, and these positive caps affect, or even determine, the crystal packing of these derivatives. For instance, the short cation-anion contacts in ionic λ(3)-iodane and λ(5)-iodane derivatives fully match the halogen bond definition and geometrical prerequisites. The same holds for the short contacts the cation of ionic λ(3)-iodanes forms with lone-pair donors or the short contacts given by neutral λ(3)-iodanes with incoming nucleophiles. The longer and weaker bonds formed by iodine in hypervalent compounds are usually called secondary bondings and we propose that the term halogen bond can also be used. Compared to the term secondary bond, halogen bond may possibly be more descriptive of some bonding features, e.g., its directionality and the relationships between structure of interacting groups and interaction strength. PMID:26809623

  9. Iodine as propellant for electric space propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grondein, Pascaline; Chabert, Pascal; Aanesland, Ane

    2014-10-01

    In PEGASES (an electric gridded thruster) both positive and negative ions are expelled after extraction from an ion-ion plasma formed downstream a localized magnetic field placed a few centimeters from the ionization region. For this thruster concept, we believe that Iodine is the best candidate. Its advantages are multiple: heavy and therefore good for high thrust, low ionization threshold and high electronegativity (the latter crucial for PEGASES) leading to high ion-ion densities and low RF power, at solid state at STP with a high vapor, and finally inexpensive. Iodine is also di-atomic and therefore energy loss in dissociation processes are reduced compared to SF6. We present here a dedicated experimental set-up intended for iodine experiments. The injection system consists of an evaporation chamber with temperature controlled gas lines and vacuum chamber to control condensation. A global model of the iodine electronegative plasma will be developed to compare and predict the plasma behavior and composition inside the thruster. The main challenge in this model is to reproduce the conditions of a strongly segregated plasma with two regions: one with rather high electron temperature and low electronegativity and the other an ion-ion plasma with low temperature.

  10. Volcanic iodine monoxide observed from satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Theys, Nicolas; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Halogen species are injected into the atmosphere by volcanic eruptions. Previous studies have reported observations of chlorine and bromine oxides in volcanic plumes. These emissions have a significant impact on the chemistry within the plume as well as on upper troposphere and lower stratosphere composition, e.g. through ozone depletion. Volcanic halogen oxides have been observed from different platforms, from ground, aircraft and from satellite. The present study reports on satellite observations of iodine monoxide, IO, following the eruption of the Kasatochi volcano, Alaska, in August 2008. Satellite measurements from the SCIAMACHY sensor onboard ENVISAT are used. In addition, the volcanic IO plume is also retrieved from GOME-2 / MetOP-A measurements. Largest IO column amounts reach up to more than 4×1013 molec/cm2, the results from both instruments being consistent. The IO plume has a very similar shape as the BrO plume and is observed for several days following the eruption. The present observations are the first evidence that besides chlorine and bromine oxides also iodine oxides can be emitted by volcanic eruptions. This has important implications for atmospheric composition and background iodine levels. Together with the simultaneous observations of BrO and SO2, iodine monoxide columns can possibly provide insights into the composition of the magma.

  11. Effects of iodine concentration on iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking of zircaloy-4 tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Seog Ryu; Young, Hwan Kang; Lee, Jai-Young

    1988-05-01

    Iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking (I-SCC) experiments on Zircaloy-4 tube were undertaken in the iodine concentration range of 0-4 mg/cm 2, the temperature range of 330-400 ° C and a nominal hoop stress of 475 MPa, using the internal pressurization method. The time-to-failure, failure strain and strain rate were measured as a function of the iodine concentration. An apparent activation energy for I-SCC was calculated from the temperature dependence of I-SCC. A fractographic interpretation was also made through scanning electron microscopic examination. The results suggest that the iodine concentration has an influence on the crack propagation step to increase the propagation rate of I-SCC, promoting the I-SCC susceptibility. It is found that the critical iodine concentration means the phenomenological value to show the iodine concentration dependence of I-SCC susceptibility, not the critical value to determine the occurrence of I-SCC. The I-SCC behavior of Zircaloy is discussed from the viewpoint of the crack initiation and propagation process.

  12. [Antihyperlipidemic effect of iodine egg: search for active ingredients and their iodine contents].

    PubMed

    Kaji, K; Seyama, Y; Yamashita, S

    1984-04-01

    Active fractions that possess the hypocholesterolemic effect of iodine egg yolk lipid fraction have been investigated with male Wistar strain rats fed on a cholesterol-rich diet. Iodine egg yolk lipid was extracted by Folch's (chloroform: methanol) method and was refractionated into a neutral lipid (IEY-NL) fraction and a polar lipid (IEY-PL) fraction. The iodine content in each fraction was determined. The animals were kept on the cholesterol-rich diet for 5 days, and then they were fed the fractions in addition to the above diet for 10 more days. The hypocholesterolemic effect was seen most significantly with the IEY-NL fraction. The serum total cholesterol level in rats receiving this fraction was 70% as compared with that of the Ch group (fed on the cholesterol diet). However, the liver total cholesterol level was not affected or rather increased by the IEY-NL fraction. Another fraction (IEY-PL) showed no such effect. Iodine content in the IEY-NL fraction was quite low (0.2 ppm) compared with the other fractions. The daily dose in terms of iodine in the IEY-NL fraction was only the amount equivalent to 1/50 of the reported daily requirement for the rat. The IEY-NL fraction induced the hypocholesterolemic effect, though it contained only a trace of iodine. PMID:6540225

  13. Determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in waters with a new total organic iodine measurement approach.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tingting; Zhang, Xiangru

    2013-11-01

    The dissolved iodine species that dominate aquatic systems are iodide, iodate and organo-iodine. These species may undergo transformation to one another and thus affect the formation of iodinated disinfection byproducts during disinfection of drinking waters or wastewater effluents. In this study, a fast, sensitive and accurate method for determining these iodine species in waters was developed by derivatizing iodide and iodate to organic iodine and measuring organic iodine with a total organic iodine (TOI) measurement approach. Within this method, organo-iodine was determined directly by TOI measurement; iodide was oxidized by monochloramine to hypoiodous acid and then hypoiodous acid reacted with phenol to form organic iodine, which was determined by TOI measurement; iodate was reduced by ascorbic acid to iodide and then determined as iodide. The quantitation limit of organo-iodine or sum of organo-iodine and iodide or sum of organo-iodine, iodide and iodate was 5 μg/L as I for a 40 mL water sample (or 2.5 μg/L as I for an 80 mL water sample, or 1.25 μg/L as I for a 160 mL water sample). This method was successfully applied to the determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in a variety of water samples, including tap water, seawater, urine and wastewater. The recoveries of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine were 91-109%, 90-108% and 91-108%, respectively. The concentrations and distributions of iodine species in different water samples were obtained and compared.

  14. A review on the metabolic disorders of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mansourian, Azad Reza

    2011-04-01

    Iodine is in the crucial parts of two hormones of T4 and T3 produced by the thyroid glands which are essential for all the aspects of human metabolisms. It is demonstrated that iodine deficiency can be considered as sole cause of many thyroid abnormalities including mental disorders. Iodine deficiency of sufficient degree to cause hypothyroidism during fetus life and early infancy will be accompanied with brain abnormality possibly to the stage of mental retardation. The iodine deficiency among subjects in their early stage of childhood is not as severe as those in their fetus or infancy. In adult subjects the sever iodine deficiency can be also associated with mental disorders due to the direct side effects of hypothyroidism occurred by lack of iodine. The clinical manifestation of iodine deficiency show itself with psychological disorders in adult subjects. The status of iodine within blood can be evaluated through measurement of urinary iodine level and the low urinary concentration is an indicative of hypothyroidism. Mental retardation and brain damage due to iodine deficiency can be prevented if iodine supplementation prescribed duly on time. PMID:21902053

  15. Radioactive iodine separations and waste forms development.

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Garino, Terry J.; Rademacher, David

    2010-04-01

    Reprocessing nuclear fuel releases gaseous radio-iodine containing compounds which must be captured and stored for prolonged periods. Ag-loaded mordenites are the leading candidate for scavenging both organic and inorganic radioiodine containing compounds directly from reprocessing off gases. Alternately, the principal off-gas contaminant, I2, and I-containing acids HI, HIO3, etc. may be scavenged using caustic soda solutions, which are then treated with bismuth to put the iodine into an insoluble form. Our program is focused on using state-of-the-art materials science technologies to develop materials with high loadings of iodine, plus high long-term mechanical and thermal stability. In particular, we present results from research into two materials areas: (1) zeolite-based separations and glass encapsulation, and (2) in-situ precipitation of Bi-I-O waste forms. Ag-loaded mordenite is either commercially available or can be prepared via a simple Ag+ ion exchange process. Research using an Ag+-loaded Mordenite zeolite (MOR, LZM-5 supplied by UOP Corp.) has revealed that I2 is scavenged in one of three forms, as micron-sized AgI particles, as molecular (AgI)x clusters in the zeolite pores and as elemental I2 vapor. It was found that only a portion of the sorbed iodine is retained after heating at 95o C for three months. Furthermore, we show that even when the Ag-MOR is saturated with I2 vapor only roughly half of the silver reacted to form stable AgI compounds. However, the Iodine can be further retained if the AgI-MOR is then encapsulated into a low temperature glass binder. Follow-on studies are now focused on the sorption and waste form development of Iodine from more complex streams including organo-iodine compounds (CH3I). Bismuth-Iodate layered phases have been prepared from caustic waste stream simulant solutions. They serve as a low cost alternative to ceramics waste forms. Novel compounds have been synthesized and solubility studies have been completed

  16. Additional studies for the spectrophotometric measurement of iodine in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Previous work in iodine spectroscopy is briefly reviewed. Continued studies of the direct spectrophotometric determination of aqueous iodine complexed with potassium iodide show that free iodine is optimally determined at the isosbestic point for these solutions. The effects on iodine determinations of turbidity and chemical substances (in trace amounts) is discussed and illustrated. At the levels tested, iodine measurements are not significantly altered by such substances. A preliminary design for an on-line, automated iodine monitor with eventual capability of operating also as a controller was analyzed and developed in detail with respect single beam colorimeter operating at two wavelengths (using a rotating filter wheel). A flow-through sample cell allows the instrument to operate continuously, except for momentary stop flow when measurements are made. The timed automatic cycling of the system may be interrupted whenever desired, for manual operation. An analog output signal permits controlling an iodine generator.

  17. An iodine supplementation of tomato fruits coated with an edible film of the iodide-doped chitosan.

    PubMed

    Limchoowong, Nunticha; Sricharoen, Phitchan; Techawongstien, Suchila; Chanthai, Saksit

    2016-06-01

    In general, the risk of numerous thyroid cancers inevitably increases among people with iodine deficiencies. An iodide-doped chitosan (CT-I) solution was prepared for dipping tomatoes to coat the fresh surface with an edible film (1.5 μm), thereby providing iodine-rich fruits for daily intake. Characterisation of the thin film was conducted by FTIR and SEM. Stability of the CT-I film was studied via water immersion at various time intervals, and no residual iodide leached out due to intrinsic interactions between the cationic amino group of chitosan and iodide ions. Moreover, the iodide supplement exhibited no effect on the antioxidant activity of tomatoes. The iodine content in the film-coated tomato was determined by ICP-OES. The tomato coating with 1.5% (w/v) CT-I contained approximately 0.4 μg iodide per gram fresh weight. In addition, the freshness and storability of iodine-doped tomatoes were also maintained for shelf-life concerns.

  18. Thyroid function: comparison of women in late pregnancy with control women of reproductive age in regions of dietary iodine excess.

    PubMed

    Du, Quxiao; Zhu, Hong; Yao, Li

    2013-07-01

    Three hundred pregnant women and 300 women of reproductive age (controls) were selected from regions with a dietary iodine excess to evaluate thyroid and autoimmune thyroid functions. Fasting morning urine and venous blood samples were collected. Urinary iodine concentration, serum free tri-iodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone (sTSH), serum thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) levels were determined. Iodine levels were excessive in 83.7% of pregnant women and 80.7% of the control women. The former showed lower rates of total thyroid disease and subclinical hypothyroidism than the latter (21.7% vs 29.7%, P < 0.05; 19.7% vs 27.3%, P < 0.05). The FT3 level, FT4 level, and TGAb positive rate of pregnant women were lower than that in the controls (P < 0.05). Thus, both excessive iodine intake and pregnancy can influence the thyroid and autoimmune thyroid functions of women.

  19. An iodine supplementation of tomato fruits coated with an edible film of the iodide-doped chitosan.

    PubMed

    Limchoowong, Nunticha; Sricharoen, Phitchan; Techawongstien, Suchila; Chanthai, Saksit

    2016-06-01

    In general, the risk of numerous thyroid cancers inevitably increases among people with iodine deficiencies. An iodide-doped chitosan (CT-I) solution was prepared for dipping tomatoes to coat the fresh surface with an edible film (1.5 μm), thereby providing iodine-rich fruits for daily intake. Characterisation of the thin film was conducted by FTIR and SEM. Stability of the CT-I film was studied via water immersion at various time intervals, and no residual iodide leached out due to intrinsic interactions between the cationic amino group of chitosan and iodide ions. Moreover, the iodide supplement exhibited no effect on the antioxidant activity of tomatoes. The iodine content in the film-coated tomato was determined by ICP-OES. The tomato coating with 1.5% (w/v) CT-I contained approximately 0.4 μg iodide per gram fresh weight. In addition, the freshness and storability of iodine-doped tomatoes were also maintained for shelf-life concerns. PMID:26830582

  20. Relationships between Micro-Vascular and Iodine-Staining Patterns in the Vicinity of the Tumor Front of Superficial Esophageal Squamous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Shunsuke; Kawada, Kenro; Swangsri, Jirawat; Fujiwara, Naoto; Saito, Katsumasa; Fujiwara, Hisashi; Ryotokuji, Tairo; Okada, Takuya; Miyawaki, Yutaka; Tohkairin, Yutaka; Nakajima, Yasuaki; Kumagai, Youichi; Nagai, Kagami; Ito, Takashi; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Tatsuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to clarify differences between micro-vascular and iodine-staining patterns in the vicinity of the tumor fronts of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs). Methods Ten consecutive patients with ESCCs who were treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) were enrolled. At the edge of the iodine-unstained area, we observed 183 sites in total using image-enhanced magnifying endoscopy. We classified the micro-vascular and iodine-staining patterns into three types: Type A, in which the line of vascular change matched the border of the iodine-unstained area; Type B, in which the border of the iodine-unstained area extended beyond the line of vascular change; Type C, in which the line of vascular change extended beyond the border of the iodine-unstained area. Then, by examining histopathological sections, we compared the diameter of intra-papillary capillary loops (IPCLs) in cancerous areas and normal squamous epithelium. Results We investigated 160 sites that the adequate quality of pictures were obtained. There was no case in which the line of vascular change completely matched the whole circumference of the border of an iodine-unstained area. Among the 160 sites, type A was recognized at 76 sites (47.5%), type B at 79 sites (49.4%), and type C at 5 sites (3.1%). Histological examination showed that the mean diameter of the IPCLs in normal squamous epithelium was 16.2±3.7μm, whereas that of IPCLs in cancerous lesions was 21.0±4.4μm. Conclusions The development of iodine-unstained areas tends to precede any changes in the vascularity of the esophageal surface epithelium. PMID:26301414