Science.gov

Sample records for adequate iodine intake

  1. Adequate iodine levels in healthy pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey of dietary intake in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kasap, Burcu; Akbaba, Gülhan; Yeniçeri, Emine N.; Akın, Melike N.; Akbaba, Eren; Öner, Gökalp; Turhan, Nilgün Ö.; Duru, Mehmet E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess current iodine levels and related factors among healthy pregnant women. Methods: In this cross-sectional, hospital-based study, healthy pregnant women (n=135) were scanned for thyroid volume, provided urine samples for urinary iodine concentration and completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics and dietary habits targeted for iodine consumption at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Muğla, Turkey, between August 2014 and February 2015. Sociodemographic data were analyzed by simple descriptive statistics. Results: Median urinary iodine concentration was 222.0 µg/L, indicating adequate iodine intake during pregnancy. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 28.1% of subjects had iodine deficiency, 34.1% had adequate iodine intake, 34.8% had more than adequate iodine intake, and 3.0% had excessive iodine intake during pregnancy. Education level, higher monthly income, current employment, consuming iodized salt, and adding salt to food during, or after cooking were associated with higher urinary iodine concentration. Conclusion: Iodine status of healthy pregnant women was adequate, although the percentage of women with more than adequate iodine intake was higher than the reported literature. PMID:27279519

  2. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  3. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8-10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100-199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  4. Recent data on iodine intake in Germany and Europe.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. These regulate metabolism, promote growth, development and maturation of all organs, especially the brain. Most iodine is found in oceans and most continental soil and ground water is deficient in iodine. Therefore, around 2 billion individuals are estimated to have insufficient iodine intake and are at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. The best carrier for save iodine supplementation is salt, as the daily intake of salt is mainly constant. Due to the collaboration between international and national organisations and the salt industry, many developing and developed countries introduced universal salt iodization (USI) or have mandatory or voluntary fortification programs. In Germany as in most European countries the use of iodized salt is voluntary not only in household but also in the food industry. Two recent epidemiological surveys in Germany revealed that 33% of children and 32% of adults are still suffering from mild to moderate iodine deficiency. The best surrogate parameter for iodine deficiency is goitre. The goitre prevalence is around 30% in children as well as in adults which is in accordance with the documented iodine deficiency. From other European countries epidemiological derived data on iodine intake are only available from Denmark and Poland. Further efforts are under way to reveal the iodine status with proper methods in all European countries. On this background it might be possible to establish adequate iodine fortification programs in all European countries. PMID:27421794

  5. Development and validation of an iodine-specific FFQ to estimate iodine intake in Australian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Condo, Dominique; Makrides, Maria; Skeaff, Sheila; Zhou, Shao J

    2015-03-28

    Adequate iodine is important during pregnancy to ensure optimal growth and development of the offspring. We validated an iodine-specific FFQ (I-FFQ) for use in Australian pregnant women. A forty-four-item I-FFQ was developed to assess iodine intake from food and was administered to 122 pregnant women at 28 weeks gestation. Iodine supplement use was captured separately at 28 weeks gestation. Correlation between iodine intake from food estimated using the I-FFQ and a 4 d weighed food record as well as correlation between total iodine intake and 24 h urinary iodine excretion (UIE), 24 h urinary iodine concentration (UIC), spot UIC and thyroid function were assessed at 28 weeks gestation. A moderate correlation between the two dietary methods was shown (r 0·349, P< 0·001), and it was strengthened with the addition of iodine supplements (r 0·876, P<0·001). There was a fair agreement (k= 0·28, P<0·001) between the two dietary measures in the classification of women as receiving adequate (≥160 μg/d) or inadequate (<160 μg/d) iodine intake from food, but the limits of agreement from the Bland-Altman plot were large. Total iodine intake was associated with 24 h UIE (β = 0·488, P<0·001) but not with spot UIC. Iodine intake from food using the I-FFQ was assessed at study entry (<20 weeks gestation) in addition to 28 weeks gestation, and there was a strong correlation in iodine intake at the two time points (r 0·622, P<0·001), which indicated good reproducibility. In conclusion, the I-FFQ provides a valid tool for estimating iodine intake in pregnant women and can be used to screen women who are at risk of inadequate intake. PMID:25744430

  6. Iodine and pregnancy - a UK cross-sectional survey of dietary intake, knowledge and awareness.

    PubMed

    Combet, E; Bouga, M; Pan, B; Lean, M E J; Christopher, C O

    2015-07-14

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones, which are critical for healthy growth, development and metabolism. The UK population is now classified as mildly iodine-insufficient. Adequate levels of iodine during pregnancy are essential for fetal neurodevelopment, and mild iodine deficiency is linked to developmental impairments. In the absence of prophylaxis in the UK, awareness of nutritional recommendations during pregnancy would empower mothers to make the right dietary choices leading to adequate iodine intake. The present study aimed to: estimate mothers' dietary iodine intake in pregnancy (using a FFQ); assess awareness of the importance of iodine in pregnancy with an understanding of existing pregnancy dietary and lifestyle recommendations with relevance for iodine; examine the level of confidence in meeting adequate iodine intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and questionnaires were distributed between August 2011 and February 2012 on local (Glasgow) and national levels (online electronic questionnaire); 1026 women, UK-resident and pregnant or mother to a child aged up to 36 months participated in the study. While self-reported awareness about general nutritional recommendations during pregnancy was high (96 %), awareness of iodine-specific recommendations was very low (12 %), as well as the level of confidence of how to achieve adequate iodine intake (28 %). Median pregnancy iodine intake, without supplements, calculated from the FFQ, was 190 μg/d (interquartile range 144-256μg/d), which was lower than that of the WHO's recommended intake for pregnant women (250 μg/d). Current dietary recommendations in pregnancy, and their dissemination, are found not to equip women to meet the requirements for iodine intake. PMID:26005740

  7. Iodine intake in human nutrition: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Dahl, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    The present literature review is a part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) issued in 2004. The main objective of the review is to assess the influence of different intakes of iodine at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation) in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. The literature search resulted in 1,504 abstracts. Out of those, 168 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Full paper selection resulted in 40 papers that were quality assessed (A, B, or C). The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, and no conclusion. We found suggestive evidence for improved maternal iodine status and thyroid function by iodine supplementation during pregnancy. Suggestive evidence was found for the relationship between improved thyroid function (used as an indicator of iodine status) during pregnancy and cognitive function in the offspring up to 18 months of age. Moderately to severely iodine-deficient children will probably benefit from iodine supplementation or improved iodine status in order to improve their cognitive function, while only one study showed improved cognitive function following iodine supplementation in children from a mildly iodine-deficient area (no conclusion). No conclusions can be drawn related to other outcomes included in our review. There are no new data supporting changes in dietary reference values for children or adults. The rationale for increasing the dietary reference values for pregnant and lactating women in the NNR5 needs to be discussed in a broader perspective, taking iodine status of pregnant women in the Nordic countries into account. PMID:23060737

  8. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Cho, Mi Sook; Song, Won O

    2016-01-01

    Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC) from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA); dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted. PMID:27240399

  9. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Cho, Mi Sook; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC) from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA); dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted. PMID:27240399

  10. The Importance of Adequate Iodine during Pregnancy and Infancy.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased ≥50% during pregnancy. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy can cause maternal and fetal hypothyroidism and impair neurological development of the fetus. The consequences depend upon the timing and severity of the hypothyroidism; the most severe manifestation is cretinism. In iodine-deficient areas, controlled studies have demonstrated that iodine supplementation before or during early pregnancy eliminates new cases of cretinism, increases birth weight, reduces rates of perinatal and infant mortality and generally increases developmental scores in young children by 10-20%. Mild-to-moderate maternal iodine deficiency can cause thyroid dysfunction, but whether it impairs cognitive and/or neurological function in the offspring remains uncertain. In nearly all regions affected by iodine deficiency, salt iodization is the most cost-effective way of delivering iodine and improving maternal and infant health. PMID:27198746

  11. Iodine content of infant formulas and iodine intake of premature babies: high risk of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ares, S; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1994-11-01

    As part of a study of thyroid function in premature babies, the iodine content of their mothers' breast milk, that of 32 formulas from different brands used in Spain, and that of 127 formulas used in other countries was determined. Breast milk contained more iodine--mean (SEM) 10 (1) microgram/dl--than most of the formulas, especially those for premature babies. Iodine intakes were therefore below the recommended daily amount (RDA) for newborns: babies of 27-30 weeks' gestational age took 3.1 (1.1) micrograms/day at 5 days of age and 29.8 (2.7) micrograms by 2 months of age. This problem is not exclusive to Spanish premature babies as the iodine content of many of the formulas on sale in other countries was also inadequate. It is concluded that preterm infants who are formula fed are at high risk of iodine deficiency. PMID:7820714

  12. Iodine content of infant formulas and iodine intake of premature babies: high risk of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Ares, S; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1994-01-01

    As part of a study of thyroid function in premature babies, the iodine content of their mothers' breast milk, that of 32 formulas from different brands used in Spain, and that of 127 formulas used in other countries was determined. Breast milk contained more iodine--mean (SEM) 10 (1) microgram/dl--than most of the formulas, especially those for premature babies. Iodine intakes were therefore below the recommended daily amount (RDA) for newborns: babies of 27-30 weeks' gestational age took 3.1 (1.1) micrograms/day at 5 days of age and 29.8 (2.7) micrograms by 2 months of age. This problem is not exclusive to Spanish premature babies as the iodine content of many of the formulas on sale in other countries was also inadequate. It is concluded that preterm infants who are formula fed are at high risk of iodine deficiency. PMID:7820714

  13. Neonatal hypothyroxinemia: effects of iodine intake and premature birth.

    PubMed

    Ares, S; Escobar-Morreale, H F; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1997-06-01

    We have investigated the effects of iodine (I) intake on urinary I excretion in preterm (PT) babies up to 2 months after birth and its effect on serum T4, free T4 (FT4), T3, TSH, and thyroglobulin (Tg) levels compared to those in term (T) newborns. Very premature and very sick infants were in negative I balance for the first weeks after birth. Later, these same infants, as well as the other PT and T newborns, were in positive balance; 75- 80% of the ingested I was not accounted for in the urine. The urinary I levels of PT and T neonates cannot be equated to their I intakes. T4, FT4, and T3 levels in PT and T neonates increased with postmenstrual age, whereas Tg decreased and TSH did not change. Serum FT4, T3, Tg, and TSH levels in PT neonates were affected negatively, independently from age, by a low I intake. PT birth also affected T4, FT4, and Tg negatively, independently from I intake and postmenstrual age, for at least 6-8 weeks after birth. Care should be taken to avoid I deficiency in PT neonates. However, even when I intake is adequate, PT newborns are hypothyroxinemic compared to T babies during an important period of brain development. This suggests the possible convenience of interventions that might mimic the intrauterine hormone environment and accelerate maturation. PMID:9177368

  14. Research needs for assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ershow, Abby G; Goodman, Gay; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    The Office of Dietary Supplements of the NIH convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in Rockville, Maryland, in 2014. The purpose of the current article is to summarize and briefly discuss a list of research and resource needs developed with the input of workshop participants. This list is composed of the basic, clinical, translational, and population studies required for characterizing the benefits and risks of iodine supplementation, along with related data, analyses, evaluations, methods development, and supporting activities. Ancillary studies designed to use the participant, biological sample, and data resources of ongoing and completed studies (including those not originally concerned with iodine) may provide an efficient, cost-effective means to address some of these research and resource needs. In the United States, the foremost question is whether neurobehavioral development in the offspring of mildly to moderately iodine-deficient women is improved by maternal iodine supplementation during pregnancy. It is important to identify the benefits and risks of iodine supplementation in all population subgroups so that supplementation can be targeted, if necessary, to avoid increasing the risk of thyroid dysfunction and related adverse health effects in those with high iodine intakes. Ultimately, there will be a need for well-designed trials and other studies to assess the impact of maternal supplementation on neurodevelopmental outcomes in the offspring. However, 2 basic information gaps loom ahead of such a study: the development of robust, valid, and convenient biomarkers of individual iodine status and the identification of infant and toddler neurobehavioral development endpoints that are sensitive to mild maternal iodine deficiency during pregnancy and its reversal by supplementation. PMID:27534640

  15. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Karakochuk, Crystal D.; Michaux, Kristina D.; Chai, Tze L.; Chan, Benny B.; Whitfield, Kyly C.; Barr, Susan I.; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18–45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100–199 and 150–249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  16. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  17. Salt intake and iodine status of women in Samoa.

    PubMed

    Land, Mary-Anne; Webster, Jacqui L; Ma, Gary; Li, Mu; Su'a, Sarah Asi Faletoese; Ieremia, Merina; Viali, Satu; Faeamani, Gavin; Bell, A Colin; Quested, Christine; Neal, Bruce C; Eastman, Creswell J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine iodine nutrition status and whether iodine status differs across salt intake levels among a sample of women aged 18-45 years living in Samoa. A cross-sectional survey was completed and 24-hr urine samples were collected and assessed for iodine (n=152) and salt excretion (n=119). The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among the women was 88 μg/L (Interquartile range (IQR)=54-121 μg/L). 62% of the women had a UIC <100 μg/L. The crude estimated mean 24-hr urinary salt excretion was 6.6 (standard deviation 3.2) g/day. More than two-thirds (66%) of the women exceeded the World Health Organization recommended maximum level of 5 g/day. No association was found between median UIC and salt excretion (81 μg/L iodine where urinary salt excretion >=5 g/day versus 76 μg/L where urinary salt excretion <5 g/day; p=0.4). Iodine nutrition appears to be insufficient in this population and may be indicative of iodine deficiency disorders in Samoan women. A collaborative approach in monitoring iodine status and salt intake will strengthen both programs and greatly inform the level of iodine fortification required to ensure optimal iodine intake as population salt reduction programs take effect. PMID:26965773

  18. Iodine intake and status during pregnancy and lactation before and after government initiatives to improve iodine status, in Palmerston North, New Zealand: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brough, Louise; Jin, Ying; Shukri, Nurul Husna; Wharemate, Zirsha Roimata; Weber, Janet L; Coad, Jane

    2015-10-01

    Iodine deficiency during pregnancy and lactation may adversely affect fetal and infant development. Two initiatives were introduced in New Zealand to prevent deficiency: (1) mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt; and (2) provision of a subsidised iodine supplement (150 μg) for all pregnant and breastfeeding women. The aim of this study was to assess iodine intake and status among a self-selecting sample of pregnant and lactating women in Palmerston North, both before and after the two initiatives. Pregnant and breastfeeding women were recruited before (n = 25 and 32; 2009) and after (n = 34 and 36; 2011) the initiatives. Iodine concentration was determined in 24-h urine and breast milk samples using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Use of supplements and salt, knowledge of iodine deficiency, and awareness of the initiatives were determined by questionnaire. Median urine iodine concentration (UIC) was higher in 2011 compared with 2009 for both pregnant (85 and 47 μg L(-1) ) and breastfeeding (74 and 34 μg L(-1) ) participants; median UIC were below the cut-offs for adequate iodine status. However, in 2011, the estimated daily iodine intake during pregnancy was 217 μg day(-1) ; 74% of women achieved the Estimated Average Requirement. Knowledge of the initiatives was low, only 28-56% were aware of the need for iodine supplements and only 15-22% were aware of the mandatory addition of iodised salt to bread. Despite initiatives, UIC of these women indicates iodine deficiency, however, dietary intakes appear adequate. Ongoing surveillance of supplement use and iodine status among pregnant and lactating women throughout New Zealand is needed to fully assess the efficacy of the initiatives. Alternative strategies may require evaluation to ensure all women have adequate iodine during pregnancy and breastfeeding. PMID:23782592

  19. Effects of iodine intake and teat-dipping practices on milk iodine concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castro, S I Borucki; Berthiaume, R; Robichaud, A; Lacasse, P

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of dietary iodine and teat-dipping practices on iodine concentrations in milk. In the first study, 63 cows in mid lactation were assigned to a 3×3 factorial design in which the main effects were dietary iodine levels (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mg of dietary I/kg of dry matter) and 3 different postdip managements (chlorhexidine with dip cup, 1% iodine dip cup, and 1% iodine by manual spray). During the 13-d pre-experimental period and the 15-d experimental period, noniodized sanitizers were used in premilking management. During the pre-experimental period, the levels of milk iodine averaged 241.2±5.8 μg/kg, and no relationship was found with lactation number, days in milk, or milk production. Milk iodine concentrations increased linearly with iodine intake. Although teat dipping with 1% iodine had no effect on milk iodine concentration, the same solution applied by spraying greatly increased milk iodine levels. The second study was conducted to determine the effects of udder preparation before milking on milk iodine concentrations. Thirty-two lactating cows were assigned to 4 treatments: no predip (Con); predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+complete cleaning (Comp); predip with a postdip solution containing 1% iodine+complete cleaning (Post); and predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+incomplete cleaning (Inc). During the 14-d pre-experimental period and the 19-d experimental period, cows were fed the same diet, and noniodized sanitizers were used for postmilking dipping. During the last week of treatment, milk iodine averaged 164, 189, 218, and 252±9.8 μg/kg for Con, Comp, Post, and Inc, respectively. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts indicated that predipping with a 0.5% iodine predip solution completely wiped off (Comp) tended to increase milk iodine content above that of the control and that the iodine content of Post and Inc were higher than that of the Comp treatment. The results of

  20. Thyroid Function among Breastfed Children with Chronically Excessive Iodine Intakes.

    PubMed

    Aakre, Inger; Strand, Tor A; Bjøro, Trine; Norheim, Ingrid; Barikmo, Ingrid; Ares, Susana; Alcorta, Marta Duque; Henjum, Sigrun

    2016-01-01

    Iodine excess may impair thyroid function and trigger adverse health consequences for children. This study aims to describe iodine status among breastfed infants with high iodine exposure in the Saharawi refugee camps Algeria, and further assess thyroid function and iodine status among the children three years later. In 2010, a cross-sectional study among 111 breastfed children aged 0-6 months was performed (baseline study). In 2013, a second cross-sectional study (follow-up study) was conducted among 289 children; 213 newly selected and 76 children retrieved from baseline. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) were measured at baseline. UIC, thyroid hormones and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) were measured at follow-up. At baseline and follow-up, 88% and 72% had excessive iodine intakes (UIC ≥ 300 µg/L), respectively. At follow-up, 24% had a thyroid hormone disturbance and/or elevated serum Tg, including 9% with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), 4% with elevated fT3 and 14% with elevated Tg. Children with SCH had poorer linear growth and were more likely to be underweight than the children without SCH. Excessive iodine intakes and thyroid disturbances were common among children below four years of age in our study. Further, SCH seemed to be associated with poor growth and weight. PMID:27367720

  1. Thyroid Function among Breastfed Children with Chronically Excessive Iodine Intakes

    PubMed Central

    Aakre, Inger; Strand, Tor A.; Bjøro, Trine; Norheim, Ingrid; Barikmo, Ingrid; Ares, Susana; Alcorta, Marta Duque; Henjum, Sigrun

    2016-01-01

    Iodine excess may impair thyroid function and trigger adverse health consequences for children. This study aims to describe iodine status among breastfed infants with high iodine exposure in the Saharawi refugee camps Algeria, and further assess thyroid function and iodine status among the children three years later. In 2010, a cross-sectional study among 111 breastfed children aged 0–6 months was performed (baseline study). In 2013, a second cross-sectional study (follow-up study) was conducted among 289 children; 213 newly selected and 76 children retrieved from baseline. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) were measured at baseline. UIC, thyroid hormones and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) were measured at follow-up. At baseline and follow-up, 88% and 72% had excessive iodine intakes (UIC ≥ 300 µg/L), respectively. At follow-up, 24% had a thyroid hormone disturbance and/or elevated serum Tg, including 9% with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), 4% with elevated fT3 and 14% with elevated Tg. Children with SCH had poorer linear growth and were more likely to be underweight than the children without SCH. Excessive iodine intakes and thyroid disturbances were common among children below four years of age in our study. Further, SCH seemed to be associated with poor growth and weight. PMID:27367720

  2. Assessment of spatial variation in drinking water iodine and its implications for dietary intake: a new conceptual model for Denmark.

    PubMed

    Voutchkova, Denitza Dimitrova; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Hansen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Brian Lyngby; Zhang, Chaosheng; Kristiansen, Søren Munch

    2014-09-15

    Iodine is essential for human health. Many countries have therefore introduced universal salt iodising (USI) programmes to ensure adequate intake for the populations. However, little attention has been paid to subnational differences in iodine intake from drinking water caused by naturally occurring spatial variations. To address this issue, we here present the results of a Danish nationwide study of spatial trends of iodine in drinking water and the relevance of these trends for human dietary iodine intake. The data consist of treated drinking water samples from 144 waterworks, representing approx. 45% of the groundwater abstraction for drinking water supply in Denmark. The samples were analysed for iodide, iodate, total iodine (TI) and other major and trace elements. The spatial patterns were investigated with Local Moran's I. TI ranges from <0.2 to 126 μg L(-1) (mean 14.4 μg L(-1), median 11.9 μg L(-1)). Six speciation combinations were found. Half of the samples (n = 71) contain organic iodine; all species were detected in approx. 27% of all samples. The complex spatial variation is attributed both to the geology and the groundwater treatment. TI >40 μg L(-1) originates from postglacial marine and glacial meltwater sand and from Campanian-Maastrichtian chalk aquifers. The estimated drinking water contribution to human intake varies from 0% to >100% of the WHO recommended daily iodine intake for adults and from 0% to approx. 50% for adolescents. The paper presents a new conceptual model based on the observed clustering of high or low drinking-water iodine concentrations, delimiting zones with potentially deficient, excessive or optimal iodine status. Our findings suggest that the present coarse-scale nationwide programme for monitoring the population's iodine status may not offer a sufficiently accurate picture. Local variations in drinking-water iodine should be mapped and incorporated into future adjustment of the monitoring and/or the USI programmes. PMID

  3. Epidemiology of nodular goitre. Influence of iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Carlé, Allan; Krejbjerg, Anne; Laurberg, Peter

    2014-08-01

    More than one tenth of the world population is to some degree affected by goitre and most of these harbour nodules. The large differences in thyroid disease prevalence between populations may be caused by genetic and environmental factors. Among the latter, iodine deficiency seems by far to be the most important risk factor. Thus, nodular goitre is a condition predominantly seen in iodine deficient areas of the world. In the present review, we evaluated in detail autopsy and ultrasound studies of the thyroid gland. In autopsy studies, large thyroid volumes and high frequencies of goitres have been reported in countries affected by iodine deficiency. Many cross-sectional studies using thyroid ultrasound investigations have been performed world-wide and reported high thyroid volumes and goitre prevalences, and to some extent also high prevalences of thyroid nodules in iodine-deficient countries. Most of these goitres were classified as nodular goitres. On the other hand, few studies have shown that abundant iodine intake may lead to development of diffuse goitres, but world-wide this has been a minor problem compared with development of nodular goitres. In the past century we have observed a trend towards smaller thyroid glands, and hopefully less than 10% of the world population will experience goitre within a few decades. PMID:25047199

  4. Comparison of four standards for determining adequate water intake of nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Phyllis M

    2011-01-01

    Adequate hydration for nursing home residents is problematic. The purpose of this study was to compare four standards used to determine a recommended water intake among nursing home residents. Inconsistencies in the amount of water intake recommended based on the standards compared were identified. The standard based on height and weight provides the most individualized recommendation. An individualized recommendation would facilitate goal setting for the care plan of each older person and assist in the prevention of dehydration. It is essential that a cost-effective and clinically feasible approach to determine adequate water intake be determined for this population to prevent the adverse outcomes associated with dehydration. PMID:21469538

  5. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P.; Woodruff, Bradley A.; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S.; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H.; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women’s urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001). Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women’s education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency. PMID:26848685

  6. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P; Woodruff, Bradley A; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-02-01

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world's population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women's urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001). Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women's education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency. PMID:26848685

  7. Iodine environmental availability and human intake in oceanic islands: Azores as a case-study.

    PubMed

    Linhares, Diana Paula Silva; Garcia, Patrícia Ventura; Almada, Alexandra; Ferreira, Teresa; Queiroz, Gabriela; Cruz, José Virgílio; Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos

    2015-12-15

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment. Although several studies have established an association between ocean proximity and iodine environmental availability, recent studies revealed an inadequate iodine intake in the Azorean islands. In this study, we aim to understand the underlying causes of iodine environmental availability in oceanic islands and its association with iodine intake in schoolchildren, using the Azores as case-study. Iodine concentration in soil and grass pasture was measured by INAA and in drinking water by spectrophotometry. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in schoolchildren was assessed by ICP-MS in a randomized cross-sectional survey with 315 participants from S. Miguel (study group) and Sta. Maria islands (reference group). A validated diet questionnaire assessing sources of iodine was recorded. The iodine concentration in soils of the reference group was significantly higher than in the study group (58.1ppm vs. 14.5ppm, respectively; p=0.001). The prevalence of schoolchildren with inadequate UIC was significantly higher in the study group than in the reference one (63.0% vs. 37.8%, respectively; p<0.001). Chronic exposure to low iodine environmental availability was significantly associated with the exacerbation in iodine deficiency, with a risk 4.94 times higher in the study group. The differences observed in the studied islands are related with each island geomorphology (soil properties and orography) and climate, which can promote or inhibit iodine environmental availability, contributing distinctively to iodine bioavailability and human intake. These findings draw attention to an urgent need for a full investigation of Azores iodine status to apply evidence-based recommendations for iodine supplementation. PMID:26318689

  8. Need for coordinated programs to improve global health by optimizing salt and iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Norm R C; Dary, Omar; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Neufeld, Lynnette M; Harding, Kim B; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2012-10-01

    High dietary salt is a major cause of increased blood pressure, the leading risk for death worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that salt intake be less than 5 g/day, a goal that only a small proportion of people achieve. Iodine deficiency can cause cognitive and motor impairment and, if severe, hypothyroidism with serious mental and growth retardation. More than 2 billion people worldwide are at risk of iodine deficiency. Preventing iodine deficiency by using salt fortified with iodine is a major global public health success. Programs to reduce dietary salt are technically compatible with programs to prevent iodine deficiency through salt fortification. However, for populations to fully benefit from optimum intake of salt and iodine, the programs must be integrated. This review summarizes the scientific basis for salt reduction and iodine fortification programs, the compatibility of the programs, and the steps that need to be taken by the WHO, national governments, and nongovernmental organizations to ensure that populations fully benefit from optimal intake of salt and iodine. Specifically, expert groups must be convened to help countries implement integrated programs and context-specific case studies of successfully integrated programs; lessons learned need to be compiled and disseminated. Integrated surveillance programs will be more efficient and will enhance current efforts to optimize intake of iodine and salt. For populations to fully benefit, governments need to place a high priority on integrating these two important public health programs. PMID:23299289

  9. High Iodine and Salt Intakes and Obesity do not Modify the Thyroid Function in Mexican Schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Villa, Lorena; García-Solís, Pablo; Solís-S, Juan Carlos; García-Gutiérrez, David Gustavo; Pérez-Mora, Valeria Alejandra; Robles-Osorio, Ludivina; Sampson-Zaldívar, Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    Mexico is considered as a nutritional transition country with a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, and recent studies have reported a high iodine intake in children. Both high iodine intake and obesity have been associated with thyroid dysfunction. Our aim was to assess iodine and salt intake and thyroid function in Mexican schoolchildren with normal weight and obesity. A cross-sectional study was performed during 2012-2013 in schoolchildren from Queretaro, Mexico. Six hundred seventy-eight schoolchildren were evaluated to obtain nutrition status, urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and thyroid volume (TVol). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 47.3 %, the median UIC was 428 μg/L and TVol was normal in all schoolchildren; however, obese girls had a higher TVol than normal weight at the age of 8, 10 and 12 years. A subsample of schoolchildren was divided in 6-8 and 9-12-year-old groups, in order to compare thyroid function (thyrotropin, free T4, and anti-thyroid antibodies); iodine and salt intake were estimated with 24-h urinary samples. No differences in thyroid function were observed in both age groups. In the 6-8-year-old group, obese schoolchildren had higher iodine intake than normal-weight children (415.5 vs. 269.1 μg/day, p < 0.05), but no differences in salt intake. In contrast, in the 9-12-year-old group, obese schoolchildren had higher salt intake than normal-weight children (6.2 vs. 3.8 g/day, p < 0.05), but no differences in iodine intake. Dietary patterns could explain the differences between both age groups. Further studies are needed to identify the main sources of iodine intake in Mexican populations. PMID:26689929

  10. Effects of increased iodine intake on thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2014-09-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient essential for the production of thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. Universal salt iodization (USI) has been introduced in many countries as a cost-effective and sustainable way to eliminate iodine deficiency disorders for more than 25 years. Currently, the relationship between USI and iodine excess has attracted more attention. Iodine excess can lead to hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, especially for susceptible populations with recurring thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses, and neonates. Nationwide USI was introduced in China in 1996. This review focused on the effects of iodine excess worldwide and particularly in China. PMID:25309781

  11. Assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation: introduction to articles arising from 3 workshops held by the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Ershow, Abby G; Goodman, Gay; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in 2014, each held in Rockville, Maryland. These workshops were part of the ongoing ODS Iodine Initiative, begun in 2011 in response to concerns that US pregnant women may be at risk of iodine deficiency and that a high fraction of prenatal dietary supplements do not contain the recommended amounts of iodine. The primary purpose of the workshops was to consider the data and resources necessary to evaluate the clinical and public health benefits and risks of maternal iodine supplementation in the United States. The first workshop focused on the assessment of iodine intake, the second focused on the assessment of iodine status, and the third focused on the design and interpretation of clinical trials of maternal iodine supplementation. Here we provide the background of the ODS Iodine Initiative, summarize the 3 workshops held in 2014, and introduce the articles that arose from the workshops and are published in this supplement issue. PMID:27534646

  12. Iodine intake and status of UK women of childbearing age recruited at the University of Surrey in the winter.

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Sleeth, Michelle L; McKenna, Marianne; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Rayman, Margaret P

    2014-11-28

    As intra-thyroidal iodine stores should be maximised before conception to facilitate the increased thyroid hormone production during pregnancy, women who are planning to become pregnant should ideally consume 150 μg iodine/d (US RDA). As few UK data exist for this population group, a cross-sectional study was carried out at the University of Surrey to assess the iodine intake and status of women of childbearing age. Total iodine excretion was measured from 24 h urine samples in fifty-seven women; iodine intake was estimated by assuming that 90 % of ingested iodine was excreted. The average iodine intake was also estimated from 48 h food diaries that the participants completed. The median urinary iodine concentration value (63·1 μg/l) indicated the group to be mildly iodine deficient by WHO criteria. By contrast, the median 24 h urinary iodine excretion value (149·8 μg/24 h) indicated a relatively low risk of iodine deficiency. The median estimated iodine intake, extrapolated from urinary excretion, was 167 μg/d, whereas it was lower, at 123 μg/d, when estimated from the 48 h food diaries. Iodine intake estimated from the food diaries and 24 h urinary iodine excretion were strongly correlated (r 0·75, P< 0·001). The intake of milk, eggs and dairy products was positively associated with iodine status. The iodine status of this UK cohort is probably a best-case scenario as the women were mostly nutrition students and were recruited in the winter when milk-iodine content is at its highest; further study in more representative cohorts of UK women is required. The present study highlights the need for revised cut-off values for iodine deficiency that are method- and age group-specific. PMID:25274294

  13. Iodine intake and status of UK women of childbearing age recruited at the University of Surrey in the winter

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Sarah C.; Sleeth, Michelle L.; McKenna, Marianne; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Rayman, Margaret P.

    2015-01-01

    As intra-thyroidal iodine stores should be maximised before conception to facilitate the increased thyroid-hormone production of pregnancy, women who may become pregnant should ideally consume 150 μg iodine/day [US Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)]. As few UK data exist in this population group, our aim was to assess iodine intake and status in women of childbearing age in a cross-sectional study at the University of Surrey. Total iodine excretion was measured from 24-h urine samples in 57 women; iodine intake was estimated by assuming that 90% of ingested iodine was excreted. Average iodine intake was also estimated from 48-h food diaries that the women completed. The median urinary-iodine concentration (63.1 μg/L) classified the group as mildly iodine deficient by WHO criteria. By contrast, the median 24-h iodine excretion (149.8 μg/24-h), suggested a relatively low risk of iodine deficiency. Median estimated iodine intake, extrapolated from urinary excretion, was 167 μg/day, whereas it was lower, at 123 μg/day, when estimated from the 48-h food-diaries. Iodine intake from food diaries and 24-h iodine excretion were strongly correlated (r=0.75, p<0.001). Intake of milk, eggs and dairy products was positively associated with iodine status. The iodine status of this UK cohort is probably a best-case scenario as the women were mostly nutrition students and were recruited in the winter when milk-iodine content is at its highest; further study in more representative cohorts of UK women is required. Our study highlights a need for revised cut-offs for iodine deficiency that are method- and age-group specific. PMID:25274294

  14. Estimation of population iodine intake from iodized salt consumed through bouillon seasoning in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Spohrer, Rebecca; Knowles, Jacqueline; Jallier, Vincent; Ndiaye, Banda; Indorf, Caroline; Guinot, Philippe; Kupka, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Universal salt iodization (USI) is the main global strategy to eliminate iodine deficiency. Regulation of USI programs often omits salt used in processed foods, despite their increasing contribution to salt intake. In West Africa, bouillon seasoning is a widely consumed source of salt and is therefore relevant to USI effectiveness. To develop program guidance around iodine in bouillon, iodine retention in 13 bouillon brands commercially available in Senegal was measured over 6 months. Iodine content was measured in broth using various water volumes and cooking times, as well as in rice cooked in the broth. Average iodine loss in bouillon over 6 months in 95% humidity at 40-40.5 °C was 4.5% (13.6% for cubes and 0.8% for powder sachets). Iodine was retained in broth with cooking times of up to an hour and in rice cooked in broth. Modeling of contribution to iodine intake revealed that bouillon is an important source of dietary iodine in Senegal. Results may inform salt iodization standards and regulation in Senegal and countries with similar bouillon consumption levels. PMID:26767583

  15. The relationship between iodine nutrition and thyroid disease in lactating women with different iodine intakes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lixiang; Wang, Dandan; Liu, Peng; Meng, Fangang; Wen, Da; Jia, Qingzhen; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Xiaoye; Jiang, Peng; Shen, Hongmei

    2015-11-14

    Areas with low, adequate and excessive I content in water co-exist in China. Limited data are currently available on I nutrition and thyroid disease in lactating women and their breast-fed infants with different I intakes. This study aimed to evaluate I nutrition in both lactating women and their infants and the prevalence of thyroid disease in areas with different levels of I in water. From January to June 2014, a total of 343 healthy lactating women (excluding those taking anti-thyroid drugs or I supplements within a year of the study, consuming seafood at the time of the study or those diagnosed with congenital thyroid disease) from Beihai in Guangxi province and Jiajiazhuang, Yangcheng, Jicun and Pingyao townships in Shanxi province were selected. Compared with the I-sufficient group, median urinary I concentrations in both lactating women and infants as well as breast milk I levels were significantly lower in the I-deficient group (P<0·001). The prevalence of thyroid disease in lactating women, particularly subclinical hypothyroidism, was higher in the I-excess group than in the I-sufficient group (P<0·05). In areas with excessive water I content, high thyroid peroxidase antibody and high thyroglobulin levels were risk factors for abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Our data collectively suggest that excessive I intake potentially causes subclinical hypothyroidism in lactating women. Moreover, enhanced monitoring of I status is important to avoid adverse effects of I deficiency or excess, particularly in susceptible populations such as pregnant or lactating women and infants. PMID:26365041

  16. Remission rates with antithyroid drug therapy: continuing influence of iodine intake?

    PubMed

    Solomon, B L; Evaul, J E; Burman, K D; Wartofsky, L

    1987-10-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the therapeutic efficacy of antithyroid drugs for Graves disease. Sixty-nine patients were divided into three categories according to their response: 28 (40.6%) were unable to achieve a remission; 6 (8.7%) achieved a remission and subsequently had a relapse; and 35 (50.7%) were able to sustain a remission. The mean duration for sustained remissions was 33 months. Our earlier review of outcome of antithyroid therapy showed markedly reduced remission rates, which appeared to be related to increases in dietary iodine intake. Although the greater percentage of patients entering remission today is in marked contrast to the 1973 report, average dietary iodine content has been decreasing. A continuing role for antithyroid drugs should be maintained as an option in the management of Graves disease. Daily dietary iodine intake may influence the anticipated remission rate after antithyroid drug therapy. PMID:2443050

  17. Effect of maternal excessive iodine intake on neurodevelopment and cognitive function in rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Iodine deficiency and iodine excess are both associated with adverse health consequences. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy leads to insufficient maternal thyroid hormone, subsequently causing irreversible adverse effects on the neurological and cognitive functions of the offspring. The results of our previous epidemiological study suggested that mild iodine excess might increase the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism. In the present study, female Wistar rats maintained on low-iodine grain were randomly assigned to three groups based on iodated water concentration: low iodine (LI, 1.2 μg/d), normal iodine (NI, 5–6 μg/d), and 3-fold high iodine (3HI, 15–16 μg/d). The present study investigated whether higher-than-normal iodine intake (3HI) by rats from before pregnancy until breastfeeding affects the postnatal (PN) neurodevelopment (PN7 and PN45) of their offspring during particularly sensitive periods in brain development. Results After 12 weeks of treatment (before pregnancy), iodine concentrations in urine and thyroid tissue and circulating thyroxine of adult females correlated with iodine intake. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampi of pups on PN7 and PN45 was decreased in 3HI group compared to the NI controls (P < 0.05, all) On PN7 and PN45, the BDNF levels of the 3HI pups were 83.5% and 88.8%, respectively, that of the NI pups. In addition, the 3HI group had a higher neuroendocrine-specific protein A (NSP-A) level than the NI controls on PN7 (P < 0.05). NSP-A levels of the 3HI pups were 117.0% that of the NI pups. No significant difference was observed in the expressions of c-Fos or c-Jun in the hippocampal CA1 region of the 3HI group compared to the controls (P > 0.05). Results from the Morris water maze test revealed that pups of the 3HI group had mild learning and spatial memory deficits. Conclusions The neurodevelopmental and cognitive deficits of the 3HI pups were mild and

  18. [Dietary iodine intake in children and clinical and biochemical features of iodine deficiency in chosen districts of south-east Poland].

    PubMed

    Tylek, D; Rybakowa, M; Sołtysik-Wilk, E; Ratajczak, R; Dłuzniewska, K; Zygmunt, A; Szczepaniak, B

    1992-01-01

    The study on the effects of Czarnobyl accident on thyroid gland function in children (MZ XVII program) revealed a high incidence of goiter in the population of children in district Kraków and Nowy Sacz. Other study on Tarnobrzeg population showed that the frequency of goiter in school children was 67%. The goiter prevalence, urine iodine excretion and iodine food consumption in the same populations were compared. The detailed investigation of iodine intake in children by feeding questionnaire shows a low consumption of iodine. The urine iodine excretion in the population of Kraków-district was low, but higher than in Nowy Sacz-district and nearly normal in Tarnobrzeg. High frequency of goiter in children and of IDD in newborns screened for CH, as well as low urine iodine excretion, together with low iodine intake with food are the markers of iodine deficiency in Kraków and Nowy Sacz districts. The improvement of feeding as well as iodine salt supplementation is necessary. The situation in Tarnobrzeg district looks differently and needs additional study. PMID:1345589

  19. Effect of Dietary Intake of Stable Iodine on Dose-per-unit-intake Factors for 99Tc

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    It is well-known that the human thyroid concentrates iodine more than 100 times the concentration in plasma. Also well-known is the fact that large amounts of stable iodine in the diet can limit thyroid uptake of total iodine; this is the basis for administering potassium iodide following a release of radioiodine from a nuclear reactor accident or nuclear weapon detonation. Many researchers have shown enhanced concentrations of both organic and inorganic iodine in saliva and breast milk. Technetium-99 is a long-lived (231,000 year half-life) radionuclide of concern in the management of high-level radioactive waste. There is no doubt that 99Tc, if it is in groundwater, will be found in the chemical form of pertechnetate, 99TcO4?. Pertechnetate is a large anion, almost identical in size to iodide, I?. The nuclear medicine literature shows that pertechnetate concentrates in the thyroid, salivary glands, and lactating breast in addition to the stomach, liver, and alimentary tract as currently recognized by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The fact that large intakes of stable iodine (127I) in the diet limit uptake of iodine by the thyroid leads one to generalize that stable iodine in the diet may also limit thyroid uptake of pertechnetate. While there is at least one report that iodine in the diet blocks uptake of 99mTcO4? by the thyroid and salivary glands (which have the same Na/I symporter, the biochemical concentration mechanism), the level of protective effect seen for blocking radioactive iodine is not expected for 99TcO4? because pertechnetate does not become organically bound in the thyroid and thus is not retained for months the way iodide is. While it does account for Tc concentration in the thyroid, the existing ICRP biokinetic model for technetium does not take enhanced concentrations in salivary gland and breast tissue into account. From the survey of the nuclear medicine literature, it is not possible to compute the effect

  20. Iodine intake in Somalia is excessive and associated with the source of household drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Ismail A R; Moloney, Grainne; Busili, Ahono; Nur, Abukar Yusuf; Paron, Paolo; Jooste, Pieter; Gadain, Hussein; Seal, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Few data on iodine status in Somalia are available, but it is assumed that deficiency is a public health problem due to the limited access to iodized salt. We aimed to describe the iodine status of the population of Somalia and to investigate possible determinants of iodine status. A national 2-stage, stratified household cluster survey was conducted in 2009 in the Northwest, Northeast, and South Central Zones of Somalia. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined in samples from women (aged 15-45 y) and children (aged 6-11 y), and examination for visible goiter was performed in the Northwest and South Central strata. A 24-h household food-frequency questionnaire was conducted, and salt samples were tested for iodization. The median UICs for nonpregnant women and children were 329 and 416 μg/L, respectively, indicating excessive iodine intake (>300 μg/L). The prevalence of visible goiter was <4%. The coverage of salt iodization was low, with a national average of 7.7% (95% CI: 3.2%, 17.4%). Spatial analysis revealed localized areas of relatively high and low iodine status. Variations could not be explained by food consumption or salt iodization but were associated with the main source of household drinking water, with consumers of borehole water having a higher UIC (569 vs. 385 μg/L; P < 0.001). Iodine intake in Somalia is among the highest in the world and excessive according to WHO criteria. Further work is required to investigate the geochemistry and safety of groundwater sources in Somalia and the impact on human nutrition and health. PMID:24500936

  1. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained. PMID:16614427

  2. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    PubMed

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in non-consumers. The PANDiet index was significantly higher in yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p < 0.001). The adequacy sub-score for 17 nutrients for which usual intake should be above the reference value was significantly higher among yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet. PMID:26906103

  3. SUFFICIENT IODINE INTAKE IN SCHOOLCHILDREN FROM THE ZAGREB AREA: ASSESSMENT WITH DRIED BLOD SPOT THYROGLOBULIN AS A NEW FUNCTIONAL BIOMARKER FOR IODINE DEFICIENCY.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Tomislav; Zimmermann, Michael Bruce; Granić, Roko; Prpić, Marin; Krilić, Drazena; Juresa, Vesna; Katalenić, Marijan; Kusić, Zvonko

    2015-12-01

    Current methods for assessment of iodine intake in a population comprise measurements of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), thyroid volume by ultrasound (US-Tvol), and newborn TSH. Serum or dried blood spot thyroglobulin (DBS-Tg) is a new promising functional iodine status biomarker in children. In 1996, a new act on universal salt iodination was introduced in Croatia with 25 mg of potassium iodideper kg of salt. In 2002, Croatia finally reached iodine sufficiency. However, in 2009, median UIC in 101 schoolchildren from Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, was 288 µg/L, posing to be excessive. The aim of the study was to assess iodine intake in schoolchildren from the Zagreb area and to evaluate the value of DBS-Tg in schoolchildren as a new functional biomarker of iodine deficiency (and iodine excess). The study was part of a large international study in 6- to 12-year-old children supported by UNICEF, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD). According to international study results, the median cut-off Tg < 13 µg/L and/or < 3% Tg values > 40 µg/L indicate iodine sufficiency. The study included 159 schoolchildren (median age 9.1 ± 1.4 years) from Zagreb and a nearby small town of Jastrebarsko with measurements of UIC, US-Tvol, DBS-Tg, T4, TSH and iodine content in salt from households of schoolchildren (KI/kg of salt). Overall median UIC was 205 µg/L (range 1-505 µg/L). Thyroid volumes in schoolchildren measured by US were within the normal range according to reference values. Median DBS-Tg in schoolchildren was 12.1 µg/L with 3% of Tg values > 40 µg/L. High Tg values were in the UIC range < 50 µg/L and > 300 µg/L (U-shaped curve of Tg plotted against UIC). All children were euthyroid with geometric mean TSH 0.7 ± 0.3 mU/L and arithmetic mean T4 62 ± 12.5 nmol/L. The mean KI content per kg of salt was 24.9 ± 3.1 mg/kg (range 19-36 mg/kg). Study results

  4. The National Coalition for Sustained Optimal Iodine intake (NSOI): a case study of a successful experience from India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kapil; Chakrabarty, Arijit; Rah, Jee Hyun; Kumar, Rakesh; Aguayo, Victor; Ansari, Mohammad Anas; Sankar, Rajan; Karmarkar, Madhu Ganesh; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2014-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single most important preventable cause of mental handicap at global level. Recognizing the importance of coordination and synergy of the activities of wide range of universal salt iodisation (USI) stakeholders, WHO/ Unicef/ ICCIDD has prescribed a national multi-sectoral coalition as one of the ten indicators essential for attaining sustainable elimination of IDD at national level. Challenge for coordination among different stakeholders of IDD/USI is even greater in democratic and diverse country like India. In the present article we present successful experience from India regarding formation of a national coalition and contributions made by the coalition towards promoting USI in India. The activities of the national coalition in India are classified into three phases; 1) Phase 1- year 2006 to 2009- the inception; 2) Phase 2- year 2009 to 2012- consolidation; 3) Phase 3- year 2013 and ongoing- expansion. The National coalition for Sustained Optimal Iodine Intake (NSOI) has been instrumental in ensuring greater coordination and synergy amongst IDD and USI stakeholders in India and partially responsible for the current 71 percentage household level coverage of adequately iodised salt. The most significant contribution of the national coalition has been to act as a high level advocacy channel and provide a platform for regular dialogue for all partners of the coalition. With "mission" approach and allocation of optimal resource, India can achieve and should achieve USI by 2015, an apt culmination of a decade of existence of the national coalition. PMID:25384725

  5. Iodine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of iodine are POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Adults should avoid prolonged use of doses higher than 1100 mcg per ... enlarged thyroid gland (goiter), or a thyroid tumor: Prolonged use or high doses of iodine might make ...

  6. Iodine

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6 weeks increases the healing rate. Also, applying povidone-iodine in addition to compression seems help heal ... Catheter-related infection. Some evidence suggests that applying povidone-iodine reduces the risk of blood stream infections ...

  7. Iodine

    MedlinePlus

    ... the amount depends on the iodine in the soil where they grew and in any fertilizer that ... babies. People living in regions with iodine-deficient soils who eat mostly local foods. These soils produce ...

  8. Iodine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krukowski, S.T.

    2006-01-01

    In descending order, Chile, Japan and the United States have the largest iodine reserves. Chile produces iodine from iodate minerals while Japan and the United States produce it from sodium iodide solutions found in underground iodide solutions. Iodine is also produced from subterranean brines in Azerbaijan, Russia, Turkmenista, Indonesia and Uzbekistan. In 2005, iodine prices increased sharply to US$19 to US$23 then leveled off at US$23 to US$25.

  9. Healthcare Costs Associated with an Adequate Intake of Sugars, Salt and Saturated Fat in Germany: A Health Econometrical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Toni; Senftleben, Karolin; Deumelandt, Peter; Christen, Olaf; Riedel, Katja; Langer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany—in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar—and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS) were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002–2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3–24.1 billion EUR) in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10%) of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR). This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0–12.1); salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2–7.3) and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million—4.7 billion). Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR. PMID:26352606

  10. Iodine in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... products also contain iodine. Other good sources are plants grown in iodine-rich soil. ... goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, the thyroid ... intake of iodine can reduce the function of the thyroid gland.

  11. Thyroid and iodine nutritional status: a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Vanderpump, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones, which play a crucial role in brain and neurological development. At least one-third of the world's population is estimated to be iodine deficient predominantly in developing countries. Recently concern had also been expressed about the iodine status in industrialised countries such as the UK. A recent survey of the UK iodine status found that that more than two-thirds of schoolgirls aged 14-15 years were iodine deficient due to the reduced milk intake. Maternal iodine deficiency in pregnancy is correlated with cognitive outcomes such as intelligence quotient and reading ability in offspring. No randomised trial data exist for iodine supplementation in mild-moderate iodine-deficient pregnant women. It is possible to combine population interventions to reduce population salt intake with salt iodisation programmes in order to maintain adequate levels of iodine nutrition. PMID:25468924

  12. Iodine supplementation: benefits outweigh risks.

    PubMed

    Delange, F; Lecomte, P

    2000-02-01

    In 1990, iodine deficiency affected almost one-third of the world population and was the greatest single cause of preventable brain damage and mental retardation. Following a resolution adopted by the World Summit for Children in 1990. major programmes of iodine supplementation were implemented by the governments of the affected countries with the support of major donors. Iodisation of salt was recognised as the method of choice. Nine years later, by April 1999, 75% of the affected countries had legislation on salt iodisation and 68% of the affected populations had access to iodised salt. The prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders decreased drastically in most countries and the deficiency disappeared completely in some such as Peru. This result constitutes a public heath success unprecedented with a non-infectious disease. However, occasional adverse effects occurred. The principle effect is iodine-induced hyperthyroidism which occurs essentially in older people with autonomous nodular goitres, especially following iodine intake that is too rapid and of too massive an increment. The incidence of the disorder is usually low and reverts spontaneously to the background rate of hyperthyroidism or even below this rate after 1 to 10 years of iodine supplementation. The possible occurrence of iodine-induced thyroiditis in susceptible individuals has not been clearly demonstrated by large epidemiological surveys. Iodine supplementation is followed by an increased prevalence of occult papillary carcinoma of the thyroid discovered at autopsy but the prognosis of thyroid cancer is improved due to a shift towards differentiated forms of thyroid cancer that are diagnosed at earlier stages. Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism and other adverse effects can be almost entirely avoided by adequate and sustained quality control and monitoring of iodine supplementation which should also confirm adequate iodine intake. Available evidence clearly confirms that the benefits of correcting

  13. Reference intervals of thyroid hormones in a previously iodine-deficient but presently more than adequate area of Western China: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jing; Fang, Yujie; Jing, Da; Xu, Shaoyong; Ming, Jie; Gao, Bin; Shen, Han; Zhang, Rong; Ji, Qiuhe

    2016-04-25

    The aim of our study is to establish the reference intervals (RIs) of thyroid hormones in a previously iodine-deficient area but presently more than iodine-adequate area of Western China, and also to investigate the factors which affect thyroid function. The cross-sectional study conducted in Xi'an, was based on 2007-2008 China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Survey. Among 1286 participating adults, 717 were finally included as reference population. Thyrotropin (TSH), total triiodothyronine (T3), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroperoxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) and thyroglobulin antibody (Tg-Ab) were measured. Thyroid ultrasound examination was also performed. The present study established the new RIs of serum TSH (0.43-5.51 mIU/L), FT4 (11.0-20.4 pmol/L), FT3 (3.63-5.73 pmol/L), T4 (67.8-157 mmol/L) and T3 (1.08-2.20 mmol/L), which were different from the data provided by the manufacturers. Significant differences among all the age groups were observed in FT3, but neither in TSH nor in FT4. The TSH levels in adults with pathologic ultrasonography results or positive thyroid autoantibody were significantly higher than those in reference adults. Our present results provide valuable references for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases in population of Western China. Considering that most inland areas of China have faced the challenge of the transition from iodine deficiency to adequacy or more than adequacy, we recommend physicians utilize our RIs to determine thyroid diseases in the similar areas with Xi'an in China. PMID:26842591

  14. The deuterium oxide-to-the-mother method documents adequate breast-milk intake among Sri Lankan infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The WHO recommends that exclusive breastfeeding should last up to 6 months. However, human milk intake of Sri Lankan infants has not been quantified scientifically. The objectives of this study were to measure the human milk intake of Sri Lankan infants during the first 6 months of age and to docume...

  15. Prebiotic supplementation and adequate calcium intake have beneficial effects on body mass index changes during early adolescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prebiotics have been shown to enhance bone and gastrointestinal health. Recent data suggest a benefit to weight maintenance as well. However, few data are available in children or adolescents. The interactive effects of prebiotic intake and calcium intake on weight maintenance are unknown. Our objec...

  16. [Iodine deficiency in infancy - a risk for cognitive development].

    PubMed

    Remer, T; Johner, S A; Gärtner, R; Thamm, M; Kriener, E

    2010-08-01

    Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy seriously influences fetal brain development and in the worst case induces cretinism. Recent studies have shown that even a mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy and during the first years of life adversely affects brain development. The World Health Organisation (WHO) considers iodine deficiency as the most common preventable cause of early childhood mental deficiency. In this context, the insufficient production of the four iodine atoms containing thyroxine seems to play a causal role, i. e., due to the iodine substrate deficiency the neuronally particularly relevant free-thyroxine level falls. Due to the very limited iodine storage capacity, the infantile thyroid is eminently dependent on an adequate and steady iodine supply. In the first month of life, when milk is the only energy- and nutrient provider, infants fed a commercial formula regularly have a sufficient iodine supply. However, breastfed infants, who depend on maternal iodine status, frequently show an inadequate iodine intake. Furthermore, iodine intake is critical when complementary food (CF) is introduced. Especially homemade CF is poor in iodine, but also commercial CFs are only partly fortified. A simultaneous inadequate iodine supply of the breastfeeding mother and the preferential use of mostly iodine-poor organic milk cannot ensure an adequate iodine supply of the infant. In terms of an improvement of nutrient supply, especially concerning an unhindered brain development, the corresponding German reference value for iodine intake of infants until age 4 month should be raised from currently 40 microg/d to at least 60 microg/d (WHO-reference: 90 microg/d). PMID:20665419

  17. Current global iodine status and progress over the last decade towards the elimination of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Maria; Takkouche, Bahi; Egli, Ines; Allen, Henrietta E.; de Benoist, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate worldwide iodine nutrition and monitor country progress towards sustained elimination of iodine deficiency disorders. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on urinary iodine (UI) and total goitre prevalence (TGP) in school-age children from 1993-2003 compiled in the WHO Global Database on Iodine Deficiency were analysed. The median UI was used to classify countries according to the public health significance of their iodine nutrition status. Estimates of the global and regional populations with insufficient iodine intake were based on the proportion of each country's population with UI below 100 microg/l. TGP was computed for trend analysis over 10 years. FINDINGS: UI data were available for 92.1% of the world's school-age children. Iodine deficiency is still a public health problem in 54 countries. A total of 36.5% (285 million) school-age children were estimated to have an insufficient iodine intake, ranging from 10.1% in the WHO Region of the Americas to 59.9% in the European Region. Extrapolating this prevalence to the general population generated an estimate of nearly two billion individuals with insufficient iodine intake. Iodine intake was more than adequate, or excessive, in 29 countries. Global TGP in the general population was 15.8%. CONCLUSION: Forty-three countries have reached optimal iodine nutrition. Strengthened UI monitoring is required to ensure that salt iodization is having the desired impact, to identify at-risk populations and to ensure sustainable prevention and control of iodine deficiency. Efforts to eliminate iodine deficiency should be maintained and expanded. PMID:16175826

  18. Effect of Iodine Intake on p14ARF and p16INK4a Expression in Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ruimei; Wang, Jinde; Li, Xiaojiang; Li, Lei; Yang, Jie; Ren, Yanxin; Xi, Yan; Sun, Chuanzheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Iodine intake is related to thyroid disease. This study investigated the effect of the amount of iodine intake on p14ARF and p16INK4a expression of thyroid papillary carcinoma in rats. Material/Methods A cohort of 240 SD rats were randomly divided into control group, low iodine, normal iodine, and high iodine groups (n=60 per group). We inoculated 2×105 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cells on the left side of the thyroid gland. After 6 and 12 weeks, serum thyroid hormone level and urine iodine level were measured in addition to morphological observations of tumor tissues. Expression of p14ARF, p16INK4a was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results The expression of p14ARF, p16INK4a, FT3, and FT4 levels in all iodine-treated animals were significantly lower than in the control group, while TSH level was significantly higher (P<0.05). Compared to the normal iodine group, the low and high groups had lower p14ARF and p16INK4a expression, lower FT3 and FT4 levels, higher TSH levels, and heavier tumors (P<0.05). In a further between-group comparison, p14ARF and p16INK4a expression and FT3 and FT4 levels at 12 weeks were lower than at 6 weeks. Expression of p14ARF and p16INK4a were positively correlated with FT3 and FT4, and negatively correlated with TSH and tumor weight. Conclusions Low and high iodine diet intake could reduce p14ARF and p16INK4a expressions and promote tumor development. PMID:26248224

  19. Iodine status in the Nordic countries – past and present

    PubMed Central

    Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Erlund, Iris; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Hulthén, Lena; Laurberg, Peter; Mattisson, Irene; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Virtanen, Suvi; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2016-01-01

    Background Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. Objectives The objectives are threefold: 1) to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2) to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3) to highlight differences among the Nordic countries’ iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Design Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries’ strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. Results In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO) report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50–75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. Conclusion The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all. PMID:27283870

  20. Urinary iodine concentrations of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Rydbeck, Filip; Bottai, Matteo; Tofail, Fahmida; Persson, Lars-Åke; Kippler, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is an essential dietary element required for normal fetal growth and development. We aimed to explore intraindividual and interindividual variations in iodine intake in pregnant women and whether non-dietary factors might influence the intake. Iodine intake was assessed in 271 women, residing in Matlab, rural Bangladesh, by measuring their urinary iodine concentration (UIC) at gestational week (GW) 8, 14, 19, and 30 with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The women's UIC increased significantly during pregnancy (median 241 (GW8) and 300 μg/l (GW30)). About 6% of the women had insufficient iodine intake (UIC<150 μg/l) and 10% had excessive iodine intake (UIC≥500 μg/l) at all of their four sampling occasions. The women's UIC were dependent on their education, socio-economic status, and BMI, as well as the season of sampling and iodine concentrations in drinking water. Supplementation with a multi-micronutrient capsule, including 150 μg potassium iodine, increased the UIC in women with the lowest UIC (10th percentile) at GW30 but decreased the UIC in women with the highest UIC (90th percentile) at GW30. In conclusion, median UIC throughout pregnancy indicated adequate intake of iodine among pregnant women in Matlab, but, notably, consistently insufficient and excessive intake was also prevalent. PMID:24220214

  1. The challenges of iodine supplementation: a public health programme perspective.

    PubMed

    Untoro, Juliawati; Timmer, Arnold; Schultink, Werner

    2010-02-01

    An adequate iodine intake during pregnancy, lactation and early childhood is particularly critical for optimal brain development of the foetus and of children 7-24 months of age. While the primary strategy for sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency remains universal salt iodisation, the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund recommend a complementary strategy of iodine supplements as a temporary measure when salt iodisation could not be implemented. This article aims to review current evidence on efficacy and implications of implementing iodine supplementation as a public health measure to address iodine deficiency. Iodine supplementation seems unlikely to reach high coverage in a rapid, equitable and sustained way. Implementing the programme requires political commitment, effective and efficient supply, distribution and targeting, continuous education and communication and a robust monitoring system. Thus, universal salt iodisation should remain the primary strategy to eliminate iodine deficiency. PMID:20172473

  2. The Current Recommended Vitamin D Intake Guideline for Diet and Supplements During Pregnancy Is Not Adequate to Achieve Vitamin D Sufficiency for Most Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Field, Catherine J.; Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Rabi, Doreen M.; Maggiore, Jack A.; O’Beirne, Maeve; Hanley, David A.; Eliasziw, Misha; Dewey, Deborah; Weinberg, Amy; Ross, Sue J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to determine if pregnant women consumed the recommended vitamin D through diet alone or through diet and supplements, and if they achieved the current reference range vitamin D status when their reported dietary intake met the current recommendations. Methods Data and banked blood samples collected in second trimester from a subset of 537 women in the APrON (Alberta Pregnant Outcomes and Nutrition) study cohort were examined. Frozen collected plasma were assayed using LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) to determine 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations. Dietary data were obtained from questionnaires including a Supplement Intake Questionnaire and a 24-hour recall of the previous day’s diet. Results Participants were 87% Caucasian; mean (SD) age of 31.3 (4.3); BMI 25.8 (4.7); 58% were primiparous; 90% had education beyond high school; 80% had a family income higher than CAN $70,000/year. 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, and 3-epi-25(OH)D3) were identified in all of the 537 plasma samples;3-epi-25(OH)D3 contributed 5% of the total vitamin D. The median (IQR) total 25(OH)D (D2+D3) was 92.7 (30.4) nmol/L and 20% of women had 25(OH)D concentration < 75 nmol/L. The median (IQR) reported vitamin D intake from diet and supplements was 600 (472) IU/day. There was a significant relationship between maternal reported dietary vitamin D intake (diet and supplement) and 25(OH)D and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations in an adjusted linear regression model. Conclusions We demonstrated the current RDA (600 IU/ day) may not be adequate to achieve vitamin D status >75 nmol/L in some pregnant women who are residing in higher latitudes (Calgary, 51°N) in Alberta, Canada and the current vitamin D recommendations for Canadian pregnant women need to be re-evaluated. PMID:27367800

  3. The importance of iodine in public health.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, John H

    2015-08-01

    Iodine (I) deficiency has been known for more than a century and is known to cause cretinism at the extreme end of the spectrum but also, importantly, impaired development and neurocognition in areas of mild deficiency. The WHO has indicated that median urinary iodine of 100-199 μg/l in a population is regarded as indicative of an adequate iodine intake. The understanding of the spectrum of iodine deficiency disorders led to the formation of The International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders which has promulgated the use of household iodized salt and the use of such salt in food processing and manufacture. Iodine deficiency is particularly important in pregnancy as the fetus relies on maternal thyroxine (T4) exclusively during the first 14 weeks and also throughout gestation. As this hormone is critical to brain and nervous system maturation, low maternal T4 results in low child intelligence quotient. The recommendation for I intake in pregnancy is 250 μg/day to prevent fetal and child brain function impairment. During the past 25 years, the number of countries with I deficiency has reduced to 32; these still include many European developed countries. Sustainability of adequate iodine status must be achieved by continuous monitoring and where this has not been performed I deficiency has often recurred. More randomized controlled trials of iodine supplementation in pregnancy are required in mild iodine-deficient areas to inform public health strategy and subsequent government action on suitable provision of iodine to the population at risk. PMID:25663362

  4. Portal Vein Embolization Using a Nitinol Plug (Amplatzer Vascular Plug) in Combination with Histoacryl Glue and Iodinized Oil: Adequate Hypertrophy with a Reduced Risk of Nontarget Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Clare L. Low, Deborah; Matson, Matthew B.; Renfrew, Ian; Fotheringham, Tim

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether portal vein embolization (PVE) using a nitinol vascular plug in combination with histoacryl glue and iodinized oil minimizes the risk of nontarget embolization while obtaining good levels of future liver remnant (FLR) hypertrophy. Between November 2005 and August 2008, 16 patients (8 females, 8 males; mean age, 63 {+-} 3.6 years), each with a small FLR, underwent right ipsilateral transhepatic PVE prior to major hepatectomy. Proximal PVE was initially performed by placement of a nitinol vascular plug, followed by distal embolization using a mixture of histoacryl glue and iodinized oil. Pre- and 6 weeks postprocedural FLR volumes were calculated using computed tomographic imaging. Selection for surgery required an FLR of 0.5% of the patient's body mass. Clinical course and outcome of surgical resection for all patients were recorded. At surgery, the ease of hepatectomy was subjectively assessed in comparison to previous experience following PVE with alternative embolic agents. PVE was successful in all patients. Mean procedure time was 30.4 {+-} 2.5 min. Mean absolute increase in FLR volume was 68.9% {+-} 12.0% (p = 0.00005). There was no evidence of nontarget embolization during the procedure or on subsequent imaging. Nine patients proceeded to extended hepatectomy. Six patients demonstrated disease progression. One patient did not achieve sufficient hypertrophy in relation to body mass to undergo hepatic resection. At surgery, the hepatobiliary surgeons observed less periportal inflammation compared to previous experience with alternative embolic agents, facilitating dissection at extended hepatectomy. In conclusion, ipsilateral transhepatic PVE using a single nitinol plug in combination with histoacryl glue and iodinized oil simplifies the procedure, offering short procedural times with minimal risk of nontarget embolization. Excellent levels of FLR hypertrophy are achieved enabling safe extended hepatectomy.

  5. Sources of dietary iodine: bread, cows' milk, and infant formula in the Boston area.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Pino, Sam; He, Xuemei; Bazrafshan, Hamid R; Lee, Stephanie L; Braverman, Lewis E

    2004-07-01

    Dietary iodine is essential for thyroid hormone production. Although U.S. dietary iodine is generally adequate, some groups, especially women of childbearing age, are at risk for mild iodine deficiency. Children's average urinary iodine is higher than that of adults. U.S. dietary iodine sources have not been assessed recently. A survey of iodine content in 20 brands of bread, 18 brands of cows' milk, and eight infant formulae was performed between 2001 and 2002. Three bread varieties contained more than 300 microg iodine per slice. Iodine content in other brands was far lower (mean +/- sd, 10.1 +/- 13.2 microg iodine/slice). All cows' milk samples had at least 88 microg iodine/250 ml, ranging from 88-168 microg (116.0 +/- 22.1 microg/250 ml). Infant formulae values ranged from 16.2 to 56.8 microg iodine/5 oz (23.5 +/- 13.78 microg/5 oz). The public should be aware of the need for adequate dietary iodine intake and should be aware that ingredient lists do not reflect the iodine content of foods. PMID:15240625

  6. The prevalence of using iodine-containing supplements is low among reproductive-age women, NHANES 1999-2006.

    PubMed

    Gahche, Jaime J; Bailey, Regan L; Mirel, Lisa B; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2013-06-01

    During pregnancy, the iodine requirement rises to meet demands for neurological development and fetal growth. If these requirements are not met, irreversible pathological cognitive and behavioral changes to the fetus may ensue. This study estimated the prevalence of iodine-containing dietary supplement (DS) use and intakes of iodine from DSs among pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-39 y) who were interviewed and examined in NHANES 1999-2006 (n = 6404). Although 77.5% of pregnant women reported taking one or more DSs in the past 30 d, only 22.3% consumed an iodine-containing supplement. Most pregnant women reported using one DS and reported taking this product daily. The vast majority of iodine-containing DSs reported by pregnant women claimed an iodine content of 150 μg iodine/serving on the label. Pregnant women using at least one DS containing iodine had a mean daily iodine intake of 122 μg/d from supplements; the median value was 144 μg/d. Median urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) were similar for pregnant and nonpregnant women in the population aged 15-39 y. The median UIC was 148 μg/L for pregnant women and 133 μg/L for nonpregnant women. The WHO has established a cutoff for insufficient iodine intake at <150 μg/L for pregnant women and <100 mg/L for those who are not pregnant. This suggests that as a population, we may not be meeting adequate intakes of iodine for pregnant women. More research is needed on the iodine intakes of pregnant women and women of reproductive age on their total iodine intake from all sources, not just DSs. PMID:23616501

  7. A Review: Radiographic Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Brent, Gregory A.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Thyroid hormone production is dependent on adequate iodine intake. Excess iodine is generally well-tolerated, but thyroid dysfunction can occur in susceptible individuals after excess iodine exposure. Radiological iodinated contrast media represent an increasingly common source of excess iodine. Objective: This review will discuss the thyroidal response after acute exposure to excess iodine; contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction; risks of iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction in vulnerable populations, such as the fetus, neonate, and patients with impaired renal function; and recommendations for the assessment and treatment of contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction. Methods: Data for this review were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and references from relevant articles from 1948 to 2014. Conclusions: With the increase in the use of computed tomography scans in the United States, there is increasing risk of contrast-induced thyroid dysfunction. Patients at risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction should be closely monitored after receiving iodinated contrast media and should be treated as needed. PMID:25375985

  8. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South East of the UK: the influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status.

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Wright, John; Rayman, Margaret P

    2014-05-01

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones which are crucial for brain development. Adequate intake of iodine in pregnancy is important as in utero deficiency may have lifelong consequences for the offspring. Data on the iodine status of UK pregnant women are sparse, and there are no such data for pregnant women in the South East of the UK. A total of 100 pregnant women were recruited to a cross-sectional study carried out at the Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, at their first-trimester visit for an ultrasound scan. The participants provided a spot-urine sample (for the measurement of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and creatinine concentration) and 24 h iodine excretion was estimated from the urinary iodine:creatinine ratio. Women completed a general questionnaire and a FFQ. The median UIC (85·3 μg/l) indicated that the group was iodine deficient by World Health Organisation criteria. The median values of the iodine:creatinine ratio (122·9 μg/g) and of the estimated 24 h iodine excretion (151·2 μg/d) were also suggestive of iodine deficiency. UIC was significantly higher in women taking an iodine-containing prenatal supplement (n 42) than in those not taking such a supplement (P< 0·001). In the adjusted analyses, milk intake, maternal age and iodine-containing prenatal supplement use were positively associated with the estimated 24 h urinary iodine excretion. Our finding of iodine deficiency in these women gives cause for concern. We suggest that women of childbearing age and pregnant women should be given advice on how to improve their iodine status through dietary means. A national survey of iodine status in UK pregnant women is required. PMID:24398008

  9. Adequate Intake levels of choline are sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in Mexican American men but are not optimal for minimizing plasma total homocysteine increases after a methionine load2

    PubMed Central

    Veenema, Kristin; Solis, Claudia; Li, Rui; Wang, Wei; Maletz, Charles V; Abratte, Christian M; Caudill, Marie A

    2009-01-01

    Background An adequate intake of 550 mg choline/d was established for the prevention of liver dysfunction in men, as assessed by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations. Objective This controlled feeding study investigated the influence of choline intakes ranging from 300 to 2200 mg/d on biomarkers of choline status. The effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype on choline status was also examined. Design Mexican American men (n = 60) with different MTHFR C677T genotypes (29 677TT, 31 677CC) consumed a diet providing 300 mg choline/d plus supplemental choline intakes of 0, 250, 800, or 1900 mg/d for total choline intakes of 300, 550, 1100, or 2200 mg/d, respectively, for 12 wk; 400 μg/d as dietary folate equivalents and 173 mg betaine/d were consumed throughout the study. Results Choline intake affected the response of plasma free choline and betaine (time × choline, P < 0.001); the highest concentrations were observed in the 2200 mg/d group. Phosphatidylcholine (P = 0.026) and total cholesterol (P = 0.002) were also influenced by choline intake; diminished concentrations were observed in the 300 mg/d group. Phosphatidylcholine was modified by MTHFR genotype (P = 0.035; 677TT < 677CC). After a methionine load (100 mg/kg body wt), choline intakes of 1100 and 2200 mg/d attenuated (P = 0.016) the rise in plasma homocysteine, as did the MTHFR 677TT genotype (P < 0.001). Serum alanine aminotransferase was not influenced by the choline intakes administered in this study. Conclusions These data suggest that 550 mg choline/d is sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in this population under the conditions of this study; higher intakes may be needed to optimize other endpoints. PMID:18779284

  10. Iodine Concentration in Breastmilk and Urine among Lactating Women of Bhaktapur, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Henjum, Sigrun; Kjellevold, Marian; Ulak, Manjeswori; Chandyo, Ram K; Shrestha, Prakash S; Frøyland, Livar; Strydom, Emmerentia E; Dhansay, Muhammad A; Strand, Tor A

    2016-01-01

    Adequate iodine concentration in breastmilk (BMIC) is essential for optimal neonatal thyroid hormone synthesis and neurological development in breastfed infants. For many decades, iodine deficiency has been a public health problem in Nepal. However, recently, excessive iodine intakes among Nepali infants have been reported. This study aimed to measure BMIC and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among lactating women in a peri-urban area of Nepal. Iodine concentration was measured in spot urine (n = 485) and breastmilk samples (n = 291) of 500 randomly selected lactating women. The median (p25, p75) BMIC and median UIC were 250 (130, 370) µg/L and 230 (135-377) µg/L, respectively. Around 82% had BMIC > 100 µg/L, 61% had BMIC > 200 µg/L and 81% had UIC > 100 µg/L, 37% had >300 µg/L and 20% had >500 µg/L. In multiple linear regression models, time since birth (β 3.0, 95% CI (0.2, 5.0)) and UIC (β 1.0, 95% CI (0.1, 2.0)) were associated with BMIC, explaining 26% of the variance. A large proportion of the women had adequate BMIC and UIC; however, a subset had high iodine concentrations. These findings emphasize the importance of carefully monitoring iodine intake to minimize the risk of iodine excess and subsequently preventing transient iodine-induced hypothyroidism in breastfed infants. PMID:27136582

  11. Iodine Concentration in Breastmilk and Urine among Lactating Women of Bhaktapur, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Henjum, Sigrun; Kjellevold, Marian; Ulak, Manjeswori; Chandyo, Ram K.; Shrestha, Prakash S.; Frøyland, Livar; Strydom, Emmerentia E.; Dhansay, Muhammad A.; Strand, Tor A.

    2016-01-01

    Adequate iodine concentration in breastmilk (BMIC) is essential for optimal neonatal thyroid hormone synthesis and neurological development in breastfed infants. For many decades, iodine deficiency has been a public health problem in Nepal. However, recently, excessive iodine intakes among Nepali infants have been reported. This study aimed to measure BMIC and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among lactating women in a peri-urban area of Nepal. Iodine concentration was measured in spot urine (n = 485) and breastmilk samples (n = 291) of 500 randomly selected lactating women. The median (p25, p75) BMIC and median UIC were 250 (130, 370) µg/L and 230 (135–377) µg/L, respectively. Around 82% had BMIC > 100 µg/L, 61% had BMIC > 200 µg/L and 81% had UIC > 100 µg/L, 37% had >300 µg/L and 20% had >500 µg/L. In multiple linear regression models, time since birth (β 3.0, 95% CI (0.2, 5.0)) and UIC (β 1.0, 95% CI (0.1, 2.0)) were associated with BMIC, explaining 26% of the variance. A large proportion of the women had adequate BMIC and UIC; however, a subset had high iodine concentrations. These findings emphasize the importance of carefully monitoring iodine intake to minimize the risk of iodine excess and subsequently preventing transient iodine-induced hypothyroidism in breastfed infants. PMID:27136582

  12. Addressing the risk of inadequate and excessive micronutrient intakes: traditional versus new approaches to setting adequate and safe micronutrient levels in foods

    PubMed Central

    Bruins, Maaike J.; Mugambi, Gladys; Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Hoekstra, Jeljer; Kraemer, Klaus; Osendarp, Saskia; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Gallagher, Alison M.; Verhagen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Fortification of foods consumed by the general population or specific food products or supplements designed to be consumed by vulnerable target groups is amongst the strategies in developing countries to address micronutrient deficiencies. Any strategy aimed at dietary change needs careful consideration, ensuring the needs of at-risk subgroups are met whilst ensuring safety within the general population. This paper reviews the key principles of two main assessment approaches that may assist developing countries in deciding on effective and safe micronutrient levels in foods or special products designed to address micronutrient deficiencies, that is, the cut-point method and the stepwise approach to risk–benefit assessment. In the first approach, the goal is to shift population intake distributions such that intake prevalences below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) are both minimized. However, for some micronutrients like vitamin A and zinc, a narrow margin between the EAR and UL exists. Increasing their intakes through mass fortification may pose a dilemma; not permitting the UL to be exceeded provides assurance about the safety within the population but can potentially leave a proportion of the target population with unmet needs, or vice versa. Risk–benefit approaches assist in decision making at different micronutrient intake scenarios by balancing the magnitude of potential health benefits of reducing inadequate intakes against health risks of excessive intakes. Risk–benefit approaches consider different aspects of health risk including severity and number of people affected. This approach reduces the uncertainty for policy makers as compared to classic cut-point methods. PMID:25630617

  13. Epidemiological trends of iodine-related thyroid disorders: an example from Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Gaberšček, Simona; Zaletel, Katja

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiology of thyroid disorders is significantly associated with iodine supply. In 1999, Slovenia increased iodine content in kitchen salt from 10 mg to 25 mg of potassium iodide per kg of salt. According to the WHO criteria, Slovenia shifted from a mildly iodine-deficient country to a country with adequate iodine intake. Ten years after the increase in iodine intake, the incidence of diffuse goitre and thyroid autonomy decreased. Now patients with diffuse goitre and thyroid autonomy reach older age than the patients before the increase in iodine intake. In addition, patients with thyroid autonomy are less frequently hyperthyroid than ten years ago and iodine-induced hyperthyroidism is less severe. The incidence of highly malignant thyroid carcinoma has also dropped. However, the incidence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis increased, most probably in genetically predisposed individuals. Over the last ten years, many animal and in vitro studies evaluated the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) on various aspects of the thyroid function. They mostly studied the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, bisphenol A, perfluorinated chemicals, and perchlorate. However, human studies on the effects of EDCs on the thyroid function are very scarce, especially the long-term ones. What they do suggest is that PCBs and dioxins interfere with the transport of thyroid hormones and adversely affect the thyroid function. Many authors agree that iodine deficiency predisposes the thyroid gland to harmful effects of EDCs. Therefore the effects of EDCs in iodine-deficient areas could be more severe than in areas with adequate iodine intake. PMID:27331296

  14. Adequately Diversified Dietary Intake and Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy Is Associated with Reduced Occurrence of Symptoms Suggestive of Pre-Eclampsia or Eclampsia in Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sutapa; Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective Pre-eclampsia or Eclampsia (PE or E) accounts for 25% of cases of maternal mortality worldwide. There is some evidence of a link to dietary factors, but few studies have explored this association in developing countries, where the majority of the burden falls. We examined the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E in Indian women. Methods Cross-sectional data from India’s third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-06) was used for this study. Self-reported symptoms suggestive of PE or E during pregnancy were obtained from 39,657 women aged 15-49 years who had had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E after adjusting for maternal, health and lifestyle factors, and socio-demographic characteristics of the mother. Results In their most recent pregnancy, 1.2% (n=456) of the study sample experienced symptoms suggestive of PE or E. Mothers who consumed an adequately diversified diet were 34% less likely (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.51-0.87) to report PE or E symptoms than mothers with inadequately diversified dietary intake. The likelihood of reporting PE or E symptoms was also 36% lower (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88) among those mothers who consumed iron and folic acid supplementation for at least 90 days during their last pregnancy. As a sensitivity analysis, we stratified our models sequentially by education, wealth, antenatal care visits, birth interval, and parity. Our results remained largely unchanged: both adequately diversified dietary intake and iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were associated with a reduced occurrence of PE or E symptoms. Conclusion Having a adequately diversified dietary

  15. Iodine supplementation and drinking-water perchlorate mitigation.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Thomas A; Peterson, Michael K; Charnley, Gail

    2015-06-01

    Ensuring adequate iodine intake is important, particularly among women of reproductive age, because iodine is necessary for early life development. Biologically based dose-response modeling of the relationships among iodide status, perchlorate dose, and thyroid hormone production in pregnant women has indicated that iodide intake has a profound effect on the likelihood that exposure to goitrogens will produce hypothyroxinemia. We evaluated the possibility of increasing iodine intake to offset potential risks from perchlorate exposure. We also explored the effect of dietary exposures to nitrate and thiocyanate on iodine uptake and thyroid hormone production. Our modeling indicates that the level of thyroid hormone perturbation associated with perchlorate exposures in the range of current regulatory limits is extremely small and would be overwhelmed by other goitrogen exposures. Our analysis also shows that microgram levels of iodine supplementation would be sufficient to prevent the goitrogenic effects of perchlorate exposure at current regulatory limits among at risk individuals. The human health risks from supplementing drinking water with iodine are negligible; therefore, this approach is worthy of regulatory consideration. PMID:25796570

  16. Role of iodine, selenium and other micronutrients in thyroid function and disorders.

    PubMed

    Triggiani, Vincenzo; Tafaro, Emilio; Giagulli, Vito Angelo; Sabbà, Carlo; Resta, Francesco; Licchelli, Brunella; Guastamacchia, Edoardo

    2009-09-01

    Micronutrients, mostly iodine and selenium, are required for thyroid hormone synthesis and function. Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormones and its deficiency is considered as the most common cause of preventable brain damage in the world. Nowadays about 800 million people are affected by iodine deficiency disorders that include goiter, hypothyroidism, mental retardation, and a wide spectrum of other growth and developmental abnormalities. Iodine supplementation, under form of iodized salt and iodized vegetable oil, produced dramatic improvements in many areas, even though iodine deficiency is still a problem not only for developing countries. In fact, certain subpopulations like vegetarians may not reach an adequate iodine intake even in countries considered iodine-sufficient. A reduction in dietary iodine content could also be related to increased adherence to dietary recommendations to reduce salt intake for preventing hypertension. Furthermore, iodine intakes are declining in many countries where, after endemic goiter eradication, the lack of monitoring of iodine nutrition can lead to a reappearance of goiter and other iodine deficiency disorders. Three different selenium-dependent iodothyronine deiodinases (types I, II, and III) can both activate and inactivate thyroid hormones, making selenium an essential micronutrient for normal development, growth, and metabolism. Furthermore, selenium is found as selenocysteine in the catalytic center of enzymes protecting the thyroid from free radicals damage. In this way, selenium deficiency can exacerbate the effects of iodine deficiency and the same is true for vitamin A or iron deficiency. Substances introduced with food, such as thiocyanate and isoflavones or certain herbal preparations, can interfere with micronutrients and influence thyroid function. Aim of this paper is to review the role of micronutrients in thyroid function and diseases. PMID:19594417

  17. [Effects of the iodine deficiency on intellectual variables among children].

    PubMed

    Muela Martínez, José Antonio; García León, Ana; Torres Barahona, Rosario; Santiago Fernández, Piedad; Sóriguer Escofet, Federico

    2008-05-01

    An association between severe iodine deficiency and poor mental development has been found in many studies. We examined the relationship between moderate or mild iodine deficiency and intellectual capacity in order to determine whether problems common to severe iodine deficiency (including mental retardation) also emerge in a more subtle form. We also wished to know whether the classic methodology (comparing iodine-deficient zones with nondeficient zones) is the most adequate, and propose to combine this grouping by zones with urinary iodine presented by individuals in each zone. We measured IQ, manipulative and verbal capacity, attention, visual motor ability and disruptive behaviour, variables that have barely been studied in this kind of investigations. The sample comprised 760 schoolchildren from the province of Jaén (southern Spain). Our results show that children with low levels of iodine intake and with urinary iodine concentration lower than 100 microg/litre had a lower IQ and displayed more disruptive behaviour than children with high levels of the criteria. The other variables were not associated with iodine deficiency. PMID:18413091

  18. Nutritional status of iodine in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain): study on hygiene-dietetic habits and iodine in urine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation and irrreversible cerebral lesions around the world. However, few studies have been published on the nutritional status of iodine in the pregnant population within the Primary Care setting, a health care level which plays an essential role in the education and control of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of the present study is: 1.- To know the hygiene-dietetic habits related to the intake of foods rich in iodine and smoking during pregnancy. 2.- To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and the factors associated with its appearance during pregnancy. Methods/design We will perform a cluster randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Randomisation unit: Primary Care Team. Study population: 898 pregnant women over the age of 17 years attending consultation to a midwife during the first trimester of pregnancy in the participating primary care centres. Outcome measures: consumption of iodine-rich foods and iodine deficiency. Points of assessment: each trimester of the gestation. Intervention: group education during the first trimester of gestation on healthy hygiene-dietetic habits and the importance of an adequate iodine nutritional status. Statistical analysis: descriptive analysis of all variables will be performed as well as multilevel logistic regression. All analyses will be done carried out on an intention to treat basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Discussion Evidence of generalised iodine deficiency during pregnancy could lead to the promotion of interventions of prevention such as how to improve and intensify health care

  19. Iodine-deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Jooste, Pieter L; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2008-10-01

    2 billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed iodine-deficiency disorders. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. Assessment methods include urinary iodine concentration, goitre, newborn thyroid-stimulating hormone, and blood thyroglobulin. In nearly all countries, the best strategy to control iodine deficiency is iodisation of salt, which is one of the most cost-effective ways to contribute to economic and social development. When iodisation of salt is not possible, iodine supplements can be given to susceptible groups. Introduction of iodised salt to regions of chronic iodine-deficiency disorders might transiently increase the proportion of thyroid disorders, but overall the small risks of iodine excess are far outweighed by the substantial risks of iodine deficiency. International efforts to control iodine-deficiency disorders are slowing, and reaching the third of the worldwide population that remains deficient poses major challenges. PMID:18676011

  20. Iodine status of Eeyou Istchee community members of northern Quebec, Canada, and potential sources.

    PubMed

    Tam, Benita; Tsuji, Leonard J S; Martin, Ian D; Liberda, Eric N; Ayotte, Pierre; Coté, Suzanne; Dewailly, Éric; Nieboer, Evert

    2015-04-01

    A multi community environment-and-health study among six of the nine communities of Eeyou Istchee in northern Quebec, Canada provided greater insight into iodine intake levels among these Cree First Nation communities. Using data from this large population-based study, descriptive statistics of measured urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) and iodine-creatinine ratios (stratified by age, sex, community of residence, and water consumption) were calculated, and the associations between independent variables and iodine concentration measures were examined through a general linear model. Traditional food consumption contributions were examined through Pearson partial correlation tests and linear regression analyses; and the importance of water sources through ANOVA. Generally speaking, urinary iodine levels of Eeyou Istchee community members were within the adequate range set out by the World Health Organization, though sex and community differences existed. However, men in one community were considered to be at risk of iodine deficiency. Older participants had significantly higher mean iodine-creatinine ratios than younger participants (15-39 years = 90.50 μmol mol(-1); >39 years = 124.52 μmol mol(-1)), and consumption of beaver (Castor canadensis) meat, melted snow and ice, and bottled water were predictive of higher iodine excretion. It is concluded that using both urinary iodine indicators can be helpful in identifying subgroups at greater risk of iodine deficiency. PMID:25764377

  1. Successful efforts toward elimination iodine deficiency disorders in India.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Umesh

    2010-10-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) is the world's single most important preventable cause of brain damage and mental retardation. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) is a public health problem in 130 countries, affecting 13% of the world population. The simplest solution to prevent the IDD is to consume iodized common salt every day. In India, significant progress has been achieved toward elimination of IDD, in the last 30 years. Satisfactory levels of urinary iodine excretion and iodine content of salt have been documented by the research surveys conducted by research scientists. The results indicate that we are progressing toward elimination of IDD. IDD is due to a nutritional deficiency, which is prima-rily that of iodine, in soil and water. IDD is known to re-appear if the IDD Control Program is not sustained. To ensure that the population continues to have intake of adequate amount of iodine, there is a need of i) periodic surveys to assess the magnitude of the IDD with respect to impact of iodized salt (IS) intervention; ii) strengthening the health and nutrition education activities to create demand for IS and iii) development of a monitoring information system (MIS) for ensuring that the adequately IS is available to the beneficiaries. PMID:21278862

  2. Urinary and Milk Iodine Status in Neonates and Their Mothers during Congenital Hypothyroidism Screening Program in Eastern Azerbaijan: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    MOBASSERI, Majid; ROSHANRAVAN, Neda; MESRI ALAMDARI, Naimeh; OSTADRAHIMI, Alireza; ASGHARI JAFARABADI, Mohammad; ANARI, Farideh; HEDAYATI, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Iodine is essential element in thyroid hormones synthesis and normal growth and development of the brain. Milk and iodine concentrations can be appropriate indicator of body iodine status; in this study, we evaluated the concentrations of urine and milk iodine in newborns and their mothers. Methods In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2013, urine and milk iodine in 106 neonates and their mothers referred to healthcare center in Shabestar, Eastern Azerbaijan for congenital hypothyroidism screening program were determined. Median urinary iodine < 100 µg/L and milk iodine < 50 µg/L was considered as iodine deficiency. Results The median urine iodine concentrations (UIC) in mothers and infants were 142.31 µg/L (.0 - 1260) and 306.76 µg/L (23.56-1020) respectively. Urine iodine concentrations were < 100 µg/L in 33.9% of mothers and 14.2% of neonates. The median milk iodine concentration (MIC) was 58.23 µg/L (20.31- 425) and in 41.9% of mothers was <50 µg/L. A positive significant correlation was found between milk iodine and maternal urinary iodine concentration (r=0.533, P= 0.000). There was significant correlation between neonatal UIC and maternal UIC (r=0.462, P= 0.000), neonatal UIC and MIC (r=0.414, P= 0.000). Conclusions Urinary and milk iodine concentrations in mothers and infants were within acceptable range, which indicates adequate iodine intake. However, there were moderate and marginal iodine deficiencies in about half percentage of participants. Insufficient amount of milk iodine in about half of the mothers can result in iodine deficiency in breast-fed infants. PMID:26060700

  3. The new emergence of iodine deficiency in the UK: consequences for child neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Rayman, Margaret P; Bath, Sarah C

    2015-11-01

    Adequate iodine intake is important during pregnancy as it is a component of the thyroid hormones that are crucial for fetal brain and neurological development. While randomized controlled trials in severe iodine deficiency have shown that iodine deficiency in pregnancy causes impaired offspring cognition, less is known of the effects in regions of mild/mild-to-moderate deficiency. The United Kingdom is now classified as mildly iodine deficient by the World Health Organization, based on a 2011 national study of 14-15-year-old schoolgirls. As pregnancy is the most critical time for brain development, we evaluated iodine status in pregnant women in Surrey (n = 100) and Oxford (n = 230). The median urinary iodine concentration was 85.3 μg/L in Surrey women, considerably lower than the WHO/United Nations Children's Fund/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders cut-off of 150 μg/L. Oxford women had similarly low status. We investigated whether that level of iodine deficiency was associated with adverse child cognitive effects using stored samples and data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort. In adjusted analyses, we found a significant association between low maternal iodine status in early pregnancy (urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio <150 μg/g) such that children had an approximately 60% greater risk of being in the bottom quartile of scores for verbal intelligence quotient, reading accuracy and comprehension. UK women who might become pregnant should ensure they have adequate iodine status to avoid compromising their children's brain development. PMID:26240435

  4. Use of Iodine to Biofortify and Promote Growth and Stress Tolerance in Crops.

    PubMed

    Medrano-Macías, Julia; Leija-Martínez, Paola; González-Morales, Susana; Juárez-Maldonado, Antonio; Benavides-Mendoza, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is not considered essential for land plants; however, in some aquatic plants, iodine plays a critical role in antioxidant metabolism. In humans, iodine is essential for the metabolism of the thyroid and for the development of cognitive abilities, and it is associated with lower risks of developing certain types of cancer. Therefore, great efforts are made to ensure the proper intake of iodine to the population, for example, the iodization of table salt. In the same way, as an alternative, the use of different iodine fertilization techniques to biofortify crops is considered an adequate iodine supply method. Hence, biofortification with iodine is an active area of research, with highly relevant results. The agricultural application of iodine to enhance growth, environmental adaptation, and stress tolerance in plants has not been well explored, although it may lead to the increased use of this element in agricultural practice and thus contribute to the biofortification of crops. This review systematically presents the results published on the application of iodine in agriculture, considering different environmental conditions and farming systems in various species and varying concentrations of the element, its chemical forms, and its application method. Some studies report beneficial effects of iodine, including better growth, and changes in the tolerance to stress and antioxidant capacity, while other studies report that the applications of iodine cause no response or even have adverse effects. We suggested different assumptions that attempt to explain these conflicting results, considering the possible interaction of iodine with other trace elements, as well as the different physicochemical and biogeochemical conditions that give rise to the distinct availability and the volatilization of the element. PMID:27602033

  5. Use of Iodine to Biofortify and Promote Growth and Stress Tolerance in Crops

    PubMed Central

    Medrano-Macías, Julia; Leija-Martínez, Paola; González-Morales, Susana; Juárez-Maldonado, Antonio; Benavides-Mendoza, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is not considered essential for land plants; however, in some aquatic plants, iodine plays a critical role in antioxidant metabolism. In humans, iodine is essential for the metabolism of the thyroid and for the development of cognitive abilities, and it is associated with lower risks of developing certain types of cancer. Therefore, great efforts are made to ensure the proper intake of iodine to the population, for example, the iodization of table salt. In the same way, as an alternative, the use of different iodine fertilization techniques to biofortify crops is considered an adequate iodine supply method. Hence, biofortification with iodine is an active area of research, with highly relevant results. The agricultural application of iodine to enhance growth, environmental adaptation, and stress tolerance in plants has not been well explored, although it may lead to the increased use of this element in agricultural practice and thus contribute to the biofortification of crops. This review systematically presents the results published on the application of iodine in agriculture, considering different environmental conditions and farming systems in various species and varying concentrations of the element, its chemical forms, and its application method. Some studies report beneficial effects of iodine, including better growth, and changes in the tolerance to stress and antioxidant capacity, while other studies report that the applications of iodine cause no response or even have adverse effects. We suggested different assumptions that attempt to explain these conflicting results, considering the possible interaction of iodine with other trace elements, as well as the different physicochemical and biogeochemical conditions that give rise to the distinct availability and the volatilization of the element. PMID:27602033

  6. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kaganov, Boris; Caroli, Margherita; Mazur, Artur; Singhal, Atul; Vania, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population. PMID:25984741

  7. Iodine: deficiency and therapeutic considerations.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Lyn

    2008-06-01

    Iodine deficiency is generally recognized as the most commonly preventable cause of mental retardation and the most common cause of endocrinopathy (goiter and primary hypothyroidism). Iodine deficiency becomes particularly critical in pregnancy due to the consequences for neurological damage during fetal development as well as during lactation. The safety of therapeutic doses of iodine above the established safe upper limit of 1 mg is evident in the lack of toxicity in the Japanese population that consumes 25 times the median intake of iodine consumption in the United States. Japan's population suffers no demonstrable increased incidence of autoimmune thyroiditis or hypothyroidism. Studies using 3.0- to 6.0-mg doses to effectively treat fibrocystic breast disease may reveal an important role for iodine in maintaining normal breast tissue architecture and function. Iodine may also have important antioxidant functions in breast tissue and other tissues that concentrate iodine via the sodium iodide symporter. PMID:18590348

  8. Iodine poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Iodine is a naturally occurring chemical. Small amounts are needed for good health. However, large doses can ... Children are especially sensitive to the effects of iodine. NOTE: Iodine is found in certain foods. However, ...

  9. History of U.S. iodine fortification and supplementation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Angela M; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2012-11-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient required for thyroid hormone production. This review highlights the history of the discovery of iodine and its uses, discusses the sources of iodine nutrition, and summarizes the current recommendations for iodine intake with a focus on women of childbearing age. PMID:23201844

  10. History of U.S. Iodine Fortification and Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2012-01-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient required for thyroid hormone production. This review highlights the history of the discovery of iodine and its uses, discusses the sources of iodine nutrition, and summarizes the current recommendations for iodine intake with a focus on women of childbearing age. PMID:23201844

  11. Mineral resource of the month: iodine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Polyak, Désirée E.

    2009-01-01

    The article focuses on iodine, its benefits and adverse effects, and its production and consumption. It states that iodine is essential to humans for it produces thyroid hormones to nourish thyroid glands but excessive intake could cause goiter, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. U.S. laws require salt iodization to help prevent diseases. Chile and Japan are the world's leading iodine producer while in the U.S. iodine is mined from deep well brines in northern Oklahoma.

  12. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy: the effect on neurodevelopment in the child.

    PubMed

    Skeaff, Sheila A

    2011-02-01

    Iodine is an integral part of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T(4)) and tri-iodothyronine (T(3)), necessary for normal growth and development. An adequate supply of cerebral T(3), generated in the fetal brain from maternal free T(4) (fT(4)), is needed by the fetus for thyroid hormone dependent neurodevelopment, which begins in the second half of the first trimester of pregnancy. Around the beginning of the second trimester the fetal thyroid also begins to produce hormones but the reserves of the fetal gland are low, thus maternal thyroid hormones contribute to total fetal thyroid hormone concentrations until birth. In order for pregnant women to produce enough thyroid hormones to meet both her own and her baby's requirements, a 50% increase in iodine intake is recommended. A lack of iodine in the diet may result in the mother becoming iodine deficient, and subsequently the fetus. In iodine deficiency, hypothyroxinemia (i.e., low maternal fT(4)) results in damage to the developing brain, which is further aggravated by hypothyroidism in the fetus. The most serious consequence of iodine deficiency is cretinism, characterised by profound mental retardation. There is unequivocal evidence that severe iodine deficiency in pregnancy impairs brain development in the child. However, only two intervention trials have assessed neurodevelopment in children of moderately iodine deficient mothers finding improved neurodevelopment in children of mothers supplemented earlier rather than later in pregnancy; both studies were not randomised and were uncontrolled. Thus, there is a need for well-designed trials to determine the effect of iodine supplementation in moderate to mildly iodine deficient pregnant women on neurodevelopment in the child. PMID:22254096

  13. A model to secure a stable iodine concentration in milk

    PubMed Central

    Trøan, Gisken; Dahl, Lisbeth; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Abel, Marianne Hope; Indahl, Ulf Geir; Haug, Anna; Prestløkken, Egil

    2015-01-01

    Background Dairy products account for approximately 60% of the iodine intake in the Norwegian population. The iodine concentration in cow's milk varies considerably, depending on feeding practices, season, and amount of iodine and rapeseed products in cow fodder. The variation in iodine in milk affects the risk of iodine deficiency or excess in the population. Objective The first goal of this study was to develop a model to predict the iodine concentration in milk based on the concentration of iodine and rapeseed or glucosinolate in feed, as a tool to securing stable iodine concentration in milk. A second aim was to estimate the impact of different iodine levels in milk on iodine nutrition in the Norwegian population. Design Two models were developed on the basis of results from eight published and two unpublished studies from the past 20 years. The models were based on different iodine concentrations in the fodder combined with either glucosinolate (Model 1) or rapeseed cake/meal (Model 2). To illustrate the impact of different iodine concentrations in milk on iodine intake, we simulated the iodine contribution from dairy products in different population groups based on food intake data in the most recent dietary surveys in Norway. Results The models developed could predict iodine concentration in milk. Cross-validation showed good fit and confirmed the explanatory power of the models. Our calculations showed that dairy products with current iodine level in milk (200 µg/kg) cover 68, 49, 108 and 56% of the daily iodine requirements for men, women, 2-year-old children, and pregnant women, respectively. Conclusions Securing a stable level of iodine in milk by adjusting iodine concentration in different cow feeds is thus important for preventing excess intake in small children and iodine deficiency in pregnant and non-pregnant women. PMID:26689316

  14. Iodine poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002658.htm Iodine poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Iodine is a naturally occurring chemical. Small amounts are ...

  15. Iodine requirements and the risks and benefits of correcting iodine deficiency in populations.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B

    2008-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production that are termed the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). IDD remains the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. IDD assessment methods include urinary iodine concentration, goiter, thyroglobulin and newborn thyrotropin. In nearly all iodine-deficient countries, the best strategy to control IDD is salt iodization, one of the most cost-effective ways to contribute to economic and social development. When salt iodization is not possible, iodine supplements can be targeted to vulnerable groups. Introduction of iodized salt to regions of chronic IDD may transiently increase the incidence of thyroid disorders, and programs should include monitoring for both iodine deficiency and excess. Although more data on the epidemiology of thyroid disorders caused by differences in iodine intake are needed, overall, the relatively small risks of iodine excess are far outweighed by the substantial risks of iodine deficiency. PMID:18565420

  16. Health consequences of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Umesh

    2007-12-01

    Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) are one of the biggest worldwide public health problem of today. Their effect is hidden and profoundly affects the quality of human life. Iodine deficiency occurs when the soil is poor in iodine, causing a low concentration in food products and insufficient iodine intake in the population. When iodine requirements are not met, the thyroid may no longer be able to synthesize sufficient amounts of thyroid hormone. The resulting low-level of thyroid hormones in the blood is the principal factor responsible for the series of functional and developmental abnormalities, collectively referred to as IDD. Iodine deficiency is a significant cause of mental developmental problems in children, including implications on reproductive functions and lowering of IQ levels in school-aged children. The consequence of iodine deficiency during pregnancy is impaired synthesis of thyroid hormones by the mother and the foetus. An insufficient supply of thyroid hormones to the developing brain may result in mental retardation. Brain damage and irreversible mental retardation are the most important disorders induced by iodine deficiency. Daily consumption of salt fortified with iodine is a proven effective strategy for prevention of IDD. PMID:21748117

  17. The changing epidemiology of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Mu; Eastman, Creswell J

    2012-07-01

    Globally, about 2 thousand million people are affected by iodine deficiency. Although endemic goitre is the most visible sign of iodine deficiency, its most devastating consequence is brain damage causing mental retardation in children. The relationship between iodine deficiency and brain damage was not clearly established until the 1980s when the term iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs), which encompass a spectrum of conditions caused by iodine deficiency, was introduced. This paradigm shift in the understanding of the clinical consequences of iodine deficiency led to a change in iodine deficiency assessment. The median urinary iodine excretion level has been recommended as the preferred indicator for monitoring population iodine deficiency status since 2001. The 2007 WHO urinary iodine data in schoolchildren from 130 countries revealed that iodine intake is still insufficient in 47 countries. Furthermore, about one-third of countries lack national estimates of the prevalence of iodine deficiency. The picture that has emerged from available data worldwide over the past two decades is that IDDs are not confined to remote, mountainous areas in developing countries, but are a global public health problem that affects most countries, including developed countries and island nations. The recognition of the universality of iodine deficiency highlights the need to develop and apply new strategies to establish and maintain sustainable IDD elimination and strengthen regular monitoring programmes. PMID:22473332

  18. Low fatness, reduced fat intake and adequate plasmatic concentrations of LDL-cholesterol are associated with high bone mineral density in women: a cross-sectional study with control group

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several parameters are associated with high bone mineral density (BMD), such as overweight, black background, intense physical activity (PA), greater calcium intake and some medications. The objectives are to evaluate the prevalence and the main aspects associated with high BMD in healthy women. Methods After reviewing the database of approximately 21,500 BMD scans performed in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, from June 2005 to October 2010, high BMD (over 1400 g/cm2 at lumbar spine and/or above 1200 g/cm2 at femoral neck) was found in 421 exams. Exclusion criteria were age below 30 or above 60 years, black ethnicity, pregnant or obese women, disease and/or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. A total of 40 women with high BMD were included and matched with 40 healthy women with normal BMD, paired to weight, age, skin color and menopausal status. Medical history, food intake and PA were assessed through validated questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated through a GE-Lunar DPX MD + bone densitometer. Radiography of the thoracic and lumbar spine was carried out to exclude degenerative alterations or fractures. Biochemical parameters included both lipid and hormonal profiles, along with mineral and bone metabolism. Statistical analysis included parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression models. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results The mean age was 50.9 (8.3) years. There was no significant difference between groups in relation to PA, smoking, intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as laboratory tests, except serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX), which was lower in the high BMD group (p = 0.04). In the final model of multivariate regression, a lower fat intake and body fatness as well a better profile of LDL-cholesterol predicted almost 35% of high BMD in women. (adjusted R2 = 0.347; p < 0.001). In addition, greater amounts of lean mass and higher IGF-1 serum concentrations played a

  19. The implications of iodine and its supplementation during pregnancy in fetal brain development.

    PubMed

    Puig-Domingo, Manel; Vila, Lluis

    2013-05-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element for life. Its biological effects are a consequence of its incorporation to the thyroid hormones, which play a crucial role in fetal organogenesis, and in particular in brain development. This takes place during early gestation and involves delicate targeting throughout the central nervous system, including adequate neuronal growth, migration and myelinization at different sites, such as the cerebral cortex and neocortex, visual and auditory cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. Pregnancy is characterized by an increased demand of thyroid hormones by the feto-placental unit in order to fulfill the necessary requirements of thyroid hormone action for normal fetal development. Up until week 20, the fetal thyroid is not fully active and therefore is completely dependent on the maternal thyroxine supply. Thus, the maternal thyroid has to adapt to this situation by producing about 1.5 fold more thyroxine. This requires that enzymatic gland machinery works normally as well as an adequate iodine intake, the principal substrate for thyroid hormone synthesis. Biological consequences of iodine related maternal hypothyroxinemia are currently very well known, by both experimental models and by clinical and epidemiological evidences. The associated disturbances parallel the degree of maternal thyroxine deficiency, ranging from increased neonatal morbi-mortality and severe mental dysfunction, to hyperactivity, attention disorders and a substantial decrease of IQ of an irreversible nature in the progeny of mothers suffering a deprivation of iodine during pregnancy. As a consequence, iodine deficiency is the leading preventable cause of mental impaired function in the world, affecting as many as 2 billion people (35.2% of the entire population). Prevention of fetal iodine deficiency - a problem of pandemic proportions- is feasible, provided that an iodine supply of 200-300 μg/day to the mother is ensured, before and throughout gestation as well

  20. Urinary Iodine and Goiter Prevalence in Belarus: Experience of the Belarus–American Cohort Study of Thyroid Cancer and Other Thyroid Diseases Following the Chornobyl Nuclear Accident

    PubMed Central

    Polyanskaya, Olga; McConnell, Robert; Gong, Zhihong; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Rozhko, Alexander; Prokopovich, Alexander; Petrenko, Sergey; Brenner, Alina; Zablotska, Lydia

    2011-01-01

    Background Because iodine deficiency can influence background rates of thyroid disease or modify radiation dose–response relationships, we compiled descriptive data on iodine status among participants in a Belarusian–American screening study who were exposed in childhood to radioiodine fallout from the Chornobyl nuclear accident. We have used the data from two consecutive screening cycles to examine whether indicators of iodine status changed before and after documented government initiatives to improve iodine intake. Methods Urinary iodine concentrations in spot samples and prevalence of diffuse goiter by palpation were assessed in 11,676 exposed subjects who were 18 years or younger at the time of the accident on April 26, 1986, and were screened beginning 11 years later in connection with the Belarus–American Thyroid Study. Data for the first (January 1997–March 2001) and second (April 2001–December 2004) screening cycles, which largely correspond to time periods before and after official iodination efforts in 2000/2001, were compared for the cohort overall as well as by oblast of residence (i.e., state) and type of residency (urban/rural). Results Median urine iodine levels among cohort members increased significantly in the later period (111.5 μg/L) compared to the earlier (65.3 μg/L), with the cycle 2 level in the range defined as adequate iodine intake by the World Health Organization. During the same period, a significant decline in diffuse goiter prevalence was also observed. In both cycles, urinary iodine levels were lower in rural than in urban residents. Urinary iodine levels, but not rates of goiter, varied by oblast of residence. In both periods, adjusted median urine iodine concentrations were similar in Gomel and Minsk oblasts, where ∼89% of cohort members resided, and were lowest in Mogilev oblast. Yet Mogilev oblast and rural areas showed the most marked increases over time. Conclusions Trends in urinary iodine concentrations and

  1. Iodine Deficiency in School Children in Aligarh District, India.

    PubMed

    Aslami, Ahmad Nadeem; Ansari, Mohammed A; Khalique, N; Kapil, Umesh

    2016-08-01

    We carried out this study to assess iodine deficiency disorders among school children of 6-12 years age group in Aligarh district of India. The prevalence of goiter was 5.2%. Median Urinary Iodine Excretion level was 150 ug/L; 22.5% of students had biochemical iodine deficiency. 50.4% households were consuming adequately iodized salt. PMID:27567653

  2. The Role of Iodine and Selenium in Autoimmune Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Duntas, L H

    2015-09-01

    Iodine and selenium (Se) are both essential elements to thyroid hormone economy, while they represent key players in the development of autoimmune thyroiditis.Chronic high iodine intake has been associated in various studies with increased frequency of autoimmune thyroiditis. In susceptible individuals, iodine excess increases intra-thyroid infiltrating Th17 cells and inhibits T regulatory (TREG) cells development, while it triggers an abnormal expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in thyrocytes, thus inducing apoptosis and parenchymal destruction. As was shown in a mouse model, high iodine supply leads to changes in the immunogenicity of the thyroglobulin molecule, upregulation of vascular intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the thyrocytes. Serum Se levels were found decreased in Hashimoto thyroiditis and especially in Graves' disease as well as in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy patients, the levels being related to the pathogenesis and outcome. Selenium is strongly involved, via the variable selenoproteins, in antioxidant, redox, and anti-inflammatory processes. Selenium enhances CD4+/CD25 FOXP3 and T regulatory cells activity while suppressing cytokine secretion, thus preventing apoptosis of the follicular cells and providing protection from thyroiditis. Selenium supplementation may be useful in autoimmune thyroid diseases, though, while usually well-tolerated, it should not be universally recommended, and it is also likely to be helpful for those with low Se status and autoimmunity. Broadly speaking, the achievement and maintenance of "selenostasis" as well as adequate urinary iodine excretion are mandatory to control disease, while, putatively, they may additionally be critical to preventing disease. PMID:26361258

  3. Iodine Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlargement of the thyroid (goiter – see Goiter brochure ), hypothyroidism (see Hypothyroidism brochure ) and to mental retardation in infants and ... when lying down, and difficulty swallowing and breathing. HYPOTHYROIDISM – As the body’s iodine levels fall, hypothyroidism may ...

  4. Iodine Supplementation: Usage "with a Grain of Salt".

    PubMed

    Prete, Alessandro; Paragliola, Rosa Maria; Corsello, Salvatore Maria

    2015-01-01

    Iodine supplementation through salt iodization is a worldwide, effective strategy for preventing iodine deficiency-related problems. Its safety and efficacy profile has been extensively investigated, and benefits far outweigh the potential iodine-induced risks. Moreover, iodine supplementation during pregnancy in order to avoid brain damage in the newborn is considered a mainstay of preventive medicine. Exposure to high amounts of iodine is actually well tolerated in most cases and can be unrecognized. Nevertheless, at-risk individuals may develop thyroid dysfunction even when they are exposed to increases in iodine intake universally considered as safe. Iodine-induced thyroid disorders include thyroid autoimmunity, thyrotoxicosis, iodine-induced goiter, and hypothyroidism. Moreover, a relationship between iodine intake and histotype distribution of differentiated thyroid cancer has been observed, with a progressive shift from follicular to papillary thyroid cancer. To date, evaluating iodine status in a clinical setting has limitations, and assessing the actual risk for each individual can be challenging, since it is influenced by personal history, genetics, and environmental factors. In conclusion, iodine supplementation programs need to be continued and strengthened, but iodine should be used "with a grain of salt," because a growing number of susceptible individuals will be exposed to the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid disorders. PMID:25873950

  5. Dietary evaluation of a low-iodine diet in Korean thyroid cancer patients preparing for radioactive iodine therapy in an iodine-rich region

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Dal Lae; Park, Young Joo; Paik, Hee-Young; Kim, Min-Ji; Park, Seonyeong; Jung, Kyong Yeun; Kim, Tae Hyuk; Choi, Hun Sung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Despite the importance of a low-iodine diet (LID) for thyroid cancer patients preparing for radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy, few studies have evaluated dietary intake during LID. This study evaluated the amount of dietary iodine intake and its major food sources during a typical diet and during LID periods for thyroid cancer patients preparing for RAI therapy, and examined how the type of nutrition education of LID affects iodine intake. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 92 differentiated thyroid cancer patients with total thyroidectomy were enrolled from Seoul National University Hospital. All subjects completed three days of dietary records during usual and low-iodine diets before 131I administration. RESULTS The median iodine intake was 290 µg/day on the usual diet and 63.2 µg/day on the LID. The major food groups during the usual diet were seaweed, salted vegetables, fish, milk, and dairy products and the consumption of these foods decreased significantly during LID. The mean energy intake on the LID was 1,325 kcal, which was 446 kcal lower than on the usual diet (1,771 kcal). By avoiding iodine, the intake of most other nutrients, including sodium, was significantly reduced during LID (P < 0.005). Regarding nutritional education, intensive education was more effective than a simple education at reducing iodine intake. CONCLUSION Iodine intake for thyroid cancer patients was significantly reduced during LID and was within the recommended amount. However, the intake of most other nutrients and calories was also reduced. Future studies are needed to develop a practical dietary protocol for a LID in Korean patients. PMID:27087900

  6. Iodine in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... good sources are plants grown in iodine-rich soil. Side Effects Lack of enough iodine (deficiency) may occur in places that have iodine-poor soil. Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's ...

  7. [Hyperthyreosis and hypothyreosis after use of iodine-containing natural products and iodine-containing vitamin and mineral supplements].

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, H; Svindland, O

    1991-10-30

    Excess iodine is known to affect thyroid function, and in predisposed individuals even a moderately increased iodine intake may cause hypothyreosis or hyperthyreosis. In our material, one patient developed hypothyreosis and five patients hyperthyreosis after using commercial health products containing iodine. The daily intake of iodine was 100-300 micrograms for a period of four months to four years. Except for a positive antibody titer to microsomal thyroid-antigen no obvious predisposing conditions were present. The thyroid function normalized two to three months after withdrawal of the iodine product. The hyperthyroid patients accounted for about 5% of all cases of hyperthyrosis seen in our hospitals during the period in question (one and a half years). It is concluded that "health products", containing iodine should be subjected to public control and the iodine content regulated. This would mean changing the present practice of no such regulation. PMID:1948937

  8. [Dietary reference intakes of trace elements for Japanese and problems in clinical fields].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshifumi

    2016-07-01

    In the dietary reference intakes, EAR(estimated average requirement), RDA(recommended dietary allowance), AL(adequate intake), DG(tentative dietary goal for preventing life style related diseases) and UL(tolerable upper intake level) of eight types of trace elements (iron: Fe, zinc: Zn, copper: Cu, manganese: Mn, iodine: I, selenium: Se, chromium: Cr, molybdenum: Mo) have been set. However, in the meals of hospitals, only iron of which has been taken into account. The content of these trace elements in the enteral nutrient released after 2000 was determined by considering the content of dietary reference intakes of trace elements for Japanese and considered so not fall into deficiency. However, enteral nutrient must be used considering the content of Zn, Cu and the Zn/Cu ratio, the selenium content, and the route of administration, in order to avoid falling into deficiency. PMID:27455794

  9. Bread Iodine Content and Thyroid Radioiodine Uptake: A Tale of Two Cities

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Bernard A.; Siegel, Edward; Horwitt, Benjamin N.; Siegel, Elsie

    1972-01-01

    The iodine content of bread consumed in the Bronx, New York, was found to be significantly lower than that of bread consumed in Columbia, Missouri. This difference in dietary intake of iodine could account for the lowered range of normal values for 24-hour 131I uptake tests in Columbia, and the persistence of the same normal range for this test over the past 28 years in the Bronx. A population with high iodine intake requires higher doses of radioactive iodine in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease. Questions are raised regarding the relationship of high iodine intake to the risk of developing thyrotoxicosis. PMID:5007073

  10. Iodine deficiency in vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Bucková, K; Klimes, I; Seboková, E

    2003-01-01

    Iodine content in food of plant origin is lower in comparison with that of animal origin due to a low iodine concentration in soil. Urinary iodine excretion was assessed in 15 vegans, 31 lacto- and lacto-ovovegetarians and 35 adults on a mixed diet. Iodine excretion was significantly lower in alternative nutrition groups - 172 microg/l in vegetarians and 78 microg/l in vegans compared to 216 microg/l in subjects on a mixed diet. One fourth of the vegetarians and 80% of the vegans suffer from iodine deficiency (iodine excretion value below 100 microg/l) compared to 9% in the persons on a mixed nutrition. The results show that under conditions of alternative nutrition, there is a higher prevalence of iodine deficiency, which might be a consequence of exclusive or prevailing consumption of food of plant origin, no intake of fish and other sea products, as well as reduced iodine intake in the form of sea salt. PMID:12748410

  11. Dietary Intake In Adult Female Coeliac Disease Patients In Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Mičetić-Turk, Dušanka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to assess dietary intake of coeliac disease (CD) patients and to determine if they are meeting the dietary reference values for a balanced diet. Subjects/Methods 40 women with CD, aged from 23 to 76 participated in our study. Total daily intake was assessed by a three-day food diary. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation. Considering physical activity level (PAL) 1.4, the recommended total energy expenditure (TEE) value was determined. The data was evaluated with professional evaluation software Prodi and statistically analysed. Results 40 participants returned the food diary. The average energy intake was significantly too low to ensure the meeting of all-day energy needs (p<0.05). The meals contained a recommended proportion of protein, but a statistically significantly higher proportion of fat (p<0.05), lower proportion of carbohydrates and a significantly lower intake of dietary fibre (p<0.05). Regarding macro-, micro- elements and vitamins, there was a significant lack in the intake of calcium and iodine, folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin A (p<0.05), meanwhile iron intake was at the lower limit of the recommended intake, whereas zinc, potassium and vitamin K intake were significantly higher according to the recommended values, but were comparable with the intake of the general population in the Central European area. Conclusion Even in subjects with adequate or low daily energy intake, their meals contained too much fat, too few carbohydrates and dietary fibre as well as inorganic substances. The patients with CD should get regular nutritional monitoring and education on the quality and balance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:27284377

  12. Urinary iodine, thyroid function, and thyroglobulin as biomarkers of iodine status.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Caldwell, Kathleen L

    2016-09-01

    The accurate assessment of population iodine status is necessary to inform public health policies and clinical research on iodine nutrition, particularly the role of iodine adequacy in normal neurodevelopment. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) directly reflects dietary iodine intake and is the most common indicator used worldwide to assess population iodine status. The CDC established the Ensuring the Quality of Iodine Procedures program in 2001 to provide laboratories that measure urinary iodine with an independent assessment of their analytic performance; this program fosters improvement in the assessment of UIC. Clinical laboratory tests of thyroid function (including serum concentrations of the pituitary hormone thyrotropin and the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine) are sometimes used as indicators of iodine status, although such use is often problematic. Even in severely iodine-deficient regions, there is a great deal of intraindividual variation in the ability of the thyroid to adapt. In most settings and in most population subgroups other than newborns, thyroid function tests are not considered sensitive indicators of population iodine status. However, the thyroid-derived protein thyroglobulin is increasingly being used for this purpose. Thyroglobulin can be measured in either serum or dried blood spot (DBS) samples. The use of DBS samples is advantageous in resource-poor regions. Improved methodologies for ascertaining maternal iodine status are needed to facilitate research on developmental correlates of iodine status. Thyroglobulin may prove to be a useful biomarker for both maternal and neonatal iodine status, but validated assay-specific reference ranges are needed for the determination of iodine sufficiency in both pregnant women and neonates, and trimester-specific ranges are possibly needed for pregnant women. UIC is currently a well-validated population biomarker, but individual biomarkers that could be used for research, patient care

  13. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice

    PubMed Central

    Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall’s W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001), a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible solution

  14. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice.

    PubMed

    Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001), a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible solution

  15. Iodine Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  16. Iodine Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Dilemma of Ambiguous Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy, predominantly caused by an increase in renal iodide clearance and in the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. Because iodine deficiency (ID) in pregnancy may be associated with neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring, a pertinent question is at what level of iodine intake pregnant women should be advised to take iodine-containing supplements. The consensus reached by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 was that pregnant women should not be recommended to take iodine-containing supplements if the population in general had been iodine sufficient for at least 2 years. However, guidance on this differs between scientific societies. This review discusses iodine supplementation in pregnancy. Based on current evidence, the recommendations given by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 provide a valid guidance on the use of iodine supplements in pregnant women. Women living in a population with a median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) at or above 100 µg/l are not in need of iodine supplementation in pregnancy. On the other hand, if the population median UIC is below 100 µg/l, pregnant women should take iodine-containing supplements until the population in general has been iodine sufficient for at least 2 years by way of universal salt iodization. PMID:27099837

  17. Iodine Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Dilemma of Ambiguous Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy, predominantly caused by an increase in renal iodide clearance and in the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. Because iodine deficiency (ID) in pregnancy may be associated with neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring, a pertinent question is at what level of iodine intake pregnant women should be advised to take iodine-containing supplements. The consensus reached by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 was that pregnant women should not be recommended to take iodine-containing supplements if the population in general had been iodine sufficient for at least 2 years. However, guidance on this differs between scientific societies. This review discusses iodine supplementation in pregnancy. Based on current evidence, the recommendations given by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 provide a valid guidance on the use of iodine supplements in pregnant women. Women living in a population with a median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) at or above 100 µg/l are not in need of iodine supplementation in pregnancy. On the other hand, if the population median UIC is below 100 µg/l, pregnant women should take iodine-containing supplements until the population in general has been iodine sufficient for at least 2 years by way of universal salt iodization. PMID:27099837

  18. Use of iodine for water disinfection: iodine toxicity and maximum recommended dose.

    PubMed Central

    Backer, H; Hollowell, J

    2000-01-01

    Iodine is an effective, simple, and cost-efficient means of water disinfection for people who vacation, travel, or work in areas where municipal water treatment is not reliable. However, there is considerable controversy about the maximum safe iodine dose and duration of use when iodine is ingested in excess of the recommended daily dietary amount. The major health effect of concern with excess iodine ingestion is thyroid disorders, primarily hypothyroidism with or without iodine-induced goiter. A review of the human trials on the safety of iodine ingestion indicates that neither the maximum recommended dietary dose (2 mg/day) nor the maximum recommended duration of use (3 weeks) has a firm basis. Rather than a clear threshold response level or a linear and temporal dose-response relationship between iodine intake and thyroid function, there appears to be marked individual sensitivity, often resulting from unmasking of underlying thyroid disease. The use of iodine for water disinfection requires a risk-benefit decision based on iodine's benefit as a disinfectant and the changes it induces in thyroid physiology. By using appropriate disinfection techniques and monitoring thyroid function, most people can use iodine for water treatment over a prolonged period of time. PMID:10964787

  19. [Iodine and thyroid: what a clinic should know].

    PubMed

    Santana Lopes, Maria; Jácome de Castro, João; Marcelino, Mafalda; Oliveira, Maria João; Carrilho, Francisco; Limbert, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organization considers iodine deficiency as a major worldwide cause of mental and development diseases, estimating that about 13% of the world population is affected by diseases caused by iodine deficiency. Iodine is a trace element necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormones which, since it cannot be formed by the organism, must be taken regularly with food. Fish and shellfish are generally a good source, because the ocean contains a considerable amount of iodine. On the contrary, plants which grow in iodine-deficient soils are poor in this element, as well as meat and other animal products fed in plants low in iodine. Salt is the best way for iodine supplementation. Cooking the food with iodized salt is a desirable practice because it guarantees the presence of this element. There are also other methods to provide iodine to the general population, such as adding iodine to drinking water or taking supplements of iodine. In pregnancy is recommended iodine supplementation, except in patients with known thyroid disorders. Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormones (T4 and T3). Inadequate iodine intake leads to inadequate thyroid hormone production. The most important consequences of iodine deficiency, in the general population are goiter and hypothyroidism, and in the severe cases, mental retardation, cretinism and increased neo-natal and infant mortality. The International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD) formed in 1985, with the only aim of achieving optimal iodine nutrition in the world, in cooperation with UNICEF and WHO. In Portugal, recent studies show significant deficiencies in pregnancy and The Portuguese Society of Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism, in partnership with General Directorate of Health, proposed an iodine supplementation during pregnancy with 150-200µg/day. PMID:23069238

  20. Metabolic engineering of the iodine content in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Landini, Martina; Gonzali, Silvia; Kiferle, Claudia; Tonacchera, Massimo; Agretti, Patrizia; Dimida, Antonio; Vitti, Paolo; Alpi, Amedeo; Pinchera, Aldo; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2012-01-01

    Plants are a poor source of iodine, an essential micronutrient for human health. Several attempts of iodine biofortification of crops have been carried out, but the scarce knowledge on the physiology of iodine in plants makes results often contradictory and not generalizable. In this work, we used a molecular approach to investigate how the ability of a plant to accumulate iodine can be influenced by different mechanisms. In particular, we demonstrated that the iodine content in Arabidopsis thaliana can be increased either by facilitating its uptake with the overexpression of the human sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) or through the reduction of its volatilization by knocking-out HOL-1, a halide methyltransferase. Our experiments show that the iodine content in plants results from a balance between intake and retention. A correct manipulation of this mechanism could improve iodine biofortification of crops and prevent the release of the ozone layer-threatening methyl iodide into the atmosphere. PMID:22468225

  1. Iodine content in bread, milk and the retention of inherent iodine in commonly used Indian recipes.

    PubMed

    Longvah, T; Toteja, G S; Upadhyay, A

    2013-01-15

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) is still a major public health problem and iodized salt remains the most effective means to control IDD in India. Few reports indicate that vegans have inadequate iodine intake while at the same time concerns are being raised on the implementation of universal salt iodization in the country. Therefore, we investigated the iodine content in bread, milk and commonly used Indian recipes prepared without iodized salt and the retention of inherent iodine therein. Results showed considerable iodine content in bread (25 μg/100g) and milk (303 μg/L) as a positive fallout of universal salt iodization. Iodine content in 38 vegetarian recipes prepared without iodized salt was very low (2.9 ± 2.4 μg/100g). Retention of inherent iodine (65.6 ± 15.4%) and iodine from iodized salt (76.7 ± 10.3%) in the same recipes was comparable. Thus, universal salt iodization programme remains the single most important source of dietary iodine for the Indian population. PMID:23122074

  2. Consequences of iodine deficiency and excess in pregnant women: an overview of current knowns and unknowns.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Lazarus, John H; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2016-09-01

    Severe iodine deficiency during development results in maternal and fetal hypothyroidism and associated serious adverse health effects, including cretinism and growth retardation. Universal salt iodization is the first-line strategy for the elimination of severe iodine deficiency. Iodine supplementation is recommended for vulnerable groups in severely iodine-deficient regions where salt iodization is infeasible or insufficient. A recent clinical trial has informed best practices for iodine supplementation of severely iodine-deficient lactating mothers. Because of successful programs of universal salt iodization in formerly severely iodine-deficient regions around the world, public health concern has shifted toward mild to moderate iodine deficiency, which remains prevalent in many regions, especially among pregnant women. Observational studies have shown associations between both mild maternal iodine deficiency and mild maternal thyroid hypofunction and decreased child cognition. Iodine supplementation has been shown to improve indexes of maternal thyroid function, even in marginally iodine-deficient areas. However, no data are yet available from randomized controlled trials in regions of mild to moderate iodine insufficiency on the relation between maternal iodine supplementation and neurobehavioral development in the offspring; thus, the long-term benefits and safety of such supplementation are uncertain. Although it is clear that excessive iodine intake can cause alterations in thyroid function in susceptible individuals, safe upper limits for iodine intake in pregnancy have not been well defined. Well-designed, prospective, randomized controlled trials that examine the effects of iodine supplementation on maternal thyroid function and infant neurobehavioral development in mildly to moderately iodine-deficient pregnant women are urgently needed. In addition, clinical data on the effects of iodine excess in pregnant and lactating women are needed to inform

  3. Iodine deficiency among Belgian pregnant women not fully corrected by iodine-containing multivitamins: a national cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Mourri, Ahmed Bensouda; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2013-06-28

    Low iodine intake during pregnancy may cause thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women and their newborn. In the present study, iodine status among a nation-wide representative sample of Belgian pregnant women in the first and third trimester of pregnancy was determined, and determinants of iodine status were assessed 1 year after the introduction of bread fortified with iodised salt. The women were selected according to a multistage proportionate-to-size sampling design. Urine samples were collected and a general questionnaire was completed face to face with the study nurse. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among pregnant women (n 1311) was 124.1mg/l and 122.6 mg/g creatinine when corrected for urinary creatinine. The median UIC in the first trimester (118.3 mg/l) was significantly lower than that in the third trimester (131.0 mg/l) but significantly higher than among non-pregnant women (84.8 mg/l). Iodine-containing supplement intake was reported by 60.8% of the women and 57.4% of the women took this supplement daily. The risk of iodine deficiency was significantly higher in younger women, in women not taking iodine-containing supplements, with low consumption of milk and dairy drinks and during autumn. Women with a higher BMI had a higher risk of iodine deficiency but the risk was lower in women who reported alcohol consumption. The median UIC during pregnancy indicates iodine deficiency in Belgium and some women are at a higher risk of deficiency. The current low iodine intake in women of childbearing age precludes the correction of iodine deficiency in pregnant women supplemented with multivitamins containing 150 mg iodine as recommended. PMID:23084115

  4. Iodine and thyroid hormones during pregnancy and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Faustino R

    2007-07-01

    Iodine is a trace element essential for synthesis of the thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine and thyroxine. These hormones play a vital role in the early growth and development stages of most organs, especially the brain. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared that, after famine, iodine deficiency is the most avoidable cause of cerebral lesions including different degrees of mental retardation and cerebral paralysis. The main function of iodine in vertebrates is to interact with the thyroid hormones. During pregnancy sufficient quantities of iodine are required to prevent the appearance of hypothyroidism, trophoblastic and embryonic or fetal disorders, neonatal and maternal hypothyroidism, and permanent sequelae in infants. Thyroid hormone receptors and iodothyronine deiodinases are present in placenta and central nervous tissue of the fetus. A number of environmental factors influence the epidemiology of thyroid disorders, and even relatively small abnormalities and differences in the level of iodine intake in a population have profound effects on the occurrence of thyroid abnormalities. The prevalence of disorders related to iodine deficit during pregnancy and postpartum has increased. Iodine supplementation is an effective measure in the case of pregnant and lactating women. However, it is not implemented and the problem is still present even in societies with theoretically advanced health systems. During pregnancy and postpartum, the WHO recommends iodine intake be increased to at least 200 microg/day. Side-effects provoked by iodine supplementation are rare during pregnancy at the recommended doses. PMID:17701774

  5. A novel concept to derive iodine status of human populations from frequency distribution properties of a hair iodine concentration.

    PubMed

    Prejac, J; Višnjević, V; Drmić, S; Skalny, A A; Mimica, N; Momčilović, B

    2014-04-01

    Today, human iodine deficiency is next to iron the most common nutritional deficiency in developed European and underdeveloped third world countries, respectively. A current biological indicator of iodine status is urinary iodine that reflects the very recent iodine exposure, whereas some long term indicator of iodine status remains to be identified. We analyzed hair iodine in a prospective, observational, cross-sectional, and exploratory study involving 870 apparently healthy Croatians (270 men and 600 women). Hair iodine was analyzed with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). Population (n870) hair iodine (IH) respective median was 0.499μgg(-1) (0.482 and 0.508μgg(-1)) for men and women, respectively, suggesting no sex related difference. We studied the hair iodine uptake by the logistic sigmoid saturation curve of the median derivatives to assess iodine deficiency, adequacy and excess. We estimated the overt iodine deficiency to occur when hair iodine concentration is below 0.15μgg(-1). Then there was a saturation range interval of about 0.15-2.0μgg(-1) (r(2)=0.994). Eventually, the sigmoid curve became saturated at about 2.0μgg(-1) and upward, suggesting excessive iodine exposure. Hair appears to be a valuable and robust long term biological indicator tissue for assessing the iodine body status. We propose adequate iodine status to correspond with the hair iodine (IH) uptake saturation of 0.565-0.739μgg(-1) (55-65%). PMID:24629671

  6. Iodine source apportionment in the Malawian diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, M. J.; Joy, E. J. M.; Young, S. D.; Broadley, M. R.; Chilimba, A. D. C.; Gibson, R. S.; Siyame, E. W. P.; Kalimbira, A. A.; Chilima, B.; Ander, E. L.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise nutritional-I status in Malawi. Dietary-I intakes were assessed using new datasets of crop, fish, salt and water-I concentrations, while I status was assessed for 60 women living on each of calcareous and non-calcareous soils as defined by urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Iodine concentration in staple foods was low, with median concentrations of 0.01 mg kg-1 in maize grain, 0.008 mg kg-1 in roots and tubers, but 0.155 mg kg-1 in leafy vegetables. Freshwater fish is a good source of dietary-I with a median concentration of 0.51 mg kg-1. Mean Malawian dietary-Iodine intake from food, excluding salt, was just 7.8 μg d-1 compared to an adult requirement of 150 μg d-1. Despite low dietary-I intake from food, median UICs were 203 μg L-1 with only 12% defined as I deficient whilst 21% exhibited excessive I intake. Iodised salt is likely to be the main source of dietary I intake in Malawi; thus, I nutrition mainly depends on the usage and concentration of I in iodised salt. Drinking water could be a significant source of I in some areas, providing up to 108 μg d-1 based on consumption of 2 L d-1.

  7. Iodine source apportionment in the Malawian diet.

    PubMed

    Watts, M J; Joy, E J M; Young, S D; Broadley, M R; Chilimba, A D C; Gibson, R S; Siyame, E W P; Kalimbira, A A; Chilima, B; Ander, E L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise nutritional-I status in Malawi. Dietary-I intakes were assessed using new datasets of crop, fish, salt and water-I concentrations, while I status was assessed for 60 women living on each of calcareous and non-calcareous soils as defined by urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Iodine concentration in staple foods was low, with median concentrations of 0.01 mg kg(-1) in maize grain, 0.008 mg kg(-1) in roots and tubers, but 0.155 mg kg(-1) in leafy vegetables. Freshwater fish is a good source of dietary-I with a median concentration of 0.51 mg kg(-1). Mean Malawian dietary-Iodine intake from food, excluding salt, was just 7.8 μg d(-1) compared to an adult requirement of 150 μg d(-1). Despite low dietary-I intake from food, median UICs were 203 μg L(-1) with only 12% defined as I deficient whilst 21% exhibited excessive I intake. Iodised salt is likely to be the main source of dietary I intake in Malawi; thus, I nutrition mainly depends on the usage and concentration of I in iodised salt. Drinking water could be a significant source of I in some areas, providing up to 108 μg d(-1) based on consumption of 2 L d(-1). PMID:26503697

  8. Iodine source apportionment in the Malawian diet

    PubMed Central

    Watts, M. J.; Joy, E. J. M.; Young, S. D.; Broadley, M. R.; Chilimba, A. D. C.; Gibson, R. S.; Siyame, E. W. P.; Kalimbira, A. A.; Chilima, B.; Ander, E. L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise nutritional-I status in Malawi. Dietary-I intakes were assessed using new datasets of crop, fish, salt and water-I concentrations, while I status was assessed for 60 women living on each of calcareous and non-calcareous soils as defined by urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Iodine concentration in staple foods was low, with median concentrations of 0.01 mg kg−1 in maize grain, 0.008 mg kg−1 in roots and tubers, but 0.155 mg kg−1 in leafy vegetables. Freshwater fish is a good source of dietary-I with a median concentration of 0.51 mg kg−1. Mean Malawian dietary-Iodine intake from food, excluding salt, was just 7.8 μg d−1 compared to an adult requirement of 150 μg d−1. Despite low dietary-I intake from food, median UICs were 203 μg L−1 with only 12% defined as I deficient whilst 21% exhibited excessive I intake. Iodised salt is likely to be the main source of dietary I intake in Malawi; thus, I nutrition mainly depends on the usage and concentration of I in iodised salt. Drinking water could be a significant source of I in some areas, providing up to 108 μg d−1 based on consumption of 2 L d−1. PMID:26503697

  9. The Impact of Low Adherence to the Low-iodine Diet on the Efficacy of the Radioactive Iodine Ablation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Dal Lae; Park, Young Joo; Paik, Hee-Young

    2015-01-01

    To improve the efficacy of radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer patients, a low-iodine diet (LID) prior to the therapy is recommended. In iodine-rich areas such as Korea, however, a strict LID is very difficult to maintain. We experienced the cases of three patients showing low adherence to the LID before initial RAI therapy, and analyzed the main food source supplying iodine during the LID, and examined the influence of the poorly maintained LID on the efficacy of RAI therapy. The dietary intake during the LID periods were assessed using three-day dietary records and remnant thyroid activity after the second RAI administration was also evaluated. All patients' mean daily iodine intake during two-week LID periods exceeded the 100 µg guideline set by the Korean Thyroid Association (median 110.9 µg, ranges 100.4-117.0 µg). Although the typical food sources of iodine intake are seaweeds in Korea, salted vegetables were the main contributor to the patients' iodine intake during the LID periods. Remnant thyroid activity was shown on a follow-up scan in all of 3 patients suggesting low efficacy of RAI therapy. In summary, the patients with low adherence to the LID guideline showed unsuccessful remnant ablation, and the main food source of iodine was salted vegetables. Further studies are necessary to examine the relationship between adherence of the LID and RAI efficacy according to dietary iodine intake levels, as well as food sources that cause low adherence to the LID. These data can then be used to develop more practical LID guidelines. PMID:26566522

  10. Iodine supplementation and the prevention of cretinism.

    PubMed

    Dunn, J T

    1993-03-15

    Normal development of the CNS requires adequate thyroid hormone exposure. Since iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormone molecule, its deficiency during fetal development can cause hypothyroidism and irreversible mental retardation. The full-blown syndrome, called cretinism, includes deaf-mutism, short stature, spasticity, and profound mental retardation. The clinical spectrum can vary in degree and combination of these features. Screening programs in iodine-deficient countries show that up to 10% of neonates have elevated serum TSH levels, putting them at theoretical risk for permanent brain damage. About one billion people worldwide risk the consequences of iodine deficiency, all of which can be prevented by adequate maternal and infant iodine nutrition. Iodized salt is usually the preferred prophylactic vehicle, but iodized vegetable oil, iodized water, and iodine tablets are also occasionally used. The United Nations and the heads of state of most countries have pledged the virtual elimination of iodine deficiency by the year 2000. This goal is technically feasible if pursued with sufficient vigor and resources. PMID:8494259

  11. A new HPLC method for the detection of iodine applied to natural samples of edible seaweeds and commercial seaweed food products.

    PubMed

    Nitschke, Udo; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2015-04-01

    Rich in micronutrients and considered to contain high iodine levels, seaweeds have multiple applications as food/supplements and nutraceuticals with potential health implications. Here, we describe the development and validation of a new analytical method to quantify iodine as iodide (I(-)) using an isocratic HPLC system with UV detection; algal iodine was converted to I(-) via dry alkaline incineration. The method was successfully applied to 19 macroalgal species from three taxonomic groups and five commercially available seaweed food products. Fesh kelps contained highest levels, reaching >1.0% per dry weight (DW), but concentrations differed amongst thallus parts. In addition to kelps, other brown (Fucales: ∼ 0.05% DW) and some red species (∼ 0.05% DW) can also serve as a rich source of iodine; lowest iodine concentrations were detected in green macroalgae (∼ 0.005% DW), implying that quantities recommended for seaweed consumption may require species-specific re-evaluation to reach adequate daily intake levels. PMID:25442561

  12. Combined effects of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodine on thyroid function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–08

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmaus, Craig; Miller, Mark D.; Cushing, Lara; Blount, Benjamin C.; Smith, Allan H.

    2013-05-15

    Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine intake can all decrease iodide intake into the thyroid gland. This can reduce thyroid hormone production since iodide is a key component of thyroid hormone. Previous research has suggested that each of these factors alone may decrease thyroid hormone levels, but effect sizes are small. We hypothesized that people who have all three factors at the same time have substantially lower thyroid hormone levels than people who do not, and the effect of this combined exposure is substantially larger than the effects seen in analyses focused on only one factor at a time. Using data from the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, subjects were categorized into exposure groups based on their urinary perchlorate, iodine, and thiocyanate concentrations, and mean serum thyroxine concentrations were compared between groups. Subjects with high perchlorate (n=1939) had thyroxine concentrations that were 5.0% lower (mean difference=0.40 μg/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.14–0.65) than subjects with low perchlorate (n=2084). The individual effects of iodine and thiocyanate were even smaller. Subjects with high perchlorate, high thiocyanate, and low iodine combined (n=62) had thyroxine concentrations 12.9% lower (mean difference=1.07 μg/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.55–1.59) than subjects with low perchlorate, low thiocyanate, and adequate iodine (n=376). Potential confounders had little impact on results. Overall, these results suggest that concomitant exposure to perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine markedly reduces thyroxine production. This highlights the potential importance of examining the combined effects of multiple agents when evaluating the toxicity of thyroid-disrupting agents. -- Highlights: ► Recent data suggest that essentially everyone in the US is exposed to perchlorate. ► Perchlorate exposure may be associated with lower thyroid hormone levels. ► Some groups may be more susceptible to

  13. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South-East of the UK: the influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Sarah C.; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Wright, John; Rayman, Margaret P.

    2015-01-01

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones which are crucial for brain development. Pregnant women are vulnerable to iodine deficiency because their requirement for iodine is higher than that of non-pregnant adults. Data on the iodine status of UK pregnant women are sparse and there are no such data in the South East. One hundred pregnant women were recruited to a cross-sectional study at the Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, at their first-trimester visit for an ultrasound scan. Participants provided a spot-urine sample (for the measurement of urinary iodine and creatinine concentrations) and 24-hour excretion of iodine was estimated from the urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio. Women completed a general questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire. The median urinary iodine concentration (85·3 μg/l) indicated that the group was iodine deficient by WHO criteria. The median values of the iodine-to-creatinine ratio (122·9 μg/g) and of the estimated 24-hr iodine excretion (151·2 μg/day) were also suggestive of iodine deficiency. Urinary iodine concentration was significantly higher in women taking an iodine-containing prenatal supplement (n=42) than in those not taking such a supplement (P<0·001). In adjusted analyses, milk intake, maternal age and iodine-containing prenatal supplement use were positively associated with estimated 24-hour urinary iodine excretion. Our finding of iodine deficiency in these women gives cause for concern. We suggest that women of childbearing age and pregnant women should be given advice on how to improve their iodine status through dietary means. A national survey of iodine status in UK pregnant women is required. PMID:24398008

  14. Tomato fruits: a good target for iodine biofortification

    PubMed Central

    Kiferle, Claudia; Gonzali, Silvia; Holwerda, Harmen T.; Ibaceta, Rodrigo Real; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2013-01-01

    Iodine is a trace element that is fundamental for human health: its deficiency affects about two billion people worldwide. Fruits and vegetables are usually poor sources of iodine; however, plants can accumulate iodine if it is either present or exogenously administered to the soil. The biofortification of crops with iodine has therefore been proposed as a strategy for improving human nutrition. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the possibility of biofortifying tomato fruits with iodine. Increasing concentrations of iodine supplied as KI or KIO3 were administered to plants as root treatments and the iodine accumulation in fruits was measured. The influences of the soil organic matter content or the nitrate level in the nutritive solution were analyzed. Finally, yield and qualitative properties of the biofortified tomatoes were considered, as well as the possible influence of fruit storage and processing on the iodine content. Results showed that the use of both the iodized salts induced a significant increase in the fruit’s iodine content in doses that did not affect plant growth and development. The final levels ranged from a few mg up to 10 mg iodine kg - 1 fruit fresh weight and are more than adequate for a biofortification program, since 150 μg iodine per day is the recommended dietary allowance for adults. In general, the iodine treatments scarcely affected fruit appearance and quality, even with the highest concentrations applied. In contrast, the use of KI in plants fertilized with low doses of nitrate induced moderate phytotoxicity symptoms. Organic matter-rich soils improved the plant’s health and production, with only mild reductions in iodine stored in the fruits. Finally, a short period of storage at room temperature or a 30-min boiling treatment did not reduce the iodine content in the fruits, if the peel was maintained. All these results suggest that tomato is a particularly suitable crop for iodine biofortification programs

  15. Iodine in food- and dietary supplement-composition databases.

    PubMed

    Pehrsson, Pamela R; Patterson, Kristine Y; Spungen, Judith H; Wirtz, Mark S; Andrews, Karen W; Dwyer, Johanna T; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of the USDA Agricultural Research Service have worked independently on determining the iodine content of foods and dietary supplements and are now harmonizing their efforts. The objective of the current article is to describe the harmonization plan and the results of initial iodine analyses accomplished under that plan. For many years, the FDA's Total Diet Study (TDS) has measured iodine concentrations in selected foods collected in 4 regions of the country each year. For more than a decade, the NDL has collected and analyzed foods as part of the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program; iodine analysis is now being added to the program. The NDL recently qualified a commercial laboratory to conduct iodine analysis of foods by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. Co-analysis of a set of samples by the commercial laboratory using the ICP-MS method and by the FDA laboratory using its standard colorimetric method yielded comparable results. The FDA recently reviewed historical TDS data for trends in the iodine content of selected foods, and the NDL analyzed samples of a limited subset of those foods for iodine. The FDA and the NDL are working to combine their data on iodine in foods and to produce an online database that can be used for estimating iodine intake from foods in the US population. In addition, the NDL continues to analyze dietary supplements for iodine and, in collaboration with the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, to publish the data online in the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database. The goal is to provide, through these 2 harmonized databases and the continuing TDS focus on iodine, improved tools for estimating iodine intake in population studies. PMID:27534627

  16. Evaluation of iodine content and stability in recipes prepared with biofortified potatoes.

    PubMed

    Cerretani, Lorenzo; Comandini, Patrizia; Fumanelli, Davide; Scazzina, Francesca; Chiavaro, Emma

    2014-11-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient of the human diet. Deficiency of iodine is diffused in many areas of the world and mild deficiency is present also in developed countries around Europe. Biofortification of vegetables could represent a better strategy with respect to iodized salt in order to increase iodine intake. The aim of this study was evaluating the stability of iodine, derived from biofortified potatoes, in the preparation process of three Italian typical dishes: dumplings, vegetable pie, and focaccia bread. The obtained results showed a good stability of iodine in cooking processes, in particular, during baking of focaccia bread. Significant losses of iodine were detected during boiling of dumplings and baking of vegetable pie. Although the different stability during the cooking processes, the three dishes maintained a good final content of iodine, ranging from the 33.3% to 52.7% of daily recommended intake in adults for individual serving size. PMID:24828007

  17. Safety of iodine based water sterilization for travelers.

    PubMed

    Goodyer, L; Behrens, R H

    2000-01-01

    The recent report by Khan et al. of an unexpectedly high concentration of free iodine in water filters, which may have led to the high proportion of abnormal thyroid function tests in Peace Corps workers, is of concern for travel advisors when asked to recommend suitable means of water sterilization. Many travelers use iodine based filters and/or chemicals for purification of water when traveling in areas with contaminated water supplies and may therefore be at risk of excess iodine intake. Aside from iodine impregnated resin filtration systems, tetraglycine hydroperiodide tablets, tincture of iodine 2% and more commonly, chlorine-based proprietary products are widely used to sterilize water for drinking, and usually purchased by travelers without advice on how they should be used. A single tetraglycine hydroperiodide tablet in a liter of water releases 8 mg of iodine in comparison to the 10 mg/liter released from the iodinated resin pumps described by Khan et al. Although the instructions for using iodine tincture are imprecise, the normal recommendation is 5 drops per liter of water, increasing this to 12 drops where Giardia cysts may be present. The lower of the two doses would yield about 2 mg/liter of free iodine per liter depending on the pipette used, although, because of the potassium iodide present in the formulation, a total of 4 mg iodine would be available for absorption. PMID:10689241

  18. A physiological systems model for iodine for use in radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the biokinetic database for iodine in the human body and proposes a biokinetic model for use in dose assessments for radioiodine. The model unifies and extends existing physiological systems models describing three subsystems of the iodine cycle in the body: circulating (extrathyroidal) inorganic iodide; thyroidal iodine (trapping and organic binding of iodide, and synthesis, storage, and secretion of thyroid hormones); and extrathyroidal organic iodine. Thyroidal uptake of iodide is described as a function of daily stable iodine intake and requirements for thyroid hormones. Baseline parameter values are developed for adults with typical iodine intakes and hormone requirements. Estimated thyroid doses derived from the baseline parameter values and reference thyroid weights are higher than values predicted by the current model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for adults for intake of iodine isotopes with half-lives up to a few hours but consistent with ICRP predictions for longer-lived isotopes. For nearly all iodine isotopes, the proposed model yields order-of-magnitude differences from the ICRP s current iodine model for adults for stomach wall, salivary gland, and kidneys. Dose estimates for intravenously injected 131I-labeled thyroid hormones based on the present model differ substantially from current ICRP values for adult patients for some organs, including the thyroid. Subsequent studies will address age-specific biokinetics of iodine, reduction of doses from radioiodine due to thyroid blocking, and effects of dietary iodine levels and thyroid hormone requirements on thyroid doses from radioiodine.

  19. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  20. Genetic alterations of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in iodine-rich and iodine-deficient countries.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Huy Gia; Kondo, Tetsuo; Oishi, Naoki; Nakazawa, Tadao; Mochizuki, Kunio; Inoue, Tomohiro; Tahara, Ippei; Kasai, Kazunari; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Tran, Thong Minh; Katoh, Ryohei

    2016-08-01

    BRAF V600E mutation, RET rearrangements, and RAS mutations are the common genetic alterations in differentiated thyroid carcinomas derived from follicular thyroid cells. However, the relationship between these alterations and iodine intake is still controversial. To clarify the influence of iodine intake on the occurrence of differentiated thyroid carcinomas, we performed molecular analyses for two differentiated carcinomas, papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) and follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs), from an iodine-rich country (Japan) and an iodine-deficient country (Vietnam). We examined 120 PTCs (67 Japanese and 53 Vietnamese) and 74 FTCs (51 Japanese and 23 Vietnamese). We carried out allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) for BRAF V600E, PCR and direct sequencing for RAS mutations (codon 12, 13, and 61 in NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS), and RT-PCR for RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3. BRAF V600E was present in 55/67 (82.1%) Japanese PTCs and 44/53 (83%) Vietnamese PTCs. RET/PTC1 was identified in only one PTC from each country, and no samples had RET/PTC3. NRAS mutation was found in 17/51 (33.3%) Japanese FTCs and 4/23 (17.4%) Vietnamese FTCs. NRAS mutation was cited in codon 61 (20 cases) and codon 12 (one case). None of FTCs had KRAS or HRAS mutations. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of BRAF V600E, RET/PTC, or RAS mutations between the two countries. Our study showed no differences in genetic alterations of thyroid cancers from iodine-rich and iodine-deficient countries, possibly suggesting that iodine intake might not affect the genetic alterations of differentiated thyroid cancer. PMID:27264674

  1. Computation of iodine species concentrations in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, John R.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Flanagan, David T.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    During an evaluation of the use of iodine as a water disinfectant and the development of methods for measuring various iodine species in water onboard Space Freedom, it became necessary to compute the concentration of the various species based on equilibrium principles alone. Of particular concern was the case when various amounts of iodine, iodide, strong acid, and strong base are added to water. Such solutions can be used to evaluate the performance of various monitoring methods being considered. The authors of this paper present an overview of aqueous iodine chemistry, a set of nonlinear equations which can be used to model the above case, and a computer program for solving this system of equations using the Newton-Raphson method. The program was validated by comparing results over a range of concentrations and pH values with those previously presented by Gottardi for a given pH. Use of this program indicated that there are multiple roots to many cases and selecting an appropriate initial guess is important. Comparison of program results with laboratory results for the case when only iodine is added to water indicates the program gives high pH values for the iodine concentrations normally used for water disinfection. Extending the model to include the effects of iodate formation results in the computer pH values being closer to those observed, but the model with iodate does not agree well for the case in which base is added in addition to iodine to raise the pH. Potential explanations include failure to obtain equilibrium conditions in the lab, inaccuracies in published values for the equilibrium constants, and inadequate model of iodine chemistry and/or the lack of adequate analytical methods for measuring the various iodine species in water.

  2. Recommended energy and nutrient intakes for Filipinos 2002.

    PubMed

    Barba, Corazon V C; Cabrera, Ma Isabel Z

    2008-01-01

    The Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), as in the past, led the review and revision of the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Filipinos, a vital and essential tool recognized in the nutrition and health community as the source of information on recommended energy and nutrient intakes for the maintenance of good health. This set of dietary standards is periodically evaluated and updated to keep pace with new knowledge on energy and nutrient requirements and metabolism. The set of updated standards is now called Recommended Energy and Nutrient Intakes (RENIs), defined as levels of intakes of energy and nutrients which, on the basis of current scientific knowledge, are considered adequate for the maintenance of good health and well-being of nearly all healthy Filipinos. As in the 1989 edition, intakes of energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, iodine, zinc, vitamins A, C, D and E, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, pyridoxine, water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride) are recommended in this new edition. The desirable proportions of protein, fats, carbohydrates as well as fiber are also provided, in addition to information on recommended intake levels for selenium, magnesium, manganese, fluoride, cobalamin, and vitamin K. These recommendations were derived from a review of current evidences, principally the UN-FAO/WHO's 2002 human vitamin and mineral requirements and the US-Institute of Medicine-Food and Nutrition Board (IOM-FNB)'s series of Dietary Reference Intakes, taking into consideration applicability in and achievability among specific population groups. PMID:18460438

  3. Iodine Nutritional Status of School Children in Nauru 2015.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jui; Tseng, Chi-Lung; Chen, Harn-Shen; Garabwan, Chanda; Korovo, Samuela; Tang, Kam-Tsun; Won, Justin Ging-Shing; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Wang, Fan-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt) were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6-12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively). The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru. PMID:27563920

  4. Assessment of the iodine status of the Wa national boarding school students in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jian-Zhong; Feng, Yue-Mei; Wu, Shao-Xiong; Zhang, Xue-Hui; Wang, Song-Mei; Wang, Qi; Li, Yuan; Qi, De-Li

    2014-09-01

    Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) has been recognized as a major public health problem worldwide and has serious detrimental effects on the growth and development of the children. Therefore, monitoring the iodine status of the school-aged children is of great importance. We randomly recruited 159 boarding school students (aged from 6 to 14) from 10 primary schools in Lincang County, Yunnan Province. The dietary iodine level of the students was measured by the new mixed meal method and chemical analysis. Fifty-seven daily water samples and 32 salt samples were collected from the same surveyed area to determine the iodine content using the sulfate cerium catalytic spectrophotometric method and the hyposulphite quantitative titration method, respectively. The iodine level of each water sample was ranged from 0.611 to 1.473 μg/L. The median and the mean value of the iodine content in water were 0.972 and 0.979 ± 0.189 μg/L. The average iodine intake of each age group was higher that the recommended nutrient intakes (RNI) but lower than the tolerable upper intake level (UL). The median and the mean value of the iodine content in salt were 25.53 and 25.62 ± 1.70 mg/kg. Taken together, the present study investigated the iodine intake status of Wa school-aged children through examination of their dietary iodine intake, the environment, and the salt iodine status. Results showed that the status of the iodine uptake of the Wa children were higher than the RNI, but lower than the UL. PMID:25035191

  5. The standard, intervention measures and health risk for high water iodine areas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Liu, Lixiang; Shen, Hongmei; Jia, Qingzhen; Wang, Jinbiao; Zheng, Heming; Ma, Jing; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Shoujun; Su, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    Our study aims to clarify the population nutrient status in locations with different levels of iodine in the water in China; to choose effective measurements of water improvement(finding other drinking water source of iodine not excess) or non-iodised salt supply or combinations thereof; to classify the areas of elevated water iodine levels and the areas with endemic goiter; and to evaluate the risk factors of water iodine excess on pregnant women, lactating women and the overall population of women. From Henan, Hebei, Shandong and Shanxi province of China, for each of 50 ∼ 99 µg/L, 100 ∼ 149 µg/L, 150 ∼ 299 µg/L, and ≥ 300 µg/L water iodine level, three villages were selected respectively. Students of 6-12 years old and pregnant were sampled from villages of each water-iodine level of each province, excluded iodized salt consumer. Then the children's goiter volume, the children and pregnant's urinary iodine and water iodine were tested. In addition, blood samples were collected from pregnant women, lactating women and other women of reproductive age for each water iodine level in the Shanxi Province for thyroid function tests. These indicators should be matched for each person. When the water iodine exceeds 100 µg/L; the iodine nutrient of children are iodine excessive, and are adequate or more than adequate for the pregnant women. It is reasonable to define elevated water iodine areas as locations where the water iodine levels exceed 100 µg/L. The supply of non-iodised salt alone cannot ensure adequate iodine nutrition of the residents, and water improvement must be adopted, as well. Iodine excess increases the risk of certain thyroid diseases in women from one- to eightfold. PMID:24586909

  6. A case of consciousness disturbance resulting from severe hypothyroidism due to chronic thyroiditis and excess iodine absorption.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masayuki; Onodera, Kazunari; Suzuki, Kengo; Kataoka, Yuko; Tachikawa, Kazushige; Riku, Shigeo; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    An 82-year-old Japanese man had consciousness disturbance due to severe hypothyroidism triggered by percutaneous absorption of iodine from an iodine-containing ointment used in diabetic gangrene treatment. Laboratory data revealed extremely high urinary iodine concentrations, and chronic thyroiditis-induced hypothyroidism. Excess iodine intake can also cause hypothyroidism. It was unlikely that iodine intoxication or Hashimoto's encephalopathy had caused the consciousness disturbance. The patient regained consciousness after discontinuing the use of the ointment and commencing thyroid hormone therapy. We conclude that consciousness disturbance resulted from severe hypothyroidism caused by chronic thyroiditis and excess iodine absorption. PMID:22041370

  7. Urinary iodine percentile ranges in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie Porat; Soldin, Steven J.; Pezzullo, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The status of iodine nutrition of a population can be determined by measurement of urinary iodine concentrations since it is thought to indicate dietary iodine intake. Normally, these results are compared to population-based criteria, since there are no reference ranges for urinary iodine. Objective To determine the percentile ranges for urinary iodide (UI) concentrations in normal individuals in the United States. Materials and methods The third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (1988–1994) database of the civilian, non-institutionalized, iodine-sufficient US population was used. The 2.5th to 97.5th percentile ranges for urinary iodine and for urinary iodine per gram creatinine ratio (UI/Cr) (μg/g) were calculated for females and males, 6–89 years of age, each stratified by age groups. Results and conclusions We calculated the percentile ranges for urinary iodine. After exclusions of subjects with goiter or thyroid disease, the study sample included 21,530 subjects; 10,439 males and 11,091 females. For women of childbearing age (14–44 years), urinary iodine concentration 2.5th to 97.5th percentiles are 1.8–65 μg/dl or 36–539 μg/g creatinine. For pregnant women, the ranges are 4.2–55 μg/dl or 33–535 μg/g creatinine. PMID:12559616

  8. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  9. Iodine insufficiency: a global health problem?

    PubMed

    Swanson, Christine A; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2013-01-01

    As a result of collaborative efforts with international organizations and the salt industry, many developing and developed countries practice universal salt iodization (USI) or have mandatory salt fortification programs. As a consequence, the prevalence of iodine deficiency decreased dramatically. The United States and Canada are among the few developed countries that do not practice USI. Such an undertaking would require evidence of deficiency among vulnerable population groups, including pregnant women, newborns, and developing infants. Government agencies in the United States rely heavily on data from NHANES to assess the iodine status of the general population and pregnant women in particular. NHANES data suggest that pregnant women in the United States remain mildly deficient. This is important, because the developing fetus is dependent on maternal iodine intake for normal brain development throughout pregnancy. Professional societies have recommended that pregnant and lactating women, or those considering pregnancy, consume a supplement providing 150 μg iodine daily. The United States and Canada collaborate on the daily recommended intake and are also confronted with the challenge of identifying the studies needed to determine if USI is likely to be beneficial to vulnerable population groups without exposing them to harm. PMID:24038248

  10. Poor knowledge and practices related to iodine nutrition during pregnancy and lactation in Australian women: pre- and post-iodine fortification.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Karen; Yeatman, Heather; Lucas, Catherine; Axford, Samantha; Gemming, Luke; Houweling, Fiona; Goodfellow, Alison; Ma, Gary

    2012-09-01

    A before-after review was undertaken to assess whether knowledge and practices related to iodine nutrition, supplementation and fortification has improved in Australian women since the introduction of mandatory iodine fortification in 2009. Surveys of pregnant (n = 139) and non-pregnant (n = 75) women in 2007-2008 are compared with surveys of pregnant (n = 147) and lactating women (n = 60) one to two years post-fortification in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia. A self-administered questionnaire was completed and dietary intake of iodine was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. A generally poor knowledge about the role and sources of iodine in the diet remained after fortification. Post-fortification, iodine-containing supplements were being taken by 60% (up from 20% pre-fortification) and 45% of pregnant and lactating women, respectively. Dairy foods were the highest contributors to dietary iodine intake (57%-62%). A low intake of fish and seafood resulted in this food group contributing only 3%-8% of total intake. A low level of public awareness regarding the role of iodine in health supports the need for public health strategies in addition to fortification, such as an accompanying consumer education campaign, increased uptake of supplementation, and on-going monitoring. PMID:23112919

  11. IODINE CONTENT OF U.S. WEIGHT-LOSS FOOD

    PubMed Central

    Kuriti, Manikya; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Braverman, Lewis E.; He, Xuemei; Leung, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The recommended iodine intake is 150 µg/day in adults, 220 µg/day during pregnancy, and 290 µg/day during lactation. Individuals exclusively consuming restricted diets as part of a weight-loss program may be at risk for mild to moderate iodine deficiency. The purpose of this study was to assess the iodine content in meals and snacks from 3 U.S. commercial weight-loss programs, all of which are intended to be the sole source of dietary intake during the desired weight-loss period. Methods The iodine contents in the products representing 1 week of all meals and snacks from 3 U.S. commercial weight-loss programs were measured by spectrophotometry. The measured total iodine content in 1 week’s worth of food from each program is reported as an average level per day. Results A total of 53 total items were analyzed (29 different items [7 breakfasts, 7 lunches, 7 dinners, 6 snacks, 2 desserts] from Jenny Craig®, 21 different items [7 breakfasts, 7 lunches, 7 dinners] from Nutrisystem®, and 3 different items [1 breakfast, 1 lunch, 1 dinner; each to be intended to be eaten daily for 1 week] from Medifast®). Daily iodine content (mean ± SD) of meals and snacks from the weight-loss programs were 34.2 ± 1.2 (Jenny Craig®), 12.2 ± 0.7 (Nutrisystem®), and 70.1 ± 1.1 (Medifast) µg/day. Conclusion These results indicate that the dietary content in the foods from 3 U.S. commercial weightloss programs is far less than the recommendations for iodine intake of 150 µg/day in nonpregnant, nonlactating adults. Individuals following each weight-loss program should be advised to take a multivitamin containing 150 µg of iodine daily. PMID:24246349

  12. Iodine-deficient vegetarians: a hypothetical perchlorate-susceptible population?

    PubMed

    Fields, Cheryl; Dourson, Michael; Borak, Jonathan

    2005-06-01

    Recent risk assessments of environmental perchlorate have been subject to much debate. A particular concern is whether appropriate susceptible sub-populations have been identified. Iodine-deficient pregnant women, especially vegetarians, have been proposed as such a potential susceptible sub-population, but there is no evidence of iodine deficiency in the US population and the adequacy of iodine nutrition has not been studied in US vegetarians. To understand the possibility that US vegetarians might be iodine deficient, we reviewed the prevalence, demography, and lifestyle characteristics of US vegetarians as well as the world literature on iodine nutrition in vegetarians. Our findings indicate that strict vegetarians and vegans, who comprise probably less than 0.1% of the US population, have higher education, higher incomes, and healthier lifestyles than the general population. Field studies indicate that vegetarian diets need not lead to iodine deficiency and vegans may suffer excess iodine intake. It is remains uncertain whether there are iodine-deficient vegans or pregnant women in the US. Of more general concern is whether the 10-fold default uncertainty factor is needed for intraspecies (i.e., within human) variability to protect such hypothetical susceptible sub-populations. PMID:15896441

  13. [Bone and Nutrition. Bone and phosphorus intake].

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidekazu; Sakuma, Masae

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus is necessary for bone mineralization. Although adequate phosphorus intake is essential for skeletal mineralization, it is reported that excessive phosphorus intake can induce deleterious effect on bone. Recently, since the Japanese diet has been westernized, phosphorus intake by the meat and dairy products has increased. Furthermore, along with the development of processed foods, excessive intake of inorganic phosphorus from food additives has become a problem. An adverse effect on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from high phosphorus intake was seen only when calcium intake was inadequate. Dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio can be considered as one of the indicators that can predict the health of the bone. PMID:26119308

  14. Double-low protocol for hepatic dynamic CT scan: Effect of low tube voltage and low-dose iodine contrast agent on image quality.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuli; Li, Shaodong; Liu, Wenlou; Huang, Ning; Li, Jingjing; Cheng, Li; Xu, Kai

    2016-06-01

    radiation dose and iodine intake with adequate image quality in patients with BMI of 18.5 to 27.9 kg/m. PMID:27368012

  15. Iodine deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Elliott, T C

    1987-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) affects 800 million people in the world, yet iodine supplementation is one of the most cost-effective nutritional interventions known. Iodine is incorporated into thyroid hormones, necessary for regulating metabolic rate, growth, and development of the brain and nervous system. IDD may appear as goiter in adults, usually not a serious problem, or in cretinism in children, which is marked by severe mental and physical retardation, with irreversible hearing and speech defects and either deaf-mutism, squint and paralysis, or stunting and edema. Children supplemented by age 1 or 2 can sometimes be helped. Foods contain variable amounts of iodine dependent on the soil where they are grown, hence mountainous and some inland regions have high goiter and IDD incidence. There are also goitrogenic foods, typically those of the cabbage family. Diagnosis is clinical or by blood tests for thyroid hormone levels and ratios. Finger-stick methods are available. Prevention of IDD is simple with either iodized salt or flour, iodinated central water supplies, injectable or oral iodine-containing oil. All cost about $.04 per person per year, except injections, which cost about $1 per person, but have the advantage that they could be combined with immunizations. Local problems with supplements are loss of iodine in salt with storage in tropics, and local production of cheaper uniodinated salt. Emphasis should be given to pregnant women and young children. There is no harm in giving pregnant women iodine injections in 2nd or 3rd trimester. PMID:12343033

  16. Incorporation of iodine in polymeric microparticles and emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolontaeva, Olga A.; Khokhlova, Anastasia R.; Markina, Natalia E.; Markin, Alexey V.; Burmistrova, Natalia A.

    2016-04-01

    Application of different methods for formation of microcontainers containing iodine is proposed in this paper. Two types of microcontainers: microemulsions and microparticles have been investigated, conditions and methods for obtaining microcontainers were optimized. Microparticles were formed by layer-by-layer method with cores of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as templates. Incorporation of complexes of iodine with polymers (chitosan, starch, polyvinyl alcohol) into core, shell and hollow capsules was investigated and loadings of microparticles with iodine were estimated. It was found that the complex of iodine with chitosan adsorbed at CaCO3 core is the most stable under physiological conditions and its value of loading can be 450 μg of I2 per 1 g of CaCO3. Moreover, chitosan was chosen as a ligand because of its biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as very low toxicity while its complex with iodine is very stable. A small amount of microparticles containing a iodine-chitosan complex can be used for prolonged release of iodine in the human body since iodine daily intake for adults is around 100 μg. "Oil-in-water" emulsions were prepared by ultrasonication of iodinated oils (sunflower and linseed) with sodium laurilsulfate (SLS) as surfactant solution. At optimal conditions, the homogenous emulsions remained stable for weeks, with total content of iodine in such emulsion being up to 1% (w/w). The oil:SLS ratio was equal to 1:10 (w/w), optimal duration and power of ultrasound exposure were 1.5 min and 7 W, correspondingly. Favorable application of iodized linseed oil for emulsion preparation with suitable oil microdroplets size was proved.

  17. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular...

  18. 29 CFR 98.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Adequate evidence. 98.900 Section 98.900 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a...

  19. Iodine generator for reclaimed water purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The system disclosed is for controlling the iodine level in a water supply in a spacecraft. It includes an iodine accumulator which stores crystalline iodine, an electrochemical valve to control the input of iodine to the drinking water and an iodine dispenser. A pump dispenses fluid through the iodine dispenser and an iodine sensor to a potable water tank storage. The iodine sensor electronically detects the iodine level in the water, and through electronic means, produces a correction current control. The correction current control operates the electro-chemical iodine valve to release iodine from the iodine accumulator into the iodine dispenser.

  20. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy, infancy and childhood and its consequences for brain development.

    PubMed

    Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Jaiswal, Nidhi

    2010-02-01

    Iodine deficiency during foetal development and early childhood is associated with cognitive impairment. Randomised clinical studies in school-aged children encountered in the literature indicate that cognitive performance can be improved by iodine supplementation, but most studies suffer from methodological constraints. Tests to assess cognitive performance in the domains that are potentially affected by iodine deficiency need to be refined. Maternal iodine supplementation in areas of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency may improve cognitive performance of the offspring, but randomised controlled studies with long-term outcomes are lacking. Studies in infants or young children have not been conducted. The best indicators for iodine deficiency in children are thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in newborns and thyroglobulin (Tg) in older children. Urinary iodine may also be useful but only at the population level. Adequate salt iodisation will cover the requirements of infants and children as well as pregnant women. However, close monitoring remains essential. PMID:20172468

  1. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6–9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6–9 years) in 2013–2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children’s dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson’s chi-square and Student’s t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443

  2. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6-9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study.

    PubMed

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-12-01

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6-9 years) in 2013-2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children's dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson's chi-square and Student's t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443

  3. Low Urinary Iodine Concentration among Mothers and Children in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Laillou, Arnaud; Sophonneary, Prak; Kuong, Khov; Hong, Rathavuth; Un, Samoeurn; Chamnan, Chhoun; Poirot, Etienne; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank

    2016-01-01

    A 2014 national assessment of salt iodization coverage in Cambodia found that 62% of samples were non-iodized, suggesting a significant decline in daily iodine intakes. The Cambodian Micronutrient Survey conducted in 2014 (CMNS-2014) permitted obtaining national data on urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) to assess iodine status and whether iodized salt use had an impact. Urine samples were collected from mothers (n = 736) and children (n = 950). The median UIC was 63 µg/L and 72 µg/L in mothers and children respectively. More than 60% of mothers and their children had a UIC < 100 µg/L, thereby indicating a serious public health problem. Iodine status was significantly lower among mothers and children living in rural areas, belonging to the poorest socioeconomic category, or living in a household not using iodized salt. The limited enforcement of the legislation for iodized salt has resulted in a major decrease in the prevalence of iodized salt, which in turn has compromised iodine status in Cambodia. It is essential for the government to enhance enforcement of the iodized salt legislation, and implement short term strategies, such as iodine supplementation, to prevent an increase of severe complications due to iodine deficiency in the Cambodian population. PMID:27058551

  4. Low Urinary Iodine Concentration among Mothers and Children in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Laillou, Arnaud; Sophonneary, Prak; Kuong, Khov; Hong, Rathavuth; Un, Samoeurn; Chamnan, Chhoun; Poirot, Etienne; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank

    2016-01-01

    A 2014 national assessment of salt iodization coverage in Cambodia found that 62% of samples were non-iodized, suggesting a significant decline in daily iodine intakes. The Cambodian Micronutrient Survey conducted in 2014 (CMNS-2014) permitted obtaining national data on urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) to assess iodine status and whether iodized salt use had an impact. Urine samples were collected from mothers (n = 736) and children (n = 950). The median UIC was 63 µg/L and 72 µg/L in mothers and children respectively. More than 60% of mothers and their children had a UIC < 100 µg/L, thereby indicating a serious public health problem. Iodine status was significantly lower among mothers and children living in rural areas, belonging to the poorest socioeconomic category, or living in a household not using iodized salt. The limited enforcement of the legislation for iodized salt has resulted in a major decrease in the prevalence of iodized salt, which in turn has compromised iodine status in Cambodia. It is essential for the government to enhance enforcement of the iodized salt legislation, and implement short term strategies, such as iodine supplementation, to prevent an increase of severe complications due to iodine deficiency in the Cambodian population. PMID:27058551

  5. Spatial variability of drinking water iodine in Denmark: implications for future policy making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voutchkova, Denitza; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Kristiansen, Søren; Hansen, Birgitte

    2014-05-01

    The iodine-an essential component of human thyroid hormones-is provided to our organisms naturally from the food and water and/or is added artificially to the diet. One of the major natural contributors to the dietary iodine intake in Denmark is the drinking water. Both insufficient or excessive iodine intake can cause health problems however the attention falls mainly on the iodine deficiency (ID). Denmark is classified to have mild ID, which is based on sub-national data only. On a bigger scale, in Europe, about 40% of the general population is estimated to suffer from insufficient iodine intake (based on recent update on the iodine status worldwide). A mandatory addition of iodine to the salt was introduced in 2001 in Denmark to address the population's mild deficiency. One of the components of the Danish monitoring program investigating the effect of the salt iodizing (DanThyr) was based on the geographical variation of drinking water iodine levels. More specifically, the location of the two DanThyr cohort studies was chosen to reflect the low concentrations in the western part of Denmark and higher concentration in the eastern part. However, the knowledge about the spatial variability of iodine in Danish ground- and drinking water at that time was quite limited and misrepresentation of the natural variability is suspected. The presented sampling campaign was completed in 2013, and includes 144 waterworks with annual abstraction of about 175 mio m3 groundwater (~45% of the total groundwater abstraction by all active public and private Danish waterworks). The results show a surprisingly complex spatial pattern concerning both the iodine concentrations and speciation. By estimating the dietary iodine intake from water and comparing it to the WHO recommendations, it becomes possible to recognize potentially deficient/excessive geographical areas. Moreover, it is demonstrated that drinking water iodine levels (major dietary iodine contributor in Denmark) can be

  6. Radioactive iodine uptake

    MedlinePlus

    ... the testing center so that the amount of radioactivity in the thyroid gland can be measured. This ... The amount of radioactivity is very small, and there have been no documented side effects. The amount of iodine used is less than ...

  7. Iodine Clock Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a combination of solutions that can be used in the study of kinetics using the iodine clock reaction. The combination slows down degradation of the prepared solutions and can be used successfully for several weeks. (JRH)

  8. Radioactive iodine uptake

    MedlinePlus

    ... uptake may be due to: Factitious hyperthyroidism Iodine overload Subacute thyroiditis Silent (or painless) thyroiditis Amiodarone Risks ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A. ...

  9. Iodine Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).

  10. Iodine supplementation during pregnancy: a public health challenge.

    PubMed

    Berbel, Pere; Obregón, María Jesús; Bernal, Juan; Escobar del Rey, Francisco; Morreale de Escobar, Gabriella

    2007-11-01

    Iodine deficiency remains the most frequent cause worldwide, after starvation, of preventable mental retardation in children. It causes maternal hypothyroxinemia, which affects pregnant women even in apparently iodine-sufficient areas, and often goes unnoticed because L-thyroxine (T4) levels remain within the normal range, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is not increased. Even a mild hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy increases the risk of neurodevelopmental abnormalities, and experimental data clearly demonstrate that it damages the cortical cytoarchitecture of the fetal brain. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) recommends a supplement of 150 microg iodine/day during pregnancy and lactation, in addition to the use of iodized salt. We discuss the importance of iodine supplementation to ensure adequate T4 levels in all women who are considering conception and throughout pregnancy and lactation. PMID:17962037

  11. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India

    PubMed Central

    Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

  12. Work of the Polish Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, and the model of iodine prophylaxis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szybiński, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    The Polish Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (PCCIDD) was established in 1991 in Krakow at the Chair and Dept. of Endocrinology, Jagiellonian University, Collegium Medicum, following the example of the International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD) in Charlottesville, USA. The PCCIDD co-operates with the European Co-ordinating Centre in Pisa, Italy. The PCCIDD comprises a group of experts in endocrinology, iodine prophylaxis, the technology of salt and food iodisation, and Polish representatives of several organisations: WHO, UNICEF, the Polish Consumers Federation, and the Spokesman for Children's Rights. The strategic goal of the Polish Council is to solve the problem of iodine deficiency in Poland realising the Programme for Elimination of Iodine Deficiency financed by the Ministry of Health. The Polish model of iodine prophylaxis contains obligatory iodisation of household salt (20-40 mg KI/1 kg) and neonates' formula (10 μg/100 mL of milk), and additional supplementation for pregnant and breastfeeding women with 150-200 μg of iodine as pharmacotherapy. The model is very effective: endemic goitre in schoolchildren has been eradicated, the prevalence of goitre in pregnant women has fallen from 80% to 19%, the frequency of transient hypothyroidism in neonates has dropped from 2.0% to 0.16%, and the observed increase of incidence rate of thyroid cancer in women over 40 years old has diminished markedly. In 2008, a WHO Collaborating Centre (WHOCC) for Nutrition was designated at the Department of Endocrinology, UJCM in Krakow. The main goal of the WHOCC is to sustain effective iodine prophylaxis in Poland in the light of the latest WHO recommendations on the necessary reduction of daily salt intake as a risk factor for hypertension and arteriosclerosis. Therefore, additional standardised carriers of iodine (milk, mineral water) have been introduced into the food market. PMID:22538756

  13. [Reference values of iron, iodine, zinc, selenium, copper, molybdenum, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, carotenoids and polyphenols for the Venezuelan population].

    PubMed

    García-Casal, Maria Nieves; Landaeta, Maritza; Adrianza de Baptista, Gertrudis; Murillo, Carolain; Rincón, Mariela; Bou Rached, Lizet; Bilbao, Arantza; Anderson, Hazel; García, Doris; Franquiz, Julia; Puche, Rafael; Garcia, Omar; Quintero, Yurimay; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2013-12-01

    The review on iron, iodine, zinc, selenium, copper, molybdenum, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, carotenoids and polyphenols recommendations for Venezuela comprise the definitions adopted worldwide known as Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) that include Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Adequate Intake (AI) and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL). The RDA for iron: 11 mg/day for infants < 1 year of age, 7-10 mg/day for children, 8-11 mg/day for males, 8-18 mg/day for females and 27 mg/day during pregnancy. RDA for iodine: 110-130 microg/day for infants, 90-120 microg/ day for children and adolescents, 150 microg/day for adults, 220 microg/ day for pregnancy and 290 microg/day during lactation. RDA Zinc: 2-3 mg/day for infants, 3-5 mg/day for children, 8-11 mg/day for male adolescents and adults, 8-9 mg/day for female adolescents and adults, 12 mg/day during pregnancy and 13 mg/day for lactation. RDA Vitamin C: 40-50 mg/day for infants, 15-45 mg/ day for children, 75 mg/day for male adolescents, 65 mg/day for female adolescents, 90 mg/day for adult males, 75 mg/day for adult females, 80-85 mg/day during pregnancy and 115-120 mg/day during lactation. Recommendations for copper, selenium, molybdenum, vitamins E, K, carotenoids and polyphenols are also presented. These recommendations will help to design adequate and efficient policies that could help to avoid or to treat the consequences derived from the deficiency or the excess of these nutrients. PMID:25924465

  14. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular act or omission has occurred. Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235); 20 U.S.C. 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec....

  15. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  16. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  17. HWVP Iodine Trap Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Leland L.; Scheele, Randall D.

    2004-09-24

    This report details our assessment of the chemistry of the planned Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) off-gas system and its impact on the applicability of known iodine removal and control methods. To predict the gaseous species in the off-gas system, we completed thermodynamic calculations to determine theoretical equilibrium concentrations of the various potential chemical species. In addition, we found that HWVP pilot-plant experiments were generally consistent with the known chemistry of the individual elements present in the off gas. Of the known trapping techniques for radioiodine, caustic scrubbing and silver-containing sorbents are, in our opinion, the most attractive methods to reduce the iodine concentration in the HWVP melter off gas (MOG) after it has passed through the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. These two methods were selected because they (1) have demonstrated retention factors (RFs), ratio of amount in and amount out, of 10 to 1000, which would be sufficient to reduce the iodine concentration in the MOG to below regulatory limits; (2) are simple to apply; (3) are resistant to oxidizing gases such as NOx; (4) do not employ highly hazardous or highly corrosive agents; (5) require containment vessels constructed or common materials; (6) have received extensive laboratory development; (7) and the radioactive wastes produced should be easy to handle. On the basis of iodine trapping efficiency, simplicity of operation, and waste management, silver sorbents are superior to caustic scrubbing, and, or these sorbents, we prefer the silver zeolites. No method has been fully demonstrated, from laboratory-scale through pilot-plant testing, to be an effective iodine trap at the low iodine concentration (2 x 10-11 mol I/L) expected in the MOG of the HWVP in the presence of the other gaseous off gas components. In terms of compatibility of the trapping technology with the components in the MOG, there is some question about the resistance of

  18. Development of Standard Reference Materials to support assessment of iodine status for nutritional and public health purposes.

    PubMed

    Long, Stephen E; Catron, Brittany L; Boggs, Ashley Sp; Tai, Susan Sc; Wise, Stephen A

    2016-09-01

    The use of urinary iodine as an indicator of iodine status relies in part on the accuracy of the analytical measurement of iodine in urine. Likewise, the use of dietary iodine intake as an indicator of iodine status relies in part on the accuracy of the analytical measurement of iodine in dietary sources, including foods and dietary supplements. Similarly, the use of specific serum biomarkers of thyroid function to screen for both iodine deficiency and iodine excess relies in part on the accuracy of the analytical measurement of those biomarkers. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has been working with the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements for several years to develop higher-order reference measurement procedures and Standard Reference Materials to support the validation of new routine analytical methods for iodine in foods and dietary supplements, for urinary iodine, and for several serum biomarkers of thyroid function including thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin, total and free thyroxine, and total and free triiodothyronine. These materials and methods have the potential to improve the assessment of iodine status and thyroid function in observational studies and clinical trials, thereby promoting public health efforts related to iodine nutrition. PMID:27534629

  19. Dietary exposure and trends of exposure to nutrient elements iodine, iron, selenium and sodium from the 2003-4 New Zealand Total Diet Survey.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Barbara M; Vannoort, Richard W; Haslemore, Roger M

    2008-03-01

    The mean dietary exposure to the nutrient elements iodine, Fe, Se and Na by eight age-sex groups of the New Zealand population was estimated from foods purchased and prepared as for consumption. A total of 968 samples comprising 121 foods were collected and analysed. Mean daily exposures were calculated from mean concentration levels of the selected nutrients in each food combined with simulated diets for a 25+-year-old male and female, a 19-24-year-old male, a 11-14-year-old boy and girl, a 5-6-year-old child, a 1-3-year-old toddler and a 6-12-month-old infant. Food concentrations and dietary exposures are reported and compared with nutrient reference values (for example, recommended daily intakes, adequate intakes or upper limits). Dietary iodine exposures for all age-sex groups were well below recommended levels and have steadily decreased since 1982, raising concern especially for the physical and mental development of infants and young children. Fe exposures meet the recommended daily intake for the average male and 11-14 year olds but are only about half that recommended for adult females. Se exposure is about 20 % less than optimal for females. Na exposures, excluding discretionary salt, are above the acceptable exposure level for all age-sex groups, and exceed the upper intake limits for 25+-year-old males, 19-24-year-old young males, and 11-14-year-old boys and girls by up to 125 % for an average consumer. PMID:17925056

  20. Thyroglobulin as a Biomarker of Iodine Deficiency: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zheng Feei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thyroglobulin, produced exclusively by the thyroid gland, has been proposed to be a more sensitive biomarker of iodine status than thyrotropin or the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine and thyroxine. However, evidence on the usefulness of thyroglobulin (Tg) to assess iodine status has not been extensively reviewed, particularly in pregnant women and adults. Summary: An electronic literature search was conducted using the Cochrane CENTRAL, Web of Science, PubMed, and Medline to locate relevant studies on Tg as a biomarker of iodine status. Since urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is the recommended method to assess iodine status in populations, only studies that clearly reported both Tg and UIC were included. For the purpose of this review, a median Tg <13 μg/L and a median UIC ≥100 μg/L (UIC ≥150 μg/L for pregnant women) were used to indicate adequate iodine status. We excluded studies conducted in subjects with either known thyroid disease or those with thyroglobulin antibodies. The search strategy and selection criteria yielded 34 articles of which nine were intervention studies. The majority of studies (six of eight) reported that iodine-deficient pregnant women had a median Tg ≥13 μg/L. However, large observational studies of pregnant women, including women with adequate and inadequate iodine status, as well as well-designed intervention trials that include both Tg and UIC, are needed. In adults, the results were equivocal because iodine-deficient adults were reported to have median Tg values of either <13 or ≥13 μg/L. Only studies in school-aged children showed that iodine-sufficient children typically had a median Tg <13 μg/L. Some of the inconsistent results may be partially explained by the use of different methodological assays and failure to assess assay accuracy using a certified reference material. Conclusions: These data suggest that Tg does hold promise as a biomarker of iodine deficiency. However, it is associated

  1. Iodine deficiency disorders in Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Delange, F.; Bürgi, H.

    1989-01-01

    Recent data on iodine excretion in the urine of adults, adolescents and newborns and on the iodine content of breast milk indicate a high prevalence of iodine deficiency (moderate in many cases and severe in a few) in many European countries. These cases may manifest as subclinical hypothyroidism in neonates and as goitre in adolescents and adults. Lack of iodine causes not only goitre, but also mental deficiency, hearing loss and other neurological impairments, and short stature due to thyroid insufficiency during fetal development and childhood. Although iodinated salt is available theoretically in most countries where it is needed, its quality and share of the market are often unsatisfactory. In many countries where only household salt is iodinated the iodine content has been set too low owing to an overestimation of household salt consumption. Governments are therefore urged to pass legislation and provide means for efficient iodination of salt wherever this is necessary. PMID:2670299

  2. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  3. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  4. Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Cristiane Franco; da Silveira, Carla Rosane; Beghetto, Mariur; de Mello, Paula Daniel; de Mello, Elza Daniel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake. METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg) or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg), parametric and nonparametric tests were used. RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg) and only 25 students (11.7%) had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ≥3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence. PMID:25119753

  5. Effect of dietary iodine on production of iodine enriched eggs

    PubMed Central

    Sumaiya, Shaikh; Nayak, Sunil; Baghel, R. P. S.; Nayak, Anju; Malapure, C. D.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of iodine supplementation on iodine content of eggs in laying hens. Materials and Methods: In the experiment, 135 laying hens (White Leghorn) of 55 weeks age were randomly distributed to 5 dietary treatments; each group contained 27 laying hens distributed in three replicates of 9 birds each. Diet T1 was control basal layer diet without iodine enrichment in which iodine content (I2) was as per NRC recommendation. Basal diets were supplemented with calcium iodate (Ca (IO3)2) at 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/kg in T2, T3, T4 and T5 groups, respectively. The iodine content in the calcium iodate is 65.21%, therefore, the diets T2, T3, T4 and T5 contained 3.25, 6.50, 9.75 and 13.0 ppm iodine, respectively. The laying hens were fed the respective experimental diets ad libitum during the experimental period of 10-week. The iodine content of egg yolk and albumen was analyzed at the end of 5th and 10th week of the experiment. Economics of feeding for the production of iodine enriched egg was calculated at the end of the experiment. Results: Increasing iodine levels in diet of hens from 0.45 to 13.0 ppm significantly increased egg iodine concentration, the highest concentration of egg iodine was observed in the group fed diet supplemented with 13.0 ppm iodine followed by those fed 9.75, 6.50, 3.25 and 0.45 ppm iodine in diet. There was no significant difference in the iodine levels of unboiled versus boiled eggs. Therefore, the consumers are ensured to receive the optimal levels of iodine from boiled iodine-enriched eggs. Among different diets, minimum and significantly lower feeding cost (Rs. per dozen or per kg eggs) was noticed in hens allotted T3 diet (6.50 ppm I2). However, feeding cost of hens receiving 3.25 and 9.25 ppm I2 was statistically (p<0.05) similar to control group (T1). Further, it was noticed that feeding cost (Rs. per dozen or per kg eggs) was significantly increased due to the inclusion

  6. [Improving the human iodine supply by iodination of swine feed].

    PubMed

    Rambeck, W A; Kaufmann, S; Feng, J; Hollwich, W; Arnold, R

    1997-07-01

    Germany and several other countries are areas of severe iodine deficiency. In addition to iodized salt additional strategies to fight iodine deficiency exist. A promising possibility is the supplementation of feed with iodine, in order to increase its content in food of animal origin. In a feeding experiment 24 male castrated and female piglets of the cross breed Deutsche Landrasse x Pietrain were fed a high iodine supplemented diet. At a body weight of 100 kg the animals were slaughtered and the effect of the iodine supplementation on iodine content in the organs was studied. Animals receiving 30 mg iodine/kg feed showed significantly higher iodine contents in muscle, heart, kidney, liver, serum, fat and in the thyroidea than animals receiving no iodine supplementation. The iodine content in muscle and organs increased by a factor three to seven. Concerning meat quality and other slaughter parameters there was no difference between the two groups. This demonstrates that this strategy is in addition to iodized salt a possibility to reduce iodine deficiency. PMID:9312888

  7. The perinatal thyroid in iodine deficient regions: risks of radioiodines--hazards of stable iodine overload. A study in the newborn rat.

    PubMed

    Hindié, E; Walker, F; Petiet, A; Bourahla, K; Galle, P; Colas-Linhart, N

    2001-05-01

    Administration of large quantities of stable iodine is an effective means of reducing the radiation burden on the thyroid in the event of a nuclear power-plant accident. Such administration may involve countries with low baseline dietary iodine intake. It is questioned whether stable iodine overload is safe, and in particular, what are its effects in newborn infants? Iodine-deficient newborn rats were submitted to a single acute administration of stable iodine (100 microg) on the second day of life. The effects on thyroid structure were studied, after 24 hr and after 7 days, using light microscopy. Compared to controls, the thyroids of animals submitted to stable iodine overload showed, 7 days after treatment, signs of acute toxicity including marked desquamation of epithelial cells and rupture of a large number of thyroid follicles. Our findings in iodine deficient newborn rats suggest that stable iodine overload may have side effects during perinatal life. This prophylactic measure should, therefore, be accompanied by follow-up of thyroid function. Thyroid hormones are critical for brain development, during the first period of life. PMID:11441946

  8. Effect of iodine supplementation during pregnancy on infant neurodevelopment at 1 year of age.

    PubMed

    Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Estarlich, Marisa; Plaza, Belén; Barona-Vilar, Carmen; Espada, Mercedes; Vioque, Jesús; Ballester, Ferran

    2011-04-01

    Iodine is the main constituent of thyroid hormones, which in turn are required for fetal brain development. However, the relation between iodine intake during pregnancy, thyroid function, and child neurodevelopment needs further evaluation. The authors assessed the association of maternal iodine intake from diet and supplements during pregnancy and of maternal and neonatal thyroid function with infant neurodevelopment. The Mental Development Index and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) for 691 children were obtained between 2005 and 2007 using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at age 1 year in a prebirth cohort in Valencia, Spain. In multivariate analyses, a maternal thyrotropin level >4 μU/mL was associated with an increased risk of a PDI <85 (odds ratio = 3.5, P = 0.02). Maternal intake of ≥150 μg/day, compared with <100 μg/day, of iodine from supplements was associated with a 5.2-point decrease in PDI (95% confidence interval: -8.1, -2.2) and a 1.8-fold increase in the odds of a PDI <85 (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 3.3). When analyses were stratified by sex, this association was intensified for girls but was not observed for boys. Further evidence on the safety and effectiveness of iodine supplementation during pregnancy is needed before it is systematically recommended in iodine-sufficient or mildly deficient areas. PMID:21385833

  9. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  10. Iodine Status of New Zealand Elderly Residents in Long-Term Residential Care.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jody C; MacDonell, Sue O; Gray, Andrew R; Reid, Malcolm R; Barr, David J; Thomson, Christine D; Houghton, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    In response to the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in New Zealand, in 2009 the government mandated that all commercially made breads be fortified with iodized salt. There has been no evaluation of the impact of the program on iodine status of the elderly, despite this population group being vulnerable to iodine deficiency or excess. The aim of this study was to describe the iodine status of elderly New Zealanders in residential aged-care homes following the implementation of the bread fortification program. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, involving 309 residents (median age 85 years) from 16 aged-care homes throughout NZ. Information on socio-demographic, anthropometric, dietary and health characteristics were collected. Casual spot urine samples were analysed for urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Blood samples were analysed for serum thyroglobulin, thyroglobulin antibodies, and other biochemical indices. The median UIC (MUIC) of the residents was 72 μg/L, indicating mild iodine deficiency, and 29% had a UIC < 50 μg/L. Median thyroglobulin concentration was 18 ng/mL and 26% had elevated thyroglobulin concentration (>40 ng/mL), suggesting iodine insufficiency. Diuretic use was associated with lower MUIC (p = 0.043). Synthetic thyroxine use was associated with lower odds of having a UIC < 50 μg/L (OR 0.32, p = 0.030)) and lower median thyroglobulin (-15.2 ng/mL, p = 0.001), compared with untreated participants. Frailty was associated with elevated thyroglobulin (p = 0.029), whereas anemia was associated with lower thyroglobulin (p = 0.016). Iodine insufficiency persists in New Zealanders residing in residential aged-care homes despite increasing iodine intake from fortified bread. Research is required to establish optimal iodine intake and status in the elderly. PMID:27455319

  11. Iodine Status of New Zealand Elderly Residents in Long-Term Residential Care

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jody C.; MacDonell, Sue O.; Gray, Andrew R.; Reid, Malcolm R.; Barr, David J.; Thomson, Christine D.; Houghton, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    In response to the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in New Zealand, in 2009 the government mandated that all commercially made breads be fortified with iodized salt. There has been no evaluation of the impact of the program on iodine status of the elderly, despite this population group being vulnerable to iodine deficiency or excess. The aim of this study was to describe the iodine status of elderly New Zealanders in residential aged-care homes following the implementation of the bread fortification program. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, involving 309 residents (median age 85 years) from 16 aged-care homes throughout NZ. Information on socio-demographic, anthropometric, dietary and health characteristics were collected. Casual spot urine samples were analysed for urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Blood samples were analysed for serum thyroglobulin, thyroglobulin antibodies, and other biochemical indices. The median UIC (MUIC) of the residents was 72 μg/L, indicating mild iodine deficiency, and 29% had a UIC < 50 μg/L. Median thyroglobulin concentration was 18 ng/mL and 26% had elevated thyroglobulin concentration (>40 ng/mL), suggesting iodine insufficiency. Diuretic use was associated with lower MUIC (p = 0.043). Synthetic thyroxine use was associated with lower odds of having a UIC < 50 μg/L (OR 0.32, p = 0.030)) and lower median thyroglobulin (−15.2 ng/mL, p = 0.001), compared with untreated participants. Frailty was associated with elevated thyroglobulin (p = 0.029), whereas anemia was associated with lower thyroglobulin (p = 0.016). Iodine insufficiency persists in New Zealanders residing in residential aged-care homes despite increasing iodine intake from fortified bread. Research is required to establish optimal iodine intake and status in the elderly. PMID:27455319

  12. Adequate supervision for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Anderst, James; Moffatt, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Primary care providers (PCPs) have the opportunity to improve child health and well-being by addressing supervision issues before an injury or exposure has occurred and/or after an injury or exposure has occurred. Appropriate anticipatory guidance on supervision at well-child visits can improve supervision of children, and may prevent future harm. Adequate supervision varies based on the child's development and maturity, and the risks in the child's environment. Consideration should be given to issues as wide ranging as swimming pools, falls, dating violence, and social media. By considering the likelihood of harm and the severity of the potential harm, caregivers may provide adequate supervision by minimizing risks to the child while still allowing the child to take "small" risks as needed for healthy development. Caregivers should initially focus on direct (visual, auditory, and proximity) supervision of the young child. Gradually, supervision needs to be adjusted as the child develops, emphasizing a safe environment and safe social interactions, with graduated independence. PCPs may foster adequate supervision by providing concrete guidance to caregivers. In addition to preventing injury, supervision includes fostering a safe, stable, and nurturing relationship with every child. PCPs should be familiar with age/developmentally based supervision risks, adequate supervision based on those risks, characteristics of neglectful supervision based on age/development, and ways to encourage appropriate supervision throughout childhood. PMID:25369578

  13. Small Rural Schools CAN Have Adequate Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Martha

    The small rural school's foremost and largest problem is providing an adequate curriculum for students in a changing world. Often the small district cannot or is not willing to pay the per-pupil cost of curriculum specialists, specialized courses using expensive equipment no more than one period a day, and remodeled rooms to accommodate new…

  14. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  15. [Allergy to iodinated drugs and to foods rich in iodine: Iodine is not the allergenic determinant].

    PubMed

    Dewachter, Pascale; Mouton-Faivre, Claudie

    2015-11-01

    "Iodine allergy" does not exist. The concept of "iodine allergy" should be abandoned since it may result in inappropriate measures such as drug, food or environmental eviction. Immediate or non-immediate allergic hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast media is not infrequent. The corresponding allergens have not been identified. Iodine is not involved. Immediate or non-immediate allergic hypersensitivity to povidone iodine is rare. The corresponding allergen is povidone in case of immediate hypersensitivity while nonoxynol might be involved during non-immediate hypersensitivity. Seafood allergens belong to a group of muscle proteins. Immediate drug hypersensitivity or food hypersensitivity is assessed by immediate-reading skin tests while non-immediate drug hypersensitivity is investigated by delayed-reading skin testing. Combined histamine and tryptase measurement is invaluable during the diagnostic approach of immediate hypersensitivity. Other biological tests are being evaluated. Allergic hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast agents does not contraindicate the use of other iodinated drugs. PMID:26387623

  16. Screening for thyroid disease and iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Creswell J

    2012-02-01

    The high global prevalence of iodine deficiency and autoimmune thyroid disorders and the mental and physical consequences of these disorders creates a huge human and economic burden that can be prevented, in large part, by early detection and appropriate preventative or therapeutic measures. The availability of sophisticated, sensitive and accurate laboratory testing procedures provides an efficient and effective platform for the application of screening for these disorders. Measurement of urine iodine concentration (UIC) in school children or pregnant women is the recommended indicator for screening populations for iodine deficiency. The severity of the iodine deficiency is classified according to the UIC. Measurement of serum thyrotropin (TSH) as an indicator for population iodine deficiency is used only in neonates and is supplementary to UIC screening. Other indicators such as goitre rates, thyroid function and serum thyroglobulin levels are useful adjunctive but not frontline process indicators. The human and economic benefits of screening for congenital hypothyroidism by measurement of heel-prick TSH have been well documented and justify its universal application. Using this measurement for monitoring population iodine intake is recommended by the World Health Organization but further validation is required before it can be universally recommended. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is readily detected by current highly sensitive serum TSH assays and its prevalence appears to increase with age, varies with iodine intake and ethnicity and may occur in up to 20% of older age people. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is the less common disorder and screening cannot be justified because of its low prevalence and minimal or insignificant clinical effects. The argument for screening for subclinical hypothyroidism in middle-aged and older women is stronger but lacks evidence of benefit from randomised controlled trials or cost benefit analyses of therapeutic intervention, so

  17. Iodine addition using triiodide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Muckle, Susan V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    The study develops: a triiodide solution for use in preparing ground service equipment (GSE) water for Shuttle support, an iodine dissolution method that is reliable and requires minimal time and effort to prepare, and an iodine dissolution agent with a minimal concentration of sodium salt. Sodium iodide and hydriodic acid were both found to dissolve iodine to attain the desired GSE iodine concentrations of 7.5 +/- 2.5 mg/L and 25 +/- 5 mg/L. The 1.75:1 and 2:1 sodium iodide solutions produced higher iodine recoveries than the 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution. A two-hour preparation time is required for the three sodium iodide solutions. The 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution can be prepared in less than 5 min. Two sodium iodide stock solutions (2.5:1 and 2:1) were found to dissolve iodine without undergoing precipitation.

  18. Dietary Iodine Sufficiency and Moderate Insufficiency in the Lactating Mother and Nursing Infant: A Computational Perspective.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W; Wang, Jian; George, Nysia I; Gearhart, Jeffery M; McLanahan, Eva D

    2016-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends that lactating women ingest 290 μg iodide/d and a nursing infant, less than two years of age, 110 μg/d. The World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders recommend population maternal and infant urinary iodide concentrations ≥ 100 μg/L to ensure iodide sufficiency. For breast milk, researchers have proposed an iodide concentration range of 150-180 μg/L indicates iodide sufficiency for the mother and infant, however no national or international guidelines exist for breast milk iodine concentration. For the first time, a lactating woman and nursing infant biologically based model, from delivery to 90 days postpartum, was constructed to predict maternal and infant urinary iodide concentration, breast milk iodide concentration, the amount of iodide transferred in breast milk to the nursing infant each day and maternal and infant serum thyroid hormone kinetics. The maternal and infant models each consisted of three sub-models, iodide, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). Using our model to simulate a maternal intake of 290 μg iodide/d, the average daily amount of iodide ingested by the nursing infant, after 4 days of life, gradually increased from 50 to 101 μg/day over 90 days postpartum. The predicted average lactating mother and infant urinary iodide concentrations were both in excess of 100 μg/L and the predicted average breast milk iodide concentration, 157 μg/L. The predicted serum thyroid hormones (T4, free T4 (fT4), and T3) in both the nursing infant and lactating mother were indicative of euthyroidism. The model was calibrated using serum thyroid hormone concentrations for lactating women from the United States and was successful in predicting serum T4 and fT4 levels (within a factor of two) for lactating women in other countries. T3 levels were adequately predicted. Infant serum thyroid hormone levels were adequately

  19. Dietary Iodine Sufficiency and Moderate Insufficiency in the Lactating Mother and Nursing Infant: A Computational Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, W.; Wang, Jian; George, Nysia I.; Gearhart, Jeffery M.; McLanahan, Eva D.

    2016-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends that lactating women ingest 290 μg iodide/d and a nursing infant, less than two years of age, 110 μg/d. The World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund, and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders recommend population maternal and infant urinary iodide concentrations ≥ 100 μg/L to ensure iodide sufficiency. For breast milk, researchers have proposed an iodide concentration range of 150–180 μg/L indicates iodide sufficiency for the mother and infant, however no national or international guidelines exist for breast milk iodine concentration. For the first time, a lactating woman and nursing infant biologically based model, from delivery to 90 days postpartum, was constructed to predict maternal and infant urinary iodide concentration, breast milk iodide concentration, the amount of iodide transferred in breast milk to the nursing infant each day and maternal and infant serum thyroid hormone kinetics. The maternal and infant models each consisted of three sub-models, iodide, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). Using our model to simulate a maternal intake of 290 μg iodide/d, the average daily amount of iodide ingested by the nursing infant, after 4 days of life, gradually increased from 50 to 101 μg/day over 90 days postpartum. The predicted average lactating mother and infant urinary iodide concentrations were both in excess of 100 μg/L and the predicted average breast milk iodide concentration, 157 μg/L. The predicted serum thyroid hormones (T4, free T4 (fT4), and T3) in both the nursing infant and lactating mother were indicative of euthyroidism. The model was calibrated using serum thyroid hormone concentrations for lactating women from the United States and was successful in predicting serum T4 and fT4 levels (within a factor of two) for lactating women in other countries. T3 levels were adequately predicted. Infant serum thyroid hormone levels were adequately

  20. Consequences of bacterial resistance to disinfection by iodine in potable water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfeters, Gordon A.; Pyle, Barry H.

    1987-01-01

    This study was done to quantify the sensitivity of bacteria to iodine under controlled laboratory conditions. When exposed to 1 mg/1 I2 for 1 min, bacteria isolated from the Shuttle were more resistant than a P. aeruginosa isolated from a povidine-iodine solution. Cultures grown in rich media were more sensitive than those grown in low nutrient solutions. The P. aeruginosa and a P. cepacia isolated from the Shuttle were resuspended in PBW after exposure to iodine. Iodinated cells recovered better than uniodinated controls. Pseudomonads in biofilms developed on coupons of stainless steel were more resistant to iodine than cells suspended in buffered water. Although resistant bacteria may colonize spacecraft water systems, multiple treatment barriers should provide adequate control of these contaminants.

  1. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  2. Protein intake and bone health.

    PubMed

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe

    2011-03-01

    Adequate nutrition plays an important role in the development and maintenance of bone structures resistant to usual mechanical stresses. In addition to calcium in the presence of an adequate supply of vitamin D, dietary proteins represent key nutrients for bone health and thereby function in the prevention of osteoporosis. Several studies point to a positive effect of high protein intake on bone mineral density or content. This fact is associated with a significant reduction in hip fracture incidence, as recorded in a large prospective study carried out in a homogeneous cohort of postmenopausal women. Low protein intake (< 0.8 g/kg body weight/day) is often observed in patients with hip fractures and an intervention study indicates that following orthopedic management, protein supplementation attenuates post-fracture bone loss, tends to increase muscle strength, and reduces medical complications and rehabilitation hospital stay. There is no evidence that high protein intake per se would be detrimental for bone mass and strength. Nevertheless, it appears reasonable to avoid very high protein diets (i. e. more than 2.0 g/kg body weight/day) when associated with low calcium intake (i. e. less than 600 mg/day). In the elderly, taking into account the attenuated anabolic response to dietary protein with ageing, there is concern that the current dietary protein recommended allowance (RDA), as set at 0.8 g/kg body weight/day, might be too low for the primary and secondary prevention of fragility fractures. PMID:22139564

  3. Prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders among school children in Saudi Arabia: results of a national iodine nutrition study.

    PubMed

    Al-Dakheel, M H; Haridi, H K; Al-Bashir, B M; Al-Shingiti, A; Al-Shehri, S; Gassem, M A; Hussein, I

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at establishing updated data on iodine nutrition among schoolchildren in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional cluster survey among schoolchildren aged 8-10 years was conducted during February-April 2012. Children were clinically examined for goitre, urine and household salt samples were collected to estimate urinary iodine concenteration (UIC) and iodine content in salt. The overall goitre prevalence at the national level among 4 016 children was 4.2%. The prevalence was < 5% in all regions of the country except southern region with a prevalence of 12.7%. The median UIC of 2224 samples was 133 μg/L, with 74.3% of the surveyed children with UIC ≥ 100 μg/L. Analysis of salt samples (n = 4242) revealed that 69.8% of households were consuming adequately iodized salt. The findings suggest iodine sufficiency at the national level, however southern region still has a goitre prevalence of mild degree severity and the proportion of households consuming adequately iodized salt is still below recommendations. PMID:27553396

  4. Carbohydrate intake.

    PubMed

    Leturque, Armelle; Brot-Laroche, Edith; Le Gall, Maude

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates represent more than 50% of the energy sources present in most human diets. Sugar intake is regulated by metabolic, neuronal, and hedonic factors, and gene polymorphisms are involved in determining sugar preference. Nutrigenomic adaptations to carbohydrate availability have been evidenced in metabolic diseases, in the persistence of lactose digestion, and in amylase gene copy number. Furthermore, dietary oligosaccharides, fermentable by gut flora, can modulate the microbiotal diversity to the benefit of the host. Genetic diseases linked to mutations in the disaccharidase genes (sucrase-isomaltase, lactase) and in sugar transporter genes (sodium/glucose cotransporter 1, glucose transporters 1 and 2) severely impact carbohydrate intake. These diseases are revealed upon exposure to food containing the offending sugar, and withdrawal of this sugar from the diet prevents disease symptoms, failure to thrive, and premature death. Tailoring the sugar composition of diets to optimize wellness and to prevent the chronic occurrence of metabolic diseases is a future goal that may yet be realized through continued development of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics approaches. PMID:22656375

  5. Effect of Thiocyanate on Iodine Status of Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Bivolarska, Anelia; Gatseva, Penka; Nikolova, Julia; Argirova, Mariana; Atanasova, Victoria

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the thyroid status of pregnant women on the basis of biochemical indicators and to evaluate the potential risk of developing iodine deficiency as a result of tobacco smoke exposure by assessing the association between urinary thiocyanate levels and the manifestation of iodine deficiency. The study included 219 pregnant women from the town of Plovdiv and Plovdiv District in Southern Bulgaria. The levels of urinary iodine, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and urinary thiocyanate as indicators of tobacco smoke exposure were measured. Most of the pregnant women (60.1 %) were found to have iodine deficiency, 10.6 % of them had TSH values greater than 4 mIU/L, and 16.4 % had FT4 below 9 pmol/L. There were negative correlations between urinary iodine levels and thiocyanate/creatinine ratio (R = -0.148, р = 0.034) and between thiocyanate/creatinine ratio and FT4 (R = -0.379, p < 0.0001); thiocyanate/creatinine ratio and serum TSH were positively correlated (R = 0.169, p = 0.019). Logistic regression analysis showed that pregnant women in whom the thiocyanate/creatinine ratio was greater than the median value of 3.57 mg/g had a 3.882-fold higher risk of developing iodine deficiency (urinary iodine <150 μg/L) than the pregnant women with lower thiocyanate levels (OR = 3.882, 95 % CI 1.402-10.751, p = 0.009). Higher levels of urinary thiocyanate were found in women exposed to tobacco smoke, and quantification of these ions in urine provided a fast non-invasive method to monitor thiocyanate load. Due to the competitive inhibition of iodine intake by thiocyanates, their levels should be carefully monitored, especially in cases of severe iodine deficiency. PMID:26676231

  6. Low Urinary Iodine Concentrations Associated with Dyslipidemia in US Adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-03-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormone which plays crucial roles in healthy thyroid function and lipid metabolism. However, the association between iodine status and dyslipidemia has not been well established at a population level. We aimed to test the hypothesis that the odds of dyslipidemia including elevated total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein B, and lowered high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and HDL/LDL ratio are associated with urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in a population perspective. Data of 2495 US adults (≥20 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2012 were used in this study. Two subgroups (i.e., UIC below vs. above the 10th percentile) were compared of dyslipidemia as defined based on NCEP ATP III guidelines. The differences between the groups were tested statistically by chi-square test, simple linear regressions, and multiple logistic regressions. Serum lipid concentrations differed significantly between two iodine status groups when sociodemographic and lifestyle covariates were controlled (all, p < 0.05). Those with the lowest decile of UIC were more likely to be at risk for elevated total cholesterol (>200 mg/dL) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-2.23) and elevated LDL cholesterol (>130 mg/dL) (AOR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.11-2.23) and lowered HDL/LDL ratio (<0.4) (AOR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.18-2.33), compared to those with UIC above the 10th percentile. In US adults, low UIC was associated with increased odds for dyslipidemia. Findings of the present cross-sectional study with spot urine samples highlight the significant association between UIC and serum lipids at population level, but do not substantiate a causal relationship. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the causal relationship among iodine intakes, iodine status, and serum lipid profiles. PMID:26999198

  7. Iodine-Catalyzed Polysaccharide Esterification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review is provided of the recent reports to use iodine-catalyzed esterification reaction to produce esters from polysaccharides. The process entails reaction of the polysaccharide with an acid anhydride in the presence of a catalytic level of iodine, and in the absence of additional solvents. T...

  8. Hypothyroidism following iodine-131 therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, M.T.

    1982-02-01

    A teaching editorial dealing with the hypothyroidism side effect of Iodine-131 radiotherapy is presented. The author reviews two articles in this issue of the Journal of Nuclear Medicine on the subject, discusses Graves' disease, Iodine 125 radiotherapy, and the patient-physician relationship when dealing with the problem. (JMT)

  9. Prevalence of goitre and urinary iodine status of primary-school children in Lesotho.

    PubMed Central

    Sebotsa, Masekonyela Linono Damane; Dannhauser, Andre; Jooste, Pieter L.; Joubert, Gina

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of goitre, urinary iodine status, coverage of supplementation of iodized oil capsules, and current use of iodized salt in children in Lesotho. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of children from 50 primary schools in Lesotho. Thyroid glands of children aged 8-12 years were measured by palpation and graded according to the WHO, UNICEF, and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency's (ICCIDD) joint criteria. The use of iodized oil capsules was determined by a structured questionnaire and verified with the children's health booklets. Iodine content of household salt samples was analysed. Casual urine samples were analysed for urinary iodine. FINDINGS: Median urinary iodine concentrations of 26.3 microg/l (range 22.3-47.9 microg/l) indicated moderate iodine deficiency. More children in the mountains than in the lowlands were severely iodine deficient (17.7% vs 1.9%). Adjusted prevalence of goitre (4.9%) increased with age, was higher in girls than boys, and ranged from 2.2% to 8.8% in the different districts; this indicated no public health problem. Overall, 94.4% of salt samples were iodized, and coverage of supplementation with iodized oil capsules was 55.1%. CONCLUSION: Mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency exists in Lesotho. Iodine deficiency was more severe in the mountains than the lowlands and is still a concern for public health. Use of iodized salt coupled with iodized oil supplementation effectively controls iodine deficiency disorders. Effective monitoring programmes would ensure the use of adequately iodized salt throughout Lesotho and serve to evaluate progress towards optimal iodine nutrition. Iodized oil capsule supplementation should continue in the mountains. PMID:12640473

  10. Trace mineral intake from food sources of a collegiate team

    SciTech Connect

    Spillman, D.M.; Angello, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    The collegiate wrestler must maintain a delicate weight balance in order to wrestle in his optimum division. The wrestler constantly restricts dietary intake to maintain the best wrestling weight but often sacrifices good nutrition in order to do this. Twenty members of the Miami University Wrestling Team kept diaries for 3 or 5 days. These diets were analyzed for total calories, carbohydrate, fat and protein intakes as well as copper, iodine, fluoride, chromium, molybdenum, selenium, zinc and manganese. The diets averaged 55% carbohydrate, 16% protein and 29% fat. However, all of the investigated minerals were found to be consumed in low quantities. The following are averages of the mineral intake: copper-1.51 mg, iodine-79.91 ug, fluoride-601,06 ug, chromium-0.0115 mg, molybdenum-46.56 ug, selenium-0.035 mg, zinc-7.46 mg and manganese-1.36 mg. These low mineral intakes may be due to the low calorie intake of the wrestlers. A low caloric intake is typical for wrestlers and thus these low mineral intakes may also be typical.

  11. Studies in iodine metabolism. Progress report and publications, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Van Middlesworth, L

    1980-01-01

    Research programs for the years 1978-1980 is reported. The following subject areas are discussed: (1) iodine 131 monitoring in thyroids of sheep, cattle and humans; (2) radium monitoring in cattle thyroids; (3) the relationship of thyroid function to seizures in rats; (4) the effect of KSCN on thyroglobulin in mice; and (5) studies on excessive iodide intake. (ACR)

  12. [Iodine content of cattle milk from mountain and coast from Perú].

    PubMed

    Cárdenas Quintana, Haydeé; Gómez Bravo, Carlos; Pretell, Eduardo A

    2003-12-01

    With the objective to establish the cause-effect relationship between a geological area and the iodine content in cattle milk, and to estimate the contribution of milk consumption to the dietary iodine intake, the iodine content in cattle milk from the sierra and the coastal regions of Perú was determined. Milk samples were collected of cows from the three main productive zones of Perú, 62 in Cajamarca, 42 in Arequipa, both in the sierra, and 27 in Lima at the coast. The measurement of iodine was made by the method of Zak, based on the Sandell- Kolthoff reaction. The median values obtained were 24 microg/L in Cajamarca, 34 microg/L in Arequipa, and 170 microg/L in Lima. The median value in the sierra, 26 microg/L, was significantly lower than the one found in the coast. Moreover, while in the former 81% of individual values were below 50 microg/L, in the latter, on the contrary, 77% were above 80 microg/L. These results confirm that the iodine content in cattle milk is related to ecological factors. At the same time, they demonstrate that the iodine content in milk from the sierra is six times lower than in milk from the coast, and also that its consumption does not contribute significantly to satisfy the human physiological requirements of iodine in that zone. PMID:15125084

  13. The Extrathyronine Actions of Iodine as Antioxidant, Apoptotic, and Differentiation Factor in Various Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Anguiano, Brenda; Delgado, Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    Background Seaweed is an important dietary component and a rich source of iodine in several chemical forms in Asian communities. Their high consumption of this element (25 times higher than in Western countries) has been associated with the low incidence of benign and cancerous breast and prostate disease in Japanese people. Summary We review evidence showing that, in addition to being a component of the thyroid hormone, iodine can be an antioxidant as well as an antiproliferative and differentiation agent that helps to maintain the integrity of several organs with the ability to take up iodine. In animal and human studies, molecular iodine (I2) supplementation exerts a suppressive effect on the development and size of both benign and cancerous neoplasias. Investigations by several groups have demonstrated that these effects can be mediated by a variety of mechanisms and pathways, including direct actions, in which the oxidized iodine dissipates the mitochondrial membrane potential, thereby triggering mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis, and indirect effects through iodolipid formation and the activation of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors type gamma, which, in turn, trigger apoptotic or differentiation pathways. Conclusions We propose that the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficient Disorders recommend that iodine intake be increased to at least 3 mg/day of I2 in specific pathologies to obtain the potential extrathyroidal benefits described in the present review. PMID:23607319

  14. Iodine deficiency disorders in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, H K; Quazi, S; Kahn, M R; Mohiduzzaman, M; Nahar, B; Rahman, M M; Islam, M N; Khan, M A; Shahidullah, M; Hoque, T; Baquer, M; Pandav, C S

    1996-01-01

    An extensive iodine deficiency disorders survey was conducted in Bangladesh in 1993 to assess the latest iodine nutriture status of the country. The clinical variables of the survey were goitre and cretinism, and the biochemical variable was urinary iodine. The "EPI-30 cluster" sampling methodology was followed for selecting the survey sites. In each survey site, the study population consisted of boys and girls, aged 5-11 years, and men and women, aged 15-44 years, in about equal populations. The total number of survey sites was 78 and the total number of respondents was 30,072. The total number of urine samples was 4512 (15% sub-sample). The current total goitre rate (grade 1 + grade 2) in Bangladesh is 47.1% (hilly, 44.4%; flood-prone, 50.7%; and plains, 45.6%). The prevalence of cretinism in the country is 0.5% (hilly, 0.8%; flood-prone, 0.5%; and plains, 0.3%). Nearly 69% of Bangladeshi population have biochemical iodine deficiency (urinary iodine excretion [UIE] < 10 mg/dl) (hilly, 84.4; flood-prone, 67.1%; and plains 60.4%). Women and children are more affected that men, in terms of both goitre prevalence and UIE. The widespread severe iodine deficiency in all ecological zones indicates that the country as a whole is an iodine-deficient region. Important recommendations of global interest are made from the experience of the survey. PMID:10829973

  15. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise. PMID:9670174

  16. Maternal urinary iodine concentration in pregnancy and children's cognition: results from a population-based birth cohort in an iodine-sufficient area

    PubMed Central

    Ghassabian, Akhgar; Steenweg-de Graaff, Jolien; Peeters, Robin P; Ross, H Alec; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Objective Reports from populations with an insufficient iodine intake suggest that children of mothers with mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy are at risk for cognitive impairments. However, it is unknown whether, even in iodine-sufficient areas, low levels of iodine intake occur that influence cognitive development in the offspring. This study investigated the association between maternal low urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in pregnancy and children's cognition in a population-based sample from a country with an optimal iodine status (the Netherlands). Setting and participants In 1525 mother–child pairs in a Dutch multiethnic birth cohort, we investigated the relation between maternal UIC<150 μg/g creatinine, assessed <18 weeks gestation and children's cognition. Outcomes measures Non-verbal IQ and language comprehension were assessed during a visit to the research centre using Dutch test batteries when the children were 6 years. Results In total, 188 (12.3%) pregnant women had UIC<150 μg/g creatinine, with a median UIC equal to 119.3 μg/g creatinine. The median UIC in the group with UIC>150 μg/g creatinine was 322.9 μg/g and in the whole sample 296.5 μg/g creatinine. There was a univariate association between maternal low UIC and children's suboptimum non-verbal IQ (unadjusted OR=1.44, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.02). However, after adjustment for confounders, maternal low UIC was not associated with children's non-verbal IQ (adjusted OR=1.33, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.93). There was no relation between maternal UIC in early pregnancy and children's language comprehension at 6 years. Conclusions The lack of a clear association between maternal low UIC and children's cognition probably reflects that low levels of iodine were not frequent and severe enough to affect neurodevelopment. This may result from the Dutch iodine fortification policy, which allows iodised salt to be added to almost all processed food and emphasises the monitoring of iodine

  17. Statistical design considerations applicable to clinical trials of iodine supplementation in pregnant women who may be mildly iodine deficient.

    PubMed

    Troendle, James F

    2016-09-01

    No large, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of iodine supplementation in pregnant women in a region of mild or moderate iodine deficiency has been completed in which a primary outcome measure was an assessment of the neurobehavioral development of the offspring at age ≥2 y. In this article, I discuss considerations for the design of such a trial in a region of mild iodine deficiency, with a focus on statistical methods and approaches. Exposure and design issues include the ethics of using a placebo, the potential for overexposure to iodine, and the possibility of community randomization. The main scientific goal of the trial is important in determining the follow-up period. If the goal is to determine whether iodine supplementation during pregnancy improves neurobehavioral development in the offspring, then follow-up should continue until a reasonably reliable assessment can be conducted, which might be at age ≥2 y. Once the timing of assessment is decided, the impact of potential loss to follow-up should be considered so that appropriate statistical methods can be incorporated into the design. The minimum sample size can be calculated by using a sample size formula that incorporates noncompliance and assumes that a certain proportion of study participants do not have any outcome observed. To have sufficient power to detect a reasonably modest difference in neurobehavioral development scores using an assessment tool with an SD of 15, a large number of participants (>500/group) is required. The minimum adequate number of participants may be even larger (>1300/group) depending on the magnitude of the difference in outcome between the supplementation and placebo groups, the estimated proportion of the iodine-supplementation group that fails to take the supplement, and the estimated proportion of pregnancies that do not produce outcome measurements. PMID:27534639

  18. Deep Bed Iodine Sorbent Testing FY 2011 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2011-08-01

    with pure N2 to drive loosely or physisorbed iodine species off of the sorbent. Post-test calculations determine the control efficiencies for each bed, iodine loadings on the sorbent, and mass transfer zone depths. Portions of the iodine-laden sorbent from the first bed of two of the tests have been shipped to SNL for waste form studies. Over the past three years, we have explored a full range of inlet iodine and methyl iodide concentrations ranging from {approx}100 ppb to {approx}100 ppm levels, and shown adequate control efficiencies within a bed depth as shallow as 2 inches for lower concentrations and 4 inches for higher concentrations, for the AgZ-type sorbents. We are now performing a limited number of tests in the NC-77 sorbent from SNL. Then we plan to continue to (a) fill in data gaps needed for isotherms and dynamic sorbent modeling, and (b) test the performance of additional sorbents under development.

  19. Heating Process in Pasteurization and not in Sterilization Decreases the Iodine Concentration of Milk

    PubMed Central

    Nazeri, Pantea; Norouzian, Mohammad Ali; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hedayati, Mehdi; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Iodine is a vital component of the thyroid hormones and is required for normal growth, development, and tissue metabolism in humans and animals. Objectives: This study for the first time compares the effects of heating during pasteurization and sterilization on the iodine concentration of milk for an adequate provision of dietary iodine. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on multiparous Holstein Friesian lactating cows. Thirty Holstein dairy cows were fed with a diet containing 10 mg of potassium iodide (KI) per kilogram dry matter of diet. Milk samples were obtained on days 4 and 2 before and again on days 2, 4, 6, and 8 after the inclusion of KI into the total mixed ration diet of the dairy cows. The milk samples were sterilized using ultra-high temperature, following which the effect of the heating process during sterilization on the cows’ iodine concentration was compared to that in the only previous documented study from Iran in which milk supplementation with KI was the same as ours. Milk in that study was pasteurized via the high-temperature short-time method, a method which involves temperatures in excess of 73°C for durations longer than 15 seconds. Results: The inclusion of KI in the diet of the dairy cows in these 2 separate experiments increased their milk iodine levels. Pasteurization decreased the iodine content of the milk (P < 0.05), while no significant difference was observed in the iodine concentration of the sterilized milk. Conclusions: The present study showed that the iodine concentration is not decreased during the heating process in sterilization, indicating that supplemented sterilized milk could be a good alternative vehicle for dietary iodine in the prevention of iodine deficiency. PMID:26587031

  20. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Walter E.; Thompson, Clarence T.

    1977-04-12

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3-20 wt. % iodine as Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of, or under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. It relates in general to reactor waste solidification and more specifically to the immobilization of fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel for underground storage.

  1. [Iodine excess induced thyroid dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Egloff, Michael; Philippe, Jacques

    2016-04-20

    The principle sources of iodine overload, amiodarone and radiologic contrast media, are frequently used in modern medicine. The thyroid gland exerts a protective effect against iodine excess by suppressing iodine internalization into the thyrocyte and iodine organification, the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. Insufficiency of this effect or lack of escape from it leads to hypo- or hyperthyroidism respectively. Amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis is a complex condition marked by two different pathophysiological mechanisms with different treatments. Thyroid metabolism changes after exposure to radiologic contrast media are frequent, but they rarely need to be treated. High risk individuals need to be identifed in order to delay the exam or to monitor thyroid function or apply prophylactic measures in selected cases. PMID:27276725

  2. [Contribution of natural mineral water to the iodine supply of the population].

    PubMed

    Kirchner, S; Stelz, A; Muskat, E

    1996-10-01

    Most parts of Germany are iodine deficiency areas. Daily iodine intake may be increased by food with high iodine content. Therefore determination of iodine in different foodstuffs is of importance. Aim of our work was to develop a method for mineral waters. Besides, we wanted to find out to what extent natural mineral waters can contribute to the iodine supply of the population. The method is based on the reaction of the halogenids iodide and bromide with ethylene oxide in a sulfuric acid medium while converting into 2-iodo- and 2-bromoethanol. After extraction, the reaction products are determined by capillary gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The method was modified for mineral waters. Single results were confirmed by ICP-MS. For mineral waters the limits of determination are 3 micrograms/L for iodide and 42 micrograms/L for bromide. The investigation of mineral waters from Hessen showed, that only few sources contain iodide in remarkable amounts. Therefore a considerable improvement of iodide intake is possible only with single mineral waters. PMID:9123969

  3. Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A secondary aim was to characterize the study population in terms of determinants of the total fluid intake requirements. Methods A child friendly “fluids and liquid food” diary was used to prospectively record the volume and frequency of beverage consumption over 7 days from 1045 schoolchildren. This diary also recorded the practice of physical activity. An adequate fluid intake was defined as an intake ≥ 75% of the age-specific adequate intake recommended by the EFSA. Results The median (P25-P75) of habitual daily fluid intake was 864 (608–1104) ml/day, with 355 (194–579) coming from drinking water. This habitual daily fluid intake varied significantly among the three investigated EFSA groups (girls and boys aged from 8 years, girls from 9 to 13 and boys from 9 to 13), except for the drinking water (P = 0.906). The highest medians of fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and milk and derivatives were found among boys of 9–13. Only 9.5% of the children had an adequate fluid intake, with a value of 19.2% among the 8 years old girls and boys, 7.0% among girls of 9–13 and 8.4% among boys of 9–13. In the whole sample, 27.7% of the children declared to drink less than 3-4x/day, 56% drunk water less than 2x/day and 7.7% drunk no water at all. Every day, 27.1% and 34.1% of the children drank respectively one fruit juice and one sugar-sweetened beverage. Conclusion Belgian schoolchildren have an inadequate total fluid intake. Given the potential health

  4. [Physiopathology of iodine deficiency].

    PubMed

    Pinchera, A; Rago, T; Vitti, P

    1998-01-01

    The process of goitrogenesis is likely to be the consequence of an increased TSH stimulation linked to an initial reduction of circulating thyroid hormone caused by iodine deficiency (ID). Other growth factors associated to TSH may have a role in the pathogenesis of goiter. Natural history of goiter is the evolution towards nodularity and functional autonomy. This phenomenon is due to the heterogeneity of thyroid follicular cells, some of which, with an intrinsic elevated growth rate, under the stimulation of ID progress to nodule formation and hyperfunction. In multinodular goiter TSH receptor mutations activating adenylate cyclase-cAMP pathway were found. In a recent epidemiological survey it was shown that nodular goiter increased with the age, being about 1% in schoolchildren and 23% in the adults (56-75 years). Also nodular autonomy and hyperthyroidism were more frequent in the 36-75 year age group. Severe ID is also cause of endemic cretinism. In Europe minor neuropsychological impairments and cognitive deficits were described in areas of moderate ID. The exposure to a mild ID during fetal life causes minor neuropsychological damage. In conclusion, ID is responsible of goiter and its evolution towards nodularity and functional autonomy. Severe ID is also cause of endemic cretinism, while cognitive deficits and minor neuropsychological impairments were found in mild to moderate ID. PMID:10052165

  5. High-Performance Water-Iodinating Cartridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard; Gibbons, Randall E.; Flanagan, David T.

    1993-01-01

    High-performance cartridge contains bed of crystalline iodine iodinates water to near saturation in single pass. Cartridge includes stainless-steel housing equipped with inlet and outlet for water. Bed of iodine crystals divided into layers by polytetrafluoroethylene baffles. Holes made in baffles and positioned to maximize length of flow path through layers of iodine crystals. Resulting concentration of iodine biocidal; suppresses growth of microbes in stored water or disinfects contaminated equipment. Cartridge resists corrosion and can be stored wet. Reused several times before necessary to refill with fresh iodine crystals.

  6. Using dietary reference intake-based methods to estimate prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among female students in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Juliana Masami; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate usual nutrient intake among female university students. This was a cross-sectional study in which 119 students at a public university in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, completed 3-day estimated food records. These were analyzed for nutrient content, and intake distributions were determined. Nutrient intake distributions were estimated using the National Research Council method. For nutrients for which an Estimated Average Requirement has been established, the Estimated Average Requirement cutpoint method was used to determine the proportion of students with inadequate intake. The students' food records indicated inadequate intakes of folate (99%), zinc (47%), and copper (33%). For approximately 95% of the students in this study, calcium was less than the Adequate Intake. The results showed the need for improvement in dietary choices to minimize the prevalence of inadequate intake of folate, zinc, copper, and calcium in this group. PMID:16647333

  7. Salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: what is the most adequate preventive strategy? A Swiss perspective

    PubMed Central

    Burnier, Michel; Wuerzner, Gregoire; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-01-01

    Among the various strategies to reduce the incidence of non-communicable diseases reduction of sodium intake in the general population has been recognized as one of the most cost-effective means because of its potential impact on the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Yet, this strategic health recommendation of the WHO and many other international organizations is far from being universally accepted. Indeed, there are still several unresolved scientific and epidemiological questions that maintain an ongoing debate. Thus what is the adequate low level of sodium intake to recommend to the general population and whether national strategies should be oriented to the overall population or only to higher risk fractions of the population such as salt-sensitive patients are still discussed. In this paper, we shall review the recent results of the literature regarding salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk and we present the recommendations recently proposed by a group of experts of Switzerland. The propositions of the participating medical societies are to encourage national health authorities to continue their discussion with the food industry in order to reduce the sodium intake of food products with a target of mean salt intake of 5–6 grams per day in the population. Moreover, all initiatives to increase the information on the effect of salt on health and on the salt content of food are supported. PMID:26321959

  8. Development of a chemical oxygen - iodine laser with production of atomic iodine in a chemical reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Censky, M; Spalek, O; Jirasek, V; Kodymova, J; Jakubec, I

    2009-11-30

    The alternative method of atomic iodine generation for a chemical oxygen - iodine laser (COIL) in chemical reactions with gaseous reactants is investigated experimentally. The influence of the configuration of iodine atom injection into the laser cavity on the efficiency of the atomic iodine generation and small-signal gain is studied. (lasers)

  9. The Absorption Spectrum of Iodine Vapour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetlow, K. S.

    1972-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described which presents some molecular parameters of iodine molecule by studying iodine spectrum. Points out this experiment can be conducted by sixth form students in high school laboratories. (PS)

  10. Synthetic applications of pseudocyclic hypervalent iodine compounds.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Akira; Yusubov, Mekhman S; Zhdankin, Viktor V

    2016-06-01

    Hypervalent iodine compounds have found wide practical application as versatile, efficient, and sustainable reagents for organic synthesis. Pseudocyclic hypervalent iodine derivatives are characterized by the presence of additional intramolecular non-covalent coordination at the iodine center, which leads to significant alteration of their physical and chemical properties. In comparison with common hypervalent iodine reagents, these pseudocyclic compounds have higher thermal stability, better solubility, and improved reactivity. In recent years, pseudocyclic hypervalent iodine reagents are increasingly used in organic synthesis as environmentally friendly selective oxidants and electrophiles. Furthermore, numerous enantioselective reactions mediated by chiral pseudocyclic hypervalent iodine species have been recently developed. In the present review, the preparation and structural features of pseudocyclic iodine(iii) and iodine(v) derivatives are discussed, and recent developments in their synthetic applications are summarized. PMID:27143521

  11. Towards graphene iodide: iodination of graphite oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimek, Petr; Klímová, Kateřina; Sedmidubský, David; Jankovský, Ondřej; Pumera, Martin; Sofer, Zdeněk

    2014-11-01

    Halogenated graphene derivatives are interesting owing to their outstanding physical and chemical properties. In this paper, we present various methods for the synthesis of iodinated graphene derivatives by the iodination of graphite oxides prepared according to either the Hummers or Hofmann method. Both graphite oxides were iodinated by iodine or hydroiodic acid under reflux or in an autoclave at elevated temperatures (240 °C) and pressures (over 100 bar). The influence of both graphite oxide precursors on the properties of resulting iodinated graphenes was investigated by various techniques, including SEM, SEM-EDS, high-resolution XPS, FTIR, STA, and Raman spectroscopy. Electrical resistivity was measured by a standard four point technique. In addition, the electrochemical properties were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Although the iodinated graphenes were structurally similar, they had remarkably different concentrations of iodine. The most highly iodinated graphenes (iodine concentration above 30 wt%) exhibited relatively high C/O ratios, confirming high degrees of reduction. Iodine is incorporated in the form of covalent bonds to carbon atoms or as polyiodide anions non-covalently bonded through the charge transfer reaction with the graphene framework. Iodinated graphenes with such properties could be used as the starting material for further chemical modifications or as flame-retardant additives.Halogenated graphene derivatives are interesting owing to their outstanding physical and chemical properties. In this paper, we present various methods for the synthesis of iodinated graphene derivatives by the iodination of graphite oxides prepared according to either the Hummers or Hofmann method. Both graphite oxides were iodinated by iodine or hydroiodic acid under reflux or in an autoclave at elevated temperatures (240 °C) and pressures (over 100 bar). The influence of both graphite oxide precursors on the properties of resulting iodinated graphenes was

  12. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  13. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  14. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200.14 Section 200.14 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and...

  15. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  16. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  17. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200....14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure...

  18. Sublimation of Iodine at Various Pressures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenson, Ilya A.

    2005-01-01

    Various phenomena that are observed in the process of heating solid iodine in closed vessels at different pressures and temperatures are described. When solid iodine is heated in an evacuated ampoule where the pressure is less than 10(super -3), no noticeable color appears and immediate condensation of tiny iodine crystals is visible higher up on…

  19. Scalable chemical oxygen - iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Adamenkov, A A; Bakshin, V V; Vyskubenko, B A; Efremov, V I; Il'in, S P; Ilyushin, Yurii N; Kolobyanin, Yu V; Kudryashov, E A; Troshkin, M V

    2011-12-31

    The problem of scaling chemical oxygen - iodine lasers (COILs) is discussed. The results of experimental study of a twisted-aerosol singlet oxygen generator meeting the COIL scalability requirements are presented. The energy characteristics of a supersonic COIL with singlet oxygen and iodine mixing in parallel flows are also experimentally studied. The output power of {approx}7.5 kW, corresponding to a specific power of 230 W cm{sup -2}, is achieved. The maximum chemical efficiency of the COIL is {approx}30%.

  20. Iodine losses during Winkler titrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, George P.; Stalcup, Marvel C.; Stanley, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment designed to measure iodine loss during the aliquot version of the Winkler titration for dissolved oxygen in seawater shows that 0.01-0.03 ml l -1 equivalent oxygen is lost at typical oceanic concentrations in the method presently used. A standardization technique, which mimics that employed during the titration of seawater samples, compensates for this iodine loss throughout the oceanic range. This result, contradicting an earlier report by GREEN and CARRITT (1966, Analyst, 91, 207-208), demonstrates that the whole-bottle method of oxygen titration is not to be preferred over the aliquot method.

  1. Infinite Polyiodide Chains in the Pyrroloperylene-Iodine Complex: Insights into the Starch-Iodine and Perylene-Iodine Complexes.

    PubMed

    Madhu, Sheri; Evans, Hayden A; Doan-Nguyen, Vicky V T; Labram, John G; Wu, Guang; Chabinyc, Michael L; Seshadri, Ram; Wudl, Fred

    2016-07-01

    We report the preparation and X-ray crystallographic characterization of the first crystalline homoatomic polymer chain, which is part of a semiconducting pyrroloperylene-iodine complex. The crystal structure contains infinite polyiodide I∞ (δ-) . Interestingly, the structure of iodine within the insoluble, blue starch-iodine complex has long remained elusive, but has been speculated as having infinite chains of iodine. Close similarities in the low-wavenumber Raman spectra of the title compound and starch-iodine point to such infinite polyiodide chains in the latter as well. PMID:27239781

  2. Nutrient Intake in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; O’Brien, Marian C.; Clark, Patricia C.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Research Objective Approximately 50% of heart failure (HF) patients are thought to be malnourished, and macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies may potentially aggravate HF symptoms. Thus, concerns have been raised about the overall nutrient composition of diets in HF populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the macronutrient and micronutrient intake by caloric adequacy among community-dwelling adults with HF. Participants and Methods A secondary analysis of baseline data of participants in an HF lifestyle intervention study was conducted. Participants (n = 45) were predominantly male (55.6%), white, and non-Hispanic (64.4%); had a mean age of 61 years (SD, 11 years) and mean body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2 (SD, 7.3 kg/m2); were of New York Heart Association functional classes II and III (77.8%); and had a mean ejection fraction of 31.9% (SD,13.2%); and 69% had a college or higher level of education. The Block Food Habits Questionnaire was used to assess the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and Conclusions Individuals reporting inadequate daily caloric intake reported a lower intake of macronutrients and micronutrients as well as other differences in dietary patterns compared with individuals reporting adequate daily caloric intake. More than half of the individuals reporting adequate caloric intake did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and vitamin E. Interventions aimed at increasing overall intake and nutrient density are suggested. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between dietary factors and outcomes in HF. PMID:18596500

  3. Treatment of Hypothyroidism due to Iodine Deficiency Using Daily Powdered Kelp in Patients Receiving Long-term Total Enteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Takako; Kamasaki, Hotaka; Hotsubo, Tomoyuki; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    We investigated thyroid function and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in seven patients with severe motor intellectual disabilities. All seven received total enteral nutrition (TEN) for more than three years with a daily iodine intake of less than 20 µg. They were diagnosed as hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency (HID) because of high TSH levels (7.6–82.3 µIU/ml), lower free T4 (FT4 0.4–1.5 ng/dl), negative anti-thyroid antibodies (anti-thyroglobulin antibody, anti-thyroidal peroxidase antibody) and extremely low UIC (<25–58 µg/l) levels. We gave them 1–2 g powdered kelp (200–400 µg as iodine) once a day, which restored their thyroid function and normalized their UICs. We proposed that daily powdered kelp would be effective and safe to treat HID in patient receiving long term TEN. PMID:23926395

  4. Low Urinary Iodine Concentrations Associated with Dyslipidemia in US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormone which plays crucial roles in healthy thyroid function and lipid metabolism. However, the association between iodine status and dyslipidemia has not been well established at a population level. We aimed to test the hypothesis that the odds of dyslipidemia including elevated total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein B, and lowered high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and HDL/LDL ratio are associated with urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in a population perspective. Data of 2495 US adults (≥20 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2012 were used in this study. Two subgroups (i.e., UIC below vs. above the 10th percentile) were compared of dyslipidemia as defined based on NCEP ATP III guidelines. The differences between the groups were tested statistically by chi-square test, simple linear regressions, and multiple logistic regressions. Serum lipid concentrations differed significantly between two iodine status groups when sociodemographic and lifestyle covariates were controlled (all, p < 0.05). Those with the lowest decile of UIC were more likely to be at risk for elevated total cholesterol (>200 mg/dL) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–2.23) and elevated LDL cholesterol (>130 mg/dL) (AOR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.11–2.23) and lowered HDL/LDL ratio (<0.4) (AOR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.18–2.33), compared to those with UIC above the 10th percentile. In US adults, low UIC was associated with increased odds for dyslipidemia. Findings of the present cross-sectional study with spot urine samples highlight the significant association between UIC and serum lipids at population level, but do not substantiate a causal relationship. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the causal relationship among iodine intakes, iodine status, and serum lipid profiles. PMID:26999198

  5. Summary of an NIH workshop to identify research needs to improve the monitoring of iodine status in the United States and to inform the DRI.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Christine A; Zimmermann, Michael B; Skeaff, Sheila; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Dwyer, Johanna T; Trumbo, Paula R; Zehaluk, Christina; Andrews, Karen W; Carriquiry, Alicia; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Egan, S Kathleen; Long, Stephen E; Bailey, Regan Lucas; Sullivan, Kevin M; Holden, Joanne M; Betz, Joseph M; Phinney, Karen W; Brooks, Stephen P J; Johnson, Clifford L; Haggans, Carol J

    2012-06-01

    The Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the NIH sponsored a workshop on May 12-13, 2011, to bring together representatives from various NIH institutes and centers as a first step in developing an NIH iodine research initiative. The workshop also provided an opportunity to identify research needs that would inform the dietary reference intakes for iodine, which were last revised in 2001. Iodine is required throughout the life cycle, but pregnant women and infants are the populations most at risk of deficiency, because iodine is required for normal brain development and growth. The CDC monitors iodine status of the population on a regular basis, but the status of the most vulnerable populations remains uncertain. The NIH funds very little investigator-initiated research relevant to iodine and human nutrition, but the ODS has worked for several years with a number of other U.S. government agencies to develop many of the resources needed to conduct iodine research of high quality (e.g., validated analytical methods and reference materials for multiple types of samples). Iodine experts, scientists from several U.S. government agencies, and NIH representatives met for 2 d to identify iodine research needs appropriate to the NIH mission. PMID:22551802

  6. Summary of an NIH Workshop to Identify Research Needs to Improve the Monitoring of Iodine Status in the United States and to Inform the DRI123

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Christine A.; Zimmermann, Michael B.; Skeaff, Sheila; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Trumbo, Paula R.; Zehaluk, Christina; Andrews, Karen W.; Carriquiry, Alicia; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Egan, S. Kathleen; Long, Stephen E.; Bailey, Regan Lucas; Sullivan, Kevin M.; Holden, Joanne M.; Betz, Joseph M.; Phinney, Karen W.; Brooks, Stephen P. J.; Johnson, Clifford L.; Haggans, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    The Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the NIH sponsored a workshop on May 12–13, 2011, to bring together representatives from various NIH institutes and centers as a first step in developing an NIH iodine research initiative. The workshop also provided an opportunity to identify research needs that would inform the dietary reference intakes for iodine, which were last revised in 2001. Iodine is required throughout the life cycle, but pregnant women and infants are the populations most at risk of deficiency, because iodine is required for normal brain development and growth. The CDC monitors iodine status of the population on a regular basis, but the status of the most vulnerable populations remains uncertain. The NIH funds very little investigator-initiated research relevant to iodine and human nutrition, but the ODS has worked for several years with a number of other U.S. government agencies to develop many of the resources needed to conduct iodine research of high quality (e.g., validated analytical methods and reference materials for multiple types of samples). Iodine experts, scientists from several U.S. government agencies, and NIH representatives met for 2 d to identify iodine research needs appropriate to the NIH mission. PMID:22551802

  7. Advanced prototype automated iodine monitor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The technique of detecting and measuring parts-per-million concentrations of aqueous iodine by direct spectrophotometric means is discussed, and development of a prototype Automated Iodine Monitoring/Controller System (AIMS) is elaborated. The present effort is directed primarily toward reducing the power requirement and the weight of the AIMS. Other objectives include determining the maximum concentration of iodine that can be dissolved in an alcohol solution, and in an aqueous potassium iodide solution. Also discussed are the effects of a no flow condition on iodine measurements and the effect of pH on spectrophotometric iodine determinations.

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Ultrarapidly Dissolving Orodispersible Films for Treating and Preventing Iodine Deficiency in the Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Rustemkyzy, Cholpon; Belton, Peter; Qi, Sheng

    2015-11-11

    Iodine deficiency is a public health problem that is easily prevented in many countries through having a salt iodization program. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that particular population groups including infants and young children have a sufficient level of daily iodine intake, while also reducing salt consumption in their diet. While many iodine supplements are available, swallowing tablet supplements is physically difficult for young children; thus, there is a need for the development of novel iodine delivery systems for pediatric patients. In this study a novel, ultrarapidly dissolving, nanofiber-based orodispersible film formulation containing iodine which is constructed from nanofibers was manufactured using an electrospinning technique. The potassium iodate (KIO3)-loaded poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) fiber orodispersible films dissolve within seconds on wetting (applying on the tongue) without the need for the consumption of water. The electrospinning process and KIO3 loading did not alter the crystallinity and conformation of PEO. With high loading, KIO3 nanocrystals are present in the fibers. This formulation design allows easy administration of iodine for preventing childhood iodine deficiency. We have also described a novel and easy method for producing and harvesting nanocrystals of inorganic salts that can be potentially adopted for use in other relevant fields. PMID:26499787

  9. Dietary intake in clients with chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, Agnieszka; Atkins, Marlis; Mager, Diana R

    2011-01-01

    To assess relationships among food intake, anthropometrics, and wound severity, we studied 31 home care clients with pressure ulcers (PUs) or venous stasis ulcers (VSUs). Anthropometric variables (weight, height, waist circumference [WC]) were measured according to standard methodologies. Risk for PU development was assessed using the Braden Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment score and wound severity according to the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. Three-day food records were analyzed to assess dietary adequacy. Adults with VSUs (65.8 ± 18.4 years) had a higher body mass index (48.1 vs. 25.9), WC (146.6 vs. 98.4 cm), and Braden score (20.2 vs. 17.5) than did those with PUs (67.8 ± 17.9 years) (p <0.05). Energy, protein, and zinc intake by diet alone did not meet estimated requirements in 41%, 32%, and 54.5% of clients, respectively. Intake by diet alone met the Estimated Average Requirement/Adequate Intake for all nutrients except fibre, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, folate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Nutrient supplementation resolved this for all nutrients except fibre, vitamin K, and potassium. In multivariate analysis, increasing wound severity was associated with decreased intakes of vitamin A, vitamin K, magnesium, and protein (r2=0.90, p<0.001). Optimizing nutrient intake may be an important strategy to promote wound healing and decrease wound severity in home care clients with chronic wounds. PMID:21645427

  10. Dietary reference intakes for DHA and EPA.

    PubMed

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Grieger, Jessica A; Etherton, Terry D

    2009-01-01

    Various organizations worldwide have made dietary recommendations for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and fish intake that are primarily for coronary disease risk reduction and triglyceride (TG) lowering. Recommendations also have been made for DHA intake for pregnant women, infants, and vegetarians/vegans. A Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), specifically, an Adequate Intake (AI), has been set for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of The National Academies. This amount is based on an intake that supports normal growth and neural development and results in no nutrient deficiency. Although there is no DRI for EPA and DHA, the National Academies have recommended that approximately 10% of the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for ALA can be consumed as EPA and/or DHA. This recommendation represents current mean intake for EPA and DHA in the United States ( approximately 100mg/day), which is much lower than what many groups worldwide are currently recommending. Global recommendations for long-chain omega-3 fatty acids underscore the pressing need to establish DRIs for DHA and EPA because DRIs are recognized as the "official" standard by which federal agencies issue dietary guidance or policy directives for the health and well-being of individuals in the United States and Canada. Because of the many health benefits of DHA and EPA, it is important and timely that the National Academies establish DRIs for the individual long-chain (20 carbons or greater) omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:19525100

  11. Iodine supplementation in pregnancy - is it time?

    PubMed

    Taylor, P N; Vaidya, B

    2016-07-01

    Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormone and optimal foetal neurological development. Pregnant women living in borderline or moderate-severe iodine deficient areas are at particularly high risk of being iodine deficient, and this may have important clinical consequences, particularly for the neurocognitive development of the offspring. It is a substantial problem and many countries including the United Kingdom are mild-moderately iodine deficient. Although the detrimental effects of severe iodine deficiency are well recognized, the benefits of correcting mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency are unclear due to a lack of randomized controlled trials in this area. However, observational data increasingly indicate that there may be substantial health and economic benefits from correcting iodine deficiency in pregnancy. There is now a growing trend from learned societies that iodine supplementation should be utilized in pregnancy in countries with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. The dose of iodine supplement needs to reflect local iodine status and iodization policies and will need careful monitoring at the population level to ensure doses to prevent under/excess dosing which would undermine the potential benefits. National tailored guidance is therefore essential. PMID:26998765

  12. Is Non-Contrast CT Adequate for the Evaluation of Hepatic Metastasis in Patients Who Cannot Receive Iodinated Contrast Media?

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Han Bum; Park, Min Jung; Lee, Hye Sun; Park, Mi-Suk; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the appropriateness of follow-up with only non-enhanced CT (NECT) in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Subjects and Methods This retrospective study included 323 patients with colorectal and gastric cancer who underwent two consecutive CT examinations (CT1 and CT2), including non-contrast and portal venous phase CT images, with an interval of 1 year. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Group A included patients with no hepatic metastasis on CT1 and with or without newly developed metastasis on CT2 to evaluate the diagnostic performance of NECT for detecting newly developed hepatic metastasis; Group B included patients with known hepatic metastasis both on CT1 and CT2 to evaluate the accuracy of NECT for the assessment of hepatic metastasis based on RECIST criteria (version 1.1). Contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) images were considered as reference standards. Results Group A included 172 patients (M:F = 107:65; mean age, 62.6 years). Among them, 57 patients had 95 metastases (mean size, 2.2 ± 1.3 cm). Per patient and per lesion sensitivity for diagnosing newly developed hepatic metastasis was 56.1–66.7% and 52.6–56.8%, respectively. In terms of small metastases (<1.5 cm), per lesion sensitivity was significantly decreased to 28.1–34.4% (P < 0.05). Metastasis size measurements were significantly smaller on NECT (P < 0.001) compared with reference standards. In Group B, the accuracy of response evaluation based on RECIST criteria was 65.6–72.2%. Conclusions NECT showed inadequate diagnostic performances in both detecting newly developed hepatic metastasis and evaluating the response of hepatic metastasis based on RECIST criteria. PMID:26218533

  13. Synthesis and preliminary in vivo toxicity evaluation of an iodinated sulfidoborate

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Micca, P.L.; Heinrichs, J.C.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1992-01-01

    An iodine-labeled [sup 10]B-carrier would enable the biodistribution of [sup 10]B to be imaged noninvasively in patients so as to optimize the timing of neutron exposure for BNCT. While Na[sub 2]B[sub l2]H[sub 11]SH [BSH] is in clinical use for BNCT in Japan, its disulfido dimer Na[sub 4]B[sub 24]H[sub 22]S[sub 2] [BSSB] is also under consideration. We describe the synthesis of an iodinated product of the dimer for possible use in BNCT and compare its toxicity in normal mice to that of BSSB. Periodination of BSSB can be carried out under reaction conditions similar to those used for B[sub 12]H[sup 12][sup [minus]2]. We surmise from this preliminary in vivo experiment that IBSSB may be slightly hepatotoxic to mice. Since the putative weight ratio of iodine to boron-10 in IBSSB is 11.5, the presence of a therapeutically adequate concentration of [sup 10]B in tumor, for example 30 [mu]g [sup 10]B per gram tumor, would be associated with 345 [mu]g I per gram tumor. This would be suitable for imaging a tumor in the brain and for quantifying the iodine using computed tomography [CT] without using conventional contrast enhancement. [sup 10]B concentrations useful for BNCT of malignant gliomas should be readily quantified by conventional CT using [sup 10]B-IBSSB as a combined radiographic contrast agent and [sup 10]B-carrier. Alternatively, iodine-radiolabeled IBSSB would allow visualization and quantification of iodine in the tumor by single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT]. Because boron and iodine are linked covalently in IBSSB, quantification of iodine in the tumor would thereby also quantify boron in the tumor noninvasively using either radiolabeled or nonradiolabeled IBSSB in SPECT or CT, respectively, provided that in vivo deiodination of IBSSB is sufficiently slow.

  14. Synthesis and preliminary in vivo toxicity evaluation of an iodinated sulfidoborate

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Micca, P.L.; Heinrichs, J.C.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1992-12-31

    An iodine-labeled {sup 10}B-carrier would enable the biodistribution of {sup 10}B to be imaged noninvasively in patients so as to optimize the timing of neutron exposure for BNCT. While Na{sub 2}B{sub l2}H{sub 11}SH [BSH] is in clinical use for BNCT in Japan, its disulfido dimer Na{sub 4}B{sub 24}H{sub 22}S{sub 2} [BSSB] is also under consideration. We describe the synthesis of an iodinated product of the dimer for possible use in BNCT and compare its toxicity in normal mice to that of BSSB. Periodination of BSSB can be carried out under reaction conditions similar to those used for B{sub 12}H{sup 12}{sup {minus}2}. We surmise from this preliminary in vivo experiment that IBSSB may be slightly hepatotoxic to mice. Since the putative weight ratio of iodine to boron-10 in IBSSB is 11.5, the presence of a therapeutically adequate concentration of {sup 10}B in tumor, for example 30 {mu}g {sup 10}B per gram tumor, would be associated with 345 {mu}g I per gram tumor. This would be suitable for imaging a tumor in the brain and for quantifying the iodine using computed tomography [CT] without using conventional contrast enhancement. {sup 10}B concentrations useful for BNCT of malignant gliomas should be readily quantified by conventional CT using {sup 10}B-IBSSB as a combined radiographic contrast agent and {sup 10}B-carrier. Alternatively, iodine-radiolabeled IBSSB would allow visualization and quantification of iodine in the tumor by single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT]. Because boron and iodine are linked covalently in IBSSB, quantification of iodine in the tumor would thereby also quantify boron in the tumor noninvasively using either radiolabeled or nonradiolabeled IBSSB in SPECT or CT, respectively, provided that in vivo deiodination of IBSSB is sufficiently slow.

  15. An innovative approach for iodine supplementation using iodine-rich phytogenic food.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huan-Xin; Liu, Hui-Ping; Li, De-Wang; Ye, Mingli; Pan, Lehua; Xia, Tian-Hong

    2014-08-01

    Iodine, as one of the essential trace elements for human body, is very important for the proper function of thyroid gland. In some regions, people are still suffering from iodine deficiency disorder (IDD). How to provide an effective and cost-efficient iodine supplementation has been a public health issue for many countries. In this review, a novel iodine supplementation approach is introduced. Different from traditional iodine salt supplement, this approach innovatively uses cultivated iodine-rich phytogenic food as the supplement. These foods are cultivated using alga-based organic iodine fertilizer. The feasibility, mechanics of iodine absorption of plants from soil and the bioavailability of iodine-rich phytogenic food are further discussed. PMID:24504625

  16. Iodine concentration in household salt in South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Jooste, P. L.; Weight, M. J.; Lombard, C. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the iodine concentration in household salt, the coverage of adequately iodized salt, the use of non-iodized agricultural and producers' salt, and the usefulness of salt as a carrier of iodine, and to relate these observations to socioeconomic status in South Africa. METHOD: The iodometric titration method was used to analyse 2043 household salt samples collected using a national, multistage, stratified, cluster survey. FINDINGS: The national mean and median iodine concentrations of household salt were 27 mg/kg (95% confidence interval (CI): 25-29 mg/kg) and 30 mg/kg (range = 0-155 mg/kg), respectively. There was considerable variation within and between geographical areas. Coverage of adequately iodized household salt, i.e. iodized at > 15 mg/kg, was 62.4% of households (95% CI: 58.8-66.0%) two years after the introduction of compulsory iodization at a level of 40-60 mg/kg. A total of 7.3% of households used non-iodized agricultural salt and salt obtained directly from producers. People at the lower end of the socioeconomic spectrum were more likely to suffer the consequences of using under-iodized salt because more of them used agricultural or coarse salt than did people in the higher socioeconomic categories. The iodine concentration in salt was lower in rural areas than in urban and periurban areas. CONCLUSIONS: The consequences of using under-iodized or non-iodized salt were most likely to be experienced in the country's three northern provinces, among people in the low socioeconomic categories, and in rural households. Since 95.4% of households in South Africa use salt regularly and 2.9% use it occasionally, the national iodization programme has the potential to meet the iodine requirements of the population. However, this can only be achieved if the primary reasons for the inadequate iodization of salt are eliminated and if special attention is given to vulnerable groups. PMID:11436475

  17. Mechanism of iodine uptake by cabbage: effects of iodine species and where it is stored.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huan-Xin; Hong, Chun-Lai; Yan, Ai-Lan; Pan, Le-Hua; Qin, Ya-Chao; Bao, Lü-Ting; Xie, Ling-Li

    2008-10-01

    Iodine-enhanced vegetable has been proven to be an effective way to reduce iodine deficiency disorders in many regions. However, the knowledge about what mechanisms control plant uptake of iodine and where iodine is stored in plants is still very limited. A series of controlled experiments, including solution culture, pot planting, and field experiments were carried out to investigate the uptake mechanism of iodine in different forms. A new methodology for observing the iodine distribution within the plant tissues, based on AgI precipitation reaction and transmission electron microscope techniques, has been developed and successfully applied to Chinese cabbage. Results show that iodine uptake by Chinese cabbage was more effective when iodine was in the form of IO(3) (-) than in the form of I(-) if the concentration was low (<0.5 mg L(-1)), but the trend was opposite if iodine concentration was 0.5 mg L(-1) or higher. The uptake was more sensitive to metabolism inhibitor in lower concentration of iodine, which implies that the uptake mechanism transits from active to passive as the iodine concentration increases, especially when the iodine is in the form of IO(3) (-). The inorganic iodine fertilizer provided a quicker supply for plant uptake, but the higher level of iodine was toxic to plant growth. The organic iodine fertilizer (seaweed composite) provided a more sustainable iodine supply for plants. Most of the iodine uptake by the cabbage is intercepted and stored in the fibrins in the root while the iodine that is transported to the above-ground portion (shoots and leaves) is selectively stored in the chloroplasts. PMID:18521548

  18. Micronutrient Intakes from Food and Supplements in Australian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Caroline M.; Black, Lucinda J.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n = 991). We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements), along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) where appropriate. Results: Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Conclusions: Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements. PMID:24424459

  19. Intake of selected nutrients from foods, from fortification and from supplements in various European countries

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Albert; Hirvonen, Tero; Mensink, Gert B. M.; Ocké, Marga C.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Stos, Katarzyna; Szponar, Lucjan; Tetens, Inge; Turrini, Aida; Fletcher, Reg; Wildemann, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent European Union regulation requires setting of maximum amount of micronutrients in dietary supplements or foods taking into account the tolerable upper intake level (ULs) established by scientific risk assessment and population reference intakes. Objective To collect and evaluate recently available data on intakes of selected vitamins and minerals from conventional foods, food supplements and fortified foods in adults and children. Intake of calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, zinc, folic acid, niacin and total vitamin A/retinol, B6, D and E was derived from nationally representative surveys in Denmark, Germany, Finland, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom. Intake of high consumers, defined as the 95th percentile of each nutrient, was compared to the UL. Results For most nutrients, adults and children generally consume considerably less than the UL with exceptions being retinol, zinc, iodine, copper and magnesium. The major contributor to intakes for all nutrients and in all countries is from foods in the base diet. The patterns of food supplements and voluntary fortification vary widely among countries with food supplements being responsible for the largest differences in total intakes. In the present study, for those countries with data on fortified foods, fortified foods do not significantly contribute to higher intakes for any nutrient. Total nutrient intake expressed as percentage of the UL is generally higher in children than in adults. Conclusion The risk of excessive intakes is relatively low for the majority of nutrients with a few exceptions. Children are the most vulnerable group as they are more likely to exhibit high intakes relative to the UL. There is a need to develop improved methods for estimating intakes of micronutrients from fortified foods and food supplements in future dietary surveys. PMID:20011225

  20. Iodine Status in Turkish Populations and Exposure to Iodide Uptake Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ozpinar, Aysel; Kelestimur, Fahrettin; Songur, Yildiran; Can, Ozge; Valentin, Liza; Caldwell, Kathleen; Arikan, Ender; Unsal, Ibrahim; Serteser, Mustafa; Inal, Tamer; Erdemgil, Yigit; Coskun, Abdurrahman; Bakirci, Nadi; Sezgin, Ozlem; Blount, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate are competitive inhibitors of the sodium iodide symporter of the thyroid membrane. These inhibitors can decrease iodine uptake by the symporter into the thyroid gland and may disrupt thyroid function. This study assesses iodine status and exposure to iodide uptake inhibitors of non-pregnant and non-lactating adult women living in three different cities in Turkey (Istanbul, Isparta and Kayseri). We measured iodine and iodide uptake inhibitors in 24-hr urines collected from study participants (N = 255). All three study populations were mildly iodine deficient, with median urinary iodine (UI) levels of 77.5 µg/L in Istanbul, 58.8 µg/L in Isparta, and 69.8 µg/L in Kayseri. Perchlorate doses were higher in the study population (median 0.13 µg/kg/day), compared with a reference population (median 0.059 µg/kg/day), but lower than the U.S. EPA reference dose (0.7 µg/kg/day). Urinary thiocyanate levels increased with increasing exposure to tobacco smoke, with non-smokers (268 µg/L) significantly lower than light smokers (1110 µg/L), who were significantly lower than heavy smokers (2410 µg/L). This pilot study provides novel data indicating that study participants were moderately iodine deficient and had higher intakes of the iodide uptake inhibitor perchlorate compared with a reference population. Further investigation is needed to characterize the thyroid impact resulting from iodine deficiency coupled with exposure to iodide uptake inhibitors such as perchlorate, thiocyanate and nitrate. PMID:24505430

  1. Geochemical Cycling of Iodine Species in Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Moran, J E; Blackwood, V

    2007-08-23

    Iodine is an important element in studies of environmental protection and human health, global-scale hydrologic processes and nuclear nonproliferation. Biogeochemical cycling of iodine in soils is complex, because iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states and as inorganic and organic species that may be hydrophilic, atmophilic, and biophilic. In this study, we applied new analytical techniques to study the content and speciation of stable iodine in representative surface soils, and sorption and transport behavior of iodine species (iodide, iodate, and 4-iodoaniline) in sediments collected at numerous nuclear facilities in the United States, where anthropogenic {sup 129}I from prior nuclear fuel processing activities poses an environmental risk. The surface soil samples were chosen for their geographic locations (e.g., near the ocean or nuclear facilities) and for their differing physico-chemical characteristics (organic matter, texture, etc). Extracted solutions were analyzed by IC and ICP-MS methods to determine iodine concentrations and to examine iodine speciation (iodide, iodate, and organic iodine). In natural soils, iodine is mostly (nearly 90% of total iodine) present as organic species, while inorganic iodine becomes important (up to 50%) only in sediments with low organic matter. Results from laboratory column studies, aimed at examining transport of different iodine species, showed much greater retardation of 4-iodoaniline than iodide or iodate. Careful attention must be given to potential interconversion among species when interpreting the biogeochemical behavior of iodine in the environment. In addition to speciation, input concentration and residence time effects will influence the biogeochemical cycling of anthropogenic 129I deposited on surface soils.

  2. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  3. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  4. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  5. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  6. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  7. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  8. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  9. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  10. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  11. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  12. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  13. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  14. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  15. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  16. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  17. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  18. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  19. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  20. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  1. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  2. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  3. Overview of iodine generation for oxygen-iodine lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirásek, Vít.

    2012-01-01

    A review of the methods for generation of iodine for oxygen-iodine lasers (OIL) is presented. The chemical and physical methods for production of both atomic (AI) and molecular (MI) iodine have been searched in order to improve the efficiency and/or technology of OILs. These trials were motivated by the estimations that a substantial part of singlet oxygen (SO) could be saved with these methods and the onset of the laser active medium will be accelerated. Vapour of MI can be generated by the evaporation of solid or pressurized liquid I2, or synthesized in situ by the reaction of Cl2 with either HI or CuI2. The chemical methods of generation of AI are based on the substitution of I atom in a molecule of HI or ICl by another halogen atom produced usually chemically. The discharge methods include the dissociation of various iodine compounds (organic iodides, I2, HI) in the RF, MW, DC-pulsed or DC-vortex stabilized discharge. Combined methods use discharge dissociation of molecules (H2, F2) to gain atoms which subsequently react to replace AI from the iodine compound. The chemical methods were quite successful in producing AI (up to the 100% yield), but the enhancement of the laser performance was not reported. The discharge methods had been subsequently improving and are today able to produce up to 0.4 mmol/s of AI at the RF power of 500 W. A substantial enhancement of the discharge- OIL performance (up to 40%) was reported. In the case of Chemical-OIL, the enhancement was reported only under the conditions of a low I2/O2 ratio, where the "standard" I2 dissociation by SO is slow. The small-signal gain up to 0.3 %/cm was achieved on the supersonic COIL using the HI dissociated in the RF discharge. Due to the complicated kinetics of the RI-I-I2-SO system and a strong coupling with the gas flow and mixing, the theoretical description of the problem is difficult. It, however, seems that we can expect the major improvement of the OIL performance for those systems, where

  4. Effect of Excess Iodine on Oxidative Stress Markers, Steroidogenic-Enzyme Activities, Testicular Morphology, and Functions in Adult Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Arijit; Mandal, Jagadis; Mondal, Chiranjit; Sinha, Sabyasachi; Chandra, Amar K

    2016-08-01

    Improper iodine intake is a major concern in public health. Chronic intake of low iodine affects gonadal functions of man and animals; however, such effects of excess iodine in male reproduction, specially on testicular morphology, testicular steroidogenic enzyme activities, sperm morphology, sperm viability, and sperm count including male hormonal profiles in reference to iodine status and thyroid hormone profiles are yet to be explored. With this background, adult male rats of 120 ± 10 gm Bw of 90 ± 5 days were divided broadly in two groups depending on the duration of the treatment for 30 and 60 days, respectively. Both the groups consisted of control animals. Excess iodine (100EI), i.e., 100 times more than its recommended level but within its tolerable ranges, was administered through gavage regularly to the first group of experimental animals for 30 and 60 days, respectively, and excessive iodine (500EI), i.e., 500 times more than its recommended level and above tolerable range in the same way and for the same durations, was administered to the other group of experimental animals. Overall results revealed that regular consumption of iodine in excess impairs reproductive functions in adult male rats depending on the dose and duration of its exposure through different mechanisms. Excess iodine accumulates in the testis which results in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as evidenced by higher lipid peroxidation level as well as an imbalance in the pro-/antioxidant status inhibiting the activity of ∆(5) 3β- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17β-HSD resulting to reduced synthesis of testosterone that causes structural and functional changes of the testis. Secondly, persistent generation of ROS in testis as a result of prolonged excess iodine exposure affects hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis that stimulates synthesis and secretion of corticosterone which inhibits LH release that downregulates testosterone synthesis causing further

  5. Graphs for 53-I (Iodine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides a graphic representation of nucleon separation energies and residual interaction parameters for isotopes of the chemical element 53-I (Iodine, atomic number Z = 53).

  6. Effect of iodine disinfectant source and water quality parameters on soluble iodine speciation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Joann; Hurst, Charles; Barkley, Robert; Dunham, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    Investigations of iodine species distribution of various aqueous solutions of iodine disinfectants and water from equilibrated suspensions of triodide and pentaiodide resins were done at the University of Colorado for the Center for Space Environmental Health during 1992 and 1993. Direct measurements of three individual iodine species: I(-), I2 and I3(-), were made. In addition three measures of total titratable iodine species were used. It has been found that I2 and I3(-) solutions produce a significant fraction of the non-disinfecting species iodine I(-), ranging from 50 to 80% of added iodine, respectively, at pH values of approximately 5. Correspondingly, I2 solutions produce more than twice the concentration of disinfecting iodine species per mass iodine dose than I3(-) solutions. Both I(-) and I2 species were found in aqeuous extracts of pentaiodide resin, although no soluble species were detected with triiodide resin.

  7. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) and their eradication.

    PubMed

    Hetzel, B S

    1983-11-12

    Disorders resulting from severe iodine deficiency affect more than 400 million people in Asia alone. These disorders include stillbirths, abortions, and congenital anomalies; endemic cretinism, characterised most commonly by mental deficiency, deaf mutism, and spastic diplegia and lesser degrees of neurological defect related to fetal iodine deficiency; and impaired mental function in children and adults with goitre associated with subnormal concentrations of circulating thyroxine. Use of the term iodine deficiency disorders, instead of "goitre", would help to bridge the serious gap between knowledge and its application. Iodised salt and iodised oil (by injection or by mouth) are suitable for the correction of iodine deficiency on a mass scale. A single dose of iodised oil can correct severe iodine deficiency for 3-5 years. Iodised oil offers a satisfactory immediate measure for primary care services until an iodised salt programme can be implemented. The complete eradication of iodine deficiency is therefore feasible within 5-10 years. PMID:6138653

  8. Injection of iodine to the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Baidar, S.; Cuevas, C. A.; Koenig, T. K.; Fernandez, R. P.; Dix, B.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Rodriguez-Lloveras, X.; Campos, T. L.; Volkamer, R.

    2015-08-01

    We report a new estimation of the injection of iodine into the stratosphere based on novel daytime (solar zenith angle < 45°) aircraft observations in the tropical tropopause layer and a global atmospheric model with the most recent knowledge about iodine photochemistry. The results indicate that significant levels of total reactive iodine (0.25-0.7 parts per trillion by volume), between 2 and 5 times larger than the accepted upper limits, can be injected into the stratosphere via tropical convective outflow. At these iodine levels, modeled iodine catalytic cycles account for up to 30% of the contemporary ozone loss in the tropical lower stratosphere and can exert a stratospheric ozone depletion potential equivalent to, or even larger than, that of very short-lived bromocarbons. Therefore, we suggest that iodine sources and chemistry need to be considered in assessments of the historical and future evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer.

  9. Discovery and Early Uses of Iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2000-08-01

    The ancient Chinese recognized goiter and the therapeutic effects of burnt sponge and seaweed in reducing its size or causing its disappearance. The modern use of iodine in the prevention of goiter dates from 1830, when it was proposed that goiter is an iodine deficiency disease due to lack of iodine in the water supply. But unfavorable symptoms of iodism were frequent owing to overenthusiastic use and overdose of iodine. Consequently, iodide prophylaxis was discredited and abandoned. The presence of iodine in organic combination as a normal constituent of the thyroid was established in 1896 and the use of iodine in treatment and prevention of goiter was revived. In 1917 the general use of iodized salt in goitrous areas was shown to be effective in preventing simple endemic goiter.

  10. Atmospheric science: marine aerosols and iodine emissions.

    PubMed

    McFiggans, Gordon

    2005-02-10

    O'Dowd et al. describe the formation of marine aerosols from biogenic iodine and the growth of these aerosols into cloud-condensation nuclei (CCN). Based on chamber and modelling results, the authors suggest that biogenic organic iodine compounds emitted from macroalgae may be responsible for coastal particle bursts and that production of these compounds in the open ocean could increase CCN there too. It has since been shown that coastal particles are more likely to be produced from the photooxidation of molecular iodine. Moreover, I contend that open-ocean particle production and cloud enhancement do not result from emissions of organic iodine at atmospheric levels. For iodine particles to affect cloud properties over the remote ocean, an additional source of iodine is necessary as organic precursors cannot be responsible. PMID:15703706

  11. Disposal of radioactive iodine in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.; Defield, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of space disposal of iodine waste from nuclear power reactors is investigated. The space transportation system utilized relies upon the space shuttle, a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen orbit transfer vehicle, and a solid propellant final stage. The iodine is assumed to be in the form of either an iodide or an iodate, and calculations assume that the final destination is either solar orbit or solar system escape. It is concluded that space disposal of iodine is feasible.

  12. Solid state lithium-iodine primary battery

    SciTech Connect

    Sekido, S.; Ninomiya, Y.; Sotomura, T.

    1984-01-10

    A solid-state primary cell comprising a lithium anode, an iodine cathode containing a charge transfer complex and a solid lithium iodide electrolyte doped with a 1-normal-alkyl-pyridinium iodide. The anode surface can be coated with LiOH or Li/sub 3/N. The iodine cathode comprises a complex of iodine and 1-normal-alkyl-pyridinium iodide and preferably contains titanium dioxide powder, alumina gel powder or silica gel powder admixed with the complex.

  13. Gestational changes in iodine status in a cohort study of pregnant women from the United Kingdom: season as an effect modifier123

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Sarah C; Furmidge-Owen, Victoria L; Redman, Christopher WG

    2015-01-01

    Background: Iodine is required throughout pregnancy for thyroid hormone production, which is essential for fetal brain development. Studies of iodine status in pregnant women from the United Kingdom (UK) have focused on early gestation (<16 wk). Data on the effect of advancing gestation on urinary iodine excretion are conflicting, with suggestions of both an increase and a decrease. Objectives: The aims were to evaluate iodine status in a cohort of UK pregnant women and to explore how it changes throughout gestation. Design: We used samples and data from 230 UK pregnant women who were recruited to the Selenium in PRegnancy INTervention study. Iodine concentration was measured in spot-urine samples that were collected at ∼12, 20, and 35 wk of gestation; creatinine concentration was also measured to correct for urine dilution. A linear mixed model was used to explore the effect of gestational week on iodine-to-creatinine ratio, with change in season, body mass index, daily milk intake, and maternal age controlled for. Results: The median urinary iodine concentration from urine samples collected at all time points (n = 662) was 56.8 μg/L, and the iodine-to-creatinine ratio was 116 μg/g, thus classifying this cohort as mildly-to-moderately iodine deficient. The median iodine-to-creatinine ratios at 12, 20, and 35 wk were 102.5, 120.0, and 126.0 μg/g, respectively. Only 3% of women were taking iodine-containing prenatal supplements. The iodine-to-creatinine ratio increased with advancing gestation, and there was a significant interaction between gestational week and season (P = 0.026). For a 1-wk increase in gestation, the iodine-to-creatinine ratio increased by a factor of 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.08) in winter and by a factor of 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) in summer. Conclusions: This group of UK pregnant women was mildly-to-moderately iodine deficient at all trimesters, which is of public health concern. The finding that the iodine-to-creatinine ratio increased over

  14. [CME: Radioactive iodine therapy in thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Steinert, Hans C; Aberle, Susanne

    2015-11-11

    Differentiated thyroid carcinomas represent about 90% of all thyroid tumors and are divided in papillary and follicular carcinomas. Their prognosis is good, however, recurrences are not rare. Their ability to accumulate iodine is used for the radioactive iodine treatment. The aim of the postoperative radioactive iodine ablation therapy is the complete elimination of remnant thyroid cells and sensitive staging (Fig. 1). The recurrence rate decreases after a complete thyroid ablation. Furthermore, thyroglobulin can be used as a sensitive tumor marker. Radioactive iodine treatment by itself describes the therapy of metastases. An exception is the papillary microcarcinoma, which in general is treated by a lobectomy alone. PMID:26558927

  15. Chalcogenide aerogels as sorbents for radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Subrahmanyam, Kota S.; Sarma, Debajit; Malliakas, Christos; Polychronopoulou, Kyriaki; Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2015-04-14

    Iodine (129I) is one of the radionuclides released in nuclear fuel reprocessing and poses risk to public safety due to its involvement in human metabolic processes. In order to prevent the leaching of hazardous radioactive iodine into the environment, its effective capture and sequestration is pivotal. In the context of finding a suitable matrix for capturing radioactive iodine the chalcogels, NiMoS4, CoMoS4, Sb4Sn4S12, Zn2Sn2S6, and CoSx (x = 4-5) were explored as iodine sorbents. All the chalcogels showed high uptake, reaching up to 225 mass% (2.25 g/g) of the final mass owing to strong chemical and physical iodine-chalcogen interactions. Analysis of the iodine-loaded specimens revealed that the iodine chemically reacted with Sb4Sn4S12, Zn2Sn2S6, and CoSx to form metal complexes SbI3, SnI4, and, KI respectively. The NiMoS4 and CoMoS4 chalcogels did not appear to undergo a chemical reaction with iodine since iodide complexes were not observed with these samples. Once heated, the iodine-loaded chalcogels released iodine in the temperature range of 75 °C to 220 °C, depending on the nature of iodine speciation. In the case of Sb4Sn4S12 and Zn2Sn2S6 iodine release was observed around 150 °C in the form of SnI4 and SbI3, respectively. The NiMoS4, CoMoS4, and CoSx released iodine at ~75 °C, which is consistent with physisorbed iodine. Preliminary investigations on consolidation of iodine-loaded Zn2Sn2S6 with Sb2S3 as a glass forming additive showed the content of iodine in consolidated glass ingots at around 25 mass%.

  16. Injection of iodine to the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Baidar, Sunil; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Koening, Theodore; Fernandez, Rafael P.; Dix, Barbara; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Campos, Teresa L.; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    There are still many uncertainties about the influence of iodine chemistry in the stratosphere, as the real amount of reactive iodine injected to this layer the troposphere and the partitioning of iodine species are still unknown. In this work we report a new estimation of the injection of iodine into the stratosphere based on novel daytime (SZA < 45°) aircraft observations in the tropical tropopause layer (TORERO campaign) and a 3D global chemistry-climate model (CAM-Chem) with the most recent knowledge about iodine photochemistry. The results indicate that significant levels of total reactive iodine (0.25-0.7 pptv), between 2 and 5 times larger than the accepted upper limits, could be injected into the stratosphere via tropical convective outflow. At these iodine levels, modelled iodine catalytic cycles account for up to 30% of the contemporary ozone loss in the tropical lower stratosphere and can exert a stratospheric ozone depletion potential equivalent or even larger than that of very short-lived bromocarbons. Therefore, we suggest that iodine sources and chemistry need to be considered in assessments of the historical and future evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer.

  17. Automated iodine monitor system. [for aqueous solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of a direct spectrophotometric measurement of iodine in water was established. An iodine colorimeter, was built to demonstrate the practicality of this technique. The specificity of this method was verified when applied to an on-line system where a reference solution cannot be used, and a preliminary design is presented for an automated iodine measuring and controlling system meeting the desired specifications. An Automated iodine monitor/controller system based on this preliminary design was built, tested, and delivered to the Johnson Space Center.

  18. Nutritional modelling: distributions of salt intake from processed foods in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Barbara M

    2009-09-01

    The salt content of processed foods is important because of the high intake of Na by most New Zealanders. A database of Na concentrations in fifty-eight processed foods was compiled from existing and new data and combined with 24 h diet recall data from two national nutrition surveys (5771 respondents) to derive salt intakes for seven population groups. Mean salt intakes from processed foods ranged from 6.9 g/d for young males aged 19-24 years to 3.5 g/d for children aged 5-6 years. A total of > or = 50 % of children aged 5-6 years, boys aged 11-14 years and young males aged 19-24 years had salt intakes that exceeded the upper limit for Na, calculated as salt (3.2-5.3 g/d), from processed foods only. Bread accounted for the greatest contribution to salt intake for each population group (35-43 % of total salt intake). Other foods that contributed 2 % or more and common across most age groups were sausage, meat pies, pizza, instant noodles and cheese. The Na concentrations of key foods have changed little over the 16-year period from 1987 to 2003 except for corned beef and whole milk that have decreased by 34 and 50 % respectively. Bread is an obvious target for salt reduction but the implication on iodine intake needs consideration as salt is used as a vehicle for iodine fortification of bread. PMID:19296874

  19. Synergism between exposure to mercury and use of iodine supplements on thyroid hormones in pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Llop, Sabrina; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Murcia, Mario; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Vioque, Jesús; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Julvez, Jordi; and others

    2015-04-15

    Objective: To evaluate the association between mercury exposure and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total triiodothyronine (TT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels during pregnancy as well as to explore if there is any synergic action between mercury and intake of iodine from different sources. Methods: The study population was 1407 pregnant women participating in the Spanish INMA birth cohort study. Total mercury concentrations were analyzed in cord blood. Thyroid hormones (THs) were measured in serum samples collected at 13.2±1.5 weeks of gestation. The association between mercury and TH levels was evaluated with multivariate linear regression models. Effect modification caused by iodine intake from supplements and diet was also evaluated. Results: The geometric means of TSH, TT3, FT4 and mercury were 1.1 μU/L, 2.4 nmol/L, 10.5 pmol/L and 7.7 μg/L, respectively. Mercury levels were marginally significantly associated with TT3 (β: −0.05; 95%CI: −0.10, 0.01), but were neither associated with TSH nor FT4. The inverse association between mercury and TT3 levels was stronger among the iodine supplement consumers (−0.08; 95%CI: −0.15, −0.02, interaction p-value=0.07). The association with FT4 followed the same pattern, albeit not significant. Conclusion: Prenatal mercury exposure was inversely associated with TT3 levels among women who took iodine supplements during pregnancy. These results could be of public health concern, although further research is needed. - Highlights: • We studied the relationship between mercury and thyroid hormones among pregnant. • Mercury was marginally significantly associated with TT3, but not with TSH or FT4. • This association was stronger among the iodine supplement. • These results could be of public health concern, but further research is needed.

  20. Dietary Reference Intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as ...

  1. The Relationship of Central Foveal Thickness to Urinary Iodine Concentration in Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients with or without Cystoid Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Michael A.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Harper, Shyana; Weigel-DiFranco, Carol; Hart, Lois; Rosner, Bernard; Berson, Eliot L.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Current treatments for cystoid macular edema in retinitis pigmentosa are not always effective, may lead to adverse side effects, and may not restore loss of visual acuity. The present research lays the rationale for evaluating whether an iodine supplement could reduce cystoid macular edema in retinitis pigmentosa. Objective To determine whether central foveal thickness in the presence of cystoid macular edema is related to dietary iodine intake inferred from urinary iodine concentration in non-smoking adults with retinitis pigmentosa. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Institutional referral center. Participants Non-smoking adult patients with retinitis pigmentosa (n = 212, ages 18 to 69 years) with a visual acuity ≥ 20/200 in at least one eye. Main outcome measure The relationship of log central foveal thickness measured by optical coherence tomography to urinary iodine concentration measured from multiple spot samples and represented as a 3-level classification variable (< 100 μg/L, 100 μg/L - 199 μg/L, and ≥ 200 μg/L), assigning greater weight to patients with more reliable urinary iodine concentration estimates. Results Analyses were limited to 199 patients after excluding 11 patients who failed to return urine samples for measuring urinary iodine concentration and 2 outliers for urinary iodine concentration. Thirty-six percent of these patients had cystoid macular edema in one or both eyes. Although log central foveal thickness was inversely related to urinary iodine concentration based on all patients (p = 0.02), regression of log central foveal thickness on urinary iodine concentration separately for patients with and without cystoid macular edema showed a strong inverse significant relationship for the former group (p < 0.001) and no significant relationship for the latter group as tested (p = 0.66). In contrast, we found no significant association between cystoid macular edema prevalence and urinary iodine concentration based on the

  2. Iodine transport analysis in the ESBWR.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinich, Donald A.; Gauntt, Randall O.; Young, Michael Francis; Longmire, Pamela

    2009-03-01

    A simplified ESBWR MELCOR model was developed to track the transport of iodine released from damaged reactor fuel in a hypothesized core damage accident. To account for the effects of iodine pool chemistry, radiolysis of air and cable insulation, and surface coatings (i.e., paint) the iodine pool model in MELCOR was activated. Modifications were made to MELCOR to add sodium pentaborate as a buffer in the iodine pool chemistry model. An issue of specific interest was whether iodine vapor removed from the drywell vapor space by the PCCS heat exchangers would be sequestered in water pools or if it would be rereleased as vapor back into the drywell. As iodine vapor is not included in the deposition models for diffusiophoresis or thermophoresis in current version of MELCOR, a parametric study was conducted to evaluate the impact of a range of iodine removal coefficients in the PCCS heat exchangers. The study found that higher removal coefficients resulted in a lower mass of iodine vapor in the drywell vapor space.

  3. Thioamination of Alkenes with Hypervalent Iodine Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Mizar, Pushpak; Niebuhr, Rebecca; Hutchings, Matthew; Farooq, Umar; Wirth, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    An efficient thioamination of alkenes mediated by iodine(III) reagents is described. The use of different sulfur nucleophiles allows the flexible synthesis of 1,2-aminothiols from alkenes. By employing chiral iodine(III) reagents, a stereoselective version of the thioamination protocol has also been developed. PMID:26660291

  4. An Iodine Fluorescence Quenching Clock Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Richard B.; Muyskens, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Clock reactions based upon competing oxidation and reduction reactions of iodine and starch as the most popular type of chemistry example is presented to illustrate the redox phenomena, reaction kinetics, and principles of chemical titration. The examination of the photophysical principles underlying the iodine fluorescence quenching clock…

  5. [Adaptation of thyroid function to excess iodine].

    PubMed

    Aurengo, Andre; Leenhardt, Laurence; Aurengo, Helyett

    2002-10-26

    NORMALLY: The production of thyroid hormones is normally stable, despite iodine supplies that may vary widely and even on sudden excess iodine. The metabolism of iodine is characterised by adapted thyroid uptake, the requirements varying on the age and physiological status of the individual (pregnancy, breastfeeding) and by insufficient supplies in several areas in France. IN THE CASE OF EXCESS: The mechanisms that permit the thyroid to adapt to a sudden or chronic excess of iodine are immature in the newborn and sometimes deficient in adults, and may lead to iodine-induced dysthyroidism. Thanks to the recent progress made in thyroid physiology, these mechanisms are now better known. PATHOLOGICAL IMPACT: Iodine-induced hyperthyroidisms in a healthy or pathological thyroid are frequent. They are predominantly related to amiodarone. Iodine-related hypothyroidism frequently appears in cases of pre-existing thyroid diseases (asymptomatic autoimmune thyroiditis, for example). They are frequent in the newborn, notably in the premature. The iodine prophylaxis organised in Poland following the Tchernobyl accident led to very few pathological consequences in adults or children. PMID:12448332

  6. Immobilization of iodine in soil-water systems and its relation to iodine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamoto, Y.; Takahashi, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Iodine tends to accumulate in thyroid, and radioactive 131I and 129I are threatening to human health both short-term and long-term, respectively. It is thus important to understand iodine behavior in surface environments. Possible iodine species are I-, IO3-, I2, and organo-iodine species. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) connected to ICP-MS were used to determine iodine species in soil and pore water, respectively. Soil and pore water samples were collected at depths of 0 to 12 cm near a tube well in Yoro, Chiba, Japan, where surface soil is flooded with brine containing iodine of 5.8 mg/L. Soil samples were also collected at depths of 0 to 90 cm in Yakushima Island, Kagoshima, Japan. The soil samples were frozen, and iodine K-edge XANES were measured at BL01B1, SPring-8 (Hyogo, Japan). Soil samples were buried into resin and prepared as thin sections, and mapping of iodine in soil grain was obtained using μ-XRF analysis at BL37XU, SPring-8. HPLC-ICP-MS, equipped with anion exchange or size exclusion column, was used to determine iodine species in pore water. Yoro: The depth profile of iodine concentration in soil correlates quite well with that of organic carbon content. XANES spectra are almost identical to that of humic substances at any depth (Fig. 1). Iodine mapping shows that iodine exists in organic matter more than clay minerals and iron rich mineral. Iodine in pore water exists as I- and organic iodine bound to dissolved humic substances at 0-6 cm, and mainly as I- at 9-12 cm, respectively. Thus, iodine tends to be bound to organic materials in soil as organic iodine, where as iodine in pore water exists mainly as I-. Yakushima: Iodine concentration is higher in volcanic ash soil layer (25-55 cm) than surface organic rich soil layer (0-25 cm). XANES spectrum of volcanic ash soil was different from those of reference materials (Fig. 1). Volcanic ash soil in Yakushima contains imogolite and

  7. Eliminating iodine deficiency: obstacles and their removal.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Carmencita David; Fagela-Domingo, Carmelita

    2008-12-01

    Iodine deficiency remains a global concern for developing countries and some industrialised countries. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental retardation, posing a threat to the social and economic development of countries. Initiatives were developed and instituted to accelerate progress to achieve the goal of universal salt iodisation (USI). However, these efforts were not successful in eliminating iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) in some countries. Every year, 50 million children are born without the protection that iodine offers to the growing brain and body and about 18 million suffer some significant degree of mental impairment. The World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and non-governmental organisations assist to ensure that populations at risk have access to iodised salt. This paper will review the highlights of iodine deficiency and present the experiences in the various countries in Asia, i.e. assessments of the situation, action plans, and obstacles to implementation. PMID:19904447

  8. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, K. S.

    1985-01-01

    This semiannual progress report covers the period from April 1, 1985 to Sept. 30, 1985 under NASA grant NAS1-441 entitled direct solar pumped iodine laser amplifier. During this period the parametric studies of the iodine laser oscillator pumped by a Vortek simulator was carried out before the amplifier studies. The amplifier studies are postponed to the extended period following completion of the parametric studies. In addition, the kinetic modeling of a solar pumped iodine laser amplifier, and the experimental work for a solar pumped dye laser amplifier are in progress. This report contains three parts: (1) the radiation characteristics of solar simulator and the parametric characteristics of photodissociation iodine laser continuously pumped by a Vortek solar simulator; (2) kinetic modeling of a solar pumped iodine laser amplifier; and (3) the study of the dye laser amplifier pumped by a Tamarack solar simulator.

  9. The high-power iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brederlow, G.; Fill, E.; Witte, K. J.

    The book provides a description of the present state of the art concerning the iodine laser, giving particular attention to the design and operation of pulsed high-power iodine lasers. The basic features of the laser are examined, taking into account aspects of spontaneous emission lifetime, hyperfine structure, line broadening and line shifts, stimulated emission cross sections, the influence of magnetic fields, sublevel relaxation, the photodissociation of alkyl iodides, flashlamp technology, excitation in a direct discharge, chemical excitation, and questions regarding the chemical kinetics of the photodissociation iodine laser. The principles of high-power operation are considered along with aspects of beam quality and losses, the design and layout of an iodine laser system, the scalability and prospects of the iodine laser, and the design of the single-beam Asterix III laser.

  10. 28 CFR 549.64 - Food/liquid intake/output.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Food/liquid intake/output. 549.64 Section... MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.64 Food/liquid intake/output. (a) Staff shall prepare and... shall provide the inmate an adequate supply of drinking water. Other beverages shall also be offered....

  11. 28 CFR 549.64 - Food/liquid intake/output.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Food/liquid intake/output. 549.64 Section... MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.64 Food/liquid intake/output. (a) Staff shall prepare and... shall provide the inmate an adequate supply of drinking water. Other beverages shall also be offered....

  12. 28 CFR 549.64 - Food/liquid intake/output.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Food/liquid intake/output. 549.64 Section... MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.64 Food/liquid intake/output. (a) Staff shall prepare and... shall provide the inmate an adequate supply of drinking water. Other beverages shall also be offered....

  13. 28 CFR 549.64 - Food/liquid intake/output.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Food/liquid intake/output. 549.64 Section... MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.64 Food/liquid intake/output. (a) Staff shall prepare and... shall provide the inmate an adequate supply of drinking water. Other beverages shall also be offered....

  14. 28 CFR 549.64 - Food/liquid intake/output.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Food/liquid intake/output. 549.64 Section... MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.64 Food/liquid intake/output. (a) Staff shall prepare and... shall provide the inmate an adequate supply of drinking water. Other beverages shall also be offered....

  15. Calcium intake is not associated with increased coronary artery calcification: The Framingham Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate calcium intake is known to protect the skeleton. However, studies that have reported adverse effects of calcium supplementation on vascular events have raised widespread concern. We assessed the association between calcium intake (from diet and supplements) and coronary artery calcification...

  16. Calcium Intake, Major Dietary Sources and Bone Health Indicators in Iranian Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Nasrin; Neyestani, Tirang-Reza; Hajifaraji, Majid; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Armin, Saloumeh; Haidari, Homa; Zowghi, Telma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate calcium intake may have a crucial role with regards to prevention of many chronic diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, different types of cancer, obesity and osteoporosis. In children, sufficient calcium intake is especially important to support the accelerated growth spurt during the preteen and teenage years and to increase bone mineral mass to lay the foundation for older age. Objectives: This study aimed to assess daily calcium intake in school-age children to ensure whether they fulfill the FGP dairy serving recommendations, the recommended levels of daily calcium intake and to assess the relationship between dietary calcium intake and major bone health indicators. Patients and Methods: A total of 501 Iranian school-age children were randomly selected. Calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone health indicators were also assessed. Results: Dairy products contributed to 69.3% of the total calcium intake of the children. Daily adequate intake of calcium was achieved by 17.8% of children. Only 29.8% met the Food guide pyramid recommendations for dairy intake. Dietary calcium intake was not significantly correlated with serum calcium and other selected biochemical indicators of bone health. Conclusions: The need for planning appropriate nutrition strategies for overcoming inadequate calcium intake in school age children in the city of Tehran is inevitable. PMID:26199684

  17. Micronutrient Intake in Healthy Toddlers: A Multinational Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hilger, Jennifer; Goerig, Tatiana; Weber, Peter; Hoeft, Birgit; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Costa Carvalho, Nina; Goldberger, Ursula; Hoffmann, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Adequate nutrient intake during early childhood is of particular importance for optimal growth and future health. However, cross-national comparative research on nutrient intake of toddlers is still limited. We conducted a literature review to examine the nutrient intake in healthy toddlers from some of the world’s most populous nations currently on different stages of socioeconomic development: Brazil, Germany, Russia and the United States. We aimed to identify national surveys reporting mean intakes of the following nutrients: vitamins A, D, E, folate, calcium, iron and zinc. To calculate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake, we used a modified version of the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Overall, five studies with 6756 toddlers were eligible for inclusion in this review. In countries where data were available, a prevalence of inadequate intake higher than 20% was found for vitamins A, D, E and calcium. In Germany, folate intake also appeared to be inadequate. The results of our review indicate that inadequate micronutrient intake in toddlers might be a global challenge affecting also affluent countries. However, to explore the full scope of this important public health issue joint efforts of researchers worldwide are needed to combine existing data and fill in data gaps. PMID:26295254

  18. Arabidopsis: An Adequate Model for Dicot Root Systems?

    PubMed

    Zobel, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to eight different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of these classes of root. This then suggests that Arabidopsis root research can be considered an adequate model for dicot plant root systems. PMID:26904040

  19. Iodine nutritional status and risk factors for goitre among schoolchildren in South Tajikistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Iodine deficiency affects nearly 1.9 billion people worldwide, but it can be prevented by salt iodization. This cross-sectional survey assessed current iodine status, iodized salt coverage and risk factors for goitre among schoolchildren in South Tajikistan. Methods Ten primary schools in four districts in South Tajikistan were randomly selected. In schoolchildren aged 7 to 11 years, a spot urine sample was collected for measurement of urinary iodine, dried blood spots were collected for measurement of thyroglobulin, and goitre was assessed by palpation. Iodine content of salt samples and local selling points was determined by coloration using rapid test kits and titration method. Results Of 623 schoolchildren enrolled, complete data was obtained from 589. The overall median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 51.2 μg/L indicating mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. Among all children, 46.6% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 42.4%-50.6%) of children were found to be goitrous (grade 1 goitre: 30.6%, 95% CI = 26.9%-34.5%; grade 2 goitre: 16.0%, 95% CI = 13.1%-19.2%). The risk factor for goitre remaining significant in the multivariable logistic regression model was 'buying salt once a month’ (OR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.01-8.22) and 'buying salt once every six months’ (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.01-5.04) compared to 'buying salt every one or two weeks’. The overall median thyroglobulin concentration was elevated at 13.9 μg/L. Of the salt samples from households and selling points, one third were adequately iodised, one third insufficiently and one third were not iodised. Conclusion Iodine deficiency remains a serious health issue among children in southern Tajikistan. There is a persisting high prevalence of goitre, elevated thyroglobulin and low UIC despite interventions implemented by Tajikistan and international partners. Quality control of salt iodine content needs to be improved. Continued efforts to raise awareness of the

  20. Iodine speciation in rain, snow and aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfedder, B. S.; Lai, S. C.; Petri, M.; Biester, H.; Hoffmann, T.

    2008-10-01

    Iodine oxides, such as iodate, should be the only thermodynamically stable sink species for iodine in the troposphere. However, field observations have increasingly found very little iodate and significant amounts of iodide and soluble organically bound iodine (SOI) in precipitation and aerosols. The aim of this study was to investigate iodine speciation, including the organic fraction, in rain, snow, and aerosols in an attempt to further clarify aqueous phase iodine chemistry. Diurnal aerosol samples were taken with a 5 stage cascade impactor and a virtual impactor (PM2.5) from the Mace Head research station, Ireland, during summer 2006. Rain was collected from Australia, New Zealand, Patagonia, Germany, Ireland, and Switzerland and snow was obtained from Greenland, Germany, Switzerland, and New Zealand. Aerosols were extracted from the filters with water and all samples were analysed for total soluble iodine (TSI) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and iodine speciation was determined by coupling an ion chromatography unit to the ICP-MS. The median concentration of TSI in aerosols from Mace Head was 222 pmol m-3 (summed over all impactor stages) of which the majority was associated with the SOI fraction (median day: 90±4%, night: 94±2% of total iodine). Iodide exhibited higher concentrations than iodate (median 6% vs. 1.2% of total iodine), and displayed significant enrichment during the day compared to the night. Interestingly, up to 5 additional, presumably anionic iodo-organic peaks were observed in all IC-ICP-MS chromatograms, composing up to 15% of the TSI. Soluble organically bound iodine was also the dominant fraction in all rain and snow samples, with lesser amounts of iodide and iodate (iodate was particularly low in snow). Two of the same unidentified peaks found in aerosols were also observed in precipitation from both Southern and Northern Hemispheres. This suggests that these species are transferred from the aerosols into

  1. Iodine speciation in rain and snow: Implications for the atmospheric iodine sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfedder, Benjamin S.; Petri, Michael; Biester, Harald

    2007-04-01

    Atmospheric iodine models currently predict iodate as the only stable iodine sink species in the troposphere. However, it is shown here using ion chromatograph inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (IC-ICP-MS) that iodate is the least abundant iodine species in precipitation (rain and snow) collected from various locations in southern Germany, the Swiss Alps, and Patagonia (Chile). The majority of iodine is associated with organic compounds (average 56%) followed by iodide (average 27%). Although the exact structure of the organic fraction remains ambiguous and is probably of higher molecular weight, a smaller portion of the iodo-organic compounds are anionic (5-20% of total I). One of these anionic organo-I peaks is present in all rain and most snow chromatograms and is generally responsible for 5-18% of total iodine. This suggests a ubiquitous atmospheric iodine species. The data indicate that organic iodine compounds play an important role in the global atmospheric iodine cycle and the atmospheric iodine sink. As such, future tropospheric iodine models must consider organic-I reactions.

  2. Rechargeable Lithium-Iodine Batteries with Iodine/Nanoporous Carbon Cathode.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Lu, Yanying; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Rechargeable Li-iodine batteries are attractive electrochemical energy storage systems because iodine cathode provides the possibility of high energy density, wide abundance and low cost. However, the safety risk caused by low thermostability of iodine and the self-discharge reaction due to high solvency of iodine in aprotic solvent are target issues to be considered. Herein, we designed a room-temperature "solution-adsorption" method to prepare a thermostable iodine-carbon cathode by utilizing the strong adsorption of nanoporous carbon. Meanwhile, Li-iodine batteries constructed by the as-prepared cathode and ether-based electrolyte with the addition of LiNO3 showed negligible self-discharge reaction, high rate and long cycling performance. The reversible reactions of I2/LiI3 and LiI3/LiI in Li-iodine batteries were also proved with in situ Raman measurement. For the demonstration of application, soft-package batteries with Al-plastic film were assembled, displaying energy densities of 475 Wh/kg by mass of Li and iodine, and 136 Wh/kg by total mass of the battery. The use of nanoporous carbon to adsorb iodine at room-temperature represents a new and promising direction for realizing high-performance cathode for rechargeable Li-iodine batteries. PMID:26241461

  3. Is the Marketing Concept Adequate for Continuing Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittenburg, Terri L.

    1984-01-01

    Because educators have a social responsibility to those they teach, the marketing concept may not be adequate as a philosophy for continuing education. In attempting to broaden the audience for continuing education, educators should consider a societal marketing concept to meet the needs of the educationally disadvantaged. (SK)

  4. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  5. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  6. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation Rates.…

  7. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  8. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  9. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED...

  10. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  11. Structure of polyacetylene-iodine complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, N. S.; Miller, G. G.; Baughman, R. H.

    1988-08-01

    We confirm the existence of a 15 Å period in iodine-doped polyacetylene and provide a new interpretation for this key feature as part of a general model for structural changes during iodine doping. The observed diffraction intensities for different samples suggest the existence of structures with two different types of dopant-containing layers: layers obtained by complete replacement of polyacetylene chains by iodine columns (F layers) and layers obtained by replacement of every other polyacetylene chain by an iodine column (P layers). The F layers in the heavily doped complex alternate with dopant-free layers of polyacetylene chains (U layers), corresponding to a (UF)n stacking sequence. The phase obtained at a lower dopant concentration, which provides the 15 Å spacing, is attributed to a (UPUF)n stacking sequence. At still lower dopant concentrations, one obtains a (UP)n stacking sequence. This model, along with published Raman, Mössbauer, and photoelectron spectroscopy data, suggests that the ratio of I-5 to I-3 increases in going from P layers to F layers. Intense and monotonically decreasing, diffuse x-ray scattering suggests that vacancies of size ˜3 Å are present, probably in iodine columns. A diffuse reflection at 3.1 Å, observed in all iodine-doped samples, is due to an average iodine-iodine distance in disordered columnar arrays. On the other hand, ordered arrays of iodine columns in oriented samples give rise to sharp meridional reflections. All ten observed reflections (down to 1.17 Å) in one sample could be indexed based on a 33.8 Å repeat corresponding to (-I-3-I-5-I-3-)n arrays. The observed diffraction pattern was calculated from this model without using any freely adjustable parameters.

  12. Method and apparatus for removing iodine from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Martin H.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing iodine-131 and iodine-125 from a liquid sodium reactor coolant. Non-radioactive iodine is dissolved in hot liquid sodium to increase the total iodine concentration. Subsequent precipitation of the iodine in a cold trap removes both the radioactive iodine isotopes as well as the non-radioactive iodine.

  13. The Effect of Breakfast Type on Total Daily Energy Intake and Body Mass Index Among Thai School Children.

    PubMed

    Purttiponthanee, Sasiumphai; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen; Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Senaprom, Sayamon; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The study investigated the association between breakfast types consumed, daily energy intake, and body mass index for age Z-score (BAZ). Cross-sectional data from 1258 children aged 7 to 12.9 years were analyzed for breakfast type, nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight or obesity. Analysis of covariance was used to compare energy and nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight/obese children between breakfast groups. Only 19% of children had adequate energy intake from breakfast. Those consuming snacks had a significantly lower BAZ (Z = -0.73), with 5% of them being overweight/obese. Those consuming beverages and desserts had the lowest total daily energy intake (1314 kcal) and lowest protein intake (8.4 g). The results suggest that breakfast type is associated with daily energy intake and BAZ. Most breakfasts are not adequate. School-based nutrition education programs involving families, teachers, and health professionals can contribute to improve this situation. PMID:27183975

  14. Effect of chronic douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine on iodine absorption and thyroid function

    SciTech Connect

    Safran, M.; Braverman, L.E.

    1982-07-01

    Daily vaginal douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine in 12 euthyroid volunteers for 14 days resulted in a significant increase in serum total iodine concentration and urine iodine excretion. The increase in serum total iodine was associated with a marked decrease in 24-hour /sup 123/I uptake by the thyroid and a small but significant increase in serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentration. However, values for serum TSH never rose above the normal range. No significant changes in serum thyroxine (T4), free T4 index (FTI), or triiodothyronine concentrations were observed, although serum T4 and FTI did decrease slightly during treatment. The findings suggest that iodine is absorbed across the vaginal mucosa and that the subsequent increase in serum total iodine does induce subtle increases in serum TSH concentration. There was no evidence, however, of overt hypothyroidism in these euthyroid women.

  15. Method for immobilizing radioactive iodine

    DOEpatents

    Babad, Harry; Strachan, Denis M.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive iodine, present as alkali metal iodides or iodates in an aqueous solution, is incorporated into an inert solid material for long-term storage by adding to the solution a stoichiometric amount with respect to the formation of a sodalite (3M.sub.2 O.3Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. 6SiO.sub.2.2MX, where M=alkali metal; X=I.sup.- or IO.sub.3.sup.-) of an alkali metal, alumina and silica, stirring the solution to form a homogeneous mixture, drying the mixture to form a powder, compacting and sintering the compacted powder at 1073 to 1373 K (800.degree. to 1100.degree. C.) for a time sufficient to form sodalite.

  16. Iodine binding to humic acid.

    PubMed

    Bowley, H E; Young, S D; Ander, E L; Crout, N M J; Watts, M J; Bailey, E H

    2016-08-01

    The rate of reactions between humic acid (HA) and iodide (I(-)) and iodate (IO3(-)) have been investigated in suspensions spiked with (129)I at concentrations of 22, 44 and 88 μg L(-1) and stored at 10 °C. Changes in the speciation of (129)I(-), (129)IO3(-) and mixed ((129)I(-) + (129)IO3(-)) spikes were monitored over 77 days using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). In suspensions spiked with (129)I(-) 25% of the added I(-) was transformed into organic iodine (Org-(129)I) within 77 days and there was no evidence of (129)IO3(-) formation. By contrast, rapid loss of (129)IO3(-) and increase in both (129)I(-) and Org-(129)I was observed in (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions. However, the rate of Org-(129)I production was greater in mixed systems compared to (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions with the same total (129)I concentration, possibly indicating IO3(-)I(-) redox coupling. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) demonstrated that Org-(129)I was present in both high and low molecular weight fractions of the HA although a slight preference to bond with the lower molecular weight fractions was observed indicating that, after 77 days, the spiked isotope had not fully mixed with the native (127)I pool. Iodine transformations were modelled using first order rate equations and fitted rate coefficients determined. However, extrapolation of the model to 250 days indicated that a pseudo-steady state would be attained after ∼200 days but that the proportion of (129)I incorporated into HA was less than that of (127)I indicating the presence of a recalcitrant pool of (127)I that was unavailable for isotopic mixing. PMID:27231879

  17. Probing starch-iodine interaction by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiongwei; An, Hongjie; Liu, Zhongdong; Yang, Hongshun; Wei, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    We explored the interaction of iodine with three crystalline type starches, corn, potato, and sweet potato starches using atomic force microscopy. Results revealed that starch molecules aggregated through interaction with iodine solution as well as iodine vapor. Detailed fine structures such as networks, chains, and super-helical structures were found in iodide solution tests. The nanostructures formed due to iodine adsorption could help to understand the formation and properties of the starch-iodine complex. PMID:24338992

  18. Occurrence and variability of iodinated trihalomethanes concentrations within two drinking-water distribution networks.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Panagiotis; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2016-02-01

    Non-iodo-containing trihalomethanes (TTHM) are frequently detected in chlorinated tap water and currently regulated against their carcinogenic potential. Iodinated THM (ITHM) may also form in disinfected with chlorine waters that are high in iodine content, but little is known about their magnitude and variability within the drinking-water pipe distribution network of urban areas. The main objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and variability of ITHM and TTHM levels and their corresponding daily intake estimates within the drinking water distribution systems of Limassol and Nicosia cities of Cyprus, using tap samples collected from individual households (n=37). In Limassol, mean household tap water ITHM and TTHM levels was 0.58 and 38 μg L(-1), respectively. Dichloroiodomethane (DCIM) was the dominant species of the two measured ITHM compounds accounting for 77% of total ITHM and in the range of 0.032 and 1.65 μg L(-1). The range of DCIM concentrations in Nicosia tap water samples was narrower (0.032 - 0.848 μg L(-1)). Mean total iodine concentration in tap water samples from the seaside city of Limassol was 15 μg L(-1) and approximately twice to those observed in samples from the mainland Nicosia city. However, iodine concentrations did not correlate with the ITHM levels. The calculated chronic daily intake rates of ITHM were low when compared with those of TTHM, but because of their widespread occurrence in tap water and their enhanced mammalian cell toxicity, additional research is warranted to assess the magnitude and variability of human ITHM exposures. PMID:26599150

  19. Ultrasound-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis for iodinated amino acid extraction from edible seaweed before reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Romarís-Hortas, Vanessa; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2013-09-27

    The combination of reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the determination of monoiodotyrosine (MIT) and diiodotyrosine (DIT) in edible seaweed. A sample pre-treatment based on ultrasound assisted enzymatic hydrolysis was optimized for the extraction of these iodinated amino acids. Pancreatin was selected as the most adequate type of enzyme, and parameters affecting the extraction efficiency (pH, temperature, mass of enzyme and extraction time) were evaluated by univariate approaches. In addition, extractable inorganic iodine (iodide) was also quantified by anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography (AE-HPLC) coupled with ICP-MS. The proposed procedure offered limits of detection of 1.1 and 4.3ngg(-1) for MIT and DIT, respectively. Total iodine contents in seaweed, as well as total iodine in enzymatic digests were measured by ICP-MS after microwave assisted alkaline digestion with tetramethylamonium hydroxide (TMAH) for total iodine assessment, and also by treating the pancreatin extracts (extractable total iodine assessment). The optimized procedure was successfully applied to five different types of edible seaweed. The highest total iodine content, and also the highest iodide levels, was found in the brown seaweed Kombu (6646±45μgg(-1)). Regarding iodinated amino acids, Nori (a red seaweed) was by far the one with the highest amount of both species (42±3 and 0.41±0.024μgg(-1) for MIT and DIT, respectively). In general, MIT concentrations were much higher than the amounts of DIT, which suggests that iodine from iodinated proteins in seaweed is most likely bound in the form of MIT residues. PMID:23972456

  20. [Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism after cadexomer iodine treatment of leg ulcers].

    PubMed

    Michanek, A; Hansson, C; Berg, G; Månesköld-Claes, A

    1998-12-01

    The article consists in two case reports of eldery patients who developed hyperthyroidism after cadexomer iodine treatment of small leg ulcers. The first was an 87-year-old woman who developed anxiety, hoarseness and tachycardia after five months treatment of a 12 cm2 leg ulcer with 350 g cadexomer iodine. Her serum level of free thyroxine (FT4) was 23.1 pmol/l (normal range, 11.7-28.0), and that of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.01 mIU/l (normal range, 0.1-3.0). She had had a nodular goitre for thirty years. The second was an 86- year-old woman who developed depression and confusion after three months' treatment of an 8 cm2 leg ulcer with 170 g cadexomere iodine. Her serum level of FT4 was 30.0 pmol/l, and that of TSH 0.005 mIU/l. Both patients underwent Tc99m pertechnetate scanning and iodine uptake measurement with a view to treating the hyperthyroidism with radio-iodine. However, as iodine uptake was inhibited in both cases, radio-iodine treatment was impossible, and symptomatic treatment and antithyroid drugs had to be used. Thus, it is concluded that topical treatment with cadexomer iodine can induce hyperthyroidism difficult to manage clinically as the treatment options are limited, which should be borne in mind when cadexomer iodine treatment is considered. PMID:9889495

  1. Maintaining adequate hydration and nutrition in adult enteral tube feeding.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the nutritional and fluid requirements of enterally-fed patients can be challenging and the practicalities of ensuring adequate delivery must be taken into consideration. Patients who are enterally fed can be more reliant on clinicians, family members and carers to meet their nutrition and hydration needs and identify any deficiencies, excesses or problems with delivery. Estimating a patient's requirements can be challenging due to the limitations of using predictive equations in the clinical setting. Close monitoring by all those involved in the patient's care, as well as regular review by a dietitian, is therefore required to balance the delivery of adequate feed and fluids to meet each patient's individual needs and prevent the complications of malnutrition and dehydration. Increasing the awareness of the signs of malnutrition and dehydration in patients receiving enteral tube feeding among those involved in a patient's care will help any deficiencies to be detected early on and rectified before complications occur. PMID:26087203

  2. Assessing juvenile sex offenders to determine adequate levels of supervision.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, K E; Gourley, M M; Cash, M C

    1995-08-01

    The present study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories currently being used by probation officers in the state of Utah to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. The internal consistency or reliability of the inventories ranged from moderate to good. Factor analysis was utilized to significantly increase the reliability of the four inventories by collapsing them into the following three factors: (a) Custodian's and Juvenile's Attitude Toward Intervention; (b) Offense Characteristics; and (c) Historical Risk Factors. These three inventories/factors explained 41.2% of the variance in the combined inventories' scores. Suggestions are made regarding the creation of an additional inventory. "Characteristics of the Victim" to account for more of the variance. In addition, suggestions as to how these inventories can be used by probation officers to make objective and consistent decisions about adequate supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders are discussed. PMID:7583754

  3. The atmospheric chemistry of iodine monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Laszlo, B.; Huie, R.E.

    1995-12-01

    The possible role of iodine on tropospheric ozone arid, more recently, stratospheric ozone has been of considerable interest. There have been, however relatively few experimental determination of the chemistry of the important radical, IO. Laser flash photolysis with two-wavelength transient absorption experiments were performed on N{sub 2}O/I{sub 2}+X{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixtures (X{sub 2} = halogen) at room temperature and total pressure between 8 and 80 kPa. An extended IO absorption spectrum, experimental rate coefficients of IO+IO, IO+O({sup 3}P), IO+BrO, BrO+I and IO+ClO reactions will be presented. Preliminary results show the atmospheric importance of reaction between alkylperoxy radicals and iodine atoms or iodine monoxide radicals. These reactions seem to be important tropospheric iodine sinks.

  4. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    During this period the parametric studies of the iodine laser oscillator pumped by a Vortek simulator were carried out before amplifier studies. The amplifier studies are postponed to the extended period after completing the parametric studies. In addition, the kinetic modeling of a solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier, and the experimental work for a solar pumped dye laser amplifier are in progress. This report contains three parts: (1) a 10 W CW iodine laser pumped by a Vortek solar simulator; (2) kinetic modeling to predict the time to lasing threshold, lasing time, and energy output of solar-pumped iodine laser; and (3) the study of the dye laser amplifier pumped by a Tamarack solar simulator.

  5. Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy for Hyperthyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Iodine (I-131) Therapy Radioiodine therapy is a nuclear medicine treatment for an overactive thyroid, a condition ... locally overactive in producing too much thyroid hormone. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  6. Teaching the Rovibronic Spectroscopy of Molecular Iodine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, J. Charles

    2007-01-01

    The rovibronic spectroscopy of molecular iodine provides a clearer understanding of the electronic potential parameters of various systems to the undergraduate students. The technique also helps them to test the various other quantum mechanical concepts.

  7. The Electronic Spectrum of Iodine Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaught, Ian J.

    1980-01-01

    Presents equations and techniques for calculating and interpreting many of the spectroscopically important parameters associated with the ground and second excited states of the iodine molecule. (Author/CS)

  8. Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about tositumomab and iodine I 131 tositumomab and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug combination, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  9. Iodine Status of Vulnerable Populations in Henan Province of China 2013-2014 After the Implementation of the New Iodized Salt Standard.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Zhu, Lin; Li, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Heming; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Yang; Hao, Zongyu

    2016-09-01

    The standard of salt iodine content in China has been adjusted several times since implementation of the universal salt iodization (USI) in 1995. The new standard of iodized salt content was adjusted from 35 ± 15 to 30 ± 9 mg/kg in Henan province in 2012. We aimed to determine whether the vulnerable populations were iodine sufficient after the adjustment of salt iodine content and to provide a guideline for the adjustment of USI policy in China. Two cross-sectional surveys of iodine status in vulnerable populations, including reproductive-age, pregnant and lactating women, infants <2 years, and children aged 8-10 years, were conducted in Henan province in 2013 and 2014. In 2013, the median urinary iodine concentration (mUIC) of reproductive-age women was 200.1 μg/L and that of school children aged 8-10 years was 221.0 μg/L. These mUICs were considered as "more than adequate." The mUICs of reproductive-age women and school children in 2014 showed a significant decline compared to the mUICs in 2013 (P = 0.012 and P = 0.001, respectively). The mUICs of the pregnant women were 204.2 μg/L in 2013 and 202.5 μg/L in 2014, which both met the requirement level recommended by WHO. In 2013, the mUIC of lactating women was 169.1 μg/L and that of infants <2 years was 203.2 μg/L, which were significantly lower than that of 2014 (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). The lactating women and infants in 2013 and 2014 were both regarded as "iodine adequate." Iodine status of the vulnerable populations is still adequate as a whole in Henan province after decreasing the salt iodine content. However, the mUIC of school children aged 8-10 years is slightly above the adequate level. To reduce the risk of iodine excess in the general population and prevent the possibility of iodine deficiency of the vulnerable population, it is necessary to explore the appropriate level of iodized salt content. PMID:26779621

  10. Rats with spontaneous high level of NaCl intake have hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Belló, A A; Covian, M R

    1991-11-01

    The thyroid function was studied by means of a comparison between rats that drank daily less than 2 mEq of a NaCl solution (control) and rats that spontaneously drank daily above 4 mEq of this solution (0.25 M), which is considered aversive to rats. It was found that, in these rats, the protein-bound iodine (PBI-127) and the radioactive iodine uptake (I-131) were less than in the control rats, in spite of similar thyroid weight. It seems, therefore, that the rats that drank high levels of the aversive salt solution have hypothyroidism. This finding shows another link between the thyroid gland and NaCl intake. These data have implications in the design and interpretation of experiments in which NaCl intake is studied. PMID:1805272

  11. Regenerable Iodine Water-Disinfection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Jolly, Clifford D.

    1994-01-01

    Iodinated resin bed for disinfecting water regenerated to extend useful life. Water flows through regeneration bed of crystalline iodine during regeneration. At other times, flow diverted around regeneration bed. Although regeneration cycle manually controlled readily automated to start and stop according to signals from concentration sensors. Further benefit of regeneration is bed provides highly concentrated biocide source when needed. Concentrated biocide used to superiodinate system after contamination from routine maintenance or unexpected introduction of large concentration of microbes.

  12. Race-ethnicity is related to biomarkers of iron and iodine status after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables in NHANES 2003-2006.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Sternberg, Maya R; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Pan, Yi

    2013-06-01

    The NHANES 2003-2006 has assessed iron and iodine status, 2 trace element nutrients of continued public health interest, in the U.S. population. We investigated associations of sociodemographic (age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, income) and lifestyle (smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, dietary supplement use) variables with the iron status indicators serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and body iron in women aged 20-49 y (n = 2539, 2513, and 2509, respectively) and with urine iodine, a biomarker of iodine intake, in adults aged ≥ 20 y (n = 3066). Significant correlations between the study variables and biomarkers were weak (|r| ≤ 0.24). Urine creatinine (uCr) was moderately significantly correlated with urine iodine (r = 0.52). The individual variables explained ≤ 5% of the variability in biomarker concentrations in bivariate analysis. In multiple regression models, sociodemographic and lifestyle variables together explained 4-13% of the variability in iron indicators and 41% of the variability in urine iodine (uCr in the model). The adjusted estimated body iron was ≈ 1 unit (mg/kg) lower in non-Hispanic black vs. non-Hispanic white women and ≈ 1 unit higher in women who smoked vs. those who did not and in women consuming 1 vs. 0 alcoholic drinks/d. The adjusted estimated urine iodine concentration (uCr in the model) was 34% lower in non-Hispanic blacks vs. non-Hispanic whites, 22% higher in supplement users vs. nonusers, and 11% higher with every 10-y increase in age. In summary, after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables (and uCr in the iodine model), race-ethnicity retained a strong association with sTfR, body iron, and urine iodine; smoking and alcohol consumption with iron biomarkers; and supplement use and age with urine iodine. PMID:23596169

  13. Modern and past volcanic degassing of iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, H.; Auzende, A.-L.; Marocchi, M.; Raepsaet, C.; Munsch, P.; Testemale, D.; Mézouar, M.; Kubsky, S.; Carrière, M.; Ricolleau, A.; Fiquet, G.

    2016-01-01

    We have monitored iodine degassing from a melt to a water vapor during decompression (i.e. magma ascent). Experiments have been performed by combining diamond anvil cells experiments with synchrotron X-rays fluorescence analysis. Partition coefficients DIfluid/melt measured for a pressure and temperature range of 0.1-1.8 GPa and 500-900 °C, range from 41 to 1.92, values for room conditions DIfluid/glass (quenched samples) are equal to or higher than 350. We show that iodine degassing with water is earlier and much more efficient than for lighter halogen elements, Cl and Br. Iodine is totally degassed from the silicate melt at room conditions. By applying these results to modern volcanology, we calculate an annual iodine flux for subduction related volcanism of 0.16-2.4 kt yr-1. We suggest that the natural iodine degassing may be underestimated, having possible consequences on the Earth's ozone destruction cycle. By applying this results to the Early Earth, we propose a process that may explain the contrasted signature of I, Br and Cl, strongly depleted in the bulk silicate Earth, the most depleted being iodine, whereas fluorine is almost enriched. The Earth may have lost heavy halogen elements during an early water degassing process from the magma ocean.

  14. Electron microscopy of low iodinated thyroglobulin molecules.

    PubMed

    Berg, G; Ekholm, R

    1975-04-29

    Thyroglobulin molecules were studied in the electron microscope with negative staining technique. In a first series of experiments samples of thyroglobulin varying in iodine content from 0.5 to 0.03% were prepared from the thyroids of mice and rats kept on iodine-poor diets. All samples contained thyroglobulin molecules of the normal ovoid shape, not deviating in size or shape from molecules obtained from normal thyroids. However, in addition, another type of molecule having a cylindrical shape was observed in all samples. The proportion of these cylindrical molecules increased from a few per cent in the moderately iodine-poor thyroglobulin samples to more than 80% in the highly iodine-deficient thyroglobulin (0.03%). In a second series of experiments extremely iodine-poor thyroglobulin (smaller than 0.005%) was obtained from propylthiouracil-treated rats. In these preparations practically all molecules had a cylindrical shape. These samples also contained smaller particles interpreted to be dissociation products. The cylindrical molecules were of two types, one appearing compact and measuring 250 times 135 A (length times diameter) and the other appearing porous and having a length of 145 and a diameter of 205 A. It is concluded that the cylindrical molecules represent non- or low-iodinated thyroglobulin and it is suggested that the porous cylindrical molecule is an unfolded form of the compact cylinder. PMID:1138879

  15. Food consumption pattern and nutrient intake of Indian obese males.

    PubMed

    Gera, T; Khetarpaul, N

    2000-01-01

    Mean daily intake of all foods except cereals i.e. pulses, green leafy vegetables, roots and tubers, fruits, milk and milk products, sugar and fats of Indian obese male respondents was higher than the values recommended by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR, 1987). The consumption of fat and sugar was 18 and 8 percent more than the recommended intake values respectively. However, their non-obese counterparts consumed significantly (P < 0.05) lower amounts of all the foods except cereals and pulses. The intake of various nutrients i.e. energy, protein, fats, beta-carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vit B12, folacin, ascorbic acid and calcium by obese respondents was considerably higher than the recommended values (ICMR, 1990) and the control group. All the obese respondents were consuming adequate (100% and above) amounts of energy, protein and fats. Intake of carbohydrates was marginally adequate (75-99.9%) among 92 percent of the obese respondents whereas 8 percent were consuming adequate amount of carbohydrates. They had higher consumption of visible as well as invisible fat than the control group. PMID:11142609

  16. Effect of iodine disinfection products on higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janik, D.; Macler, B.; Macelroy, R. D.; Thorstenson, Y.; Sauer, R.

    1989-01-01

    Iodine is used to disinfect potable water on United States spacecraft. Iodinated potable water will likely be used to grow plants in space. Little is known about the effects of iodine disinfection products on plants. Seeds of select higher plants were germinated in water iodinated using the Shuttle Microbial Check Valve, and water to which measured amounts of iodine was added. Percent germination was decreased in seeds of most species germinated in iodinated water. Beans were most affected. Germination rates, determined from germination half-times, were decreased for beans germinated in iodinated water, and water to which iodide was added. Development was retarded and rootlets were conspicuously absent in bean and several other plant species germinated in iodinated water. Iodide alone did not elicit these responses. Clearly iodine disinfection products can affect higher plants. These effects must be carefully considered for plant experimentation and cultivation in space, and in design and testing of closed environmental life support systems.

  17. Iodine derivatives of chemically modified gum Arabic microspheres.

    PubMed

    Ganie, Showkat A; Ali, Akbar; Mazumdar, Nasreen

    2015-09-20

    Acetylated gum Arabic (AGA) derivatives with different degrees of substitution (DS 0.97-2.74) were synthesized using acetyl chloride and a base under varying reaction conditions. The AGA derivatives were obtained in the form of microspheres and thereafter stable iodine products were prepared by doping the microspheres with an iodinating agent, iodine monochloride (ICl). The reaction between electrophilic iodine and polar carbonyl groups was studied by FT-IR, (1)H-NMR, and UV-VIS spectroscopies. The products were also characterized by DSC, TGA and SEM studies. The incorporated iodine was released in aqueous medium as iodide ions (I(-)). A reaction scheme has been proposed for the iodination and de-iodination of the gum derivatives. This work suggests that the iodine derivatives of modified gum Arabic could be used as a source of iodide ions which is the nutritional form of iodine. PMID:26050909

  18. Daily boron intake from the American diet.

    PubMed

    Rainey, C J; Nyquist, L A; Christensen, R E; Strong, P L; Culver, B D; Coughlin, J R

    1999-03-01

    Interest in boron as a naturally occurring trace element nutrient from the food supply is increasing. Mounting evidence suggests that boron is essential to human beings. This study explores the major food and beverage contributors of boron and estimates of daily boron intake from the American diet. Previous estimates in the literature of dietary boron consumption are based on limited foods and population segments. In this study we provide a more comprehensive assessment of boron consumption by the US population. A boron nutrient database of 1,944 individual foods was developed. These foods represent 95.3% by weight of all foods consumed in the US Department of Agriculture 1989-1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1989-1991 CSFII). The Boron Nutrient Database (version 1.0) was then linked to the 3-day food records of 11,009 respondents to the 1989-1991 CSFII to generate the average daily boron intake for each person. The weighted 5th percentile, median, mean, and 95th percentile boron intakes, respectively, are 0.43, 1.02, 1.17 and 2.42 mg/day for men; 0.33, 0.83, 0.96 and 1.94 mg/day for women; and 0.40, 0.86, 1.01 and 2.18 mg/day for pregnant women. For vegetarian adults, these intakes are 0.46, 1.30, 1.47 and 2.74 mg/day for men and 0.33, 1.00, 1.29 and 4.18 mg/day for women. The top 2 boron contributors, coffee and milk, are low in boron, yet they make up 12% of the total boron intake by virtue of the volume consumed. Among the top 50 boron contributors, peanut butter, wine, raisins, peanuts, and other nuts are high in boron. As more data become available on daily boron requirements, the results of this study may be used to assess whether Americans' daily intake of boron is adequate. PMID:10076586

  19. POROUS DIKE INTAKE EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of a porous dike intake. A small-scale test facility was constructed and continuously operated for 2 years under field conditions. Two stone dikes of gabion construction were tested: one consisted of 7.5 cm stones; and the other, 20 cm st...

  20. Peptides and food intake.

    PubMed

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  1. Peptides and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  2. Obesity coexists with malnutrition? Adequacy of food consumption by severely obese patients to dietary reference intake recommendations.

    PubMed

    Correia Horvath, Jaqueline Driemeyer; Dias de Castro, Mariana Laitano; Kops, Natália; Kruger Malinoski, Natasha; Friedman, Rogério

    2014-01-01

    To assess the adequacy of food intake in severely obese patients and describe their main nutritional deficiencies on the basis of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Patients on a waiting list for bariatric surgery were sequentially recruited from March 2010 to November 2011. All subjects underwent nutritional status assessment (anthropometry, dietary recall and semi-structured interview), socioeconomic evaluation (Brazilian Association of Research Companies criteria) and laboratory testing (glucose/hormone/lipid panel). A total of 77 patients were assessed, 50 of whom (76.6%) were female. Mean age was 44.48 ± 12.55 years. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (72.4%), binge eating disorder (47.4%), type 2 diabetes mellitus (32.9%), sleep apnea (30.3%) and dyslipidemia (18.4%). Macronutrient intake was largely adequate, in view of the high calorie intake. However, some micronutrient deficiencies were present. Only 19.5% of patients had an adequate intake of potassium, 26.0% of calcium, and 66.2% of iron. All subjects consumed more than the minimum recommended intake of sodium, with 98.7% reaching the upper limit. Bcomplex vitamin intake was satisfactory (adequate in >80% of subjects), but lipid-soluble vitamin (A, D, E) intake often fell short of the RDI. The diet of severely obese patients is unbalanced, with high calorie intake paralleled by insufficient micronutrient intake. When these patients are assessed and managed, qualitative dietary changes should be considered in addition to routine caloric restriction. PMID:24528344

  3. Adequation of mini satellites to oceanic altimetry missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellaieche, G.; Aguttes, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Association of the mini satellite concept and oceanic altimetry missions is discussed. Mission definition and most constraining requirements (mesoscale for example) demonstrate mini satellites to be quite adequate for such missions. Progress in altimeter characteristics, orbit determination, and position reporting allow consideration of oceanic altimetry missions using low Earth orbit satellites. Satellite constellation, trace keeping and orbital period, and required payload characteristics are exposed. The mission requirements covering Sun synchronous orbit, service area, ground system, and launcher characteristics as well as constellation maintenance strategy are specified. Two options for the satellite, orbital mechanics, propulsion, onboard power and stabilizing subsystems, onboard management, satellite ground linkings, mechanical and thermal subsystems, budgets, and planning are discussed.

  4. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  5. Mixed-layered bismuth--oxygen--iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2015-01-06

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  6. Iodine-129 Dose in LLW Disposal Facility Performance Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1999-10-15

    Iodine-129 has the lowest Performance Assessment derived inventory limit in SRS disposal facilities. Because iodine is concentrated in the body to one organ, the thyroid, it has been thought that dilution with stable iodine would reduce the dose effects of 129I.Examination of the dose model used to establish the Dose conversion factor for 129I shows that, at the levels considered in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities, the calculated 129I dose already accounts for ingestion of stable iodine. At higher than normal iodine ingestion rates, the uptake of iodine by the thyroid itself decrease, which effectively cancels out the isotopic dilution effect.

  7. [Application of iodine metabolism analysis methods in thyroid diseases].

    PubMed

    Han, Jian-hua; Qiu, Ling

    2013-08-01

    The main physiological role of iodine in the body is to synthesize thyroid hormone. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can lead to severe thyroid diseases. While its role in thyroid diseases has increasingly been recognized, few relevant platforms and techniques for iodine detection have been available in China. This paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of currently iodine detection methods including direct titration, arsenic cerium catalytic spectrophotometry, chromatography with pulsed amperometry, colorimetry based on automatic biochemistry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, so as to optimize the iodine nutrition for patients with thyroid diseases. PMID:23987480

  8. The effects of dieting on food and nutrient intake of lactating women.

    PubMed

    Lovelady, Cheryl A; Stephenson, Kimberly G; Kuppler, Kerri M; Williams, John P

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this report was to identify and evaluate dietary changes in women who were participating in a study on the effects of weight loss in overweight lactating women on the growth of their infants. Women were randomly assigned at 4 weeks postpartum to either restrict energy intake by 500 kcal/day (diet and exercise group) or to maintain usual dietary intake (control group) for 10 weeks. The diet and exercise group significantly decreased fats, sweetened drinks, sweets and desserts, snack foods, and energy intake. Micronutrient intake decreased in the diet and exercise group; however, mean intakes were not significantly different from those of the control group except for calcium and vitamin D. Both groups consumed less than 76% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for vitamins E and C at the end of the study. Mean intake of all other nutrients was adequate in both groups. These results suggest that overweight lactating women can restrict their energy intake by 500 kcal per day by decreasing consumption of foods high in fat and simple sugars. However, they must be advised to increase their intakes of foods high in calcium and vitamin D. Increased intake of fruits and vegetables should also be recommended to all lactating women, as well as multivitamin and calcium supplements to those who do not consume adequate amounts of these foods. PMID:16720131

  9. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine....

  10. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine....

  11. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine....

  12. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine....

  13. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine....

  14. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  15. Purchasing a cycle helmet: are retailers providing adequate advice?

    PubMed Central

    Plumridge, E.; McCool, J.; Chetwynd, J.; Langley, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the selling of cycle helmets in retail stores with particular reference to the adequacy of advice offered about the fit and securing of helmets. METHODS: All 55 retail outlets selling cycle helmets in Christchurch, New Zealand were studied by participant observation. A research entered each store as a prospective customer and requested assistance to purchase a helmet. She took detailed field notes of the ensuing encounter and these were subsequently transcribed, coded, and analysed. RESULTS: Adequate advice for helmet purchase was given in less than half of the stores. In general the sales assistants in specialist cycle shops were better informed and gave more adequate advice than those in department stores. Those who have good advice also tended to be more good advice also tended to be more active in helping with fitting the helmet. Knowledge about safety standards was apparent in one third of sales assistants. Few stores displayed information for customers about the correct fit of cycle helmets. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the advice and assistance being given to ensure that cycle helmets fit properly is often inadequate and thus the helmets may fail to fulfil their purpose in preventing injury. Consultation between retailers and policy makers is a necessary first step to improving this situation. PMID:9346053

  16. Adequate drainage system design for heap leaching structures.

    PubMed

    Majdi, Abbas; Amini, Mehdi; Nasab, Saeed Karimi

    2007-08-17

    The paper describes an optimum design of a drainage system for a heap leaching structure which has positive impacts on both mine environment and mine economics. In order to properly design a drainage system the causes of an increase in the acid level of the heap which in turn produces severe problems in the hydrometallurgy processes must be evaluated. One of the most significant negative impacts induced by an increase in the acid level within a heap structure is the increase of pore acid pressure which in turn increases the potential of a heap-slide that may endanger the mine environment. In this paper, initially the thickness of gravelly drainage layer is determined via existing empirical equations. Then by assuming that the calculated thickness is constant throughout the heap structure, an approach has been proposed to calculate the required internal diameter of the slotted polyethylene pipes which are used for auxiliary drainage purposes. In order to adequately design this diameter, the pipe's cross-sectional deformation due to stepped heap structure overburden pressure is taken into account. Finally, a design of an adequate drainage system for the heap structure 2 at Sarcheshmeh copper mine is presented and the results are compared with those calculated by exiting equations. PMID:17321044

  17. Dietary intake and food sources of choline in European populations.

    PubMed

    Vennemann, Francy B C; Ioannidou, Sofia; Valsta, Liisa M; Dumas, Céline; Ocké, Marga C; Mensink, Gert B M; Lindtner, Oliver; Virtanen, Suvi M; Tlustos, Christina; D'Addezio, Laura; Mattison, Irene; Dubuisson, Carine; Siksna, Inese; Héraud, Fanny

    2015-12-28

    Choline is an important nutrient for humans. Choline intake of the European population was assessed considering the European Food Safety Authority European Comprehensive Food Consumption Database and the United States Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database. Average choline intake ranges were 151-210 mg/d among toddlers (1 to ≤3 years old), 177-304 mg/d among other children (3 to ≤10 years old), 244-373 mg/d among adolescents (10 to ≤18 years old), 291-468 mg/d among adults (18 to ≤65 years old), 284-450 mg/d among elderly people (65 to ≤75 years old) and 269-444 mg/d among very elderly people (≥75 years old). The intakes were higher among males compared with females, mainly due to larger quantities of food consumed per day. In most of the population groups considered, the average choline intake was below the adequate intake (AI) set by the Institute of Medicine in the USA. The main food groups contributing to choline intake were meat, milk, grain, egg and their derived products, composite dishes and fish. The main limitations of this study are related to the absence of choline composition data of foods consumed by the European population and the subsequent assumption made to assess their intake levels. Given the definition of AI, no conclusion on the adequacy of choline intake can be drawn for most European population groups. Such results improve the knowledge on choline intake in Europe that could be further refined by the collection of choline composition data for foods as consumed in Europe. PMID:26423357

  18. Vitamins and mineral intake in elderly people from Extremadura.

    PubMed

    Campillo, J E; Pérez, G; Rodriguez, A; Torres, M D

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the vitamin and mineral consumption of a group of elderly people of the Comunidad of Extremadura. 122 subjects 62.5+/-5.3 years (64 women, 57 men) responded to a survey on their food intake the day before. The vitamin and mineral intake was calculated using a computer program from the University of Granada. We found no statistically significant differences by gender in the intake of the following vitamins: niacin (24.5+/-10.1 vs 25.6+/-9.7 mg/day), B1 (1.6+/-0.6 vs 1.7+/-0.6 mg/day), B6 (1.7+/-0.6 vs 1.8+/-0.5 mg/day), C (129.5+/-82.1 vs 158.1+/-97.6 mg/day), D (4.4+/-7.5 vs 3.8+/-6.5 microg/day), E (7.8+/-4.1 vs 8.1+/-3.8v mg/day), and folic acid (326.6+/-164.0 vs 383.1+/-215.3 microg/day). We did find statistically significant differences in the intake of the vitamins: A (582.2+/-299.6 vs 771.8+/-602.2 microg/day, p<0.05), B12 (23.4+/-20.3 vs 13.1+/-12.1 microg/day, p<0.001) and B2 (1.6+/-0.4 vs 1.8+/-0.5 mg/day, p<0.05). With respect to mineral intake, we found no statistically significant differences by gender in the intake of the following minerals: calcium (1046.8+/-276.9 vs 1088.9+/-307.7 mg/day), iron (20.2+/-6.6 vs 18.5+/-8.6 mg/day), iodine (73.6+/-37.9 vs 73.8+/-41.1 mg/day), potassium (2804.6+/-1088 vs 2837.5+/-1035.8 mg/day), magnesium (405.4+/-155.3 vs 366.5+/-141.3 mg/day), phosphorus (1407.4+/-408.6 vs 1317.2+/-447.2 mg/day) and zinc (8.9+/-3.3 vs 8.0+/-2.7 mg/day). We found a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) for sodium (2124.9+/-1049.5 mg/day in men and 1728.4+/-992.5 mg/day in women). Our results showed an intake less than the RDA of vit.A, while the vit.B12 intake was greater than the RDA. The intake of the other parameters fitted the recommended values. PMID:11813083

  19. Dietary Intake, Nutrition, and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip A.; Hamrick, Kari J.; Corbin, Karen D.; Hasken, Julie; Marais, Anna-Susan; Brooke, Lesley E.; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Gossage, J. Phillip

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we describe the nutritional status of women from a South African community with very high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Nutrient intake (24-hours recall) of mothers of children with FASD was compared to mothers of normal controls. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). More than 50 percent of all mothers were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, D, E, and C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Mean intakes were below the Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin K, potassium, and choline. Mothers of children with FASD reported significantly lower intake of calcium, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), riboflavin, and choline than controls. Lower intake of multiple key nutrients correlates significantly with heavy drinking. Poor diet quality and multiple nutritional inadequacies coupled with prenatal alcohol exposure may increase the risk for FASD in this population. PMID:24568797

  20. Modeling dietary fiber intakes in U.S. adults in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 90 percent of adults do not obtain the Adequate Intake (AI) for dietary fiber (DF). Using only reliable recalls in NHANES 2003–2006, we modeled the following changes to assess impact on usual DF intakes in US adults 19+ yrs: 1) increase all fiber containing foods by 10, 25, 50, or 100 percent; ...

  1. Are PPS payments adequate? Issues for updating and assessing rates

    PubMed Central

    Sheingold, Steven H.; Richter, Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    Declining operating margins under Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS) have focused attention on the adequacy of payment rates. The question of whether annual updates to the rates have been too low or cost increases too high has become important. In this article we discuss issues relevant to updating PPS rates and judging their adequacy. We describe a modification to the current framework for recommending annual update factors. This framework is then used to retrospectively assess PPS payment and cost growth since 1985. The preliminary results suggest that current rates are more than adequate to support the cost of efficient care. Also discussed are why using financial margins to evaluate rates is problematic and alternative methods that might be employed. PMID:10127450

  2. Measuring Population Sodium Intake: A Review of Methods

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Rachael M.

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of population sodium intake has been identified as a key initiative for reduction of Non-Communicable Disease. Monitoring of population sodium intake must accompany public health initiatives aimed at sodium reduction. A number of different methods for estimating dietary sodium intake are currently in use. Dietary assessment is time consuming and often under-estimates intake due to under-reporting and difficulties quantifying sodium concentration in recipes, and discretionary salt. Twenty-four hour urinary collection (widely considered to be the most accurate method) is also burdensome and is limited by under-collection and lack of suitable methodology to accurately identify incomplete samples. Spot urine sampling has recently been identified as a convenient and affordable alternative, but remains highly controversial as a means of monitoring population intake. Studies suggest that while spot urinary sodium is a poor predictor of 24-h excretion in individuals, it may provide population estimates adequate for monitoring. Further research is needed into the accuracy and suitability of spot urine collection in different populations as a means of monitoring sodium intake. PMID:25353661

  3. Salt intake in children and its consequences on blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Lava, Sebastiano A G; Bianchetti, Mario G; Simonetti, Giacomo D

    2015-09-01

    Sodium is the most abundant extracellular cation and therefore pivotal in determining fluid balance. At the beginning of life, a positive sodium balance is needed to grow. Newborns and preterm infants tend to lose sodium via their kidneys and therefore need adequate sodium intake. Among older children and adults, however, excessive salt intake leads to volume expansion and arterial hypertension. Children who are overweight, born preterm, or small for gestational age and African American children are at increased risk of developing high blood pressure due to a high salt intake because they are more likely to be salt sensitive. In the developed world, salt intake is generally above the recommended intake also among children. Although a positive sodium balance is needed for growth during the first year of life, in older children, a sodium-poor diet seems to have the same cardiovascular protective effects as among adults. This is relevant, since: (1) a blood pressure tracking phenomenon was recognized; (2) the development of taste preferences is important during childhood; and (3) salt intake is often associated with the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (predisposing children to weight gain). PMID:25127918

  4. Food intake and the nutritional status of women undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Isabela Borges; Marinho, Eduarda da Costa; Custódio, Isis Danyelle Dias; Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Maia, Yara Cristina de Paiva

    2016-06-01

    The objective behind this study was the analysis of food intake and the nutritional status of women with breast cancer (BC) undergoing chemotherapy (CT). The quantitative dietary evaluation was performed in accordance with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), whereas the qualitative evaluation was performed through the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index - Revised (BHEI-R).From among the total number of patients (n = 20), 60% (n = 12) presented waist circumference, equal to or higher than 88cm. It was noted that 75% (n = 15) individuals were overweight. The average intake for calcium, copper, iron, dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, vitamin B6 and zinc, were found to be below adequate intake levels, while the intake of vitamin C, phosphorus, manganese, sodium and thiamine were all found to be above DRIs recommendations. As for the analysis of the BHEI-R, 80% (n = 16) of the patients presented a "diet that needs modifications", while 20% (n = 4) presented a "healthy diet". Noted from these observations was the presence of a high overweight rate, a discrepancy in the intake of micronutrients and a diet that needed improvements. In this manner, the establishment and use of a nutritional intervention protocol are very important when it comes to the improvement of the diet in patients with BC and who are undergoing CT. PMID:27383354

  5. Surface concentration dependent structures of iodine on Pd(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göthelid, Mats; Tymczenko, Michael; Chow, Winnie; Ahmadi, Sareh; Yu, Shun; Bruhn, Benjamin; Stoltz, Dunja; von Schenck, Henrik; Weissenrieder, Jonas; Sun, Chenghua

    2012-11-01

    We use photoelectron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, and density functional theory to investigate coverage dependent iodine structures on Pd(110). At 0.5 ML (monolayer), a c(2 × 2) structure is formed with iodine occupying the four-fold hollow site. At increasing coverage, the iodine layer compresses into a quasi-hexagonal structure at 2/3 ML, with iodine occupying both hollow and long bridge positions. There is a substantial difference in electronic structure between these two iodine sites, with a higher electron density on the bridge bonded iodine. In addition, numerous positively charged iodine near vacancies are found along the domain walls. These different electronic structures will have an impact on the chemical properties of these iodine atoms within the layer.

  6. Seasonal variability of iodine and selenium in surface and groundwater as a factor that may contribute to iodine isotope balance in the thyroid gland and its irradiation in case of radioiodine contamination during accidents at the NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobova, Elena; Kolmykova, Lyudmila; Ryzhenko, Boris; Berezkin, Viktor; Saraeva, Anastasia

    2016-04-01

    Radioiodine release to the environment during the accident at the Chernobyl NPP led to the increased risk of the thyroid cancer cases within the contaminated areas, the effect being aggravated in conditions of stable iodine and selenium deficiency in local food chains. Although the drinking water iodine is usually believed to contribute not more than 10% to local diet, our estimations accounting of water content in other products and several regional studies (e.g. India and Australia) proved its portion to be at least twice as much. As radioiodine isotopes are short-lived, their absorption depends greatly on stable iodine and selenium sufficiency in thyroid gland in the first few days of contamination and seasonal variation of stable iodine and selenium in local sources of drinking water may be significant as modifying the resulting thyroid irradiation in different seasons of the year. The main goal of the study was to evaluate seasonal variation of levels of iodine and selenium in natural waters of the Bryansk region as a possible factor affecting the radioiodine intake by thyroid gland of animals and humans in case of radioiodine contamination during the accident. Seasonal I and Se concentration was measured in the years of 2014 and 2015 at 14 test points characterizing surface (river and lake) and drinking groundwater. Obtained data proved considerable seasonal variation of I and Se concentration in natural waters (3,7-8,1 μg/l and 0,04-0,4 μg/l respectively) related to physico-chemical water parameters, such as pH, Eh and fluctuations in concentration of dissolved organic matter. The widest I and Se seasonal variability was observed in surface and well waters, maximum I level being found in autumn at the end of vegetation period characterized by active I leaching from the decomposed organic residues by long lasting precipitations. The content of selenium in the surface waters during summer-autumn (0,06-0,3 μg/l) was higher than in spring (0,04-0,05

  7. Iodine Propulsion Advantages for Low Cost Mission Applications and the Iodine Satellite (ISAT) Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Schumacher, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Science and Technology Office is continuously exploring technology options to increase performance or reduce cost and risk to future NASA missions including science and exploration. Electric propulsion is a prevalent technology known to reduce mission costs by reduction in launch costs and spacecraft mass through increased post launch propulsion performance. The exploration of alternative propellants for electric propulsion continues to be of interest to the community. Iodine testing has demonstrated comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density resulting in higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's unique properties also allow for unpressurized storage yet sublimation with minimal power requirements to produce required gas flow rates. These characteristics make iodine an ideal propellant for secondary spacecraft. A range of mission have been evaluated with a focus on low-cost applications. Results highlight the potential for significant cost reduction over state of the art. Based on the potential, NASA has been developing the iodine Satellite for a near-term iodine Hall propulsion technology demonstration. Mission applications and progress of the iodine Satellite project are presented.

  8. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Kim, K. H.; Stock, L. V.

    1987-01-01

    The improvement on the collection system of the Tarmarack Solar Simulator beam was attemped. The basic study of evaluating the solid state laser materials for the solar pumping and also the work to construct a kinetic model algorithm for the flashlamp pumped iodine lasers were carried out. It was observed that the collector cone worked better than the lens assembly in order to collect the solar simulator beam and to focus it down to a strong power density. The study on the various laser materials and their lasing characteristics shows that the neodymium and chromium co-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (Nr:Cr:GSGG) may be a strong candidate for the high power solar pumped solid state laser crystal. On the other hand the improved kinetic modeling for the flashlamp pumped iodine laser provides a good agreement between the theoretical model and the experimental data on the laser power output, and predicts the output parameters of a solar pumped iodine laser.

  9. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Kim, K. H.; Stock, L. V.

    1987-02-01

    The improvement on the collection system of the Tarmarack Solar Simulator beam was attemped. The basic study of evaluating the solid state laser materials for the solar pumping and also the work to construct a kinetic model algorithm for the flashlamp pumped iodine lasers were carried out. It was observed that the collector cone worked better than the lens assembly in order to collect the solar simulator beam and to focus it down to a strong power density. The study on the various laser materials and their lasing characteristics shows that the neodymium and chromium co-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (Nr:Cr:GSGG) may be a strong candidate for the high power solar pumped solid state laser crystal. On the other hand the improved kinetic modeling for the flashlamp pumped iodine laser provides a good agreement between the theoretical model and the experimental data on the laser power output, and predicts the output parameters of a solar pumped iodine laser.

  10. The Ozone-Iodine-Chlorate Clock Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Sant'Anna, Rafaela T. P.; Monteiro, Emily V.; Pereira, Juliano R. T.; Faria, Roberto B.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a new clock reaction based on ozone, iodine, and chlorate that differs from the known chlorate-iodine clock reaction because it does not require UV light. The induction period for this new clock reaction depends inversely on the initial concentrations of ozone, chlorate, and perchloric acid but is independent of the initial iodine concentration. The proposed mechanism considers the reaction of ozone and iodide to form HOI, which is a key species for producing non-linear autocatalytic behavior. The novelty of this system lies in the presence of ozone, whose participation has never been observed in complex systems such as clock or oscillating reactions. Thus, the autocatalysis demonstrated in this new clock reaction should open the possibility for a new family of oscillating reactions. PMID:24386257

  11. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon; Stock, Larry V.

    1989-01-01

    This semiannual progress report covers the period from September 1, 1988 to February 28, 1989 under NASA grant NAG-1-441 entitled, Direct Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser Amplifier. During this period, the research effort was concentrated on the solar pumped master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system using n-C3F7I. In the experimental work, the amplification measurement was conducted to identify the optimum conditions for amplification of the center's Vortek solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier. A modeling effort was also pursued to explain the experimental results in the theoretical work. The amplification measurement of the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier is the first amplification experiment on the continuously pumped amplifier. The small signal amplification of 5 was achieved for the triple pass geometry of the 15 cm long solar simulator pumped amplifier at the n-C3F7I pressure of 20 torr, at the flow velocity of 6 m/sec and at the pumping intensity of 1500 solar constants. The XeCl laser pumped iodine laser oscillator, which was developed in the previous research, was employed as the master oscillator for the amplification measurement. In the theoretical work, the rate equations of the amplifier was established and the small signal amplification was calculated for the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier. The amplification calculated from the kinetic equations with the previously measured rate coefficients reveals very large disagreement with experimental measurement. Moreover, the optimum condition predicted by the kinetic equation is quite discrepant with that measured by experiment. This fact indicates the necessity of study in the measurement of rate coefficients of the continuously pumped iodine laser system.

  12. A quantitative model of the biogeochemical transport of iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, H.; Ji, Z.; Weng, J.

    2010-12-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are among the world’s most prevalent public health problems yet preventable by dietary iodine supplements. To better understand the biogeochemical behavior of iodine and to explore safer and more efficient ways of iodine supplementation as alternatives to iodized salt, we studied the behavior of iodine as it is absorbed, accumulated and released by plants. Using Chinese cabbage as a model system and the 125I tracing technique, we established that plants uptake exogenous iodine from soil, most of which are transported to the stem and leaf tissue. The level of absorption of iodine by plants is dependent on the iodine concentration in soil, as well as the soil types that have different iodine-adsorption capacity. The leaching experiment showed that the remainder soil content of iodine after leaching is determined by the iodine-adsorption ability of the soil and the pH of the leaching solution, but not the volume of leaching solution. Iodine in soil and plants can also be released to the air via vaporization in a concentration-dependent manner. This study provides a scientific basis for developing new methods to prevent IDD through iodized vegetable production.

  13. Should Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Technologists Estimate Dietary Calcium Intake at the Time of DXA?

    PubMed

    McKenna, Malachi J; McKenna, Mary Clare S; van der Kamp, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Adequate calcium intake is essential for bone health. Calcium is obtained from dietary sources and supplementation. Knowing the daily dietary calcium intake is helpful in deciding on the need for supplementation. Dietary calcium intake can be estimated quickly and accurately using an approach recommended by the National Osteoporosis Foundation. We sought to evaluate the usefulness of estimating dietary calcium intake by a technologist at the time of attendance for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. We conducted a retrospective survey of results on estimated dietary calcium intake in adults attending our DXA unit over 2 years (n=5569). We assessed intake with reference to the specifications of the Institute of Medicine according to sex and age. The average intake was 736 mg daily: Young adults had higher intakes than older adults (p<0.001), and men had higher intakes than women (p=0.017). According to Institute of Medicine's specification, we estimate that nearly 45% of Irish women need supplemental intake of 500 mg daily but <4% need supplemental intake of 1000 mg daily. Younger adults are apt to have intakes within, or higher than, the requirement. Having DXA technologists estimate dietary calcium intake at the time of DXA scanning may provide helpful information to the referring clinicians about the need for supplementation. PMID:25934029

  14. Regenerable Iodine Water-Disinfection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Jolly, Clifford D.

    1994-01-01

    Iodinated resin bed for disinfecting water regenerated to extend its useful life. Water flows through regeneration bed of crystalline iodine during regeneration. At other times, flow diverted around regeneration bed. Although regeneration cycle was manually controlled in demonstration, readily automated to start and stop according to signals and stop according to signals from concentration sensors. Further benefit of regeneration is that regeneration bed provides highly concentrated biocide source (200 mg/L) when needed. Concentrated biocide used to superiodinate system after contamination from routine maintenance or unexpected introduction of large concentration of microbes.

  15. [Overall child development: beyond pharmacological iodine supplementation].

    PubMed

    Gavilán, Enrique; Jiménez de Gracia, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Iodine deficiency is a factor that may compromise child development, but is not the only one. Other health determinants, some of them outside the healthcare system, are able to influence development. Fighting iodine deficiency may be a pragmatic and useful strategy if it is found to be not maleficent, beneficial to health, and cost-effective, and does not make us lose the notion that child development goes beyond psychomotor or cognitive performance. This article analyzes such constraints from a critical point of view. PMID:23916171

  16. Mysterious iodine-overabundance in Antarctic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreibus, G.; Waenke, H.; Schultz, L.

    1986-01-01

    Halogen as well as other trace element concentrations in meteorite finds can be influenced by alteration processes on the Earth's surface. The discovery of Antarctic meteorites offered the opportunity to study meteorites which were kept in one of the most sterile environment of the Earth. Halogen determination in Antartic meteorites was compared with non-Antarctic meteorites. No correlation was found between iodine concentration and the weathering index, or terrestrial age. The halogen measurements indicate a contaminating phase rich in iodine and also containing chlorine. Possible sources for this contamination are discussed.

  17. Nutrient intake of children with intractable epilepsy compared with healthy children.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella L; Schall, Joan I; Gallagher, Paul R; Stallings, Virginia A; Bergqvist, A G Christina

    2007-06-01

    Growth retardation is common among children with epilepsy, and poor dietary intake may be one of the causes. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to compare the nutrient intake of children 1 to 8 years of age with intractable epilepsy to healthy children of the same age from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 to 2002 (N=1,718) and with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Children with intractable epilepsy were divided into two age groups: 1.0 to 3.9 and 4.0 to 8.9 years, to correspond with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Forty-three children with intractable epilepsy, mean age=4.7+/-2.2 years, had significantly lower intakes (P<0.05) of total energy; protein; carbohydrate; fat; dietary fiber; vitamins A, E, B-6, and B-12; riboflavin; niacin; folate; calcium; phosphorus; magnesium; zinc; copper; and selenium compared with healthy children. Thirty percent or more of the children with intractable epilepsy in both age groups had intakes below the Recommended Dietary Allowance or Adequate Intake for vitamins D, E, and K; folate; calcium; linoleic acid; and alpha-linolenic acid. Health care professionals caring for children with intractable epilepsy should be aware of this pattern of decreased nutrient intake and educate families to provide an adequate diet and/or consider vitamin/mineral supplementation. PMID:17524723

  18. Osteoporosis and bone metabolic parameters in dependence upon calcium intake through milk and milk products.

    PubMed

    Stracke, H; Renner, E; Knie, G; Leidig, G; Minne, H; Federlin, K

    1993-09-01

    The bone mineral content of young adults as well as of osteoporotic patients and age-matched controls without bone disease was measured by single-photon absorptiometry. A retrospective nutrition survey was additionally made to study the relationship between bone mineral content and calcium intake in different periods of life. The bone mineral content and bone mineral density of young adults is directly related to the calcium intake through milk and dairy products. The osteoporotics had a significantly lower bone mineral content than the controls. Calcium intake through milk and milk products in childhood and adolescence had been significantly lower in the patients than in the controls, whereas in the later periods of life (20-30 years prior to the study and at the time of the study) there were no significant differences between the calcium intakes of the two groups. It was also found that an adequate intake of calcium protected against increased bone resorption, as evidenced in particular by the reduced levels of serum osteocalcin, a parameter of bone turnover. In conclusion it can be stated that the data support the hypothesis that adequate calcium intake through milk and milk products in childhood and adolescence is a decisive marker for obtaining a maximum bone mass (peak adult bone mass) and for the prevention of osteoporosis. Furthermore, it can be stated that increased calcium intake in the later years may not reduce the accelerated risk of osteoporosis resulting from inadequate calcium intake during childhood and adolescence. PMID:8243426

  19. Dietary indicators for assessing the adequacy of population zinc intakes.

    PubMed

    Hotz, Christine

    2007-09-01

    The assessment of dietary zinc intakes is an important component of evaluating the risk of zinc deficiency in populations, and for designing appropriate food-based interventions, including fortification, to improve zinc intakes. The prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes can describe the relative magnitude of the risk of zinc deficiency in the population and identify subpopulations at elevated risk. As a cornerstone to evaluating the adequacy of population zinc intakes globally, a set of internationally appropriate dietary reference intakes must be defined. The World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency (WHO/FAO/IAEA) and the Food and Nutrition Board/US Institute of Medicine (FNB/IOM) have presented estimated average requirements (EAR) for dietary zinc intake, and, more recently, the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG) presented a revised set of recommendations for international use. A prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes greater than 25% is considered to represent an elevated risk of population zinc deficiency. As the requirement estimates are derived from smaller, clinical studies and, for children, most components of the estimates are extrapolated from data for adults, it was desirable to evaluate their internal validity. The estimated physiological requirements for adult men and women appear to adequately predict zinc status as determined by biochemical indicators of status and/or zinc balance. With the use of data from available studies, the reported prevalence of low serum zinc concentration and the estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes predict similar levels of risk of zinc deficiency, particularly among pregnant and nonpregnant women. Conformity between these two indicators is less consistent for children, suggesting that further data and/or direct studies of zinc requirements among children are needed. PMID:17988006

  20. Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen GHM; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients. PMID:25768954

  1. Calcium intake and its relationship with risk of overweight and obesity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; da Silva, Carla Cristiane; Peres, Luciana Natal Lopes; Berbel, Marina Nogueira; Heigasi, Máircia Braz; Ribeiro, Josy Maria Cabral; Suzuki, Karina; Josué, Liene Mílcia Aparecida; Dalmas, José Carlos

    2009-03-01

    Adolescents' eating habits are determined by social, psychological, economic, political, and educational influences. They tend to prefer foods with inadequate nutritional value and high fat and carbohydrate content which leads to excessive weight gain and for many, calcium intake is restricted. According to some authors, low calcium intake is linked to increased adiposity. The objective was to evaluate adolescent calcium intake and investigate a possible relationship between calcium intake and nutritional state. As part of their first consultation at Botucatu Adolescent Outpatient Clinic-UNESP, 107 adolescents were nutritionally classified by BMI, according to age, gender, and bands proposed by CDC and AAP. Diet was evaluated by a 3 day 24h food recall, adopting 1300 mg/day calcium intake as recommended by Dietary Reference Intakes. Median calcium intake for the whole sample was 546.6 mg/day, with 91.30% female and 86.84% male presenting lower than adequate daily recommended ingestion levels (DRI). There was significant difference between calcium densities (Ca mg/1000 kcal) in eutrophic and overweight/obesity in males. Male adolescents showed an inverse relationship between calcium intake and adiposity (r = -0.488 and p = 0.0173), which corroborates the hypothesis that low calcium intake is linked to fatty tissue gain. Only 8.70% of female and 13.16% of male adolescents reached their daily recommended calcium intake levels. It must therefore be stressed that nutritional education is an important protection factor for children and adolescents in later life. PMID:19480339

  2. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  3. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  4. Adequate peritoneal dialysis: theoretical model and patient treatment.

    PubMed

    Tast, C

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adequate PD with sufficient weekly Kt/V (2.0) and Creatinine clearance (CCR) (60l) and necessary daily dialysate volume. This recommended parameter was the result of a recent multi-centre study (CANUSA). For this there were 40 patients in our hospital examined and compared in 1996, who carried out PD for at least 8 weeks and up to 6 years. These goals (CANUSA) are easily attainable in the early treatment of many individuals with a low body surface area (BSA). With higher BSA or missing RRF (Residual Renal Function) the daily dose of dialysis must be adjusted. We found it difficult to obtain the recommended parameters and tried to find a solution to this problem. The simplest method is to increase the volume or exchange rate. The most expensive method is to change from CAPD to APD with the possibility of higher volume or exchange rates. Selection of therapy must take into consideration: 1. patient preference, 2. body mass, 3. peritoneal transport rates, 4. ability to perform therapy, 5. cost of therapy and 6. risk of peritonitis. With this information in mind, an individual prescription can be formulated and matched to the appropriate modality of PD. PMID:10392062

  5. DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.

  6. The two-layer geochemical structure of modern biogeochemical provinces and its significance for spatially adequate ecological evaluations and decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    regard to secondary redistribution of chemical elements; 3) selection of areas adequate for the short- and long-term ecogeochemical monitoring; 4) selection of areas as global and regional biogeochemical standards. The approach was used to evaluate contribution of stable iodine deficiency and radioactive iodine fallout to distribution of thyroid diseases among population of the Bryansk region [1], to evaluate natural transformation of the initially uniform spatial structure of N, P, K in agricultural fields [2] and radiocesium in forest and flood plain landscapes [3]. The work has been partly supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants 07-05-00912; 10-05-01148; 13-05-00823). References Korobova E.M., S.L. Romanov, A.I. Kuvylin, E.I. Chesalova, V.Yu. Beriozkin, I.V. Kurnosova. Modern natural and technogenic iodine biogeochemical provinces: spatial structure and health effects. Goldschmidt 2011, Prague, August 14-19, 2011. Mineralogical Magazine, 75, 3, June 2011, Goldschmidt abstracts 2011, www.minersoc.org, 1224. Romanov S.L. Patterns of the structure of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium fields in landscape systems of Belorussia. Thesis. Moscow, Moscow State University, 1991, 20 p. Korobova E.M., Romanov S.L., 2009. A Chernobyl 137Cs contamination study as an example for the spatial structure of geochemical fields and modeling of the geochemical field structure. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 99, 1-8.

  7. An iodine supplementation of tomato fruits coated with an edible film of the iodide-doped chitosan.

    PubMed

    Limchoowong, Nunticha; Sricharoen, Phitchan; Techawongstien, Suchila; Chanthai, Saksit

    2016-06-01

    In general, the risk of numerous thyroid cancers inevitably increases among people with iodine deficiencies. An iodide-doped chitosan (CT-I) solution was prepared for dipping tomatoes to coat the fresh surface with an edible film (1.5 μm), thereby providing iodine-rich fruits for daily intake. Characterisation of the thin film was conducted by FTIR and SEM. Stability of the CT-I film was studied via water immersion at various time intervals, and no residual iodide leached out due to intrinsic interactions between the cationic amino group of chitosan and iodide ions. Moreover, the iodide supplement exhibited no effect on the antioxidant activity of tomatoes. The iodine content in the film-coated tomato was determined by ICP-OES. The tomato coating with 1.5% (w/v) CT-I contained approximately 0.4 μg iodide per gram fresh weight. In addition, the freshness and storability of iodine-doped tomatoes were also maintained for shelf-life concerns. PMID:26830582

  8. Safe use of high intakes of folic acid: research challenges and paths forward.

    PubMed

    Boyles, Abee L; Yetley, Elizabeth A; Thayer, Kristina A; Coates, Paul M

    2016-07-01

    Adequate folic acid intake is an effective dietary-based prevention tool for reducing the risk of neural tube defects. Achieving adequate intake for the prevention of neural tube defects frequently requires the consumption of foods fortified with folic acid and/or the use of folic acid-containing dietary supplements. To date, research on the potential for adverse effects of high intakes of folic acid has been limited. Without such research, it is difficult to define a value for high intake. In May 2015, an expert panel was tasked with examining the available scientific literature and making research recommendations within 4 general categories of potential folate-related adverse health effects: cancer, cognition in conjunction with vitamin B12 deficiency, hypersensitivity-related outcomes, and thyroid and diabetes-related disorders. This article summarizes the expert panel's conclusions, outlines the challenges faced when reviewing the literature, and examines some of the panel's recommendations for research. PMID:27272334

  9. Inhibition of food intake.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Over 100 publications, principally from five groups, describe an effect of amylin and amylin analogs in inhibition of food intake in animals and humans. The major groups contributing to this area are those of the following: Chance and Balasubramaniam (Balasubramaniam et al., 1991a,b; Chance et al., 1991a,b, 1992a,b, 1993). Morley, Flood, and Edwards (Edwards and Morley, 1992; Flood and Morley, 1992; Macintosh et al., 2000; Morley and Flood, 1991, 1994; Morley et al., 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997). Lutz, Geary, and others (Barth et al., 2003; Del Prete et al., 2002; Lutz et al., 1994, 1995a,b, 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998a,b,c, 2000a,b, 2001a,b,c, 2003; Mollet et al., 2001, 2003a,b, 2004; Riediger et al., 2002, 2004; Rushing et al., 2000a,b, 2001, 2002). Workers at Amylin Pharmaceuticals Inc., or their collaborators (Bhavsar et al., 1995, 1996, 1997a, 1998; Birkemo et al., 1995; Chapman et al., 2004a,b; Edwards et al., 1998; Feinle et al., 2002; Mack et al., 2003; Riediger et al., 1999; Roth et al., 2004; Watkins et al., 1996; Weyer et al., 2004; Young, 1997; Young and Bhavsar, 1996). Arnelo, Reidelberger, and others (Arnelo et al., 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998, 2000; Fruin et al., 1997; Granqvist et al., 1997; Reidelberger et al., 2001, 2002, 2004). The magnitude of amylin inhibition of food intake, and its potency for this effect when delivered peripherally, suggests a physiological role in satiogenesis. Increases in food intake following disruption of amylin signal-signaling (e.g., with amylin receptor blockade, or with amylin gene knock-out mice) further support a role of endogenous amylin to tonically restrict nutrient intake. In addition, synergies with other endogenous satiety agents may be present, and convey greater physiological importance than is conveyed by single signals. The anorectic effect of amylin is consistent with a classic amylin pharmacology. The anorectic effect of peripheral amylin appears principally due to a direct action at the area postrema

  10. Source And Sink Of Iodine For Drinking Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Flanagan, David T.; Gibbons, Randall E.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed system for controlling concentration of iodine in potable water exploits temperature dependence of equilibrium partition of iodine between solution in water and residence in ion-exchange resin. Used to maintain concentration of iodine sufficient to kill harmful microbes, but not so great to make water unpalatable. Requires little attention, yet controls concentration of iodine more precisely than iodination and deiodination by manual techniques. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, system has terrestrial applications in regions where water must be kept potable, resupply difficult, and system must operate largely unattended.

  11. Optical and physical effects of iodine in chalcohalide glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, Robin J.; Heo, Jong; Sigel, George H., Jr.

    1990-05-01

    Tellurium and iodine were added to a base chalcogenide glass composition (Ge33Asl2Se5S) to compare their effects on physical and optical properties. Iodine decreased the glass transition temperature and increased thermal expansion to a greater extent than tellurium. However, density was lowered by the presence of iodine and increased by tellurium. Examination of the multiphonon absorption edge in the 300-900 cm1 range revealed that iodine and tellurium occupy different structural sites which accounts for their varied effect on physical properties. There appears to be no advantage of iodine versus tellurium additions with regard to optical fiber applications based on the results obtained.

  12. Dry method for recycling iodine-loaded silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Thomas R.; Staples, Bruce A.; Murphy, Llewellyn P.

    1978-05-09

    Fission product iodine is removed from a waste gas stream and stored by passing the gas stream through a bed of silver-exchanged zeolite until the zeolite is loaded with iodine, passing dry hydrogen gas through the bed to remove the iodine and regenerate the bed, and passing the hydrogen stream containing the hydrogen iodide thus formed through a lead-exchanged zeolite which adsorbs the radioactive iodine from the gas stream and permanently storing the lead-exchanged zeolite loaded with radioactive iodine.

  13. Iodine as propellant for electric space propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grondein, Pascaline; Chabert, Pascal; Aanesland, Ane

    2014-10-01

    In PEGASES (an electric gridded thruster) both positive and negative ions are expelled after extraction from an ion-ion plasma formed downstream a localized magnetic field placed a few centimeters from the ionization region. For this thruster concept, we believe that Iodine is the best candidate. Its advantages are multiple: heavy and therefore good for high thrust, low ionization threshold and high electronegativity (the latter crucial for PEGASES) leading to high ion-ion densities and low RF power, at solid state at STP with a high vapor, and finally inexpensive. Iodine is also di-atomic and therefore energy loss in dissociation processes are reduced compared to SF6. We present here a dedicated experimental set-up intended for iodine experiments. The injection system consists of an evaporation chamber with temperature controlled gas lines and vacuum chamber to control condensation. A global model of the iodine electronegative plasma will be developed to compare and predict the plasma behavior and composition inside the thruster. The main challenge in this model is to reproduce the conditions of a strongly segregated plasma with two regions: one with rather high electron temperature and low electronegativity and the other an ion-ion plasma with low temperature.

  14. Iodine retention during evaporative volume reduction

    DOEpatents

    Godbee, H.W.; Cathers, G.I.; Blanco, R.E.

    1975-11-18

    An improved method for retaining radioactive iodine in aqueous waste solutions during volume reduction is disclosed. The method applies to evaporative volume reduction processes whereby the decontaminated (evaporated) water can be returned safely to the environment. The method generally comprises isotopically diluting the waste solution with a nonradioactive iodide and maintaining the solution at a high pH during evaporation.

  15. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon

    1990-01-01

    The optimum conditions of a solar pumped iodine laser are found in this research for the case of a continuous wave operation and a pulsed operation. The optimum product of the pressure(p) inside the laser tube and the tube diameter(d) was pd=40 approx. 50 torr-cm on the contrary to the case of a high intensity flashlamp pumped iodine laser where the optimum value of the product is known to be pd=150 torr-cm. The pressure-diameter product is less than 1/3 of that of the high power iodine laser. During the research period, various laser materials were also studied for solar pumping. Among the laser materials, Nd:YAG is found to have the lowest laser threshold pumping intensity of about 200 solar constant. The Rhodamine 6G was also tested as the solar pumped laser material. The threshold pumping power was measured to be about 20,000 solar constant. The amplification experiment for a continuously pumped iodine laser amplifier was performed using Vortek solar simulator and the amplification factors were measured for single pass amplification and triple pass amplification of the 15 cm long amplifier tube. The amplification of 5 was obtained for the triple pass amplification.

  16. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In H.; Stock, Larry V.

    1988-01-01

    A XeCl laser which was developed earlier for an iodine laser oscillator was modified in order to increase the output pulse energy of XeCl laser so that the iodine laser output energy could be increased. The electrical circuit of the XeCl laser was changed from a simple capacitor discharge circuit of the XeCl laser to a Marx system. Because of this improvement the output energy from the XeCl laser was increased from 60 mj to 80 mj. Subsequently, iodine laser output energy was increased from 100 mj to 3 mj. On the other hand, the energy storage capability and amplification characteristics of the Vortek solar simulator-pumped amplifier was calculated expecting the calculated amplification factor is about 2 and the energy extraction efficiency is 26 percent due to the very low input energy density to the amplifier. As a result of an improved kinetic modeling for the iodine solar simulator pumped power amplifier, it is found that the I-2 along the axis of the tube affects seriously the gain profile. For the gas i-C3F7I at the higher pressures, the gain will decrease due to the I-2 as the pumping intensity increases, and at these higher pressures an increase in flow velocity will increase the gain.

  17. METHOD OF REMOVING RADIOACTIVE IODINE FROM GASES

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, L.

    1962-01-23

    A method of removing radioactive iodine from a gaseous medium is given in which the gaseous medium is adjusted to a temperature not exceeding 400 deg C and then passed over a copper fibrous pad having a coating of cupric sulfide deposited thereon. An ionic exchange on the pad results in the formation of cupric iodide and the release of sulfur. (AEC)

  18. Volcanic iodine monoxide observed from satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Theys, Nicolas; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Halogen species are injected into the atmosphere by volcanic eruptions. Previous studies have reported observations of chlorine and bromine oxides in volcanic plumes. These emissions have a significant impact on the chemistry within the plume as well as on upper troposphere and lower stratosphere composition, e.g. through ozone depletion. Volcanic halogen oxides have been observed from different platforms, from ground, aircraft and from satellite. The present study reports on satellite observations of iodine monoxide, IO, following the eruption of the Kasatochi volcano, Alaska, in August 2008. Satellite measurements from the SCIAMACHY sensor onboard ENVISAT are used. In addition, the volcanic IO plume is also retrieved from GOME-2 / MetOP-A measurements. Largest IO column amounts reach up to more than 4×1013 molec/cm2, the results from both instruments being consistent. The IO plume has a very similar shape as the BrO plume and is observed for several days following the eruption. The present observations are the first evidence that besides chlorine and bromine oxides also iodine oxides can be emitted by volcanic eruptions. This has important implications for atmospheric composition and background iodine levels. Together with the simultaneous observations of BrO and SO2, iodine monoxide columns can possibly provide insights into the composition of the magma.

  19. Halogen Bonding in Hypervalent Iodine Compounds.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Luca; Cavallo, Gabriella; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Resnati, Giuseppe; Terraneo, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Halogen bonds occur when electrophilic halogens (Lewis acids) attractively interact with donors of electron density (Lewis bases). This term is commonly used for interactions undertaken by monovalent halogen derivatives. The aim of this chapter is to show that the geometric features of the bonding pattern around iodine in its hypervalent derivatives justify the understanding of some of the longer bonds as halogen bonds. We suggest that interactions directionality in ionic and neutral λ(3)-iodane derivatives is evidence that the electron density distribution around iodine atoms is anisotropic, a region of most positive electrostatic potential exists on the extensions of the covalent bonds formed by iodine, and these positive caps affect, or even determine, the crystal packing of these derivatives. For instance, the short cation-anion contacts in ionic λ(3)-iodane and λ(5)-iodane derivatives fully match the halogen bond definition and geometrical prerequisites. The same holds for the short contacts the cation of ionic λ(3)-iodanes forms with lone-pair donors or the short contacts given by neutral λ(3)-iodanes with incoming nucleophiles. The longer and weaker bonds formed by iodine in hypervalent compounds are usually called secondary bondings and we propose that the term halogen bond can also be used. Compared to the term secondary bond, halogen bond may possibly be more descriptive of some bonding features, e.g., its directionality and the relationships between structure of interacting groups and interaction strength. PMID:26809623

  20. Arthur von Hubl and the Iodine Value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The iodine value is still one of the most commonly applied indices in fatty acid chemistry. Its introduction was a milestone in analyzing fats and oils as well as describing their structure-property relationships, although it can be considered largely outdated because modern analytical methods such...

  1. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  2. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. PMID:26068436

  3. Factors Influencing the Occurrence of High Numbers of Iodine-Resistant Bacteria in Iodinated Swimming Pools

    PubMed Central

    Favero, Martin S.; Drake, Charles H.

    1966-01-01

    It has been shown that, although iodinated swimming-pool waters are usually free from coliform bacteria and enterococci, the total counts frequently become relatively high. Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Alcaligenes faecalis have been shown to account for most of these high counts. It was of interest, therefore, to compare the microbial flora of four alternately chlorinated and iodinated swimming pools. By means of the membrane filter method and suitable selective media, examinations were made for total viable counts, coliform bacteria, enterococci, staphylococci, Streptococcus salivarius, and P. aeruginosa. Colonies also were picked from membrane filters incubated on standard plate count agar and identified. The results showed that, although viable counts were significantly higher during the iodinated periods, the specific types of bacteria determined were either fewer than or the same as in chlorinated periods. During chlorination, the predominant microbial flora consisted of staphylococci and members of the genus Bacillus. During iodination, however, the P. alcaligenes-A. faecalis group accounted for 92 to 99% of the microbial flora. The accumulation of high numbers of these bacteria was shown to be due to their iodine resistance and their ability to grow rapidly in pool water in the absence of free iodine. PMID:5927040

  4. [Antihyperlipidemic effect of iodine egg: search for active ingredients and their iodine contents].

    PubMed

    Kaji, K; Seyama, Y; Yamashita, S

    1984-04-01

    Active fractions that possess the hypocholesterolemic effect of iodine egg yolk lipid fraction have been investigated with male Wistar strain rats fed on a cholesterol-rich diet. Iodine egg yolk lipid was extracted by Folch's (chloroform: methanol) method and was refractionated into a neutral lipid (IEY-NL) fraction and a polar lipid (IEY-PL) fraction. The iodine content in each fraction was determined. The animals were kept on the cholesterol-rich diet for 5 days, and then they were fed the fractions in addition to the above diet for 10 more days. The hypocholesterolemic effect was seen most significantly with the IEY-NL fraction. The serum total cholesterol level in rats receiving this fraction was 70% as compared with that of the Ch group (fed on the cholesterol diet). However, the liver total cholesterol level was not affected or rather increased by the IEY-NL fraction. Another fraction (IEY-PL) showed no such effect. Iodine content in the IEY-NL fraction was quite low (0.2 ppm) compared with the other fractions. The daily dose in terms of iodine in the IEY-NL fraction was only the amount equivalent to 1/50 of the reported daily requirement for the rat. The IEY-NL fraction induced the hypocholesterolemic effect, though it contained only a trace of iodine. PMID:6540225

  5. Evaluation of bromine and iodine content of milk whey proteins combining digestion by microwave-induced combustion and ICP-MS determination.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Sabrina Vieira; Picoloto, Rochele Sogari; Flores, Erico Marlon Moraes; Wagner, Roger; dos Santos Richards, Neila Silvia Pereira; Barin, Juliano Smanioto

    2016-01-01

    The bromine and iodine content of whey protein concentrate (WPC), hydrolysate (WPH), and isolate (WPI) was evaluated combining microwave-induced combustion (MIC) digestion with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) determination. MIC digestion allowed the decomposition of up to 500 mg of samples using diluted NH4OH solution (25 mmol L(-1)) for absorption of analytes, assuring the compatibility with ICP-MS determination. Accuracy was evaluated using milk powder certified reference material (NIST 8435) with good agreements for Br and I (102% and 105%, respectively). For Br and I, the limit of quantification obtained by ICP-MS was 7 and 281 times lower in comparison with ion chromatography determination, respectively. Iodine could be enriched in whey protein production and up to 70% of the tolerable upper intake level was found, thus revealing the need to monitor it in whey proteins. On the other hand, the concentration of Br was below its acceptable daily intake. PMID:26212983

  6. Radioactive iodine separations and waste forms development.

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Garino, Terry J.; Rademacher, David

    2010-04-01

    Reprocessing nuclear fuel releases gaseous radio-iodine containing compounds which must be captured and stored for prolonged periods. Ag-loaded mordenites are the leading candidate for scavenging both organic and inorganic radioiodine containing compounds directly from reprocessing off gases. Alternately, the principal off-gas contaminant, I2, and I-containing acids HI, HIO3, etc. may be scavenged using caustic soda solutions, which are then treated with bismuth to put the iodine into an insoluble form. Our program is focused on using state-of-the-art materials science technologies to develop materials with high loadings of iodine, plus high long-term mechanical and thermal stability. In particular, we present results from research into two materials areas: (1) zeolite-based separations and glass encapsulation, and (2) in-situ precipitation of Bi-I-O waste forms. Ag-loaded mordenite is either commercially available or can be prepared via a simple Ag+ ion exchange process. Research using an Ag+-loaded Mordenite zeolite (MOR, LZM-5 supplied by UOP Corp.) has revealed that I2 is scavenged in one of three forms, as micron-sized AgI particles, as molecular (AgI)x clusters in the zeolite pores and as elemental I2 vapor. It was found that only a portion of the sorbed iodine is retained after heating at 95o C for three months. Furthermore, we show that even when the Ag-MOR is saturated with I2 vapor only roughly half of the silver reacted to form stable AgI compounds. However, the Iodine can be further retained if the AgI-MOR is then encapsulated into a low temperature glass binder. Follow-on studies are now focused on the sorption and waste form development of Iodine from more complex streams including organo-iodine compounds (CH3I). Bismuth-Iodate layered phases have been prepared from caustic waste stream simulant solutions. They serve as a low cost alternative to ceramics waste forms. Novel compounds have been synthesized and solubility studies have been completed

  7. A review on the metabolic disorders of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mansourian, Azad Reza

    2011-04-01

    Iodine is in the crucial parts of two hormones of T4 and T3 produced by the thyroid glands which are essential for all the aspects of human metabolisms. It is demonstrated that iodine deficiency can be considered as sole cause of many thyroid abnormalities including mental disorders. Iodine deficiency of sufficient degree to cause hypothyroidism during fetus life and early infancy will be accompanied with brain abnormality possibly to the stage of mental retardation. The iodine deficiency among subjects in their early stage of childhood is not as severe as those in their fetus or infancy. In adult subjects the sever iodine deficiency can be also associated with mental disorders due to the direct side effects of hypothyroidism occurred by lack of iodine. The clinical manifestation of iodine deficiency show itself with psychological disorders in adult subjects. The status of iodine within blood can be evaluated through measurement of urinary iodine level and the low urinary concentration is an indicative of hypothyroidism. Mental retardation and brain damage due to iodine deficiency can be prevented if iodine supplementation prescribed duly on time. PMID:21902053

  8. Research Spotlight: Ozone-destroying iodine measured in Arctic atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-01-01

    Iodine in the atmosphere can destroy ozone and can also accelerate bromine-catalyzed ozone depletion. Iodine has been measured in the Antarctic atmosphere at levels that cause significant ozone depletion. Mahajan et al. now report detailed measurements of iodine in the Arctic lower troposphere above Hudson Bay. They observed episodes of elevated levels of iodine monoxide as well as other iodine compounds. They suggest that the iodine monoxide probably originated from organoiodine compounds released from ice and seawater algae in areas of open water surrounded by sea ice in Hudson Bay. The emissions of these iodinated compounds will probably grow if sea ice cover in the Arctic continues to decrease. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2009JD013665, 2010)

  9. Relationships between Micro-Vascular and Iodine-Staining Patterns in the Vicinity of the Tumor Front of Superficial Esophageal Squamous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Shunsuke; Kawada, Kenro; Swangsri, Jirawat; Fujiwara, Naoto; Saito, Katsumasa; Fujiwara, Hisashi; Ryotokuji, Tairo; Okada, Takuya; Miyawaki, Yutaka; Tohkairin, Yutaka; Nakajima, Yasuaki; Kumagai, Youichi; Nagai, Kagami; Ito, Takashi; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Tatsuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to clarify differences between micro-vascular and iodine-staining patterns in the vicinity of the tumor fronts of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs). Methods Ten consecutive patients with ESCCs who were treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) were enrolled. At the edge of the iodine-unstained area, we observed 183 sites in total using image-enhanced magnifying endoscopy. We classified the micro-vascular and iodine-staining patterns into three types: Type A, in which the line of vascular change matched the border of the iodine-unstained area; Type B, in which the border of the iodine-unstained area extended beyond the line of vascular change; Type C, in which the line of vascular change extended beyond the border of the iodine-unstained area. Then, by examining histopathological sections, we compared the diameter of intra-papillary capillary loops (IPCLs) in cancerous areas and normal squamous epithelium. Results We investigated 160 sites that the adequate quality of pictures were obtained. There was no case in which the line of vascular change completely matched the whole circumference of the border of an iodine-unstained area. Among the 160 sites, type A was recognized at 76 sites (47.5%), type B at 79 sites (49.4%), and type C at 5 sites (3.1%). Histological examination showed that the mean diameter of the IPCLs in normal squamous epithelium was 16.2±3.7μm, whereas that of IPCLs in cancerous lesions was 21.0±4.4μm. Conclusions The development of iodine-unstained areas tends to precede any changes in the vascularity of the esophageal surface epithelium. PMID:26301414

  10. Iodine Revolatilization in a Grand Gulf Loca

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    The TRENDS models are applied at each time step to each control volume. Significant amounts of water occur only in the wetwell and drywell sump (the refueling pool is not a factor, as discussed earlier). In Fig. 2, we show the radiolytic acid production feeding into each of these pools. Since the water is initially neutral and no chemical additives are present, the acid additions are the major factors affecting pH. In Fig. 3, we see the downward trend of pH resulting from these acid additions. The conversion of iodide (I{sup {minus}}) to molecular iodine (I{sub 2}) is most noticeable in the wetwell, since this is the repository of most iodide and HCl. Gradually, during the transient small amounts of more volatile iodine are formed. While iodide remains the dominant form, noticeable amounts of I{sub 2} and intermediate species are created. Once produced in water, some I{sub 2} is free to evaporate into airspace. Fig. 4 indicates the increase in all airborne iodine throughout the transient. This is compared to the MELCOR result for CsI aerosol, which decreases dramatically due to containment sprays. The I{sub 2} in the airspace can be vented to the enclosure building or the environment. In the present accident sequence, the only path to the environment was through the SGTS, which was assumed to operate as in MELCOR. However, both are dwarfed by the MELCOR gaseous release during the first 12 h because MELCOR does not model spray washout of gaseous iodine. Steadily increasing throughout the transient, the revolatilization release is eventually more than an order-or-magnitude higher than the MELCOR aerosol release. Also, 99% of iodine flowing directly through the SGTS was retained in filters. The remaining 1% was released to the environment. In addition, a small flow bypassing the SGTS filters vented directly into the environment. The total released from these two paths is shown in Fig. 5.

  11. Impacts of Stable Element Intake on C and I Dose Estimates - Implications for Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Moeller; M.T. Ryan; Lin-Shen C. Sun; R.N. Cherry Jr.

    2004-12-21

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the intake of stable isotopes of carbon and iodine on the committed doses due to the ingestion of {sup 14}C and {sup 129}I. This was accomplished through the application of two different computational approaches. The first was based on the assumption that ground (drinking) water was the only source of intake of both {sup 14}C and {sup 129}I and stable carbon and stable iodine. For purposes of the second approach, the intake of {sup 14}C and {sup 129}I was still assumed to be only that in the ground (drinking) water, but the intake of stable carbon and stable iodine was assumed to be that in the drinking water plus other components of the diet. The doses were estimated using either a conversion formula or the applicable dose coefficients in Federal Guidance Reports No. 11 and No. 13. Serving as input for the analyses was the estimated maximum concentration of {sup 14}C or {sup 129}I that would be present in the ground water due to potential releases from the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository during the first 10,000 years after closure. The estimated concentrations of stable carbon and iodine were based on analyses of ground water samples collected in the Amargosa Valley, NV. Based on the accompanying analyses, three conclusions were reached. First, no dose estimate, using a conversion formula in which the ratios of the stable to radioactive isotopes of an element serve as input, should ever be made without including the stable element intake contributions from all components of the diet. Second, the study suggests that the dose coefficients for {sup 129}I in Federal Guidance Reports No. 11 and No. 12 which, in turn, are based on publications of the ICRP, may not be appropriate for application in developed nations of the world, especially those in which relatively large amounts of seafood are consumed and the use of iodized salt is common. The estimated average daily intake of

  12. Adverse reactions to intravenous iodinated contrast media: a primer for radiologists.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, Saravanan; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Torres, William E; Small, William C

    2006-07-01

    Adverse reactions to intravenous iodinated contrast media may be classified as general and organ-specific, such as contrast-induced nephrotoxicity. General adverse reactions may be subclassified into acute and delayed types. Acute general adverse reactions can range from transient minor reactions to life-threatening severe reactions. Non-ionic contrast media have lower risk of mild and moderate adverse reactions. However, the risk of fatal reactions is similar for ionic and non-ionic contrast media. Adequate preprocedure evaluation should be performed to identify predisposing risk factors. Prompt recognition and treatment of acute adverse reactions is crucial. Risk of contrast induced nephrotoxicity can be reduced by use of non-ionic contrast media, less volume of contrast, and adequate hydration. The radiologist can play a pivotal role by being aware of predisposing factors, clinical presentation, and management of adverse reactions to contrast media. PMID:16688432

  13. Are Dietary Intakes Related to Obesity in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Papandreou, Dimitrios; Makedou, Kali; Zormpa, Areti; Karampola, Maria; Ioannou, Anastasia; Hitoglou-Makedou, Areti

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to report obesity status and identify any dietary substances that may be related to obesity in healthy school children from Northern Greece. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty-five (n = 425) children were randomly selected to participate in the study. A 24-h recall of three days (two weekdays and one weekend day) was used to analyze the dietary data of the subjects. RESULTS: Out of 425 subjects, 146 (34.3%) of them were found to be overweight and obese. Energy, protein, carbohydrate and thiamin intake was statistically positively correlated with obesity while dietary iron intake was statistically negatively correlated with obesity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the children with dietary iron deficiency were 1.128 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.161 P < 0.031) times more likely of being obese compared to the normal group after adjustment for energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the dietary intakes of our subjects were adequate, special consideration should be given to energy, carbohydrate, protein, and sugar and iron intake especially and its relation to obesity. Furthermore, additional studies are required to investigate any possible relation of low dietary iron consumption and obesity. PMID:27335587

  14. Nutritional intake of various groups of Flemish vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The most recent national nutritional survey (2004) indicates that 1.2% of the Flemish population follows a vegetarian diet. Information on nutritional intake in vegetarians in this population is scarce. Objective The aim of the present study is to describe the nutritional intake and dietary adequacy of various groups of Flemish vegetarians. Materials and methods Nutritional intake was assessed in various vegetarian groups from different study designs: young children (aged 1 to 10 y; n = 27) (Group 1), adolescents and adults (aged 11 to 32 y; n = 50) (Group 2), college students (aged 18 to 24 y; n= 24) (Group 3), life-long vegetarians (aged 14 to 71 y; n = 36) (Group 4) and adults (aged 20 to 98; n= 106) (Group 5). Additionally, blood samples were collected and analysed in groups 3 and 4. Comparisons were made with standard references or with omnivores (Group 3). Results Nutritional intake was found to be close to the Belgian RDA. However, all groups showed a number of outliers with an intake of some nutrients above or below the RDAs. Blood biochemistry showed low cholesterol, iron and vitamin B12 levels in vegetarians when comparing respectively with omnivores pairs (Group 3) and with reference values (Group 4). Conclusions Data collected in Flemish vegetarians indicate that a vegetarian diet may be adequate. However, the outliers in all groups show that proper dietary planning is advisable.

  15. Long-term migration of iodine in sedimentary rocks based on iodine speciation and 129I/127I ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togo, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Amano, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Muramatsu, Y.; Iwatsuki, T.

    2012-12-01

    [Introduction] 129I is one of the available indexes of long-term migration of groundwater solutes, because of its long half-life (15.7 million years) and low sorption characteristics. The Horonobe underground research center (Japan Atomic Energy Agency), at which are conducted research and development of fundamental techniques on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, is an appropriate site for natural analogue studies, because iodine concentration in groundwater is high in this area. To predict iodine behavior in natural systems, speciation of iodine is essential because of different mobility among each species. In this study, we determined iodine speciation and129I/127I isotope ratios of rock and groundwater samples to investigate long term migration of iodine. [Methods] All rock and groundwater samples were collected at Horonobe underground research center. The region is underlain mainly by Neogene to Quaternary marine sedimentary rocks, the Wakkanai Formation (Wk Fm, siliceous mudstones), and the overlying Koetoi Formation (Kt Fm, diatomaceous mudstones). Iodine species in rock samples were determined by iodine K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (SPring-8 BL01B1). Thin sections of rock samples were prepared, and iodine mapping were obtained by micro-XRF analysis (SPring-8 BL37XU). Iodine species (IO3-, I-, and organic I) in groundwater were separately detected by high performance liquid chromatography connected to ICP-MS. The 129I/127I ratios in groundwater and rock samples were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (MALT, Univ. of Tokyo). Iodine in rock samples were separated by pyrohydrolysis and water extraction. [Results and discussion] Concentration of iodine in groundwater varied widely and was much higher than that of seawater showing a high correlation with that of chlorine (R2 = 0.90). Species of iodine in groundwater was mainly I-. Iodine in rock samples decreased near the boundary between Wk and Kt Fms. Iodine K-edge XANES

  16. Parameters of an electric-discharge generator of iodine atoms for a chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Azyazov, V N; Vorob'ev, M V; Voronov, A I; Kupryaev, Nikolai V; Mikheev, P A; Ufimtsev, N I

    2009-01-31

    Laser-induced fluorescence is used for measuring the concentration of iodine molecules at the output of an electric-discharge generator of atomic iodine. Methyl iodide CH{sub 3}I is used as the donor of atomic iodine. The fraction of iodine extracted from CH{sub 3}I in the generator is {approx}50%. The optimal operation regimes are found in which 80%-90% of iodine contained in the output flow of the generator was in the atomic state. This fraction decreased during the iodine transport due to recombination and was 20%-30% at the place where iodine was injected into the oxygen flow. The fraction of the discharge power spent for dissociation was {approx}3%. (elements of laser setups)

  17. Quantification of total iodine in intact granular starches of different botanical origin exposed to iodine vapor at various water activities.

    PubMed

    Manion, Bruce; Ye, Mei; Holbein, Bruce E; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2011-11-01

    Iodine has been used as an effective tool for studying both the structure and composition of dispersed starch and starch granules. In addition to being employed to assess relative amylose contents for starch samples, it has been used to look at the molecular mobility of the glucose polymers within intact starch granules based on exposure to iodine vapor equilibrated at different water activities. Starches of different botanical origin including corn, high amylose corn, waxy corn, potato, waxy potato, tapioca, wheat, rice, waxy rice, chick pea and mung bean were equilibrated to 0.33, 0.75, 0.97 water activities, exposed to iodine vapor and then absorbance spectra and LAB color were determined. In addition, a new iodine quantification method sensitive to <0.1% iodine (w/w) was employed to measure bound iodine within intact granular starch. Amylose content, particle size distribution of granules, and the density of the starch were also determined to explore whether high levels of long linear glucose chains and the surface area-to-volume ratio were important factors relating to the granular iodine binding. Results showed, in all cases, starches complexed more iodine as water content increased and waxy starches bound less iodine than their normal starch counterparts. However, much more bound iodine could be measured chemically with waxy starches than was expected based on colorimetric determination. Surface area appeared to be a factor as smaller rice and waxy rice starch granules complexed more iodine, while the larger potato and waxy potato granules complexed less than would be expected based on measured amylose contents. Corn, high amylose corn, and wheat, known to have starch granules with extensive surface pores, bound higher levels of iodine suggesting pores and channels may be an important factor giving iodine vapor greater access to bind within the granules. Exposing iodine vapor to moisture-equilibrated native starches is an effective tool to explore starch

  18. Nutrition Education by a Registered Dietitian Improves Dietary Intake and Nutrition Knowledge of a NCAA Female Volleyball Team

    PubMed Central

    Valliant, Melinda W.; Pittman Emplaincourt, Heather; Wenzel, Rachel Kieckhaefer; Garner, Bethany Hilson

    2012-01-01

    Eleven female participants from a NCAA Division I volleyball team were evaluated for adequate energy and macronutrient intake during two off-seasons. Total energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by food records and results were compared against estimated needs using the Nelson equation. Dietary intervention was employed regarding the individual dietary needs of each athlete as well as a pre- and post-sports nutrition knowledge survey. Post dietary intervention, total energy, and macronutrient intake improved, as well as a significant improvement in sports nutrition knowledge (p < 0.001). Nutrition education is useful in improving dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of female athletes. PMID:22822449

  19. Derivation of the critical effect size/benchmark response for the dose-response analysis of the uptake of radioactive iodine in the human thyroid.

    PubMed

    Weterings, Peter J J M; Loftus, Christine; Lewandowski, Thomas A

    2016-08-22

    Potential adverse effects of chemical substances on thyroid function are usually examined by measuring serum levels of thyroid-related hormones. Instead, recent risk assessments for thyroid-active chemicals have focussed on iodine uptake inhibition, an upstream event that by itself is not necessarily adverse. Establishing the extent of uptake inhibition that can be considered de minimis, the chosen benchmark response (BMR), is therefore critical. The BMR values selected by two international advisory bodies were 5% and 50%, a difference that had correspondingly large impacts on the estimated risks and health-based guidance values that were established. Potential treatment-related inhibition of thyroidal iodine uptake is usually determined by comparing thyroidal uptake of radioactive iodine (RAIU) during treatment with a single pre-treatment RAIU value. In the present study it is demonstrated that the physiological intra-individual variation in iodine uptake is much larger than 5%. Consequently, in-treatment RAIU values, expressed as a percentage of the pre-treatment value, have an inherent variation, that needs to be considered when conducting dose-response analyses. Based on statistical and biological considerations, a BMR of 20% is proposed for benchmark dose analysis of human thyroidal iodine uptake data, to take the inherent variation in relative RAIU data into account. Implications for the tolerated daily intakes for perchlorate and chlorate, recently established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), are discussed. PMID:27268963

  20. Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been hypothesized that insufficient intake of vitamin K may increase soft tissue calcification due to impaired gamma-carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (MGP). The evidence to support this putative role of vitamin K intake in atherosclerosis is ...

  1. Iodine Deficiency and the Brain: Effects and Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Redman, Kahla; Ruffman, Ted; Fitzgerald, Penelope; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-12-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient needed in human diets. As iodine is an integral component of thyroid hormone, it mediates the effects of thyroid hormone on brain development. Iodine deficiency is the most prevalent and preventable cause of mental impairment in the world. The exact mechanism through which iodine influences the brain is unclear, but is generally thought to begin with genetic expression. Many brain structures and systems appear to be affected with iodine deficiency, including areas such as the hippocampus, microstructures such as myelin, and neurotransmitters. The clearest evidence comes from the studies examining cognition in the cases of iodine deprivation or interventions involving iodine supplementation. Nevertheless, there are many inconsistencies and gaps in the literature of iodine deficiency, especially over the lifespan. This paper summarizes the literature on this topic, suggests a causal mechanism for iodine's effect on the brain, and indicates areas for the future research (e.g., using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional MRI to examine how iodine supplementation facilitates cognitive functioning). PMID:25880137

  2. Power plant intake entrainment analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Edinger, J.E.; Kolluru, V.S.

    2000-04-01

    Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes.

  3. Formation of iodinated trihalomethanes during UV/chloramination with iodate as the iodine source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-Yang; Lin, Yi-Li; Wang, An-Qi; Tian, Fu-Xiang; Xu, Bin; Xia, Sheng-Ji; Gao, Nai-Yun

    2016-07-01

    Iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) are a group of emerging disinfection by-products with high toxicity, and iodide (I(-)) as well as iodinated organic compounds are expected to be their iodine sources. Nevertheless, in this study, iodate (IO3(-)) was proven to be a new iodine source of I-THM formation during UV/chloramination. In the iodate-containing waters (without any other iodine sources), I-THM formation increased with the increase of UV dose, IO3(-) and NH2Cl concentrations. With the increase of Br(-)/IO3(-) molar ratio, I-THM formation (especially for the brominated species) increased. Besides, NOM species could affect I-THM formation from IO3(-) during UV/chloramination. Fulvic acid could promote IO3(-) phototransformation to I(-) but humic acid impeded the production of I(-) during UV irradiation. Under realistic drinking water treatment conditions (DOC = 5.0 mg-C/L, IO3(-) = 12.7 μg-I/L, UV dose = 50 mJ/cm(2), NH2Cl = 5 mg-Cl2/L), CHCl2I was detected as 0.17 μg/L using solid-phase microextraction method, and the production rate of I-THMs from IO3(-) was about 7% of that from I(-). PMID:27105034

  4. Iodine-125 radiation of posterior uveal melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, S.

    1987-12-01

    Twenty-eight cases of posterior choroidal melanoma were treated with iodine-125 in gold eye plaques. Eleven cases were located within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve (group A), nine were within 3.0 mm of the fovea (group B), and eight were within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve and fovea (group C). The mean follow-up of group A was 46.3 months; group B, 25.5 months; and group C, 42.7 months. Complications included macular edema, cataract and tumor growth. Visual acuity remained within two lines of that tested preoperatively for 4 of 11 patients in group A, 4 of 9 in group B, and 5 of 8 in group C. These results with iodine-125 suggest it as an appropriate treatment for patients with choroidal melanoma located near optic nerve and/or macula.

  5. Models of iodine behavior in reactor containments

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Models are developed for many phenomena of interest concerning iodine behavior in reactor containments during severe accidents. Processes include speciation in both gas and liquid phases, reactions with surfaces, airborne aerosols, and other materials, and gas-liquid interface behavior. Although some models are largely empirical formulations, every effort has been made to construct mechanistic and rigorous descriptions of relevant chemical processes. All are based on actual experimental data generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) or elsewhere, and, hence, considerable data evaluation and parameter estimation are contained in this study. No application or encoding is attempted, but each model is stated in terms of rate processes, with the intention of allowing mechanistic simulation. Taken together, this collection of models represents a best estimate iodine behavior and transport in reactor accidents.

  6. The Impact of Carrot Enriched in Iodine through Soil Fertilization on Iodine Concentration and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Piątkowska, Ewa; Kopeć, Aneta; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Pysz, Mirosław; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Koronowicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Maślak, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is one of the trace elements which are essential for mammalian life. The major objective of iodine biofortification of plants is to obtain food rich in this trace element, which may increase its consumption by various populations. Additionally, it may reduce the risk of iodine deficiency diseases. In this research for the first time we have assessed the bioavailability of iodine from raw or cooked carrot biofortified with this trace element on iodine concentration in selected tissues and various biochemical parameters as well as mRNA expression of some genes involved in iodine metabolism in Wistar rats. Statistically, a significantly higher iodine level was determined in urine, faeces and selected tissues of rats fed a diet containing biofortified raw carrot as compared to a diet without iodine and a diet containing control cooked carrot. Biofortified raw carrot significantly increased triiodothyronine concentration as compared to animals from other experimental groups. The highest thyroid stimulating hormone level was determined in rats fed control cooked carrots. mRNA expression of selected genes was affected by different dietary treatment in rats' hearts. Biofortified raw and cooked carrot could be taken into account as a potential source of iodine in daily diets to prevent iodine deficiency in various populations. PMID:27043135

  7. The Impact of Carrot Enriched in Iodine through Soil Fertilization on Iodine Concentration and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Piątkowska, Ewa; Kopeć, Aneta; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Pysz, Mirosław; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Koronowicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Maślak, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is one of the trace elements which are essential for mammalian life. The major objective of iodine biofortification of plants is to obtain food rich in this trace element, which may increase its consumption by various populations. Additionally, it may reduce the risk of iodine deficiency diseases. In this research for the first time we have assessed the bioavailability of iodine from raw or cooked carrot biofortified with this trace element on iodine concentration in selected tissues and various biochemical parameters as well as mRNA expression of some genes involved in iodine metabolism in Wistar rats. Statistically, a significantly higher iodine level was determined in urine, faeces and selected tissues of rats fed a diet containing biofortified raw carrot as compared to a diet without iodine and a diet containing control cooked carrot. Biofortified raw carrot significantly increased triiodothyronine concentration as compared to animals from other experimental groups. The highest thyroid stimulating hormone level was determined in rats fed control cooked carrots. mRNA expression of selected genes was affected by different dietary treatment in rats’ hearts. Biofortified raw and cooked carrot could be taken into account as a potential source of iodine in daily diets to prevent iodine deficiency in various populations. PMID:27043135

  8. Dither Cavity Length Controller with Iodine Locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Marty; Eloranta, Ed

    2016-06-01

    A cavity length controller for a seeded Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser is constructed. The cavity length controller uses a piezo-mirror dither voltage to find the optimum length for the seeded cavity. The piezo-mirror dither also dithers the optical frequency of the output pulse. [1]. This dither in optical frequency is then used to lock to an Iodine absorption line.

  9. Short-pulse photolytic iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Ralph F.; Harris, Melvin; Anderson, Brian T.; Hager, Gordon D.

    2000-08-01

    A compact, short pulse photolytic iodine laser (PIL) system designed for use as a source in Raman conversion experiments is described. The single-shot, flashlamp-pumped laser outputs 10 Joules in a 3 microsecond(s) FWHM pulse at a wavelength of 1.315 micrometer and uses n-C3F7I as the renewable laser fuel. Laser design and performance characteristics are presented.

  10. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.

    1987-01-01

    This semiannual progress report covers the period from March 1, 1987 to September 30, 1987 under NASA grant NAG1-441 entitled 'Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier'. During this period Nd:YAG and Nd:Cr:GSGG crystals have been tested for the solar-simulator pumped cw laser, and loss mechanisms of the laser output power in a flashlamp-pumped iodine laser also have been identified theoretically. It was observed that the threshold pump-beam intensities for both Nd:YAG and Nd:Cr:GSGG crystals were about 1000 solar constants, and the cw laser operation of the Nd:Cr:GSGG crystal was more difficult than that of the Nd:YAG crystal under the solar-simulator pumping. The possibility of the Nd:Cr:GSGG laser operation with a fast continuously chopped pumping was also observed. In addition, good agreement between the theoretical calculations and the experimental data on the loss mechanisms of a flashlamp-pumped iodine laser at various fill pressures and various lasants was achieved.

  11. Laser Induced Fluorescence of the Iodine Ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargus, William

    2014-10-01

    Iodine (I2) has been considered as a potential electrostatic spacecraft thruster propellant for approximately 2 decades, but has only recently been demonstrated. Energy conversion efficiency appears to be on par with xenon without thruster modification. Intriguingly, performance appears to exceed xenon at high acceleration potentials. As part of a continuing program for the development of non-intrusive plasma diagnostics for advanced plasma spacecraft propulsion, we have identified the I II 5d5D4 o state as metastable, and therefore containing a reservoir of excited state ions suitable for laser probing. The 5d5D4 o - 6p5P3 transition at 695.878 nm is convenient for diode laser excitation with the 5s5S2 o - 6p5P3 transition at 516.12 nm as an ideal candidate for non-resonant fluorescence collection. We have constructed a Penning type iodine microwave discharge lamp optimized for I II production for table-top measurements. This work demonstrates I II laser-induced fluorescence in a representative iodine discharge and will validate our previous theoretical work based on the limited available historical I II spectral data.

  12. Iodination of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jean O.; Harris, J. Ieuan

    1970-01-01

    1. A high degree of homology in the positions of tyrosine residues in glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase from lobster and pig muscle, and from yeast, prompted an examination of the reactivity of tyrosine residues in the enzyme. 2. Iodination of the enzyme from lobster muscle with low concentrations of potassium tri-[125I]-iodide led to the identification of tyrosine residues of differing reactivity. Tyrosine-46 appeared to be the most reactive in the native enzyme. 3. When the monocarboxymethylated enzyme was briefly treated with small amounts of iodine, iodination could be confined almost entirely to tyrosine-46 in the lobster enzyme; tyrosine-39 or tyrosine-42, or both, were also beginning to react. 4. These three tyrosine residues were also those that reacted most readily in the carboxymethylated pig and yeast enzymes. 5. The difficulties in attaining specific reaction of the native enzyme are considered. 6. The differences between our results and those of other workers are discussed. ImagesPLATE 1PLATE 2 PMID:5530750

  13. Overview of repetitively pulsed photolytic iodine lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlie, L. A. V.

    1996-02-01

    The performance of a repetitively pulsed, 70 joule, closed cycle 1.3 (mu) M photolytic atomic iodine laser with excellent beam quality (BQ equals 1.15) is presented. This BQ was exhibited in the fundamental mode from a M equals 3.1 confocal unstable resonator at a 0.5 Hz repetition rate. A closed cycle scrubber/laser fuel system consisting of a condensative- evaporative section, two Cu wool I2 reactor regions, and an internal turbo-blower enabled the laser to operate very reliably with low maintenance. The fuel system provided C3F7I gas at 10 - 60 torr absent of the photolytic quenching by-product I2. Using a turbo- molecular blower longitudinal flow velocities greater than 10 m/s were achieved through the 150 cm long by 7.5 multiplied by 7.5 cm2 cross sectional photolytic iodine gain region. In addition to the high laser output and excellent BQ, the resulting 8 - 12 microsecond laser pulse had a coherence length greater than 45 meters and polarization extinction ratio better than 100:1. Projections from this pulsed photolytic atomic iodine laser technology to larger energies, higher repetition rates, and variable pulse widths are discussed.

  14. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-03-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of /sup 131/I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of /sup 131/I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that /sup 131/I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined.

  15. Advances in Synthetic Applications of Hypervalent Iodine Compounds.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Akira; Zhdankin, Viktor V

    2016-03-01

    The preparation, structure, and chemistry of hypervalent iodine compounds are reviewed with emphasis on their synthetic application. Compounds of iodine possess reactivity similar to that of transition metals, but have the advantage of environmental sustainability and efficient utilization of natural resources. These compounds are widely used in organic synthesis as selective oxidants and environmentally friendly reagents. Synthetic uses of hypervalent iodine reagents in halogenation reactions, various oxidations, rearrangements, aminations, C-C bond-forming reactions, and transition metal-catalyzed reactions are summarized and discussed. Recent discovery of hypervalent catalytic systems and recyclable reagents, and the development of new enantioselective reactions using chiral hypervalent iodine compounds represent a particularly important achievement in the field of hypervalent iodine chemistry. One of the goals of this Review is to attract the attention of the scientific community as to the benefits of using hypervalent iodine compounds as an environmentally sustainable alternative to heavy metals. PMID:26861673

  16. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  17. Electrolytic trapping of iodine from process gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Horner, Donald E.; Mailen, James C.; Posey, Franz A.

    1977-01-25

    A method for removing molecular, inorganic, and organic forms of iodine from process gas streams comprises the electrolytic oxidation of iodine in the presence of cobalt-III ions. The gas stream is passed through the anode compartment of a partitioned electrolytic cell having a nitric acid anolyte containing a catalytic amount of cobalt to cause the oxidation of effluent iodine species to aqueous soluble species.

  18. [Iodine deficiency in pregnancy--a continuing public health problem].

    PubMed

    Szybiński, Zbigniew

    2005-01-01

    Iodine prophylaxis in Poland started in 1997 and is based on mandatory iodzation of household salt with 20-40 mg KI/ 1 kg, supplementation of bottle fed infants with iodized formulas with 10,0 microg KI/100 ml, and a voluntary supplementation of pregnant and breast feeding women with additional 100-150 microg of iodine/ day. Last evaluation of efficacy of the iodine prophylaxis performed in 2003 by WHO and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders allocated Poland within the group of the European countries with sufficient iodine supplementation on the population level. However according to data of the Institute of Mather and Chield in Poland, around 50 % of pregnant women only is additionally supplemented with iodine. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy even as a moderate iodine deficiency, creates a risk of mental retardation, perinatal complication like low and very low births weigt of neonates with increased perinatal mortality rate and late consequences in adult life: metabolic syndrom and type 2 diabetes. Another limitation of the actual model of iodine prophylaxis in Poland, it is too high consumption of natrum chloride (over 5,0 g of household salt/day/ capita). It is around 50% over WHO recommendation. Intensive preventive program against hypertension, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, osteoporosis and some neoplasmatic diseases includes limitation of natrum chloride consumption- as one of the risk factors. Therefore new scope of the National Programme for Elimination of Iodine Deficiency will include: a special prorgramme for the iodization of animal food according to european standard, increased rate of pregnant women additionally supplemented with iodine, strengthening public awarness on necessary increase of milk consumption especially in pregnancy and in children and continouse monitoring system of biologic effects and technologic quality of the model of iodine prophylaxis. PMID:16335675

  19. Efforts to Consolidate Chalcogels with Adsorbed Iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun

    2013-08-28

    This document discusses ongoing work with non-oxide aerogels, called chalcogels, that are under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as sorbents for gaseous iodine. Work was conducted in fiscal year 2012 to demonstrate the feasibility of converting Sn2S3 chalcogel without iodine into a glass. This current document summarizes the work conducted in fiscal year 2013 to assess the consolidation potential of non-oxide aerogels with adsorbed iodine. The Sn2S3 and Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels were selected for study. The first step in the process for these experiments was to load them with iodine (I2). The I2 uptake was ~68 mass% for Sn2S3 and ~50 mass% for Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of both sets of sorbents showed that metal-iodide complexes were formed during adsorption, i.e., SnI4 for Sn2S3 and SbI3 for Sb13.5Sn5S20. Additionally, metal-sulfide-iodide complexes were formed, i.e., SnSI for Sn2S3 and SbSI for Sb13.5Sn5S20. No XRD evidence for unreacted iodine was found in any of these samples. Once the chalcogels had reached maximum adsorption, the consolidation potential was assessed. Here, the sorbents were heated for consolidation in vacuum-sealed quartz vessels. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogel was heated both (1) in a glassy carbon crucible within a fused quartz tube and (2) in a single-containment fused quartz tube. The Sn2S3 chalcogel was only heated in a single-containment fused quartz tube. In both cases with the single-containment fused quartz experiments, the material consolidated nicely. However, in both cases, there were small fractions of metal iodides not incorporated into the final product as well as fused quartz particles within the melt due to the sample attacking the quartz wall during the heat treatment. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 did not appear to attack the glassy carbon crucible so, for future experiments, it would be ideal to apply a coating, such as pyrolytic graphite, to the inner walls of the fused quartz vessel to prevent

  20. Iodine supplementation of the pregnant dam alters intestinal gene expression and immunoglobulin uptake in the newborn lamb.

    PubMed

    McGovern, F M; Magee, D A; Browne, J A; MacHugh, D E; Boland, T M

    2016-04-01

    Excess iodine intake by the pregnant dam reduces lamb serum antibody concentration, specifically immunoglobulin G (IgG). An experiment was conducted to investigate the mechanisms under pinning the reduced serum IgG concentration at 24 h postpartum in the progeny of iodine supplemented dams. Forty-five mature twin bearing ewes (n=15/treatment) were allocated to one of three dietary treatments as follows: basal diet (Control); basal diet plus 26.6 mg of iodine per ewe per day as calcium iodate (CaIO3); or potassium iodide (KI). Ewes were individually housed and fed from d 119 of gestation until parturition. All lambs received colostrum at 1, 10 and 18 h postpartum via stomach tube. At 1 h postpartum lambs from the control and an iodine supplemented treatment (n=10 per treatment from control and CaIO3) were euthanised before colostrum consumption and ileal segments isolated to determine the gene expression profile of a panel of genes identified as having a role in antibody transfer. Preceding euthanasia, lambs were blood sampled for determination of serum IgG, total thyroxine and free tri-iodothyronine concentrations. Progeny of CaIO3 supplemented dams had lower tri-iodothyronine concentrations (P<0.01) at 1 h postpartum and lower serum IgG concentrations (P<0.001) at 24 h postpartum when compared with the progeny of control dams. Iodine (CaIO3) supplementation of the dam increased the relative expression (P<0.05) of the B2M, PIGR and MYC genes in the ileum of the lamb, before colostrum consumption; while the expression of THRB declined when compared with the progeny of C dams (P<0.01). In conclusion, the results of this study show that it is the actual inclusion of excess iodine in the diet of the ewe, regardless of the carrier element, that negatively affects passive transfer in the newborn lamb. This study presents novel data describing the relationship between maternal iodine nutrition and its effect on the thyroid hormone status and subsequent gene expression in

  1. Mission and System Advantages of Iodine Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Szabo, James; Pote, Bruce; Oleson, Steve; Kamhawi, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of alternative propellants for Hall thrusters continues to be of interest to the community. Investments have been made and continue for the maturation of iodine based Hall thrusters. Iodine testing has shown comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density and resulting higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's vapor pressure is low enough to permit low-pressure storage, but high enough to minimize potential adverse spacecraft-thruster interactions. The low vapor pressure also means that iodine does not condense inside the thruster at ordinary operating temperatures. Iodine is safe, it stores at sub-atmospheric pressure, and can be stored unregulated for years on end; whether on the ground or on orbit. Iodine fills a niche for both low power (<1kW) and high power (>10kW) electric propulsion regimes. A range of missions have been evaluated for direct comparison of Iodine and Xenon options. The results show advantages of iodine Hall systems for both small and microsatellite application and for very large exploration class missions.

  2. A model for a continuous-wave iodine laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, In H.; Tabibi, Bagher M.

    1990-01-01

    A model for a continuous-wave (CW) iodine laser has been developed and compared with the experimental results obtained from a solar-simulator-pumped CW iodine laser. The agreement between the calculated laser power output and the experimental results is generally good for various laser parameters even when the model includes only prominent rate coefficients. The flow velocity dependence of the output power shows that the CW iodine laser cannot be achieved with a flow velocity below 1 m/s for the present solar-simulator-pumped CW iodine laser system.

  3. Recent experiences with iodine water disinfection in Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, Randall E.; Flanagan, David T.; Schultz, John R.; Sauer, Richard L.; Slezak, Terry N.

    1990-01-01

    Microbial proliferation in the STS potable water system is prevented by maintaining a 2-5 ppm iodine residual. The iodine is added to fuel cell water by an iodinated ion exchange resin in the Microbial Check Valve (MCV). Crew comments indicated excessive iodine in the potable water. To better define the problem, a method of in-flight iodine analysis was developed. Inflight analysis during STS-30 and STS-28 indicated iodine residuals were generally in the 9-13 ppm range. It was determined that the high iodine residual was caused by MCV influent temperatures in excess of 120 F. This is well above the MCV operating range of 65-90 F. The solution to this problem was to develop a resin suitable for the higher temperatures. Since 8 months were required to formulate a MCV resin suitable for the higher temperatures, a temporary solution was necessary. Two additional MCV's were installed on the chilled and ambient water lines leading into the galley to remove the excess iodine. These reduced the iodine residual to 3-4 ppm during STS-33, STS-34, STS-36 and STS-32. A high-temperature resin was formulated and initially flown on STS-31.

  4. Selenium deficiency mitigates hypothyroxinemia in iodine-deficient subjects.

    PubMed

    Vanderpas, J B; Contempré, B; Duale, N L; Deckx, H; Bebe, N; Longombé, A O; Thilly, C H; Diplock, A T; Dumont, J E

    1993-02-01

    Studies were performed to assess the role of combined selenium and iodine deficiency in the etiology of endemic myxedematous cretinism in a population in Zaire. One effect of selenium deficiency may be to lower glutathione peroxidase activity in the thyroid gland, thus allowing hydrogen peroxide produced during thyroid hormone synthesis to be cytotoxic. In selenium-and-iodine-deficient humans, selenium supplementation may aggravate hypothyroidism by stimulating thyroxin metabolism by the selenoenzyme type I iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase. Selenium supplementation is thus not indicated without iodine or thyroid hormone supplementation in cases of combined selenium and iodine deficiencies. PMID:8427203

  5. Medical effects of iodine disinfection products in spacecraft water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Janik, Daniel S.; Thorstenson, Yvonne R.

    1987-01-01

    Various iodination products (IDPs), including iodinated and iodine-induced new compounds, will be present in the iodine-disinfected water that is expected to be used by crews on the NASA Space Station and on long duration missions. The metabolic intermediaries created by such a process may be more important to crew health than the parent IDPs, and reclamation and recycling may be expected to produce additional products. These medical effects may be expressed in crews as hypersensitivity, allergic, acute toxic, and chronic toxic reactions, as well as modifications of immune system response.

  6. VALUES OF TRACE ELEMENTS SELENIUM, COPPER, ZINC, AND IODINE AND OF VITAMIN E IN CAPTIVE LESSER KUDUS (TRAGELAPHUS IMBERBIS).

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Christine; Hoby, Stefan; Völlm, Jürg; Wenker, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Lesser kudus (Tragelaphus imberbis) have been kept in Zoo Basel since 1956. Juvenile mortality used to be high, and a recent study to reveal pathologic findings identified white muscle disease as a major contributor to this problem. Therefore, a retrospective study was initiated using 16 stored serum samples from lesser kudus from 2000 to 2013 to determine the concentration of selected trace elements, including selenium, copper, zinc, and iodine. Additionally, three serum samples were used to measure serum vitamin E values. Serum analysis revealed that copper, zinc, and iodine values were within reference ranges for domestic ruminants, and the supplementation status of these trace elements was assumed to be adequate. In contrast, vitamin E levels were low and selenium levels were scarce in several animals, indicating a deficiency of these essential micronutrients. The results of the analyses are compared with literature references. PMID:26667542

  7. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease ... Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q- ...

  8. Method for the simultaneous preparation of Radon-211, Xenon-125, Xenon-123, Astatine-211, Iodine-125 and Iodine-123

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Lambrecht, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    A method for simultaneously preparing Radon-211, Astatine-211, Xenon-125, Xenon-123, Iodine-125 and Iodine-123 in a process that includes irradiating a fertile metal material then using a one-step chemical procedure to collect a first mixture of about equal amounts of Radon-211 and Xenon-125, and a separate second mixture of about equal amounts of Iodine-123 and Astatine-211.

  9. Revision of dietary reference intakes for energy in preschool-age children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for energy aim to balance energy expenditure at a level of physical activity consistent with health and support adequate growth in children. DRIs were derived from total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method; however, the dat...

  10. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  11. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  12. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  13. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  14. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  15. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  16. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  17. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  18. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  19. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  20. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to... donor safety and blood availability, and potential measures to maintain adequate iron stores in...

  1. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  2. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  3. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  4. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  5. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  6. Method for gettering organic, inorganic and elemental iodine in aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Beahm, Edward C.; Shockley, William E.

    1990-07-03

    A process for the removal of iodine from aqueous solutions, particularly the trapping of radioactive iodine to mitigate damage resulting from accidents or spills associated with nuclear reactors, by exposing the solution to well dispersed silver carbonate which reacts with the iodine and iodides, thereby gettering iodine and iodine compounds from solution. The iodine is not only removed from solution but also from the contiguous vapor.

  7. Method for gettering organic, inorganic and elemental iodine in aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Beahm, Edward C.; Shockley, William E.

    1990-01-01

    A process for the removal of iodine from aqueous solutions, particularly the trapping of radioactive iodine to mitigate damage resulting from accidents or spills associated with nuclear reactors, by exposing the solution to well dispersed silver carbonate which reacts with the iodine and iodides, thereby gettering iodine and iodine compounds from solution. The iodine is not only removed from solution but also from the contiguous vapor.

  8. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  9. Anthropometric indices and selected nutrient intakes of young children in Kwangju, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Nam; Cho, Youn-Ok

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of children's nutritional intakes is important because any nutritional inadequacies or toxicities may have adverse consequences. Studies on the nutritional intakes of Korean children are limited. The aims of this study were to determine anthropometric indices, estimate selected nutrient intakes of young Korean children, and compare these intakes with current Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. This study included 136 healthy children (65 boys, 71 girls), 2-6 y old, living in Kwangju, Korea. Weights and heights were measured. Three consecutive 24-h food recalls were obtained. According to International Obesity TaskForce BMI cutoffs, 8% were overweight and 2% were obese. The energy intakes of 40% were < Korean Estimated Energy Requirements, while all subjects consumed ≥ Korean Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for protein. The majority of the children consumed > Korean EAR for iron, zinc, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and niacin. Vitamin E intakes of 65% of the Korean children were < Korean Adequate Intake, and approximately half of the subjects had < Korean EAR for calcium and for folate. Many young children in Kwangju, Korea, likely have inadequate status of calcium, folate, and vitamin E. PMID:20126604

  10. Exposure assessment of metal intakes from drinking water relative to those from total diet in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Koichi; Ishikawa, Kohei; Kurosawa, Yuki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2010-01-01

    Daily intakes of 17 metals (boron, aluminium, chromium, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, antimony, lead, uranium, magnesium, calcium, and iron) via drinking water and total diet were investigated in six cities in Japan. The daily metal intakes were estimated and compared with tolerable daily intake (TDI) values proposed by the WHO or Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives for toxic metals and with recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate intake (AI) values proposed for essential metals by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Among the 13 toxic metals, mean dietary intakes of 10 (except arsenic, selenium, and molybdenum) were less than 50% of TDI, suggesting that for these 10 metals the allocation of intake to drinking water in establishing guidelines or standards could possibly be increased from the normal allocation of 10-20% of TDI. For the 13 toxic metals, the contribution of drinking water to TDI was 2% or less in all six cities. Mean dietary intakes of the essential elements magnesium, calcium, and iron were less than the RDA or AI values. Drinking water did not contribute much to essential metal intake, accounting for less than 10% of RDA or AI. PMID:21099058

  11. [Chromium content in foods and dietary intake estimation in the Northwest of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Grijalva Haro, M I; Ballesteros Vázquez, M N; Cabrera Pacheco, R M

    2001-03-01

    Chromium is an indispensable nutrient for the carbohydrates and lipids metabolism. In this study the chromium content in the twenty main foods of the diet from Northwestern Mexico was determined, as well as the daily mean intake which was estimated based on the food intake basket of this region. Chromium content was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using the graphite furnace technique and previous digestion of foods in microwave oven. The chromium mean intake was estimated considering the chromium daily mean intake for person per day and the chromium content of the foods analyzed in this study. The range chromium content in the foods analyzed was between 0.0004 and 0.1641 microgram/g dry weight. White cheese showed the highest chromium content followed by pasta soup, wheat tortilla, bread and meat. The main foods chromium contributors in the diet were: wheat tortilla (20%), white cheese (11%), corn tortilla (11%), pasta soup (10%), milk (10%), meat (9%) and white bread (8%). The daily chromium intake was 30.43 +/- 1.6 micrograms/d. Chromium values obtained in the food analyzed are considered low. Moreover, chromium intake obtained from the diet is not enough to meet the safety and adequate daily chromium intake. Therefore, the population from the Northwestern Mexico has a suboptimal dietary chromium intake. PMID:11515227

  12. A Comparison by Milk Feeding Method of the Nutrient Intake of a Cohort of Australian Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jane; Davey, Kristina; Ahwong, Ellen; Devenish, Gemma; Ha, Diep; Do, Loc

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is recommended beyond 12 months of age, but little is known about the contribution of breastmilk and infant formula to the nutritional intake of toddlers as they transition to a family diet in the second year of life. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a birth cohort study in Adelaide, Australia. Dietary intake data were collected when children were approximately 1 year of age by an interviewer-administered multi-pass 24 h recall and a mother-completed 2 days food diary. Children were categorized according to their milk feeding method, i.e., breastmilk, infant formula, combination or other, and their nutrient intakes compared with recommended nutrient reference values. Complete data were available for 832 children, of which 714 had plausible energy intakes. Breastmilk and formula made a substantial contribution to the nutrient intake of those toddlers, contributing 28% and 34% of total energy, and 16% and 26% of protein intake, respectively when not drunk in combination. In general, Australian toddlers transitioning to the family diet consumed nutritionally adequate diets, although almost one quarter of all children and half of breastfed children with plausible intakes had iron intakes below the estimated average requirement, placing them at risk of iron deficiency. PMID:27537910

  13. A Comparison by Milk Feeding Method of the Nutrient Intake of a Cohort of Australian Toddlers.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jane; Davey, Kristina; Ahwong, Ellen; Devenish, Gemma; Ha, Diep; Do, Loc

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is recommended beyond 12 months of age, but little is known about the contribution of breastmilk and infant formula to the nutritional intake of toddlers as they transition to a family diet in the second year of life. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a birth cohort study in Adelaide, Australia. Dietary intake data were collected when children were approximately 1 year of age by an interviewer-administered multi-pass 24 h recall and a mother-completed 2 days food diary. Children were categorized according to their milk feeding method, i.e., breastmilk, infant formula, combination or other, and their nutrient intakes compared with recommended nutrient reference values. Complete data were available for 832 children, of which 714 had plausible energy intakes. Breastmilk and formula made a substantial contribution to the nutrient intake of those toddlers, contributing 28% and 34% of total energy, and 16% and 26% of protein intake, respectively when not drunk in combination. In general, Australian toddlers transitioning to the family diet consumed nutritionally adequate diets, although almost one quarter of all children and half of breastfed children with plausible intakes had iron intakes below the estimated average requirement, placing them at risk of iron deficiency. PMID:27537910

  14. Determination of uncertainties associated to the in vivo measurement of iodine-131 in the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Dantas, B M; Lima, F F; Dantas, A L; Lucena, E A; Gontijo, R M G; Carvalho, C B; Hazin, C

    2016-07-01

    Intakes of radionuclides can be estimated through in vivo measurements, and the uncertainties associated to the measured activities should be clearly stated in monitoring program reports. This study aims to evaluate the uncertainties of in vivo monitoring of iodine 131 in the thyroid. The reference values for high-energy photons are based on the IDEAS Guide. Measurements were performed at the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) and at the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE). In both institutions, the experiment was performed using a NaI(Tl) 3''3″ scintillation detector and a neck-thyroid phantom. Scattering factors were calculated and compared in different counting geometries. The results show that the technique produces reproducibility equivalent to the values suggested in the IDEAS Guide and measurement uncertainties is comparable to international quality standards for this type of in vivo monitoring. PMID:27108067

  15. Controlled iodine release from polyurethane sponges for water decontamination.

    PubMed

    Aviv, Oren; Laout, Natalia; Ratner, Stanislav; Harik, Oshrat; Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Domb, Abraham J

    2013-12-28

    Iodinated polyurethane (IPU) sponges were prepared by immersing sponges in aqueous/organic solutions of iodine or exposing sponges to iodine vapors. Iodine was readily adsorbed into the polymers up to 100% (w/w). The adsorption of iodine on the surface was characterized by XPS and SEM analyses. The iodine loaded IPU sponges were coated with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), in order to release iodine in a controlled rate for water decontamination combined with active carbon cartridge, which adsorbs the iodine residues after the microbial inactivation. The EVA coated IPU were incorporated in a water purifier and tested for iodine release to water and for microbial inactivation efficiency according to WQA certification program against P231/EPA for 250l, using 25l a day with flow rate of 6-8min/1l. The antimicrobial activity was also studied against Escherichia coli and MS2 phage. Bacterial results exceeded the minimal requirement for bacterial removal of 6log reduction throughout the entire lifespan. At any testing point, no bacteria was detected in the outlet achieving more than 7.1 to more than 8log reduction as calculated upon the inlet concentration. Virus surrogate, MS2, reduction results varied from 4.11log reduction under tap water, and 5.11log reduction under basic water (pH9) to 1.32 for acidic water (pH5). Controlled and stable iodine release was observed with the EVA coated IPU sponges and was effective in deactivating the bacteria and virus present in the contaminated water and thus, these iodinated PU systems could be used in water purification to provide safe drinking water. These sponges may find applications as disinfectants in medicine. PMID:24096017

  16. Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2012-08-01

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products and activation products, some of which tend to be volatile during used fuel reprocessing and evolve in gaseous species into the reprocessing facility off-gas systems. Analyses have shown that I-129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Iodine capture is an important aspect of the Separations and Waste Forms Campaign Off-gas Sigma Team (Jubin 2011, Pantano 2011). Deep-bed iodine sorption tests for both silver-functionalized Aerogel and silver zeolite sorbents were performed during Fiscal Year 2012. These tests showed that: • Decontamination factors were achieved that exceed reasonably conservative estimates for DFs needed for used fuel reprocessing facilities in the U.S. to meet regulatory requirements for I-129 capture. • Silver utilizations approached or exceeded 100% for high inlet gas iodine concentrations, but test durations were not long enough to approach 100% silver utilization for lower iodine concentrations. • The depth of the mass transfer zone was determined for both low iodine concentrations (under 10 ppmv) and for higher iodine concentrations (between 10-50 ppmv); the depth increases over time as iodine is sorbed. • These sorbents capture iodine by chemisorption, where the sorbed iodine reacts with the silver to form very non-volatile AgI. Any sorbed iodine that is physisorbed but not chemically reacted with silver to form AgI might not be tightly held by the sorbent. The portion of sorbed iodine that tends to desorb because it is not chemisorbed (reacted to form AgI) is small, under 1%, for the AgZ tests, and even smaller, under 0.01%, for the silver-functionalized Aerogel.

  17. Does temporomandibular disorder pain dysfunction syndrome affect dietary intake?

    PubMed

    Irving, J; Wood, G D; Hackett, A F

    1999-11-01

    Temporomandibular disorder pain dysfunction syndrome (TDPDS) is the most common cause of facial pain after toothache. The symptoms are varied but are likely to affect the choice, intake and enjoyment of food. This has not been previously investigated. In this paper a preliminary study of 35 patients attending a department of oral and maxillofacial surgery at a general hospital is presented. Thirty-one subjects reported that eating was a problem; 15 prepared food differently and 24 considered that their choice of food was limited. Four of the five foods most often reported to be difficult to eat are valuable in the diet: meat (22), apples (20), bread (13), toast (7) and toffees (6). Twenty-three subjects reported eating a softer diet. Most (25) reported pain when eating. Such circumstances make it harder for TDPDS sufferers to meet current nutritional guidelines, especially, perhaps, for some to achieve an adequate intake of iron. PMID:10765783

  18. Ought low alcohol intake to be promoted for health reasons?

    PubMed Central

    Holman, C D; English, D R

    1996-01-01

    There is increasingly widespread acceptance that alcohol taken in moderation by the population aged 35 years or older reduces the risks of ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality. Ten causal criteria are used to evaluate the scientific evidence for a protective effect of low alcohol intake on ischaemic heart disease. Inferences for public policy are then assessed using the principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, justice and autonomy to support a framework of nine ethical considerations: intervention versus causation; effect modification by gender, smoking, biogenetic and other factors; inappropriate adoption of recommendations; competing hazards between atherosclerotic disease and cancer; opportunity cost; equity of access; the value system used to judge outcomes; the degree of social influence warranted; and consent and responsibility. We conclude that in the absence of more adequate scientific knowledge and informed community debate it is unethical to promote low alcohol intake as a preventive health measure. PMID:8683513

  19. Intermolecular Cyclopropanation of Styrenes Using Iodine and Visible Light via Carbon-Iodine Bond Cleavage.

    PubMed

    Usami, Kaoru; Nagasawa, Yoshitomo; Yamaguchi, Eiji; Tada, Norihiro; Itoh, Akichika

    2016-01-01

    The intermolecular cyclopropanation of aromatic olefins with activated methylene compounds using iodine and visible light irradiation was described. This reaction proceeds under rare-metal-free conditions. Styrenes with various substituted groups (alkyl and electron-withdrawing groups) provided corresponding cyclopropanes in moderate to good yields. PMID:26654114

  20. Iodine deficiency, other trace elements, and goitrogenic factors in the etiopathogeny of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD).

    PubMed

    Thilly, C H; Vanderpas, J B; Bebe, N; Ntambue, K; Contempre, B; Swennen, B; Moreno-Reyes, R; Bourdoux, P; Delange, F

    1992-01-01

    Severe goiter, cretinism, and the other iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) have their main cause in the lack of availability of iodine from the soil linked to a severe limitation of food exchanges. Apart from the degrees of severity of the iodine deficiency, the frequencies and symptomatologies of cretinism and the other IDD are influenced by other goitrogenic factors and trace elements. Thiocyanate overload originating from consumption of poorly detoxified cassava is such that this goitrogenic factor aggravates a relative or a severe iodine deficiency. Very recently, a severe selenium deficiency has also been associated with IDD in the human population, whereas in animals, it has been proven to play a role in thyroid function either through a thyroidal or extrathyroidal mechanism. The former involves oxidative damages mediated by free radicals, whereas the latter implies an inhibition of the deiodinase responsible for the utilization of T4 into T3. One concludes that: 1. Goiter has a multifactorial origin; 2. IDD are an important public health problem; and 3. IDD are a good model to study the effects of other trace elements whose actions in many human metabolisms have been somewhat underestimated. PMID:1375059