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Sample records for adequate iodine intake

  1. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors.A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L.The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg.In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L.

  2. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors. A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L. The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg. In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L. PMID:27902589

  3. Determining median urinary iodine concentration that indicates adequate iodine intake at population level.

    PubMed Central

    Delange, François; de Benoist, Bruno; Burgi, Hans

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Urinary iodine concentration is the prime indicator of nutritional iodine status and is used to evaluate population-based iodine supplementation. In 1994, WHO, UNICEF and ICCIDD recommended median urinary iodine concentrations for populations of 100- 200 micro g/l, assuming the 100 micro g/l threshold would limit concentrations <50 micro g/l to iodine in iodine-replete populations (schoolchildren and adults) and the proportion of concentrations <50 micro g/l. METHOD: A questionnaire on frequency distribution of urinary iodine in iodine-replete populations was circulated to 29 scientific groups. FINDINGS: Nineteen groups reported data from 48 populations with median urinary iodine concentrations >100 micro g/l. The total population was 55 892, including 35 661 (64%) schoolchildren. Median urinary iodine concentrations were 111-540 (median 201) micro g/l for all populations, 100-199 micro g/l in 23 (48%) populations and >/=200 micro g/l in 25 (52%). The frequencies of values <50 micro g/l were 0-20.8 (mean 4.8%) overall and 7.2% and 2.5% in populations with medians of 100-199 micro g/l and >200 micro g/l, respectively. The frequency reached 20% only in two places where iodine had been supplemented for <2 years. CONCLUSION: The frequency of urinary iodine concentrations <50 micro g/l in populations with median urinary iodine concentrations >/=100 micro g/l has been overestimated. The threshold of 100 micro g/l does not need to be increased. In populations, median urinary iodine concentrations of 100-200 micro g/l indicate adequate iodine intake and optimal iodine nutrition. PMID:12219154

  4. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  5. Dietary Iodine Intake of the Australian Population after Introduction of a Mandatory Iodine Fortification Programme

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Karen; Probst, Yasmine; Kiene, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    To address mild iodine deficiency in Australia, a mandatory fortification program of iodised salt in bread was implemented in 2009. This study aimed to determine factors associated with achieving an adequate dietary iodine intake in the Australian population post-fortification, and to assess whether bread consumption patterns affect iodine intake in high-risk groups. Using nationally representative data of repeated 24-h dietary recalls from the 2011–2012 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, dietary iodine intakes and food group contributions were compared by age, socioeconomic status (SES), and geographical remoteness (N = 7735). The association between fortified bread intake and adequacy of iodine intake (meeting age and sex-specific Estimated Average Requirements) was investigated using logistic regression models in women of childbearing age 14–50 years (n = 3496) and children aged 2–18 years (n = 1772). The effect of SES on bread consumption was further investigated in a sub group of children aged 5–9 years (n = 488). Main sources of iodine intake at the time of the survey were cereal and cereal products, followed by milk products and dishes. Differences in iodine intake and dietary iodine habits according to age, SES and location were found (p < 0.001) for women of child-bearing age. Fortified bread consumption at ≥100 g/day was associated with five times greater odds of achieving an adequate iodine intake (OR 5.0, 95% CI 4.96–5.13; p < 0.001) compared to lower bread consumption in women and 12 times in children (OR 12.34, 95% CI 1.71–89.26; p < 0.001). Disparities in dietary iodine intake exist within sectors of the Australian population, even after mandatory fortification of a staple food. On-going monitoring and surveillance of iodine status is required. PMID:27827915

  6. Recent data on iodine intake in Germany and Europe.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. These regulate metabolism, promote growth, development and maturation of all organs, especially the brain. Most iodine is found in oceans and most continental soil and ground water is deficient in iodine. Therefore, around 2 billion individuals are estimated to have insufficient iodine intake and are at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. The best carrier for save iodine supplementation is salt, as the daily intake of salt is mainly constant. Due to the collaboration between international and national organisations and the salt industry, many developing and developed countries introduced universal salt iodization (USI) or have mandatory or voluntary fortification programs. In Germany as in most European countries the use of iodized salt is voluntary not only in household but also in the food industry. Two recent epidemiological surveys in Germany revealed that 33% of children and 32% of adults are still suffering from mild to moderate iodine deficiency. The best surrogate parameter for iodine deficiency is goitre. The goitre prevalence is around 30% in children as well as in adults which is in accordance with the documented iodine deficiency. From other European countries epidemiological derived data on iodine intake are only available from Denmark and Poland. Further efforts are under way to reveal the iodine status with proper methods in all European countries. On this background it might be possible to establish adequate iodine fortification programs in all European countries.

  7. Simulation of total dietary iodine intake in Flemish preschool children.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Lin, Y; Moreno-Reyes, R; Huybrechts, I

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to calculate the distribution of total iodine intake among Flemish preschoolers and to identify the major sources contributing to iodine intake. A simulation model using a combination of deterministic and probabilistic techniques was utilised. Scenario analyses were performed to assess iodine intake via dairy products, industrially added iodised salt in bread and discretionarily added iodised household salt. Relevant data from 3-d estimated dietary records of 696 preschoolers 2·5-6·5 years old were used. Usual iodine intakes were calculated using the Iowa State University method. With a more generalised utilisation of iodised salt in bread (44 % of the bakers in 2011 instead of 12 % in 2002), mean iodine intake increased from 159 to 164 μg/d using the McCance and Widdowson's food composition table and from 104 to 109 μg/d using the German food composition table. The percentage of preschoolers with an iodine intake below the estimated average requirement (65 μg/d) decreased from 5-12 to 4-9 %, while the percentage of preschoolers with an iodine intake above the tolerable upper intake level (300 μg/d) remained constant (0·3-4 %). Mean iodine intake via food supplements was 4·2 μg/d (total population) and 16·9 μg/d (consumers only). Both in 2002 and 2011, sugared dairy products, milk and iodised salt (21·4, 13·1, and 8·7 %, respectively in 2011) were the main contributors to total iodine intake. In conclusion, dietary iodine intake could still be improved in Flemish preschoolers. The use of adequately iodised household salt and the more generalised use of iodised salt by bakers should be further encouraged.

  8. An Increase in Consuming Adequately Iodized Salt May Not Be Enough to Rectify Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy in an Iodine-Sufficient Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhifang; Zhu, Wenming; Mo, Zhe; Wang, Yuanyang; Mao, Guangming; Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Universal salt iodization (USI) has been implemented for two decades in China. It is crucial to periodically monitor iodine status in the most vulnerable population, such as pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was carried out in an evidence-proved iodine-sufficient province to evaluate iodine intake in pregnancy. According to the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation criteria of adequate iodine intake in pregnancy (150–249 µg/L), the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of the total 8159 recruited pregnant women was 147.5 µg/L, which indicated pregnant women had iodine deficiency at the province level. Overall, 51.0% of the total study participants had iodine deficiency with a UIC < 150 µg/L and only 32.9% of them had adequate iodine. Participants living in coastal areas had iodine deficiency with a median UIC of 130.1 µg/L, while those in inland areas had marginally adequate iodine intake with a median UIC of 158.1 µg/L (p < 0.001). Among the total study participants, 450 pregnant women consuming non-iodized salt had mild-moderate iodine deficiency with a median UIC of 99.6 µg/L; 7363 pregnant women consuming adequately iodized salt had a lightly statistically higher median UIC of 151.9 µg/L, compared with the recommended adequate level by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD (p < 0.001). Consuming adequately iodized salt seemed to lightly increase the median UIC level, but it may not be enough to correct iodine nutrition status to an optimum level as recommended by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD. We therefore suggest that, besides strengthening USI policy, additional interventive measure may be needed to improve iodine intake in pregnancy. PMID:28230748

  9. Does iodine gas released from seaweed contribute to dietary iodine intake?

    PubMed

    Smyth, P P A; Burns, R; Huang, R J; Hoffman, T; Mullan, K; Graham, U; Seitz, K; Platt, U; O'Dowd, C

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid hormone levels sufficient for brain development and normal metabolism require a minimal supply of iodine, mainly dietary. Living near the sea may confer advantages for iodine intake. Iodine (I(2)) gas released from seaweeds may, through respiration, supply a significant fraction of daily iodine requirements. Gaseous iodine released over seaweed beds was measured by a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based method and iodine intake assessed by measuring urinary iodine (UI) excretion. Urine samples were obtained from female schoolchildren living in coastal seaweed rich and low seaweed abundance and inland areas of Ireland. Median I(2) ranged 154-905 pg/L (daytime downwind), with higher values (~1,287 pg/L) on still nights, 1,145-3,132 pg/L (over seaweed). A rough estimate of daily gaseous iodine intake in coastal areas, based upon an arbitrary respiration of 10,000L, ranged from 1 to 20 μg/day. Despite this relatively low potential I(2) intake, UI in populations living near a seaweed hotspot were much higher than in lower abundance seaweed coastal or inland areas (158, 71 and 58 μg/L, respectively). Higher values >150 μg/L were observed in 45.6% of (seaweed rich), 3.6% (lower seaweed), 2.3% (inland)) supporting the hypothesis that iodine intake in coastal regions may be dependent on seaweed abundance rather than proximity to the sea. The findings do not exclude the possibility of a significant role for iodine inhalation in influencing iodine status. Despite lacking iodized salt, coastal communities in seaweed-rich areas can maintain an adequate iodine supply. This observation brings new meaning to the expression "Sea air is good for you!"

  10. Iodine concentration of organic and conventional milk: implications for iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Button, Suzanne; Rayman, Margaret P

    2012-04-01

    Iodine is required for adequate thyroid hormone production, which is essential for brain development, particularly in the first trimester of pregnancy. Milk is the principal source of iodine in UK diets, and while small studies in Europe have shown organic milk to have a lower iodine concentration than conventional milk, no such study has been conducted in Britain. In view of the increasing popularity of organic milk in the UK, we aimed to compare the iodine concentration of retail organic and conventional milk and to evaluate regional influences in iodine levels. Samples of organic milk (n 92) and conventional milk (n 80), purchased from retail outlets in sixteen areas of the UK (southern England, Wales and Northern Ireland), were analysed for iodine using inductively coupled plasma MS. The region of origin of the milk was determined from information on the label. Organic milk was 42·1 % lower in iodine content than conventional milk (median iodine concentration 144·5 v. 249·5 ng/g; P < 0·001). There was no difference in the iodine concentration of either conventional or organic milk by area of purchase. However, a difference was seen in iodine concentration of organic milk by region of origin (P < 0·001). The lower iodine concentration of organic milk has public-health implications, particularly in view of emerging evidence of iodine deficiency in UK population sub-groups, including pregnant women. Individuals who choose organic milk should be aware that their iodine intake may be compromised and should ensure adequate iodine intake from alternative sources.

  11. Excessive iodine intake during pregnancy in Somali refugees.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Ismail A R; Ruth, Laird J; Creeke, Paul I; Gnat, Danielle; Abdalla, Fathia; Seal, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Iodine deficiency and excess are both associated with adverse health consequences, with fetuses, children and pregnant women being most vulnerable to the devastating effects of severe deficiency. It is often assumed that the iodine status of a population if displaced or in a remote or emergency situation is low. However, there is little evidence available to support this assumption, especially among long-term food-aid-dependent pregnant women. An effectiveness trial of a prenatal multiple-micronutrient supplement that contained 150 µg day(-1) iodine was conducted in two refugee camps in the North Eastern Province of Kenya in 2002. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured in a subsample of pregnant women attending antenatal care in Dagahaley (control camp) (n = 74) and Ifo (intervention camp) (n = 63). There was no significant difference in median UIC between the two camps (P = 0.118). The combined median UIC was 730 µg L(-1) (interquartile range, 780) (5.77 µmol L(-1)) and exceeded the upper safe limit of 500 µg L(-1) (3.95 µmol L(-1)) for pregnant women (P < 0.001), indicating excessive iodine intake. About 20% of the study subjects had 'more than adequate' urinary iodine, while over 71% had excessive UIC. Salt iodine content varied between 5.1 and 80.1 ppm in the five market salt samples analysed. In conclusion, excessive iodine intake was evident in the Dadaab refugee camps. Further research needs to be conducted to investigate the source of excess iodine, to determine the measures needed to address excessive iodine intake and to reconsider the World Health Organization/World Food Programme/United Nations Children's Fund guidance on supplementation of vulnerable groups in emergencies.

  12. Iodine intake in human nutrition: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Dahl, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    The present literature review is a part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) issued in 2004. The main objective of the review is to assess the influence of different intakes of iodine at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation) in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. The literature search resulted in 1,504 abstracts. Out of those, 168 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Full paper selection resulted in 40 papers that were quality assessed (A, B, or C). The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, and no conclusion. We found suggestive evidence for improved maternal iodine status and thyroid function by iodine supplementation during pregnancy. Suggestive evidence was found for the relationship between improved thyroid function (used as an indicator of iodine status) during pregnancy and cognitive function in the offspring up to 18 months of age. Moderately to severely iodine-deficient children will probably benefit from iodine supplementation or improved iodine status in order to improve their cognitive function, while only one study showed improved cognitive function following iodine supplementation in children from a mildly iodine-deficient area (no conclusion). No conclusions can be drawn related to other outcomes included in our review. There are no new data supporting changes in dietary reference values for children or adults. The rationale for increasing the dietary reference values for pregnant and lactating women in the NNR5 needs to be discussed in a broader perspective, taking iodine status of pregnant women in the Nordic countries into account. PMID:23060737

  13. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Cho, Mi Sook; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC) from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA); dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted. PMID:27240399

  14. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Cho, Mi Sook; Song, Won O

    2016-05-26

    Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC) from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA); dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted.

  15. Iodine and Selenium Intakes of Postmenopausal Women in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Brough, Louise; Gunn, Caroline A; Weber, Janet L; Coad, Jane; Jin, Ying; Thomson, Jasmine S; Mauze, Mathilde; Kruger, Marlena C

    2017-03-09

    Iodine and selenium are required for thyroid function. This study investigated iodine and selenium intakes in healthy, women aged 50-70 years (n = 97) from three cities in the North Island of New Zealand, after mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt. Iodine and selenium concentrations were determined in 24-h urine samples; daily intakes were extrapolated from amounts in urine (90% and 55% of daily intake, respectively). Three day diet diaries (3DDD) also estimated selenium and iodine (excluding iodised salt) intake. Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 57 (41, 78) µg/L, indicating mild iodine deficiency. Estimated median iodine intake based on urine was 138 (100, 172) µg/day, below Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI) (150 µg/day) with 25% below Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) (100 µg/day). Estimated median selenium intake was 50 (36, 71) µg/day based on urine and 45 (36, 68) µg/day using 3DDD, below RDI (60 µg/day) with 49%-55% below EAR (50 µg/day). Median bread intakes were low at 1.8 (1.1, 2.7) serves/day; 25% consumed ≤1 serve/day. Although population iodine intakes improved following mandatory fortification, some had low intakes. Selenium intakes remain low. Further research should investigate thyroid function of low consumers of iodine fortified bread and/or selenium in New Zealand.

  16. Iodine and Selenium Intakes of Postmenopausal Women in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Brough, Louise; Gunn, Caroline A.; Weber, Janet L.; Coad, Jane; Jin, Ying; Thomson, Jasmine S.; Mauze, Mathilde; Kruger, Marlena C.

    2017-01-01

    Iodine and selenium are required for thyroid function. This study investigated iodine and selenium intakes in healthy, women aged 50–70 years (n = 97) from three cities in the North Island of New Zealand, after mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt. Iodine and selenium concentrations were determined in 24-h urine samples; daily intakes were extrapolated from amounts in urine (90% and 55% of daily intake, respectively). Three day diet diaries (3DDD) also estimated selenium and iodine (excluding iodised salt) intake. Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 57 (41, 78) µg/L, indicating mild iodine deficiency. Estimated median iodine intake based on urine was 138 (100, 172) µg/day, below Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI) (150 µg/day) with 25% below Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) (100 µg/day). Estimated median selenium intake was 50 (36, 71) µg/day based on urine and 45 (36, 68) µg/day using 3DDD, below RDI (60 µg/day) with 49%–55% below EAR (50 µg/day). Median bread intakes were low at 1.8 (1.1, 2.7) serves/day; 25% consumed ≤1 serve/day. Although population iodine intakes improved following mandatory fortification, some had low intakes. Selenium intakes remain low. Further research should investigate thyroid function of low consumers of iodine fortified bread and/or selenium in New Zealand. PMID:28282932

  17. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-03

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization.

  18. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Karakochuk, Crystal D.; Michaux, Kristina D.; Chai, Tze L.; Chan, Benny B.; Whitfield, Kyly C.; Barr, Susan I.; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18–45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100–199 and 150–249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  19. Effect of excess iodine intake on thyroid on human health.

    PubMed

    Koukkou, Eftychia G; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Markou, Kostas B

    2017-04-01

    The recommended daily intake of iodide, is 150 μg for adolescents and adults, 250 μg for pregnancy and lactation. Thyroid gland is an effective collector of iodine. The active iodine uptake along the basolateral membrane of thyroid cell is followed by its transport to the apical edge of the cell and then to the follicle lumen. TSH acts through cAMP and stimulates NIS gene expression and protein synthesis. The major proportion of iodine in the thyroid gland is bound to Thyroglobulin. The non-organic intrathyroidal iodine is usually low, but significantly greater compared to plasma. Large doses of iodine reduce both the uptake and the organification (Wolff-Chaikoff effect) and cause partial inhibition of Tg proteolysis. The thyroid gland has several protective mechanisms resulting on the maintenance of normal thyroid function despite wide fluctuations of the daily iodine intake. Ingestion of several commonly used drugs and food conservatives results in acute or chronic excessive iodine intake. Failure to escape from the iodine induced organification inhibition can cause hypothyroidism, which is temporary and subsides after iodine exposure ceases. Iodine excess may also establish a status of excessive thyroid hormone synthesis and release, thus inducing autonomic thyroid function in iodopenic areas or can contribute to the development of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism in iodine abundant areas. The anti-arrhythmic Amiodarone, is a benzofuranic product with a very high iodine content, is associated with either hypo- or hyperthyroidism development. In the presence of defective auto-protective mechanisms, excessive iodine ingestion can divert the normal thyroid function.

  20. Iodine intake and status during pregnancy and lactation before and after government initiatives to improve iodine status, in Palmerston North, New Zealand: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brough, Louise; Jin, Ying; Shukri, Nurul Husna; Wharemate, Zirsha Roimata; Weber, Janet L; Coad, Jane

    2015-10-01

    Iodine deficiency during pregnancy and lactation may adversely affect fetal and infant development. Two initiatives were introduced in New Zealand to prevent deficiency: (1) mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt; and (2) provision of a subsidised iodine supplement (150 μg) for all pregnant and breastfeeding women. The aim of this study was to assess iodine intake and status among a self-selecting sample of pregnant and lactating women in Palmerston North, both before and after the two initiatives. Pregnant and breastfeeding women were recruited before (n = 25 and 32; 2009) and after (n = 34 and 36; 2011) the initiatives. Iodine concentration was determined in 24-h urine and breast milk samples using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Use of supplements and salt, knowledge of iodine deficiency, and awareness of the initiatives were determined by questionnaire. Median urine iodine concentration (UIC) was higher in 2011 compared with 2009 for both pregnant (85 and 47 μg L(-1) ) and breastfeeding (74 and 34 μg L(-1) ) participants; median UIC were below the cut-offs for adequate iodine status. However, in 2011, the estimated daily iodine intake during pregnancy was 217 μg day(-1) ; 74% of women achieved the Estimated Average Requirement. Knowledge of the initiatives was low, only 28-56% were aware of the need for iodine supplements and only 15-22% were aware of the mandatory addition of iodised salt to bread. Despite initiatives, UIC of these women indicates iodine deficiency, however, dietary intakes appear adequate. Ongoing surveillance of supplement use and iodine status among pregnant and lactating women throughout New Zealand is needed to fully assess the efficacy of the initiatives. Alternative strategies may require evaluation to ensure all women have adequate iodine during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  1. Effects of iodine intake and teat-dipping practices on milk iodine concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castro, S I Borucki; Berthiaume, R; Robichaud, A; Lacasse, P

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of dietary iodine and teat-dipping practices on iodine concentrations in milk. In the first study, 63 cows in mid lactation were assigned to a 3×3 factorial design in which the main effects were dietary iodine levels (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mg of dietary I/kg of dry matter) and 3 different postdip managements (chlorhexidine with dip cup, 1% iodine dip cup, and 1% iodine by manual spray). During the 13-d pre-experimental period and the 15-d experimental period, noniodized sanitizers were used in premilking management. During the pre-experimental period, the levels of milk iodine averaged 241.2±5.8 μg/kg, and no relationship was found with lactation number, days in milk, or milk production. Milk iodine concentrations increased linearly with iodine intake. Although teat dipping with 1% iodine had no effect on milk iodine concentration, the same solution applied by spraying greatly increased milk iodine levels. The second study was conducted to determine the effects of udder preparation before milking on milk iodine concentrations. Thirty-two lactating cows were assigned to 4 treatments: no predip (Con); predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+complete cleaning (Comp); predip with a postdip solution containing 1% iodine+complete cleaning (Post); and predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+incomplete cleaning (Inc). During the 14-d pre-experimental period and the 19-d experimental period, cows were fed the same diet, and noniodized sanitizers were used for postmilking dipping. During the last week of treatment, milk iodine averaged 164, 189, 218, and 252±9.8 μg/kg for Con, Comp, Post, and Inc, respectively. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts indicated that predipping with a 0.5% iodine predip solution completely wiped off (Comp) tended to increase milk iodine content above that of the control and that the iodine content of Post and Inc were higher than that of the Comp treatment. The results of

  2. Dietary iodine and bromine intakes in Ukrainian subjects.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Kunio; Ko, Susumu; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Zamostyan, Pavlo V; Tsigankov, Nikolay Y

    2009-01-01

    Dietary iodine and bromine intakes in Ukrainian subjects were estimated in relation to the health effects on inhabitants after the Chernobyl accident. Two hundred and eighty-six total diets were collected from twenty-five regions for Ukrainians by a duplicate portion study. Iodine and bromine were rapidly determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after chemical separation. The range, median, and geometric mean of iodine intakes were 2.86-698, 44.7, and 48.1 microg per person per day, respectively. Those of bromine were 0.627-16.9, 2.97, and 2.92 mg per person per day, respectively. Daily intakes of both elements in Ukrainians were lower than previously reported values. The iodine intake in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident was lower than that in non-contaminated areas. The low iodine intake in both areas would be related to the high prevalence of goiters throughout the whole country. The low bromine intakes indicated Ukrainians were not exposed to bromine-containing foods.

  3. Thyroid Function among Breastfed Children with Chronically Excessive Iodine Intakes

    PubMed Central

    Aakre, Inger; Strand, Tor A.; Bjøro, Trine; Norheim, Ingrid; Barikmo, Ingrid; Ares, Susana; Alcorta, Marta Duque; Henjum, Sigrun

    2016-01-01

    Iodine excess may impair thyroid function and trigger adverse health consequences for children. This study aims to describe iodine status among breastfed infants with high iodine exposure in the Saharawi refugee camps Algeria, and further assess thyroid function and iodine status among the children three years later. In 2010, a cross-sectional study among 111 breastfed children aged 0–6 months was performed (baseline study). In 2013, a second cross-sectional study (follow-up study) was conducted among 289 children; 213 newly selected and 76 children retrieved from baseline. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) were measured at baseline. UIC, thyroid hormones and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) were measured at follow-up. At baseline and follow-up, 88% and 72% had excessive iodine intakes (UIC ≥ 300 µg/L), respectively. At follow-up, 24% had a thyroid hormone disturbance and/or elevated serum Tg, including 9% with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), 4% with elevated fT3 and 14% with elevated Tg. Children with SCH had poorer linear growth and were more likely to be underweight than the children without SCH. Excessive iodine intakes and thyroid disturbances were common among children below four years of age in our study. Further, SCH seemed to be associated with poor growth and weight. PMID:27367720

  4. Assessment of spatial variation in drinking water iodine and its implications for dietary intake: a new conceptual model for Denmark.

    PubMed

    Voutchkova, Denitza Dimitrova; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Hansen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Brian Lyngby; Zhang, Chaosheng; Kristiansen, Søren Munch

    2014-09-15

    Iodine is essential for human health. Many countries have therefore introduced universal salt iodising (USI) programmes to ensure adequate intake for the populations. However, little attention has been paid to subnational differences in iodine intake from drinking water caused by naturally occurring spatial variations. To address this issue, we here present the results of a Danish nationwide study of spatial trends of iodine in drinking water and the relevance of these trends for human dietary iodine intake. The data consist of treated drinking water samples from 144 waterworks, representing approx. 45% of the groundwater abstraction for drinking water supply in Denmark. The samples were analysed for iodide, iodate, total iodine (TI) and other major and trace elements. The spatial patterns were investigated with Local Moran's I. TI ranges from <0.2 to 126 μg L(-1) (mean 14.4 μg L(-1), median 11.9 μg L(-1)). Six speciation combinations were found. Half of the samples (n = 71) contain organic iodine; all species were detected in approx. 27% of all samples. The complex spatial variation is attributed both to the geology and the groundwater treatment. TI >40 μg L(-1) originates from postglacial marine and glacial meltwater sand and from Campanian-Maastrichtian chalk aquifers. The estimated drinking water contribution to human intake varies from 0% to >100% of the WHO recommended daily iodine intake for adults and from 0% to approx. 50% for adolescents. The paper presents a new conceptual model based on the observed clustering of high or low drinking-water iodine concentrations, delimiting zones with potentially deficient, excessive or optimal iodine status. Our findings suggest that the present coarse-scale nationwide programme for monitoring the population's iodine status may not offer a sufficiently accurate picture. Local variations in drinking-water iodine should be mapped and incorporated into future adjustment of the monitoring and/or the USI programmes.

  5. Iodine nutrition in pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Angela M; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E

    2011-12-01

    Adequate iodine intake is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones that are important for normal fetal and infant neurodevelopment. In this review, we discuss iodine physiology during pregnancy and lactation, methods to assess iodine sufficiency, the importance of adequate iodine nutrition, studies of iodine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation, the consequences of hypothyroidism during pregnancy, the current status of iodine nutrition in the United States, the global efforts toward achieving universal iodine sufficiency, and substances that may interfere with iodine use.

  6. Epidemiology of nodular goitre. Influence of iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Carlé, Allan; Krejbjerg, Anne; Laurberg, Peter

    2014-08-01

    More than one tenth of the world population is to some degree affected by goitre and most of these harbour nodules. The large differences in thyroid disease prevalence between populations may be caused by genetic and environmental factors. Among the latter, iodine deficiency seems by far to be the most important risk factor. Thus, nodular goitre is a condition predominantly seen in iodine deficient areas of the world. In the present review, we evaluated in detail autopsy and ultrasound studies of the thyroid gland. In autopsy studies, large thyroid volumes and high frequencies of goitres have been reported in countries affected by iodine deficiency. Many cross-sectional studies using thyroid ultrasound investigations have been performed world-wide and reported high thyroid volumes and goitre prevalences, and to some extent also high prevalences of thyroid nodules in iodine-deficient countries. Most of these goitres were classified as nodular goitres. On the other hand, few studies have shown that abundant iodine intake may lead to development of diffuse goitres, but world-wide this has been a minor problem compared with development of nodular goitres. In the past century we have observed a trend towards smaller thyroid glands, and hopefully less than 10% of the world population will experience goitre within a few decades.

  7. Iodine intakes and status in Irish adults: is there cause for concern?

    PubMed

    McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Tlustos, Christina; Gibney, Michael J

    2017-02-01

    I is an important mineral for health, required for the production of key thyroid hormones, which are essential for cellular metabolism, growth and physical development. Hence, adequate I is crucial at all stages of life, but imperative during pregnancy for fetal brain development and during a child's early life for neurodevelopment. Within Ireland, limited information exists on population I intakes and status. Therefore, the purposes of the present analysis were to estimate dietary I intakes and to analyse urinary iodine (UI) status using the cross-sectional National Adult Nutrition Survey 2008-2010 and the most recent Irish Total Diet Study. Median I intakes in the total population (n 1106) were adequate with only 26 % of the population being classified as below the estimated average requirement (EAR). Milk consumption was the major source of I in the diet, contributing 45 % to total intake. Likewise, median UI concentrations (107 µg/l) indicated 'optimal' I nutrition according to the WHO cut-off points. In our cohort, 77 % of women of childbearing age (18-50 years) did not meet the EAR recommendation set for pregnant women. Although I is deemed to be sufficient in the majority of adult populations resident in Ireland, any changes to the current dairy practices could significantly impact intake and status. Continued monitoring should be of priority to ensure that all subgroups of the population are I sufficient.

  8. Estimation of habitual iodine intake in Japanese adults using 16 d diet records over four seasons with a newly developed food composition database for iodine.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Miura, Ayako; Todoriki, Hidemi; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2015-08-28

    Although habitual seaweed consumption in Japan would suggest that iodine intake in Japanese is exceptionally high, intake data from diet records are limited. In the present study, we developed a composition database of iodine and estimated the habitual intake of iodine among Japanese adults. Missing values for iodine content in the existing composition table were imputed based on established criteria. 16 d diet records (4 d over four seasons) from adults (120 women aged 30-69 years and 120 men aged 30-76 years) living in Japan were collected, and iodine intake was estimated. Habitual intake was estimated with the Best-power method. Totally, 995 food items were imputed. The distribution of iodine intake in 24 h was highly skewed, and approximately 55 % of 24 h values were < 300 μg/d. The median iodine intake in 24 h was 229 μg/d for women and 273 μg/d for men. All subjects consumed iodine-rich foods (kelp or soup stock) on one or more days of the sixteen survey days. The mean (median) habitual iodine intake was 1414 (857) μg/d for women and 1572 (1031) μg/d for men. Older participants had higher intake than younger participants. The major contributors to iodine intake were kelp (60 %) and soup stock (30 %). Habitual iodine intake among Japanese was sufficient or higher than the tolerable upper intake level, particularly in older generations. The association between high iodine intake as that observed in the present study and thyroid disease requires further study.

  9. Effects of Increased Iodine Intake on Thyroid Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Shan, Zhongyan

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient essential for the production of thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. Universal salt iodization (USI) has been introduced in many countries as a cost-effective and sustainable way to eliminate iodine deficiency disorders for more than 25 years. Currently, the relationship between USI and iodine excess has attracted more attention. Iodine excess can lead to hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, especially for susceptible populations with recurring thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses, and neonates. Nationwide USI was introduced in China in 1996. This review focused on the effects of iodine excess worldwide and particularly in China. PMID:25309781

  10. Systematic review using meta-analyses to estimate dose-response relationships between iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status in different population groups.

    PubMed

    Ristić-Medić, Danijela; Dullemeijer, Carla; Tepsić, Jasna; Petrović-Oggiano, Gordana; Popović, Tamara; Arsić, Aleksandra; Glibetić, Marija; Souverein, Olga W; Collings, Rachel; Cavelaars, Adriënne; de Groot, Lisette; van't Veer, Pieter; Gurinović, Mirjana

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to identify studies investigating iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status, to assess the data of the selected studies, and to estimate dose-response relationships using meta-analysis. All randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, nested case-control studies, and cross-sectional studies that supplied or measured dietary iodine and measured iodine biomarkers were included. The overall pooled regression coefficient (β) and the standard error of β were calculated by random-effects meta-analysis on a double-log scale, using the calculated intake-status regression coefficient (β) for each individual study. The results of pooled randomized controlled trials indicated that the doubling of dietary iodine intake increased urinary iodine concentrations by 14% in children and adolescents, by 57% in adults and the elderly, and by 81% in pregnant women. The dose-response relationship between iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status indicated a 12% decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone and a 31% decrease in thyroglobulin in pregnant women. The model of dose-response quantification used to describe the relationship between iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status may be useful for providing complementary evidence to support recommendations for iodine intake in different population groups.

  11. High Iodine and Salt Intakes and Obesity do not Modify the Thyroid Function in Mexican Schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Villa, Lorena; García-Solís, Pablo; Solís-S, Juan Carlos; García-Gutiérrez, David Gustavo; Pérez-Mora, Valeria Alejandra; Robles-Osorio, Ludivina; Sampson-Zaldívar, Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    Mexico is considered as a nutritional transition country with a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, and recent studies have reported a high iodine intake in children. Both high iodine intake and obesity have been associated with thyroid dysfunction. Our aim was to assess iodine and salt intake and thyroid function in Mexican schoolchildren with normal weight and obesity. A cross-sectional study was performed during 2012-2013 in schoolchildren from Queretaro, Mexico. Six hundred seventy-eight schoolchildren were evaluated to obtain nutrition status, urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and thyroid volume (TVol). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 47.3 %, the median UIC was 428 μg/L and TVol was normal in all schoolchildren; however, obese girls had a higher TVol than normal weight at the age of 8, 10 and 12 years. A subsample of schoolchildren was divided in 6-8 and 9-12-year-old groups, in order to compare thyroid function (thyrotropin, free T4, and anti-thyroid antibodies); iodine and salt intake were estimated with 24-h urinary samples. No differences in thyroid function were observed in both age groups. In the 6-8-year-old group, obese schoolchildren had higher iodine intake than normal-weight children (415.5 vs. 269.1 μg/day, p < 0.05), but no differences in salt intake. In contrast, in the 9-12-year-old group, obese schoolchildren had higher salt intake than normal-weight children (6.2 vs. 3.8 g/day, p < 0.05), but no differences in iodine intake. Dietary patterns could explain the differences between both age groups. Further studies are needed to identify the main sources of iodine intake in Mexican populations.

  12. Iodine intake and status of UK women of childbearing age recruited at the University of Surrey in the winter

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Sarah C.; Sleeth, Michelle L.; McKenna, Marianne; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Rayman, Margaret P.

    2015-01-01

    As intra-thyroidal iodine stores should be maximised before conception to facilitate the increased thyroid-hormone production of pregnancy, women who may become pregnant should ideally consume 150 μg iodine/day [US Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)]. As few UK data exist in this population group, our aim was to assess iodine intake and status in women of childbearing age in a cross-sectional study at the University of Surrey. Total iodine excretion was measured from 24-h urine samples in 57 women; iodine intake was estimated by assuming that 90% of ingested iodine was excreted. Average iodine intake was also estimated from 48-h food diaries that the women completed. The median urinary-iodine concentration (63.1 μg/L) classified the group as mildly iodine deficient by WHO criteria. By contrast, the median 24-h iodine excretion (149.8 μg/24-h), suggested a relatively low risk of iodine deficiency. Median estimated iodine intake, extrapolated from urinary excretion, was 167 μg/day, whereas it was lower, at 123 μg/day, when estimated from the 48-h food-diaries. Iodine intake from food diaries and 24-h iodine excretion were strongly correlated (r=0.75, p<0.001). Intake of milk, eggs and dairy products was positively associated with iodine status. The iodine status of this UK cohort is probably a best-case scenario as the women were mostly nutrition students and were recruited in the winter when milk-iodine content is at its highest; further study in more representative cohorts of UK women is required. Our study highlights a need for revised cut-offs for iodine deficiency that are method- and age-group specific. PMID:25274294

  13. Current status of iodine intake in Croatia--the results of 2009 survey.

    PubMed

    Kusić, Zvonko; Jukić, Tomislav; Rogan, Suncica Andreja; Juresa, Vesna; Dabelić, Nina; Stanicić, Josip; Borić, Marta; Lukinac, Ljerka; Mihaljević, Ivan; Punda, Ante; Smokvina, Aleksandar; Topalović, Zlatko; Katalenić, Marijan

    2012-03-01

    In 1996, due to persistence of mild to moderate iodine deficiency, new law on obligatory salt iodination with 25 mg of potassium iodide (KI) per kg of salt was implemented in Croatia. Along with a new law, a new program for monitoring of iodine prophylaxis was implemented. Investigations of goiter and iodine intake performed in 2002, demonstrated sufficient iodine intake in Croatia with overall median of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) for schoolchildren in Croatia of 140 microg/L. In 2002, thyroid volumes (TV) measured by ultrasound in schoolchildren from all four geographic regions of Croatia were for the first time within the normal range according to ICCIDD reference values. Nowadays, Croatia is internationally recognized as iodine sufficient country. The aim of the present study was to assess current status of iodine intake in Croatia. The investigation was carried out in 2009. A total of 386 schoolchildren aged 7-10 years from all four major geographic regions of Croatia, 103 euthyroid pregnant women and 36 women of child-bearing age from Zagreb, the capital, were included in the survey. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured in all participants. Thyroid volumes were measured by ultrasound in schoolchildren from the capital of Zagreb (N = 101) and the village of Rude (N = 56). In the time period 2002-2009, the content of KI was analyzed in 384 salt samples from Croatian salt plants and samples of imported salt. An overall median UIC for schoolchildren in Croatia was 248 microg/L. Median UIC in pregnant women was 159 microg/L, with 50% of samples below and under 150 microg/L. Median UIC in women of child-bearing age was 136 microg/L. Thyroid volumes in schoolchildren were within the normal range according to the new reference values. Mean value of KI/kg of salt in samples from Croatian salt plants was 25.5 mg/kg and 24.9 mg/kg in samples of imported salt. A total of 72/384 (18.8%) of salt samples didn't corresponded to the Croatian law on

  14. The relationship between iodine intake and serum thyroglobulin in the general population.

    PubMed

    Bílek, R; Čeřovská, J; Zamrazil, V

    2015-01-01

    The relationship is shown between a concentration of urinary iodine and serum thyroglobulin in population studies carried out on a general population that was randomly selected from the registry of the General Health Insurance Company (individuals aged 6-98 years, 1751 males, 2420 females). The individuals were divided into subgroups with a urinary iodine concentration of <50, 50-99, 100-199, 200-299 and >/=300 microg/l. The mean and median of thyroglobulin were calculated in these subgroups. Tg concentrations were dependent on gender (malesiodine in individuals with urinary iodine <300 microg/l and the age under 65 years. Upper nonparametric tolerance limits of thyroglobulin in relation to iodine intake were calculated in subgroup of normal individuals (n=1858, thyroglobulin, urinary iodine, thyrotropin and free thyroxine were within the normal reference range). Upper limits were dependent on gender and age. The total value of upper limits is 44 microg/l; for individuals aged 6-17 years it is 39.1 microg/l; 18-65 years = 51.4 microg/l and 66-98 years = 60.6 microg/l. In general, thyroglobulin serum concentrations higher than 40 microg/l should be an indicator for determining urinary iodine.

  15. Effect of excess iodine intake on thyroid diseases in different populations: A systematic review and meta-analyses including observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Kobayashi, Satomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Background Although several reports concerning the association of iodine excess and thyroid disease have appeared, no systematic review of the association between iodine excess intake and thyroid diseases, especially hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, has yet been reported. Method We conducted a systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, Ichushi-Web and CiNii database for intervention trials and observational studies. Search terms were constructed from related words for excess AND iodine intake or excretion AND thyroid hormones or diseases AND study designs. After considering the qualitative heterogeneity among studies, a meta-analysis was conducted and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in random-effects models. A protocol was registered with PROSPERO (No. CRD42015028081). Results 50 articles were included, including three intervention trials, six case-control studies, six follow-up studies and 35 cross-sectional studies. Three cross-sectional studies in adults included in meta-analysis. Odds ratio of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism between excess and adequate populations were 2.78 (CI:1.47 to 5.27) and 2.03 (CI:1.58 to 2.62) in adults, respectively. Source of excess iodine status was mainly iodized salt or water in included studies. Conclusion Although universal salt iodization has improved goiter rates, chronic exposure to excess iodine from water or poorly monitored salt are risk factors for hypothyroidism in free-living populations. Monitoring of both iodine concentration in salt as well as the iodine concentration in local drinking water are essential to preventing thyroid diseases. Hypothyroidism should be also carefully monitored in areas with excess iodine. Because of the low quality and limited number of included studies, further evidence and review are required. PMID:28282437

  16. Adequate nutrient intake can reduce cardiovascular disease risk in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Reusser, Molly E; DiRienzo, Douglas B; Miller, Gregory D; McCarron, David A

    2003-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease kills nearly as many Americans each year as the next seven leading causes of death combined. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease and most of its associated risk factors is markedly higher and increasing more rapidly among African Americans than in any other racial or ethnic group. Improving these statistics may be simply a matter of improving diet quality. In recent years, a substantial and growing body of evidence has revealed that dietary patterns complete in all food groups, including nutrient-rich dairy products, are essential for preventing and reducing cardiovascular disease and the conditions that contribute to it. Several cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, insulin resistance syndrome, and obesity, have been shown to be positively influenced by dietary patterns that include adequate intake of dairy products. The benefits of nutrient-rich dietary patterns have been specifically tested in randomized, controlled trials emphasizing African American populations. These studies demonstrated proportionally greater benefits for African Americans without evidence of adverse effects such as symptoms of lactose intolerance. As currently promoted for the prevention of certain cancers and osteoporosis, regular consumption of diets that meet recommended nutrient intake levels might also be the most effective approach for reducing cardiovascular disease risk in African Americans.

  17. Iodine Intake in Somalia Is Excessive and Associated with the Source of Household Drinking Water123

    PubMed Central

    Kassim, Ismail A. R.; Moloney, Grainne; Busili, Ahono; Nur, Abukar Yusuf; Paron, Paolo; Jooste, Pieter; Gadain, Hussein; Seal, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Few data on iodine status in Somalia are available, but it is assumed that deficiency is a public health problem due to the limited access to iodized salt. We aimed to describe the iodine status of the population of Somalia and to investigate possible determinants of iodine status. A national 2-stage, stratified household cluster survey was conducted in 2009 in the Northwest, Northeast, and South Central Zones of Somalia. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined in samples from women (aged 15–45 y) and children (aged 6–11 y), and examination for visible goiter was performed in the Northwest and South Central strata. A 24-h household food-frequency questionnaire was conducted, and salt samples were tested for iodization. The median UICs for nonpregnant women and children were 329 and 416 μg/L, respectively, indicating excessive iodine intake (>300 μg/L). The prevalence of visible goiter was <4%. The coverage of salt iodization was low, with a national average of 7.7% (95% CI: 3.2%, 17.4%). Spatial analysis revealed localized areas of relatively high and low iodine status. Variations could not be explained by food consumption or salt iodization but were associated with the main source of household drinking water, with consumers of borehole water having a higher UIC (569 vs. 385 μg/L; P < 0.001). Iodine intake in Somalia is among the highest in the world and excessive according to WHO criteria. Further work is required to investigate the geochemistry and safety of groundwater sources in Somalia and the impact on human nutrition and health. PMID:24500936

  18. Iodine intake in Somalia is excessive and associated with the source of household drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Ismail A R; Moloney, Grainne; Busili, Ahono; Nur, Abukar Yusuf; Paron, Paolo; Jooste, Pieter; Gadain, Hussein; Seal, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Few data on iodine status in Somalia are available, but it is assumed that deficiency is a public health problem due to the limited access to iodized salt. We aimed to describe the iodine status of the population of Somalia and to investigate possible determinants of iodine status. A national 2-stage, stratified household cluster survey was conducted in 2009 in the Northwest, Northeast, and South Central Zones of Somalia. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined in samples from women (aged 15-45 y) and children (aged 6-11 y), and examination for visible goiter was performed in the Northwest and South Central strata. A 24-h household food-frequency questionnaire was conducted, and salt samples were tested for iodization. The median UICs for nonpregnant women and children were 329 and 416 μg/L, respectively, indicating excessive iodine intake (>300 μg/L). The prevalence of visible goiter was <4%. The coverage of salt iodization was low, with a national average of 7.7% (95% CI: 3.2%, 17.4%). Spatial analysis revealed localized areas of relatively high and low iodine status. Variations could not be explained by food consumption or salt iodization but were associated with the main source of household drinking water, with consumers of borehole water having a higher UIC (569 vs. 385 μg/L; P < 0.001). Iodine intake in Somalia is among the highest in the world and excessive according to WHO criteria. Further work is required to investigate the geochemistry and safety of groundwater sources in Somalia and the impact on human nutrition and health.

  19. Effect of Dietary Intake of Stable Iodine on Dose-per-unit-intake Factors for 99Tc

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    It is well-known that the human thyroid concentrates iodine more than 100 times the concentration in plasma. Also well-known is the fact that large amounts of stable iodine in the diet can limit thyroid uptake of total iodine; this is the basis for administering potassium iodide following a release of radioiodine from a nuclear reactor accident or nuclear weapon detonation. Many researchers have shown enhanced concentrations of both organic and inorganic iodine in saliva and breast milk. Technetium-99 is a long-lived (231,000 year half-life) radionuclide of concern in the management of high-level radioactive waste. There is no doubt that 99Tc, if it is in groundwater, will be found in the chemical form of pertechnetate, 99TcO4?. Pertechnetate is a large anion, almost identical in size to iodide, I?. The nuclear medicine literature shows that pertechnetate concentrates in the thyroid, salivary glands, and lactating breast in addition to the stomach, liver, and alimentary tract as currently recognized by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The fact that large intakes of stable iodine (127I) in the diet limit uptake of iodine by the thyroid leads one to generalize that stable iodine in the diet may also limit thyroid uptake of pertechnetate. While there is at least one report that iodine in the diet blocks uptake of 99mTcO4? by the thyroid and salivary glands (which have the same Na/I symporter, the biochemical concentration mechanism), the level of protective effect seen for blocking radioactive iodine is not expected for 99TcO4? because pertechnetate does not become organically bound in the thyroid and thus is not retained for months the way iodide is. While it does account for Tc concentration in the thyroid, the existing ICRP biokinetic model for technetium does not take enhanced concentrations in salivary gland and breast tissue into account. From the survey of the nuclear medicine literature, it is not possible to compute the effect

  20. Iodine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krukowski, S.T.

    2006-01-01

    In descending order, Chile, Japan and the United States have the largest iodine reserves. Chile produces iodine from iodate minerals while Japan and the United States produce it from sodium iodide solutions found in underground iodide solutions. Iodine is also produced from subterranean brines in Azerbaijan, Russia, Turkmenista, Indonesia and Uzbekistan. In 2005, iodine prices increased sharply to US$19 to US$23 then leveled off at US$23 to US$25.

  1. Randomised trial of iodine intake and thyroid status in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Rogahn, J.; Ryan, S.; Wells, J.; Fraser, B.; Squire, C.; Wild, N.; Hughes, A.; Amegavie, L.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Low levels of circulating thyroid hormones have been associated with poorer general and neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm babies and it has been speculated that the association is causal. Low levels of circulating thyroid hormone have been reported after inadequate intake of iodine in preterm infants being fed milk formula.
AIM—To investigate whether increased iodine intake from supplemented preterm formula would improve thyroid hormone levels in preterm babies (this study) and hence improve neurodevelopmental status (planned subsequent study).
METHOD—A total of 121 preterm infants were entered into a randomised controlled trial of standard (68 µg/l) versus increased (272µg/l) iodine in preterm formula.
RESULTS—The two groups were comparable at recruitment. No evidence of an effect of the intervention on thyroid hormone levels was seen up to 41 weeks after conception.
CONCLUSION—Calls for increased iodine content of preterm infant formulas are not justified by this study.
 PMID:10952698

  2. SUFFICIENT IODINE INTAKE IN SCHOOLCHILDREN FROM THE ZAGREB AREA: ASSESSMENT WITH DRIED BLOD SPOT THYROGLOBULIN AS A NEW FUNCTIONAL BIOMARKER FOR IODINE DEFICIENCY.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Tomislav; Zimmermann, Michael Bruce; Granić, Roko; Prpić, Marin; Krilić, Drazena; Juresa, Vesna; Katalenić, Marijan; Kusić, Zvonko

    2015-12-01

    Current methods for assessment of iodine intake in a population comprise measurements of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), thyroid volume by ultrasound (US-Tvol), and newborn TSH. Serum or dried blood spot thyroglobulin (DBS-Tg) is a new promising functional iodine status biomarker in children. In 1996, a new act on universal salt iodination was introduced in Croatia with 25 mg of potassium iodideper kg of salt. In 2002, Croatia finally reached iodine sufficiency. However, in 2009, median UIC in 101 schoolchildren from Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, was 288 µg/L, posing to be excessive. The aim of the study was to assess iodine intake in schoolchildren from the Zagreb area and to evaluate the value of DBS-Tg in schoolchildren as a new functional biomarker of iodine deficiency (and iodine excess). The study was part of a large international study in 6- to 12-year-old children supported by UNICEF, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD). According to international study results, the median cut-off Tg < 13 µg/L and/or < 3% Tg values > 40 µg/L indicate iodine sufficiency. The study included 159 schoolchildren (median age 9.1 ± 1.4 years) from Zagreb and a nearby small town of Jastrebarsko with measurements of UIC, US-Tvol, DBS-Tg, T4, TSH and iodine content in salt from households of schoolchildren (KI/kg of salt). Overall median UIC was 205 µg/L (range 1-505 µg/L). Thyroid volumes in schoolchildren measured by US were within the normal range according to reference values. Median DBS-Tg in schoolchildren was 12.1 µg/L with 3% of Tg values > 40 µg/L. High Tg values were in the UIC range < 50 µg/L and > 300 µg/L (U-shaped curve of Tg plotted against UIC). All children were euthyroid with geometric mean TSH 0.7 ± 0.3 mU/L and arithmetic mean T4 62 ± 12.5 nmol/L. The mean KI content per kg of salt was 24.9 ± 3.1 mg/kg (range 19-36 mg/kg). Study results

  3. Equilibrium intakes of calcium and magnesium within an adequate and limited range of sodium intake in human.

    PubMed

    Nishimuta, Mamoru; Kodama, Naoko; Morikuni, Eiko; Yoshioka, Yayoi H; Matsuzaki, Nobue; Takeyama, Hidemaro; Yamada, Hideaki; Kitajima, Hideaki

    2006-12-01

    In the previous analysis of our human mineral balance studies, we demonstrated positive correlations between the balances of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na) intake in the range of 3.06 and 4.06 g/d or 43.71 and 96.40 mg/kg body weight (BW)/d, but there was no correlation between Na intake and Na balance. This suggested that the balances of Ca and Mg are affected by Na intake. Therefore, in the current study, we recalculated equilibrium intakes for Ca and Mg when balances of their intakes and outputs were equal to zero within the above Na range to reduce the effects of Na intake. From 1986 to 2000, 90 volunteers (10 male, 80 female; age 18 to 28 y) took part in 9 mineral balance studies. The balance periods ranged from 8 to 12 d, with adaptation periods of 2 to 4 d. The dietary intakes of Ca and Mg ranged from 294 to 719 and 154 to 334 mg/d, or from 4.83 to 15.07 and 2.44 to 6.42 mg/kg BW/d, respectively. Intake of Ca significantly correlated with Ca balance (r2 = 0.268; p < 0.0001). When the balance was equal to zero, the mean value and upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for the regression equation between intake vs. balance were 10.072 and 10.660 mg/kg BW/d, respectively. Mg intake correlated significantly with Mg balance (r2 = 0.141, p = 0.003). When the balance was equal to zero, the mean value and upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for the regression equation between intake and balance were 4.078 and 4.287 mg/kg BW/d, respectively.

  4. Misclassification of iodine intake level from morning spot urine samples with high iodine excretion among Inuit and non-Inuit in Greenland.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stig; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Laurberg, Peter

    2015-05-14

    Iodine nutrition is commonly assessed from iodine excretion in urine. A 24 h urine sample is ideal, but it is cumbersome and inconvenient. Hence, spot urine samples with creatinine to adjust for differences in void volume are widely used. Still, the importance of ethnicity and the timing of spot urine samples need to be settled. We, thus, collected 104 early morning spot urine samples and 24 h urine samples from Inuit and non-Inuit living in Greenland. Diet was assessed by a FFQ. Demographic data were collected from the national registry and by questionnaires. Iodine was measured using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction, creatinine using the Jaffe method and para-amino benzoic acid by the HPLC method for the estimation of completeness of urine sampling and compensation of incomplete urine samples to 24 h excretion. A population-based recruitment was done from the capital city, a major town and a settlement (n 36/48/20). Participants were seventy-eight Inuit and twenty-six non-Inuit. The median 24 h iodine excretion was 138 (25th-75th percentile 89-225) μg/97 (25th-75th percentile 72-124) μg in Inuit/non-Inuit (P= 0.030), and 153 (25th-75th percentile 97-251) μg/102 (25th-75th percentile 73-138) μg (P= 0.026) when including compensated iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in 24 h urine samples increased with a rising intake of traditional Inuit foods (P= 0.005). Iodine excretion was lower in morning spot urine samples than in 24 h urine samples (P< 0.001). This difference was associated with iodine intake levels (P< 0.001), and was statistically significant when the iodine excretion level was above 150 μg/24 h. In conclusion, the iodine intake level was underestimated from morning spot urine samples if iodine excretion was above the recommended level.

  5. Dietary Protein in Older Adults: Adequate Daily Intake but Potential for Improved Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Cardon-Thomas, Danielle K.; Riviere, Timothy; Tieges, Zoë; Greig, Carolyn A.

    2017-01-01

    Daily distribution of dietary protein may be important in protecting against sarcopenia, specifically in terms of per meal amounts relative to a proposed threshold for maximal response. The aims of this study were to determine total and per meal protein intake in older adults, as well as identifying associations with physical activity and sedentary behavior. Three-day food diaries recorded protein intake in 38 participants. Protein distribution, coefficient of variation (CV), and per meal amounts were calculated. Accelerometry was used to collect physical activity data as well as volume and patterns of sedentary time. Average intake was 1.14 g·kg−1·day−1. Distribution was uneven (CV = 0.67), and 79% of participants reported <0.4 g·kg−1 protein content in at least 2/3 daily meals. Protein intake was significantly correlated with step count (r = 0.439, p = 0.007) and negatively correlated with sedentary time (r = −0.456, p = 0.005) and Gini index G, which describes the pattern of accumulation of sedentary time (r = −0.421, p = 0.011). Total daily protein intake was sufficient; however, distribution did not align with the current literature; increasing protein intake may help to facilitate optimization of distribution. Associations between protein and other risk factors for sarcopenia may also inform protective strategies. PMID:28241469

  6. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained.

  7. Iodine

    MedlinePlus

    ... applying povidone-iodine reduces the risk of blood stream infections for people with hemodialysis catheters. However, most ... in which chyle is present in the urine stream. This causes the urine to appear milky white. ...

  8. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    PubMed

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in non-consumers. The PANDiet index was significantly higher in yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p < 0.001). The adequacy sub-score for 17 nutrients for which usual intake should be above the reference value was significantly higher among yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet.

  9. Cultural and environmental barriers to adequate iron intake among northern Kenyan schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Shell-Duncan, Bettina; McDade, Thomas

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the context of iron deficiency and feeding patterns of iron-rich foods among northern Kenyan school-aged children. A nutrition survey was conducted among 300 subjects in two Rendille communities, Korr and Karare. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency as it relates to parasitic infection, dietary intake, and sociodemographic factors, as well as cultural food proscriptions influencing child feeding. Sociodemographic and qualitative data on food beliefs and child-feeding practices were obtained from the primary caretaker of each subject. From pediatric subjects, 24-hour dietary recall data were obtained with the help of the primary caretaker, and capillary blood from a fingerstick was used to detect iron deficiency based on measures of hemoglobin, the zinc protoporphyrin-to-heme ratio, C-reactive protein, and transferrin receptor. With an overall prevalence of 31.2%, iron deficiency was found to be associated with dietary iron intakes constrained by diverse economic, cultural, and environmental factors among Rendille children. In Karare, where children's iron intake approached recommended levels, iron deficiency was found to be attributable to low bioavailability of iron (only 4.3% of total iron intake), rather than low dietary intake per se. By contrast, in Korr the average daily iron intake was estimated at only 65% of recommended allowances, indicating that iron deficiency was the outcome not merely of low bioavailability, but rather of overall inadequate iron intake. Sociodemographic analysis showed a significant interaction between sex and economic status, revealing that girls in economically sufficient households were 2.4 times as likely to have iron deficiency as boys. This difference in risk parallels culturally defined gender-based proscriptions for child feeding: girls are believed to benefit from "soft foods," including rice, maize porridge, and tea, whereas boys benefitfrom "hard foods

  10. Thyroid and iodine nutritional status: a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Vanderpump, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones, which play a crucial role in brain and neurological development. At least one-third of the world's population is estimated to be iodine deficient predominantly in developing countries. Recently concern had also been expressed about the iodine status in industrialised countries such as the UK. A recent survey of the UK iodine status found that that more than two-thirds of schoolgirls aged 14-15 years were iodine deficient due to the reduced milk intake. Maternal iodine deficiency in pregnancy is correlated with cognitive outcomes such as intelligence quotient and reading ability in offspring. No randomised trial data exist for iodine supplementation in mild-moderate iodine-deficient pregnant women. It is possible to combine population interventions to reduce population salt intake with salt iodisation programmes in order to maintain adequate levels of iodine nutrition.

  11. Adequate nutrient intakes are associated with traditional food consumption in nunavut inuit children aged 3-5 years.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Down, Louise; Egeland, Grace M

    2010-07-01

    Dietary habits among Arctic preschoolers are unknown. A cross-sectional health survey of 388 Inuit, aged 3-5 y, was conducted in 16 communities in Canada's Nunavut Territory. Twenty-four-hour recall and FFQ with parents and primary caregivers quantified diet from market and traditional foods (TF). The Institute of Medicine's Dietary Reference Intakes estimated adequacy comparing intakes with Estimated Average Requirement or Adequate Intakes (AI). High-sugar and high-fat food and sugar beverage consumption and the extent to which dietary habits followed the Canadian Food Guide were evaluated. The children's mean age was 4.4 +/- 0.9 y and the mean BMI percentile was 90.2%. Consumption of nutrient-poor and energy-dense food and beverages contributed to 35% of energy. Most children met the requirements for many nutrients despite not eating the recommended servings from Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide First Nations, Inuit and Métis. Higher intake of TF resulted in higher intakes of cholesterol, vitamins A and D, iron, magnesium, and zinc. The percent above the AI for vitamin D was 43.1, 56.8, and 83.2% among no, low, and high TF consumers, respectively (chi2 test; P-trend < 0.0001). Dietary habits indicate a population at risk for overweight, obesity, and tooth decay. Interventions should encourage TF, including plant-based TF; healthy market food choices, including fruit and vegetables; and milk or alternative sources of vitamin D and calcium and discourage unhealthy market food choices.

  12. Determination of discretionary salt intake in an iodine deficient area of East Java-Indonesia using three different methods.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Annasari; Muslimatun, Siti; Untoro, Juliawati; Lan, Maria C P J; Kristianto, Yohanes

    2006-01-01

    As salt is a potential vehicle for delivering iodine to a population, study on salt intake is important. Many methods have been used to measure iodised-salt intake, but the methods were suspected to be inaccurate. A new method, called a lithium-marker technique, has been considered as suitable and safe; hence it has been proposed as a gold standard for measuring the actual salt intake of an individual. We conducted a study to determine discretionary salt intake using the lithium marker technique. The study shows that the total salt intake for children (N = 15) and mothers (N = 15) were 5.4+/-2.1 g/d and 5.8+/-1.7 g/d respectively in which 48.5+/-17.1% and 50.5?17.3% were discretionary salt. The discretionary salt intake measured using lithium marker (2.53 +/- 1.2 g/d for children and 2.99 +/- 1.5 g/d for mother) were significantly lower than using 24-hour salt recall (7.01+/-2.44 g/cap/d) and salt weighing (6.00+/-1.8 g/cap/d) (p<0.001). In conclusion, the discretionary salt intake by 24-hour salt recall and salt weighing were over estimated as compared to the lithium-labelled salt measurement. It is recommended that the level of iodine fortification in salt be increased up to 80-100 ppm of KIO3 to provide iodine intake of 150 microg/d.

  13. Criterion values for urine-specific gravity and urine color representing adequate water intake in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Perrier, E T; Bottin, J H; Vecchio, M; Lemetais, G

    2017-02-01

    Growing evidence suggests a distinction between water intake necessary for maintaining a euhydrated state, and water intake considered to be adequate from a perspective of long-term health. Previously, we have proposed that maintaining a 24-h urine osmolality (UOsm) of ⩽500 mOsm/kg is a desirable target for urine concentration to ensure sufficient urinary output to reduce renal health risk and circulating vasopressin. In clinical practice and field monitoring, the measurement of UOsm is not practical. In this analysis, we calculate criterion values for urine-specific gravity (USG) and urine color (UCol), two measures which have broad applicability in clinical and field settings. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis performed on 817 urine samples demonstrates that a USG ⩾1.013 detects UOsm>500 mOsm/kg with very high accuracy (AUC 0.984), whereas a subject-assessed UCol⩾4 offers high sensitivity and moderate specificity (AUC 0.831) for detecting UOsm >500 m Osm/kg.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 1 February 2017; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.269.

  14. Healthcare Costs Associated with an Adequate Intake of Sugars, Salt and Saturated Fat in Germany: A Health Econometrical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Meier, Toni; Senftleben, Karolin; Deumelandt, Peter; Christen, Olaf; Riedel, Katja; Langer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany--in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar--and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS) were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002-2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3-24.1 billion EUR) in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10%) of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR). This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0-12.1); salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2-7.3) and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million-4.7 billion). Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR.

  15. Current global iodine status and progress over the last decade towards the elimination of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Maria; Takkouche, Bahi; Egli, Ines; Allen, Henrietta E.; de Benoist, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate worldwide iodine nutrition and monitor country progress towards sustained elimination of iodine deficiency disorders. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on urinary iodine (UI) and total goitre prevalence (TGP) in school-age children from 1993-2003 compiled in the WHO Global Database on Iodine Deficiency were analysed. The median UI was used to classify countries according to the public health significance of their iodine nutrition status. Estimates of the global and regional populations with insufficient iodine intake were based on the proportion of each country's population with UI below 100 microg/l. TGP was computed for trend analysis over 10 years. FINDINGS: UI data were available for 92.1% of the world's school-age children. Iodine deficiency is still a public health problem in 54 countries. A total of 36.5% (285 million) school-age children were estimated to have an insufficient iodine intake, ranging from 10.1% in the WHO Region of the Americas to 59.9% in the European Region. Extrapolating this prevalence to the general population generated an estimate of nearly two billion individuals with insufficient iodine intake. Iodine intake was more than adequate, or excessive, in 29 countries. Global TGP in the general population was 15.8%. CONCLUSION: Forty-three countries have reached optimal iodine nutrition. Strengthened UI monitoring is required to ensure that salt iodization is having the desired impact, to identify at-risk populations and to ensure sustainable prevention and control of iodine deficiency. Efforts to eliminate iodine deficiency should be maintained and expanded. PMID:16175826

  16. The Use and Interpretation of Sodium Concentrations in Casual (Spot) Urine Collections for Population Surveillance and Partitioning of Dietary Iodine Intake Sources

    PubMed Central

    Conkle, Joel; van der Haar, Frits

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) called for joint surveillance of population salt and iodine intakes using urinary analysis. 24-h urine collection is considered the gold standard for salt intake assessment, but there is an emerging consensus that casual urine sampling can provide comparable information for population-level surveillance. Our review covers the use of the urinary sodium concentration (UNaC) and the urinary iodine concentration (UIC) from casual urine samples to estimate salt intakes and to partition the sources of iodine intakes. We reviewed literature on 24-h urinary sodium excretion (UNaE) and UNaC and documented the use of UNaC for national salt intake monitoring. We combined information from our review of urinary sodium with evidence on urinary iodine to assess the appropriateness of partitioning methods currently being adapted for cross-sectional survey analyses. At least nine countries are using casual urine collection for surveillance of population salt intakes; all these countries used single samples. Time trend analyses indicate that single UNaC can be used for monitoring changes in mean salt intakes. However; single UNaC suffers the same limitation as single UNaE; i.e., an estimate of the proportion excess salt intake can be biased due to high individual variability. There is evidence, albeit limited, that repeat UNaC sampling has good agreement at the population level with repeat UNaE collections; thus permitting an unbiased estimate of the proportion of excess salt intake. High variability of UIC and UNaC in single urine samples may also bias the estimates of dietary iodine intake sources. Our review concludes that repeated collection, in a sub-sample of individuals, of casual UNaC data would provide an immediate practical approach for routine monitoring of salt intake, because it overcomes the bias in estimates of excess salt intake. Thus we recommend more survey research to expand the evidence-base on predicted-UNaE from

  17. Iodine status in the Nordic countries – past and present

    PubMed Central

    Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Erlund, Iris; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Hulthén, Lena; Laurberg, Peter; Mattisson, Irene; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Virtanen, Suvi; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2016-01-01

    Background Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. Objectives The objectives are threefold: 1) to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2) to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3) to highlight differences among the Nordic countries’ iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Design Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries’ strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. Results In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO) report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50–75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. Conclusion The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all. PMID:27283870

  18. The deuterium oxide-to-the-mother method documents adequate breast-milk intake among Sri Lankan infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The WHO recommends that exclusive breastfeeding should last up to 6 months. However, human milk intake of Sri Lankan infants has not been quantified scientifically. The objectives of this study were to measure the human milk intake of Sri Lankan infants during the first 6 months of age and to docume...

  19. Prebiotic supplementation and adequate calcium intake have beneficial effects on body mass index changes during early adolescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prebiotics have been shown to enhance bone and gastrointestinal health. Recent data suggest a benefit to weight maintenance as well. However, few data are available in children or adolescents. The interactive effects of prebiotic intake and calcium intake on weight maintenance are unknown. Our objec...

  20. Dietary habits, nutrient intake and biomarkers for folate, vitamin D, iodine and iron status among women of childbearing age in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Wulf; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Nälsén, Cecilia; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Öhrvik, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Background Dietary intake and nutritional status are important for pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. Dietary advice on folate, targeted to women of childbearing age, aims at preventing neural tube defects in the offspring. Aim To describe food and nutrient intake and nutritional status among women of childbearing age in Sweden in relation to current nutrition recommendations. Methods Dietary intake was assessed using a web-based four-day consecutive food record among adults aged 18–80 years—‘Riksmaten 2010–11 adults’. In a subsample, biomarkers of folate, vitamin D, iodine, and iron status were assessed. Results Women of childbearing age had lower intakes of fruit and vegetables, fish, and whole grains, but higher intakes of soft drinks. Macronutrient composition was generally in line with the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, except for a lower intake of fibre, a higher intake of saturated fatty acids, and added sugars. Mean intakes of vitamin D, folate, and iron were below recommended intakes (RI). Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 74 μg/L, 20% had insufficient vitamin D status, and 3% low folate concentrations with no age differences. Furthermore, 29% of women 18–44 years of age had depleted iron stores. Conclusions The dietary pattern among women of childbearing age (18–44 years) was less favourable compared to older women. Intakes of some micronutrients were below RI, but no differences in vitamin D, folate, or iodine status between age groups were observed. However, improvements of folate and iodine status among women of childbearing age are warranted. This can be achieved by following dietary guidelines including use of folic acid-containing supplements. PMID:27560303

  1. The Iodine Status of Queensland Preschool Children After the Introduction of Mandatory Iodine Fortification in Bread: An Exploratory Study Using a Convenience Sample.

    PubMed

    Samidurai, A J; Ware, R S; Davies, P S W

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Appropriate dietary iodine is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis, especially in young children. Following an iodine fortification in bread initiative, approximately 6 % of Australian preschool children were expected to have an excessive iodine status. The aim of this study was to document the current iodine status of preschool children using urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a biomarker of iodine intake. Methods A convenience sample of fifty-one preschool children, aged 2-3 years, were recruited from south east Queensland. UIC was ascertained from spot morning and afternoon urine samples collected on two consecutive days and food frequency questionnaires were completed for each participant. Dietary iodine intake was extrapolated from UIC assuming 90 % of dietary iodine is excreted in urine and a urine volume of 0.5 L/day. Results A median UIC of 223.3 μg/L was found. The calculated median dietary iodine intake was 124.8 μg/day (SD 47.0) with 9.8 % of samples above the upper level of 200 μg for dietary iodine for children within this age group. No foods were associated with UIC. Discussion Limited by sample size and recruitment strategies, no association was found between usual food intake and UIC. Extrapolated dietary iodine intake indicated that children within this cohort consumed adequate amounts of dietary iodine, although the number of children consuming above the upper limit of 300 μg/day was almost double of expected. The development of a UIC criteria to assess appropriate parameters for varying degrees of iodine status is required for the monitoring of iodine nutrition in this vulnerable age group.

  2. Influence of high and low protein intakes on age-related bone loss in rats submitted to adequate or restricted energy conditions.

    PubMed

    Mardon, Julie; Habauzit, Véronique; Trzeciakiewicz, Anna; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Lebecque, Patrice; Mercier, Sylvie; Tressol, Jean-Claude; Horcajada, Marie-Noëlle; Demigné, Christian; Coxam, Véronique

    2008-05-01

    Low energy and protein intake has been suggested to contribute to the increased incidence of osteoporosis in the elderly. The impact of dietary protein on bone health is still a matter of debate. Therefore, we examined the effect of the modulation of protein intake under adequate or deficient energy conditions on bone status in 16-month-old male rats. The animals were randomly allocated to six groups (n = 10/group). Control animals were fed a diet providing either a normal-protein content (13%, C-NP) or a high-protein content (26%) (C-HP). The other groups received a 40% protein/energy-restricted diet (PER-NP and PER-HP) or a normal protein/energy-restricted diet (ER-NP and ER-HP). After 5 months of the experiment, protein intake (13% or 26%) did not modulate calcium retention or bone status in those rats, although a low-grade metabolic acidosis was induced with the HP diet. Both restrictions (PER and ER) decreased femoral bone mineral density and fracture load. Plasma osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline levels were lowered, suggesting a decrease in bone turnover in the PER and ER groups. Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I levels were also lowered by dietary restrictions, together with calcium retention. Adequate protein intake in the ER condition did not elicit any bone-sparing effect compared to PER rats. In conclusion, both energy and protein deficiencies may contribute to age-related bone loss. This study highlights the importance of sustaining adequate energy and protein provision to preserve skeletal integrity in the elderly.

  3. Epidemiology of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vanderpump, Mark P

    2017-04-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency impairs thyroid hormone production and has adverse effects throughout life, particularly early in life as it impairs cognition and growth. Iodine deficiency remains a significant problem despite major national and international efforts to increase iodine intake, primarily through the voluntary or mandatory iodization of salt. Recent epidemiological data suggest that iodine deficiency is an emerging issue in industrialized countries, previously thought of as iodine-sufficient. International efforts to control iodine deficiency are slowing, and reaching the third of the worldwide population that remains deficient poses major challenges.

  4. Iodine deficiency: Clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Niwattisaiwong, Soamsiri; Burman, Kenneth D; Li-Ng, Melissa

    2017-03-01

    Iodine is crucial for thyroid hormone synthesis and fetal neurodevelopment. Major dietary sources of iodine in the United States are dairy products and iodized salt. Potential consequences of iodine deficiency are goiter, hypothyroidism, cretinism, and impaired cognitive development. Although iodine status in the United States is considered sufficient at the population level, intake varies widely across the population, and the percentage of women of childbearing age with iodine deficiency is increasing. Physicians should be aware of the risks of iodine deficiency and the indications for iodine supplementation, especially in women who are pregnant or lactating.

  5. [Intake of trace elements and heavy metals with the diet of 2-14 years old children. Zinc, manganese, copper, fluoride, iodine, selen; lead, cadmium, mercury (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Stolley, H; Kersting, M; Droese, W

    1981-04-01

    For 2-14 year old children the intake of the trace elements zinc, manganese, copper, fluoride, iodine, selen, and of the heavy metals, lead, cadmium and mercury is calculated from their food intake. The results give a representative statement of the average supply of trace elements and of the average intake of heavy metals with the diet of children in the Federal Republic of Germany. It is shown that the choice of foodstuffs for the diet has an important influence on the supply of trace elements.

  6. Acquisition of texture-cued fasting-anticipatory meal-size change in rats with adequate energy intake.

    PubMed

    White, J A; Mok, E; Thibault, L; Booth, D A

    2001-10-01

    To determine if an increase in intake at a meal before a long fast can be conditioned to food texture cues, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given a high- or low-fat diet in one texture (powder or pellet) for 1 h prior to a 12.5-h fast and in the other texture before a 3-h fast. Each group (N = 9) went through a pseudorandom sequence of four duplicates of each texture-fast pairing over 4 experimental days in each of three training trials, followed by one 4-day trial under extinction, i.e. without the difference in fast lengths between textures. Neither the high-fat group nor the low-fat group as a whole gave a clear indication of a learnt texture-cued increase in meal size before the longer fast relative to the shorter fast. However, the rats trained on the high-fat diet that had the highest intakes on the first 4 days of training showed a relative increase in the amount eaten of the texture predicting the longer fast during the third training trial, and this effect also approached statistical significance in the extinction test. These results provide some support for the conclusion that anticipatory hunger/satiety can be differentially conditioned to dietary texture cues, but only if sufficient food is eaten before a short fast to prevent the rise in hunger during longer fasts that reinforces the discriminative increase in meal size.

  7. Update on dietary intake of perchlorate and iodine from U.S. food and drug administration's total diet study: 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Abt, Eileen; Spungen, Judith; Pouillot, Régis; Gamalo-Siebers, Margaret; Wirtz, Mark

    2016-12-21

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Total Diet Study (TDS) monitors the US food supply for pesticide residues, industrial chemicals, radionuclides, nutrients, and toxic elements. Perchlorate and iodine intakes based on concentrations in TDS samples collected between 2008 and 2012 were estimated in order to update an earlier TDS dietary assessment. Perchlorate is used as an oxidizing agent in rocket and missile fuel, is formed naturally in the atmosphere, and occurs naturally in some soils. Because of perchlorate's presence in soil, and in irrigation, processing, and source water, it is widely found in food. Iodine was included in the study because perchlorate at high doses interferes with iodide uptake in the thyroid. Iodine (the elemental form of iodide) is essential for growth and development, and metabolism. This study uses a novel statistical method based on a clustered zero-inflated lognormal distribution model to estimate mean and 95(th) percentile confidence interval concentrations for perchlorate and iodine in US foods. These estimates were used to estimate mean perchlorate and iodine exposures for the total US population and for 14 age/sex groups in the US population. Estimated mean perchlorate intake for the total US population was 0.13 μg/kg bw/day, with mean intakes for the 14 age/sex groups between 0.09 and 0.43 μg/kg bw/day. The estimated mean intakes of perchlorate for all age/sex groups were below EPA's reference dose (RfD) of 0.7 μg/kg bw/day. The estimated mean iodine intake for the total US population was 216.4 μg/person/day, with mean intakes ranging from 140.9 to 296.3 μg/person/day for the 14 age/sex groups, with all age/sex groups exceeding their respective estimated average requirements (EARs).Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 21 December 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.78.

  8. Portal Vein Embolization Using a Nitinol Plug (Amplatzer Vascular Plug) in Combination with Histoacryl Glue and Iodinized Oil: Adequate Hypertrophy with a Reduced Risk of Nontarget Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Clare L. Low, Deborah; Matson, Matthew B.; Renfrew, Ian; Fotheringham, Tim

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether portal vein embolization (PVE) using a nitinol vascular plug in combination with histoacryl glue and iodinized oil minimizes the risk of nontarget embolization while obtaining good levels of future liver remnant (FLR) hypertrophy. Between November 2005 and August 2008, 16 patients (8 females, 8 males; mean age, 63 {+-} 3.6 years), each with a small FLR, underwent right ipsilateral transhepatic PVE prior to major hepatectomy. Proximal PVE was initially performed by placement of a nitinol vascular plug, followed by distal embolization using a mixture of histoacryl glue and iodinized oil. Pre- and 6 weeks postprocedural FLR volumes were calculated using computed tomographic imaging. Selection for surgery required an FLR of 0.5% of the patient's body mass. Clinical course and outcome of surgical resection for all patients were recorded. At surgery, the ease of hepatectomy was subjectively assessed in comparison to previous experience following PVE with alternative embolic agents. PVE was successful in all patients. Mean procedure time was 30.4 {+-} 2.5 min. Mean absolute increase in FLR volume was 68.9% {+-} 12.0% (p = 0.00005). There was no evidence of nontarget embolization during the procedure or on subsequent imaging. Nine patients proceeded to extended hepatectomy. Six patients demonstrated disease progression. One patient did not achieve sufficient hypertrophy in relation to body mass to undergo hepatic resection. At surgery, the hepatobiliary surgeons observed less periportal inflammation compared to previous experience with alternative embolic agents, facilitating dissection at extended hepatectomy. In conclusion, ipsilateral transhepatic PVE using a single nitinol plug in combination with histoacryl glue and iodinized oil simplifies the procedure, offering short procedural times with minimal risk of nontarget embolization. Excellent levels of FLR hypertrophy are achieved enabling safe extended hepatectomy.

  9. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South East of the UK: the influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status.

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Wright, John; Rayman, Margaret P

    2014-05-01

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones which are crucial for brain development. Adequate intake of iodine in pregnancy is important as in utero deficiency may have lifelong consequences for the offspring. Data on the iodine status of UK pregnant women are sparse, and there are no such data for pregnant women in the South East of the UK. A total of 100 pregnant women were recruited to a cross-sectional study carried out at the Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, at their first-trimester visit for an ultrasound scan. The participants provided a spot-urine sample (for the measurement of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and creatinine concentration) and 24 h iodine excretion was estimated from the urinary iodine:creatinine ratio. Women completed a general questionnaire and a FFQ. The median UIC (85·3 μg/l) indicated that the group was iodine deficient by World Health Organisation criteria. The median values of the iodine:creatinine ratio (122·9 μg/g) and of the estimated 24 h iodine excretion (151·2 μg/d) were also suggestive of iodine deficiency. UIC was significantly higher in women taking an iodine-containing prenatal supplement (n 42) than in those not taking such a supplement (P< 0·001). In the adjusted analyses, milk intake, maternal age and iodine-containing prenatal supplement use were positively associated with the estimated 24 h urinary iodine excretion. Our finding of iodine deficiency in these women gives cause for concern. We suggest that women of childbearing age and pregnant women should be given advice on how to improve their iodine status through dietary means. A national survey of iodine status in UK pregnant women is required.

  10. Radioactive Iodine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Phone Home » Radioactive Iodine Leer en Español Radioactive Iodine Iodine is essential for proper function of the ... that takes up and holds onto iodine. Radioactive Iodine FAQs WHAT IS RADIOACTIVE IODINE (RAI)? Iodine, in ...

  11. The Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in Elderly Cardiology Patients with Mild Excessive Iodine Intake in the Urban Area of São Paulo

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Glaucia C.; Tomimori, Eduardo K.; Camargo, Rosalinda Y. A.; Rubio, Ileana G.S.; Wajngarten, Mauricio; Rodrigues, Amanda G.; Knobel, Meyer; Medeiros-Neto, Geraldo

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in elderly cardiac patients in an outpatient setting. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 399 consecutive patients (268 women, age range 60–92 years) who were followed at Heart Institute were evaluated for thyroid dysfunction with serum free T4, TSH, anti-Peroxidase antibodies, urinary iodine excretion measurements and thyroid ultrasound. RESULTS: Hyperthyroidism (overt and subclinical) was present in 29 patients (6.5%), whereas hypothyroidism (overt and subclinical) was found in 32 individuals (8.1%). Cysts were detected in 11 patients (2.8%), single nodules were detected in 102 (25.6%), and multinodular goiters were detected in 34 (8.5%). Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was present in 16.8% patients, most of whom were women (83.6%). The serum TSH increased with age and was significantly higher (p= <0.01) in patients, compared to the normal control group. No significant differences in serum TSH and free T4 values were observed when patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) where compared with those without arrhythmia. The median urinary iodine levels were 210 μg/L (40–856 μg/L), and iodine levels were higher in men than in women (p<0.01). Excessive iodine intake (urinary iodine >300 μg/L) was observed in one-third of patients (30.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Elderly patients have a higher prevalence of both hypo- and hyperthyroidism as well as thyroid nodules when compared with the general population. About one-third of the older patients had elevated urinary secretion of iodine and a higher prevalence of chronic Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. It is recommended that ultrasonographic studies, tests for thyroid function and autoimmunity should be evaluated in elderly patients. PMID:19219319

  12. Consequences of excess iodine

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient that is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. The primary source of iodine is the diet via consumption of foods that have been fortified with iodine, including salt, dairy products and bread, or that are naturally abundant in the micronutrient, such as seafood. Recommended daily iodine intake is 150 μg in adults who are not pregnant or lactating. Ingestion of iodine or exposure above this threshold is generally well-tolerated. However, in certain susceptible individuals, including those with pre-existing thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses and neonates, or patients with other risk factors, the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction might be increased. Hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism as a result of supraphysiologic iodine exposure might be either subclinical or overt, and the source of the excess iodine might not be readily apparent. PMID:24342882

  13. Iodine supplementation and drinking-water perchlorate mitigation.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Thomas A; Peterson, Michael K; Charnley, Gail

    2015-06-01

    Ensuring adequate iodine intake is important, particularly among women of reproductive age, because iodine is necessary for early life development. Biologically based dose-response modeling of the relationships among iodide status, perchlorate dose, and thyroid hormone production in pregnant women has indicated that iodide intake has a profound effect on the likelihood that exposure to goitrogens will produce hypothyroxinemia. We evaluated the possibility of increasing iodine intake to offset potential risks from perchlorate exposure. We also explored the effect of dietary exposures to nitrate and thiocyanate on iodine uptake and thyroid hormone production. Our modeling indicates that the level of thyroid hormone perturbation associated with perchlorate exposures in the range of current regulatory limits is extremely small and would be overwhelmed by other goitrogen exposures. Our analysis also shows that microgram levels of iodine supplementation would be sufficient to prevent the goitrogenic effects of perchlorate exposure at current regulatory limits among at risk individuals. The human health risks from supplementing drinking water with iodine are negligible; therefore, this approach is worthy of regulatory consideration.

  14. Nutritional status of iodine in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain): study on hygiene-dietetic habits and iodine in urine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation and irrreversible cerebral lesions around the world. However, few studies have been published on the nutritional status of iodine in the pregnant population within the Primary Care setting, a health care level which plays an essential role in the education and control of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of the present study is: 1.- To know the hygiene-dietetic habits related to the intake of foods rich in iodine and smoking during pregnancy. 2.- To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and the factors associated with its appearance during pregnancy. Methods/design We will perform a cluster randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Randomisation unit: Primary Care Team. Study population: 898 pregnant women over the age of 17 years attending consultation to a midwife during the first trimester of pregnancy in the participating primary care centres. Outcome measures: consumption of iodine-rich foods and iodine deficiency. Points of assessment: each trimester of the gestation. Intervention: group education during the first trimester of gestation on healthy hygiene-dietetic habits and the importance of an adequate iodine nutritional status. Statistical analysis: descriptive analysis of all variables will be performed as well as multilevel logistic regression. All analyses will be done carried out on an intention to treat basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Discussion Evidence of generalised iodine deficiency during pregnancy could lead to the promotion of interventions of prevention such as how to improve and intensify health care

  15. Iodine status of Eeyou Istchee community members of northern Quebec, Canada, and potential sources.

    PubMed

    Tam, Benita; Tsuji, Leonard J S; Martin, Ian D; Liberda, Eric N; Ayotte, Pierre; Coté, Suzanne; Dewailly, Éric; Nieboer, Evert

    2015-04-01

    A multi community environment-and-health study among six of the nine communities of Eeyou Istchee in northern Quebec, Canada provided greater insight into iodine intake levels among these Cree First Nation communities. Using data from this large population-based study, descriptive statistics of measured urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) and iodine-creatinine ratios (stratified by age, sex, community of residence, and water consumption) were calculated, and the associations between independent variables and iodine concentration measures were examined through a general linear model. Traditional food consumption contributions were examined through Pearson partial correlation tests and linear regression analyses; and the importance of water sources through ANOVA. Generally speaking, urinary iodine levels of Eeyou Istchee community members were within the adequate range set out by the World Health Organization, though sex and community differences existed. However, men in one community were considered to be at risk of iodine deficiency. Older participants had significantly higher mean iodine-creatinine ratios than younger participants (15-39 years = 90.50 μmol mol(-1); >39 years = 124.52 μmol mol(-1)), and consumption of beaver (Castor canadensis) meat, melted snow and ice, and bottled water were predictive of higher iodine excretion. It is concluded that using both urinary iodine indicators can be helpful in identifying subgroups at greater risk of iodine deficiency.

  16. Food groups associated with a composite measure of probability of adequate intake of 11 micronutrients in the diets of women in urban Mali.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Gina; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Seghieri, Chiara; Arimond, Mary; Koreissi, Yara; Dossa, Romain; Kok, Frans J; Brouwer, Inge D

    2010-11-01

    The prevalence of micronutrient deficiency is high among women of reproductive age living in urban Mali. Despite this, there are little data on the dietary intake of micronutrients among women of reproductive age in Mali. This research tested the relationship between the quantity of intake of 21 possible food groups and estimated usual micronutrient (folate, vitamin B-12, calcium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin A, iron, thiamin, vitamin B-6, vitamin C, and zinc) intakes and a composite measure of adequacy of 11 micronutrients [mean probability of adequacy (MPA)] based on the individual probability of adequacy (PA) for the 11 micronutrients. Food group and micronutrient intakes were calculated from 24-h recall data in an urban sample of Malian women. PA was lowest for folate, vitamin B-12, calcium, and riboflavin. The overall MPA for the composite measure of 11 micronutrients was 0.47 ± 0.18. Grams of intake from the nuts/seeds, milk/yogurt, vitamin A-rich dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV), and vitamin C-rich vegetables food groups were correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.20-0.36; P < 0.05) with MPA. Women in the highest consumption groups of nuts/seeds and DGLV had 5- and 6-fold greater odds of an MPA > 0.5, respectively. These findings can be used to further the development of indicators of dietary diversity and to improve micronutrient intakes of women of reproductive age.

  17. Addressing the risk of inadequate and excessive micronutrient intakes: traditional versus new approaches to setting adequate and safe micronutrient levels in foods

    PubMed Central

    Bruins, Maaike J.; Mugambi, Gladys; Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Hoekstra, Jeljer; Kraemer, Klaus; Osendarp, Saskia; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Gallagher, Alison M.; Verhagen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Fortification of foods consumed by the general population or specific food products or supplements designed to be consumed by vulnerable target groups is amongst the strategies in developing countries to address micronutrient deficiencies. Any strategy aimed at dietary change needs careful consideration, ensuring the needs of at-risk subgroups are met whilst ensuring safety within the general population. This paper reviews the key principles of two main assessment approaches that may assist developing countries in deciding on effective and safe micronutrient levels in foods or special products designed to address micronutrient deficiencies, that is, the cut-point method and the stepwise approach to risk–benefit assessment. In the first approach, the goal is to shift population intake distributions such that intake prevalences below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) are both minimized. However, for some micronutrients like vitamin A and zinc, a narrow margin between the EAR and UL exists. Increasing their intakes through mass fortification may pose a dilemma; not permitting the UL to be exceeded provides assurance about the safety within the population but can potentially leave a proportion of the target population with unmet needs, or vice versa. Risk–benefit approaches assist in decision making at different micronutrient intake scenarios by balancing the magnitude of potential health benefits of reducing inadequate intakes against health risks of excessive intakes. Risk–benefit approaches consider different aspects of health risk including severity and number of people affected. This approach reduces the uncertainty for policy makers as compared to classic cut-point methods. PMID:25630617

  18. Adequately Diversified Dietary Intake and Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy Is Associated with Reduced Occurrence of Symptoms Suggestive of Pre-Eclampsia or Eclampsia in Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sutapa; Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective Pre-eclampsia or Eclampsia (PE or E) accounts for 25% of cases of maternal mortality worldwide. There is some evidence of a link to dietary factors, but few studies have explored this association in developing countries, where the majority of the burden falls. We examined the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E in Indian women. Methods Cross-sectional data from India’s third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-06) was used for this study. Self-reported symptoms suggestive of PE or E during pregnancy were obtained from 39,657 women aged 15-49 years who had had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E after adjusting for maternal, health and lifestyle factors, and socio-demographic characteristics of the mother. Results In their most recent pregnancy, 1.2% (n=456) of the study sample experienced symptoms suggestive of PE or E. Mothers who consumed an adequately diversified diet were 34% less likely (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.51-0.87) to report PE or E symptoms than mothers with inadequately diversified dietary intake. The likelihood of reporting PE or E symptoms was also 36% lower (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88) among those mothers who consumed iron and folic acid supplementation for at least 90 days during their last pregnancy. As a sensitivity analysis, we stratified our models sequentially by education, wealth, antenatal care visits, birth interval, and parity. Our results remained largely unchanged: both adequately diversified dietary intake and iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were associated with a reduced occurrence of PE or E symptoms. Conclusion Having a adequately diversified dietary

  19. Dietary Protein Intake in Young Children in Selected Low-Income Countries Is Generally Adequate in Relation to Estimated Requirements for Healthy Children, Except When Complementary Food Intake Is Low.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Joanne E; Brown, Kenneth H

    2017-02-15

    Background: Previous research indicates that young children in low-income countries (LICs) generally consume greater amounts of protein than published estimates of protein requirements, but this research did not account for protein quality based on the mix of amino acids and the digestibility of ingested protein.Objective: Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake by young children in LICs, accounting for protein quality.Methods: Seven data sets with information on dietary intake for children (6-35 mo of age) from 6 LICs (Peru, Guatemala, Ecuador, Bangladesh, Uganda, and Zambia) were reanalyzed to estimate protein and amino acid intake and assess adequacy. The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score of each child's diet was calculated and multiplied by the original (crude) protein intake to obtain an estimate of available protein intake. Distributions of usual intake were obtained to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake for each cohort according to Estimated Average Requirements.Results: The prevalence of inadequate protein intake was highest in breastfeeding children aged 6-8 mo: 24% of Bangladeshi and 16% of Peruvian children. With the exception of Bangladesh, the prevalence of inadequate available protein intake decreased by age 9-12 mo and was very low in all sites (0-2%) after 12 mo of age. Inadequate protein intake in children <12 mo of age was due primarily to low energy intake from complementary foods, not inadequate protein density.Conclusions: Overall, most children consumed protein amounts greater than requirements, except for the younger breastfeeding children, who were consuming low amounts of complementary foods. These findings reinforce previous evidence that dietary protein is not generally limiting for children in LICs compared with estimated requirements for healthy children, even after accounting for protein quality. However, unmeasured effects of infection and

  20. The new emergence of iodine deficiency in the UK: consequences for child neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Rayman, Margaret P; Bath, Sarah C

    2015-11-01

    Adequate iodine intake is important during pregnancy as it is a component of the thyroid hormones that are crucial for fetal brain and neurological development. While randomized controlled trials in severe iodine deficiency have shown that iodine deficiency in pregnancy causes impaired offspring cognition, less is known of the effects in regions of mild/mild-to-moderate deficiency. The United Kingdom is now classified as mildly iodine deficient by the World Health Organization, based on a 2011 national study of 14-15-year-old schoolgirls. As pregnancy is the most critical time for brain development, we evaluated iodine status in pregnant women in Surrey (n = 100) and Oxford (n = 230). The median urinary iodine concentration was 85.3 μg/L in Surrey women, considerably lower than the WHO/United Nations Children's Fund/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders cut-off of 150 μg/L. Oxford women had similarly low status. We investigated whether that level of iodine deficiency was associated with adverse child cognitive effects using stored samples and data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort. In adjusted analyses, we found a significant association between low maternal iodine status in early pregnancy (urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio <150 μg/g) such that children had an approximately 60% greater risk of being in the bottom quartile of scores for verbal intelligence quotient, reading accuracy and comprehension. UK women who might become pregnant should ensure they have adequate iodine status to avoid compromising their children's brain development.

  1. Use of Iodine to Biofortify and Promote Growth and Stress Tolerance in Crops.

    PubMed

    Medrano-Macías, Julia; Leija-Martínez, Paola; González-Morales, Susana; Juárez-Maldonado, Antonio; Benavides-Mendoza, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is not considered essential for land plants; however, in some aquatic plants, iodine plays a critical role in antioxidant metabolism. In humans, iodine is essential for the metabolism of the thyroid and for the development of cognitive abilities, and it is associated with lower risks of developing certain types of cancer. Therefore, great efforts are made to ensure the proper intake of iodine to the population, for example, the iodization of table salt. In the same way, as an alternative, the use of different iodine fertilization techniques to biofortify crops is considered an adequate iodine supply method. Hence, biofortification with iodine is an active area of research, with highly relevant results. The agricultural application of iodine to enhance growth, environmental adaptation, and stress tolerance in plants has not been well explored, although it may lead to the increased use of this element in agricultural practice and thus contribute to the biofortification of crops. This review systematically presents the results published on the application of iodine in agriculture, considering different environmental conditions and farming systems in various species and varying concentrations of the element, its chemical forms, and its application method. Some studies report beneficial effects of iodine, including better growth, and changes in the tolerance to stress and antioxidant capacity, while other studies report that the applications of iodine cause no response or even have adverse effects. We suggested different assumptions that attempt to explain these conflicting results, considering the possible interaction of iodine with other trace elements, as well as the different physicochemical and biogeochemical conditions that give rise to the distinct availability and the volatilization of the element.

  2. Use of Iodine to Biofortify and Promote Growth and Stress Tolerance in Crops

    PubMed Central

    Medrano-Macías, Julia; Leija-Martínez, Paola; González-Morales, Susana; Juárez-Maldonado, Antonio; Benavides-Mendoza, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is not considered essential for land plants; however, in some aquatic plants, iodine plays a critical role in antioxidant metabolism. In humans, iodine is essential for the metabolism of the thyroid and for the development of cognitive abilities, and it is associated with lower risks of developing certain types of cancer. Therefore, great efforts are made to ensure the proper intake of iodine to the population, for example, the iodization of table salt. In the same way, as an alternative, the use of different iodine fertilization techniques to biofortify crops is considered an adequate iodine supply method. Hence, biofortification with iodine is an active area of research, with highly relevant results. The agricultural application of iodine to enhance growth, environmental adaptation, and stress tolerance in plants has not been well explored, although it may lead to the increased use of this element in agricultural practice and thus contribute to the biofortification of crops. This review systematically presents the results published on the application of iodine in agriculture, considering different environmental conditions and farming systems in various species and varying concentrations of the element, its chemical forms, and its application method. Some studies report beneficial effects of iodine, including better growth, and changes in the tolerance to stress and antioxidant capacity, while other studies report that the applications of iodine cause no response or even have adverse effects. We suggested different assumptions that attempt to explain these conflicting results, considering the possible interaction of iodine with other trace elements, as well as the different physicochemical and biogeochemical conditions that give rise to the distinct availability and the volatilization of the element. PMID:27602033

  3. Iodine deficiency in vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Bucková, K; Klimes, I; Seboková, E

    2003-01-01

    Iodine content in food of plant origin is lower in comparison with that of animal origin due to a low iodine concentration in soil. Urinary iodine excretion was assessed in 15 vegans, 31 lacto- and lacto-ovovegetarians and 35 adults on a mixed diet. Iodine excretion was significantly lower in alternative nutrition groups - 172 microg/l in vegetarians and 78 microg/l in vegans compared to 216 microg/l in subjects on a mixed diet. One fourth of the vegetarians and 80% of the vegans suffer from iodine deficiency (iodine excretion value below 100 microg/l) compared to 9% in the persons on a mixed nutrition. The results show that under conditions of alternative nutrition, there is a higher prevalence of iodine deficiency, which might be a consequence of exclusive or prevailing consumption of food of plant origin, no intake of fish and other sea products, as well as reduced iodine intake in the form of sea salt.

  4. Mineral resource of the month: iodine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Polyak, Désirée E.

    2009-01-01

    The article focuses on iodine, its benefits and adverse effects, and its production and consumption. It states that iodine is essential to humans for it produces thyroid hormones to nourish thyroid glands but excessive intake could cause goiter, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. U.S. laws require salt iodization to help prevent diseases. Chile and Japan are the world's leading iodine producer while in the U.S. iodine is mined from deep well brines in northern Oklahoma.

  5. History of U.S. Iodine Fortification and Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2012-01-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient required for thyroid hormone production. This review highlights the history of the discovery of iodine and its uses, discusses the sources of iodine nutrition, and summarizes the current recommendations for iodine intake with a focus on women of childbearing age. PMID:23201844

  6. Effect of salt reduction on iodine status assessed by 24 hour urinary iodine excretion in children and their families in northern China: a substudy of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    He, Feng J; Ma, Yuan; Feng, Xiangxian; Zhang, Wanqi; Lin, Laixiang; Guo, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jing; Niu, Wenyi; Wu, Yangfeng; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of salt reduction on iodine status and to determine whether iodine consumption was still adequate after salt reduction in a population where universal salt iodisation is mandatory. Design A substudy of a cluster randomised controlled trial, with schools randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control group. Setting 28 primary schools in Changzhi, northern China. Participants 279 children in grade 5 of primary school (mean age: 10.1); 553 adults (age: 43.8). Intervention Children were educated about the harmful effects of salt and how to reduce salt intake using the schools' usual health education lessons. Children then delivered the message to their families. The duration was 1 school term (≈3.5 months). Main outcome measure Difference between the intervention and control groups in the change of iodine intake as measured by repeat 24 hour urinary iodine from baseline to the end of the trial. Results At baseline, the mean salt intake was 7.0±2.5 g/day in children and 11.7±4.4 g/day in adults and the median iodine intake was 165.1 μg/day (IQR: 122.6–216.7) and 280.7 μg/day (IQR: 205.1–380.9) in children and adults, respectively. At the end of the study, salt and iodine decreased in the intervention compared with control group. The mean effect on salt for intervention versus control was −1.9 g/day (95% CI −2.6 to −1.3) in children and −2.9 g/day (95% CI −3.7 to −2.2) in adults. The mean effect on iodine was −19.3% (95% CI −29.4% to −7.7%) in children and −11.4% (95% CI −20.3% to −1.5%) in adults. Conclusions With ≈25% reduction in salt intake, there was a significant reduction in iodine consumption in northern China where salt is iodised. Despite this, iodine intake was still adequate, and well above the estimated average requirement. Our findings indicate that reducing salt to the WHO's target—30% reduction by 2025—will not compromise iodine status. Trial registration

  7. Estimation of thyroid doses and health risks resulting from the intake of radioactive iodine in foods and drinking water by the citizens of Tokyo after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio; Oki, Taikan

    2012-06-01

    The release of radioactive materials from the Fukushima nuclear power plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 poses health risks. In this study, the intake of iodine 131 (I-131) in drinking water and foods (milk, dairy products, and vegetables) by citizens of Tokyo was estimated. The effects of countermeasures (restrictions on the distribution of foods and the distribution of bottled water for infants) on reducing intake were also evaluated. The average thyroid equivalent doses without countermeasures from 21 March 2011 were 0.42 mSv in adults, 1.49 mSv in children, and 2.08 mSv in infants. Those with countermeasures were 0.28, 0.97, and 1.14 mSv respectively, reductions of 33%, 35%, and 45%. Drinking water contributed more to intake by adults and children than foods. The intake of I-131 within the first 2 weeks was more than 80% of the estimated intake, owing to its short half-life, indicating that rapid countermeasures are important in reducing intake. The average risks of cancer incidence and mortality due to I-131 for infants were estimated to be 3×10(-5) and 0.2×10(-5), respectively, lower than the annual risks of traffic accidents, naturally occurring radioactive material (potassium 40), and environmental pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles.

  8. A new HPLC method for the detection of iodine applied to natural samples of edible seaweeds and commercial seaweed food products.

    PubMed

    Nitschke, Udo; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2015-04-01

    Rich in micronutrients and considered to contain high iodine levels, seaweeds have multiple applications as food/supplements and nutraceuticals with potential health implications. Here, we describe the development and validation of a new analytical method to quantify iodine as iodide (I(-)) using an isocratic HPLC system with UV detection; algal iodine was converted to I(-) via dry alkaline incineration. The method was successfully applied to 19 macroalgal species from three taxonomic groups and five commercially available seaweed food products. Fesh kelps contained highest levels, reaching >1.0% per dry weight (DW), but concentrations differed amongst thallus parts. In addition to kelps, other brown (Fucales: ∼ 0.05% DW) and some red species (∼ 0.05% DW) can also serve as a rich source of iodine; lowest iodine concentrations were detected in green macroalgae (∼ 0.005% DW), implying that quantities recommended for seaweed consumption may require species-specific re-evaluation to reach adequate daily intake levels.

  9. Iodine poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Iodine is found in: Amiodarone (Cordarone) Chemicals (catalysts) for photography and engraving Dyes and inks Lugol's solution Pima syrup Potassium iodide Radioactive iodine used for certain medical tests or the treatment ...

  10. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy: the effect on neurodevelopment in the child.

    PubMed

    Skeaff, Sheila A

    2011-02-01

    Iodine is an integral part of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T(4)) and tri-iodothyronine (T(3)), necessary for normal growth and development. An adequate supply of cerebral T(3), generated in the fetal brain from maternal free T(4) (fT(4)), is needed by the fetus for thyroid hormone dependent neurodevelopment, which begins in the second half of the first trimester of pregnancy. Around the beginning of the second trimester the fetal thyroid also begins to produce hormones but the reserves of the fetal gland are low, thus maternal thyroid hormones contribute to total fetal thyroid hormone concentrations until birth. In order for pregnant women to produce enough thyroid hormones to meet both her own and her baby's requirements, a 50% increase in iodine intake is recommended. A lack of iodine in the diet may result in the mother becoming iodine deficient, and subsequently the fetus. In iodine deficiency, hypothyroxinemia (i.e., low maternal fT(4)) results in damage to the developing brain, which is further aggravated by hypothyroidism in the fetus. The most serious consequence of iodine deficiency is cretinism, characterised by profound mental retardation. There is unequivocal evidence that severe iodine deficiency in pregnancy impairs brain development in the child. However, only two intervention trials have assessed neurodevelopment in children of moderately iodine deficient mothers finding improved neurodevelopment in children of mothers supplemented earlier rather than later in pregnancy; both studies were not randomised and were uncontrolled. Thus, there is a need for well-designed trials to determine the effect of iodine supplementation in moderate to mildly iodine deficient pregnant women on neurodevelopment in the child.

  11. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kaganov, Boris; Caroli, Margherita; Mazur, Artur; Singhal, Atul; Vania, Andrea

    2015-05-13

    Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population.

  12. An analysis of the intake of iodine-131 by a dairy herd post-Fukushima and the subsequent excretion in milk.

    PubMed

    Treinen, Richard M

    2015-11-01

    This study focuses on iodine-131 detected in milk samples from the Dairy Science Unit at Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo, California following events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in March of 2011. The milk samples, collected between March 21 and April 11, 2011, were part of the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program. A correlation is made between the integrated activity of iodine-131 found in milk and the integrated activities of iodine-131 of rainwater, vegetation and air samples that were collected from March 19 to April 18, 2011. A comparison is then made to previous studies conducted on dairy cattle that were administered controlled amounts of iodine-131 through ingestion. The comparison shows good agreement to the model which states that generally 1 percent of the activity of iodine-131 ingested by dairy cattle will be detected in harvested milk. Considering the environmental factors and the uncertainties involved, these data and calculated results derived from a real world situation provide an excellent application and confirmation of studies done under controlled settings.

  13. Iodine revisited.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Rose A

    2007-06-01

    Iodine is an antiseptic that has been used in wound care for more than 150 years. Traditional formulations of iodine had serious limitations that were reduced in later products. Much has been written about iodine and opinions on its clinical efficacy are divided. There have been reviews of the chemical properties of iodine, its antimicrobial activity, human physiology, cytotoxicity and its clinical effectiveness, but few have addressed all these aspects. With the recent development of iodine-containing wound care products and the continued publication of laboratory and clinical studies, it seems timely to reassess the evidence relating to the effectiveness of iodine for treating wounds. This literature review attempts to provide an appropriate chemical and physiological background of the characteristics of iodine in order to provide a sound basis for understanding the available microbiological and clinical data. It will show that understanding the factors that contribute to the activity and potential cytotoxicity of iodine are important in evaluating the clinical evidence. Although definitive studies are needed, the sustained delivery of low doses of free iodine offers the potential to inhibit a broad range of microbial species without selecting for resistant strains or inducing cytotoxic effects.

  14. Modeling the complex bromate-iodine reaction.

    PubMed

    Machado, Priscilla B; Faria, Roberto B

    2009-05-07

    In this article, it is shown that the FLEK model (ref 5 ) is able to model the experimental results of the bromate-iodine clock reaction. Five different complex chemical systems, the bromate-iodide clock and oscillating reactions, the bromite-iodide clock and oscillating reactions, and now the bromate-iodine clock reaction are adequately accounted for by the FLEK model.

  15. Iodine-123 generator/iodination kit: a preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, P; Prach, T; Srivastava, S C; Meinken, G E

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary results are described of a xenon-123 filled device to serve as a combination iodine-123 generator/iodination kit. Xenon-123 is produced in the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) by the reaction /sup 127/I(p, 5n)/sup 123/Xe. The device consists of a small glass ampoule containing an internal glass breakseal and a flanged neck on which is crimped a multi-injection type septum. The ampoule contains a hydrogen sulfide atmosphere to assure that the iodine generated from the decay of the xenon is in the form of iodide. Following an adequate period for xenon-123 to decay (this period can be used for shipment), a needle is forced through the septum breaking the seal and residual gases are pumped off. The iodine-123 in the form of iodide can then be rinsed from the ampoule with any desired solvent or reagent added directly to the device to carry out an iodination in an enclosed environment. Preliminary results of both iodine recovery and iodinations have been promising.

  16. Iodine Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlargement of the thyroid (goiter – see Goiter brochure ), hypothyroidism (see Hypothyroidism brochure ) and to mental retardation in infants and ... when lying down, and difficulty swallowing and breathing. HYPOTHYROIDISM – As the body’s iodine levels fall, hypothyroidism may ...

  17. Micronutrients and women of reproductive potential: required dietary intake and consequences of dietary deficiency or excess. Part II--vitamin D, vitamin A, iron, zinc, iodine, essential fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Joe Leigh; Bailey, Lynn B; Pietrzik, Klaus; Shane, Barry; Holzgreve, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Part II of this review considers additional micronutrients. Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin found in foods of animal origins (fatty fish, liver oil) or fortified products (milk, cheese). Vitamin D deficiency is common in African-American women living in northern latitudes. Vitamin D supplementation may be needed to reach desired 25-(OH)D3 concentrations of >50 nmol/L. In foods of animal origin, preformed Vitamin A is present; in plants (fruits and vegetables) vitamin A precursors (β-carotenoids) are present. Vitamin A supplementation is usually not warranted, and in developing countries should not exceed 3000 μg (10,000 IU)/day. Iron in the form of haem-iron is found in meat, fish and poultry; non-haem (inorganic) iron is found in vegetables, fruits and grains. Iron supplementation may be necessary in the third trimester, earlier in pregnancy or in non-pregnant states if serum ferritin is <20 μg/L or haemoglobin <10.9 g/dL. Zinc is available in red meat, seafood including oysters and unpolished grains; supplementation is not necessary. To assure adequate iodine, food is fortified worldwide with iodated salt. If urinary iodine levels are low, supplementation is needed. Essential fatty acids requirements can be met by one to two portions of fish per week.

  18. Biologically available iodine in goitrogenic diets

    SciTech Connect

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1985-01-01

    Eight different sources of low-iodine diet (LID) were tested in mice over 14 years. The available iodine in each diet was measured by isotopic equilibration. Commercially prepared Remington diets contained 6.8 to 69.3 ng available iodine/g, and the results were usually different from shipment to shipment. Some samples produced greatly enlarged thyroids. The Remington diets from two sources were occasionally low in iodine but produced little thyroid enlargement. Between 1977 and 1980 only one shipment of Remington diet was found to contain less than 10 ng available I/g, and it resulted in large goiters. Since 1980 other compositions of LID have been used, but they caused additional abnormalities during breeding or chronic feeding. A low-iodine wheat diet produced goiter in mice more readily than in rats. In the course of testing for unavailable forms of dietary iodine, it was found that only 34.2% of thyroxine iodine was available to the thyroid iodine pool of mice. It is concluded that unidentified nutritional deficiency or dietary contaminants can alter the goitrogenic response to restricted iodine intake. Furthermore, at least one natural form of potential dietary iodine is incompletely available to mice.

  19. Iodine status and associations with feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development in six-month-old South African infants.

    PubMed

    Osei, Jennifer; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Rothman, Marinel; Matsungo, Tonderayi M; Covic, Namukolo; Faber, Mieke; Smuts, Cornelius M

    2016-12-28

    Iodine is important for normal growth and psychomotor development. While infants below 6 months of age receive iodine from breast milk or fortified infant formula, the introduction of complementary foods poses a serious risk for deteriorating iodine status. This cross-sectional analysis assessed the iodine status of six-month-old South African infants and explored its associations with feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development. Iodine concentrations were measured in infant (n = 386) and maternal (n = 371) urine (urinary iodine concentration [UIC]), and in breast milk (n = 257 [breast milk iodine concentrations]). Feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development were assessed in all infants. The median (25th-75th percentile) UIC in infants was 345 (213-596) μg/L and was significantly lower in stunted (302 [195-504] μg/L) than non-stunted (366 [225-641] μg/L) infants. Only 6.7% of infants were deficient. Maternal UIC (128 [81-216] μg/L; rs  = 0.218, p < 0.001) and breast milk iodine concentrations (170 [110-270] μg/kg; rs  = 0.447, p < 0.0001) were associated with infant UIC. Most infants (72%) were breastfed and tended to have higher UIC than non-breastfed infants (p = 0.074). Almost all infants (95%) consumed semi-solid or solid foods, with commercial infant cereals (60%) and jarred infant foods (20%) being the most common solid foods first introduced. Infants who reported to consume commercial infant cereals ≥4 days weekly had significantly higher UIC (372 [225-637] μg/L) than those reported to consume commercial infant cereals seldom or never (308 [200-517] μg/L; p = 0.023). No associations between infant UIC and psychomotor developmental scores were observed. Our results suggest that iodine intake in the studied six-month-old infants was adequate. Iodine in breast milk and commercial infant cereals potentially contributed to this adequate intake.

  20. Moderate-to-Severe Iodine Deficiency in the "First 1000 Days" Causes More Thyroid Hypofunction in Infants Than in Pregnant or Lactating Women.

    PubMed

    Stinca, Sara; Andersson, Maria; Herter-Aeberli, Isabelle; Chabaa, Laila; Cherkaoui, Mohamed; El Ansari, Nawal; Aboussad, Abdelmounaim; Weibel, Sandra; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2017-04-01

    Background: Iodine deficiency early in the life cycle-the "first 1000 days"-can cause hypothyroidism and irreversibly impair neuromotor development. However, the relative vulnerability among women and infants during this critical period is unclear, making it difficult for country-based programs with limited resources to prioritize their iodine interventions.Objective: Our aim was to determine the prevalence of thyroid hypofunction in women and infants living in an area of moderate-to-severe iodine deficiency.Methods: In a cross-sectional survey in Morocco, we measured urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) and concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and total or free thyroxine (TT4 or fT4, respectively) in women of reproductive age (n = 156), pregnant women (n = 245), and lactating women (n = 239) and their young infants (n = 239). We calculated daily iodine intakes and measured iodine concentrations in breast milk and household salt. We compared the incidence of hypothyroidism between the 3 groups of women and with the infants.Results: Women of reproductive age, pregnant women, and lactating women had median (IQR) UICs of 41 (29-63), 32 (17-58), and 35 (19-62) μg/L; and estimated iodine intakes were ∼60%, 22%, and 26% of Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs). The infants' median UIC was 73 (28-157) μg/L, which was greater than for all 3 groups of women (P < 0.001), and their dietary intakes were 27% of the RNI. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was not significantly different between the 4 groups, whereas the prevalence of hypothyroxinemia was higher in infants (40%) than in the 3 groups of women (11-14%) (P < 0.001). The median breast-milk iodine concentration was 42 (26-81) μg/L. Only 6% of salt samples were adequately iodized to a concentration of ≥15 ppm; 54% were inadequately iodized and 40% contained no measurable iodine.Conclusions: In an area of moderate-to-severe iodine deficiency, the prevalence of thyroid hypofunction is ∼4-fold higher

  1. Current Iodine Nutrition Status and Awareness of Iodine Deficiency in Tuguegarao, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bu Kyung; Seok, Kwang-Hyuk; Lee, Andrew S.; Oak, Chul Ho; Kim, Ghi Chan; Jeong, Chae-Kyeong; Choi, Sung In; Afidchao, Pablo M.; Choi, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    The Philippines is one of the countries where adequate iodine status has been achieved. However, iodine deficiency still remains an important public health problem in this country. In this study, we evaluated iodine nutrition status and investigated an awareness status of iodine deficiency targeting high school students of Tuguegarao, Philippines. A total of 260 students provided samples for urinary iodine analysis, among which 146 students completed thyroid volume measurement by ultrasonography and answering the questionnaires. The median urinary iodine level was 355.3 µg/L and only 3.8% of the students were in the range of iodine deficiency status according to the ICCIDD criteria. Although 62.3% of students answered that they can list problems resulting from iodine deficiency, a majority of students (70.5%) were unable to identify problems other than goiter. They did not appreciate that adequate iodine levels are important during pregnancy and for development of children. 33.6% of students answered that they did not use iodized salt and the biggest reason was that they did not find it necessary. Based on these results, we suggest that a future strategy should be focused on vulnerable groups to completely eliminate iodine deficiency, including women at their reproductive ages and during pregnancy. PMID:25374598

  2. Urinary iodine, thyroid function, and thyroglobulin as biomarkers of iodine status.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Caldwell, Kathleen L

    2016-09-01

    The accurate assessment of population iodine status is necessary to inform public health policies and clinical research on iodine nutrition, particularly the role of iodine adequacy in normal neurodevelopment. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) directly reflects dietary iodine intake and is the most common indicator used worldwide to assess population iodine status. The CDC established the Ensuring the Quality of Iodine Procedures program in 2001 to provide laboratories that measure urinary iodine with an independent assessment of their analytic performance; this program fosters improvement in the assessment of UIC. Clinical laboratory tests of thyroid function (including serum concentrations of the pituitary hormone thyrotropin and the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine) are sometimes used as indicators of iodine status, although such use is often problematic. Even in severely iodine-deficient regions, there is a great deal of intraindividual variation in the ability of the thyroid to adapt. In most settings and in most population subgroups other than newborns, thyroid function tests are not considered sensitive indicators of population iodine status. However, the thyroid-derived protein thyroglobulin is increasingly being used for this purpose. Thyroglobulin can be measured in either serum or dried blood spot (DBS) samples. The use of DBS samples is advantageous in resource-poor regions. Improved methodologies for ascertaining maternal iodine status are needed to facilitate research on developmental correlates of iodine status. Thyroglobulin may prove to be a useful biomarker for both maternal and neonatal iodine status, but validated assay-specific reference ranges are needed for the determination of iodine sufficiency in both pregnant women and neonates, and trimester-specific ranges are possibly needed for pregnant women. UIC is currently a well-validated population biomarker, but individual biomarkers that could be used for research, patient care

  3. Mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt modestly improves iodine status in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Skeaff, Sheila A; Lonsdale-Cooper, Emily

    2013-03-28

    Iodine deficiency has re-emerged in many parts of the world including the UK, Australia and New Zealand (NZ). In 2009, the NZ government introduced the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt as a strategy to improve iodine intakes. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of fortification on the iodine status of NZ schoolchildren. A school-based cluster survey was used to randomly select schools from two NZ cities. Children aged 8-10 years were administered a general questionnaire, and asked to provide a casual urine and finger-prick blood sample. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of the children (n 147) was 113 μg/l, which falls between 100 and 199 μg/l indicating adequate iodine status; 12 % of children had a UIC < 50 μg/l and 39 % had a UIC < 100 μg/l. The median serum thyroxine concentration was 115 nmol/l. The median serum thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration was 10.8 μg/l and falls in the 10.0-19.9 μg/l range indicative of mild iodine deficiency, suggesting that these children still had enlarged thyroid glands. When compared with the median UIC of 68 μg/l reported in the 2002 NZ Children's Nutrition Survey, the UIC of children in the present study had increased, which is probably caused by the addition of iodised salt to bread. However, the elevated concentration of Tg in these children suggests that the increase in UIC is not sufficient to ensure that thyroid volume has normalised. The fortification of other staple foods, in addition to bread, should be considered to ensure good iodine status in NZ children.

  4. Iodine Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  5. Iodine balance studies in protein-calorie malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Ingenbleek, Yves; Malvaux, Paul

    1974-01-01

    In 12 malnourished Senegalese children iodine intake and excretion were measured on admission for 4 consecutive days. All subjects were in negative iodine balance, averaging -20·5 μg iodine/day. One month later, after nutritional rehabilitation, 7 children resubmitted to comparative balance study showed a strongly positive balance of +19·3 μg iodine/day. Protein-calorie malnutrition is characterized by a continuous impoverishment of the thyroid's iodine content, while clinical recovery is accompanied by a progressive restoration. PMID:4208456

  6. Iodine Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Dilemma of Ambiguous Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy, predominantly caused by an increase in renal iodide clearance and in the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. Because iodine deficiency (ID) in pregnancy may be associated with neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring, a pertinent question is at what level of iodine intake pregnant women should be advised to take iodine-containing supplements. The consensus reached by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 was that pregnant women should not be recommended to take iodine-containing supplements if the population in general had been iodine sufficient for at least 2 years. However, guidance on this differs between scientific societies. This review discusses iodine supplementation in pregnancy. Based on current evidence, the recommendations given by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 provide a valid guidance on the use of iodine supplements in pregnant women. Women living in a population with a median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) at or above 100 µg/l are not in need of iodine supplementation in pregnancy. On the other hand, if the population median UIC is below 100 µg/l, pregnant women should take iodine-containing supplements until the population in general has been iodine sufficient for at least 2 years by way of universal salt iodization. PMID:27099837

  7. Iodine deficiency: Physiological, clinical and epidemiological features, and pre-analytical considerations.

    PubMed

    Doggui, Radhouene; El Atia, Jalila

    2015-02-01

    Low dietary intake is associated with severe pathologies (especially goiter and cretinism) that affect life quality. Iodine deficiency disorders are a major public health problem worldwide. In fact, 246 million school-aged children have insufficient iodine intake (data from 2012). Extrapoling this value to general population leads to the estimation that 1.9 billion people have insufficient iodine intake. So, it is crucial to interpret correctly data from iodine status survey. The World Health Organization recommends urinary iodine as the main indicator for the assessment of iodine status in epidemiological surveys. To improve the result, some considerations can be taken into account by the biologist, epidemiologist or public health physician for the realization of epidemiological surveys. After a reminder about the physiological and physiopathological feature of iodine, a description of some useful parameters was made to improve the exploration of iodine status in epidemiological surveys.

  8. Use of iodine for water disinfection: iodine toxicity and maximum recommended dose.

    PubMed Central

    Backer, H; Hollowell, J

    2000-01-01

    Iodine is an effective, simple, and cost-efficient means of water disinfection for people who vacation, travel, or work in areas where municipal water treatment is not reliable. However, there is considerable controversy about the maximum safe iodine dose and duration of use when iodine is ingested in excess of the recommended daily dietary amount. The major health effect of concern with excess iodine ingestion is thyroid disorders, primarily hypothyroidism with or without iodine-induced goiter. A review of the human trials on the safety of iodine ingestion indicates that neither the maximum recommended dietary dose (2 mg/day) nor the maximum recommended duration of use (3 weeks) has a firm basis. Rather than a clear threshold response level or a linear and temporal dose-response relationship between iodine intake and thyroid function, there appears to be marked individual sensitivity, often resulting from unmasking of underlying thyroid disease. The use of iodine for water disinfection requires a risk-benefit decision based on iodine's benefit as a disinfectant and the changes it induces in thyroid physiology. By using appropriate disinfection techniques and monitoring thyroid function, most people can use iodine for water treatment over a prolonged period of time. PMID:10964787

  9. Low fatness, reduced fat intake and adequate plasmatic concentrations of LDL-cholesterol are associated with high bone mineral density in women: a cross-sectional study with control group

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several parameters are associated with high bone mineral density (BMD), such as overweight, black background, intense physical activity (PA), greater calcium intake and some medications. The objectives are to evaluate the prevalence and the main aspects associated with high BMD in healthy women. Methods After reviewing the database of approximately 21,500 BMD scans performed in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, from June 2005 to October 2010, high BMD (over 1400 g/cm2 at lumbar spine and/or above 1200 g/cm2 at femoral neck) was found in 421 exams. Exclusion criteria were age below 30 or above 60 years, black ethnicity, pregnant or obese women, disease and/or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. A total of 40 women with high BMD were included and matched with 40 healthy women with normal BMD, paired to weight, age, skin color and menopausal status. Medical history, food intake and PA were assessed through validated questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated through a GE-Lunar DPX MD + bone densitometer. Radiography of the thoracic and lumbar spine was carried out to exclude degenerative alterations or fractures. Biochemical parameters included both lipid and hormonal profiles, along with mineral and bone metabolism. Statistical analysis included parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression models. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results The mean age was 50.9 (8.3) years. There was no significant difference between groups in relation to PA, smoking, intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as laboratory tests, except serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX), which was lower in the high BMD group (p = 0.04). In the final model of multivariate regression, a lower fat intake and body fatness as well a better profile of LDL-cholesterol predicted almost 35% of high BMD in women. (adjusted R2 = 0.347; p < 0.001). In addition, greater amounts of lean mass and higher IGF-1 serum concentrations played a

  10. Radioactive Iodine (Radioiodine) Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Stage Thyroid Cancer Treating Thyroid Cancer Radioactive Iodine (Radioiodine) Therapy for Thyroid Cancer Your thyroid gland absorbs nearly all of the iodine in your body. When radioactive iodine (RAI), also ...

  11. Iodine in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Iodine is needed for the cells to convert food into energy. Humans need iodine for normal thyroid function, and for the production of thyroid hormones. Food Sources Iodized salt is table salt with iodine ...

  12. Metabolic engineering of the iodine content in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Landini, Martina; Gonzali, Silvia; Kiferle, Claudia; Tonacchera, Massimo; Agretti, Patrizia; Dimida, Antonio; Vitti, Paolo; Alpi, Amedeo; Pinchera, Aldo; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2012-01-01

    Plants are a poor source of iodine, an essential micronutrient for human health. Several attempts of iodine biofortification of crops have been carried out, but the scarce knowledge on the physiology of iodine in plants makes results often contradictory and not generalizable. In this work, we used a molecular approach to investigate how the ability of a plant to accumulate iodine can be influenced by different mechanisms. In particular, we demonstrated that the iodine content in Arabidopsis thaliana can be increased either by facilitating its uptake with the overexpression of the human sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) or through the reduction of its volatilization by knocking-out HOL-1, a halide methyltransferase. Our experiments show that the iodine content in plants results from a balance between intake and retention. A correct manipulation of this mechanism could improve iodine biofortification of crops and prevent the release of the ozone layer-threatening methyl iodide into the atmosphere.

  13. The role of iodine in human growth and development.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B

    2011-08-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Thyroid hormones, and therefore iodine, are essential for mammalian life. Iodine deficiency is a major public health problem; globally, it is estimated that two billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake. Although goiter is the most visible sequelae of iodine deficiency, the major impact of hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency is impaired neurodevelopment, particularly early in life. In the fetal brain, inadequate thyroid hormone impairs myelination, cell migration, differentiation and maturation. Moderate-to-severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy increases rates of spontaneous abortion, reduces birth weight, and increases infant mortality. Offspring of deficient mothers are at high risk for cognitive disability, with cretinism being the most severe manifestation. It remains unclear if development of the offspring is affected by mild maternal iodine deficiency. Moderate-to-severe iodine deficiency during childhood reduces somatic growth. Correction of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in primary school aged children improves cognitive and motor function. Iodine prophylaxis of deficient populations with periodic monitoring is an extremely cost effective approach to reduce the substantial adverse effects of iodine deficiency throughout the life cycle.

  14. Historical aspects of iodine deficiency control.

    PubMed

    Vanderpas, Jean-Baptiste; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2017-04-01

    In 1895, iodine was characterized as an essential element of thyroid tissue by Baumann. The efficacy of iodine to prevent goiter was demonstrated by Marine in Northern USA in 1916-1920. Severe endemic goiter and cretinism had been almost entirely eliminated from continental Western Europe and Northern America before the 1930's; however large populations elsewhere and even some places in Western Europe (Sicily) were still affected up to the 2000's. Public health consequences of iodine deficiency are not limited to endemic goiter and cretinism. Iodine deficiency disorders include also increased neonatal death rate and decreased intellectual development, although these consequences are not included in the current estimation of the Global Burden Disease related to iodine deficiency. Severe iodine deficiency as a public health problem is now largely under control worldwide, but can still affect isolated places, in hard-to-reach and/or politically neglected populations. We emphasize the importance of maintaining international cooperation efforts, in order to monitor iodine status where iodine deficiency is now adequately controlled, and identify at-risk population where it is not. The goal should be now global eradication of severe iodine deficiency. Commercial distribution of iodized salt remains the most appropriate strategy. A randomized clinical trial in New Guinea clearly showed in the 1970's that correcting severe iodine deficiency early in pregnancy prevents endemic neurological cretinism. This supports the essential role of thyroid hormones of maternal origin on the normal fetal development, during the first trimester of pregnancy (i.e. when fetal thyroid is still not functional). A randomized clinical trial in Congo (RD) in the 1970's also showed that correcting severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy prevents myxœdematous cretinism, particularly prevalent in affected Congolese areas.

  15. [Dietary reference intakes of trace elements for Japanese and problems in clinical fields].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshifumi

    2016-07-01

    In the dietary reference intakes, EAR(estimated average requirement), RDA(recommended dietary allowance), AL(adequate intake), DG(tentative dietary goal for preventing life style related diseases) and UL(tolerable upper intake level) of eight types of trace elements (iron: Fe, zinc: Zn, copper: Cu, manganese: Mn, iodine: I, selenium: Se, chromium: Cr, molybdenum: Mo) have been set. However, in the meals of hospitals, only iron of which has been taken into account. The content of these trace elements in the enteral nutrient released after 2000 was determined by considering the content of dietary reference intakes of trace elements for Japanese and considered so not fall into deficiency. However, enteral nutrient must be used considering the content of Zn, Cu and the Zn/Cu ratio, the selenium content, and the route of administration, in order to avoid falling into deficiency.

  16. Thyroid function and prevalence of anti-thyroperoxidase (TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin (Tg) antibodies in outpatients hospital setting in an area with sufficient iodine intake: influences of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Legakis, Ioannis; Manousaki, Mina; Detsi, Stela; Nikita, Dimitra

    2013-01-01

    In order to examine the prevalence of thyroid disease in a hospital outpatient setting, in an area of sufficient iodine intake, serum levels of TSH, T4, T3, anti-Tg and anti-TPO antibodies were examined in 909 individuals with an age range of 12.4 to 88.5 years, participating in a checkup outpatient setting. The study was conducted in Henry Dynant Hospital located in the metropolitan area of Athens, Greece, during a 2 year period. Hormonal parameters were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Overt thyrotoxicosis was found in 4.95% of the total population and subclinical thyrotoxicosis in 5.5%. Overt hypothyroidism was found in 1.43% and subclinical hypothyroidism in 4.51%. In male population, overt thyrotoxicosis was found in 4.4 % and subclinical thyrotoxicosis was also found in 4.4%. On the other hand, overt hypothyroidism was found in 1.4% and subclinical hypothyroidism was found in 3.7% in males. In female population, overt thyrotoxicosis was found in 5.2% whereas subclinical thyrotoxicosis was found in 6.0%. Overt hypothyroidism was found in 1.5% and subclinical hypothyroidism was found in 4,9% in females. Positive anti-TPO antibodies were detected more often (30.4%) than anti-Tg (15.4%) in the tested population. The positivity in both anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibodies was correlated with abnormally high TSH concentrations after the age of 50 years, especially in female population. In conclusion distinct profile of thyroid hormonal parameters was observed in inhabitants in the metropolitan area of Athens, with overt thyrotoxicosis strikingly overcome overt hypothyroidism while subclinical forms of each dysfunction also exhibit analogous results.

  17. Iodine volatility. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Shockley, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this program is to couple experimental aqueous iodine volatilities to a fission product release model. Iodine partition coefficients, for inorganic iodine, have been measured during hydrolysis and radiolysis. The hydrolysis experiments have illustrated the importance of reaction time on iodine volatility. However, radiolysis effects can override hydrolysis in determining iodine volatility. In addition, silver metal in radiolysis samples can react to form silver iodide accompanied by a decrease in iodine volatility. Experimental data are now being coupled to an iodine transport and release model that was developed in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  18. Iodine Excretion in 24-hour Urine Collection and Its Dietary Determinants in Healthy Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Uechi, Ken; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Since seaweed is a common component of the Japanese diet, iodine intake in Japanese is expected to be high. However, urinary iodine excretion, measured using 24-hour urine samples, and its dietary determinants are not known. Methods Apparently healthy adults aged 20 to 69 years living in 20 areas throughout Japan were recruited in February and March, 2013. Urinary iodine excretion was evaluated using 24-hour urine collected from 713 subjects (362 men and 351 women), and the difference among age groups was assessed. The association between dietary intake of food groups and urinary iodine excretion was assessed among 358 subjects who completed a semi-weighed 4-day diet record (DR) and urine collection. The correlations between iodine intake and iodine excretion were also evaluated, and correlation coefficients were calculated for iodine intake in the DR of the overlapping day or the DR 1 day before and after urine collection. Results Median iodine excretion in 24-hour urine was 365 µg, and excretion was significantly higher in older subjects. Iodine intake estimated by the DRs was significantly correlated with urinary iodine excretion when DRs and urine collection were obtained on the same day (r = 0.37). After adjustment for confounding factors, iodine excretion was significantly associated with intakes of kelp and soup stock from kelp and fish. Conclusions Although multiple measurements for urinary iodine are required to confirm our results, this study showed the current iodine status of healthy Japanese adults. The results suggest that kelp and fish are the main contributors to Japanese iodine status measured by 24-hour urine. PMID:27374137

  19. A novel concept to derive iodine status of human populations from frequency distribution properties of a hair iodine concentration.

    PubMed

    Prejac, J; Višnjević, V; Drmić, S; Skalny, A A; Mimica, N; Momčilović, B

    2014-04-01

    Today, human iodine deficiency is next to iron the most common nutritional deficiency in developed European and underdeveloped third world countries, respectively. A current biological indicator of iodine status is urinary iodine that reflects the very recent iodine exposure, whereas some long term indicator of iodine status remains to be identified. We analyzed hair iodine in a prospective, observational, cross-sectional, and exploratory study involving 870 apparently healthy Croatians (270 men and 600 women). Hair iodine was analyzed with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). Population (n870) hair iodine (IH) respective median was 0.499μgg(-1) (0.482 and 0.508μgg(-1)) for men and women, respectively, suggesting no sex related difference. We studied the hair iodine uptake by the logistic sigmoid saturation curve of the median derivatives to assess iodine deficiency, adequacy and excess. We estimated the overt iodine deficiency to occur when hair iodine concentration is below 0.15μgg(-1). Then there was a saturation range interval of about 0.15-2.0μgg(-1) (r(2)=0.994). Eventually, the sigmoid curve became saturated at about 2.0μgg(-1) and upward, suggesting excessive iodine exposure. Hair appears to be a valuable and robust long term biological indicator tissue for assessing the iodine body status. We propose adequate iodine status to correspond with the hair iodine (IH) uptake saturation of 0.565-0.739μgg(-1) (55-65%).

  20. Iodine deficiency among Belgian pregnant women not fully corrected by iodine-containing multivitamins: a national cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Mourri, Ahmed Bensouda; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2013-06-28

    Low iodine intake during pregnancy may cause thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women and their newborn. In the present study, iodine status among a nation-wide representative sample of Belgian pregnant women in the first and third trimester of pregnancy was determined, and determinants of iodine status were assessed 1 year after the introduction of bread fortified with iodised salt. The women were selected according to a multistage proportionate-to-size sampling design. Urine samples were collected and a general questionnaire was completed face to face with the study nurse. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among pregnant women (n 1311) was 124.1mg/l and 122.6 mg/g creatinine when corrected for urinary creatinine. The median UIC in the first trimester (118.3 mg/l) was significantly lower than that in the third trimester (131.0 mg/l) but significantly higher than among non-pregnant women (84.8 mg/l). Iodine-containing supplement intake was reported by 60.8% of the women and 57.4% of the women took this supplement daily. The risk of iodine deficiency was significantly higher in younger women, in women not taking iodine-containing supplements, with low consumption of milk and dairy drinks and during autumn. Women with a higher BMI had a higher risk of iodine deficiency but the risk was lower in women who reported alcohol consumption. The median UIC during pregnancy indicates iodine deficiency in Belgium and some women are at a higher risk of deficiency. The current low iodine intake in women of childbearing age precludes the correction of iodine deficiency in pregnant women supplemented with multivitamins containing 150 mg iodine as recommended.

  1. Dietary Intake In Adult Female Coeliac Disease Patients In Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Mičetić-Turk, Dušanka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to assess dietary intake of coeliac disease (CD) patients and to determine if they are meeting the dietary reference values for a balanced diet. Subjects/Methods 40 women with CD, aged from 23 to 76 participated in our study. Total daily intake was assessed by a three-day food diary. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation. Considering physical activity level (PAL) 1.4, the recommended total energy expenditure (TEE) value was determined. The data was evaluated with professional evaluation software Prodi and statistically analysed. Results 40 participants returned the food diary. The average energy intake was significantly too low to ensure the meeting of all-day energy needs (p<0.05). The meals contained a recommended proportion of protein, but a statistically significantly higher proportion of fat (p<0.05), lower proportion of carbohydrates and a significantly lower intake of dietary fibre (p<0.05). Regarding macro-, micro- elements and vitamins, there was a significant lack in the intake of calcium and iodine, folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin A (p<0.05), meanwhile iron intake was at the lower limit of the recommended intake, whereas zinc, potassium and vitamin K intake were significantly higher according to the recommended values, but were comparable with the intake of the general population in the Central European area. Conclusion Even in subjects with adequate or low daily energy intake, their meals contained too much fat, too few carbohydrates and dietary fibre as well as inorganic substances. The patients with CD should get regular nutritional monitoring and education on the quality and balance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:27284377

  2. Assessment of iodine nutrition in populations: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Andersson, Maria

    2012-10-01

    Iodine status has been historically assessed by palpation of the thyroid and reported as goiter rates. Goiter is a functional biomarker that can be applied to both individuals and populations, but it is subjective. Iodine status is now assessed using an objective biomarker of exposure, i.e., urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) in spot samples and comparison of the median UIC to UIC cut-offs to categorize population status. This has improved standardization, but inappropriate use of the crude proportion of UICs below the cut-off level of 100 µg/L to estimate the number of iodine-deficient children has led to an overestimation of the prevalence of iodine deficiency. In this review, a new approach is proposed in which UIC data are extrapolated to iodine intakes, adjusted for intraindividual variation, and then interpreted using the estimated average requirement cut-point model. This may allow national programs to define the prevalence of iodine deficiency in the population and to quantify the necessary increase in iodine intakes to ensure sufficiency. In addition, thyroglobulin can be measured on dried blood spots to provide an additional sensitive functional biomarker of iodine status.

  3. Tomato fruits: a good target for iodine biofortification

    PubMed Central

    Kiferle, Claudia; Gonzali, Silvia; Holwerda, Harmen T.; Ibaceta, Rodrigo Real; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2013-01-01

    Iodine is a trace element that is fundamental for human health: its deficiency affects about two billion people worldwide. Fruits and vegetables are usually poor sources of iodine; however, plants can accumulate iodine if it is either present or exogenously administered to the soil. The biofortification of crops with iodine has therefore been proposed as a strategy for improving human nutrition. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the possibility of biofortifying tomato fruits with iodine. Increasing concentrations of iodine supplied as KI or KIO3 were administered to plants as root treatments and the iodine accumulation in fruits was measured. The influences of the soil organic matter content or the nitrate level in the nutritive solution were analyzed. Finally, yield and qualitative properties of the biofortified tomatoes were considered, as well as the possible influence of fruit storage and processing on the iodine content. Results showed that the use of both the iodized salts induced a significant increase in the fruit’s iodine content in doses that did not affect plant growth and development. The final levels ranged from a few mg up to 10 mg iodine kg - 1 fruit fresh weight and are more than adequate for a biofortification program, since 150 μg iodine per day is the recommended dietary allowance for adults. In general, the iodine treatments scarcely affected fruit appearance and quality, even with the highest concentrations applied. In contrast, the use of KI in plants fertilized with low doses of nitrate induced moderate phytotoxicity symptoms. Organic matter-rich soils improved the plant’s health and production, with only mild reductions in iodine stored in the fruits. Finally, a short period of storage at room temperature or a 30-min boiling treatment did not reduce the iodine content in the fruits, if the peel was maintained. All these results suggest that tomato is a particularly suitable crop for iodine biofortification programs

  4. [Iodine deficiency in the world and in the Czech Republic--current status and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Zamrazil, V; Bílek, R; Cerovská, J; Dvoráková, M; Nemecek, J

    2010-12-01

    Iodopenia is importance world-wide problem--the cause of spectrum of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). The "simple" way for its compensation is iodine supplementation--preferably by iodinization of salt: in the Czech Republic prevalence of IDD was very high in the past. The complex program for compensation of iodine deficiency realized in the CR includes improvement of salt iodization, supplementation of pregnant and lactating women, fortification of products for babies' nutrition and increasing use of iodinized salt in general population incl. food industry. Thus CR is country with compensated iodine deficiency according to criteria WHO, UNICEF, ICCIDD. In future, however, systematic interest should be focused on optimalization of iodine saturation, esp. in pregnant women and evaluation of possible risk of supranormal iodine intake (impairment of thyroid function, activation of thyroid autoimmunity). Taking in account, the changes of nutrition and life style systematic monitoring of quality of iodine supplementation seems to be essential.

  5. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice.

    PubMed

    Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001), a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible solution

  6. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice

    PubMed Central

    Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall’s W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001), a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible solution

  7. Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Hyperthyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Balance › Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism Fact Sheet Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism April, 2012 Download PDFs English Zulu ... prepare for RAI or surgery. How does radioactive iodine treatment work? Iodine is important for making thyroid ...

  8. Iodine source apportionment in the Malawian diet

    PubMed Central

    Watts, M. J.; Joy, E. J. M.; Young, S. D.; Broadley, M. R.; Chilimba, A. D. C.; Gibson, R. S.; Siyame, E. W. P.; Kalimbira, A. A.; Chilima, B.; Ander, E. L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise nutritional-I status in Malawi. Dietary-I intakes were assessed using new datasets of crop, fish, salt and water-I concentrations, while I status was assessed for 60 women living on each of calcareous and non-calcareous soils as defined by urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Iodine concentration in staple foods was low, with median concentrations of 0.01 mg kg−1 in maize grain, 0.008 mg kg−1 in roots and tubers, but 0.155 mg kg−1 in leafy vegetables. Freshwater fish is a good source of dietary-I with a median concentration of 0.51 mg kg−1. Mean Malawian dietary-Iodine intake from food, excluding salt, was just 7.8 μg d−1 compared to an adult requirement of 150 μg d−1. Despite low dietary-I intake from food, median UICs were 203 μg L−1 with only 12% defined as I deficient whilst 21% exhibited excessive I intake. Iodised salt is likely to be the main source of dietary I intake in Malawi; thus, I nutrition mainly depends on the usage and concentration of I in iodised salt. Drinking water could be a significant source of I in some areas, providing up to 108 μg d−1 based on consumption of 2 L d−1. PMID:26503697

  9. Iodine source apportionment in the Malawian diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, M. J.; Joy, E. J. M.; Young, S. D.; Broadley, M. R.; Chilimba, A. D. C.; Gibson, R. S.; Siyame, E. W. P.; Kalimbira, A. A.; Chilima, B.; Ander, E. L.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise nutritional-I status in Malawi. Dietary-I intakes were assessed using new datasets of crop, fish, salt and water-I concentrations, while I status was assessed for 60 women living on each of calcareous and non-calcareous soils as defined by urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Iodine concentration in staple foods was low, with median concentrations of 0.01 mg kg-1 in maize grain, 0.008 mg kg-1 in roots and tubers, but 0.155 mg kg-1 in leafy vegetables. Freshwater fish is a good source of dietary-I with a median concentration of 0.51 mg kg-1. Mean Malawian dietary-Iodine intake from food, excluding salt, was just 7.8 μg d-1 compared to an adult requirement of 150 μg d-1. Despite low dietary-I intake from food, median UICs were 203 μg L-1 with only 12% defined as I deficient whilst 21% exhibited excessive I intake. Iodised salt is likely to be the main source of dietary I intake in Malawi; thus, I nutrition mainly depends on the usage and concentration of I in iodised salt. Drinking water could be a significant source of I in some areas, providing up to 108 μg d-1 based on consumption of 2 L d-1.

  10. Combined effects of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodine on thyroid function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–08

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmaus, Craig; Miller, Mark D.; Cushing, Lara; Blount, Benjamin C.; Smith, Allan H.

    2013-05-15

    Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine intake can all decrease iodide intake into the thyroid gland. This can reduce thyroid hormone production since iodide is a key component of thyroid hormone. Previous research has suggested that each of these factors alone may decrease thyroid hormone levels, but effect sizes are small. We hypothesized that people who have all three factors at the same time have substantially lower thyroid hormone levels than people who do not, and the effect of this combined exposure is substantially larger than the effects seen in analyses focused on only one factor at a time. Using data from the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, subjects were categorized into exposure groups based on their urinary perchlorate, iodine, and thiocyanate concentrations, and mean serum thyroxine concentrations were compared between groups. Subjects with high perchlorate (n=1939) had thyroxine concentrations that were 5.0% lower (mean difference=0.40 μg/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.14–0.65) than subjects with low perchlorate (n=2084). The individual effects of iodine and thiocyanate were even smaller. Subjects with high perchlorate, high thiocyanate, and low iodine combined (n=62) had thyroxine concentrations 12.9% lower (mean difference=1.07 μg/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.55–1.59) than subjects with low perchlorate, low thiocyanate, and adequate iodine (n=376). Potential confounders had little impact on results. Overall, these results suggest that concomitant exposure to perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine markedly reduces thyroxine production. This highlights the potential importance of examining the combined effects of multiple agents when evaluating the toxicity of thyroid-disrupting agents. -- Highlights: ► Recent data suggest that essentially everyone in the US is exposed to perchlorate. ► Perchlorate exposure may be associated with lower thyroid hormone levels. ► Some groups may be more susceptible to

  11. Computation of iodine species concentrations in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, John R.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Flanagan, David T.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    During an evaluation of the use of iodine as a water disinfectant and the development of methods for measuring various iodine species in water onboard Space Freedom, it became necessary to compute the concentration of the various species based on equilibrium principles alone. Of particular concern was the case when various amounts of iodine, iodide, strong acid, and strong base are added to water. Such solutions can be used to evaluate the performance of various monitoring methods being considered. The authors of this paper present an overview of aqueous iodine chemistry, a set of nonlinear equations which can be used to model the above case, and a computer program for solving this system of equations using the Newton-Raphson method. The program was validated by comparing results over a range of concentrations and pH values with those previously presented by Gottardi for a given pH. Use of this program indicated that there are multiple roots to many cases and selecting an appropriate initial guess is important. Comparison of program results with laboratory results for the case when only iodine is added to water indicates the program gives high pH values for the iodine concentrations normally used for water disinfection. Extending the model to include the effects of iodate formation results in the computer pH values being closer to those observed, but the model with iodate does not agree well for the case in which base is added in addition to iodine to raise the pH. Potential explanations include failure to obtain equilibrium conditions in the lab, inaccuracies in published values for the equilibrium constants, and inadequate model of iodine chemistry and/or the lack of adequate analytical methods for measuring the various iodine species in water.

  12. An evaluation of the effectiveness of water iodinator system to supply iodine to selected schools in Terengganu, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, K K; Siti Rohana, D; Zawiah, A; Wan Nazaimoon, W M

    2006-12-01

    This is a cross-sectional study conducted from January to September 2004 in a group of school children aged 8 -10 years old. The schools and study subjects were selected using stratified systematic sampling technique. A total of 44 schools and 1100 subjects were selected from schools with iodinator and schools without iodinator. Samples collected were spot urine and drinking water. Dietary and iodised water consumption data were obtained from interviews. A total of 931 subjects (84.6%) responded; 558 (50.7%) from schools with iodinator and 373 (33.9%) from schools without iodinator. Results showed that in more than half (53.8%) of the schools with iodinators, mean water iodine level was below 25 microg/L. The study population in Terengganu was found to be mildly iodine deficient with an overall median urine iodine concentration (uIC) of 74 microg/L. Based on WHO criteria, 4.1% with uIC <20 microg/L (severe), 19.5% with uIC between 20-49 microg/L (moderate), 49.2% with uIC between 50-99 microg/L (mild) and 27.2% was iodine sufficient with uIC >100 microg/L. Majority of the study subjects were found to have high seafood intake (> 90%) and low in goitrogen food intake. This study suggests water iodinator system may not be a suitable method of supplying iodine and an alternative is needed in order to eradicate the iodine deficiency problem seen in some parts of Malaysia.

  13. Evaluation of iodine content and stability in recipes prepared with biofortified potatoes.

    PubMed

    Cerretani, Lorenzo; Comandini, Patrizia; Fumanelli, Davide; Scazzina, Francesca; Chiavaro, Emma

    2014-11-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient of the human diet. Deficiency of iodine is diffused in many areas of the world and mild deficiency is present also in developed countries around Europe. Biofortification of vegetables could represent a better strategy with respect to iodized salt in order to increase iodine intake. The aim of this study was evaluating the stability of iodine, derived from biofortified potatoes, in the preparation process of three Italian typical dishes: dumplings, vegetable pie, and focaccia bread. The obtained results showed a good stability of iodine in cooking processes, in particular, during baking of focaccia bread. Significant losses of iodine were detected during boiling of dumplings and baking of vegetable pie. Although the different stability during the cooking processes, the three dishes maintained a good final content of iodine, ranging from the 33.3% to 52.7% of daily recommended intake in adults for individual serving size.

  14. Low-level seaweed supplementation improves iodine status in iodine-insufficient women.

    PubMed

    Combet, Emilie; Ma, Zheng Feei; Cousins, Frances; Thompson, Brett; Lean, Michael E J

    2014-09-14

    Iodine insufficiency is now a prominent issue in the UK and other European countries due to low intakes of dairy products and seafood (especially where iodine fortification is not in place). In the present study, we tested a commercially available encapsulated edible seaweed (Napiers Hebridean Seagreens® Ascophyllum nodosum species) for its acceptability to consumers and iodine bioavailability and investigated the impact of a 2-week daily seaweed supplementation on iodine concentrations and thyroid function. Healthy non-pregnant women of childbearing age, self-reporting low dairy product and seafood consumption, with no history of thyroid or gastrointestinal disease were recruited. Seaweed iodine (712 μg, in 1 g seaweed) was modestly bioavailable at 33 (interquartile range (IQR) 28-46) % of the ingested iodine dose compared with 59 (IQR 46-74) % of iodine from the KI supplement (n 22). After supplement ingestion (2 weeks, 0·5 g seaweed daily, n 42), urinary iodine excretion increased from 78 (IQR 39-114) to 140 (IQR 103-195) μg/l (P< 0·001). The concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone increased from 1·5 (IQR 1·2-2·2) to 2·1 (IQR 1·3-2·9) mIU/l (P< 0·001), with two participants having concentrations exceeding the normal range after supplement ingestion (but normal free thyroxine concentrations). There was no change in the concentrations of other thyroid hormones after supplement ingestion. The seaweed was palatable and acceptable to consumers as a whole food or as a food ingredient and effective as a source of iodine in an iodine-insufficient population. In conclusion, seaweed inclusion in staple foods would serve as an alternative to fortification of salt or other foods with KI.

  15. A physiological systems model for iodine for use in radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the biokinetic database for iodine in the human body and proposes a biokinetic model for use in dose assessments for radioiodine. The model unifies and extends existing physiological systems models describing three subsystems of the iodine cycle in the body: circulating (extrathyroidal) inorganic iodide; thyroidal iodine (trapping and organic binding of iodide, and synthesis, storage, and secretion of thyroid hormones); and extrathyroidal organic iodine. Thyroidal uptake of iodide is described as a function of daily stable iodine intake and requirements for thyroid hormones. Baseline parameter values are developed for adults with typical iodine intakes and hormone requirements. Estimated thyroid doses derived from the baseline parameter values and reference thyroid weights are higher than values predicted by the current model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for adults for intake of iodine isotopes with half-lives up to a few hours but consistent with ICRP predictions for longer-lived isotopes. For nearly all iodine isotopes, the proposed model yields order-of-magnitude differences from the ICRP s current iodine model for adults for stomach wall, salivary gland, and kidneys. Dose estimates for intravenously injected 131I-labeled thyroid hormones based on the present model differ substantially from current ICRP values for adult patients for some organs, including the thyroid. Subsequent studies will address age-specific biokinetics of iodine, reduction of doses from radioiodine due to thyroid blocking, and effects of dietary iodine levels and thyroid hormone requirements on thyroid doses from radioiodine.

  16. Iodine Nutritional Status of School Children in Nauru 2015

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Jui; Tseng, Chi-Lung; Chen, Harn-Shen; Garabwan, Chanda; Korovo, Samuela; Tang, Kam-Tsun; Won, Justin Ging-Shing; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Wang, Fan-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt) were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6–12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively). The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru. PMID:27563920

  17. Geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level and association between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre: a Chinese national investigation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hongmei; Liu, Shoujun; Sun, Dianjun; Zhang, Shubin; Su, Xiaohui; Shen, Yanfeng; Han, Hepeng

    2011-07-01

    Excessive iodine intake can cause thyroid function disorders as can be caused by iodine deficiency. There are many people residing in areas with high iodine levels in drinking-water in China. The main aim of the present study was to map the geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level in China and to determine the relationship between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre prevalence. Iodine in drinking-water was measured in 1978 towns of eleven provinces in China, with a total of 28,857 water samples. We randomly selected children of 8-10 years old, examined the presence of goitre and measured their urinary iodine in 299 towns of nine provinces. Of the 1978 towns studied, 488 had iodine levels between 150 and 300 μg/l in drinking-water, and in 246 towns, the iodine level was >300 μg/l. These towns are mainly distributed along the original Yellow River flood areas, the second largest river in China. Of the 56 751 children examined, goitre prevalence was 6.3 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine levels of 150-300 μg/l and 11.0 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine >300 μg/l. Goitre prevalence increased with water and urinary iodine levels. For children with urinary iodine >1500 μg/l, goitre prevalence was 3.69 times higher than that for those with urinary iodine levels of 100-199 μg/l. The present study suggests that drinking-water with high iodine levels is distributed in eleven provinces of China. Goitre becomes more prevalent with the increase in iodine level in drinking-water. Therefore, it becomes important to prevent goitre through stopping the provision of iodised salt and providing normal drinking-water iodine through pipelines in these areas in China.

  18. [Dietary iodine provision of the population in the Krasnoyarsk Territory].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, I Iu

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes the time course of changes in the intake of staple foods in the Krasnoyarsk Territory in 1998-2005. It is shown that the ingestion of iodine-rich foods has not increased greatly and it is low and does not provide the population with this essential micronutrient. The actual content of iodine in the study samples of food and its raw material is several times less than the tabulated values. The contribution of the staple foods to the provision of the Krasnoyarsk Territory's population with iodine is assessed. The total level of dietary iodine deficiency is estimated. Iodine-fortified salt and foods should be widely used under special conditions providing the transportation and storage of biologically value foods, during which there are inevitable losses of the trace element occur.

  19. Neutron activation analysis of total diet food composites for iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Allegrini, M.; Boyer, K.W.; Tanner, J.T.

    1981-09-01

    The iodine content of Total Diet food composites was measured using neutron activation analysis. The interfering element chlorine was separated using a modified combustion and gas phase procedure. The average recovery was 94.8% (standard deviation 2.9) for the 10 matrices that were tested. In addition, iodine was measured in National Bureau of Standards Standard Reference Materials, which have no certified values for this element. Preliminary findings of iodine content of adult Total Diet market baskets collected during Fiscal Year 1980 in different regions of the United States ranged from 292 to 901 ..mu..g/day for a 2900 kcal intake.

  20. Excess urinary iodine is associated with autoimmune subclinical hypothyroidism among Egyptian women.

    PubMed

    Alsayed, Ahmed; Gad, Adela M; Abdel-Baset, Hoda; Abdel-Fattah, Abeer; Ahmed, Adel; Azab, Adel

    2008-07-01

    Excessive iodine exposure was reported to be associated with thyroid dysfunctions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the link between excess urinary iodine as the prime indicator of excessive iodine intake and autoimmune subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) among Egyptian women. Seventy three women with autoimmune SCH and 60 age- matched healthy women as controls were enrolled in this study. TSH, FT4, urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) were estimated. The levels of urinary iodine were significantly higher in patients with SCH as compared with control subjects, (326.97 112.98 vs. 274.45 98.75 microg/l, p<0.01). In patients with SCH, there was a significant correlation between UIC and TSH levels. Also, a significant correlation between UIC and TPOAb was found. We conclude that excessive iodine intake may trigger thyroid autoimmunity and eventually thyroid hypofunction among Egyptian women.

  1. Hypothyroidism Among Military Infants Born in Countries of Varied Iodine Nutrition Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Naval Health Research Center Hypothyroidism among Military Infants Born in Countries of Varied Iodine Nutrition Status . M. M. Cranston...Naval Health Research Center 140 Sylvester Road San Diego, California 92106 RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Hypothyroidism among military infants born...deficiencies in iodine intake on children and pregnant women has been questioned. This study was designed to compare hypothyroidism among infants

  2. The effects of iodine level and source on iodine carry-over in eggs and body tissues of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Röttger, Anna S; Halle, Ingrid; Wagner, Hubertus; Breves, Gerhard; Dänicke, Sven; Flachowsky, Gerhard

    2012-10-01

    In the presented study the effect of different iodine (I) levels and sources in hen feed on the iodine concentration of different tissues, blood serum, and eggs of laying hens was studied. For this purpose, two experiments were conducted with 30 laying hens each. In these experiments feed was enriched with KI and Ca(IO(3))(2), respectively, at 0 (Control), 0.25, 0.5, 2.5 and 5 mg I/kg feed, resulting a analysed iodine level from 0.44 to 4.20 mg/kg feed. After four weeks experimental feeding the iodine concentrations of thyroid glands, blood, meat, liver, abdominal fat and eggs were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The experimental treatment did not affect hen performance. The iodine supplementation significantly increased the iodine concentration of eggs (144-1304 μg/kg), thyroid glands (3367-5975 μg/g), blood serum (16-67 μg/kg) and liver (13-43 μg/kg). Meat (about 14 μg I/kg) and abdominal fat (about 12 μg I/kg) were not significantly affected by iodine treatment. Comparative regression analyses showed that at a similar iodine intake, the supply via KI resulted in significantly higher iodine deposition into eggs than Ca(IO(3))(2). Due to the high carry-over of iodine into eggs, eggs may considerably contribute to the iodine supply of the consumers.

  3. Iodine deficiency in the U.K.: an overlooked cause of impaired neurodevelopment?

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Rayman, Margaret P

    2013-05-01

    This review describes historical iodine deficiency in the U.K., gives current information on dietary sources of iodine and summarises recent evidence of iodine deficiency and its association with child neurodevelopment. Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormones that are needed for brain development, particularly during pregnancy. Iodine deficiency is a leading cause of preventable brain damage worldwide and is associated with impaired cognitive function. Despite a global focus on the elimination of iodine deficiency, iodine is a largely overlooked nutrient in the U.K., a situation we have endeavoured to address through a series of studies. Although the U.K. has been considered iodine-sufficient for many years, there is now concern that iodine deficiency may be prevalent, particularly in pregnant women and women of childbearing age; indeed we found mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in pregnant women in Surrey. As the major dietary source of iodine in the U.K. is milk and dairy produce, it is relevant to note that we have found the iodine concentration of organic milk to be over 40% lower than that of conventional milk. In contrast to many countries, iodised table salt is unlikely to contribute to U.K. iodine intake as we have shown that its availability is low in grocery stores. This situation is of concern as the level of U.K. iodine deficiency is such that it is associated with adverse effects on offspring neurological development; we demonstrated a higher risk of low IQ and poorer reading-accuracy scores in U.K. children born to mothers who were iodine-deficient during pregnancy. Given our findings and those of others, iodine status in the U.K. population should be monitored, particularly in vulnerable subgroups such as pregnant women and children.

  4. Iodine generator for reclaimed water purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The system disclosed is for controlling the iodine level in a water supply in a spacecraft. It includes an iodine accumulator which stores crystalline iodine, an electrochemical valve to control the input of iodine to the drinking water and an iodine dispenser. A pump dispenses fluid through the iodine dispenser and an iodine sensor to a potable water tank storage. The iodine sensor electronically detects the iodine level in the water, and through electronic means, produces a correction current control. The correction current control operates the electro-chemical iodine valve to release iodine from the iodine accumulator into the iodine dispenser.

  5. [Phosphorus intake and osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Omi, N; Ezawa, I

    2001-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important nutrients for bone metabolism, such as calcium. In general, P intake is usually adequate in our daily diet, and there is a risk of over-consumption from processed food. On the other hand, Ca intake is not always adequate from the Japanese daily diet. When Ca/P is taken from the daily diet at a level of 0.5 - 2.0, the P intake level dose not affect intestinal Ca absorption. Therefore, it is important not only to pay attention to preventing the over-consumption of P, but also to obtain a sufficient intake of Ca. For the prevention of osteoporosis, it is important to consume sufficient Ca and to maintain and appropriate Ca/P balance from diet.

  6. Incorporation of iodine in polymeric microparticles and emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolontaeva, Olga A.; Khokhlova, Anastasia R.; Markina, Natalia E.; Markin, Alexey V.; Burmistrova, Natalia A.

    2016-04-01

    Application of different methods for formation of microcontainers containing iodine is proposed in this paper. Two types of microcontainers: microemulsions and microparticles have been investigated, conditions and methods for obtaining microcontainers were optimized. Microparticles were formed by layer-by-layer method with cores of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as templates. Incorporation of complexes of iodine with polymers (chitosan, starch, polyvinyl alcohol) into core, shell and hollow capsules was investigated and loadings of microparticles with iodine were estimated. It was found that the complex of iodine with chitosan adsorbed at CaCO3 core is the most stable under physiological conditions and its value of loading can be 450 μg of I2 per 1 g of CaCO3. Moreover, chitosan was chosen as a ligand because of its biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as very low toxicity while its complex with iodine is very stable. A small amount of microparticles containing a iodine-chitosan complex can be used for prolonged release of iodine in the human body since iodine daily intake for adults is around 100 μg. "Oil-in-water" emulsions were prepared by ultrasonication of iodinated oils (sunflower and linseed) with sodium laurilsulfate (SLS) as surfactant solution. At optimal conditions, the homogenous emulsions remained stable for weeks, with total content of iodine in such emulsion being up to 1% (w/w). The oil:SLS ratio was equal to 1:10 (w/w), optimal duration and power of ultrasound exposure were 1.5 min and 7 W, correspondingly. Favorable application of iodized linseed oil for emulsion preparation with suitable oil microdroplets size was proved.

  7. Low Urinary Iodine Concentration among Mothers and Children in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Laillou, Arnaud; Sophonneary, Prak; Kuong, Khov; Hong, Rathavuth; Un, Samoeurn; Chamnan, Chhoun; Poirot, Etienne; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank

    2016-01-01

    A 2014 national assessment of salt iodization coverage in Cambodia found that 62% of samples were non-iodized, suggesting a significant decline in daily iodine intakes. The Cambodian Micronutrient Survey conducted in 2014 (CMNS-2014) permitted obtaining national data on urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) to assess iodine status and whether iodized salt use had an impact. Urine samples were collected from mothers (n = 736) and children (n = 950). The median UIC was 63 µg/L and 72 µg/L in mothers and children respectively. More than 60% of mothers and their children had a UIC < 100 µg/L, thereby indicating a serious public health problem. Iodine status was significantly lower among mothers and children living in rural areas, belonging to the poorest socioeconomic category, or living in a household not using iodized salt. The limited enforcement of the legislation for iodized salt has resulted in a major decrease in the prevalence of iodized salt, which in turn has compromised iodine status in Cambodia. It is essential for the government to enhance enforcement of the iodized salt legislation, and implement short term strategies, such as iodine supplementation, to prevent an increase of severe complications due to iodine deficiency in the Cambodian population. PMID:27058551

  8. Permeation of iodide from iodine-enriched yeast through porcine intestine.

    PubMed

    Ryszka, Florian; Dolińska, Barbara; Zieliński, Michał; Chyra, Dagmara; Dobrzański, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a common phenomenon, threatening the whole global human population. Recommended daily intake of iodine is 150 μg for adults and 250 μg for pregnant and breastfeeding women. About 50% of human population can be at risk of moderate iodine deficiency. Due to this fact, increased iodine supplementation is recommended, through intake of iodized mineral water and salt iodization. The aim of this study was to investigate permeation and absorption of iodide from iodine bioplex (experimental group) in comparison with potassium iodide (controls). Permeation and absorption processes were investigated in vitro using a porcine intestine. The experimental model was based on a standard Franz diffusion cell (FD-Cell). The iodine bioplex was produced using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and whey powder: iodine content - 388 μg/g, total protein - 28.5%, total fat - 0.9%., glutamic acid - 41.2%, asparaginic acid - 29.4%, lysine - 24.8%; purchased from: F.Z.N.P. Biochefa, Sosnowiec, Poland. Potassium iodide was used as controls, at 388 μg iodine concentration, which was the same as in iodine-enriched yeast bioplex. A statistically significant increase in iodide permeation was observed for iodine-enriched yeast bioplex in comparison with controls - potassium iodide. After 5h the total amount of permeated iodide from iodine-enriched yeast bioplex was 85%, which is ~ 2-fold higher than controls - 37%. Iodide absorption was by contrast statistically significantly higher in controls - 7.3%, in comparison with 4.5% in experimental group with iodine-enriched yeast bioplex. Presented results show that iodide permeation process dominates over absorption in case of iodine-enriched yeast bioplex.

  9. Radioactive iodine uptake

    MedlinePlus

    ... too much thyroid hormone medicine or supplements) Iodine overload Subacute thyroiditis (swelling or inflammation of the thyroid ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A. ...

  10. Iodine Clock Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a combination of solutions that can be used in the study of kinetics using the iodine clock reaction. The combination slows down degradation of the prepared solutions and can be used successfully for several weeks. (JRH)

  11. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  12. Iodine Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).

  13. Prevalence of maternal dietary iodine insufficiency in the north east of England: implications for the fetus

    PubMed Central

    Kibirige, M; Hutchison, S; Owen, C; Delves, H

    2004-01-01

    Background: Maternal subclinical hypothyroidism is a cause of poor neurodevelopment outcome in the offspring. Although iodine deficiency is the most common cause of hypothyroidism world wide, there are no screening programmes for it in the United Kingdom where the population is assumed to be iodine replete. Objective: To determine the prevalence of reduced iodine intake by measuring urinary iodide concentrations in pregnant and non-pregnant women from the north east of England. Methods: Urinary iodide excretion (UIE) rate was estimated using inductively coupled mass spectrometry in 227 women at 15 weeks gestation and in 227 non-pregnant age matched controls. A reduced intake of iodine is indicated by a concentration in urine of less than 50 µg/l or less than 0.05 µg iodine/mmol creatinine. Results: Eight (3.5%) pregnant women and 13 (5.7%) controls had a reduced iodine/creatinine ratio. These values were higher when UIE was expressed as iodine concentration: 16 (7%) and 20 (8.8%) respectively. Ninety (40%) of the pregnant women had a UIE of 0.05–0.10, which is consistent with borderline deficiency. Conclusion: In this study, 3.5% of pregnant women had evidence of iodine deficiency, and 40% may be borderline deficient. Larger scale studies are required to estimate the true prevalence of iodine deficiency in the United Kingdom. PMID:15321965

  14. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India

    PubMed Central

    Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

  15. Spatial variability of drinking water iodine in Denmark: implications for future policy making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voutchkova, Denitza; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Kristiansen, Søren; Hansen, Birgitte

    2014-05-01

    The iodine-an essential component of human thyroid hormones-is provided to our organisms naturally from the food and water and/or is added artificially to the diet. One of the major natural contributors to the dietary iodine intake in Denmark is the drinking water. Both insufficient or excessive iodine intake can cause health problems however the attention falls mainly on the iodine deficiency (ID). Denmark is classified to have mild ID, which is based on sub-national data only. On a bigger scale, in Europe, about 40% of the general population is estimated to suffer from insufficient iodine intake (based on recent update on the iodine status worldwide). A mandatory addition of iodine to the salt was introduced in 2001 in Denmark to address the population's mild deficiency. One of the components of the Danish monitoring program investigating the effect of the salt iodizing (DanThyr) was based on the geographical variation of drinking water iodine levels. More specifically, the location of the two DanThyr cohort studies was chosen to reflect the low concentrations in the western part of Denmark and higher concentration in the eastern part. However, the knowledge about the spatial variability of iodine in Danish ground- and drinking water at that time was quite limited and misrepresentation of the natural variability is suspected. The presented sampling campaign was completed in 2013, and includes 144 waterworks with annual abstraction of about 175 mio m3 groundwater (~45% of the total groundwater abstraction by all active public and private Danish waterworks). The results show a surprisingly complex spatial pattern concerning both the iodine concentrations and speciation. By estimating the dietary iodine intake from water and comparing it to the WHO recommendations, it becomes possible to recognize potentially deficient/excessive geographical areas. Moreover, it is demonstrated that drinking water iodine levels (major dietary iodine contributor in Denmark) can be

  16. Iodine deficiency in Europe.

    PubMed

    Delange, F

    1995-01-18

    Iodine is a trace element present in the human body in minute amounts (15-20 mg in adults, i.e. 0.0285 x 10(-3)% of body weight). The only confirmed function of iodine is to constitute an essential substrate for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, tetraiodothyronine, thyroxine or T4 and triiodothyronine, T3 (1). In thyroxine, iodine is 60% by weight. Thyroid hormones, in turn, play a decisive role in the metabolism of all cells of the organism (2) and in the process of early growth and development of most organs, especially of the brain (3). Brain development in humans occurs from fetal life up to the third postnatal year (4). Consequently, a deficit in iodine and/or in thyroid hormones occurring during this critical period of life will result not only in the slowing down of the metabolic activities of all the cells of the organism but also in irreversible alterations in the development of the brain. The clinical consequence will be mental retardation (5). When the physiological requirements of iodine are not met in a given population, a series of functional and developmental abnormalities occur (Table 1), including thyroid function abnormalities and, when iodine deficiency is severe, endemic goiter and cretinism, endemic mental retardation, decreased fertility rate, increased perinatal death, and infant mortality. These complications, which constitute an hindrance to the development of the affected population, are grouped under the general heading of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, IDD (6). Broad geographic areas exist in which the population is affected by IDD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Work of the Polish Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, and the model of iodine prophylaxis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szybiński, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    The Polish Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (PCCIDD) was established in 1991 in Krakow at the Chair and Dept. of Endocrinology, Jagiellonian University, Collegium Medicum, following the example of the International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD) in Charlottesville, USA. The PCCIDD co-operates with the European Co-ordinating Centre in Pisa, Italy. The PCCIDD comprises a group of experts in endocrinology, iodine prophylaxis, the technology of salt and food iodisation, and Polish representatives of several organisations: WHO, UNICEF, the Polish Consumers Federation, and the Spokesman for Children's Rights. The strategic goal of the Polish Council is to solve the problem of iodine deficiency in Poland realising the Programme for Elimination of Iodine Deficiency financed by the Ministry of Health. The Polish model of iodine prophylaxis contains obligatory iodisation of household salt (20-40 mg KI/1 kg) and neonates' formula (10 μg/100 mL of milk), and additional supplementation for pregnant and breastfeeding women with 150-200 μg of iodine as pharmacotherapy. The model is very effective: endemic goitre in schoolchildren has been eradicated, the prevalence of goitre in pregnant women has fallen from 80% to 19%, the frequency of transient hypothyroidism in neonates has dropped from 2.0% to 0.16%, and the observed increase of incidence rate of thyroid cancer in women over 40 years old has diminished markedly. In 2008, a WHO Collaborating Centre (WHOCC) for Nutrition was designated at the Department of Endocrinology, UJCM in Krakow. The main goal of the WHOCC is to sustain effective iodine prophylaxis in Poland in the light of the latest WHO recommendations on the necessary reduction of daily salt intake as a risk factor for hypertension and arteriosclerosis. Therefore, additional standardised carriers of iodine (milk, mineral water) have been introduced into the food market.

  18. [Iodinated contrast media and iodine allergy: myth or reality?].

    PubMed

    Meunier, B; Joskin, J; Damas, F; Meunier, P

    2013-09-01

    The term "iodine allergy" is an old phrase that refers to a reaction to iodinated contrast media. After a brief review of definitions, pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors of this clinical entity, management is urged immediate and delayed according to the most recent recommendations from the literature. We underline that iodine allergy, as such, does not really exist.

  19. Development of Standard Reference Materials to support assessment of iodine status for nutritional and public health purposes.

    PubMed

    Long, Stephen E; Catron, Brittany L; Boggs, Ashley Sp; Tai, Susan Sc; Wise, Stephen A

    2016-09-01

    The use of urinary iodine as an indicator of iodine status relies in part on the accuracy of the analytical measurement of iodine in urine. Likewise, the use of dietary iodine intake as an indicator of iodine status relies in part on the accuracy of the analytical measurement of iodine in dietary sources, including foods and dietary supplements. Similarly, the use of specific serum biomarkers of thyroid function to screen for both iodine deficiency and iodine excess relies in part on the accuracy of the analytical measurement of those biomarkers. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has been working with the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements for several years to develop higher-order reference measurement procedures and Standard Reference Materials to support the validation of new routine analytical methods for iodine in foods and dietary supplements, for urinary iodine, and for several serum biomarkers of thyroid function including thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin, total and free thyroxine, and total and free triiodothyronine. These materials and methods have the potential to improve the assessment of iodine status and thyroid function in observational studies and clinical trials, thereby promoting public health efforts related to iodine nutrition.

  20. Iodine deficiency disorders in Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Delange, F.; Bürgi, H.

    1989-01-01

    Recent data on iodine excretion in the urine of adults, adolescents and newborns and on the iodine content of breast milk indicate a high prevalence of iodine deficiency (moderate in many cases and severe in a few) in many European countries. These cases may manifest as subclinical hypothyroidism in neonates and as goitre in adolescents and adults. Lack of iodine causes not only goitre, but also mental deficiency, hearing loss and other neurological impairments, and short stature due to thyroid insufficiency during fetal development and childhood. Although iodinated salt is available theoretically in most countries where it is needed, its quality and share of the market are often unsatisfactory. In many countries where only household salt is iodinated the iodine content has been set too low owing to an overestimation of household salt consumption. Governments are therefore urged to pass legislation and provide means for efficient iodination of salt wherever this is necessary. PMID:2670299

  1. Volatilization of iodine from vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiro, B. D.; Johnston, F. L.

    Gaseous emissions of iodine were measured from bean plant foliage. A gamma-emitting iodine tracer, Na 125I, was taken up by the plants from a hydroponic growth medium and released to a cuvette atmosphere. The dynamics of the flux were studied using a flow-through gamma detector. The relationship between leaf radioactive tracer activity and growth-medium activity was linear, as was the relationship between the iodine flux and both leaf and growth-medium activity. Iodine flux and leaf conductance to water responded similarly to changes in light levels, suggesting that the stomata may partially control the flux. The flux was inhibited by aeration of the hydroponic growth medium, and we postulate that methylation causes the iodine flux. Iodine emissions from living vegetation probably contribute <0.1 % to the stable iodine concentration in the atmosphere above terrestrial areas. However, this pathway may be a direct route for radioactive iodine transport from contaminated soils to the atmosphere.

  2. [Solution of Iodine deficiency in the Czech Republic - history and current situation20 years of work of prof. Václav Zamrazil for Commission for the solution of Iodine deficiency].

    PubMed

    Ryšavá, Lydie; Kříž, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Diseases caused by Iodine deficit are preventable. Inter resort Commission for the solution of Iodine deficiency (MKJD) at State Institute for Health (SZU) in Prague has been taking effective measures which satisfied requirements of the Principles for sustainable elimination of diseases caused by Iodine deficiency ICCD WHO: 96 % of households is using iodized salt, average Iodine content is 25 mg/1 kg of salt. Data from studies show ioduria less 100 mcg/l in only 9 per cent of seniors, 5 % of children 7-10 years, 3 % of children 10-12 years. Under 50 mcg only 1 % of children 10-12 years. Median of iodurias is below 300 mcg/l (seniors 185 mcg/l, children 7-10 years 277 mcg/l, children 10-12 years 252 mcg/l). We satisfy 8 of 10 indicators of Principles for Sustainable elimination of diseases caused by Iodine deficiency. Results of screening for congenital hypothyroidism are in keeping with sufficient iodine intake in newborns. Unsatisfactory situation however persist in expectant and breast feeding mothers 16 % [11] 6 % [10] of women included in the respective studies had ioduria below 50 mpg/l. Milk and dairy produce became a rich dietary source of Iodine as cattle feeds are fortified with Iodine. No part of observed human population is exposed Iodine doses higher than 17 mcg/kg. Next target for prevention will be achieving optimal iodine concentration in milk and improvement of iodine saturation of expectant and nursing mothers. Integral part is the monitoring of iodine saturation of population.Key words: dietary exposition - dietary sources of iodine - Inter resort commission for elimination of iodine deficit - iodine deficiency - iodine supply - iodized salt - ioduria.

  3. Aqueous chemistry of iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, L.M.; Pannell, K.D.; Kirkland, O.L.

    1984-01-01

    The chemistry of iodine has been examined in aqueous solutions of pH 6 to 10 containing 2500 ppM boron as H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ at temperatures up to 150/sup 0/C using absorption spectrophotometry to identify and monitor the iodine species present. Kinetic rate constants for the disproportionation of the HOI intermediate, 3HOI= IO/sub 3//sup -/ + 2I/sup -/ + 3H/sup +/, have been measured as a function of pH even though no direct spectral evidence for HOI itself has been observed. An HOI partition coefficient >10/sup 4/ has been estimated; results of ionic strength tests are consistent with HOI being present as an uncharged triatomic species in solution. Redox and radiation effects on the aqueous iodine chemistry have also been described. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  5. Effect of dietary iodine on production of iodine enriched eggs

    PubMed Central

    Sumaiya, Shaikh; Nayak, Sunil; Baghel, R. P. S.; Nayak, Anju; Malapure, C. D.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of iodine supplementation on iodine content of eggs in laying hens. Materials and Methods: In the experiment, 135 laying hens (White Leghorn) of 55 weeks age were randomly distributed to 5 dietary treatments; each group contained 27 laying hens distributed in three replicates of 9 birds each. Diet T1 was control basal layer diet without iodine enrichment in which iodine content (I2) was as per NRC recommendation. Basal diets were supplemented with calcium iodate (Ca (IO3)2) at 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/kg in T2, T3, T4 and T5 groups, respectively. The iodine content in the calcium iodate is 65.21%, therefore, the diets T2, T3, T4 and T5 contained 3.25, 6.50, 9.75 and 13.0 ppm iodine, respectively. The laying hens were fed the respective experimental diets ad libitum during the experimental period of 10-week. The iodine content of egg yolk and albumen was analyzed at the end of 5th and 10th week of the experiment. Economics of feeding for the production of iodine enriched egg was calculated at the end of the experiment. Results: Increasing iodine levels in diet of hens from 0.45 to 13.0 ppm significantly increased egg iodine concentration, the highest concentration of egg iodine was observed in the group fed diet supplemented with 13.0 ppm iodine followed by those fed 9.75, 6.50, 3.25 and 0.45 ppm iodine in diet. There was no significant difference in the iodine levels of unboiled versus boiled eggs. Therefore, the consumers are ensured to receive the optimal levels of iodine from boiled iodine-enriched eggs. Among different diets, minimum and significantly lower feeding cost (Rs. per dozen or per kg eggs) was noticed in hens allotted T3 diet (6.50 ppm I2). However, feeding cost of hens receiving 3.25 and 9.25 ppm I2 was statistically (p<0.05) similar to control group (T1). Further, it was noticed that feeding cost (Rs. per dozen or per kg eggs) was significantly increased due to the inclusion

  6. [Dietary reference intakes of phosphorus].

    PubMed

    Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) exists at the all organs and plays important physiological roles in the body. A wide range of food contains P, which is absorbed at a higher level (60-70%) and its insufficiency and deficiency are rarely found. P is used as food additives in many processed food, where risk of overconsumption could be an issue. P has less evidence in terms of nutrition. P has the adequate intake and the tolerable upper intake level, for risk reduction of health disorders associated with excess intake, at the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2010 edition).

  7. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    MedlinePlus

    ... like particles and fall to the ground. from nuclear weapons or reactor accidents can occur in particle form, which can be ingested in food or water. I-131 is often used to treat ... used in nuclear medicine. External exposure to large amounts of iodine ...

  8. Iodine in raw and pasteurized milk of dairy cows fed different amounts of potassium iodide.

    PubMed

    Norouzian, M A

    2011-02-01

    Relation between iodine (I) intake by lactating Holstein cows and iodine concentrations in raw and pasteurized milk were investigated. Four treatment groups with eight cows assigned to each treatment were fed a basal diet containing 0.534 mg I/kg alone or supplemented with potassium iodide at 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg in 7-week period. Iodine concentrations in raw milk increased with each increase in dietary I from 162.2 ng/ml for basal diet to 534.5, 559.8 and 607.5 ng/ml when 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/kg was fed as potassium iodide (P < 0.05). This trend was found for blood plasma and urine iodine concentration. Iodine supplementation had no significant effect on thyroidal hormones. high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization process reduced I concentration. The mean iodine content found in the milk prior to heating processing was 466.0 ± 205.0 ng/ml, whereas for the processed milk this level was 349.5 ± 172.8 ng/ml. It was concluded that iodine supplementation above of NRC recommendation (0.5 mg/kg diet DM) resulted in significant increases in iodine concentrations in milk, although the effect of heating in HTST pasteurization process on iodine concentration was not negligible.

  9. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  10. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  11. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6-9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study.

    PubMed

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-12-18

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6-9 years) in 2013-2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children's dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson's chi-square and Student's t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies.

  12. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6–9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6–9 years) in 2013–2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children’s dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson’s chi-square and Student’s t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443

  13. Iodine Status of New Zealand Elderly Residents in Long-Term Residential Care

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jody C.; MacDonell, Sue O.; Gray, Andrew R.; Reid, Malcolm R.; Barr, David J.; Thomson, Christine D.; Houghton, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    In response to the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in New Zealand, in 2009 the government mandated that all commercially made breads be fortified with iodized salt. There has been no evaluation of the impact of the program on iodine status of the elderly, despite this population group being vulnerable to iodine deficiency or excess. The aim of this study was to describe the iodine status of elderly New Zealanders in residential aged-care homes following the implementation of the bread fortification program. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, involving 309 residents (median age 85 years) from 16 aged-care homes throughout NZ. Information on socio-demographic, anthropometric, dietary and health characteristics were collected. Casual spot urine samples were analysed for urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Blood samples were analysed for serum thyroglobulin, thyroglobulin antibodies, and other biochemical indices. The median UIC (MUIC) of the residents was 72 μg/L, indicating mild iodine deficiency, and 29% had a UIC < 50 μg/L. Median thyroglobulin concentration was 18 ng/mL and 26% had elevated thyroglobulin concentration (>40 ng/mL), suggesting iodine insufficiency. Diuretic use was associated with lower MUIC (p = 0.043). Synthetic thyroxine use was associated with lower odds of having a UIC < 50 μg/L (OR 0.32, p = 0.030)) and lower median thyroglobulin (−15.2 ng/mL, p = 0.001), compared with untreated participants. Frailty was associated with elevated thyroglobulin (p = 0.029), whereas anemia was associated with lower thyroglobulin (p = 0.016). Iodine insufficiency persists in New Zealanders residing in residential aged-care homes despite increasing iodine intake from fortified bread. Research is required to establish optimal iodine intake and status in the elderly. PMID:27455319

  14. Genetic and non-iodine-related factors in the aetiology of nodular goitre.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Nils; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2014-08-01

    Genetic and a large number of environmental non-iodine-related factors play a role in the cause of nodular goitre. Most evidence for the influence of genetic and environmental factors in the cause of goitre is from cross-sectional, population-based studies. Only a few studies have included prospective data on risk factors for nodular goitre, although few prospective data are available on the effect of iodine and tobacco smoking on goitre development. Goitre is not one single phenotype. Many epidemiological studies do not distinguish diffuse from nodular goitre, as the investigated parameter is often thyroid volume or frequency with increased thyroid volume. Moreover, information on the presence and effect of gene-environment, gene-gene, and environment-environment effect modifications is limited. Thus, firm conclusions about the relative contributions and causality of the investigated risk factors should be made with caution. Smoking seems to be an established risk factor for nodular goitre, possibly with effect modification from iodine intake, as the risk associated with smoking is smaller or absent in areas with sufficient iodine intake. The use of oral contraceptives might have protective effects against goitre, and childbirth is an increased risk factor for goitre in areas with non-optimal iodine intake. Insulin resistance is a recently investigated risk factor, and the risk of goitre may be reversible with metformin treatment. Iodine remains the major environmental risk factor for nodular goitre.

  15. Iodine addition using triiodide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Muckle, Susan V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    The study develops: a triiodide solution for use in preparing ground service equipment (GSE) water for Shuttle support, an iodine dissolution method that is reliable and requires minimal time and effort to prepare, and an iodine dissolution agent with a minimal concentration of sodium salt. Sodium iodide and hydriodic acid were both found to dissolve iodine to attain the desired GSE iodine concentrations of 7.5 +/- 2.5 mg/L and 25 +/- 5 mg/L. The 1.75:1 and 2:1 sodium iodide solutions produced higher iodine recoveries than the 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution. A two-hour preparation time is required for the three sodium iodide solutions. The 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution can be prepared in less than 5 min. Two sodium iodide stock solutions (2.5:1 and 2:1) were found to dissolve iodine without undergoing precipitation.

  16. Evaluation of iodine concentration in potable water and selected food specimens from moderate endemic goiter area in Poland.

    PubMed

    Hołyńska, B; Ostachowicz, B; Ostachowicz, J; Szybiński, Z

    1993-01-01

    Simple and specific methods for iodide determination in potable water and total iodine in selected food products by means of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) has been worked out. The methods were applied for the determination of iodine in 83 samples of water from different water intakes in the region of Southern Poland. In over 70 per cent of analysed samples the iodide concentration was below 3 micrograms/dm3. Iodine was also determined in several egg yolks, which were freeze dried before measurements. The eggs were taken from small village farms. The iodine content in particular yolks was between 4 micrograms to 20 micrograms. Only few samples of natural milk were analysed. Iodine concentration in lyophilized milk was at detectability limit i.e. about 0.5 microgram/g lyophilized milk. The region of South-Eastern Poland is characterized by low concentration of iodine in potable water and food.

  17. [A project of the Ministry of Health for iodine prophylaxis in Italy: Salt in food for the prophylaxis of iodine deficiency and the prevention of hypertension].

    PubMed

    Marabelli, R; Guidarelli, L; Copparoni, R

    1998-01-01

    A main goal to achieve in order to reduce the incidence of wrong nutritional habit associated diseases, according to the engagement taken on the FAO/WHO International Conference on Nutrition 1992 is the eradication of the endemic goitre and other iodine deficiency disorders. Iodine nutritional lack is, in Italy, a heavy public health problem; above 10% of population (about 5 million) has to bear thyroid troubles and in many of the Italian regions such a kind of pathology may involve more than 20% of scholastic population. All these disorders could be completely eradicated by means of a continuous and generalized iodine prophylaxis, as it has already been verified in several European countries. The most effective way to ensure the correct daily intake of iodine is the substitution of the usual cooking salt by iodine enriched salt; salt is in fact eaten by everybody at daily rates ungoverned by economical factors as it is a low cost product. Due to the heavy social relevance of this problem, an educational campaign is going on, from the Italian Ministry of Health "Salt in food for iodine deficiency disorder prophylaxis and hypertension prevention". The purpose is to achieve, by means of a unique message based on salt, a double goal in terms of public health: eradicating endemic goitre and preventing hypertension (reducing the salt global intake to less than 6 g/day).

  18. Consequences of bacterial resistance to disinfection by iodine in potable water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfeters, Gordon A.; Pyle, Barry H.

    1987-01-01

    This study was done to quantify the sensitivity of bacteria to iodine under controlled laboratory conditions. When exposed to 1 mg/1 I2 for 1 min, bacteria isolated from the Shuttle were more resistant than a P. aeruginosa isolated from a povidine-iodine solution. Cultures grown in rich media were more sensitive than those grown in low nutrient solutions. The P. aeruginosa and a P. cepacia isolated from the Shuttle were resuspended in PBW after exposure to iodine. Iodinated cells recovered better than uniodinated controls. Pseudomonads in biofilms developed on coupons of stainless steel were more resistant to iodine than cells suspended in buffered water. Although resistant bacteria may colonize spacecraft water systems, multiple treatment barriers should provide adequate control of these contaminants.

  19. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  20. Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy for Hyperthyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Radioiodine therapy is a nuclear ... thyroid cancer. When a small dose of radioactive iodine I-131 (an isotope of iodine that emits ...

  1. [Characteristics of hypothyroidism correction and lipid metabolism disorder in iodine deficiency].

    PubMed

    Voronych-Semchenko, N M

    2007-01-01

    The serum biochemical indexes (level of triiodthyronine, thyroxin, thyrothropic hormone of adenohypophysis, level of cholesterol, triglycerides) and the level of iodine excretion with urine in rats with hypothyrosis corrected by "Iodid-100" and along with excessive intake of chlorine and fluorine ions into the organism had been studied. It has been revealed that hypothyrosis has negative influence on lipid metabolism indexes. "Iodid- 100" usage stabilized hormonal and lipid status. Excessive intake of chlorine and fluorine ions by the organism decreased the effectiveness of iodine containing drugs.

  2. A summary of the iodine supplementation study protocol (I2S2): a UK multicentre randomised controlled trial in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Williams, Fiona; Hume, Robert; Ogston, Simon; Brocklehurst, Peter; Morgan, Kayleigh; Juszczak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarises the study protocol for the randomised controlled trial of iodine supplementation in preterm infants. Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroxine, and thyroxine is essential for normal brain development in utero and for the first 2-3 years of life. The recommended iodine intake in parenteral nutrition regimens is 1 μg/kg/day and commercially available parenteral solutions for infants reflect these recommendations. In the absence of other iodine sources, infants are vulnerable to negative iodine balance and insufficiency. As many preterm infants are fed parenterally for prolonged periods with solutions which have been shown to be iodine-deficient, the I2S2 Trial was designed to establish whether iodine supplementation of preterm infants benefits neurodevelopment.

  3. Prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders among school children in Saudi Arabia: results of a national iodine nutrition study.

    PubMed

    Al-Dakheel, M H; Haridi, H K; Al-Bashir, B M; Al-Shingiti, A; Al-Shehri, S; Gassem, M A; Hussein, I

    2016-08-18

    This study aimed at establishing updated data on iodine nutrition among schoolchildren in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional cluster survey among schoolchildren aged 8-10 years was conducted during February-April 2012. Children were clinically examined for goitre, urine and household salt samples were collected to estimate urinary iodine concenteration (UIC) and iodine content in salt. The overall goitre prevalence at the national level among 4 016 children was 4.2%. The prevalence was < 5% in all regions of the country except southern region with a prevalence of 12.7%. The median UIC of 2224 samples was 133 μg/L, with 74.3% of the surveyed children with UIC ≥ 100 μg/L. Analysis of salt samples (n = 4242) revealed that 69.8% of households were consuming adequately iodized salt. The findings suggest iodine sufficiency at the national level, however southern region still has a goitre prevalence of mild degree severity and the proportion of households consuming adequately iodized salt is still below recommendations.

  4. 5 CFR 919.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate evidence. 919.900 Section 919.900 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.900 Adequate...

  5. Iodine-Catalyzed Polysaccharide Esterification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review is provided of the recent reports to use iodine-catalyzed esterification reaction to produce esters from polysaccharides. The process entails reaction of the polysaccharide with an acid anhydride in the presence of a catalytic level of iodine, and in the absence of additional solvents. T...

  6. Hypothyroidism following iodine-131 therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, M.T.

    1982-02-01

    A teaching editorial dealing with the hypothyroidism side effect of Iodine-131 radiotherapy is presented. The author reviews two articles in this issue of the Journal of Nuclear Medicine on the subject, discusses Graves' disease, Iodine 125 radiotherapy, and the patient-physician relationship when dealing with the problem. (JMT)

  7. Prevalence of goitre and urinary iodine status of primary-school children in Lesotho.

    PubMed Central

    Sebotsa, Masekonyela Linono Damane; Dannhauser, Andre; Jooste, Pieter L.; Joubert, Gina

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of goitre, urinary iodine status, coverage of supplementation of iodized oil capsules, and current use of iodized salt in children in Lesotho. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of children from 50 primary schools in Lesotho. Thyroid glands of children aged 8-12 years were measured by palpation and graded according to the WHO, UNICEF, and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency's (ICCIDD) joint criteria. The use of iodized oil capsules was determined by a structured questionnaire and verified with the children's health booklets. Iodine content of household salt samples was analysed. Casual urine samples were analysed for urinary iodine. FINDINGS: Median urinary iodine concentrations of 26.3 microg/l (range 22.3-47.9 microg/l) indicated moderate iodine deficiency. More children in the mountains than in the lowlands were severely iodine deficient (17.7% vs 1.9%). Adjusted prevalence of goitre (4.9%) increased with age, was higher in girls than boys, and ranged from 2.2% to 8.8% in the different districts; this indicated no public health problem. Overall, 94.4% of salt samples were iodized, and coverage of supplementation with iodized oil capsules was 55.1%. CONCLUSION: Mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency exists in Lesotho. Iodine deficiency was more severe in the mountains than the lowlands and is still a concern for public health. Use of iodized salt coupled with iodized oil supplementation effectively controls iodine deficiency disorders. Effective monitoring programmes would ensure the use of adequately iodized salt throughout Lesotho and serve to evaluate progress towards optimal iodine nutrition. Iodized oil capsule supplementation should continue in the mountains. PMID:12640473

  8. Dietary Iodine Sufficiency and Moderate Insufficiency in the Lactating Mother and Nursing Infant: A Computational Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, W.; Wang, Jian; George, Nysia I.; Gearhart, Jeffery M.; McLanahan, Eva D.

    2016-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends that lactating women ingest 290 μg iodide/d and a nursing infant, less than two years of age, 110 μg/d. The World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund, and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders recommend population maternal and infant urinary iodide concentrations ≥ 100 μg/L to ensure iodide sufficiency. For breast milk, researchers have proposed an iodide concentration range of 150–180 μg/L indicates iodide sufficiency for the mother and infant, however no national or international guidelines exist for breast milk iodine concentration. For the first time, a lactating woman and nursing infant biologically based model, from delivery to 90 days postpartum, was constructed to predict maternal and infant urinary iodide concentration, breast milk iodide concentration, the amount of iodide transferred in breast milk to the nursing infant each day and maternal and infant serum thyroid hormone kinetics. The maternal and infant models each consisted of three sub-models, iodide, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). Using our model to simulate a maternal intake of 290 μg iodide/d, the average daily amount of iodide ingested by the nursing infant, after 4 days of life, gradually increased from 50 to 101 μg/day over 90 days postpartum. The predicted average lactating mother and infant urinary iodide concentrations were both in excess of 100 μg/L and the predicted average breast milk iodide concentration, 157 μg/L. The predicted serum thyroid hormones (T4, free T4 (fT4), and T3) in both the nursing infant and lactating mother were indicative of euthyroidism. The model was calibrated using serum thyroid hormone concentrations for lactating women from the United States and was successful in predicting serum T4 and fT4 levels (within a factor of two) for lactating women in other countries. T3 levels were adequately predicted. Infant serum thyroid hormone levels were adequately

  9. Dietary Iodine Sufficiency and Moderate Insufficiency in the Lactating Mother and Nursing Infant: A Computational Perspective.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W; Wang, Jian; George, Nysia I; Gearhart, Jeffery M; McLanahan, Eva D

    2016-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends that lactating women ingest 290 μg iodide/d and a nursing infant, less than two years of age, 110 μg/d. The World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders recommend population maternal and infant urinary iodide concentrations ≥ 100 μg/L to ensure iodide sufficiency. For breast milk, researchers have proposed an iodide concentration range of 150-180 μg/L indicates iodide sufficiency for the mother and infant, however no national or international guidelines exist for breast milk iodine concentration. For the first time, a lactating woman and nursing infant biologically based model, from delivery to 90 days postpartum, was constructed to predict maternal and infant urinary iodide concentration, breast milk iodide concentration, the amount of iodide transferred in breast milk to the nursing infant each day and maternal and infant serum thyroid hormone kinetics. The maternal and infant models each consisted of three sub-models, iodide, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). Using our model to simulate a maternal intake of 290 μg iodide/d, the average daily amount of iodide ingested by the nursing infant, after 4 days of life, gradually increased from 50 to 101 μg/day over 90 days postpartum. The predicted average lactating mother and infant urinary iodide concentrations were both in excess of 100 μg/L and the predicted average breast milk iodide concentration, 157 μg/L. The predicted serum thyroid hormones (T4, free T4 (fT4), and T3) in both the nursing infant and lactating mother were indicative of euthyroidism. The model was calibrated using serum thyroid hormone concentrations for lactating women from the United States and was successful in predicting serum T4 and fT4 levels (within a factor of two) for lactating women in other countries. T3 levels were adequately predicted. Infant serum thyroid hormone levels were adequately

  10. Estimated protein intakes of toddlers: predicted prevalence of inadequate intakes in village populations in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Beaton, G H; Calloway, D H; Murphy, S P

    1992-04-01

    This paper presents a probability assessment of the adequacy of protein intakes of toddlers (aged 18-30 mo) in study communities in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico judged in relation to FAO/WHO/UNU estimates of requirements. Effects of supplementing amino acid intakes, or of assuming lower bioavailability for lysine are also considered. In Egypt and Mexico existing protein intakes of toddlers were adequate. In Kenya existing intakes were marginal. Total protein intake was low and often lysine or tryptophan concentration was low. If Kenyan intakes met estimated energy requirements, protein intakes would be adequate. We conclude that protein intake is unlikely to be a primary limiting factor for toddler growth and development, and the benefit to be expected from increasing the intake of limiting amino acids is marginal. Reported associations of animal-source protein and energy with growth, size, and psychologic function of these toddlers are unlikely to be causally attributable to inadequacy of protein intakes.

  11. Low Urinary Iodine Concentrations Associated with Dyslipidemia in US Adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-03-17

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormone which plays crucial roles in healthy thyroid function and lipid metabolism. However, the association between iodine status and dyslipidemia has not been well established at a population level. We aimed to test the hypothesis that the odds of dyslipidemia including elevated total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein B, and lowered high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and HDL/LDL ratio are associated with urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in a population perspective. Data of 2495 US adults (≥20 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2012 were used in this study. Two subgroups (i.e., UIC below vs. above the 10th percentile) were compared of dyslipidemia as defined based on NCEP ATP III guidelines. The differences between the groups were tested statistically by chi-square test, simple linear regressions, and multiple logistic regressions. Serum lipid concentrations differed significantly between two iodine status groups when sociodemographic and lifestyle covariates were controlled (all, p < 0.05). Those with the lowest decile of UIC were more likely to be at risk for elevated total cholesterol (>200 mg/dL) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-2.23) and elevated LDL cholesterol (>130 mg/dL) (AOR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.11-2.23) and lowered HDL/LDL ratio (<0.4) (AOR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.18-2.33), compared to those with UIC above the 10th percentile. In US adults, low UIC was associated with increased odds for dyslipidemia. Findings of the present cross-sectional study with spot urine samples highlight the significant association between UIC and serum lipids at population level, but do not substantiate a causal relationship. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the causal relationship among iodine intakes, iodine status, and serum lipid profiles.

  12. Trace nutrients. 4. Iodine in British food.

    PubMed

    Wenlock, R W; Buss, D H; Moxon, R E; Bunton, N G

    1982-05-01

    1. The amounts of iodine in nationally representative samples of prepared and cooked groups of foods and in a wide variety of individual foods and food products were determined colorimetrically. The amounts of erythrosine, a red food colour containing 577 mg I/g were also determined in selected foods and diets by high-performance liquid chromatography. 2. The average British diet was calculated to provide 323 micrograms I/d but only 255 micrograms if two fruit samples containing large amounts of glacé cherries were discounted. Of the total, 92 micrograms was derived from liquid milk. Meat and meat products provided 36 micrograms and cereal products 31 micrograms, but fresh fruits and sugars, vegetables and beverages provided little I. Fish and fish products, though rich in I, contributed only 5% to the total intake. 3. Milk was the most variable as well as the most important individual source of I. Summer milk samples contained 70 micrograms/kg and winter milk 370 micrograms/kg on average. Milk products, including butter and cheese, and eggs were also rich in I. 4. Some processed foods contained erythrosine, particularly glacé cherries and some pink or red confectionery items, biscuits, cherry cake, canned strawberries and luncheon meat. However, none of these are major foods in the average household diet and erythrosine would therefore contribute little more than 10 micrograms I/d to most diets. 5. The average daily intake of I was lower than in similar similar studies in the USA, but was twice the provisional UK recommended intake. This study provides no evidence that I intakes in the UK could be too low or too high for health.U

  13. Assessment of Breast Milk Iodine Concentrations in Lactating Women in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, Anita; O’Leary, Peter; James, Ian; Skeaff, Sheila; Sherriff, Jillian

    2016-01-01

    Breast-fed infants may depend solely on an adequate supply of iodine in breast milk for the synthesis of thyroid hormones which are essential for optimal growth and cognitive development. This is the first study to measure breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) among lactating women in Western Australian (n = 55). Breast milk samples were collected between 2014 and 2015 at a mean (±SD) of 38.5 (±5.5) days post-partum. The samples were analysed to determine median BMIC and the percentage of samples with a BMIC < 100 µg/L, a level considered adequate for breast-fed infants. The influence of (a) iodine-containing supplements and iodised salt use and (b) consumption of key iodine-containing foods on BMIC was also examined. The median (p25, p75) BMIC was 167 (99, 248) µg/L and 26% of samples had a BMIC < 100 µg/L. Overall, BMIC tended to be higher with iodine-containing supplement usage (ratio 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.04, 1.70), p = 0.030), cow’s milk consumption (ratio 1.66, 95% CI (1.23, 2.23), p = 0.002) and lower for Caucasians (ratio 0.61, 95% CI (0.45, 0.83), p = 0.002), and those with secondary school only education (ratio 0.66, 95% CI (0.46, 0.96), p = 0.030). For most women, BMIC was adequate to meet the iodine requirements of their breast-fed infants. However, some women may require the use of iodine-containing supplements or iodised salt to increase BMIC to adequate levels for optimal infant nutrition. PMID:27827913

  14. Capture of Aerosols by Iodinated Fiber Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    iodine. While iodine is an excellent antimicrobial agent, overexposure to iodine can cause adverse health effects . The National Research Council...recommends that exposure to iodine not exceed 150 micrograms per day (Rtg/day) (ASTDR, 2003). The major health effect of concern with excess iodine exposure by...of biological weaponry, methods for effective capture and neutralization of airborne microorganisms are of great interest. A new technology has been

  15. Breast-Milk Iodine Concentrations, Iodine Status, and Thyroid Function of Breastfed Infants Aged 2-4 Months and Their Mothers Residing in a South African Township

    PubMed Central

    Osei, Jennifer; Andersson, Maria; van der Reijden, Olivia; Dold, Susanne; Smuts, Cornelius M.; Baumgartner, Jeannine

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Lactating women and their infants are susceptible to iodine deficiency and iodine excess. In South Africa, no data exist on the iodine status and thyroid function of these vulnerable groups. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, urinary iodine concentrations (UIC), thyroid function, and breast-milk iodine concentrations (BMIC) were assessed in 100 lactating women from a South African township and their 2-4-month-old breastfed infants. Potential predictors of UIC, thyroid function, and BMIC, including household salt iodine concentrations (SIC) and maternal sodium excretion, were also investigated. Results: The median (25th-75th percentile) UIC was 373 (202-627) μg/L in infants and 118 (67-179) μg/L in mothers. Median household SIC was 44 (27-63) ppm. Household SIC and maternal urinary sodium excretion predicted UIC of lactating mothers. Median BMIC was 179 (126-269) μg/L. Age of infants, SIC, and maternal UIC predicted BMIC. In turn, infant age and BMIC predicted UIC of infants. Forty-two percent of SIC values were within the South African recommended salt iodine fortification level at production of 35-65 ppm, whilst 21% of SIC were >65 ppm. Thyroid-stimulating hormone, total thyroxine, and thyroglobulin concentrations in the dried whole blood spot specimens from the infants were 1.3 (0.8-1.9) mU/L, 128±33 mmol/L, and 77.1 (56.3-105.7) μg/L, respectively, and did not correlate with infant UIC or BMIC. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the salt fortification program in South Africa provides adequate iodine to lactating women and indirectly to their infants via breast milk. However, monitoring of salt iodine content of the mandatory salt iodization program in South Africa is important to avoid over-iodization of salt. PMID:27217155

  16. [Iodine content of cattle milk from mountain and coast from Perú].

    PubMed

    Cárdenas Quintana, Haydeé; Gómez Bravo, Carlos; Pretell, Eduardo A

    2003-12-01

    With the objective to establish the cause-effect relationship between a geological area and the iodine content in cattle milk, and to estimate the contribution of milk consumption to the dietary iodine intake, the iodine content in cattle milk from the sierra and the coastal regions of Perú was determined. Milk samples were collected of cows from the three main productive zones of Perú, 62 in Cajamarca, 42 in Arequipa, both in the sierra, and 27 in Lima at the coast. The measurement of iodine was made by the method of Zak, based on the Sandell- Kolthoff reaction. The median values obtained were 24 microg/L in Cajamarca, 34 microg/L in Arequipa, and 170 microg/L in Lima. The median value in the sierra, 26 microg/L, was significantly lower than the one found in the coast. Moreover, while in the former 81% of individual values were below 50 microg/L, in the latter, on the contrary, 77% were above 80 microg/L. These results confirm that the iodine content in cattle milk is related to ecological factors. At the same time, they demonstrate that the iodine content in milk from the sierra is six times lower than in milk from the coast, and also that its consumption does not contribute significantly to satisfy the human physiological requirements of iodine in that zone.

  17. Improving iodine nutritional status and increasing prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in children

    PubMed Central

    Palaniappan, Srinivasan; Shanmughavelu, Lakshmi; Prasad, Hemchand K.; Subramaniam, Sundari; Krishnamoorthy, Nedunchezian; Lakkappa, Lakshmi

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the link between excess iodine intake as evidenced by increased urinary iodine excretion (UIE) and autoimmune thyroiditis in children and to assess the correlation between UIE and thyroid microsomal antibody (thyroid peroxidase [TPO]) titers in children. Materials and Methods: All children with goiter between age group 6 and 12 years, were subjected to blood tests for free thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, and TPO antibody, fine needle aspiration was advised for all children with goiter. Forty-three children with confirmed autoimmune thyroiditis served as cases, and 43 children with euthyroid goiter with workup negative for autoimmune thyroiditis and iodine deficiency were enrolled as controls. UIE was estimated in spot urine sample for both cases and controls. The levels of urinary iodine were compared between cases and controls. Results: The levels of urinary iodine were significantly higher in children with autoimmune thyroiditis as compared with control. There was a positive correlation between UIE and antimicrosomal antibody titers among cases. Among cases 65% children had subclinical hypothyroidism, 27.9% had overt hypothyroidism and 7% of cases, and 100% of controls had euthyroid functional status. Excessive (≥300 μg/L) UIE was strongly associated with autoimmune thyroiditis. If the UIE level is ≥ 300 μg/L, then there is 17.94 times higher chance of having amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis than those who have UIE level < 300 μg/L (P < 0.001). Conclusions: A possible association between increased iodine intake and autoimmune thyroiditis was found in this study. Excessive iodine intake may trigger thyroid autoimmunity and eventually thyroid hypofunction. PMID:28217504

  18. Deep Bed Iodine Sorbent Testing FY 2011 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2011-08-01

    with pure N2 to drive loosely or physisorbed iodine species off of the sorbent. Post-test calculations determine the control efficiencies for each bed, iodine loadings on the sorbent, and mass transfer zone depths. Portions of the iodine-laden sorbent from the first bed of two of the tests have been shipped to SNL for waste form studies. Over the past three years, we have explored a full range of inlet iodine and methyl iodide concentrations ranging from {approx}100 ppb to {approx}100 ppm levels, and shown adequate control efficiencies within a bed depth as shallow as 2 inches for lower concentrations and 4 inches for higher concentrations, for the AgZ-type sorbents. We are now performing a limited number of tests in the NC-77 sorbent from SNL. Then we plan to continue to (a) fill in data gaps needed for isotherms and dynamic sorbent modeling, and (b) test the performance of additional sorbents under development.

  19. Studies in iodine metabolism. Progress report and publications, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Van Middlesworth, L

    1980-01-01

    Research programs for the years 1978-1980 is reported. The following subject areas are discussed: (1) iodine 131 monitoring in thyroids of sheep, cattle and humans; (2) radium monitoring in cattle thyroids; (3) the relationship of thyroid function to seizures in rats; (4) the effect of KSCN on thyroglobulin in mice; and (5) studies on excessive iodide intake. (ACR)

  20. [An approach to a sanitary and social problem: urinary iodine excretion in pregnant women from a iodine deficient region].

    PubMed

    Olivares, Jorge L; Ortiz, Valeria A; Mayer, Marcos; Demaria, Cecilia I; Nancucheo, Ester; Cresto, Juan C

    2009-12-01

    The urinary iodine excretion (UIE) assay is an effective method to detect reduced iodine intake. UIE was measured in two different samples (morning and evening) from 121 pregnant women, with a turbid-metric method modified by Pino (normal value =150 ugl/1). Furthermore, thyroid function was evaluated in pregnant women with UIE <100 ug/l. From 121 pregnant women, the UIE was normal in 75 with similar morning and evening samples (morning: 305.2 +/- 7.0; evening: 319.2 +/- 8.8; p: NS). The UIE did no showed differences in different trimesters and in morning and evening samples. The UIE was low in 46 women (36.9%), without significant differences between morning and evening (morning: 88.12 +/- 5.07 microg/l; evening: 88.7 +/- 6.2 microg/l; p: NS). Normal or low UIE were not influenced by the age of pregnant women and 45% of pregnant women with UIE < 100 ug/l showed impaired thyroid function. Morning and evening study of UIE allowed us to detect a higher number of pregnant women with low iodine intake. This study let us to find thyroid function abnormalities likes a screening method, because in our state there is not a public screening program for gestational hypothyroidism.

  1. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Walter E.; Thompson, Clarence T.

    1977-04-12

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3-20 wt. % iodine as Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of, or under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. It relates in general to reactor waste solidification and more specifically to the immobilization of fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel for underground storage.

  2. Facilities for radio-iodination.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, N W; Bhattacharyya, A K; Dunn, M J

    1980-02-01

    A fume cabinet with a sloping front, fitted with a chemical absorbing filter and extractor fan, but without exhaust ducting, appears to possess considerable advantages for radio-iodination work compared with standard fume cupboards.

  3. Thyroidectomy: is Lugol's iodine necessary?

    PubMed

    Coyle, P J; Mitchell, J E

    1982-09-01

    In a randomised controlled clinical trial of Lugol's iodine against placebo in 44 patients undergoing thyroidectomy we have failed to show any benefit in terms of reduced bleeding or operative facility after using iodide solution.

  4. Lithium-iodine pacemaker cell

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.A.; Snyder, S.E.; DeVan, T.; Harney, M.J.; Harney, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The lithium-iodine pacemaker cell is described as supplied by several manufacturers. The features of each design are discussed along with their effect on energy density, self-discharge and shape of the discharge curve. Differences in performance characteristics are related to morphology of the lithium iodine electrolyte and to the form of the cathode. A new, high-drain cell is mentioned which can supply 60 /mu/a/cm/sup 2/. 10 refs.

  5. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  6. Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Cristiane Franco; da Silveira, Carla Rosane; Beghetto, Mariur; de Mello, Paula Daniel; de Mello, Elza Daniel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake. METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg) or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg), parametric and nonparametric tests were used. RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg) and only 25 students (11.7%) had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ≥3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence. PMID:25119753

  7. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  8. High-Performance Water-Iodinating Cartridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard; Gibbons, Randall E.; Flanagan, David T.

    1993-01-01

    High-performance cartridge contains bed of crystalline iodine iodinates water to near saturation in single pass. Cartridge includes stainless-steel housing equipped with inlet and outlet for water. Bed of iodine crystals divided into layers by polytetrafluoroethylene baffles. Holes made in baffles and positioned to maximize length of flow path through layers of iodine crystals. Resulting concentration of iodine biocidal; suppresses growth of microbes in stored water or disinfects contaminated equipment. Cartridge resists corrosion and can be stored wet. Reused several times before necessary to refill with fresh iodine crystals.

  9. PRODUCTION OF RADIOACTIVE IODINE.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHLYER,D.J.

    2001-08-08

    Probably the most widely used cyclotron produced radiohalogen is I-123. It has gradually replaced I-131 as the isotope of choice for diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals containing radioiodine. It gives a much lower radiation dose to the patient and the gamma ray energy of 159 keV is ideally suited for use in a gamma camera. The gamma ray will penetrate tissue very effectively without excessive radiation dose. For this reason, it has in many instances replaced the reactor produced iodine-131 (Lambrecht and Wolf 1973). A great number of radiopharmaceuticals have been labeled using I-123 and the number is increasing. One of the most promising uses of I-123 is in the imaging of monoclonal antibodies to localize and visualize tumors. However, preclinical and clinical experiences with radiolabeled antibodies have not realized the expectations regarding specificity and sensitivity of tumor localization with these agents. It appears that much of the administered activity is not associated with the tumor site and only a small fraction actually accumulates there. Work continues in this area and tumor-associated antigens can be targets for specific antibody reagents.

  10. Emergence of Seaweed and Seaweed-Containing Foods in the UK: Focus on Labeling, Iodine Content, Toxicity and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Bouga, Maria; Combet, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed (edible algae) is not a staple food in the Western diet, despite occasional use as a traditional ingredient in coastal areas. High nutritional value, combined with the expansion of the health-food industry, has led to a resurgence of seaweed in the British diet. While seaweed could be useful in tackling dietary iodine insufficiency, consumption of some species and sources of seaweed has also been associated with risks, such as toxicity from high iodine levels, or accumulation of arsenic, heavy metals and contaminants. The current retail level of seaweed and edible algae in the UK market, either as whole foods or ingredients, was evaluated with particular focus on labelling and iodine content. Seaweed-containing products (n = 224) were identified. Only 22 products (10%) stated information regarding iodine content and another 40 (18%) provided information sufficient to estimate the iodine content. For these products, the median iodine content was 110 μg/g (IQR 21–503) and 585 μg per estimated serving (IQR 105–2520). While calculations for iodine exposure per serving relied on assumptions, 26 products could potentially lead to an iodine intake above the (European) tolerable adult upper level of 600 μg/day. In the context of the data presented, there is scope to improve product labelling (species, source, processing, content). PMID:28231201

  11. Development of a chemical oxygen - iodine laser with production of atomic iodine in a chemical reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Censky, M; Spalek, O; Jirasek, V; Kodymova, J; Jakubec, I

    2009-11-30

    The alternative method of atomic iodine generation for a chemical oxygen - iodine laser (COIL) in chemical reactions with gaseous reactants is investigated experimentally. The influence of the configuration of iodine atom injection into the laser cavity on the efficiency of the atomic iodine generation and small-signal gain is studied. (lasers)

  12. The Absorption Spectrum of Iodine Vapour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetlow, K. S.

    1972-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described which presents some molecular parameters of iodine molecule by studying iodine spectrum. Points out this experiment can be conducted by sixth form students in high school laboratories. (PS)

  13. Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy for Hyperthyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your treatment team. top of page What equipment is used? There is no equipment used during ... iodine therapy. top of page Who operates the equipment? There is no equipment used during radioactive iodine ...

  14. Dietary restriction causing iodine-deficient goitre.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, Tim; Plumb, Emma; Callaghan, James; Jackson, Michael; Michaelis, Louise

    2015-08-01

    Iodine-deficient goitre was common in some parts of the UK prior to the introduction of salt iodisation. Many contemporary salt preparations do not contain much iodine, and there are renewed concerns about the iodine status of the population. We present a boy with severe allergy who developed goitre and significant thyroid dysfunction in association with an iodine-deficient 'food-restricted' diet. The case highlights the importance of a comprehensive nutritional assessment in all children on multiple food restrictions.

  15. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing.

    PubMed

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, Massimo; Philippe, Charles; Pham, Tuan Minh; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, Ouali; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-06

    This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions' spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches).

  16. Urinary iodine excretion during normal pregnancy in healthy women living in the southwest of France: correlation with maternal thyroid parameters.

    PubMed

    Caron, P; Hoff, M; Bazzi, S; Dufor, A; Faure, G; Ghandour, I; Lauzu, P; Lucas, Y; Maraval, D; Mignot, F; Réssigeac, P; Vertongen, F; Grangé, V

    1997-10-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate urinary iodine excretion and changes of maternal thyroid function during pregnancy in healthy women living in the southwest of France. The cohort included a total of 347 pregnant women (mean age 28.0+/-0.5 years). Iodine concentration in a random urine sample and thyroid tests (free thyroxine [FT4], free triiodothyronine [FT3], thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine-binding globulin [TBG], and thyroglobulin [Tg]) were measured at initial presentation (before 12 weeks of gestation), and during the ninth month of pregnancy. A thyroid ultrasound was performed 1 to 5 days after delivery in 246 mothers. Mean urinary iodine levels were low during the first trimester (6.9+/-0.4 microg/dL), as well as during the ninth month of pregnancy (8.6+/-0.6 microg/dL). During pregnancy, FT4 and T3 concentrations decreased (p < .001), and TSH and Tg concentrations increased (p < .001). Thyroid hypertrophy (thyroid volume greater than 18 mL) was present in 15.4% of women whose first trimester urinary iodine concentration was less than 5 microg/dL, but was present in only 3.5% of women whose urinary iodine concentration was greater than 10 microg/dL. A goiter (thyroid volume greater than 22 mL) was present in 11% of the mothers. In conclusion, this prospective study shows that urinary iodine excretion is low in pregnant women living in the southwest of France. This low iodine intake is associated with reduced circulating thyroid hormone levels and growth of the thyroid gland. These data point to the need of an increased iodine supply in these pregnant women to reduce the potential consequences of low iodine intake on maternal thyroid economy.

  17. Sublimation of Iodine at Various Pressures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenson, Ilya A.

    2005-01-01

    Various phenomena that are observed in the process of heating solid iodine in closed vessels at different pressures and temperatures are described. When solid iodine is heated in an evacuated ampoule where the pressure is less than 10(super -3), no noticeable color appears and immediate condensation of tiny iodine crystals is visible higher up on…

  18. MARGINAL IODINE DEFICIENCY EXACERBATES PERCHLORATE THYROID TOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental contaminant perchlorate disrupts thyroid homeostasis via inhibition of iodine uptake into the thyroid. This work tested whether iodine deficiency exacerbates the effects of perchlorate. Female 27 day-old LE rats were fed a custom iodine deficient diet with 0, 50...

  19. Ramjet Intakes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Propulsion a vitesse elevee : Conception du moteur - integration et gestion thermique) 14. ABSTRACT Intake design for supersonic engines, in common...exhaust velocity to free stream velocity, with exhaust velocity calculated by assuming the captured air is expanded isentropicaly back to ambient ...2.1 [23] with the actual value probably determined by engine mass flow demand and therefore dependent on ambient temperature. The lowest

  20. Advanced prototype automated iodine monitor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The technique of detecting and measuring parts-per-million concentrations of aqueous iodine by direct spectrophotometric means is discussed, and development of a prototype Automated Iodine Monitoring/Controller System (AIMS) is elaborated. The present effort is directed primarily toward reducing the power requirement and the weight of the AIMS. Other objectives include determining the maximum concentration of iodine that can be dissolved in an alcohol solution, and in an aqueous potassium iodide solution. Also discussed are the effects of a no flow condition on iodine measurements and the effect of pH on spectrophotometric iodine determinations.

  1. Does iodine supplementation of the prepartum dairy cow diet affect serum immunoglobulin G concentration, iodine, and health status of the calf?

    PubMed

    Conneely, M; Berry, D P; Sayers, R; Murphy, J P; Doherty, M L; Lorenz, I; Kennedy, E

    2014-01-01

    Absorption of adequate IgG from colostrum is critical to provide the newborn calf with adequate immunological protection and resistance to disease. Excessive iodine supplementation of the prepartum ewe reduces IgG absorption of her offspring; it is possible that excessive iodine supplementation of the prepartum dairy cow may similarly impair the ability of the calf to acquire immunological protection. The objectives of this study were to determine whether the iodine status, health status, and ability of calves to absorb IgG from colostrum were affected by prepartum iodine supplementation strategies of their dams. Dairy cows (n=127) received one of the following levels of iodine supplementation precalving: 15mg of iodine/kg of dietary dry matter (DM) (HI); no additional iodine supplementation (MI); 5mg/kg of dietary DM (SI); and 15mg of iodine/kg of DM for the first 3.5wk of the precalving period and no additional supplementation for the second 3.5wk (HMI). Calves were assigned to 1 of 6 experimental treatments, based on the prepartum iodine supplementation treatment of their dam and the precalving treatment group of the cows from which the colostrum fed was obtained: (1) HI_HI: born to HI dams, fed HI colostrum (i.e., colostrum produced by cows in the HI group); (2) MI_MI: born to MI dams, fed MI colostrum; (3) SI_SI: born to SI dams, fed SI colostrum; (4) HI_MI: born to HI dams, fed MI colostrum; (5) MI_HI: born to MI dams, fed HI colostrum; and (6) HMI_HMI: born to HMI dams, fed HMI colostrum. Concentration of calf serum IgG and plasma inorganic iodine (PII) was measured at 0 and 24h of age. Apparent efficiency of absorption for IgG was determined. Health scores were assigned to calves twice weekly and all episodes of disease were recorded. Cow experimental treatment group affected calf PII at 0h of age; the PII of calves born to HI dams (987.2µg/L) was greater than that of calves born to MI dams (510.1µg/L), SI (585.2µg/L), and HMI dams (692.9µg/L). Calf

  2. Role of dietary iodine and cruciferous vegetables in thyroid cancer: a countrywide case-control study in New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thérèse; Baron-Dubourdieu, Dominique; Rougier, Yannick; Guénel, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Exceptionally high incidence rates of thyroid cancer have been reported in New Caledonia, particularly in Melanesian women. To clarify the reasons of this elevated incidence, we conducted a countrywide population-based case-control study in the multiethnic population of Caledonian women. The study included 293 cases of thyroid cancer and 354 population controls. Based on a food frequency questionnaire, we investigated the role in thyroid cancer of food items rich in iodine – such as seafood – and of vegetables containing goitrogens – such as cruciferous vegetables. A measure of total daily iodine intake based on a food composition table was also used. Our findings provided little support for an association between thyroid cancer and consumption of fish and seafood. We found that high consumption of cruciferous vegetables was associated with thyroid cancer among women with low iodine intake (OR=1.86; 95% CI: 1.01–3.43 for iodine intake < 96 μg/day). The high consumption of cruciferous vegetables among Melanesian women, a group with mild iodine deficiency, may contribute to explain the exceptionally high incidence of thyroid cancer in this group. PMID:20361352

  3. Dietary water and sodium intake of children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Katherine T; Williams, Ruth; Mitchell, Carol O; Levy, Marian C; Pope, Lucille F; Smeltzer, Matthew P; Wang, Winfred C

    2010-07-01

    Dietary fluid and sodium intake may influence the risk for vasoocclusive events in persons with sickle cell anemia (SCA). The objective of this study was to examine the dietary intake of water and sodium in children and adolescents with SCA and identify possible factors influencing intake. We compared water (mL) and sodium (mg) intake in 21 patients with SCA, aged 5 to 18 years, to reported adequate intake for water, daily fluid requirement, upper limit for sodium, and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2006 data for sodium, and sociodemographic factors. Dietary intake from 3-day food records was evaluated retrospectively. Median water intake was significantly lower than adequate intake, and median sodium intake was significantly higher than sodium upper limit. Sociodemographic factors were not associated with dietary water or sodium intake. Our results suggest that children and adolescents with SCA would benefit from education regarding increasing fluid intake and limiting high sodium foods.

  4. Trace mineral intake from food sources of a collegiate team

    SciTech Connect

    Spillman, D.M.; Angello, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    The collegiate wrestler must maintain a delicate weight balance in order to wrestle in his optimum division. The wrestler constantly restricts dietary intake to maintain the best wrestling weight but often sacrifices good nutrition in order to do this. Twenty members of the Miami University Wrestling Team kept diaries for 3 or 5 days. These diets were analyzed for total calories, carbohydrate, fat and protein intakes as well as copper, iodine, fluoride, chromium, molybdenum, selenium, zinc and manganese. The diets averaged 55% carbohydrate, 16% protein and 29% fat. However, all of the investigated minerals were found to be consumed in low quantities. The following are averages of the mineral intake: copper-1.51 mg, iodine-79.91 ug, fluoride-601,06 ug, chromium-0.0115 mg, molybdenum-46.56 ug, selenium-0.035 mg, zinc-7.46 mg and manganese-1.36 mg. These low mineral intakes may be due to the low calorie intake of the wrestlers. A low caloric intake is typical for wrestlers and thus these low mineral intakes may also be typical.

  5. Iodine deficiency, more than cretinism and goiter.

    PubMed

    Verheesen, R H; Schweitzer, C M

    2008-11-01

    Recent reports of the World Health Organization show iodine deficiency to be a worldwide occurring health problem. As iodine status is based on median urinary iodine excretion, even in countries regarded as iodine sufficient, a considerable part of the population may be iodine deficient. Iodine is a key element in the synthesis of thyroid hormones and as a consequence, severe iodine deficiency results in hypothyroidism, goiter, and cretinism with the well known biochemical alterations. However, it is also known that iodine deficiency may give rise to clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism without abnormality of thyroid hormone values. This led us to the hypothesis that iodine deficiency may give rise to subtle impairment of thyroid function leading to clinical syndromes resembling hypothyroidism or diseases that have been associated with the occurrence of hypothyroidism. We describe several clinical conditions possibly linked to iodine deficiency, a connection that has not been made thus far. In this paper we will focus on the relationship between iodine deficiency and obesity, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), psychiatric disorders, fibromyalgia, and malignancies.

  6. Iodine biofortification of crops: agronomic biofortification, metabolic engineering and iodine bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Gonzali, Silvia; Kiferle, Claudia; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2016-10-27

    Iodine deficiency is a widespread micronutrient malnutrition problem, and the addition of iodine to table salt represents the most common prophylaxis tool. The biofortification of crops with iodine is a recent strategy to further enrich the human diet with a potentially cost-effective, well accepted and bioavailable iodine source. Understanding how iodine functions in higher plants is key to establishing suitable biofortification approaches. This review describes the current knowledge regarding iodine physiology in higher plants, and provides updates on recent agronomic and metabolic engineering strategies of biofortification. Whereas the direct administration of iodine is effective to increase the iodine content in many plant species, a more sophisticated genetic engineering approach seems to be necessary for the iodine biofortification of some important staple crops.

  7. Low Urinary Iodine Concentrations Associated with Dyslipidemia in US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormone which plays crucial roles in healthy thyroid function and lipid metabolism. However, the association between iodine status and dyslipidemia has not been well established at a population level. We aimed to test the hypothesis that the odds of dyslipidemia including elevated total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein B, and lowered high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and HDL/LDL ratio are associated with urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in a population perspective. Data of 2495 US adults (≥20 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2012 were used in this study. Two subgroups (i.e., UIC below vs. above the 10th percentile) were compared of dyslipidemia as defined based on NCEP ATP III guidelines. The differences between the groups were tested statistically by chi-square test, simple linear regressions, and multiple logistic regressions. Serum lipid concentrations differed significantly between two iodine status groups when sociodemographic and lifestyle covariates were controlled (all, p < 0.05). Those with the lowest decile of UIC were more likely to be at risk for elevated total cholesterol (>200 mg/dL) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–2.23) and elevated LDL cholesterol (>130 mg/dL) (AOR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.11–2.23) and lowered HDL/LDL ratio (<0.4) (AOR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.18–2.33), compared to those with UIC above the 10th percentile. In US adults, low UIC was associated with increased odds for dyslipidemia. Findings of the present cross-sectional study with spot urine samples highlight the significant association between UIC and serum lipids at population level, but do not substantiate a causal relationship. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the causal relationship among iodine intakes, iodine status, and serum lipid profiles. PMID:26999198

  8. Does iodine biofortification affect oxidative metabolism in lettuce plants?

    PubMed

    Blasco, Begoña; Ríos, Juan Jose; Leyva, Rocío; Cervilla, Luis Miguel; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Eva; Rubio-Wilhelmi, María Mar; Rosales, Miguel Angel; Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Romero, Luis

    2011-09-01

    Plants produce low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which form part of basic cell chemical communication; however, different types of stress can lead to an overexpression of ROS that can damage macromolecules essential for plant growth and development. Iodine is vital to human health, and iodine biofortification programs help improve the human intake through plant consumption. This biofortification process has been shown to influence the antioxidant capacity of lettuce plants, suggesting that the oxidative metabolism of the plant may be affected. The results of this study demonstrate that the response to oxidative stress is variable and depends on the form of iodine applied. Application of iodide (I(-)) to lettuce plants produces a reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and an increase in catalase (CAT) and L-galactono dehydrogenase enzyme activities and in the activity of antioxidant compounds such as ascorbate (AA) and glutathione. This did not prove a very effective approach since a dose of 80 μM produced a reduction in the biomass of the plants. For its part, application of iodate (IO (3) (-) ) produced an increase in the activities of SOD, ascorbate peroxidase, and CAT, the main enzymes involved in ROS detoxification; it also increased the concentration of AA and the regenerative activities of the Halliwell-Asada cycle. These data confirm the non-phytotoxicity of IO (3) (-) since there is no lipid peroxidation or biomass reduction. According to our results, the ability of IO (3) (-) to induce the antioxidant system indicates that application of this form of iodine may be an effective strategy to improve the response of plants to different types of stress.

  9. Synthesis and preliminary in vivo toxicity evaluation of an iodinated sulfidoborate

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Micca, P.L.; Heinrichs, J.C.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1992-12-31

    An iodine-labeled {sup 10}B-carrier would enable the biodistribution of {sup 10}B to be imaged noninvasively in patients so as to optimize the timing of neutron exposure for BNCT. While Na{sub 2}B{sub l2}H{sub 11}SH [BSH] is in clinical use for BNCT in Japan, its disulfido dimer Na{sub 4}B{sub 24}H{sub 22}S{sub 2} [BSSB] is also under consideration. We describe the synthesis of an iodinated product of the dimer for possible use in BNCT and compare its toxicity in normal mice to that of BSSB. Periodination of BSSB can be carried out under reaction conditions similar to those used for B{sub 12}H{sup 12}{sup {minus}2}. We surmise from this preliminary in vivo experiment that IBSSB may be slightly hepatotoxic to mice. Since the putative weight ratio of iodine to boron-10 in IBSSB is 11.5, the presence of a therapeutically adequate concentration of {sup 10}B in tumor, for example 30 {mu}g {sup 10}B per gram tumor, would be associated with 345 {mu}g I per gram tumor. This would be suitable for imaging a tumor in the brain and for quantifying the iodine using computed tomography [CT] without using conventional contrast enhancement. {sup 10}B concentrations useful for BNCT of malignant gliomas should be readily quantified by conventional CT using {sup 10}B-IBSSB as a combined radiographic contrast agent and {sup 10}B-carrier. Alternatively, iodine-radiolabeled IBSSB would allow visualization and quantification of iodine in the tumor by single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT]. Because boron and iodine are linked covalently in IBSSB, quantification of iodine in the tumor would thereby also quantify boron in the tumor noninvasively using either radiolabeled or nonradiolabeled IBSSB in SPECT or CT, respectively, provided that in vivo deiodination of IBSSB is sufficiently slow.

  10. Synthesis and preliminary in vivo toxicity evaluation of an iodinated sulfidoborate

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Micca, P.L.; Heinrichs, J.C.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1992-01-01

    An iodine-labeled [sup 10]B-carrier would enable the biodistribution of [sup 10]B to be imaged noninvasively in patients so as to optimize the timing of neutron exposure for BNCT. While Na[sub 2]B[sub l2]H[sub 11]SH [BSH] is in clinical use for BNCT in Japan, its disulfido dimer Na[sub 4]B[sub 24]H[sub 22]S[sub 2] [BSSB] is also under consideration. We describe the synthesis of an iodinated product of the dimer for possible use in BNCT and compare its toxicity in normal mice to that of BSSB. Periodination of BSSB can be carried out under reaction conditions similar to those used for B[sub 12]H[sup 12][sup [minus]2]. We surmise from this preliminary in vivo experiment that IBSSB may be slightly hepatotoxic to mice. Since the putative weight ratio of iodine to boron-10 in IBSSB is 11.5, the presence of a therapeutically adequate concentration of [sup 10]B in tumor, for example 30 [mu]g [sup 10]B per gram tumor, would be associated with 345 [mu]g I per gram tumor. This would be suitable for imaging a tumor in the brain and for quantifying the iodine using computed tomography [CT] without using conventional contrast enhancement. [sup 10]B concentrations useful for BNCT of malignant gliomas should be readily quantified by conventional CT using [sup 10]B-IBSSB as a combined radiographic contrast agent and [sup 10]B-carrier. Alternatively, iodine-radiolabeled IBSSB would allow visualization and quantification of iodine in the tumor by single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT]. Because boron and iodine are linked covalently in IBSSB, quantification of iodine in the tumor would thereby also quantify boron in the tumor noninvasively using either radiolabeled or nonradiolabeled IBSSB in SPECT or CT, respectively, provided that in vivo deiodination of IBSSB is sufficiently slow.

  11. [Case of the month. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis due to an iodinated contrast radiodiagnostic agent].

    PubMed

    Paquet, P; Vandenbossche, G; Nikkels, A F; Henry, F; Piérard, G E

    2009-12-01

    Iodinated contrast agents are frequently involved in delayed polymorphic adverse skin reactions. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis following administration of iodinated contrast agents is a rare but severe form of such reactions. The disease is characterized by the sudden occurrence of an erosive and pustular erythroderma with fever, leukocytosis and sometimes peripheral adenopathies and liver involvement. This condition is considered as an immunologic reaction, primarily involving T lymphocytes. The overall mortality reaches about 1%. Elucidating the differential diagnosis with other acute paroxysmal drug eruptions (toxic epidermal necrolysis, Steven-Johnson syndrome and drug hypersensitivity syndrome) is of paramount importance for establishing the adequate treatment of PEAG.

  12. Iodine concentration in household salt in South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Jooste, P. L.; Weight, M. J.; Lombard, C. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the iodine concentration in household salt, the coverage of adequately iodized salt, the use of non-iodized agricultural and producers' salt, and the usefulness of salt as a carrier of iodine, and to relate these observations to socioeconomic status in South Africa. METHOD: The iodometric titration method was used to analyse 2043 household salt samples collected using a national, multistage, stratified, cluster survey. FINDINGS: The national mean and median iodine concentrations of household salt were 27 mg/kg (95% confidence interval (CI): 25-29 mg/kg) and 30 mg/kg (range = 0-155 mg/kg), respectively. There was considerable variation within and between geographical areas. Coverage of adequately iodized household salt, i.e. iodized at > 15 mg/kg, was 62.4% of households (95% CI: 58.8-66.0%) two years after the introduction of compulsory iodization at a level of 40-60 mg/kg. A total of 7.3% of households used non-iodized agricultural salt and salt obtained directly from producers. People at the lower end of the socioeconomic spectrum were more likely to suffer the consequences of using under-iodized salt because more of them used agricultural or coarse salt than did people in the higher socioeconomic categories. The iodine concentration in salt was lower in rural areas than in urban and periurban areas. CONCLUSIONS: The consequences of using under-iodized or non-iodized salt were most likely to be experienced in the country's three northern provinces, among people in the low socioeconomic categories, and in rural households. Since 95.4% of households in South Africa use salt regularly and 2.9% use it occasionally, the national iodization programme has the potential to meet the iodine requirements of the population. However, this can only be achieved if the primary reasons for the inadequate iodization of salt are eliminated and if special attention is given to vulnerable groups. PMID:11436475

  13. NOVEL INSIGHTS ON INTAKE OF MEAT AND PREVENTION OF SARCOPENIA: ALL REASONS FOR AN ADEQUATE CONSUMPTION.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena Anna; Peroni, Gabriella; Infantino, Vittoria; Pozzi, Raffaella

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: la sarcopenia se define como un síndrome caracterizado por la pérdida progresiva y generalizada de la masa muscular y de la fuerza. La principal causa de la sarcopenia es la alteración del metabolismo de las proteínas, en la que los procesos proteolíticos no van acompañados de una síntesis de proteínas y células musculares adecuadas, con lo que se pierde progresivamente la sensibilidad al estímulo anabólico. El enfoque más racional para retrasar la progresión de la sarcopenia y contrarrestar la resistencia anabólica es una nutrición adecuada. La carne contiene compuestos biológicamente activos, tales como creatina, carnitina y ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA) que tienen impactos significativos sobre el metabolismo de la proteína humana. Métodos: se realizó una revisión de la literatura narrativa para evaluar la evidencia hasta ahora, en relación con: 1. ingesta adecuada de carne en ancianos como prevención de la sarcopenia; 2. la ingesta correcta de compuestos biológicamente activos que contiene la carne, que tienen impactos significativos sobre el metabolismo de la proteína humana y para así obtener efectos beneficiosos en la prevención de la sarcopenia. Esta revisión incluyó 62 estudios elegibles. Resultados: los resultados demostraron que en personas de edad avanzada la terapia óptima con dieta para la prevención y tratamiento de la sarcopenia, que debe apuntar al logro de los objetivos metabólicos específicos, debe recomendar el consumo de 113 g de carne (220 kcal; 30 g de proteínas) cinco veces a la semana. Conclusión: en una dieta variada y equilibrada, para prevenir la sarcopenia, se recomienda consumir la carne 4-5 veces a la semana (carne blanca 2 veces por semana, carne roja magra menos de 2 veces por semana, carne procesada menos de 1 vez por semana), como se sugiere en la pirámide de la dieta para personas mayores.

  14. Geochemical Cycling of Iodine Species in Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Moran, J E; Blackwood, V

    2007-08-23

    Iodine is an important element in studies of environmental protection and human health, global-scale hydrologic processes and nuclear nonproliferation. Biogeochemical cycling of iodine in soils is complex, because iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states and as inorganic and organic species that may be hydrophilic, atmophilic, and biophilic. In this study, we applied new analytical techniques to study the content and speciation of stable iodine in representative surface soils, and sorption and transport behavior of iodine species (iodide, iodate, and 4-iodoaniline) in sediments collected at numerous nuclear facilities in the United States, where anthropogenic {sup 129}I from prior nuclear fuel processing activities poses an environmental risk. The surface soil samples were chosen for their geographic locations (e.g., near the ocean or nuclear facilities) and for their differing physico-chemical characteristics (organic matter, texture, etc). Extracted solutions were analyzed by IC and ICP-MS methods to determine iodine concentrations and to examine iodine speciation (iodide, iodate, and organic iodine). In natural soils, iodine is mostly (nearly 90% of total iodine) present as organic species, while inorganic iodine becomes important (up to 50%) only in sediments with low organic matter. Results from laboratory column studies, aimed at examining transport of different iodine species, showed much greater retardation of 4-iodoaniline than iodide or iodate. Careful attention must be given to potential interconversion among species when interpreting the biogeochemical behavior of iodine in the environment. In addition to speciation, input concentration and residence time effects will influence the biogeochemical cycling of anthropogenic 129I deposited on surface soils.

  15. Overview of iodine generation for oxygen-iodine lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirásek, Vít.

    2012-01-01

    A review of the methods for generation of iodine for oxygen-iodine lasers (OIL) is presented. The chemical and physical methods for production of both atomic (AI) and molecular (MI) iodine have been searched in order to improve the efficiency and/or technology of OILs. These trials were motivated by the estimations that a substantial part of singlet oxygen (SO) could be saved with these methods and the onset of the laser active medium will be accelerated. Vapour of MI can be generated by the evaporation of solid or pressurized liquid I2, or synthesized in situ by the reaction of Cl2 with either HI or CuI2. The chemical methods of generation of AI are based on the substitution of I atom in a molecule of HI or ICl by another halogen atom produced usually chemically. The discharge methods include the dissociation of various iodine compounds (organic iodides, I2, HI) in the RF, MW, DC-pulsed or DC-vortex stabilized discharge. Combined methods use discharge dissociation of molecules (H2, F2) to gain atoms which subsequently react to replace AI from the iodine compound. The chemical methods were quite successful in producing AI (up to the 100% yield), but the enhancement of the laser performance was not reported. The discharge methods had been subsequently improving and are today able to produce up to 0.4 mmol/s of AI at the RF power of 500 W. A substantial enhancement of the discharge- OIL performance (up to 40%) was reported. In the case of Chemical-OIL, the enhancement was reported only under the conditions of a low I2/O2 ratio, where the "standard" I2 dissociation by SO is slow. The small-signal gain up to 0.3 %/cm was achieved on the supersonic COIL using the HI dissociated in the RF discharge. Due to the complicated kinetics of the RI-I-I2-SO system and a strong coupling with the gas flow and mixing, the theoretical description of the problem is difficult. It, however, seems that we can expect the major improvement of the OIL performance for those systems, where

  16. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    PubMed

    Godrich, Stephanie L; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-01-03

    Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD) (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions) and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA). Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256) living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23). A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20) for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007), promotion (p = 0.017), location of food outlets (p = 0.027), and price (p = 0.043). Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned) are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing.

  17. Effect of iodine disinfectant source and water quality parameters on soluble iodine speciation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Joann; Hurst, Charles; Barkley, Robert; Dunham, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    Investigations of iodine species distribution of various aqueous solutions of iodine disinfectants and water from equilibrated suspensions of triodide and pentaiodide resins were done at the University of Colorado for the Center for Space Environmental Health during 1992 and 1993. Direct measurements of three individual iodine species: I(-), I2 and I3(-), were made. In addition three measures of total titratable iodine species were used. It has been found that I2 and I3(-) solutions produce a significant fraction of the non-disinfecting species iodine I(-), ranging from 50 to 80% of added iodine, respectively, at pH values of approximately 5. Correspondingly, I2 solutions produce more than twice the concentration of disinfecting iodine species per mass iodine dose than I3(-) solutions. Both I(-) and I2 species were found in aqeuous extracts of pentaiodide resin, although no soluble species were detected with triiodide resin.

  18. Nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Plane, John M. C.; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Lamarque, Jean-François; Kinnison, Douglas E.

    2016-12-01

    Little attention has so far been paid to the nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine species. Current atmospheric models predict a buildup of HOI and I2 during the night that leads to a spike of IO at sunrise, which is not observed by measurements. In this work, electronic structure calculations are used to survey possible reactions that HOI and I2 could undergo at night in the lower troposphere, and hence reduce their nighttime accumulation. The new reaction NO3+ HOI → IO + HNO3 is proposed, with a rate coefficient calculated from statistical rate theory over the temperature range 260-300 K and at a pressure of 1000 hPa to be k(T) = 2.7 × 10-12 (300 K/T)2.66 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. This reaction is included in two atmospheric models, along with the known reaction between I2 and NO3, to explore a new nocturnal iodine radical activation mechanism. The results show that this iodine scheme leads to a considerable reduction of nighttime HOI and I2, which results in the enhancement of more than 25 % of nighttime ocean emissions of HOI + I2 and the removal of the anomalous spike of IO at sunrise. We suggest that active nighttime iodine can also have a considerable, so far unrecognized, impact on the reduction of the NO3 radical levels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and hence upon the nocturnal oxidizing capacity of the marine atmosphere. The effect of this is exemplified by the indirect effect on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation.

  19. Iodine status in Turkish populations and exposure to iodide uptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ozpinar, Aysel; Kelestimur, Fahrettin; Songur, Yildiran; Can, Ozge; Valentin, Liza; Caldwell, Kathleen; Arikan, Ender; Unsal, Ibrahim; Serteser, Mustafa; Inal, Tamer; Erdemgil, Yigit; Coskun, Abdurrahman; Bakirci, Nadi; Sezgin, Ozlem; Blount, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate are competitive inhibitors of the sodium iodide symporter of the thyroid membrane. These inhibitors can decrease iodine uptake by the symporter into the thyroid gland and may disrupt thyroid function. This study assesses iodine status and exposure to iodide uptake inhibitors of non-pregnant and non-lactating adult women living in three different cities in Turkey (Istanbul, Isparta and Kayseri). We measured iodine and iodide uptake inhibitors in 24-hr urines collected from study participants (N = 255). All three study populations were mildly iodine deficient, with median urinary iodine (UI) levels of 77.5 µg/L in Istanbul, 58.8 µg/L in Isparta, and 69.8 µg/L in Kayseri. Perchlorate doses were higher in the study population (median 0.13 µg/kg/day), compared with a reference population (median 0.059 µg/kg/day), but lower than the U.S. EPA reference dose (0.7 µg/kg/day). Urinary thiocyanate levels increased with increasing exposure to tobacco smoke, with non-smokers (268 µg/L) significantly lower than light smokers (1110 µg/L), who were significantly lower than heavy smokers (2410 µg/L). This pilot study provides novel data indicating that study participants were moderately iodine deficient and had higher intakes of the iodide uptake inhibitor perchlorate compared with a reference population. Further investigation is needed to characterize the thyroid impact resulting from iodine deficiency coupled with exposure to iodide uptake inhibitors such as perchlorate, thiocyanate and nitrate.

  20. Iodine Status in Turkish Populations and Exposure to Iodide Uptake Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ozpinar, Aysel; Kelestimur, Fahrettin; Songur, Yildiran; Can, Ozge; Valentin, Liza; Caldwell, Kathleen; Arikan, Ender; Unsal, Ibrahim; Serteser, Mustafa; Inal, Tamer; Erdemgil, Yigit; Coskun, Abdurrahman; Bakirci, Nadi; Sezgin, Ozlem; Blount, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate are competitive inhibitors of the sodium iodide symporter of the thyroid membrane. These inhibitors can decrease iodine uptake by the symporter into the thyroid gland and may disrupt thyroid function. This study assesses iodine status and exposure to iodide uptake inhibitors of non-pregnant and non-lactating adult women living in three different cities in Turkey (Istanbul, Isparta and Kayseri). We measured iodine and iodide uptake inhibitors in 24-hr urines collected from study participants (N = 255). All three study populations were mildly iodine deficient, with median urinary iodine (UI) levels of 77.5 µg/L in Istanbul, 58.8 µg/L in Isparta, and 69.8 µg/L in Kayseri. Perchlorate doses were higher in the study population (median 0.13 µg/kg/day), compared with a reference population (median 0.059 µg/kg/day), but lower than the U.S. EPA reference dose (0.7 µg/kg/day). Urinary thiocyanate levels increased with increasing exposure to tobacco smoke, with non-smokers (268 µg/L) significantly lower than light smokers (1110 µg/L), who were significantly lower than heavy smokers (2410 µg/L). This pilot study provides novel data indicating that study participants were moderately iodine deficient and had higher intakes of the iodide uptake inhibitor perchlorate compared with a reference population. Further investigation is needed to characterize the thyroid impact resulting from iodine deficiency coupled with exposure to iodide uptake inhibitors such as perchlorate, thiocyanate and nitrate. PMID:24505430

  1. Review of analytical methods for the quantification of iodine in complex matrices.

    PubMed

    Shelor, C Phillip; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2011-09-19

    Iodine is an essential element of human nutrition. Nearly a third of the global population has insufficient iodine intake and is at risk of developing Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD). Most countries have iodine supplementation and monitoring programs. Urinary iodide (UI) is the biomarker used for epidemiological studies; only a few methods are currently used routinely for analysis. These methods either require expensive instrumentation with qualified personnel (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, instrumental nuclear activation analysis) or oxidative sample digestion to remove potential interferences prior to analysis by a kinetic colorimetric method originally introduced by Sandell and Kolthoff ~75 years ago. The Sandell-Kolthoff (S-K) method is based on the catalytic effect of iodide on the reaction between Ce(4+) and As(3+). No available technique fully fits the needs of developing countries; research into inexpensive reliable methods and instrumentation are needed. There have been multiple reviews of methods used for epidemiological studies and specific techniques. However, a general review of iodine determination on a wide-ranging set of complex matrices is not available. While this review is not comprehensive, we cover the principal developments since the original development of the S-K method.

  2. Experimental investigation of the iodine partition coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.L.; Babad, C.J.; Mulder, R.U.

    1985-11-01

    Short-term values of the iodine partition coefficient (IPC) were evaluated experimentally by an air/water system over the following ranges of conditions: temperature = 25 to 70/sup 0/C, pH = 5 to 9, and iodine concentration = 10/sup -9/ to 10/sup -2/ kg iodine/m/sup 3/ H/sub 2/O. The experimental IPC values are relatively independent of temperature over the indicated range, but show a significant dependence on pH and iodine concentration. In basic solutions the short-term values are several orders of magnitude less than the true equilibrium values; in acid solutions, the differences are much less. These results are useful for predicting the disposition of iodine shortly (i.e., 1 to 10 h) after iodine has been released into an air/water environment.

  3. Injection of iodine to the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Baidar, S.; Cuevas, C. A.; Koenig, T. K.; Fernandez, R. P.; Dix, B.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Rodriguez-Lloveras, X.; Campos, T. L.; Volkamer, R.

    2015-08-01

    We report a new estimation of the injection of iodine into the stratosphere based on novel daytime (solar zenith angle < 45°) aircraft observations in the tropical tropopause layer and a global atmospheric model with the most recent knowledge about iodine photochemistry. The results indicate that significant levels of total reactive iodine (0.25-0.7 parts per trillion by volume), between 2 and 5 times larger than the accepted upper limits, can be injected into the stratosphere via tropical convective outflow. At these iodine levels, modeled iodine catalytic cycles account for up to 30% of the contemporary ozone loss in the tropical lower stratosphere and can exert a stratospheric ozone depletion potential equivalent to, or even larger than, that of very short-lived bromocarbons. Therefore, we suggest that iodine sources and chemistry need to be considered in assessments of the historical and future evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer.

  4. Atmospheric science: marine aerosols and iodine emissions.

    PubMed

    McFiggans, Gordon

    2005-02-10

    O'Dowd et al. describe the formation of marine aerosols from biogenic iodine and the growth of these aerosols into cloud-condensation nuclei (CCN). Based on chamber and modelling results, the authors suggest that biogenic organic iodine compounds emitted from macroalgae may be responsible for coastal particle bursts and that production of these compounds in the open ocean could increase CCN there too. It has since been shown that coastal particles are more likely to be produced from the photooxidation of molecular iodine. Moreover, I contend that open-ocean particle production and cloud enhancement do not result from emissions of organic iodine at atmospheric levels. For iodine particles to affect cloud properties over the remote ocean, an additional source of iodine is necessary as organic precursors cannot be responsible.

  5. Discovery and Early Uses of Iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2000-08-01

    The ancient Chinese recognized goiter and the therapeutic effects of burnt sponge and seaweed in reducing its size or causing its disappearance. The modern use of iodine in the prevention of goiter dates from 1830, when it was proposed that goiter is an iodine deficiency disease due to lack of iodine in the water supply. But unfavorable symptoms of iodism were frequent owing to overenthusiastic use and overdose of iodine. Consequently, iodide prophylaxis was discredited and abandoned. The presence of iodine in organic combination as a normal constituent of the thyroid was established in 1896 and the use of iodine in treatment and prevention of goiter was revived. In 1917 the general use of iodized salt in goitrous areas was shown to be effective in preventing simple endemic goiter.

  6. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, Massimo; Philippe, Charles; Pham, Tuan Minh; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, Ouali; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions’ spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches). PMID:28067834

  7. INACTIVATION OF PEPSIN BY IODINE AND THE ISOLATION OF DIIODO-TYROSINE FROM IODINATED PEPSIN

    PubMed Central

    Herriott, Roger M.

    1937-01-01

    In the presence of iodine at pH 5.0–6.0 a solution of pepsin absorbs iodine and the specific proteolytic activity of the solution decreases. The activity is less than 1 per cent of the original activity when the number of iodine atoms per mol of pepsin is 35–40. If the pH is 4.5 or less, iodine reacts very slowly and there is a correspondingly slower loss in activity. Glycyl tyrosine reacts with iodine in a manner similar to pepsin. Experiments were performed to determine the extent to which oxidation of pepsin by iodine occurs during iodination, and if such oxidation were responsible for the loss in enzymatic activity. Although the results were not absolutely decisive, there seems to be no appreciable oxidation taking place during iodination and no relationship between the slight oxidation and loss in peptic activity. From a dialyzed preparation of completely iodinated pepsin which was inactive and contained 13.4 per cent bound iodine, 82 per cent of the iodine was obtained in a solution which analyzed as a solution of diiodo-tyrosine. Because of the presence of a material which contained no iodine and prevented quantitative crystallization, only 53 per cent of the iodine containing substance could be crystallized. This 53 per cent was, however, identified as diiodo-tyrosine. The part of the titration curve which in pepsin and most proteins represents the phenolic group of tyrosine was, in the curve for iodinated pepsin, shifted toward the acid region as expected. From these results, it appears that the loss in proteolytic activity of pepsin, when treated with iodine under the specified conditions, is due to the reaction of the iodine with the tyrosine in pepsin. PMID:19872995

  8. Laser Induced Fluorescence of the Iodine Ion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Fluorescence of the Iodine Ion 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER William A. Hargus, Jr. 5e. TASK NUMBER...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Briefing Charts presented at Gaseous Electronics Conference; Raleigh, NC; 5 November 2014. PA#14517 14. ABSTRACT Iodine (I2) has been...discussed seriously as a propellant for Hall effect and other electrostatic thrusters as early as 2000. Atomic iodine has a mass of 126.9 amu, but as

  9. Disposal of radioactive iodine in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.; Defield, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of space disposal of iodine waste from nuclear power reactors is investigated. The space transportation system utilized relies upon the space shuttle, a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen orbit transfer vehicle, and a solid propellant final stage. The iodine is assumed to be in the form of either an iodide or an iodate, and calculations assume that the final destination is either solar orbit or solar system escape. It is concluded that space disposal of iodine is feasible.

  10. Salivary gland dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesenfeld, D.; Webster, G.; Cameron, F.; Ferguson, M.M.; MacFadyen, E.E.; MacFarlane, T.W.

    1983-02-01

    Radioactive iodine is used extensively for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid carcinoma. Iodine is actively taken up by the salivary glands and, following its use, salivary dysfunction may result as a consequence of radiation damage. The literature is reviewed and a case is reported in which a patient presented with a significant increase in caries rate attributed to salivary dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy for a thyroid carcinoma.

  11. Adequate mathematical modelling of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    In environmental observations and laboratory visualization both large scale flow components like currents, jets, vortices, waves and a fine structure are registered (different examples are given). The conventional mathematical modeling both analytical and numerical is directed mostly on description of energetically important flow components. The role of a fine structures is still remains obscured. A variety of existing models makes it difficult to choose the most adequate and to estimate mutual assessment of their degree of correspondence. The goal of the talk is to give scrutiny analysis of kinematics and dynamics of flows. A difference between the concept of "motion" as transformation of vector space into itself with a distance conservation and the concept of "flow" as displacement and rotation of deformable "fluid particles" is underlined. Basic physical quantities of the flow that are density, momentum, energy (entropy) and admixture concentration are selected as physical parameters defined by the fundamental set which includes differential D'Alembert, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations and closing equation of state. All of them are observable and independent. Calculations of continuous Lie groups shown that only the fundamental set is characterized by the ten-parametric Galilelian groups reflecting based principles of mechanics. Presented analysis demonstrates that conventionally used approximations dramatically change the symmetries of the governing equations sets which leads to their incompatibility or even degeneration. The fundamental set is analyzed taking into account condition of compatibility. A high order of the set indicated on complex structure of complete solutions corresponding to physical structure of real flows. Analytical solutions of a number problems including flows induced by diffusion on topography, generation of the periodic internal waves a compact sources in week-dissipative media as well as numerical solutions of the same

  12. Injection of iodine to the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Baidar, Sunil; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Koening, Theodore; Fernandez, Rafael P.; Dix, Barbara; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Campos, Teresa L.; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    There are still many uncertainties about the influence of iodine chemistry in the stratosphere, as the real amount of reactive iodine injected to this layer the troposphere and the partitioning of iodine species are still unknown. In this work we report a new estimation of the injection of iodine into the stratosphere based on novel daytime (SZA < 45°) aircraft observations in the tropical tropopause layer (TORERO campaign) and a 3D global chemistry-climate model (CAM-Chem) with the most recent knowledge about iodine photochemistry. The results indicate that significant levels of total reactive iodine (0.25-0.7 pptv), between 2 and 5 times larger than the accepted upper limits, could be injected into the stratosphere via tropical convective outflow. At these iodine levels, modelled iodine catalytic cycles account for up to 30% of the contemporary ozone loss in the tropical lower stratosphere and can exert a stratospheric ozone depletion potential equivalent or even larger than that of very short-lived bromocarbons. Therefore, we suggest that iodine sources and chemistry need to be considered in assessments of the historical and future evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer.

  13. Chalcogenide aerogels as sorbents for radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Subrahmanyam, Kota S.; Sarma, Debajit; Malliakas, Christos; Polychronopoulou, Kyriaki; Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2015-04-14

    Iodine (129I) is one of the radionuclides released in nuclear fuel reprocessing and poses risk to public safety due to its involvement in human metabolic processes. In order to prevent the leaching of hazardous radioactive iodine into the environment, its effective capture and sequestration is pivotal. In the context of finding a suitable matrix for capturing radioactive iodine the chalcogels, NiMoS4, CoMoS4, Sb4Sn4S12, Zn2Sn2S6, and CoSx (x = 4-5) were explored as iodine sorbents. All the chalcogels showed high uptake, reaching up to 225 mass% (2.25 g/g) of the final mass owing to strong chemical and physical iodine-chalcogen interactions. Analysis of the iodine-loaded specimens revealed that the iodine chemically reacted with Sb4Sn4S12, Zn2Sn2S6, and CoSx to form metal complexes SbI3, SnI4, and, KI respectively. The NiMoS4 and CoMoS4 chalcogels did not appear to undergo a chemical reaction with iodine since iodide complexes were not observed with these samples. Once heated, the iodine-loaded chalcogels released iodine in the temperature range of 75 °C to 220 °C, depending on the nature of iodine speciation. In the case of Sb4Sn4S12 and Zn2Sn2S6 iodine release was observed around 150 °C in the form of SnI4 and SbI3, respectively. The NiMoS4, CoMoS4, and CoSx released iodine at ~75 °C, which is consistent with physisorbed iodine. Preliminary investigations on consolidation of iodine-loaded Zn2Sn2S6 with Sb2S3 as a glass forming additive showed the content of iodine in consolidated glass ingots at around 25 mass%.

  14. Automated iodine monitor system. [for aqueous solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of a direct spectrophotometric measurement of iodine in water was established. An iodine colorimeter, was built to demonstrate the practicality of this technique. The specificity of this method was verified when applied to an on-line system where a reference solution cannot be used, and a preliminary design is presented for an automated iodine measuring and controlling system meeting the desired specifications. An Automated iodine monitor/controller system based on this preliminary design was built, tested, and delivered to the Johnson Space Center.

  15. Gestational changes in iodine status in a cohort study of pregnant women from the United Kingdom: season as an effect modifier123

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Sarah C; Furmidge-Owen, Victoria L; Redman, Christopher WG

    2015-01-01

    Background: Iodine is required throughout pregnancy for thyroid hormone production, which is essential for fetal brain development. Studies of iodine status in pregnant women from the United Kingdom (UK) have focused on early gestation (<16 wk). Data on the effect of advancing gestation on urinary iodine excretion are conflicting, with suggestions of both an increase and a decrease. Objectives: The aims were to evaluate iodine status in a cohort of UK pregnant women and to explore how it changes throughout gestation. Design: We used samples and data from 230 UK pregnant women who were recruited to the Selenium in PRegnancy INTervention study. Iodine concentration was measured in spot-urine samples that were collected at ∼12, 20, and 35 wk of gestation; creatinine concentration was also measured to correct for urine dilution. A linear mixed model was used to explore the effect of gestational week on iodine-to-creatinine ratio, with change in season, body mass index, daily milk intake, and maternal age controlled for. Results: The median urinary iodine concentration from urine samples collected at all time points (n = 662) was 56.8 μg/L, and the iodine-to-creatinine ratio was 116 μg/g, thus classifying this cohort as mildly-to-moderately iodine deficient. The median iodine-to-creatinine ratios at 12, 20, and 35 wk were 102.5, 120.0, and 126.0 μg/g, respectively. Only 3% of women were taking iodine-containing prenatal supplements. The iodine-to-creatinine ratio increased with advancing gestation, and there was a significant interaction between gestational week and season (P = 0.026). For a 1-wk increase in gestation, the iodine-to-creatinine ratio increased by a factor of 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.08) in winter and by a factor of 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) in summer. Conclusions: This group of UK pregnant women was mildly-to-moderately iodine deficient at all trimesters, which is of public health concern. The finding that the iodine-to-creatinine ratio increased over

  16. Reducing dietary sodium intake: the Canadian context.

    PubMed

    Barr, Susan I

    2010-02-01

    Sodium is a required nutrient; Adequate Intakes for adults range from 1200 to 1500 mg*day(-1), depending on age. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for sodium is 2300 mg*day(-1) for adults, based on the relationship between sodium intake and increased blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure, which is prevalent among Canadians, is, in turn, a major risk factor for stroke, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease. Sodium intake is not the only determinant of blood pressure; other modifiable risk factors include relative mass, physical activity, overall dietary quality, and alcohol consumption. However, because >90% of adult Canadian men and two thirds of Canadian women have sodium intakes above the UL, Health Canada's Working Group on Dietary Sodium Reduction has been charged with developing, implementing, and overseeing a strategy to reduce Canadians' sodium intakes. It is estimated that approximately 75% of dietary sodium is added during food processing; in addition to taste and palatability, sodium also has functional roles in food manufacturing and preservation, although the amounts used often exceed those required. Because of the central role of processed foods in sodium intake, the strategy proposed by Health Canada's Working Group includes voluntary reduction of sodium in processed foods and foods sold in food service establishments. It will also include an education and awareness campaign, and research and surveillance. Initiatives to reduce sodium in other parts of the world have demonstrated that it will be challenging to reduce sodium intake to the recommended range and will likely require many years to accomplish.

  17. Atmospheric iodine levels influenced by sea surface emissions of inorganic iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Lucy J.; MacDonald, Samantha M.; Shaw, Marvin D.; Kumar, Ravi; Saunders, Russell W.; Parthipan, Rajendran; Wilson, Julie; Plane, John M. C.

    2013-02-01

    Naturally occurring bromine- and iodine-containing compounds substantially reduce regional, and possibly even global, tropospheric ozone levels. As such, these halogen gases reduce the global warming effects of ozone in the troposphere, and its capacity to initiate the chemical removal of hydrocarbons such as methane. The majority of halogen-related surface ozone destruction is attributable to iodine chemistry. So far, organic iodine compounds have been assumed to serve as the main source of oceanic iodine emissions. However, known organic sources of atmospheric iodine cannot account for gas-phase iodine oxide concentrations in the lower troposphere over the tropical oceans. Here, we quantify gaseous emissions of inorganic iodine following the reaction of iodide with ozone in a series of laboratory experiments. We show that the reaction of iodide with ozone leads to the formation of both molecular iodine and hypoiodous acid. Using a kinetic box model of the sea surface layer and a one-dimensional model of the marine boundary layer, we show that the reaction of ozone with iodide on the sea surface could account for around 75% of observed iodine oxide levels over the tropical Atlantic Ocean. According to the sea surface model, hypoiodous acid--not previously considered as an oceanic source of iodine--is emitted at a rate ten-fold higher than that of molecular iodine under ambient conditions.

  18. Iodine transport analysis in the ESBWR.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinich, Donald A.; Gauntt, Randall O.; Young, Michael Francis; Longmire, Pamela

    2009-03-01

    A simplified ESBWR MELCOR model was developed to track the transport of iodine released from damaged reactor fuel in a hypothesized core damage accident. To account for the effects of iodine pool chemistry, radiolysis of air and cable insulation, and surface coatings (i.e., paint) the iodine pool model in MELCOR was activated. Modifications were made to MELCOR to add sodium pentaborate as a buffer in the iodine pool chemistry model. An issue of specific interest was whether iodine vapor removed from the drywell vapor space by the PCCS heat exchangers would be sequestered in water pools or if it would be rereleased as vapor back into the drywell. As iodine vapor is not included in the deposition models for diffusiophoresis or thermophoresis in current version of MELCOR, a parametric study was conducted to evaluate the impact of a range of iodine removal coefficients in the PCCS heat exchangers. The study found that higher removal coefficients resulted in a lower mass of iodine vapor in the drywell vapor space.

  19. An Iodine Fluorescence Quenching Clock Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Richard B.; Muyskens, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Clock reactions based upon competing oxidation and reduction reactions of iodine and starch as the most popular type of chemistry example is presented to illustrate the redox phenomena, reaction kinetics, and principles of chemical titration. The examination of the photophysical principles underlying the iodine fluorescence quenching clock…

  20. [The radioiodine test for the evaluation of iodine deficiency in the district of Karl-Marx-Stadt and in East Germany].

    PubMed

    Bauch, K; Weiss, O; Möckel, G; Gerlach, J; Seitz, W; Ulrich, F E; Dempe, A

    1981-10-01

    The values of the per cent 24 h radioiodine uptake in the GDR are above 60--70% and speak for a low alimentary intake of iodine or renal excretion of iodine below 40 micrograms J/d. Like the struma prevalences they show a tendency increasing from north to south and characterize the whole European situation of iodine deficiency including its decrease from west to east. The mean values of radioiodine uptake of 71.7 +/- 13.2% (n = 110) in euthyroids of the district of Karl-Marx-Stadt correspond to the iodine deficiency as it occurs approximately in the districts of Erfurt, Dresden, Munich or Freiburg/B. The alimentary iodine intake of 38.4 +/- 17.2 micrograms J/d and the renal iodine excretion of 29.9 +/- 16.1 micrograms J/d, calculated from the 24 h radioiodine accumulation values of 40 euthyroid persons by means of a mathematical model developed by Oddie and co-workers were low. The latter only slightly differed (P less than 0.05) from its chemically estimated excretion of iodine in the urine: 23.1 +/- 16.9 micrograms J/g creatinine (n = 73). Between the calculated and chemically estimated excretion of iodine there was a relatively strict correlation of r = 0.68 (n = 26; P less than 0.001). The introduction of an iodine prophylaxis is regarded as an urgent necessity. Later on a new estimation of the regional "normal values" is necessary for the per cent radioiodine uptake.

  1. The Relationship of Central Foveal Thickness to Urinary Iodine Concentration in Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients with or without Cystoid Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Michael A.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Harper, Shyana; Weigel-DiFranco, Carol; Hart, Lois; Rosner, Bernard; Berson, Eliot L.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Current treatments for cystoid macular edema in retinitis pigmentosa are not always effective, may lead to adverse side effects, and may not restore loss of visual acuity. The present research lays the rationale for evaluating whether an iodine supplement could reduce cystoid macular edema in retinitis pigmentosa. Objective To determine whether central foveal thickness in the presence of cystoid macular edema is related to dietary iodine intake inferred from urinary iodine concentration in non-smoking adults with retinitis pigmentosa. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Institutional referral center. Participants Non-smoking adult patients with retinitis pigmentosa (n = 212, ages 18 to 69 years) with a visual acuity ≥ 20/200 in at least one eye. Main outcome measure The relationship of log central foveal thickness measured by optical coherence tomography to urinary iodine concentration measured from multiple spot samples and represented as a 3-level classification variable (< 100 μg/L, 100 μg/L - 199 μg/L, and ≥ 200 μg/L), assigning greater weight to patients with more reliable urinary iodine concentration estimates. Results Analyses were limited to 199 patients after excluding 11 patients who failed to return urine samples for measuring urinary iodine concentration and 2 outliers for urinary iodine concentration. Thirty-six percent of these patients had cystoid macular edema in one or both eyes. Although log central foveal thickness was inversely related to urinary iodine concentration based on all patients (p = 0.02), regression of log central foveal thickness on urinary iodine concentration separately for patients with and without cystoid macular edema showed a strong inverse significant relationship for the former group (p < 0.001) and no significant relationship for the latter group as tested (p = 0.66). In contrast, we found no significant association between cystoid macular edema prevalence and urinary iodine concentration based on the

  2. Synergism between exposure to mercury and use of iodine supplements on thyroid hormones in pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Llop, Sabrina; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Murcia, Mario; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Vioque, Jesús; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Julvez, Jordi; and others

    2015-04-15

    Objective: To evaluate the association between mercury exposure and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total triiodothyronine (TT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels during pregnancy as well as to explore if there is any synergic action between mercury and intake of iodine from different sources. Methods: The study population was 1407 pregnant women participating in the Spanish INMA birth cohort study. Total mercury concentrations were analyzed in cord blood. Thyroid hormones (THs) were measured in serum samples collected at 13.2±1.5 weeks of gestation. The association between mercury and TH levels was evaluated with multivariate linear regression models. Effect modification caused by iodine intake from supplements and diet was also evaluated. Results: The geometric means of TSH, TT3, FT4 and mercury were 1.1 μU/L, 2.4 nmol/L, 10.5 pmol/L and 7.7 μg/L, respectively. Mercury levels were marginally significantly associated with TT3 (β: −0.05; 95%CI: −0.10, 0.01), but were neither associated with TSH nor FT4. The inverse association between mercury and TT3 levels was stronger among the iodine supplement consumers (−0.08; 95%CI: −0.15, −0.02, interaction p-value=0.07). The association with FT4 followed the same pattern, albeit not significant. Conclusion: Prenatal mercury exposure was inversely associated with TT3 levels among women who took iodine supplements during pregnancy. These results could be of public health concern, although further research is needed. - Highlights: • We studied the relationship between mercury and thyroid hormones among pregnant. • Mercury was marginally significantly associated with TT3, but not with TSH or FT4. • This association was stronger among the iodine supplement. • These results could be of public health concern, but further research is needed.

  3. Fluorescence analysis of iodinated acetophenone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Crivelaro, F; Oliveira, M R S; Lima, S M; Andrade, L H C; Casagrande, G A; Raminelli, C; Caires, A R L

    2015-03-15

    In the present paper the synthesis and optical characterization of iodinated acetophenone, 4-hydroxy-3-iodoacetophenone and 4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodoacetophenone obtained from 4-hydroxyacetophenone, were carried out. The optical features of iodinated molecules were determined by performing the UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence and thermal lens spectroscopies. The results showed that the optical properties of the 4-hydroxyacetophenone is altered when the iodine atom is inserted, as substituent, in the aromatic ring. Although it was determined that the optical feature was changed when one iodine atom was inserted in the aromatic ring (4-hydroxy-3-iodoacetophenone), the results revealed that emission behavior was strongly altered when two iodine atoms (4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodoacetophenone) were acting as substituents: the fluorescence quantum efficiency increases approximately 60%.

  4. Global modeling of tropospheric iodine aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwen, Tomás. M.; Evans, Mat J.; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Chance, Rosie; Baker, Alex R.; Schmidt, Johan A.; Breider, Thomas J.

    2016-09-01

    Natural aerosols play a central role in the Earth system. The conversion of dimethyl sulfide to sulfuric acid is the dominant source of oceanic secondary aerosol. Ocean emitted iodine can also produce aerosol. Using a GEOS-Chem model, we present a simulation of iodine aerosol. The simulation compares well with the limited observational data set. Iodine aerosol concentrations are highest in the tropical marine boundary layer (MBL) averaging 5.2 ng (I) m-3 with monthly maximum concentrations of 90 ng (I) m-3. These masses are small compared to sulfate (0.75% of MBL burden, up to 11% regionally) but are more significant compared to dimethyl sulfide sourced sulfate (3% of the MBL burden, up to 101% regionally). In the preindustrial, iodine aerosol makes up 0.88% of the MBL burden sulfate mass and regionally up to 21%. Iodine aerosol may be an important regional mechanism for ocean-atmosphere interaction.

  5. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, K. S.

    1985-01-01

    This semiannual progress report covers the period from April 1, 1985 to Sept. 30, 1985 under NASA grant NAS1-441 entitled direct solar pumped iodine laser amplifier. During this period the parametric studies of the iodine laser oscillator pumped by a Vortek simulator was carried out before the amplifier studies. The amplifier studies are postponed to the extended period following completion of the parametric studies. In addition, the kinetic modeling of a solar pumped iodine laser amplifier, and the experimental work for a solar pumped dye laser amplifier are in progress. This report contains three parts: (1) the radiation characteristics of solar simulator and the parametric characteristics of photodissociation iodine laser continuously pumped by a Vortek solar simulator; (2) kinetic modeling of a solar pumped iodine laser amplifier; and (3) the study of the dye laser amplifier pumped by a Tamarack solar simulator.

  6. Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A secondary aim was to characterize the study population in terms of determinants of the total fluid intake requirements. Methods A child friendly “fluids and liquid food” diary was used to prospectively record the volume and frequency of beverage consumption over 7 days from 1045 schoolchildren. This diary also recorded the practice of physical activity. An adequate fluid intake was defined as an intake ≥ 75% of the age-specific adequate intake recommended by the EFSA. Results The median (P25-P75) of habitual daily fluid intake was 864 (608–1104) ml/day, with 355 (194–579) coming from drinking water. This habitual daily fluid intake varied significantly among the three investigated EFSA groups (girls and boys aged from 8 years, girls from 9 to 13 and boys from 9 to 13), except for the drinking water (P = 0.906). The highest medians of fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and milk and derivatives were found among boys of 9–13. Only 9.5% of the children had an adequate fluid intake, with a value of 19.2% among the 8 years old girls and boys, 7.0% among girls of 9–13 and 8.4% among boys of 9–13. In the whole sample, 27.7% of the children declared to drink less than 3-4x/day, 56% drunk water less than 2x/day and 7.7% drunk no water at all. Every day, 27.1% and 34.1% of the children drank respectively one fruit juice and one sugar-sweetened beverage. Conclusion Belgian schoolchildren have an inadequate total fluid intake. Given the potential health

  7. Changes in the regulation of iodine crystals and chemical mixtures containing over 2.2 percent iodine. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2007-07-02

    This rulemaking changes the regulation of the listed chemical iodine under the chemical regulatory provisions of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) believes that this action is necessary to remove deficiencies in the existing regulatory controls, which have been exploited by drug traffickers who divert iodine (in the form of iodine crystals and iodine tincture) for the illicit production of methamphetamine in clandestine drug laboratories. This rulemaking moves iodine from List II to List I; reduces the iodine threshold from 0.4 kilograms to zero kilograms; adds import and export regulatory controls; and controls chemical mixtures containing greater than 2.2 percent iodine. This rulemaking establishes regulatory controls that will apply to iodine crystals and iodine chemical mixtures that contain greater than 2.2 percent iodine. This regulation therefore controls iodine crystals and strong iodine tinctures/solutions (e.g., 7 percent iodine) that do not have common household uses and instead have limited application in livestock, horses, and for disinfection of equipment. Household products such as 2 percent iodine tincture/solution and household disinfectants containing iodine complexes will not be adversely impacted by this regulation. Additionally, the final rule exempts transactions of up to one-fluid-ounce (30 ml) of Lugol's Solution. Persons handling regulated iodine materials are required to register with DEA, are subject to the import/export notification requirements of the CSA, and are required to maintain records of all regulated transactions involving iodine regardless of size.

  8. Rechargeable Lithium-Iodine Batteries with Iodine/Nanoporous Carbon Cathode.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Lu, Yanying; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-09

    Rechargeable Li-iodine batteries are attractive electrochemical energy storage systems because iodine cathode provides the possibility of high energy density, wide abundance and low cost. However, the safety risk caused by low thermostability of iodine and the self-discharge reaction due to high solvency of iodine in aprotic solvent are target issues to be considered. Herein, we designed a room-temperature "solution-adsorption" method to prepare a thermostable iodine-carbon cathode by utilizing the strong adsorption of nanoporous carbon. Meanwhile, Li-iodine batteries constructed by the as-prepared cathode and ether-based electrolyte with the addition of LiNO3 showed negligible self-discharge reaction, high rate and long cycling performance. The reversible reactions of I2/LiI3 and LiI3/LiI in Li-iodine batteries were also proved with in situ Raman measurement. For the demonstration of application, soft-package batteries with Al-plastic film were assembled, displaying energy densities of 475 Wh/kg by mass of Li and iodine, and 136 Wh/kg by total mass of the battery. The use of nanoporous carbon to adsorb iodine at room-temperature represents a new and promising direction for realizing high-performance cathode for rechargeable Li-iodine batteries.

  9. Salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: what is the most adequate preventive strategy? A Swiss perspective

    PubMed Central

    Burnier, Michel; Wuerzner, Gregoire; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-01-01

    Among the various strategies to reduce the incidence of non-communicable diseases reduction of sodium intake in the general population has been recognized as one of the most cost-effective means because of its potential impact on the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Yet, this strategic health recommendation of the WHO and many other international organizations is far from being universally accepted. Indeed, there are still several unresolved scientific and epidemiological questions that maintain an ongoing debate. Thus what is the adequate low level of sodium intake to recommend to the general population and whether national strategies should be oriented to the overall population or only to higher risk fractions of the population such as salt-sensitive patients are still discussed. In this paper, we shall review the recent results of the literature regarding salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk and we present the recommendations recently proposed by a group of experts of Switzerland. The propositions of the participating medical societies are to encourage national health authorities to continue their discussion with the food industry in order to reduce the sodium intake of food products with a target of mean salt intake of 5–6 grams per day in the population. Moreover, all initiatives to increase the information on the effect of salt on health and on the salt content of food are supported. PMID:26321959

  10. The disorders induced by iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Delange, F

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews present knowledge on the etiology, pathophysiology, complications, prevention, and therapy of the disorders induced by iodine deficiency. The recommended dietary allowances of iodine are 100 micrograms/day for adults and adolescents, 60-100 micrograms/day for children aged 1 to 10 years, and 35-40 micrograms/day in infants aged less than 1 year. When the physiological requirements of iodine are not met in a given population, a series of functional and developmental abnormalities occur including thyroid function abnormalities and, when iodine deficiency is severe, endemic goiter and cretinism, endemic mental retardation, decreased fertility rate, increased perinatal death, and infant mortality. These complications, which constitute a hindrance to the development of the affected populations, are grouped under the general heading of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). At least one billion people are at risk of IDD. Iodine deficiency, therefore, constitutes one of the most common preventable causes of mental deficiency in the world today. Most of the affected populations live in mountainous areas in preindustrialized countries, but 50 to 100 million people are still at risk in Europe. The most important target groups to the effects of iodine deficiency from a public health point of view are pregnant mothers, fetuses, neonates, and young infants because the main complication of IDD, i.e., brain damage resulting in irreversible mental retardation, is the consequence of thyroid failure occurring during pregnancy, fetal, and early postnatal life. The main cause of endemic goiter and cretinism is an insufficient dietary supply of iodine. The additional role of naturally occurring goitrogens has been documented in the case of certain foods (milk, cassava, millet, nuts) and bacterial and chemical water pollutants. The mechanism by which the thyroid gland adapts to an insufficient iodine supply is to increase the trapping of iodide as well as the subsequent

  11. Iodine nutritional status and risk factors for goitre among schoolchildren in South Tajikistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Iodine deficiency affects nearly 1.9 billion people worldwide, but it can be prevented by salt iodization. This cross-sectional survey assessed current iodine status, iodized salt coverage and risk factors for goitre among schoolchildren in South Tajikistan. Methods Ten primary schools in four districts in South Tajikistan were randomly selected. In schoolchildren aged 7 to 11 years, a spot urine sample was collected for measurement of urinary iodine, dried blood spots were collected for measurement of thyroglobulin, and goitre was assessed by palpation. Iodine content of salt samples and local selling points was determined by coloration using rapid test kits and titration method. Results Of 623 schoolchildren enrolled, complete data was obtained from 589. The overall median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 51.2 μg/L indicating mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. Among all children, 46.6% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 42.4%-50.6%) of children were found to be goitrous (grade 1 goitre: 30.6%, 95% CI = 26.9%-34.5%; grade 2 goitre: 16.0%, 95% CI = 13.1%-19.2%). The risk factor for goitre remaining significant in the multivariable logistic regression model was 'buying salt once a month’ (OR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.01-8.22) and 'buying salt once every six months’ (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.01-5.04) compared to 'buying salt every one or two weeks’. The overall median thyroglobulin concentration was elevated at 13.9 μg/L. Of the salt samples from households and selling points, one third were adequately iodised, one third insufficiently and one third were not iodised. Conclusion Iodine deficiency remains a serious health issue among children in southern Tajikistan. There is a persisting high prevalence of goitre, elevated thyroglobulin and low UIC despite interventions implemented by Tajikistan and international partners. Quality control of salt iodine content needs to be improved. Continued efforts to raise awareness of the

  12. Effects of time of administration and dietary iodine levels on potassium iodide (KI) blockade of thyroid irradiation by 131I from radioactive fallout.

    PubMed

    Zanzonico, P B; Becker, D V

    2000-06-01

    Radioiodines, particularly 131I, may be released into the environment in breach-of-containment nuclear reactor accidents and localize in and irradiate the thyroid with an attendant risk of neoplastic growth and other adverse health effects. Pharmacologic thyroid blockade by oral potassium iodide (KI) (50-100 mg in adults) can substantially reduce thyroid uptake of and irradiation by internalized radioiodine. In the current analysis, computer modeling of iodine metabolism has been used to systematically elucidate the effects of two practically important but highly variable factors on the radioprotective effect of KI: the time of administration relative to exposure to radioiodine and the dietary level of iodine. In euthyroid adults receiving iodine-sufficient diets (250 microg d(-1) in the current analysis), KI administered up to 48 h before 131I exposure can almost completely block thyroid uptake and therefore greatly reduce the thyroid absorbed dose. However, KI administration 96 h or more before 131I exposure has no significant protective effect. In contrast, KI administration after exposure to radioiodine induces a smaller and rapidly decreasing blockade effect. KI administration 16 h or later after 131I exposure will have little effect on thyroid uptake and absorbed dose and therefore little or no protective effect. The 131I thyroid absorbed dose is two-fold greater with insufficient levels of dietary iodine, 2,900 cGy/37 MBq, than with sufficient levels of dietary iodine, 1,500 cGy/37 MBq. When KI is administered 48 h or less before 131I intake, the thyroid absorbed doses (in cGy/37 MBq) are comparably low with both sufficient and insufficient dietary iodine levels. When KI is administered after 131I intake, however, the protective effect of KI is less and decreases more rapidly with insufficient than with sufficient dietary iodine. For example, KI administration 2 and 8 h after 131I intake yields protective effects of 80 and 40%, respectively, with iodine

  13. Thermodynamic properties of organic iodine compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Laurent; Gaona, Xavier

    2011-11-01

    A critical evaluation has been made of the thermodynamic properties reported in the literature for 43 organic iodine compounds in the solid, liquid, or ideal gas state. These compounds include aliphatic, cyclic and aromatic iodides, iodophenols, iodocarboxylic acids, and acetyl and benzoyl iodides. The evaluation has been made on the basis of carbon number systematics and group additivity relations, which also allowed to provide estimates of the thermodynamic properties of those compounds for which no experimental data were available. Standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 °C and 1 bar and heat capacity coefficients are reported for 13 crystalline, 29 liquid, and 39 ideal gas organic iodine compounds, which can be used to calculate the corresponding properties as a function of temperature and pressure. Values derived for the standard molal Gibbs energy of formation at 25 °C and 1 bar of these crystalline, liquid, and ideal gas organic iodine compounds have subsequently been combined with either solubility measurements or gas/water partition coefficients to obtain values for the standard partial molal Gibbs energies of formation at 25 °C and 1 bar of 32 aqueous organic iodine compounds. The thermodynamic properties of organic iodine compounds calculated in the present study can be used together with those for aqueous inorganic iodine species to predict the organic/inorganic speciation of iodine in marine sediments and petroleum systems, or in the near- and far-field of nuclear waste repositories.

  14. The way forward in Italy for iodine.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Antonella; DI Cosmo, Caterina; DE Angelis, Simona; DA Cas, Roberto; Stacchini, Paolo; Pastorelli, Augusto; Vitti, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Italy is dealing with iodine deficiency since ancient times. In 1848 an ad hoc committee appointed by the king of Sardinia, identified extensive areas afflicted by endemic goiter and endemic cretinism in Piedmont, Liguria and Sardinia. Since then many epidemiological studies have been conducted in our country. These showed that iodine deficiency was present not only in mountain areas but also in coastal areas. In 1972 the iodization of salt at 15 mg/kg was allowed by law and iodized salt was distributed on request to selected endemic areas. Five years later the distribution was extended to the whole country. However the sale of iodized salt was not mandatory at that time and only a small fraction of the Italian population started using iodized salt. In 1991 the content of iodine in the salt was raised to 30 mg/kg and in 2005 a nationwide salt iodization program was finally implemented. Some years later a nationwide monitoring program of iodine prophylaxis was also implemented. Since 2005 the sale of iodized salt in Italian supermarkets has increased (34% in 2006, 55% in 2012), although it has been observed that the use of iodized salt is still low in the communal eating areas and in the food industry. These data are coherent with recent epidemiological studies showing that some regions in our country are still characterized by mild iodine deficiency and a high frequency of goiter and other iodine deficiency disorders. This implies that further efforts should be made to successfully correct iodine deficiency in Italy.

  15. Method and apparatus for removing iodine from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Martin H.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing iodine-131 and iodine-125 from a liquid sodium reactor coolant. Non-radioactive iodine is dissolved in hot liquid sodium to increase the total iodine concentration. Subsequent precipitation of the iodine in a cold trap removes both the radioactive iodine isotopes as well as the non-radioactive iodine.

  16. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-10-04

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  17. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  18. Inadequate status of iodine nutrition among pregnant women residing in three districts of Niamey, the Niger Republic's capital.

    PubMed

    Sadou, Hassimi; Seyfoulaye, Amina; Malam Alma, Mousbahou; Daouda, Hamani

    2014-10-01

    Universal dietary salt iodisation (UDSI) programme was implemented in Niger in 1996. However, since 2000, there has been a slowdown in progress against iodine deficiency. The aim of our study was to assess the iodine status among pregnant women in a context where national controls are not effective at ensuring universal availability of adequately iodised salt. This is mainly to assess the impact of the slowdown in the fight against iodine deficiency in this vulnerable group. The study was centred on 240 healthy pregnant women volunteers recruited in three districts primary health centres. A control group of 60 non-pregnant, non-lactating healthy women was also studied and compared. Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of all pregnant women was 119 μg L(-1) , and 61.67% had UIC below 150 μg L(-1) . Median UIC for the first, second and third trimester were 144, 108 and 92 μg L(-1) , respectively. The percentage of pregnant women with UIC below 150 μg L(-1) increased from 52% in the first trimester to 66% in the third trimester. The median UIC of the control group was 166 μg L(-1) , and 28.33% had UIC below 100 μg L(-1) . No significant relationship was found between nutritional iodine status and provenance, age and parity. However, significant relationship was found between iodine status and stage of pregnancy, gestational age and educational level (P < 0.05). Iodine nutrition status thus observed was inadequate in 61.67% of all the pregnant women. It is therefore urgent to revitalise implementation of the UDSI programme, and in the short term to consider iodine supplementation for pregnant women.

  19. Effect of chronic douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine on iodine absorption and thyroid function

    SciTech Connect

    Safran, M.; Braverman, L.E.

    1982-07-01

    Daily vaginal douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine in 12 euthyroid volunteers for 14 days resulted in a significant increase in serum total iodine concentration and urine iodine excretion. The increase in serum total iodine was associated with a marked decrease in 24-hour /sup 123/I uptake by the thyroid and a small but significant increase in serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentration. However, values for serum TSH never rose above the normal range. No significant changes in serum thyroxine (T4), free T4 index (FTI), or triiodothyronine concentrations were observed, although serum T4 and FTI did decrease slightly during treatment. The findings suggest that iodine is absorbed across the vaginal mucosa and that the subsequent increase in serum total iodine does induce subtle increases in serum TSH concentration. There was no evidence, however, of overt hypothyroidism in these euthyroid women.

  20. [Sanitary and technological solutions of the elimination of iodine deficiency by iodination of drinking water].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanin, Iu A; Kir'ianova, L F; Mikhaĭlova, R I; Sevost'ianova, E M; Ryzhova, I N; Alekseeva, A B; Nedachin, A E

    2001-01-01

    Comprehensive studies of the sanitary standards provided research evidence for the maximum allowable concentrations of iodine in the drinking water by taking into account its daily allowances dose and the formation of transformation by-products due to iodine disinfection, drinking water preservation, and iodine deficiency prevention in the endemic areas. Techniques of water iodination have been devised and tested in the experimental and industrial setting, including those for packaging drinking water, as well as those by using portable water purifiers based on highly effective iodine-selective adsorptive compounds which make it possible to solve the task of administering iodine dosages into the water (with allowances born in mind), under domestic conditions as well.

  1. Modeling an Iodine Hall Thruster Plume in the Iodine Satellite (ISAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Maria

    2016-01-01

    An iodine-operated 200-W Hall thruster plume has been simulated using a hybrid-PIC model to predict the spacecraft surface-plume interaction for spacecraft integration purposes. For validation of the model, the plasma potential, electron temperature, ion current flux, and ion number density of xenon propellant were compared with available measurement data at the nominal operating condition. To simulate iodine plasma, various collision cross sections were found and used in the model. While time-varying atomic iodine species (i.e., I, I+, I2+) information is provided by HP Hall simulation at the discharge channel exit, the molecular iodine species (i.e., I2, I2+) are introduced as Maxwellian particles at the channel exit. Simulation results show that xenon and iodine plasma plumes appear to be very similar under the assumptions of the model. Assuming a sticking coefficient of unity, iodine deposition rate is estimated.

  2. Probing starch-iodine interaction by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiongwei; An, Hongjie; Liu, Zhongdong; Yang, Hongshun; Wei, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    We explored the interaction of iodine with three crystalline type starches, corn, potato, and sweet potato starches using atomic force microscopy. Results revealed that starch molecules aggregated through interaction with iodine solution as well as iodine vapor. Detailed fine structures such as networks, chains, and super-helical structures were found in iodide solution tests. The nanostructures formed due to iodine adsorption could help to understand the formation and properties of the starch-iodine complex.

  3. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    PubMed Central

    Godrich, Stephanie L.; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R.; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD) (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions) and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA). Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256) living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23). A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20) for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007), promotion (p = 0.017), location of food outlets (p = 0.027), and price (p = 0.043). Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned) are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing. PMID:28054955

  4. Method for immobilizing radioactive iodine

    DOEpatents

    Babad, Harry; Strachan, Denis M.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive iodine, present as alkali metal iodides or iodates in an aqueous solution, is incorporated into an inert solid material for long-term storage by adding to the solution a stoichiometric amount with respect to the formation of a sodalite (3M.sub.2 O.3Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. 6SiO.sub.2.2MX, where M=alkali metal; X=I.sup.- or IO.sub.3.sup.-) of an alkali metal, alumina and silica, stirring the solution to form a homogeneous mixture, drying the mixture to form a powder, compacting and sintering the compacted powder at 1073 to 1373 K (800.degree. to 1100.degree. C.) for a time sufficient to form sodalite.

  5. Stabilized Iodine Flow for Long Run Time Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    United States Government retains a nonexclusive royalty- free license to publish or reproduce the material contained herein, or allow others to do so, for...4 Flowchart of iodine control logic. 8 5 Variation of iodine flow on the RADICL device in the absence of active control. 11 6 Variation of iodine...flow on the RADICL device in the presence of active control. 11 7 The run helium purposely started low to observe the recovery of the control system. 13

  6. Iodine binding to humic acid.

    PubMed

    Bowley, H E; Young, S D; Ander, E L; Crout, N M J; Watts, M J; Bailey, E H

    2016-08-01

    The rate of reactions between humic acid (HA) and iodide (I(-)) and iodate (IO3(-)) have been investigated in suspensions spiked with (129)I at concentrations of 22, 44 and 88 μg L(-1) and stored at 10 °C. Changes in the speciation of (129)I(-), (129)IO3(-) and mixed ((129)I(-) + (129)IO3(-)) spikes were monitored over 77 days using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). In suspensions spiked with (129)I(-) 25% of the added I(-) was transformed into organic iodine (Org-(129)I) within 77 days and there was no evidence of (129)IO3(-) formation. By contrast, rapid loss of (129)IO3(-) and increase in both (129)I(-) and Org-(129)I was observed in (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions. However, the rate of Org-(129)I production was greater in mixed systems compared to (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions with the same total (129)I concentration, possibly indicating IO3(-)I(-) redox coupling. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) demonstrated that Org-(129)I was present in both high and low molecular weight fractions of the HA although a slight preference to bond with the lower molecular weight fractions was observed indicating that, after 77 days, the spiked isotope had not fully mixed with the native (127)I pool. Iodine transformations were modelled using first order rate equations and fitted rate coefficients determined. However, extrapolation of the model to 250 days indicated that a pseudo-steady state would be attained after ∼200 days but that the proportion of (129)I incorporated into HA was less than that of (127)I indicating the presence of a recalcitrant pool of (127)I that was unavailable for isotopic mixing.

  7. Critical evaluation of cadexomer-iodine ointment and povidone-iodine sugar ointment.

    PubMed

    Noda, Yasuhiro; Fujii, Kiori; Fujii, Satoshi

    2009-05-08

    Topical iodine forms are used for infected and necrotic pressure ulcers. Despite antimicrobial advantages several potential disadvantages were observed with controversial results. To clarify the controversy, the reactivity of povidone-iodine (PI) sugar ointment and cadexomer-iodine (CI) ointment toward biological components was investigated. L-Tyrosine as a component of proteins and egg lecithin as a component of lipid membranes were reacted with forms of iodine. Furthermore, water absorption abilities of ointments were investigated. The reactions of PI sugar ointment and CI ointment with L-tyrosine were reversely dependent on iodine concentrations. CI ointment reacted with lecithin in an iodine concentration dependent manner, while PI sugar ointment reacted with lecithin in an iodine concentration independent steady manner. However, at the clinically relevant iodine concentration (0.1, w/v%) PI sugar ointment reacted efficiently with L-tyrosine and less efficiently with lecithin, while CI ointment reacted efficiently with lecithin and less efficiently with L-tyrosine. Water absorption rate constant was 29.9 mg/cm(2)/min(0.5) for PI sugar ointment and 15.3 for CI ointment. Water absorption capacity per weight over 24 h was 26% forPI sugar ointment and 76% for CI ointment [corrected]. These results suggest that PI sugar ointment and CI ointment have different characteristics for iodine reactivity and water absorption.

  8. Single dose povidone-iodine on thyroid functions and urinary iodine excretion.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Deniz; Teziç, H Tahsin; Zorlu, Pelin; Firat, Serap; Bilaloğlu, Eriş; Kutlu, Alev Oğuz

    2003-08-01

    The effect of single dose povidone-iodine on serum thyrotropin and thyroxine levels and urinary iodine excretion in 30 preterm, 40 full-term newborns and 50 infants at Dr. Sami Ulus Children's Hospital was studied. There was no significant change of thyroid function in any of the groups (p>0.05). Urinary iodine excretion in preterm and full-term groups elevated significantly (p<0.05). The authors conclude that patients who receive single dose povidone-iodine for skin disinfection are not at risk for thyroid disorders.

  9. Recycling of iodine in fore-arc areas: evidence from the iodine brines in Chiba, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Fehn, Udo; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2001-11-01

    The distribution of iodine in the Earth's crust is dominated by its accumulation in marine sediments. If fluxes between terrestrial and marine compartments are considered, however, a significant imbalance exists between known sources and sinks of iodine. We present here evidence from the fore-arc area near Chiba, Japan, the world's largest brine-iodine producing area, that iodine is mobilized from marine sediments during the early stages of subduction. Based on detailed chemical analyses of 22 brines and 129I dating of 13 of these samples collected from the Kazusa Formation, we show that iodine in these fluids is derived from organic-rich marine sediments with a minimum age of 50 Myr. Geochemical characteristics of the brines and the age of the iodine indicate that the iodine enrichment is caused by mobilization from subducting marine sediments and not by derivation from the host formation (age 1-2 Myr). The direct return of iodine from marine sediments into the oceans during the subduction of oceanic plates could provide the missing link in the iodine cycle and be an important pathway also in the marine cycle of carbon.

  10. Iodination and stability of somatostatin analogues: comparison of iodination techniques. A practical overview.

    PubMed

    de Blois, Erik; Chan, Ho Sze; Breeman, Wouter A P

    2012-01-01

    For iodination ((125/127)I) of tyrosine-containing peptides, chloramin-T, Pre-Coated Iodo-Gen(®) tubes and Iodo-Beads(®) (Pierce) are commonly used for in vitro radioligand investigations and there have been reliant vendors hereof for decades. However, commercial availability of these radio-iodinated peptides is decreasing. For continuation of our research in this field we investigated and optimized (radio-)iodination of somatostatin analogues. In literature, radioiodination using here described somatostatin analogues and iodination techniques are described separately. Here we present an overview, including High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) separation and characterisation by mass spectrometry, to obtain mono- and di-iodinated analogues. Reaction kinetics of (125/127)I iodinated somatostatin analogues were investigated as function of reaction time and concentration of reactants, including somatostatin analogues, iodine and oxidizing agent. To our knowledge, for the here described somatostatin analogues, no (127)I iodination and optimization are described. (Radio-)iodinated somatostatin analogues could be preserved with a >90% radiochemical purity for 1 month after reversed phase HPLC-purification.

  11. [Stable iodine as a prophylaxis therapy following exposure to radioactive iodines: pharmacological and pharmaceutical characteristics].

    PubMed

    Hosten, B; Rizzo-Padoin, N; Scherrmann, J-M; Bloch, V

    2012-03-01

    More or less rapid radio-induction of thyroidian cancers is the main pathological consequence of an accidental exposure to ingested or inhaled radioactive iodines following a nuclear power plant accident. The prophylactic administration of potassium iodine in a single oral dose has to be practiced as soon as possible after the nuclear accident. The efficacy of this therapy depends on pharmacokinetics of radioidines. Iodines are rapidly and completely absorbed as iodides. The radioactive iodines, mainly iodine 131, concentrate in the thyroid gland because of a carrier-mediated transport by the Na-I symporter. Administration of stable iodine results in the symporter blockade, which limits the uptake of radioactive iodines by the thyroid and the duration of the internal irradiation. This irradiation will never exceed 3days if the therapy is started between 6h before the accidental exposure and 1h after. The pharmacist asked to dispense the tablets of stable iodine has a important place because, besides his advices on the optimal modalities of taking stable iodine and the risks of unwanted effects, he extend these advices to information on the radioactive risk and on measures of civil and sanitary protection.

  12. Ultrasound-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis for iodinated amino acid extraction from edible seaweed before reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Romarís-Hortas, Vanessa; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2013-09-27

    The combination of reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the determination of monoiodotyrosine (MIT) and diiodotyrosine (DIT) in edible seaweed. A sample pre-treatment based on ultrasound assisted enzymatic hydrolysis was optimized for the extraction of these iodinated amino acids. Pancreatin was selected as the most adequate type of enzyme, and parameters affecting the extraction efficiency (pH, temperature, mass of enzyme and extraction time) were evaluated by univariate approaches. In addition, extractable inorganic iodine (iodide) was also quantified by anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography (AE-HPLC) coupled with ICP-MS. The proposed procedure offered limits of detection of 1.1 and 4.3ngg(-1) for MIT and DIT, respectively. Total iodine contents in seaweed, as well as total iodine in enzymatic digests were measured by ICP-MS after microwave assisted alkaline digestion with tetramethylamonium hydroxide (TMAH) for total iodine assessment, and also by treating the pancreatin extracts (extractable total iodine assessment). The optimized procedure was successfully applied to five different types of edible seaweed. The highest total iodine content, and also the highest iodide levels, was found in the brown seaweed Kombu (6646±45μgg(-1)). Regarding iodinated amino acids, Nori (a red seaweed) was by far the one with the highest amount of both species (42±3 and 0.41±0.024μgg(-1) for MIT and DIT, respectively). In general, MIT concentrations were much higher than the amounts of DIT, which suggests that iodine from iodinated proteins in seaweed is most likely bound in the form of MIT residues.

  13. The incorporation of iodine in thyroid hormone may stem from its role as a prehistoric signal of ecologic opportunity: an evolutionary perspective and implications for modern diseases.

    PubMed

    Yun, Anthony J; Lee, Patrick Y; Bazar, Kimberly A; Daniel, Stephanie M; Doux, John D

    2005-01-01

    To optimize fitness under conditions of varying Darwinian opportunity, organisms demonstrate tremendous plasticity in their life-history strategies based on their perception of available resources. Higher-energy environments generally promote more aggressive life-history strategies, such as faster growth, larger adult size, greater genetic variation, shorter lifespan, larger brood sizes, and offspring ratio skewed towards the larger-sized gender. While numerous mechanisms regulate life-history plasticity including genetic imprinting, methylation, and growth factors, evidence suggests that thyroid hormone plays a central role. Given the pivotal adaptive role of thyroid hormone, the teleology of its dependence on dietary iodine for production remains unexplained. We hypothesize that iodine may have emerged as a substrate for production of thyroid hormone in prehistoric ecosystems because the former represented a reliable proxy for ecologic potential that enabled the latter to modulate growth, reproduction, metabolic rate, and lifespan. Such a scenario may have existed in early marine ecosystems where ocean-surface vegetation, which concentrates iodine for its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, formed the basis of the food chain. Teleologic parallels can be drawn to the food-chain accumulation of antimicrobials that also exhibit antioxidant properties and promote adult size, brood size, and offspring quality by modulating central hormonal axes. As each higher species in the food chain tunes its life-history strategy based on iodine intake, the coupling of this functional role of iodine with its value as a resource signal to the next member of the food-chain may promote runaway evolution. Whereas predators in prehistoric ecosystems successfully tuned their life-history strategy using iodine as a major input, the strategy may prove maladaptive in modern humans for whom the pattern of iodine intake is decoupled from resource availability. Iodine acquired through

  14. Saturated fats: what dietary intake?

    PubMed

    German, J Bruce; Dillard, Cora J

    2004-09-01

    Public health recommendations for the US population in 1977 were to reduce fat intake to as low as 30% of calories to lower the incidence of coronary artery disease. These recommendations resulted in a compositional shift in food materials throughout the agricultural industry, and the fractional content of fats was replaced principally with carbohydrates. Subsequently, high-carbohydrate diets were recognized as contributing to the lipoprotein pattern that characterizes atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia. The rising incidences of metabolic syndrome and obesity are becoming common themes in the literature. Current recommendations are to keep saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and cholesterol intakes as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet. In the face of such recommendations, the agricultural industry is shifting food composition toward lower proportions of all saturated fatty acids. To date, no lower safe limit of specific saturated fatty acid intakes has been identified. This review summarizes research findings and observations on the disparate functions of saturated fatty acids and seeks to bring a more quantitative balance to the debate on dietary saturated fat. Whether a finite quantity of specific dietary saturated fatty acids actually benefits health is not yet known. Because agricultural practices to reduce saturated fat will require a prolonged and concerted effort, and because the world is moving toward more individualized dietary recommendations, should the steps to decrease saturated fatty acids to as low as agriculturally possible not wait until evidence clearly indicates which amounts and types of saturated fatty acids are optimal?

  15. Teaching the Rovibronic Spectroscopy of Molecular Iodine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, J. Charles

    2007-01-01

    The rovibronic spectroscopy of molecular iodine provides a clearer understanding of the electronic potential parameters of various systems to the undergraduate students. The technique also helps them to test the various other quantum mechanical concepts.

  16. The Electronic Spectrum of Iodine Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaught, Ian J.

    1980-01-01

    Presents equations and techniques for calculating and interpreting many of the spectroscopically important parameters associated with the ground and second excited states of the iodine molecule. (Author/CS)

  17. Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about tositumomab and iodine I 131 tositumomab and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug combination, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  18. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    During this period the parametric studies of the iodine laser oscillator pumped by a Vortek simulator were carried out before amplifier studies. The amplifier studies are postponed to the extended period after completing the parametric studies. In addition, the kinetic modeling of a solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier, and the experimental work for a solar pumped dye laser amplifier are in progress. This report contains three parts: (1) a 10 W CW iodine laser pumped by a Vortek solar simulator; (2) kinetic modeling to predict the time to lasing threshold, lasing time, and energy output of solar-pumped iodine laser; and (3) the study of the dye laser amplifier pumped by a Tamarack solar simulator.

  19. Regenerable Iodine Water-Disinfection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Jolly, Clifford D.

    1994-01-01

    Iodinated resin bed for disinfecting water regenerated to extend useful life. Water flows through regeneration bed of crystalline iodine during regeneration. At other times, flow diverted around regeneration bed. Although regeneration cycle manually controlled readily automated to start and stop according to signals from concentration sensors. Further benefit of regeneration is bed provides highly concentrated biocide source when needed. Concentrated biocide used to superiodinate system after contamination from routine maintenance or unexpected introduction of large concentration of microbes.

  20. The chlorate-iodine clock reaction.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, André P; Faria, Roberto B

    2005-12-28

    A clock reaction produced by mixing chlorate and iodine solutions in perchloric acid media is reported. This is the first example of a clock reaction using chlorate as a reagent. Increasing chlorate and acid concentration reduces the induction period. Changing the initial iodine concentration does not affect the length of the induction period. The discovery of this clock reaction opens the possibility that a new family of oscillation reactions can be built using chlorate as reagent.

  1. Cooling Water Intakes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Industries use large volumes of water for cooling. The water intakes pull large numbers of fish and other organisms into the cooling systems. EPA issues regulations on intake structures in order to minimize adverse environmental impacts.

  2. [Iodine deficiency in the Cirque of Salazie (Reunion Island). Analysis of nutritional causes and study of their consequences].

    PubMed

    Jaffiol, C; Manderscheid, J C; Rouard, L; Dhondt, J L; Arguillère, S; Bourdoux, P

    1997-12-01

    Randomized subjects (n = 294), (35 young children, 6-30 months old--91 children 8.6 +/- 0.7 years, 116 teenagers 13.2 +/- 1.9 y--52 young women 28.5 +/- 6.1 y) leaving in a mountainous area of Reunion Island (Cirque de Salazie) were evaluated according to the following: a questionnaire related to food intake, cervical palpation for thyroid size evaluation and collections of urine and foods (natural and mineral water, breast and commercial milk and salt) for iodine measurement. Neonatal TSH of 308 new borns in Salazie were compared to TSH of 300 new-borns of Lille (France). The prevalence of goiter increases with age (0% in young children, 12.1% in children, 23.3% in teenagers, 38.4% in women) whereas median urinary iodine (microgram/dl) decreases in the same groups (12-7.8-5.6-4.2). The intake of milk and dairy products significantly decreases from children to adults. Neonatal TSH values are significantly higher in Salazie than in Lille (p < 0.005). Natural and mineral water, breast milk and salt contain little iodine. In conclusion iodine deficiency is present in this area of Reunion Island with a significant increment of neonatal TSH values.

  3. Modern and past volcanic degassing of iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, H.; Auzende, A.-L.; Marocchi, M.; Raepsaet, C.; Munsch, P.; Testemale, D.; Mézouar, M.; Kubsky, S.; Carrière, M.; Ricolleau, A.; Fiquet, G.

    2016-01-01

    We have monitored iodine degassing from a melt to a water vapor during decompression (i.e. magma ascent). Experiments have been performed by combining diamond anvil cells experiments with synchrotron X-rays fluorescence analysis. Partition coefficients DIfluid/melt measured for a pressure and temperature range of 0.1-1.8 GPa and 500-900 °C, range from 41 to 1.92, values for room conditions DIfluid/glass (quenched samples) are equal to or higher than 350. We show that iodine degassing with water is earlier and much more efficient than for lighter halogen elements, Cl and Br. Iodine is totally degassed from the silicate melt at room conditions. By applying these results to modern volcanology, we calculate an annual iodine flux for subduction related volcanism of 0.16-2.4 kt yr-1. We suggest that the natural iodine degassing may be underestimated, having possible consequences on the Earth's ozone destruction cycle. By applying this results to the Early Earth, we propose a process that may explain the contrasted signature of I, Br and Cl, strongly depleted in the bulk silicate Earth, the most depleted being iodine, whereas fluorine is almost enriched. The Earth may have lost heavy halogen elements during an early water degassing process from the magma ocean.

  4. Iodine Status of Vulnerable Populations in Henan Province of China 2013-2014 After the Implementation of the New Iodized Salt Standard.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Zhu, Lin; Li, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Heming; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Yang; Hao, Zongyu

    2016-09-01

    The standard of salt iodine content in China has been adjusted several times since implementation of the universal salt iodization (USI) in 1995. The new standard of iodized salt content was adjusted from 35 ± 15 to 30 ± 9 mg/kg in Henan province in 2012. We aimed to determine whether the vulnerable populations were iodine sufficient after the adjustment of salt iodine content and to provide a guideline for the adjustment of USI policy in China. Two cross-sectional surveys of iodine status in vulnerable populations, including reproductive-age, pregnant and lactating women, infants <2 years, and children aged 8-10 years, were conducted in Henan province in 2013 and 2014. In 2013, the median urinary iodine concentration (mUIC) of reproductive-age women was 200.1 μg/L and that of school children aged 8-10 years was 221.0 μg/L. These mUICs were considered as "more than adequate." The mUICs of reproductive-age women and school children in 2014 showed a significant decline compared to the mUICs in 2013 (P = 0.012 and P = 0.001, respectively). The mUICs of the pregnant women were 204.2 μg/L in 2013 and 202.5 μg/L in 2014, which both met the requirement level recommended by WHO. In 2013, the mUIC of lactating women was 169.1 μg/L and that of infants <2 years was 203.2 μg/L, which were significantly lower than that of 2014 (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). The lactating women and infants in 2013 and 2014 were both regarded as "iodine adequate." Iodine status of the vulnerable populations is still adequate as a whole in Henan province after decreasing the salt iodine content. However, the mUIC of school children aged 8-10 years is slightly above the adequate level. To reduce the risk of iodine excess in the general population and prevent the possibility of iodine deficiency of the vulnerable population, it is necessary to explore the appropriate level of iodized salt content.

  5. Iodine derivatives of chemically modified gum Arabic microspheres.

    PubMed

    Ganie, Showkat A; Ali, Akbar; Mazumdar, Nasreen

    2015-09-20

    Acetylated gum Arabic (AGA) derivatives with different degrees of substitution (DS 0.97-2.74) were synthesized using acetyl chloride and a base under varying reaction conditions. The AGA derivatives were obtained in the form of microspheres and thereafter stable iodine products were prepared by doping the microspheres with an iodinating agent, iodine monochloride (ICl). The reaction between electrophilic iodine and polar carbonyl groups was studied by FT-IR, (1)H-NMR, and UV-VIS spectroscopies. The products were also characterized by DSC, TGA and SEM studies. The incorporated iodine was released in aqueous medium as iodide ions (I(-)). A reaction scheme has been proposed for the iodination and de-iodination of the gum derivatives. This work suggests that the iodine derivatives of modified gum Arabic could be used as a source of iodide ions which is the nutritional form of iodine.

  6. Effect of iodine disinfection products on higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janik, D.; Macler, B.; Macelroy, R. D.; Thorstenson, Y.; Sauer, R.

    1989-01-01

    Iodine is used to disinfect potable water on United States spacecraft. Iodinated potable water will likely be used to grow plants in space. Little is known about the effects of iodine disinfection products on plants. Seeds of select higher plants were germinated in water iodinated using the Shuttle Microbial Check Valve, and water to which measured amounts of iodine was added. Percent germination was decreased in seeds of most species germinated in iodinated water. Beans were most affected. Germination rates, determined from germination half-times, were decreased for beans germinated in iodinated water, and water to which iodide was added. Development was retarded and rootlets were conspicuously absent in bean and several other plant species germinated in iodinated water. Iodide alone did not elicit these responses. Clearly iodine disinfection products can affect higher plants. These effects must be carefully considered for plant experimentation and cultivation in space, and in design and testing of closed environmental life support systems.

  7. Levels of iodine and other elements in drinking water across rural counties adjoining a former uranium mining and milling works, through short-time activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Vieira, Bruno J.; Pacheco, Adriano M. G.

    2007-08-01

    In this study, drinking waters from the Urgeiriça region (Centre-North of Portugal) were collected for (potential) health concerns over their (actual) iodine contents. After freeze-drying 1 L of each water, neutron activation analysis (NAA) with both thermal and epithermal neutrons was applied, the latter to ease the determination of iodine. Levels of iodine were found to be low and not likely associated to a higher risk of thyroid cancers in the area. However, other chemical elements in the sampled waters could pose some threats from the point of view of human health: aluminium and bromine. Some samples contained arsenic and/or uranium, yet the levels of these two elements were below the regulated values. NAA demonstrated to be very adequate for analysis of iodine and other elements, via short-lived nuclides.

  8. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  9. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  10. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo Ndebele's…

  11. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  12. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  13. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  14. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  15. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  16. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  17. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  18. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  19. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  20. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  1. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  2. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  3. Occurrence and variability of iodinated trihalomethanes concentrations within two drinking-water distribution networks.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Panagiotis; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2016-02-01

    Non-iodo-containing trihalomethanes (TTHM) are frequently detected in chlorinated tap water and currently regulated against their carcinogenic potential. Iodinated THM (ITHM) may also form in disinfected with chlorine waters that are high in iodine content, but little is known about their magnitude and variability within the drinking-water pipe distribution network of urban areas. The main objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and variability of ITHM and TTHM levels and their corresponding daily intake estimates within the drinking water distribution systems of Limassol and Nicosia cities of Cyprus, using tap samples collected from individual households (n=37). In Limassol, mean household tap water ITHM and TTHM levels was 0.58 and 38 μg L(-1), respectively. Dichloroiodomethane (DCIM) was the dominant species of the two measured ITHM compounds accounting for 77% of total ITHM and in the range of 0.032 and 1.65 μg L(-1). The range of DCIM concentrations in Nicosia tap water samples was narrower (0.032 - 0.848 μg L(-1)). Mean total iodine concentration in tap water samples from the seaside city of Limassol was 15 μg L(-1) and approximately twice to those observed in samples from the mainland Nicosia city. However, iodine concentrations did not correlate with the ITHM levels. The calculated chronic daily intake rates of ITHM were low when compared with those of TTHM, but because of their widespread occurrence in tap water and their enhanced mammalian cell toxicity, additional research is warranted to assess the magnitude and variability of human ITHM exposures.

  4. Iodine status and thyroid volume changes during pregnancy: results of a survey in Aran Valley (Catalan Pyrenees).

    PubMed

    Vila, L; Legaz, G; Barrionuevo, C; Espinel, M L; Casamitjana, R; Muñoz, J; Serra-Prat, M; Puig-Domingo, M

    2008-10-01

    The Aran Valley (Catalan Pyrenees, Spain) has a long-standing history of iodine deficiency. A survey was performed to determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency (urinary iodine<150 microg/l) in pregnant women from this region during the 1st and 3rd trimesters of gestation and to evaluate the changes in thyroid volume (TV). Of all the registered pregnancies in the area, in the first semester of the year 2000, 35 women (90%) were studied. Urinary iodine (UI) was measured and a thyroid ultrasonography performed during the 1st and 3rd trimester and their iodized salt consumption was recorded. Of the whole group, 77.1% of pregnant women reported regular intake of iodized salt.Median UI in the first trimester was 134.5 microg/l. Iodine deficiency was observed in 57.1%of women in the 1st trimester and in 46.7% in the 3rd trimester (p=0.1). In 10 women supplemented with iodine (150 microg/day) from the 1st trimester, median UI increased from 138.5 microg/l in the 1st trimester to 168 mug/l in the 3rd trimester (p=0.037), and no changes were observed in the rest. TV increased in the whole group during pregnancy (median 7.5 ml in the 1st trimester vs 9.5 ml in the 3rd trimester; p<0.001). The change in TV was significant in those cases with iodine deficiency in the 1st trimester, 3rd trimester or both (median 7.5ml in the 1st trimester vs 10.01 ml in the 3rd trimester; p=0.001) and between multiparous women (8.2 vs 10.9 ml; p=0.005). In 2000, iodine deficiency among pregnant women in the Aran Valley was still very high. Iodine deficiency as well as multiparity contributes to goitrogenesis during pregnancy. Taking this data in account, pre-conceptional supplements with iodine are required for its prevention.

  5. Addition of chlorine during water purification reduces iodine content of drinking water and contributes to iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Samson, L; Czegeny, I; Mezosi, E; Erdei, A; Bodor, M; Cseke, B; Burman, K D; Nagy, E V

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water is the major natural source of iodine in many European countries. In the present study, we examined possible sites of iodine loss during the usual water purification process.Water samples from 6 sites during the technological process were taken and analyzed for iodine content. Under laboratory circumstances, prepared iodine in water solution has been used as a model to test the effect of the presence of chlorine. Samples from the purification sites revealed that in the presence of chlorine there is a progressive loss of iodine from the water. In the chlorine concentrations employed in the purification process, 24-h chlorine exposure eliminated more than 50% of iodine when the initial iodine concentration was 250 μg/l or less. Iodine was completely eliminated if the starting concentration was 16 μg/l.We conclude that chlorine used during water purification may be a major contributor to iodine deficiency in European communities.

  6. [Application of iodine metabolism analysis methods in thyroid diseases].

    PubMed

    Han, Jian-hua; Qiu, Ling

    2013-08-01

    The main physiological role of iodine in the body is to synthesize thyroid hormone. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can lead to severe thyroid diseases. While its role in thyroid diseases has increasingly been recognized, few relevant platforms and techniques for iodine detection have been available in China. This paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of currently iodine detection methods including direct titration, arsenic cerium catalytic spectrophotometry, chromatography with pulsed amperometry, colorimetry based on automatic biochemistry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, so as to optimize the iodine nutrition for patients with thyroid diseases.

  7. The uptake of elemental iodine vapour by bean leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, J. A.; Cox, L. C.

    Deposition of iodine vapour to leaves of phaseolus vulgaris was measured over a range of conditions of humidity, temperature and illumination. Transpiration measurements were used to deduce stomatal opening. The results showed that stomatal resistance controlled iodine absorption at relative humidities below 40 per cent, but that the rate of absorption of iodine increased by an order of magnitude when the relative humidity was raised to 80 per cent, presumably due to cuticular absorption. After exposure to iodine at high humidity, a substantial fraction of the iodine could be washed from the leaves. In Britain, cuticular uptake would probably dominate stomatal uptake of iodine on most occasions.

  8. Iodine-129 Dose in LLW Disposal Facility Performance Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1999-10-15

    Iodine-129 has the lowest Performance Assessment derived inventory limit in SRS disposal facilities. Because iodine is concentrated in the body to one organ, the thyroid, it has been thought that dilution with stable iodine would reduce the dose effects of 129I.Examination of the dose model used to establish the Dose conversion factor for 129I shows that, at the levels considered in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities, the calculated 129I dose already accounts for ingestion of stable iodine. At higher than normal iodine ingestion rates, the uptake of iodine by the thyroid itself decrease, which effectively cancels out the isotopic dilution effect.

  9. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine....

  10. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine....

  11. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine....

  12. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine....

  13. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine....

  14. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  15. Mixed-layered bismuth--oxygen--iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2015-01-06

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  16. Iodine toxicity and its amelioration.

    PubMed

    Baker, David H

    2004-06-01

    Iodine (I) toxicity is rare in animals and humans, but nuclear explosions that give off radioactive I and excessive stable I ingestion in parts of the world where seaweed is consumed represent specialized I toxicity concerns. Chronic overconsumption of I reduces organic binding of I by the thyroid gland, which results in hypothyroidism and goiter. Bromine can replace I on position 5 of both T(3) and T(4) with no loss of thyroid hormone activity. Avian work has also demonstrated that oral bromide salts can reverse the malaise and growth depressions caused by high doses of I (as KI) added as supplements to the diet. Newborn infants by virtue of having immature thyroid glands are most susceptible to I toxicity, whether of stable or radioactive origin. For the latter, the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident in Belarus has provided evidence that KI blockage therapy for exposed individuals 18 years of age and younger is effective in minimizing the development of thyroid cancer. Whether bromide therapy has a place in I toxicity situations remains to be determined.

  17. Single ionization of molecular iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Dale L.; Tagliamonti, Vincent; Dragan, James; Gibson, George N.

    2017-01-01

    We performed a study of the single ionization of iodine, I2 over a range of wavelengths. Single ionization of I2 is unexpectedly found to have a contribution from inner molecular orbitals involving the 5 s electrons. The I+I+ dissociation channel was recorded through velocity map imaging, and the kinetic-energy release of each channel was determined with two-dimensional fitting of the images. Most of the measured kinetic-energy data were inconsistent with ionization to the X , A , and B states of I2 + , implying ionization from deeper orbitals. A pump-probe Fourier transform technique was used to look for modulation at the X - and A -state vibrational frequencies to see if they were intermediate states in a two-step process. X - and A -state modulation was seen only for kinetic-energy releases below 0.2 eV, consistent with dissociation through the B state. From these results and intensity-, polarization-, and wavelength-dependent experiments we found no evidence of bond softening, electron rescattering, or photon mediation through the X or A states to higher-energy single-ionization channels.

  18. Contents of cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in selected human organs of adult asian population.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, G V; Kawamura, H; Dang, H S; Parr, R M; Wang, J W; Cho, S Y; Natera, E S

    2004-08-01

    Contents of cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in some selected human organs were estimated for adult Asian population using data obtained in four Asian countries: China, India, Philippines, and Republic of Korea, as part of a Coordinated Research Program of the International Atomic Energy Agency on "Ingestion and Organ contents of elements of importance in radiation protection." These countries together represent more than 40% of the world population. Highly sensitive analytical techniques were employed to measure cesium in skeletal muscle, iodine in thyroid, strontium in skeleton, thorium and uranium in skeleton, liver, kidneys, and lungs where, in comparison to other organs, these elements are present in higher concentrations. The organ contents for adult Asian population, when compared with the corresponding data proposed for Reference Man by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), showed about 40 times lower kidneys content and about 10 times lower skeleton content of uranium. The content of thorium in skeleton for Asian population was also half of the ICRP Reference Man value. Interestingly, organ contents for the other elements such as iodine in thyroid, cesium in skeletal muscle, and strontium in skeleton were comparable for Asian and the Caucasian population (represented by ICRP Reference Man). Organ contents for these elements were also calculated by applying the new ICRP models of these elements to their daily intakes. The comparison of the calculated and measured organ contents showed that despite uncertainties in the organ content values arising due to the inter-country variations in daily dietary intakes, the contents were within a factor of two to three. This observation is significant since human data both on organ contents and ingestion were obtained at environmental level of intakes. The study suggests that currently available ICRP models for these elements are quite realistic.

  19. Chamber studies of atmospheric iodine chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxmann, J.; Nájera, J.; Schmitt, S.; Bleicher, S.; Pöhler, D.; Horbanski, M.; Platt, U.; Zetzsch, C.; Bloss, W. J.

    2012-12-01

    Iodine chemistry has been shown to occur through much of the marine boundary layer (MBL). It leads to significant impacts upon atmospheric oxidising capacity, ozone levels and particle number concentration; however, there are major uncertainties in our knowledge of the iodine chemical reaction system, which limit our ability to accurately quantify these impacts using atmospheric models. In this work we report the results of novel atmospheric simulation chamber experiments, to study aspects of the fast gas-phase inorganic iodine oxide chemistry. We consider two specific issues here: First, in the presence of moderate levels of NO2, most current models predict that most active iodine should exist as INO3 (whose lifetime is controlled primarily by photolysis) and that levels of IO and OIO should be minimal. This is in contrast to observations from recent field measurements from semi-polluted coastal MBL locations which find significant levels of IO in the presence of NOx. Explanations include possible reactions of INO3 with I or O3 regenerating IO, or errors in the INO3 photochemical parameters. Second, while ozone loss is almost universally cited as a reason to study atmospheric iodine chemistry, calculations of the actual ozone destruction rate which results from a given iodine source term are rather uncertain - as we do not have quantitative understanding of the fate of the many potential iodine oxide species formed. This limits our ability to predict the steady state IO levels which will exist in equilibrium with a given iodine source term, and the resulting ozone loss rate. Recent field measurements in the MBL struggle to reconcile the observed IO with the measured iodine sources - indicating that additional sources exist, or alternatively that the model representation of the gas-phase iodine sink via higher iodine oxides is incorrect. We report the results from experiments performed in a 3.5 m3 indoor PTFE atmospheric simulation chamber located at Bay

  20. A comparative study on the effects of excess iodine and herbs with excess iodine on thyroid oxidative stress in iodine-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tianshu; Shi, Rui; Qi, Tengche; Yin, Huisi; Mei, Lan; Han, Xiaoqing; Cui, Peng

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of excess iodine and herbs with excess iodine on treating iodine deficiency-induced goiter from the perspective of oxidative stress and to measure selenium values in Chinese herbs. One hundred twenty 4-week-old Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups after inducing iodine-deficiency goiter: normal control group (NC), model control group (MC), iodine excess group (IE), and herbs with iodine excess group (HIE). The activities of oxidative enzymes and levels of oxidative products were measured using biochemical tests. The expression of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) in the thyroid was detected by immunohistochemistry and the expression of peroxiredoxin 5 (PRDX5) by the Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Selenium values in iodine-excessive herbs were measured by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The herbs with iodine excess were tested to contain rich selenium. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and PRDX5 increased markedly, and the values of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-HNE decreased significantly in the HIE group. In conclusion, compared with excess iodine, herbs with excess iodine damaged thyroid follicular cells less, which may be related to the increase of antioxidant capacity and rich selenium values in iodine-excessive herbs.

  1. Iodine nutrition and toxicity in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae.

    PubMed

    Penglase, S; Harboe, T; Sæle, O; Helland, S; Nordgreen, A; Hamre, K

    2013-01-01

    Copepods as feed promote better growth and development in marine fish larvae than rotifers. However, unlike rotifers, copepods contain several minerals such as iodine (I), at potentially toxic levels. Iodine is an essential trace element and both under and over supply of I can inhibit the production of the I containing thyroid hormones. It is unknown whether marine fish larvae require copepod levels of I or if mechanisms are present that prevent I toxicity. In this study, larval Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were fed rotifers enriched to intermediate (26 mg I kg(-1) dry weight; MI group) or copepod (129 mg I kg(-1) DW; HI group) I levels and compared to cod larvae fed control rotifers (0.6 mg I kg(-1) DW). Larval I concentrations were increased by 3 (MI) and 7 (HI) fold compared to controls during the rotifer feeding period. No differences in growth were observed, but the HI diet increased thyroid follicle colloid to epithelium ratios, and affected the essential element concentrations of larvae compared to the other groups. The thyroid follicle morphology in the HI larvae is typical of colloid goitre, a condition resulting from excessive I intake, even though whole body I levels were below those found previously in copepod fed cod larvae. This is the first observation of dietary induced I toxicity in fish, and suggests I toxicity may be determined to a greater extent by bioavailability and nutrient interactions than by total body I concentrations in fish larvae. Rotifers with 0.6 mg I kg(-1) DW appeared sufficient to prevent gross signs of I deficiency in cod larvae reared with continuous water exchange, while modelling of cod larvae versus rotifer I levels suggests that optimum I levels in rotifers for cod larvae is 3.5 mg I kg(-1) DW.

  2. Iodine nutrition and toxicity in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae

    PubMed Central

    Penglase, S; Harboe, T; Sæle, Ø; Helland, S; Nordgreen, A

    2013-01-01

    Copepods as feed promote better growth and development in marine fish larvae than rotifers. However, unlike rotifers, copepods contain several minerals such as iodine (I), at potentially toxic levels. Iodine is an essential trace element and both under and over supply of I can inhibit the production of the I containing thyroid hormones. It is unknown whether marine fish larvae require copepod levels of I or if mechanisms are present that prevent I toxicity. In this study, larval Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were fed rotifers enriched to intermediate (26 mg I kg-1 dry weight; MI group) or copepod (129 mg I kg-1 DW; HI group) I levels and compared to cod larvae fed control rotifers (0.6 mg I kg-1 DW). Larval I concentrations were increased by 3 (MI) and 7 (HI) fold compared to controls during the rotifer feeding period. No differences in growth were observed, but the HI diet increased thyroid follicle colloid to epithelium ratios, and affected the essential element concentrations of larvae compared to the other groups. The thyroid follicle morphology in the HI larvae is typical of colloid goitre, a condition resulting from excessive I intake, even though whole body I levels were below those found previously in copepod fed cod larvae. This is the first observation of dietary induced I toxicity in fish, and suggests I toxicity may be determined to a greater extent by bioavailability and nutrient interactions than by total body I concentrations in fish larvae. Rotifers with 0.6 mg I kg-1 DW appeared sufficient to prevent gross signs of I deficiency in cod larvae reared with continuous water exchange, while modelling of cod larvae versus rotifer I levels suggests that optimum I levels in rotifers for cod larvae is 3.5 mg I kg-1 DW. PMID:23638355

  3. Iodine chemical forms in LWR severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1991-01-01

    Calculated data from seven severe accident sequences in light water reactor plants were used to assess the chemical forms of iodine in containment. In most of the calculations for the seven sequences, iodine entering containment from the reactor coolant system was almost entirely in the form of CsI with very small contributions of I or HI. The largest fraction of iodine in forms other than CsI was a total of 3.2% as I plus HI. Within the containment, the CsI will deposit onto walls and other surfaces, as well as in water pools, largely in the form of iodide (I{sup {minus}}). The radiation-induced conversion of I{sup {minus}} in water pools into I{sub 2} is strongly dependent on pH. In systems where the pH was controlled above 7, little additional elemental iodine would be produced in the containment atmosphere. When the pH falls below 7, it may be assumed that it is not being controlled and large fractions of iodine as I{sub 2} within the containment atmosphere may be produced. 17 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. Iodine chemical forms in LWR severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Kress, T.S.; Parker, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    Calculated data from seven severe accident sequences in light-water reactor plants were used to assess the chemical forms of iodine in containment. In most of the calculations for the seven sequences, iodine entering containment from the reactor coolant system was almost entirely in the form of CsI with very small contributions of I or HI. The largest fraction of iodine in forms other than CsI was a total of 3.2% as I plus HI. Within the containment, the CsI will deposit onto walls and other surfaces, as well as in water pools, largely in the form of iodide (I{sup {minus}}). The radiation induced conversion of I{sup {minus}} in water pools into I{sub 2} is strongly dependent on pH. In systems where the pH was controlled above 7, little additional elemental iodine would be produced in the containment atmosphere. When the pH falls below 7, it may be assumed that it is not being controlled, and large fractions of iodine as I{sub 2} within the containment atmosphere may be produced. 16 refs.

  5. IODINE NUTRITION DURING PREGNANCY IN TORONTO, CANADA

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Pamela M.; Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Tomlinson, George; He, Xuemei; Vertes, Jaclyn; Okun, Nan; Walfish, Paul G.; Feig, Denice S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the status of iodine nutrition among pregnant women presenting for routine antenatal care in Toronto, Canada, as determined by the median urine iodine concentration (UIC) of this population. Methods A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted involving 142 pregnant women recruited from four low-risk antenatal outpatient clinics in Toronto, Canada. Subjects completed a questionnaire and provided a spot urine sample for the measurement of iodine concentration. Results Mean maternal age was 33.8 ± 4.3 years. Mean gestational age was 29.3 ± 7.8 weeks. The median UIC was 221 μg/L (interquartile range, 142 to 397 μg/L). Six women (4.2%) had urine iodine levels <50 μg/L, and 36 women (25.4%) had levels between 50 and 150 μg/L. Conclusion This cohort of primarily Caucasian, well-educated, and relatively affluent pregnant women in Toronto, Canada, are iodine sufficient, perhaps due to universal salt iodization and/or other dietary and lifestyle factors. PMID:23186967

  6. Beverage Consumption Habits in Italian Population: Association with Total Water Intake and Energy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Mistura, Lorenza; D’Addezio, Laura; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate total water intake (TWI) from water, beverages and foods among Italian adults and the elderly. Methods: Data of 2607 adults and the elderly, aged 18–75 years from the last national food consumption survey, INRAN-SCAI 2005-06, were used to evaluate the TWI. The INRAN-SCAI 2005-06 survey was conducted on a representative sample of 3323 individuals aged 0.1 to 97.7 years. A 3-day semi-structured diary was used for participants to record the consumption of all foods, beverages and nutritional supplements. Results: On average, TWI was 1.8 L for men and 1.7 L for women. More than 75% of women and 90% of men did not comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Adequate Intake. The contribution of beverages to the total energy intake (EI) was 6% for the total sample. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by alcoholic beverages for men and hot beverages for women. Conclusion: According to the present results, adults and elderly Italians do not reach the adequate intake for water as suggested by the EFSA and by the national reference level of nutrient and energy intake. Data on water consumption should also be analyzed in single socio-demographic groups in order to identify sub-groups of the population that need more attention and to plan more targeted interventions. PMID:27792160

  7. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (10/14/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadben,. Director, to Nancy Wrona and Dennis Smith informing them that Maricopa County's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2003 MAGCO Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  8. Region 6: Texas Adequate Letter (4/16/2010)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Texas Commission on Environmental Quality determined 2021 motor vehicle emission budgets for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for Beaumont/Port Arthur area adequate for transportation conformity purposes

  9. Region 2: New Jersey Adequate Letter (5/23/2002)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This April 22, 2002 letter from EPA to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection determined 2007 and 2014 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Mobile Source Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal

  10. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (10/29/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Denvers' particulate matter (PM10) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  11. Region 1: New Hampshire Adequate Letter (8/12/2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This July 9, 2008 letter from EPA to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, determined the 2009 Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets (MVEBs) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal Register (FR).

  12. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (1/20/2004)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Greeleys' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the FR.

  13. Region 8: Utah Adequate Letter (6/10/2005)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Utah Department of Environmental Quality determined Salt Lake Citys' and Ogdens' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  14. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  15. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  16. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  17. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  18. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  19. Region 6: New Mexico Adequate Letter (8/21/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Carl Edlund, Director, to Alfredo Santistevan regarding MVEB's contained in the latest revision to the Albuquerque Carbon Monoxide State Implementation Plan (SIP) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  20. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  1. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  2. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  3. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  4. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  5. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  6. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  7. Region 9: Nevada Adequate Letter (3/30/2006)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Deborah Jordan, Director, to Leo M. Drozdoff regarding Nevada's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2005 Truckee Meadows CO Redesignation Request and Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity decisions.

  8. Effects of organic impurities on the partitioning of iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, J.B.; Kelly, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    For the purpose of iodine source term calculations, a knowledge of the time dependence of iodine partitioning and the composition of the volatile iodine species may be very important. This study demonstrates the disposition of iodine in a water-air system subjected to gamma radiation can be significantly affected by the presence of organics in the liquid and/or vapor phases. The presence of methanol in a gamma-irradiated water-air-iodine system tends to increase the total iodine partition coefficient over that which would be observed in the absence of methanol. In contrast to methanol, the presence of methane tends to lower the IPC of an irradiated water-air-iodine system, because gaseous molecular iodine (I/sub 2/)and methane react to form highly volatile organic iodides.

  9. Iodination of organic compounds via organoborane intermediates: new methods

    SciTech Connect

    Gooch, E.E. III

    1981-01-01

    The incorporation of iodine into organic molecules can be accomplished through the use of organoboranes as synthetic intermediates. However, the iodination of organoboranes with molecular iodine is not suitable for the efficient incorporation of radioiodine into organic molecules since one-half of the radionuclide is lost as iodide. The iodination of organoboranes, vinylboronic acids and arylboronic acids was studied, using iodine monochloride or sodium iodide/chloramine-T. Both synthetic methods were rapid and efficient methods for iodinating organic substrates, including those with functional groups. The reactions provided maximum utilization of radioiodine in the synthesis of iodine-125 labeled compounds, both in preliminary tracer studies, and in experiments using carrier-free iodine-125.

  10. Iodine Propulsion Advantages for Low Cost Mission Applications and the Iodine Satellite (ISAT) Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Schumacher, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Science and Technology Office is continuously exploring technology options to increase performance or reduce cost and risk to future NASA missions including science and exploration. Electric propulsion is a prevalent technology known to reduce mission costs by reduction in launch costs and spacecraft mass through increased post launch propulsion performance. The exploration of alternative propellants for electric propulsion continues to be of interest to the community. Iodine testing has demonstrated comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density resulting in higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's unique properties also allow for unpressurized storage yet sublimation with minimal power requirements to produce required gas flow rates. These characteristics make iodine an ideal propellant for secondary spacecraft. A range of mission have been evaluated with a focus on low-cost applications. Results highlight the potential for significant cost reduction over state of the art. Based on the potential, NASA has been developing the iodine Satellite for a near-term iodine Hall propulsion technology demonstration. Mission applications and progress of the iodine Satellite project are presented.

  11. Electric Oxygen Iodine Laser: A Study for Scaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-03

    active components in the flow is small, resulting in a low gain coefficient . To produce a high- power oxygen iodine laser system it will be necessary... iodine laser: A study for scaling Sb. GRANT NUMBER F A9550-07-l-0529 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Michael C. Heaven Se...potentially limit scaling of the electric oxygen iodine laser (EOIL) were examined. Quenching of excited iodine atoms (I*) by atomic oxygen has been

  12. Impacts of stable element intake on 14C and 129I dose estimates.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Dade W; Ryan, Michael T; Sun, Lin-Shen C; Cherry, Robert N

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and provide insights related to the influence of the intake of stable isotopes of carbon and iodine on the committed doses due to the ingestion of (14)C and (129)I. This was accomplished through the application of two different computational approaches. The first was based on the assumption that ground (drinking) water was the only source of intake of (14)C and (129)I, as well as stable carbon and stable iodine. In the second, the intake of (14)C and (129)I was still assumed to be restricted to that in the ground (drinking) water, but the intake of stable carbon and stable iodine was expanded to include that in other components of the diet. The doses were estimated using either a conversion formula or the applicable dose coefficients in Federal Guidance Reports No. 11 and No. 13. Serving as input for the analyses was the estimated maximum concentrations of (14)C or (129)I that would be present in the ground water due to potential releases from the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository during the first 10,000 y after closure. The estimated contributions of stable carbon and iodine through the consumption of ground water were based on analyses of samples collected in the Amargosa Valley, NV. The contributions through dietary intake were based on surveys conducted in the United States. Based on the accompanying analyses, it was noted that stable isotope intake has a significant effect on the estimated doses due to the intake of radioactive isotopes of the same element. While this is a well-known fact, this observation has international implications in terms of dose estimates for key radionuclides, such as (14)C and (129)I, a primary reason being the wide variations in the intakes of stable carbon and iodine in various countries. For this reason, analysts planning to apply the dose coefficients developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) should either confirm that the

  13. Measurement of the iodine partition coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Furrer, M.; Cripps, R.C.; Gubler, R.

    1985-08-01

    The hydrolysis of iodine is complicated because it involves a number of species that differ considerably in their individual volatilities. Large uncertainties exist in the thermodynamic data of some of the iodine species, especially at temperatures above 25C. Because of this, an experiment was undertaken to measure the partition coefficient under varying physical and chemical conditions. Measurements of P were made for a temperature range of 21 to 113C under well-defined conditions (liquid molar concentration, pH, and redox potential) for inorganic iodine. The experimental results are interpreted with the aid of an analytical model and published thermodynamic data. A good agreement between calculated and measured values was found. The experimental setup allows the determination of very high partition coefficients up to a value of 2.0 X 10W. This is demonstrated by adding cesium-iodide to the fuel pool water of a boiling water reactor.

  14. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Kim, K. H.; Stock, L. V.

    1987-01-01

    The improvement on the collection system of the Tarmarack Solar Simulator beam was attemped. The basic study of evaluating the solid state laser materials for the solar pumping and also the work to construct a kinetic model algorithm for the flashlamp pumped iodine lasers were carried out. It was observed that the collector cone worked better than the lens assembly in order to collect the solar simulator beam and to focus it down to a strong power density. The study on the various laser materials and their lasing characteristics shows that the neodymium and chromium co-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (Nr:Cr:GSGG) may be a strong candidate for the high power solar pumped solid state laser crystal. On the other hand the improved kinetic modeling for the flashlamp pumped iodine laser provides a good agreement between the theoretical model and the experimental data on the laser power output, and predicts the output parameters of a solar pumped iodine laser.

  15. The Ozone-Iodine-Chlorate Clock Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Sant'Anna, Rafaela T. P.; Monteiro, Emily V.; Pereira, Juliano R. T.; Faria, Roberto B.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a new clock reaction based on ozone, iodine, and chlorate that differs from the known chlorate-iodine clock reaction because it does not require UV light. The induction period for this new clock reaction depends inversely on the initial concentrations of ozone, chlorate, and perchloric acid but is independent of the initial iodine concentration. The proposed mechanism considers the reaction of ozone and iodide to form HOI, which is a key species for producing non-linear autocatalytic behavior. The novelty of this system lies in the presence of ozone, whose participation has never been observed in complex systems such as clock or oscillating reactions. Thus, the autocatalysis demonstrated in this new clock reaction should open the possibility for a new family of oscillating reactions. PMID:24386257

  16. The ozone-iodine-chlorate clock reaction.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Rafaela T P; Monteiro, Emily V; Pereira, Juliano R T; Faria, Roberto B

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a new clock reaction based on ozone, iodine, and chlorate that differs from the known chlorate-iodine clock reaction because it does not require UV light. The induction period for this new clock reaction depends inversely on the initial concentrations of ozone, chlorate, and perchloric acid but is independent of the initial iodine concentration. The proposed mechanism considers the reaction of ozone and iodide to form HOI, which is a key species for producing non-linear autocatalytic behavior. The novelty of this system lies in the presence of ozone, whose participation has never been observed in complex systems such as clock or oscillating reactions. Thus, the autocatalysis demonstrated in this new clock reaction should open the possibility for a new family of oscillating reactions.

  17. Intake of intense sweeteners in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bär, A; Biermann, C

    1992-03-01

    values. No subject exceeded the ADI of aspartame or saccharin on any day of the study. For cyclamate, the mean daily intake over the 7-day period exceeded the ADI in 4 subjects. The results indicate that at the time of the study the then valid German sweetener regulation protected the consumer adequately, and that the sweetener intake was in 99.8% of all examined persons within recommended limits.

  18. Particles and iodine compounds in coastal Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscoe, Howard K.; Jones, Anna E.; Brough, Neil; Weller, Rolf; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Schoenhardt, Anja; Burrows, John P.; Fleming, Zoe L.

    2015-07-01

    Aerosol particle number concentrations have been measured at Halley and Neumayer on the Antarctic coast, since 2004 and 1984, respectively. Sulphur compounds known to be implicated in particle formation and growth were independently measured: sulphate ions and methane sulphonic acid in filtered aerosol samples and gas phase dimethyl sulphide for limited periods. Iodine oxide, IO, was determined by a satellite sensor from 2003 to 2009 and by different ground-based sensors at Halley in 2004 and 2007. Previous model results and midlatitude observations show that iodine compounds consistent with the large values of IO observed may be responsible for an increase in number concentrations of small particles. Coastal Antarctica is useful for investigating correlations between particles, sulphur, and iodine compounds, because of their large annual cycles and the source of iodine compounds in sea ice. After smoothing all the measured data by several days, the shapes of the annual cycles in particle concentration at Halley and Neumayer are approximated by linear combinations of the shapes of sulphur compounds and IO but not by sulphur compounds alone. However, there is no short-term correlation between IO and particle concentration. The apparent correlation by eye after smoothing but not in the short term suggests that iodine compounds and particles are sourced some distance offshore. This suggests that new particles formed from iodine compounds are viable, i.e., they can last long enough to grow to the larger particles that contribute to cloud condensation nuclei, rather than being simply collected by existing particles. If so, there is significant potential for climate feedback near the sea ice zone via the aerosol indirect effect.

  19. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon; Stock, Larry V.

    1989-01-01

    This semiannual progress report covers the period from September 1, 1988 to February 28, 1989 under NASA grant NAG-1-441 entitled, Direct Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser Amplifier. During this period, the research effort was concentrated on the solar pumped master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system using n-C3F7I. In the experimental work, the amplification measurement was conducted to identify the optimum conditions for amplification of the center's Vortek solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier. A modeling effort was also pursued to explain the experimental results in the theoretical work. The amplification measurement of the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier is the first amplification experiment on the continuously pumped amplifier. The small signal amplification of 5 was achieved for the triple pass geometry of the 15 cm long solar simulator pumped amplifier at the n-C3F7I pressure of 20 torr, at the flow velocity of 6 m/sec and at the pumping intensity of 1500 solar constants. The XeCl laser pumped iodine laser oscillator, which was developed in the previous research, was employed as the master oscillator for the amplification measurement. In the theoretical work, the rate equations of the amplifier was established and the small signal amplification was calculated for the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier. The amplification calculated from the kinetic equations with the previously measured rate coefficients reveals very large disagreement with experimental measurement. Moreover, the optimum condition predicted by the kinetic equation is quite discrepant with that measured by experiment. This fact indicates the necessity of study in the measurement of rate coefficients of the continuously pumped iodine laser system.

  20. Iodine stability in salt double-fortified with iron and iodine.

    PubMed

    Diosady, L L; Alberti, J O; Ramcharan, K; Mannar, M G Venkatesh

    2002-06-01

    Deficiencies in small quantities of micronutrients, especially iodine and iron, severely affect more than a third of the world's population, resulting in serious public health consequences, especially for women and young children. Salt is an ideal carrier of micronutrients. The double fortification of salt with both iodine and iron is an attractive approach to the reduction of both anemia and iodine-deficiency disorders. Because iodine is unstable under the storage conditions found during the manufacturing, distribution, and sale of salt in most developing countries, the effects of packaging materials and environmental conditions on the stability of salt double-fortified with iron and iodine were investigated. Salt was double-fortified with potassium iodide or potassium iodate and with ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate. The effects of stabilizers on the stability of iodine and iron were followed by storing the salt under three conditions that represent the extremes of normal distribution and sale for salt in developing countries: room temperature (25 degrees C) with 50%-70% relative humidity, 40 degrees C with 60% relative humidity, and 40 degrees C with 100% relative humidity. The effects of stabilizers, such as sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), calcium carbonate, calcium silicate, and dextrose were investigated. None of the combinations of iron and iodine compounds was stable at elevated temperatures. Essentially all of the iodine was lost over a period of six months. SHMP effectively slowed down the iodine loss, whereas magnesium chloride, a typical hygroscopic impurity, greatly accelerated this process. Calcium carbonate did not have a sparing effect on iodine, despite contrary indications in the literature. Ferrous sulfate-fortified salts generally turned yellow and developed an unpleasant rusty flavor. Salt fortified with ferrous fumarate and potassium, iodide was reasonably stable and maintained its organoleptic properties, making it more likely to be

  1. Effects of organic impurities on the partitioning of iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    For the purposes of iodine source term calculations a knowledge of the time-dependence of iodine partitioning and the composition of the volatile iodine species may be very important. This study demonstrates that the disposition of iodine in a water-air system subjected to gamma radiation can be significantly affected by the presence of organics in the liquid and/or vapor phases. A useful parameter for characterizing the distribution of iodine between the liquid and vapor phases is the time dependent iodine partition coefficient (IPC) defined by: IPC = (Total Iodine Concentration in Liquid Phase)/(Total Iodine Concentration in Vapor Phase). The addition of methanol to a gamma-irradiated water-air-iodine system tends to increase the IPC over that which would be observed in the absence of methanol. This increase in the IPC is attributed to the ability of methanol to inhibit the formation of volatile molecular iodine by scavenging the hydroxyl radicals necessary to initiate molecular iodine formation. In the presence of gamma radiation, gaseous molecular iodine (I{sub 2}) and methane may react to form volatile organic iodides (mainly methyl iodide) which tend to lower the IPC of a system. It is evident that the formation of volatile organic iodide species depends strongly on the specific organic present in the system.

  2. Iodine evolution from nuclear fuel dissolver solutions by air sparging

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.G.; Holland, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    Iodine removal rates were measured from air-sparged nitric acid solutions in experiments designed to simulate part of the iodine recovery system in an advanced fuel reprocessing flowsheet. Variables studied were temperature, sparge rate, and iodine and acid concentrations. Experimental mass transfer coefficients were determined and compared to results based on correlations available in the literature.

  3. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1157 Iodinated casein tablets. (a) Specifications. Each 1-gram tablet contains 25 milligrams of iodinated casein. (b)...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1157 Iodinated casein tablets. (a) Specifications. Each 1-gram tablet contains 25 milligrams of iodinated casein. (b)...

  5. A quantitative model of the biogeochemical transport of iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, H.; Ji, Z.; Weng, J.

    2010-12-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are among the world’s most prevalent public health problems yet preventable by dietary iodine supplements. To better understand the biogeochemical behavior of iodine and to explore safer and more efficient ways of iodine supplementation as alternatives to iodized salt, we studied the behavior of iodine as it is absorbed, accumulated and released by plants. Using Chinese cabbage as a model system and the 125I tracing technique, we established that plants uptake exogenous iodine from soil, most of which are transported to the stem and leaf tissue. The level of absorption of iodine by plants is dependent on the iodine concentration in soil, as well as the soil types that have different iodine-adsorption capacity. The leaching experiment showed that the remainder soil content of iodine after leaching is determined by the iodine-adsorption ability of the soil and the pH of the leaching solution, but not the volume of leaching solution. Iodine in soil and plants can also be released to the air via vaporization in a concentration-dependent manner. This study provides a scientific basis for developing new methods to prevent IDD through iodized vegetable production.

  6. [Salt intake in children].

    PubMed

    Girardet, J-P; Rieu, D; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Hankard, R; Goulet, O; Simeoni, U; Turck, D; Vidailhet, M

    2014-05-01

    Very early in life, sodium intake correlates with blood pressure level. This warrants limiting the consumption of sodium by children. However, evidence regarding exact sodium requirements in that age range is lacking. This article focuses on the desirable sodium intake according to age as suggested by various groups of experts, on the levels of sodium intake recorded in consumption surveys, and on the public health strategies implemented to reduce salt consumption in the pediatric population. Practical recommendations are given by the Committee on nutrition of the French Society of Pediatrics in order to limit salt intake in children.

  7. Mysterious iodine-overabundance in Antarctic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreibus, G.; Waenke, H.; Schultz, L.

    1986-01-01

    Halogen as well as other trace element concentrations in meteorite finds can be influenced by alteration processes on the Earth's surface. The discovery of Antarctic meteorites offered the opportunity to study meteorites which were kept in one of the most sterile environment of the Earth. Halogen determination in Antartic meteorites was compared with non-Antarctic meteorites. No correlation was found between iodine concentration and the weathering index, or terrestrial age. The halogen measurements indicate a contaminating phase rich in iodine and also containing chlorine. Possible sources for this contamination are discussed.

  8. [Overall child development: beyond pharmacological iodine supplementation].

    PubMed

    Gavilán, Enrique; Jiménez de Gracia, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Iodine deficiency is a factor that may compromise child development, but is not the only one. Other health determinants, some of them outside the healthcare system, are able to influence development. Fighting iodine deficiency may be a pragmatic and useful strategy if it is found to be not maleficent, beneficial to health, and cost-effective, and does not make us lose the notion that child development goes beyond psychomotor or cognitive performance. This article analyzes such constraints from a critical point of view.

  9. Regenerable Iodine Water-Disinfection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Jolly, Clifford D.

    1994-01-01

    Iodinated resin bed for disinfecting water regenerated to extend its useful life. Water flows through regeneration bed of crystalline iodine during regeneration. At other times, flow diverted around regeneration bed. Although regeneration cycle was manually controlled in demonstration, readily automated to start and stop according to signals and stop according to signals from concentration sensors. Further benefit of regeneration is that regeneration bed provides highly concentrated biocide source (200 mg/L) when needed. Concentrated biocide used to superiodinate system after contamination from routine maintenance or unexpected introduction of large concentration of microbes.

  10. Hydrolysis of iodine: equilibria at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.A.; Ramette, R.W.; Mesmer, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrolysis (or disproportionation) of molecular iodine to form iodate and iodide ions has been studied by emf measurements over the temperature range, 3.8/sup 0/ to 209.0/sup 0/C. The interpretation of these results required a knowledge of the formation constant for triiodide ion and the acid dissociation constant of iodic acid, both of which were measured as a function of temperature. The resulting thermodynamic data have been incorporated into a general computer model describing the hydrolysis equilibria of iodine as a function of initial concentration, pH and temperature.

  11. Facile Oxidative Rearrangements Using Hypervalent Iodine Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Fateh V; Rehbein, Julia; Wirth, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Aromatic substituents migrate in a novel oxidative cyclization mediated by iodine(III) reagents. 4-Arylbut-3-enoic acids are cyclized and rearranged to 4-arylfuran-2(5H)-ones by hypervalent iodine compounds in good to excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. Other ring sizes are also accessible. The mechanism of the reaction is described in detail, and calculations highlight the cationic nature of the intermediates in the rearrangement. The fast access to heavily substituted furanones is used for the synthesis of biologically active derivatives. PMID:24551514

  12. An iodine mass-balance for Lake Constance, Germany: Insights into iodine speciation changes and fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfedder, B. S.; Petri, M.; Wessels, M.; Biester, H.

    2010-06-01

    Lake Constance is one of Europe's largest oligotrophic lakes and provides a water source for more than 4.5 million people in Germany and Switzerland. We present here a 12 month study on iodine concentrations, speciation and fluxes to and from the lake to gain a quantitative understanding of the limnic iodine cycle. Monthly water samples were obtained from all major tributaries (14) and the outflow to construct a mass-balance model. Sediment traps were also deployed in the lake for two years at two different stations. Total soluble iodine (TSI) in aqueous samples were analysed by ICP-MS and speciation (iodide, iodate and soluble organically bound iodine, SOI) by ion chromatography-ICP-MS. Iodine concentrations in the Alpine tributaries (1-2 μg l -1) decreased over the summer months due to increasing proportions of snow and glacial melt water from the Alps, while iodine levels in the lowland rivers (˜2-10 μg l -1) increased over the summer. Deposition of TSI to the catchment (16,340 kg I yr -1) was similar to the TSI out-flux by rivers (16,000 kg I yr -1). By also including the particulate riverine iodine flux out of the catchment (˜12,350 kg I yr -1) it is shown that the catchment is a net source of iodine, with the highest particulate fluxes coming from the Alpine rivers. The total TSI flux to the lake was 16,770 kg I yr -1, the largest proportion coming from the Alpenrhein (43%), followed by the Schussen (8%) and Bregenzer Ach (7.7%). Overall the mass-balance for TSI in the lake was negative, with more iodine flowing out of the lake than in (-2050 kg I yr -1; 12% of TSI in-flux). To maintain mass-balance, 8.8 μg I m -2 d -1 from the Obersee and 23 μg I m -2 d -1 from the Untersee must be released from the sediments into the water column. Thus, in comparison with the total iodine flux to the sediments measured by the sediment traps (4762-8075 kg I yr -1), up to 39% of the deposited iodine may be mobilised back into the lake. SOI was the dominant iodine

  13. Seasonal variability of iodine and selenium in surface and groundwater as a factor that may contribute to iodine isotope balance in the thyroid gland and its irradiation in case of radioiodine contamination during accidents at the NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobova, Elena; Kolmykova, Lyudmila; Ryzhenko, Boris; Berezkin, Viktor; Saraeva, Anastasia

    2016-04-01

    Radioiodine release to the environment during the accident at the Chernobyl NPP led to the increased risk of the thyroid cancer cases within the contaminated areas, the effect being aggravated in conditions of stable iodine and selenium deficiency in local food chains. Although the drinking water iodine is usually believed to contribute not more than 10% to local diet, our estimations accounting of water content in other products and several regional studies (e.g. India and Australia) proved its portion to be at least twice as much. As radioiodine isotopes are short-lived, their absorption depends greatly on stable iodine and selenium sufficiency in thyroid gland in the first few days of contamination and seasonal variation of stable iodine and selenium in local sources of drinking water may be significant as modifying the resulting thyroid irradiation in different seasons of the year. The main goal of the study was to evaluate seasonal variation of levels of iodine and selenium in natural waters of the Bryansk region as a possible factor affecting the radioiodine intake by thyroid gland of animals and humans in case of radioiodine contamination during the accident. Seasonal I and Se concentration was measured in the years of 2014 and 2015 at 14 test points characterizing surface (river and lake) and drinking groundwater. Obtained data proved considerable seasonal variation of I and Se concentration in natural waters (3,7-8,1 μg/l and 0,04-0,4 μg/l respectively) related to physico-chemical water parameters, such as pH, Eh and fluctuations in concentration of dissolved organic matter. The widest I and Se seasonal variability was observed in surface and well waters, maximum I level being found in autumn at the end of vegetation period characterized by active I leaching from the decomposed organic residues by long lasting precipitations. The content of selenium in the surface waters during summer-autumn (0,06-0,3 μg/l) was higher than in spring (0,04-0,05

  14. Young Adults' Perceptions of Calcium Intake and Health.

    PubMed

    Marcinow, Michelle L; Randall Simpson, Janis A; Whiting, Susan J; Jung, Mary E; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2017-02-01

    Many young Canadian adults are not meeting dietary calcium recommendations. This is concerning as adequate calcium is important throughout young adulthood to maximize peak bone mass for osteoporosis prevention. There are limited studies that have explored young adults' perceptions toward calcium and health. Our objectives were to determine young adults' (18-34 years) knowledge of calcium in relation to health, facilitators and barriers to adequate calcium intake, and to explore both their suggestions for individual strategies to increase calcium intake and ways to communicate calcium-related messaging to this population. Eight gender-specific focus groups (18 men; 35 women) were conducted using a semistructured interview guide, guided by social cognitive theory. Deductive thematic analysis was used to generate themes. Participants perceived adequate calcium intake to be important for children and older adults but were uncertain of the benefits for their own age group. Perceived positive outcomes (e.g., aesthetics such as strong nails) associated with adequate calcium intake were cited as a motivator to increase intake. Perceived barriers to achieving increased calcium intake included the high cost and inconvenience of milk products and negative practices of dairy farmers. Participants suggested planning healthy well-balanced meals and forming a habit of consuming calcium-rich foods as individual strategies to increase calcium intake. Strategies to convey calcium-related information to young adults included increasing awareness of the importance of calcium via credible sources of information and developing nutrition education curricula. Social media and advertising were perceived as ineffective. Our findings provide key information for nutrition education initiatives.

  15. Source And Sink Of Iodine For Drinking Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Flanagan, David T.; Gibbons, Randall E.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed system for controlling concentration of iodine in potable water exploits temperature dependence of equilibrium partition of iodine between solution in water and residence in ion-exchange resin. Used to maintain concentration of iodine sufficient to kill harmful microbes, but not so great to make water unpalatable. Requires little attention, yet controls concentration of iodine more precisely than iodination and deiodination by manual techniques. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, system has terrestrial applications in regions where water must be kept potable, resupply difficult, and system must operate largely unattended.

  16. Dry method for recycling iodine-loaded silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Thomas R.; Staples, Bruce A.; Murphy, Llewellyn P.

    1978-05-09

    Fission product iodine is removed from a waste gas stream and stored by passing the gas stream through a bed of silver-exchanged zeolite until the zeolite is loaded with iodine, passing dry hydrogen gas through the bed to remove the iodine and regenerate the bed, and passing the hydrogen stream containing the hydrogen iodide thus formed through a lead-exchanged zeolite which adsorbs the radioactive iodine from the gas stream and permanently storing the lead-exchanged zeolite loaded with radioactive iodine.

  17. Severe Hypothyroidism From Iodine Deficiency Associated With Parenteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Golekoh, Marjorie C; Cole, Conrad R; Jones, Nana-Hawa Yayah

    2016-11-01

    Parenteral nutrition is crucial for supply of nutrients in children who cannot tolerate a full enteral diet. In the United States, it is not standard of care to give iodine to children dependent on parenteral nutrition, hence iodine is not routinely included in the micronutrient package. Herein, we present a case of a boy with hypothyroidism secondary to iodine deficiency after prolonged exclusive use of parenteral nutrition. Our case highlights the importance of screening for iodine deficiency and administering timely iodine supplementation in these at-risk children to prevent iatrogenic hypothyroidism.

  18. Regulatory requirements for providing adequate veterinary care to research animals.

    PubMed

    Pinson, David M

    2013-09-01

    Provision of adequate veterinary care is a required component of animal care and use programs in the United States. Program participants other than veterinarians, including non-medically trained research personnel and technicians, also provide veterinary care to animals, and administrators are responsible for assuring compliance with federal mandates regarding adequate veterinary care. All program participants therefore should understand the regulatory requirements for providing such care. The author provides a training primer on the US regulatory requirements for the provision of veterinary care to research animals. Understanding the legal basis and conditions of a program of veterinary care will help program participants to meet the requirements advanced in the laws and policies.

  19. Iodine absorption cells quality evaluation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, Massimo; Holá, Miroslava; Šarbort, Martin; Acef, Ouali; Du-Burck, Frédéric; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2016-12-01

    The absorption cells represent an unique tool for the laser frequency stabilization. They serve as irreplaceable optical frequency references in realization of high-stable laser standards and laser sources for different brands of optical measurements, including the most precise frequency and dimensional measurement systems. One of the most often used absorption media covering visible and near IR spectral range is molecular iodine. It offers rich atlas of very strong and narrow spectral transitions which allow realization of laser systems with ultimate frequency stabilities in or below 10-14 order level. One of the most often disccussed disadvantage of the iodine cells is iodine's corrosivity and sensitivity to presence of foreign substances. The impurities react with absorption media and cause spectral shifts of absorption spectra, spectral broadening of the transitions and decrease achievable signal-to-noise ratio of the detected spectra. All of these unwanted effects directly influence frequency stability of the realized laser standard and due to this fact, the quality of iodine cells must be precisely controlled. We present a comparison of traditionally used method of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) with novel technique based on hyperfine transitions linewidths measurement. The results summarize advantages and drawbacks of these techniques and give a recommendation for their practical usage.

  20. Volcanic iodine monoxide observed from satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Theys, Nicolas; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Halogen species are injected into the atmosphere by volcanic eruptions. Previous studies have reported observations of chlorine and bromine oxides in volcanic plumes. These emissions have a significant impact on the chemistry within the plume as well as on upper troposphere and lower stratosphere composition, e.g. through ozone depletion. Volcanic halogen oxides have been observed from different platforms, from ground, aircraft and from satellite. The present study reports on satellite observations of iodine monoxide, IO, following the eruption of the Kasatochi volcano, Alaska, in August 2008. Satellite measurements from the SCIAMACHY sensor onboard ENVISAT are used. In addition, the volcanic IO plume is also retrieved from GOME-2 / MetOP-A measurements. Largest IO column amounts reach up to more than 4×1013 molec/cm2, the results from both instruments being consistent. The IO plume has a very similar shape as the BrO plume and is observed for several days following the eruption. The present observations are the first evidence that besides chlorine and bromine oxides also iodine oxides can be emitted by volcanic eruptions. This has important implications for atmospheric composition and background iodine levels. Together with the simultaneous observations of BrO and SO2, iodine monoxide columns can possibly provide insights into the composition of the magma.

  1. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In H.; Stock, Larry V.

    1988-01-01

    A XeCl laser which was developed earlier for an iodine laser oscillator was modified in order to increase the output pulse energy of XeCl laser so that the iodine laser output energy could be increased. The electrical circuit of the XeCl laser was changed from a simple capacitor discharge circuit of the XeCl laser to a Marx system. Because of this improvement the output energy from the XeCl laser was increased from 60 mj to 80 mj. Subsequently, iodine laser output energy was increased from 100 mj to 3 mj. On the other hand, the energy storage capability and amplification characteristics of the Vortek solar simulator-pumped amplifier was calculated expecting the calculated amplification factor is about 2 and the energy extraction efficiency is 26 percent due to the very low input energy density to the amplifier. As a result of an improved kinetic modeling for the iodine solar simulator pumped power amplifier, it is found that the I-2 along the axis of the tube affects seriously the gain profile. For the gas i-C3F7I at the higher pressures, the gain will decrease due to the I-2 as the pumping intensity increases, and at these higher pressures an increase in flow velocity will increase the gain.

  2. Iodine retention during evaporative volume reduction

    DOEpatents

    Godbee, H.W.; Cathers, G.I.; Blanco, R.E.

    1975-11-18

    An improved method for retaining radioactive iodine in aqueous waste solutions during volume reduction is disclosed. The method applies to evaporative volume reduction processes whereby the decontaminated (evaporated) water can be returned safely to the environment. The method generally comprises isotopically diluting the waste solution with a nonradioactive iodide and maintaining the solution at a high pH during evaporation.

  3. METHOD OF REMOVING RADIOACTIVE IODINE FROM GASES

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, L.

    1962-01-23

    A method of removing radioactive iodine from a gaseous medium is given in which the gaseous medium is adjusted to a temperature not exceeding 400 deg C and then passed over a copper fibrous pad having a coating of cupric sulfide deposited thereon. An ionic exchange on the pad results in the formation of cupric iodide and the release of sulfur. (AEC)

  4. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon

    1990-01-01

    The optimum conditions of a solar pumped iodine laser are found in this research for the case of a continuous wave operation and a pulsed operation. The optimum product of the pressure(p) inside the laser tube and the tube diameter(d) was pd=40 approx. 50 torr-cm on the contrary to the case of a high intensity flashlamp pumped iodine laser where the optimum value of the product is known to be pd=150 torr-cm. The pressure-diameter product is less than 1/3 of that of the high power iodine laser. During the research period, various laser materials were also studied for solar pumping. Among the laser materials, Nd:YAG is found to have the lowest laser threshold pumping intensity of about 200 solar constant. The Rhodamine 6G was also tested as the solar pumped laser material. The threshold pumping power was measured to be about 20,000 solar constant. The amplification experiment for a continuously pumped iodine laser amplifier was performed using Vortek solar simulator and the amplification factors were measured for single pass amplification and triple pass amplification of the 15 cm long amplifier tube. The amplification of 5 was obtained for the triple pass amplification.

  5. Solar-pumped photodissociation iodine laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Weaver, W. R.; Humes, D. H.; Williams, M. D.; Lee, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    The scientific feasibility of a solar-pumped iodine photodissociation laser for space applications is under investigation. Recently, a 2-W CW output for more than one hour was achieved using n-C3F7I vapor as the laser material and a vortex-stabilized argon arc as the light source.

  6. 21 CFR 558.295 - Iodinated casein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.295 Iodinated casein. (a) Approvals. See 017762 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  7. 21 CFR 558.295 - Iodinated casein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.295 Iodinated casein. (a) Approvals. See 017762 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  8. 21 CFR 558.295 - Iodinated casein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.295 Iodinated casein. (a) Approvals. See 017762 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  9. 21 CFR 558.295 - Iodinated casein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.295 Iodinated casein. (a) Approvals. See 017762 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  10. 21 CFR 558.295 - Iodinated casein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.295 Iodinated casein. (a) Approvals. See 017762 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  11. Determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in waters with a new total organic iodine measurement approach.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tingting; Zhang, Xiangru

    2013-11-01

    The dissolved iodine species that dominate aquatic systems are iodide, iodate and organo-iodine. These species may undergo transformation to one another and thus affect the formation of iodinated disinfection byproducts during disinfection of drinking waters or wastewater effluents. In this study, a fast, sensitive and accurate method for determining these iodine species in waters was developed by derivatizing iodide and iodate to organic iodine and measuring organic iodine with a total organic iodine (TOI) measurement approach. Within this method, organo-iodine was determined directly by TOI measurement; iodide was oxidized by monochloramine to hypoiodous acid and then hypoiodous acid reacted with phenol to form organic iodine, which was determined by TOI measurement; iodate was reduced by ascorbic acid to iodide and then determined as iodide. The quantitation limit of organo-iodine or sum of organo-iodine and iodide or sum of organo-iodine, iodide and iodate was 5 μg/L as I for a 40 mL water sample (or 2.5 μg/L as I for an 80 mL water sample, or 1.25 μg/L as I for a 160 mL water sample). This method was successfully applied to the determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in a variety of water samples, including tap water, seawater, urine and wastewater. The recoveries of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine were 91-109%, 90-108% and 91-108%, respectively. The concentrations and distributions of iodine species in different water samples were obtained and compared.

  12. The Iodine Content in Urine, Faeces and Selected Organs of Rats Fed Lettuce Biofortified with Iodine Through Foliar Application.

    PubMed

    Rakoczy, Roksana; Kopeć, Aneta; Piątkowska, Ewa; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Leszczyńska, Teresa; Sady, Włodzimierz

    2016-12-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element for humans. Foliar application of micronutrients is successfully used in order to increase the concentration of essential elements in vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the iodine absorption in the rat organism fed foliar biofortified lettuce. The presented study was consisted of the vegetative and animal experiment. In the vegetative experiment with lettuce, two combinations of foliar application were used: (1) control-without iodine application and (2) iodine application in the potassium iodide (KI) form. In the animal experiment, Wistar rats were divided to four groups, which received one of four diets: (1) C-control diet containing iodine in the KI form, (2) D-diet deficient in iodine, (3) D + BL-diet containing biofortified lettuce, and (4) D + CL-diet containing control lettuce (as the only source of iodine in diet, respectively). The diets contained 0.260, 0.060, 0.254 and 0.075 mg I/kg, respectively. In order to determine the iodine absorption in the rat organisms, the content of this trace element was measured in urine, faeces and in selected organs with the use of the ICP-OES technique. Foliar application of the KI increased the content of iodine in lettuce. The rats from the D + BL group excreted significantly less iodine in their urine and faeces and also accumulated more iodine in the organs than the rats from the C group. Iodine with biofortified lettuce was much bioavailable for rodents than iodine from control diet. Biofortified lettuce can be a source of iodine in a diet of human and can improve iodine nutrition.

  13. Additional studies for the spectrophotometric measurement of iodine in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Previous work in iodine spectroscopy is briefly reviewed. Continued studies of the direct spectrophotometric determination of aqueous iodine complexed with potassium iodide show that free iodine is optimally determined at the isosbestic point for these solutions. The effects on iodine determinations of turbidity and chemical substances (in trace amounts) is discussed and illustrated. At the levels tested, iodine measurements are not significantly altered by such substances. A preliminary design for an on-line, automated iodine monitor with eventual capability of operating also as a controller was analyzed and developed in detail with respect single beam colorimeter operating at two wavelengths (using a rotating filter wheel). A flow-through sample cell allows the instrument to operate continuously, except for momentary stop flow when measurements are made. The timed automatic cycling of the system may be interrupted whenever desired, for manual operation. An analog output signal permits controlling an iodine generator.

  14. Iodine Revolatilization in a Grand Gulf Loca

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    The TRENDS models are applied at each time step to each control volume. Significant amounts of water occur only in the wetwell and drywell sump (the refueling pool is not a factor, as discussed earlier). In Fig. 2, we show the radiolytic acid production feeding into each of these pools. Since the water is initially neutral and no chemical additives are present, the acid additions are the major factors affecting pH. In Fig. 3, we see the downward trend of pH resulting from these acid additions. The conversion of iodide (I{sup {minus}}) to molecular iodine (I{sub 2}) is most noticeable in the wetwell, since this is the repository of most iodide and HCl. Gradually, during the transient small amounts of more volatile iodine are formed. While iodide remains the dominant form, noticeable amounts of I{sub 2} and intermediate species are created. Once produced in water, some I{sub 2} is free to evaporate into airspace. Fig. 4 indicates the increase in all airborne iodine throughout the transient. This is compared to the MELCOR result for CsI aerosol, which decreases dramatically due to containment sprays. The I{sub 2} in the airspace can be vented to the enclosure building or the environment. In the present accident sequence, the only path to the environment was through the SGTS, which was assumed to operate as in MELCOR. However, both are dwarfed by the MELCOR gaseous release during the first 12 h because MELCOR does not model spray washout of gaseous iodine. Steadily increasing throughout the transient, the revolatilization release is eventually more than an order-or-magnitude higher than the MELCOR aerosol release. Also, 99% of iodine flowing directly through the SGTS was retained in filters. The remaining 1% was released to the environment. In addition, a small flow bypassing the SGTS filters vented directly into the environment. The total released from these two paths is shown in Fig. 5.

  15. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  16. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  17. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  18. Is the Stock of VET Skills Adequate? Assessment Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandy, Richard; Freeland, Brett

    In Australia and elsewhere, four approaches have been used to determine whether stocks of vocational education and training (VET) skills are adequate to meet industry needs. The four methods are as follows: (1) the manpower requirements approach; (2) the international, national, and industry comparisons approach; (3) the labor market analysis…

  19. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  20. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  1. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  2. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  3. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  4. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  5. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation…

  6. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  7. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  8. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (11/1/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadbent, Director, Air Division to Nancy Wrona and James Bourney informing them of the adequacy of Revised MAG 1999 Serious Area Carbon Monoxide Plan and that the MAG CO Plan is adequate for Maricopa County.

  9. Relationships between Micro-Vascular and Iodine-Staining Patterns in the Vicinity of the Tumor Front of Superficial Esophageal Squamous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Shunsuke; Kawada, Kenro; Swangsri, Jirawat; Fujiwara, Naoto; Saito, Katsumasa; Fujiwara, Hisashi; Ryotokuji, Tairo; Okada, Takuya; Miyawaki, Yutaka; Tohkairin, Yutaka; Nakajima, Yasuaki; Kumagai, Youichi; Nagai, Kagami; Ito, Takashi; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Tatsuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to clarify differences between micro-vascular and iodine-staining patterns in the vicinity of the tumor fronts of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs). Methods Ten consecutive patients with ESCCs who were treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) were enrolled. At the edge of the iodine-unstained area, we observed 183 sites in total using image-enhanced magnifying endoscopy. We classified the micro-vascular and iodine-staining patterns into three types: Type A, in which the line of vascular change matched the border of the iodine-unstained area; Type B, in which the border of the iodine-unstained area extended beyond the line of vascular change; Type C, in which the line of vascular change extended beyond the border of the iodine-unstained area. Then, by examining histopathological sections, we compared the diameter of intra-papillary capillary loops (IPCLs) in cancerous areas and normal squamous epithelium. Results We investigated 160 sites that the adequate quality of pictures were obtained. There was no case in which the line of vascular change completely matched the whole circumference of the border of an iodine-unstained area. Among the 160 sites, type A was recognized at 76 sites (47.5%), type B at 79 sites (49.4%), and type C at 5 sites (3.1%). Histological examination showed that the mean diameter of the IPCLs in normal squamous epithelium was 16.2±3.7μm, whereas that of IPCLs in cancerous lesions was 21.0±4.4μm. Conclusions The development of iodine-unstained areas tends to precede any changes in the vascularity of the esophageal surface epithelium. PMID:26301414

  10. An iodine supplementation of tomato fruits coated with an edible film of the iodide-doped chitosan.

    PubMed

    Limchoowong, Nunticha; Sricharoen, Phitchan; Techawongstien, Suchila; Chanthai, Saksit

    2016-06-01

    In general, the risk of numerous thyroid cancers inevitably increases among people with iodine deficiencies. An iodide-doped chitosan (CT-I) solution was prepared for dipping tomatoes to coat the fresh surface with an edible film (1.5 μm), thereby providing iodine-rich fruits for daily intake. Characterisation of the thin film was conducted by FTIR and SEM. Stability of the CT-I film was studied via water immersion at various time intervals, and no residual iodide leached out due to intrinsic interactions between the cationic amino group of chitosan and iodide ions. Moreover, the iodide supplement exhibited no effect on the antioxidant activity of tomatoes. The iodine content in the film-coated tomato was determined by ICP-OES. The tomato coating with 1.5% (w/v) CT-I contained approximately 0.4 μg iodide per gram fresh weight. In addition, the freshness and storability of iodine-doped tomatoes were also maintained for shelf-life concerns.

  11. Calcium intake is not associated with increased coronary artery calcification: The Framingham Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate calcium intake is known to protect the skeleton. However, studies that have reported adverse effects of calcium supplementation on vascular events have raised widespread concern. We assessed the association between calcium intake (from diet and supplements) and coronary artery calcification...

  12. Long-term migration of iodine in sedimentary rocks based on iodine speciation and 129I/127I ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togo, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Amano, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Muramatsu, Y.; Iwatsuki, T.

    2012-12-01

    [Introduction] 129I is one of the available indexes of long-term migration of groundwater solutes, because of its long half-life (15.7 million years) and low sorption characteristics. The Horonobe underground research center (Japan Atomic Energy Agency), at which are conducted research and development of fundamental techniques on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, is an appropriate site for natural analogue studies, because iodine concentration in groundwater is high in this area. To predict iodine behavior in natural systems, speciation of iodine is essential because of different mobility among each species. In this study, we determined iodine speciation and129I/127I isotope ratios of rock and groundwater samples to investigate long term migration of iodine. [Methods] All rock and groundwater samples were collected at Horonobe underground research center. The region is underlain mainly by Neogene to Quaternary marine sedimentary rocks, the Wakkanai Formation (Wk Fm, siliceous mudstones), and the overlying Koetoi Formation (Kt Fm, diatomaceous mudstones). Iodine species in rock samples were determined by iodine K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (SPring-8 BL01B1). Thin sections of rock samples were prepared, and iodine mapping were obtained by micro-XRF analysis (SPring-8 BL37XU). Iodine species (IO3-, I-, and organic I) in groundwater were separately detected by high performance liquid chromatography connected to ICP-MS. The 129I/127I ratios in groundwater and rock samples were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (MALT, Univ. of Tokyo). Iodine in rock samples were separated by pyrohydrolysis and water extraction. [Results and discussion] Concentration of iodine in groundwater varied widely and was much higher than that of seawater showing a high correlation with that of chlorine (R2 = 0.90). Species of iodine in groundwater was mainly I-. Iodine in rock samples decreased near the boundary between Wk and Kt Fms. Iodine K-edge XANES

  13. Higher glycemic load diet is associated with poorer nutrient intake in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Markovic, Tania P; Ross, Glynis P; Foote, Deborah; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2013-04-01

    Changes in the quality and quantity of carbohydrate foods may compromise nutrient intake in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We hypothesized that glycemic index, glycemic load (GL), carbohydrate intake, grains, and cereal product consumption would be associated with nutrient adequacy. Eighty-two women with GDM (61% of Asian background, 34% whites) completed a 3-day food record following their routine group nutrition education session. Nutrient intakes were compared to Nutrient Reference Values (NRV) for Australia and New Zealand. Nutrient intake across energy-adjusted tertiles of glycemic index, GL, carbohydrate intake, and intake of grains and cereal products were assessed. The majority of women (66%-99%) did not meet the NRV for fiber, folate, vitamin D, iodine, and iron, and exceeded NRV for saturated fat and sodium. Higher dietary GL was associated with lower intakes of total, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fat; vitamin E; and potassium (all P < .001). Higher grain intake was not significantly associated with intake of any micronutrients. In Australian women with GDM, high dietary GL predicts greater risk of poor nutrition.

  14. Calcium Intake, Major Dietary Sources and Bone Health Indicators in Iranian Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Nasrin; Neyestani, Tirang-Reza; Hajifaraji, Majid; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Armin, Saloumeh; Haidari, Homa; Zowghi, Telma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate calcium intake may have a crucial role with regards to prevention of many chronic diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, different types of cancer, obesity and osteoporosis. In children, sufficient calcium intake is especially important to support the accelerated growth spurt during the preteen and teenage years and to increase bone mineral mass to lay the foundation for older age. Objectives: This study aimed to assess daily calcium intake in school-age children to ensure whether they fulfill the FGP dairy serving recommendations, the recommended levels of daily calcium intake and to assess the relationship between dietary calcium intake and major bone health indicators. Patients and Methods: A total of 501 Iranian school-age children were randomly selected. Calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone health indicators were also assessed. Results: Dairy products contributed to 69.3% of the total calcium intake of the children. Daily adequate intake of calcium was achieved by 17.8% of children. Only 29.8% met the Food guide pyramid recommendations for dairy intake. Dietary calcium intake was not significantly correlated with serum calcium and other selected biochemical indicators of bone health. Conclusions: The need for planning appropriate nutrition strategies for overcoming inadequate calcium intake in school age children in the city of Tehran is inevitable. PMID:26199684

  15. Are the current Australian sun exposure guidelines effective in maintaining adequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D?

    PubMed

    Kimlin, Michael; Sun, Jiandong; Sinclair, Craig; Heward, Sue; Hill, Jane; Dunstone, Kimberley; Brodie, Alison

    2016-01-01

    An adequate vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, is important in humans for maintenance of healthy bones and muscle function. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed in participants from Melbourne, Australia (37.81S, 144.96E), who were provided with the current Australian guidelines on sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy (25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L). Participants were interviewed in February (summer, n=104) and August (winter, n=99) of 2013. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was examined as a function of measures of sun exposure and sun protection habits with control of key characteristics such as dietary intake of vitamin D, body mass index (BMI) and skin colour, that may modify this relationship. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in participants who complied with the current sun exposure guidelines was 67.3 nmol/L in summer and 41.9 nmol/L in winter. At the end of the study, 69.3% of participants who complied with the summer sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate, while only 27.6% of participants who complied with the winter sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate at the end of the study. The results suggest that the current Australian guidelines for sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy are effective for most in summer and ineffective for most in winter. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  16. Results of experiments on iodine dissociation in active medium of oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagidullin, Marsel V.; Khvatov, Nickolay A.; Malyshev, Mikhail S.

    2017-01-01

    Results of experiments on dissociation of iodine molecules in the presence of singlet oxygen molecules are presented for wide range of oxygen-iodine media composition. Rate constants values have been obtained: 4.3ṡ10-17cm3/s for the reaction O2(1Δ)+O2(1Δ)->O2(1Σ) +O2(3Σ) - (1), 2.8ṡ10-13 cm3/s for the reactionO2(1Δ)+I(2P1/2)->O2(1Σ)+I(2P3/2) - (4) and 8.3ṡ10-11 cm3/s for the reaction O2(1Σ) +I2->O2(3Σ)+2I - (2). Analysis of experiments shows that for the wide range of oxygen-iodine medium composition the dissociation occurs via the chain of reactions (1), (2), O2(1Δ)+I(2P3/2)->O2(3Σ)+I(2P1/2), (4) and via cascade process I2+I(2P1/2)->I2(v)+I(2P3/2), I2(v)+O2(1Δ)→2I+O2(3Σ). Contributions of each mechanism in the dissociation of the iodine are comparable for the typical composition of the active medium of the supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser. The experiments did not reveal the contribution of vibrationally excited oxygen molecules in the dissociation of iodine. Thus, the experiments and the following conclusions are fully confirmed iodine dissociation mechanism previously proposed by Heidner et al. (J. Phys. Chem., 87, 2348 (1983)).

  17. Calcium Intake and Nutritional Adequacy in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-López, Nuria; Llopis-González, Agustín; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María

    2017-01-01

    Calcium is an important nutrient for child development. The main objective of this study was to assess calcium intake and its adequacy with dietary reference intake (DRI) in Spanish children. The ANIVA (Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia) study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During two academic years 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, 1176 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from 14 primary schools in Valencia (Spain). Three-day food records were used to assess dietary intake, completed by parents/guardian. Anthropometric data (weight and height) were evaluated in all subjects. Nutritional intake was compared to estimated average requirements (EARs) and adequate intake (AI) values to determine nutritional adequacy. A percentage of 25.77% had inadequate calcium intake, and a significantly higher prevalence was observed in girls (p = 0.006). Adequate calcium intake showed a positive association with the height z-score (p = 0.032). When assessing dietary patterns, schoolchildren with adequate calcium intakes had better nutritional adequacy in all nutrients, except cholesterol (p = 0.086) and fluorine (p = 0.503). These results suggest a public health problem that must be addressed through nutrition education programs to increase intake of calcium-rich food and to correct the associated dietary pattern. PMID:28230804

  18. Micronutrient Intake in Healthy Toddlers: A Multinational Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hilger, Jennifer; Goerig, Tatiana; Weber, Peter; Hoeft, Birgit; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Costa Carvalho, Nina; Goldberger, Ursula; Hoffmann, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Adequate nutrient intake during early childhood is of particular importance for optimal growth and future health. However, cross-national comparative research on nutrient intake of toddlers is still limited. We conducted a literature review to examine the nutrient intake in healthy toddlers from some of the world’s most populous nations currently on different stages of socioeconomic development: Brazil, Germany, Russia and the United States. We aimed to identify national surveys reporting mean intakes of the following nutrients: vitamins A, D, E, folate, calcium, iron and zinc. To calculate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake, we used a modified version of the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Overall, five studies with 6756 toddlers were eligible for inclusion in this review. In countries where data were available, a prevalence of inadequate intake higher than 20% was found for vitamins A, D, E and calcium. In Germany, folate intake also appeared to be inadequate. The results of our review indicate that inadequate micronutrient intake in toddlers might be a global challenge affecting also affluent countries. However, to explore the full scope of this important public health issue joint efforts of researchers worldwide are needed to combine existing data and fill in data gaps. PMID:26295254

  19. Stabilisation of microalgae: Iodine mobilisation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Mobilisation of iodine during microalgae stabilisation was investigated, with the view of assessing the potential of stabilised microalgae as an iodine-rich fertiliser. An iodine-rich waste microalgae (0.35 ± 0.05 mg I g(-1) VS(added)) was stabilised under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Iodine mobilisation was linearly correlated with carbon emission, indicating iodine was in the form of organoiodine. Comparison between iodine and nitrogen mobilisation relative to carbon emission indicated that these elements were, at least in part, housed separately within the cells. After stabilisation, there were 0.22 ± 0.05 and 0.19 ± 0.01 mg g(-1) VS(added) iodine remaining in the solid in the aerobic and anaerobic processed material respectively, meaning 38 ± 5.0% (aerobic) and 50 ± 8.6% (anaerobic) of the iodine were mobilised, and consequently lost from the material. The iodine content of the stabilised material is comparable to the iodine content of some seaweed fertilisers, and potentially satisfies an efficient I-fertilisation dose.

  20. Army General Fund Adjustments Not Adequately Documented or Supported

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-26

    statements were unreliable and lacked an adequate audit trail. Furthermore, DoD and Army managers could not rely on the data in their accounting...risk that AGF financial statements will be materially misstated and the Army will not achieve audit readiness by the congressionally mandated...and $6.5 trillion in yearend adjustments made to Army General Fund data during FY 2015 financial statement compilation. We conducted this audit in

  1. Diet, nutrition intake, and metabolism in populations at high and low risk for colon cancer. Nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Calkins, B M; Whittaker, D J; Nair, P P; Rider, A A; Turjman, N

    1984-10-01

    A 3-day diary with portion sizes weighed by the subject and a 24-h recall were obtained on 50 sets of subjects: Seventh-day Adventist lacto-ovo-vegetarians and nonvegetarians, and general population nonvegetarians, matched on age (+/- 5 yr), sex, marital status, education, type of milk preferred, and an index of the frequency of dairy and egg product use. An additional 18 unmatched persons who follow a pure vegetarian dietary pattern (use no meat, fish, fowl, dairy, or egg products) were recruited into the study. The rational for the dietary methods used is presented and details of each of the methods used are given. The results of the nutrient analysis of the 24-h recall and 3-day diary are presented. The 3-day nutrient intake means for the four groups are compared to the sex-specific recommended daily allowance both with and without supplements. The contribution of nutritional supplements to the nutrient intake is discussed. All groups show adequate or excess intake levels of calories, protein, and fat when either the 24-h recall or the 3-day diary values are considered. The higher intake of calories noted among nonvegetarians can be explained by a higher intake of both fat and protein in these groups. A, B, and C vitamin levels (3-day dairy estimates) are adequate both with and without supplements. Calcium intake is much below recommended levels for pure vegetarian females. Iron intake is low for all females. A heme iron source does not improve the intake levels for nonvegetarian females. A comparison of these results with prior reports of nutrient intake among Seventh-day Adventists is presented.

  2. Estimated nutrient intakes from food generally do not meet dietary reference intakes among adult members of Pacific Northwest tribal nations.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie K; McCrory, Megan A; Roberts, Sparkle M; Tracy, J Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M; Boushey, Carol J

    2010-05-01

    Diet is influential in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations including Native Americans. The objective of this report is to present the first comprehensive dietary survey, to our knowledge, of a representative sample of nonpregnant adults from Pacific Northwest tribal nations participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Only participants who completed 1-4 d of dietary records and had weights and heights measured in the laboratory were eligible for this analysis (n = 418). Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by gender for the total sample, those with plausibly reported energy intakes (rEI), and those with implausibly rEI. Estimates of nutrient intakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Nutrient estimates from NHANES 2001-2002 were used as a reference. Among both men and women, total fat contributed 34-37% of energy intake and saturated fat contributed 11-12% of energy intake. Daily cholesterol intakes ranged from 262 to 442 mg. A majority of men and women were not meeting recommendations for vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, and sodium. For a majority of the nutrients examined, plausibility resulted in higher mean estimates. The CoASTAL cohort nutrient profile is similar to NHANES 2001-2002, with a majority of DRI recommendations not being met. Adequate dietary intake information may be more important for this population, because Native Americans experience a disproportionate burden for diseases.

  3. Teaching children with diabetes about adequate dietary choices.

    PubMed

    Maffeis, Claudio; Pinelli, Leonardo

    2008-02-01

    Recent recommendations by the American Diabetes Association suggest that children with type 1 diabetes should follow the recommendations for age, sex and body size of the general population. In the case of being overweight or obese, weight-control strategies should be applied. Adherence to recommendations should be pursued by continuous nutritional education that should start at the onset of diabetes and maintained by means of nutritional counselling to the family. The second main target of nutritional intervention is to encourage a reproducible daily meal plan that can be maintained by acquiring good habits when making nutritional choices. Finally, children and parents should be taught how to count carbohydrates, which would help them manage exceptions in their daily meal plan. Specifically, nutritional recommendations for children with diabetes focus on limiting the intake of foods of animal origin (red meat, cheese, cold cuts), moderating fat intake and promoting the intake of foods that naturally contain fibre (mainly vegetables, legumes, fruit). There are two at-risk periods in the lives of children when nutritional education procedures as well as diabetes care in general are less likely to be effective: early years of life and adolescence. In the case of very young children, new behavioural-based intervention strategies to help parents improve mealtimes could be useful in teaching diabetic children to learn to follow a structured eating schedule, which is desirable for long-lasting efficacy in diabetes care. In adolescents, eating disorders and insulin misuse for weight control purposes are concrete and difficult problems to deal with. A good balance between eating for pleasure and maintaining one's health is a challenge for anyone. Appropriate nutritional education helps children with diabetes to find this balance and enjoy a better quality of life.

  4. [Is iodination of cooking salt still necessary? Current studies on iodine supply in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Supersaxo, Z; Selz, B; Hasler, P; Wespi, H J; Abelin, T; Bürgi, H

    1991-03-09

    Salt with 3.75 mg iodide per kg was introduced in Switzerland stepwise in the individual cantons between 1922 and 1952. The iodide content was raised to 7.5 mg in 1962 and to 15 mg per kg in 1980. 92% of retail salt and 78% of all salt for human consumption (including salt used in industrial food processing) was iodized in 1989. Under this measure, prevalence of grade 1b or larger goiter dropped continuously to a present value of 1.3% in school-children and 0.3% in male army recruits. Endemic cretinism has disappeared completely. Urinary iodine has reached the desired range of 150 +/- 77 (SD) micrograms per g creatinine. The following facts prove that iodization of salt (and not other changes of food habits) have corrected the iodine deficiency in Switzerland: 1. Urinary iodine is highly correlated with urinary sodium. Backward extrapolation yields a theoretical urinary iodine of 30 micrograms per g creatinine in the absence of iodized salt, a value typical of severe deficiency. 2. Goiter prevalence declined later in those cantons which introduced iodized salt last. 3. Surrounding countries without iodized salt (France, Italy, Federal Republic of Germany, Spain) suffer from considerable iodine deficiency with areas of high goiter prevalence and even endemic cretinism. The new data underscore the absolute and continued need for iodized salt in Switzerland.

  5. Relationship between Virucidal Efficacy and Free Iodine Concentration of Povidone-Iodine in Buffer Solution.

    PubMed

    Wada, Hideki; Nojima, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Satoko; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Sugiyama, Noriyoshi; Kajiura, Takumi; Ueda, Tomofumi; Morimoto, Shota; Yokota, Katuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Povidone-iodine solutions prepared to various concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10%) with 0.2M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) (PVP-I PB) were analyzed to determine their free iodine concentrations using membrane permeation cells, and their inactivation effects on three viruses (influenza A virus, poliovirus type 1 and adenovirus type 3) were examined. The free iodine concentrations in the 0.01-10% PVP-I PB were determined to be 1.84, 4.88, 1.58 and 0.17 ppm (approximate values), respectively, with the maximum obtained for the 0.1% solution. The virucidal efficacy of these PVP-I PB against poliovirus type 1 and adenovirus type 3 was found to be generally dependent on free iodine concentration, with the 0.1% solution being the most effective. Influenza A virus was inactivated with an action time of 15 s at all four concentrations examined. The results of this study suggested an association between free iodine concentration and virucidal efficacy for the 0.01-10% PVP-I PB.

  6. Evaluation of bromine and iodine content of milk whey proteins combining digestion by microwave-induced combustion and ICP-MS determination.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Sabrina Vieira; Picoloto, Rochele Sogari; Flores, Erico Marlon Moraes; Wagner, Roger; dos Santos Richards, Neila Silvia Pereira; Barin, Juliano Smanioto

    2016-01-01

    The bromine and iodine content of whey protein concentrate (WPC), hydrolysate (WPH), and isolate (WPI) was evaluated combining microwave-induced combustion (MIC) digestion with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) determination. MIC digestion allowed the decomposition of up to 500 mg of samples using diluted NH4OH solution (25 mmol L(-1)) for absorption of analytes, assuring the compatibility with ICP-MS determination. Accuracy was evaluated using milk powder certified reference material (NIST 8435) with good agreements for Br and I (102% and 105%, respectively). For Br and I, the limit of quantification obtained by ICP-MS was 7 and 281 times lower in comparison with ion chromatography determination, respectively. Iodine could be enriched in whey protein production and up to 70% of the tolerable upper intake level was found, thus revealing the need to monitor it in whey proteins. On the other hand, the concentration of Br was below its acceptable daily intake.

  7. Systemic iodine absorption after preoperative antisepsis using povidone-iodine in cataract surgery-- an open controlled study.

    PubMed

    Below, H; Behrens-Baumann, W; Bernhardt, C; Völzke, H; Kramer, A; Rudolph, P

    2006-01-01

    After preoperative conjunctival and periorbital antisepsis with povidone-iodine (PVP-I), the systemic absorption of iodine after cataract surgery was measured to evaluate the risk of thyroid side effects. Five different combinations of PVP-I alone or in combination with PVP-I-free antiseptics were applied to the conjunctiva and periorbital skin. An iodine-free product served as control. Iodide and creatinine in urine were analyzed before intervention and 24 and 48 h postoperatively. Depending on the concentration and application site, 0.3-4.5% of the total applied iodine or 3.6-45.4% of the free iodine were absorbed. The range of urine iodine excretion was between 11.7 and 71.0 mug iodine/g creatinine, depending on the PVP-I concentration and the site of application. The increase in iodine excretion was significant at 24 h postoperatively in trials receiving PVP-I both periorbitally and conjunctivally, depending of the concentration used. Because the iodine absorption is only slight and of doubtful clinical relevance, presurgical conjunctival antisepsis can be achieved with 1.25% PVP-I; so far clinically manifest anamnestic thyroid disorders are excluded. Presently, periorbital skin antisepsis with PVP-I cannot be recommended until data on thyroid metabolism in the population have been collected and evaluated, especially in a region currently or previously deficient in iodine.

  8. The Impact of Carrot Enriched in Iodine through Soil Fertilization on Iodine Concentration and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Piątkowska, Ewa; Kopeć, Aneta; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Pysz, Mirosław; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Koronowicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Maślak, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is one of the trace elements which are essential for mammalian life. The major objective of iodine biofortification of plants is to obtain food rich in this trace element, which may increase its consumption by various populations. Additionally, it may reduce the risk of iodine deficiency diseases. In this research for the first time we have assessed the bioavailability of iodine from raw or cooked carrot biofortified with this trace element on iodine concentration in selected tissues and various biochemical parameters as well as mRNA expression of some genes involved in iodine metabolism in Wistar rats. Statistically, a significantly higher iodine level was determined in urine, faeces and selected tissues of rats fed a diet containing biofortified raw carrot as compared to a diet without iodine and a diet containing control cooked carrot. Biofortified raw carrot significantly increased triiodothyronine concentration as compared to animals from other experimental groups. The highest thyroid stimulating hormone level was determined in rats fed control cooked carrots. mRNA expression of selected genes was affected by different dietary treatment in rats' hearts. Biofortified raw and cooked carrot could be taken into account as a potential source of iodine in daily diets to prevent iodine deficiency in various populations.

  9. The Impact of Carrot Enriched in Iodine through Soil Fertilization on Iodine Concentration and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Piątkowska, Ewa; Kopeć, Aneta; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Pysz, Mirosław; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Koronowicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Maślak, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is one of the trace elements which are essential for mammalian life. The major objective of iodine biofortification of plants is to obtain food rich in this trace element, which may increase its consumption by various populations. Additionally, it may reduce the risk of iodine deficiency diseases. In this research for the first time we have assessed the bioavailability of iodine from raw or cooked carrot biofortified with this trace element on iodine concentration in selected tissues and various biochemical parameters as well as mRNA expression of some genes involved in iodine metabolism in Wistar rats. Statistically, a significantly higher iodine level was determined in urine, faeces and selected tissues of rats fed a diet containing biofortified raw carrot as compared to a diet without iodine and a diet containing control cooked carrot. Biofortified raw carrot significantly increased triiodothyronine concentration as compared to animals from other experimental groups. The highest thyroid stimulating hormone level was determined in rats fed control cooked carrots. mRNA expression of selected genes was affected by different dietary treatment in rats’ hearts. Biofortified raw and cooked carrot could be taken into account as a potential source of iodine in daily diets to prevent iodine deficiency in various populations. PMID:27043135

  10. Iodine-125 radiation of posterior uveal melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, S.

    1987-12-01

    Twenty-eight cases of posterior choroidal melanoma were treated with iodine-125 in gold eye plaques. Eleven cases were located within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve (group A), nine were within 3.0 mm of the fovea (group B), and eight were within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve and fovea (group C). The mean follow-up of group A was 46.3 months; group B, 25.5 months; and group C, 42.7 months. Complications included macular edema, cataract and tumor growth. Visual acuity remained within two lines of that tested preoperatively for 4 of 11 patients in group A, 4 of 9 in group B, and 5 of 8 in group C. These results with iodine-125 suggest it as an appropriate treatment for patients with choroidal melanoma located near optic nerve and/or macula.

  11. Battelle review cuts iodine release estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-04-22

    A new study has concluded that radioactive iodine released from the Energy Department's Hanford complex in the 1940s and 1950s was more widely dispersed than previously believed, prompting researchers to lower their estimates of likely radiation doses to those living near the nuclear weapons facility. However, despite the lowered doses, the study found those living closest to Hanford still suffered radiation doses to the thyroid gland more than 1,000 times higher than those resulting from natural radiation in the environment. Researchers said the highest doses probably were received by infants and children who drank milk from cows that grazed in local pastures heavily contaminated by the Hanford releases. Milk from cows was found to be the biggest pathway for contamination by iodine-131, the contaminate estimated to account for 98 percent of the radioactivity released into the air at Hanford during its plutonium production period from 1944-1951.

  12. Optically pumped oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagidullin, Marsel V.; Malyshev, Mikhail S.

    2017-01-01

    A novel optical pumping scheme considering a two-step irradiation by light at wavelengths near 500 nm and 1315 nm is proposed in this work. Radiation at 500 nm is used to dissociate about 1% of iodine molecules. The radiation at 1315 nm excites atomic iodine to the 2P1/2 state. Singlet oxygen molecules are produced via the energy exchange process I(2P1/2)+O2(X3Σ)-> I(2P3/2)+O2(a1Δ), while I(2P1/2)+O2(a1Δ) energy pooling produces b1Σ oxygen. I(2P3/2) and O2(1Σ) then accelerate the dissociation of I2. After gas dynamic cooling in supersonic nozzle, active medium may reach 100 W cm-2 and small signal gain of 0.01 cm-1.

  13. Models of iodine behavior in reactor containments

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Models are developed for many phenomena of interest concerning iodine behavior in reactor containments during severe accidents. Processes include speciation in both gas and liquid phases, reactions with surfaces, airborne aerosols, and other materials, and gas-liquid interface behavior. Although some models are largely empirical formulations, every effort has been made to construct mechanistic and rigorous descriptions of relevant chemical processes. All are based on actual experimental data generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) or elsewhere, and, hence, considerable data evaluation and parameter estimation are contained in this study. No application or encoding is attempted, but each model is stated in terms of rate processes, with the intention of allowing mechanistic simulation. Taken together, this collection of models represents a best estimate iodine behavior and transport in reactor accidents.

  14. An Iodine Fluorescence Quenching Clock Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Richard B.

    2007-05-01

    A fluorescent clock reaction is described that is based on the principles of the Landolt iodine reaction but uses the potent fluorescence quenching properties of triiodide to abruptly extinguish the ultraviolet fluorescence of optical brighteners present in liquid laundry detergents. The reaction uses easily obtained household products. One variation illustrates the sequential steps and mechanisms of the reaction; other variations maximize the dramatic impact of the demonstration; and a variation that uses liquid detergent in the Briggs Rauscher reaction yields a striking oscillating luminescence. The iodine fluorescence quenching clock reaction can be used in the classroom to explore not only the principles of redox chemistry and reaction kinetics, but also the photophysics of fluorescent pH probes and optical quenching.

  15. The Effect of Breakfast Type on Total Daily Energy Intake and Body Mass Index Among Thai School Children.

    PubMed

    Purttiponthanee, Sasiumphai; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen; Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Senaprom, Sayamon; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The study investigated the association between breakfast types consumed, daily energy intake, and body mass index for age Z-score (BAZ). Cross-sectional data from 1258 children aged 7 to 12.9 years were analyzed for breakfast type, nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight or obesity. Analysis of covariance was used to compare energy and nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight/obese children between breakfast groups. Only 19% of children had adequate energy intake from breakfast. Those consuming snacks had a significantly lower BAZ (Z = -0.73), with 5% of them being overweight/obese. Those consuming beverages and desserts had the lowest total daily energy intake (1314 kcal) and lowest protein intake (8.4 g). The results suggest that breakfast type is associated with daily energy intake and BAZ. Most breakfasts are not adequate. School-based nutrition education programs involving families, teachers, and health professionals can contribute to improve this situation.

  16. Therapeutic implications of iodine-125 cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomer, W.D.; McLaughlin, W.H.; Adelstein, S.J.

    1982-11-01

    The biological consequences of differential subcellular radionuclide accumulation within nuclear stuctures have important implications for the design and development of new therapeutic agents for cancer management. A growing body of experimental data demonstrates that localization of /sup 125/I within the genome results in marked cytotoxicity. Investigations of iodine-125 labeled iododeoxyuridine, DNA intercalators and tamoxifen are reviewed as representative of this new group of potential radiotherapeutic agents.

  17. Therapeutic implications of iodine-125 cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomer, W.D.; McLaughlin, W.H.; Adelstein, S.J.

    1982-11-01

    The biological consequences of differential subcellular radionuclide accumulation within nuclear structures have important implications for the design and development of new therapeutic agents for cancer management. A growing body of experimental data demonstrates that localization of /sup 125/I within the genome results in marked cytotoxicity. Investigations of iodine-125 labeled iododeoxyuridine, DNA intercalators and tamoxifen are reviewed as representative of this new group of potential radiotherapeutic agents.

  18. Amylose-iodine complex. I. Sedimentation behavior.

    PubMed

    Dintzis, F R; Beckwith, A C; Babcock, G E; Tobin, R

    1976-01-01

    Sedimentation measurements are reported on solutions of blue amylose-iodine complexes in the range of 0.001 to 0.007% amylose. Amylose fractions B and F2, of weight average molecular weight average molecular weight 4.0 X 10(5) and 3.4 X 10(4), respectively, were used in this study. Iodine complexes of these fractions formed polydisperse solutions of limited solubility and stability. Sedimentation coefficients increased as a function of potassium iodide concentration. Values for fraction B complexes varied from (16.3 +/- 1.0) X 10(-13) at 1.2 X 10(-3) M KI to (57.2 +/- 7.5) X 10(-13) at 8.3 X 10(-3) M KI; values for fraction F2 complexes varied from (10.0 +/- 1.2) X 10(-13) at 1.2 X 10(-13) M KI to (24.8 +/- 3.9) X 10(-13) at 9.5 X 10(-3) M KI. At constant potassium iodide concentration, sedimentation coefficients, within our experimental error of 10 to 15% standard deviation, are independent of amylose concentration. Time dependence of sedimentation coefficient values was observed for solutions either saturated or unsaturated with respect to the iodine-binding capacity of amylose. For iodine-saturated complex solutions, sedimentation coefficients extrapolated to zero potassium iodide concentration were two to three times greater than for the parent amylose. Measurements are evaluated in terms of possible polyelectrolytic charge effects and aggregation. Under conditions used in these experiments, aggregation of amylose-iodide complexes appears to be the mechanism responsible for the large increase in sedimentation coefficients.

  19. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.

    1987-01-01

    This semiannual progress report covers the period from March 1, 1987 to September 30, 1987 under NASA grant NAG1-441 entitled 'Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier'. During this period Nd:YAG and Nd:Cr:GSGG crystals have been tested for the solar-simulator pumped cw laser, and loss mechanisms of the laser output power in a flashlamp-pumped iodine laser also have been identified theoretically. It was observed that the threshold pump-beam intensities for both Nd:YAG and Nd:Cr:GSGG crystals were about 1000 solar constants, and the cw laser operation of the Nd:Cr:GSGG crystal was more difficult than that of the Nd:YAG crystal under the solar-simulator pumping. The possibility of the Nd:Cr:GSGG laser operation with a fast continuously chopped pumping was also observed. In addition, good agreement between the theoretical calculations and the experimental data on the loss mechanisms of a flashlamp-pumped iodine laser at various fill pressures and various lasants was achieved.

  20. Iodination of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jean O.; Harris, J. Ieuan

    1970-01-01

    1. A high degree of homology in the positions of tyrosine residues in glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase from lobster and pig muscle, and from yeast, prompted an examination of the reactivity of tyrosine residues in the enzyme. 2. Iodination of the enzyme from lobster muscle with low concentrations of potassium tri-[125I]-iodide led to the identification of tyrosine residues of differing reactivity. Tyrosine-46 appeared to be the most reactive in the native enzyme. 3. When the monocarboxymethylated enzyme was briefly treated with small amounts of iodine, iodination could be confined almost entirely to tyrosine-46 in the lobster enzyme; tyrosine-39 or tyrosine-42, or both, were also beginning to react. 4. These three tyrosine residues were also those that reacted most readily in the carboxymethylated pig and yeast enzymes. 5. The difficulties in attaining specific reaction of the native enzyme are considered. 6. The differences between our results and those of other workers are discussed. ImagesPLATE 1PLATE 2 PMID:5530750

  1. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-03-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of /sup 131/I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of /sup 131/I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that /sup 131/I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined.

  2. Electrolytic trapping of iodine from process gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Horner, Donald E.; Mailen, James C.; Posey, Franz A.

    1977-01-25

    A method for removing molecular, inorganic, and organic forms of iodine from process gas streams comprises the electrolytic oxidation of iodine in the presence of cobalt-III ions. The gas stream is passed through the anode compartment of a partitioned electrolytic cell having a nitric acid anolyte containing a catalytic amount of cobalt to cause the oxidation of effluent iodine species to aqueous soluble species.

  3. Automated Iodine Monitoring System Development (AIMS). [shuttle prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The operating principle of the automated iodine monitoring/controller system (AIMS) is described along with several design modifications. The iodine addition system is also discussed along with test setups and calibration; a facsimile of the optical/mechanical portion of the iodine monitor was fabricated and tested. The appendices include information on shuttle prototype AIMS, preliminary prime item development specifications, preliminary failure modes and effects analysis, and preliminary operating and maintenance instructions.

  4. Efforts to Consolidate Chalcogels with Adsorbed Iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun

    2013-08-28

    This document discusses ongoing work with non-oxide aerogels, called chalcogels, that are under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as sorbents for gaseous iodine. Work was conducted in fiscal year 2012 to demonstrate the feasibility of converting Sn2S3 chalcogel without iodine into a glass. This current document summarizes the work conducted in fiscal year 2013 to assess the consolidation potential of non-oxide aerogels with adsorbed iodine. The Sn2S3 and Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels were selected for study. The first step in the process for these experiments was to load them with iodine (I2). The I2 uptake was ~68 mass% for Sn2S3 and ~50 mass% for Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of both sets of sorbents showed that metal-iodide complexes were formed during adsorption, i.e., SnI4 for Sn2S3 and SbI3 for Sb13.5Sn5S20. Additionally, metal-sulfide-iodide complexes were formed, i.e., SnSI for Sn2S3 and SbSI for Sb13.5Sn5S20. No XRD evidence for unreacted iodine was found in any of these samples. Once the chalcogels had reached maximum adsorption, the consolidation potential was assessed. Here, the sorbents were heated for consolidation in vacuum-sealed quartz vessels. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogel was heated both (1) in a glassy carbon crucible within a fused quartz tube and (2) in a single-containment fused quartz tube. The Sn2S3 chalcogel was only heated in a single-containment fused quartz tube. In both cases with the single-containment fused quartz experiments, the material consolidated nicely. However, in both cases, there were small fractions of metal iodides not incorporated into the final product as well as fused quartz particles within the melt due to the sample attacking the quartz wall during the heat treatment. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 did not appear to attack the glassy carbon crucible so, for future experiments, it would be ideal to apply a coating, such as pyrolytic graphite, to the inner walls of the fused quartz vessel to prevent

  5. Medical effects of iodine disinfection products in spacecraft water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Janik, Daniel S.; Thorstenson, Yvonne R.

    1987-01-01

    Various iodination products (IDPs), including iodinated and iodine-induced new compounds, will be present in the iodine-disinfected water that is expected to be used by crews on the NASA Space Station and on long duration missions. The metabolic intermediaries created by such a process may be more important to crew health than the parent IDPs, and reclamation and recycling may be expected to produce additional products. These medical effects may be expressed in crews as hypersensitivity, allergic, acute toxic, and chronic toxic reactions, as well as modifications of immune system response.

  6. The regioselective iodination of quinolines, quinolones, pyridones, pyridines and uracil.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Uttam; Deb, Arghya; Lupton, David W; Maiti, Debabrata

    2015-12-28

    A radical based direct C-H iodination protocol for quinolines, quinolones, pyridones, pyridines, and uracil has been developed. The iodination occurs in a C3 selective manner for quinolines and quinolones. Pyridones and pyridines undergo C3 and C5 iodination, while dimethyl uracil undergoes C5 iodination. Scope of the method was demonstrated through the rapid synthesis of both electron rich as well as electron poor heteroaromatic iodides. The protocol was found to be scalable and general, while a mechanism has been proposed.

  7. A model for a continuous-wave iodine laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, In H.; Tabibi, Bagher M.

    1990-01-01

    A model for a continuous-wave (CW) iodine laser has been developed and compared with the experimental results obtained from a solar-simulator-pumped CW iodine laser. The agreement between the calculated laser power output and the experimental results is generally good for various laser parameters even when the model includes only prominent rate coefficients. The flow velocity dependence of the output power shows that the CW iodine laser cannot be achieved with a flow velocity below 1 m/s for the present solar-simulator-pumped CW iodine laser system.

  8. Mission and System Advantages of Iodine Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Szabo, James; Pote, Bruce; Oleson, Steve; Kamhawi, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of alternative propellants for Hall thrusters continues to be of interest to the community. Investments have been made and continue for the maturation of iodine based Hall thrusters. Iodine testing has shown comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density and resulting higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's vapor pressure is low enough to permit low-pressure storage, but high enough to minimize potential adverse spacecraft-thruster interactions. The low vapor pressure also means that iodine does not condense inside the thruster at ordinary operating temperatures. Iodine is safe, it stores at sub-atmospheric pressure, and can be stored unregulated for years on end; whether on the ground or on orbit. Iodine fills a niche for both low power (<1kW) and high power (>10kW) electric propulsion regimes. A range of missions have been evaluated for direct comparison of Iodine and Xenon options. The results show advantages of iodine Hall systems for both small and microsatellite application and for very large exploration class missions.

  9. Recent experiences with iodine water disinfection in Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, Randall E.; Flanagan, David T.; Schultz, John R.; Sauer, Richard L.; Slezak, Terry N.

    1990-01-01

    Microbial proliferation in the STS potable water system is prevented by maintaining a 2-5 ppm iodine residual. The iodine is added to fuel cell water by an iodinated ion exchange resin in the Microbial Check Valve (MCV). Crew comments indicated excessive iodine in the potable water. To better define the problem, a method of in-flight iodine analysis was developed. Inflight analysis during STS-30 and STS-28 indicated iodine residuals were generally in the 9-13 ppm range. It was determined that the high iodine residual was caused by MCV influent temperatures in excess of 120 F. This is well above the MCV operating range of 65-90 F. The solution to this problem was to develop a resin suitable for the higher temperatures. Since 8 months were required to formulate a MCV resin suitable for the higher temperatures, a temporary solution was necessary. Two additional MCV's were installed on the chilled and ambient water lines leading into the galley to remove the excess iodine. These reduced the iodine residual to 3-4 ppm during STS-33, STS-34, STS-36 and STS-32. A high-temperature resin was formulated and initially flown on STS-31.

  10. Iodine accumulation in sea urchin larvae is dependent on peroxide.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ashley E M; Heyland, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Iodine has many important biological functions and its concentrations vary with the environment. Recent research has provided novel insights into iodine uptake mechanisms in marine bacteria and kelp through hydrogen peroxide-dependent diffusion (PDD). This mechanism is distinct from sodium-dependent mechanisms known from vertebrates. In vertebrates, iodine accumulates in the thyroid gland by the action of the apical iodide transporter (AIT) and the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS). Neither of these proteins has, thus far, been identified outside of the chordates, and PDD (as an iodine uptake mechanism) has never been studied in animals. Using (125)I as a marker for total iodine influx, we tested iodine uptake via sodium-dependent transport versus PDD in embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We found that iodine uptake in S. purpuratus is largely independent of NIS/AIT. Instead, we found that uptake is dependent on the presence and production of hydrogen peroxide, indicating that sea urchin larvae use PDD as a mechanism for iodine acquisition. Our data, for the first time, provide conclusive evidence for this mechanism in an animal. Furthermore, our data provide preliminary evidence that sodium-dependent iodine uptake via active transporter proteins is a synapomorphy of vertebrates.

  11. Genetic modification of preimplantation embryos: toward adequate human research policies.

    PubMed

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects.

  12. Elements for adequate informed consent in the surgical context.

    PubMed

    Abaunza, Hernando; Romero, Klaus

    2014-07-01

    Given a history of atrocities and violations of ethical principles, several documents and regulations have been issued by a wide variety of organizations. They aim at ensuring that health care and clinical research adhere to defined ethical principles. A fundamental component was devised to ensure that the individual has been provided the necessary information to make an informed decision regarding health care or participation in clinical research. This article summarizes the history and regulations for informed consent and discusses suggested components for adequate consent forms for daily clinical practice in surgery as well as clinical research.

  13. Protein intakes in India.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Sumathi; Vaz, Mario; Kurpad, Anura V

    2012-08-01

    Indian diets derive almost 60 % of their protein from cereals with relatively low digestibility and quality. There have been several surveys of diets and protein intakes in India by the National Nutrition Monitoring Board (NNMB) over the last 25 years, in urban and rural, as well as in slum dwellers and tribal populations. Data of disadvantaged populations from slums, tribals and sedentary rural Indian populations show that the protein intake (mainly from cereals) is about 1 gm/kg/day. However, the protein intake looks less promising in terms of the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), using lysine as the first limiting amino acid, where all populations, particularly rural and tribal, appear to have an inadequate quality to their protein intake. The protein: energy (PE) ratio is a measure of dietary quality, and has been used in the 2007 WHO/FAO/UNU report to define reference requirement values with which the adequacy of diets can be evaluated in terms of a protein quality corrected PE ratio. It is likely that about one third of this sedentary rural population is at risk of not meeting their requirements. These levels of risk of deficiency are in a population with relatively low BMI populations, whose diets are also inadequate in fruits and vegetables. Therefore, while the burden of enhancing the quality of protein intake in rural India exists, the quality of the diet, in general, represents a challenge that must be met.

  14. [Long-term effect of iodine deficiency on growth and food utilization rate in second filial generation rats].

    PubMed

    Muyeseer, Ainiwaer; Zhang, G X; Wang, J; Liu, Y; Meng, X H; Liu, Q

    2017-02-06

    Objective: To study the effect of iodine deficiency on body weight, food consumption, and food utilization rate of second filial generation Wistar rats. Methods: According to the food pattern of a high-iodine deficient population, two types of low-iodine food have been produced using the main crops grown in this area (iodine levels of 50 and 20 μg/kg, respectively). Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, normal iodine group (NI group), low-iodine group one (LI group) and low-iodine group two (LII group), using the random number table method and fed diets containing 300, 50, and 20 μg/kg of iodine, respectively. Parental generation rats were fed until they reached reproductive age; first filial generation rats were allocated to the same diet as their mothers. After 3 months of feeding, first filial generation rats gave birth to second filial generation rats; second filial generation rats were allocated to the same diet as their mothers. After feeding for 90, 180, and 270 days, rats were sacrificed. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze body weight, food intake, and food utilization rate data collected during the time of feeding and blood iodine hormone level, which was determined after sacrifice. Results: The LI and LII groups generally demonstrated decreased activity, slow reaction, and growth retardation compared with the NI group. After 270 days, the urine iodine levels of the LI and LII groups were 1.7 and 0.2 μg/L, respectively, which were significantly lower than the NI group (255.2 μg/L) (P<0.001). Additionally, the weight of female rats in the LI and LII groups were (288.1±10.5) and (275.7±2.7) g, respectively, which was significantly lower than that of the NI group ((311.0±2.3) g) (P<0.001). The weight of male rats were (446.0±4.6) and (451.8±19.1) g, respectively, which were significantly lower than that of the NI group ((517.2±7.8) g) (P<0.001). In the LI and LII groups, food intake of female and male rats after 270 days

  15. Method for the simultaneous preparation of Radon-211, Xenon-125, Xenon-123, Astatine-211, Iodine-125 and Iodine-123

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Lambrecht, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    A method for simultaneously preparing Radon-211, Astatine-211, Xenon-125, Xenon-123, Iodine-125 and Iodine-123 in a process that includes irradiating a fertile metal material then using a one-step chemical procedure to collect a first mixture of about equal amounts of Radon-211 and Xenon-125, and a separate second mixture of about equal amounts of Iodine-123 and Astatine-211.

  16. Method for gettering organic, inorganic and elemental iodine in aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Beahm, Edward C.; Shockley, William E.

    1990-07-03

    A process for the removal of iodine from aqueous solutions, particularly the trapping of radioactive iodine to mitigate damage resulting from accidents or spills associated with nuclear reactors, by exposing the solution to well dispersed silver carbonate which reacts with the iodine and iodides, thereby gettering iodine and iodine compounds from solution. The iodine is not only removed from solution but also from the contiguous vapor.

  17. Method for gettering organic, inorganic and elemental iodine in aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Beahm, Edward C.; Shockley, William E.

    1990-01-01

    A process for the removal of iodine from aqueous solutions, particularly the trapping of radioactive iodine to mitigate damage resulting from accidents or spills associated with nuclear reactors, by exposing the solution to well dispersed silver carbonate which reacts with the iodine and iodides, thereby gettering iodine and iodine compounds from solution. The iodine is not only removed from solution but also from the contiguous vapor.

  18. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  19. VALUES OF TRACE ELEMENTS SELENIUM, COPPER, ZINC, AND IODINE AND OF VITAMIN E IN CAPTIVE LESSER KUDUS (TRAGELAPHUS IMBERBIS).

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Christine; Hoby, Stefan; Völlm, Jürg; Wenker, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Lesser kudus (Tragelaphus imberbis) have been kept in Zoo Basel since 1956. Juvenile mortality used to be high, and a recent study to reveal pathologic findings identified white muscle disease as a major contributor to this problem. Therefore, a retrospective study was initiated using 16 stored serum samples from lesser kudus from 2000 to 2013 to determine the concentration of selected trace elements, including selenium, copper, zinc, and iodine. Additionally, three serum samples were used to measure serum vitamin E values. Serum analysis revealed that copper, zinc, and iodine values were within reference ranges for domestic ruminants, and the supplementation status of these trace elements was assumed to be adequate. In contrast, vitamin E levels were low and selenium levels were scarce in several animals, indicating a deficiency of these essential micronutrients. The results of the analyses are compared with literature references.

  20. Iodine status and the effect of soil erosion on trace elements in Nanka and Oba towns of Anambra State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olife, Ifeyinwa C; Okaka, Antoinette N; Dioka, Chudi E; Meludu, Samuel C; Orisakwe, Orish E

    2007-09-01

    (I = 89.8 +/- 6.42 microg/L). However, total water values for Se, Zn, and Pb were not significantly different in the two communities. The mean urinary iodine concentration of 170.65 +/- 27.17 microg/L in school children from Oba was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the mean concentration of 156.12 +/- 16.48 microg/L found in school children from Nanka. However, the mean urinary iodine concentration of all the women (pregnant and non-pregnant) were not significantly different in the two communities but they are below the recommended daily intake. The results show that people living in Nanka and Oba, could be at risk of IDD.

  1. Iodine supplementation of the pregnant dam alters intestinal gene expression and immunoglobulin uptake in the newborn lamb.

    PubMed

    McGovern, F M; Magee, D A; Browne, J A; MacHugh, D E; Boland, T M

    2016-04-01

    Excess iodine intake by the pregnant dam reduces lamb serum antibody concentration, specifically immunoglobulin G (IgG). An experiment was conducted to investigate the mechanisms under pinning the reduced serum IgG concentration at 24 h postpartum in the progeny of iodine supplemented dams. Forty-five mature twin bearing ewes (n=15/treatment) were allocated to one of three dietary treatments as follows: basal diet (Control); basal diet plus 26.6 mg of iodine per ewe per day as calcium iodate (CaIO3); or potassium iodide (KI). Ewes were individually housed and fed from d 119 of gestation until parturition. All lambs received colostrum at 1, 10 and 18 h postpartum via stomach tube. At 1 h postpartum lambs from the control and an iodine supplemented treatment (n=10 per treatment from control and CaIO3) were euthanised before colostrum consumption and ileal segments isolated to determine the gene expression profile of a panel of genes identified as having a role in antibody transfer. Preceding euthanasia, lambs were blood sampled for determination of serum IgG, total thyroxine and free tri-iodothyronine concentrations. Progeny of CaIO3 supplemented dams had lower tri-iodothyronine concentrations (P<0.01) at 1 h postpartum and lower serum IgG concentrations (P<0.001) at 24 h postpartum when compared with the progeny of control dams. Iodine (CaIO3) supplementation of the dam increased the relative expression (P<0.05) of the B2M, PIGR and MYC genes in the ileum of the lamb, before colostrum consumption; while the expression of THRB declined when compared with the progeny of C dams (P<0.01). In conclusion, the results of this study show that it is the actual inclusion of excess iodine in the diet of the ewe, regardless of the carrier element, that negatively affects passive transfer in the newborn lamb. This study presents novel data describing the relationship between maternal iodine nutrition and its effect on the thyroid hormone status and subsequent gene expression in

  2. A Resonance Raman/Iodine Moessbauer Investigation of the Starch-Iodine Structure: Aqueous Solution and Iodine Vapor Preparations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-05

    was then evaporated in a stream of prepurified nitrogen to yield solid 󈧗I. For a source of I, the basic Na 9I solution from Oak Ridge was neutralized...depletion of pentaiodide to form triiodide (eq. (2)). 14 I 5I 3 + 12 (2) Iodine Mdssbauer Studies Further efforts to quantitatively investigate the I...populations 1:1:1 (e.g. distorted triiodide , as in CsI3 2 4 ’ 33) also resulted in poor agreement with the experimental spectrum, i. e., an increase

  3. Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2012-08-01

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products and activation products, some of which tend to be volatile during used fuel reprocessing and evolve in gaseous species into the reprocessing facility off-gas systems. Analyses have shown that I-129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Iodine capture is an important aspect of the Separations and Waste Forms Campaign Off-gas Sigma Team (Jubin 2011, Pantano 2011). Deep-bed iodine sorption tests for both silver-functionalized Aerogel and silver zeolite sorbents were performed during Fiscal Year 2012. These tests showed that: • Decontamination factors were achieved that exceed reasonably conservative estimates for DFs needed for used fuel reprocessing facilities in the U.S. to meet regulatory requirements for I-129 capture. • Silver utilizations approached or exceeded 100% for high inlet gas iodine concentrations, but test durations were not long enough to approach 100% silver utilization for lower iodine concentrations. • The depth of the mass transfer zone was determined for both low iodine concentrations (under 10 ppmv) and for higher iodine concentrations (between 10-50 ppmv); the depth increases over time as iodine is sorbed. • These sorbents capture iodine by chemisorption, where the sorbed iodine reacts with the silver to form very non-volatile AgI. Any sorbed iodine that is physisorbed but not chemically reacted with silver to form AgI might not be tightly held by the sorbent. The portion of sorbed iodine that tends to desorb because it is not chemisorbed (reacted to form AgI) is small, under 1%, for the AgZ tests, and even smaller, under 0.01%, for the silver-functionalized Aerogel.

  4. Controlled iodine release from polyurethane sponges for water decontamination.

    PubMed

    Aviv, Oren; Laout, Natalia; Ratner, Stanislav; Harik, Oshrat; Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Domb, Abraham J

    2013-12-28

    Iodinated polyurethane (IPU) sponges were prepared by immersing sponges in aqueous/organic solutions of iodine or exposing sponges to iodine vapors. Iodine was readily adsorbed into the polymers up to 100% (w/w). The adsorption of iodine on the surface was characterized by XPS and SEM analyses. The iodine loaded IPU sponges were coated with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), in order to release iodine in a controlled rate for water decontamination combined with active carbon cartridge, which adsorbs the iodine residues after the microbial inactivation. The EVA coated IPU were incorporated in a water purifier and tested for iodine release to water and for microbial inactivation efficiency according to WQA certification program against P231/EPA for 250l, using 25l a day with flow rate of 6-8min/1l. The antimicrobial activity was also studied against Escherichia coli and MS2 phage. Bacterial results exceeded the minimal requirement for bacterial removal of 6log reduction throughout the entire lifespan. At any testing point, no bacteria was detected in the outlet achieving more than 7.1 to more than 8log reduction as calculated upon the inlet concentration. Virus surrogate, MS2, reduction results varied from 4.11log reduction under tap water, and 5.11log reduction under basic water (pH9) to 1.32 for acidic water (pH5). Controlled and stable iodine release was observed with the EVA coated IPU sponges and was effective in deactivating the bacteria and virus present in the contaminated water and thus, these iodinated PU systems could be used in water purification to provide safe drinking water. These sponges may find applications as disinfectants in medicine.

  5. The two-layer geochemical structure of modern biogeochemical provinces and its significance for spatially adequate ecological evaluations and decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    regard to secondary redistribution of chemical elements; 3) selection of areas adequate for the short- and long-term ecogeochemical monitoring; 4) selection of areas as global and regional biogeochemical standards. The approach was used to evaluate contribution of stable iodine deficiency and radioactive iodine fallout to distribution of thyroid diseases among population of the Bryansk region [1], to evaluate natural transformation of the initially uniform spatial structure of N, P, K in agricultural fields [2] and radiocesium in forest and flood plain landscapes [3]. The work has been partly supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants 07-05-00912; 10-05-01148; 13-05-00823). References Korobova E.M., S.L. Romanov, A.I. Kuvylin, E.I. Chesalova, V.Yu. Beriozkin, I.V. Kurnosova. Modern natural and technogenic iodine biogeochemical provinces: spatial structure and health effects. Goldschmidt 2011, Prague, August 14-19, 2011. Mineralogical Magazine, 75, 3, June 2011, Goldschmidt abstracts 2011, www.minersoc.org, 1224. Romanov S.L. Patterns of the structure of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium fields in landscape systems of Belorussia. Thesis. Moscow, Moscow State University, 1991, 20 p. Korobova E.M., Romanov S.L., 2009. A Chernobyl 137Cs contamination study as an example for the spatial structure of geochemical fields and modeling of the geochemical field structure. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 99, 1-8.

  6. Obesity coexists with malnutrition? Adequacy of food consumption by severely obese patients to dietary reference intake recommendations.

    PubMed

    Correia Horvath, Jaqueline Driemeyer; Dias de Castro, Mariana Laitano; Kops, Natália; Kruger Malinoski, Natasha; Friedman, Rogério

    2014-02-01

    To assess the adequacy of food intake in severely obese patients and describe their main nutritional deficiencies on the basis of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Patients on a waiting list for bariatric surgery were sequentially recruited from March 2010 to November 2011. All subjects underwent nutritional status assessment (anthropometry, dietary recall and semi-structured interview), socioeconomic evaluation (Brazilian Association of Research Companies criteria) and laboratory testing (glucose/hormone/lipid panel). A total of 77 patients were assessed, 50 of whom (76.6%) were female. Mean age was 44.48 ± 12.55 years. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (72.4%), binge eating disorder (47.4%), type 2 diabetes mellitus (32.9%), sleep apnea (30.3%) and dyslipidemia (18.4%). Macronutrient intake was largely adequate, in view of the high calorie intake. However, some micronutrient deficiencies were present. Only 19.5% of patients had an adequate intake of potassium, 26.0% of calcium, and 66.2% of iron. All subjects consumed more than the minimum recommended intake of sodium, with 98.7% reaching the upper limit. Bcomplex vitamin intake was satisfactory (adequate in >80% of subjects), but lipid-soluble vitamin (A, D, E) intake often fell short of the RDI. The diet of severely obese patients is unbalanced, with high calorie intake paralleled by insufficient micronutrient intake. When these patients are assessed and managed, qualitative dietary changes should be considered in addition to routine caloric restriction.

  7. Prostate cancer between prognosis and adequate/proper therapy

    PubMed Central

    Grozescu, T; Popa, F

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the indolent, non-invasive nature of most types of prostate cancer, as well as the simple fact that the disease seems more likely to be associated with age rather than with other factors (50% of men at the age of 50 and 80% at the age of 80 have it [1], with or without presenting any symptom), the big challenge of this clinical entity was to determine severity indicators (so far insufficient) to guide the physician towards an adequate attitude in the clinical setting. The risk of over-diagnosing and over-treating many prostate cancer cases (indicated by all the major European and American studies) is real and poses many question marks. The present paper was meant to deliver new research data and to reset the clinical approach in prostate cancer cases. PMID:28255369

  8. The cerebellopontine angle: does the translabyrinthine approach give adequate access?

    PubMed

    Fagan, P A; Sheehy, J P; Chang, P; Doust, B D; Coakley, D; Atlas, M D

    1998-05-01

    A long-standing but unfounded criticism of the translabyrinthine approach is the misperception that this approach does not give adequate access to the cerebellopontine angle. Because of what is perceived as limited visualization and operating space within the cerebellopontine angle, some surgeons still believe that the translabyrinthine approach is inappropriate for large acoustic tumors. In this study, the surgical access to the cerebellopontine angle by virtue of the translabyrinthine approach is measured and analyzed. The parameters are compared with those measured for the retrosigmoid approach. This series objectively confirms that the translabyrinthine approach offers the neurotologic surgeon a shorter operative depth to the tumor, via a similar-sized craniotomy. This permits superior visualization by virtue of a wider angle of surgical access. Such access is achieved with the merit of minimal cerebellar retraction.

  9. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; P<0.01) and improved adequacy of received services (95.04% versus 83.8%; P=0.02). Conclusion The poor prenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  10. Iodine nutritional status in Uttarakhand State, India

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Neha; Kapil, Umesh; Nambiar, Vanisha; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Khenduja, Preetika

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Uttarakhand (UK) state is a known endemic region to iodine deficiency (ID). Objective: To assess the current status of iodine nutrition in a population of UK. Methodology: Three districts, namely Udham Singh Nagar (USN), Nainital (N), and Pauri Garhwal (PG) were selected. In each district, 30 clusters were identified by utilizing the population proportional to size cluster sampling methodology. Total of 6143 school age children (SAC) (USN; 1807, N; 2269, PG: 2067), 5430 adolescent girls (AGs) (USN; 1823, N; 1811, PG: 1796), 1727 pregnant mothers (PMs) (USN; 632, N; 614, PG: 481), and 2013 Neonates (USN; 649, N; 670, PG: 694), were included in the study. Clinical examination of thyroid of each child, AG and PM was conducted. Spot urine and salt samples were collected from children, AGs and PMs. Cord blood samples were collected from neonates for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Results: In SAC, total goiter rate (TGR) was 13.2% (USN), 15.9% (N), and 16.8% (PG). Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) level was 150 μg/l (USN), 125 μg/l (N), and 115 μg/l (PG). In AGs, TGR was 6.8% (USN), 8.2% (N) and 5.6% (PG). Median UIC level was 250 μg/l (USN), 200 μg/l (N), and 183 μg/l (PG). In PMs, TGR was 16.1% (USN), 20.2% (N), and 24.9% (PG). Median UIC level was 124 μg/l (USN), 117.5 μg/l (N) and 110 μg/l (PG), respectively. In Neonates, TSH levels of >5 mIU/L were found in 55.3 (USN), 76.4 (N) and 72.8 (PG) percent of neonates. Conclusion: UIC level in PMs and TSH levels among neonates indicate the prevalence of ID in three districts surveyed. PMID:27042411

  11. Iodinated Contrast Media and the Alleged "Iodine Allergy": An Inexact Diagnosis Leading to Inferior Radiologic Management and Adverse Drug Reactions.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Ingrid; Nairz, Knud; Morelli, John N; Keller, Patricia Silva Hasembank; Heverhagen, Johannes T

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To test the hypothesis that the incomplete diagnosis "iodine allergy" is a possibly dangerous concept for patients under routine radiologic conditions. Materials and Methods 300 patients with a history of an "iodine allergy" were retrospectively screened and compared with two age-, sex-, and procedure-matched groups of patients either diagnosed with a nonspecific "iodine contrast medium (ICM) allergy" or an allergy to a specific ICM agent. For all groups, the clinical symptoms of the most recent past adverse drug reaction (ADR), prophylactic actions taken for subsequent imaging, and ultimate outcome were recorded and analyzed. Results The diagnosis "iodine allergy" was not otherwise specified in 84.3 % patients. For this group, in most cases, the symptoms of the previous ADRs were not documented. In contrast, the type of ADR was undocumented in only a minority of patients in the comparison groups. In the group of patients with an "iodine allergy" the percentage of unenhanced CT scans was greater than within the other two groups (36.7 % vs. 28.7 %/18.6 %). ADRs following prophylactic measures were only observed in the "iodine allergy" group (OR of 9.24 95 % CI 1.16 - 73.45; p < 0.04). Conclusion This data confirms the hypothesis that the diagnosis "iodine allergy" is potentially dangerous and results in uncertainty in clinical management and sometimes even ineffective prophylactic measures. Key points  · The term "iodine allergy" is imprecise, because it designates allergies against different substance classes, such as disinfectants with complexed iodine and contrast media containing covalently bound iodine.. · There is a clear correlation between the exactness of the diagnosis - from the alleged "iodine allergy" to "contrast media allergy" to naming the exact culprit CM - and the quality of documentation of the symptoms.. · Management of patients diagnosed with "iodine allergy" was associated with uncertainty leading to

  12. Iodine Deficiency in Australia: Be Alarmed. Opinions & Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElduff, Aidan; Beange, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Iodine deficiency, the leading preventable cause of intellectual impairment in the world (World Health Organization, 1999), has reappeared in Australia. Recently, we identified the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in Sydney (Gunton, Hams, Fiegert & McElduff, 1999). This has been confirmed locally (Li, Ma, Boyages & Eastman, 2001) and…

  13. Optimization studies on GCM for iodine waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Nenoff, Tina Maria

    2014-09-01

    We are purusing an understand of the durability and materials processability of the low temperature sintering Bi-Si oxide Glass Composite Material (GCM)1 Waste Form for iodine capture materials. The chemical and physical controls over iodine release from candidate 129I waste forms must be quantified to predict long-term waste form effectiveness.

  14. Iodine, a Mild Reagent for the Aromatization of Terpenoids.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Victoriano; Prieto, Consuelo; Silva, Lucia; Rodilla, Jesús M L; Quílez del Moral, José F; Barrero, Alejandro F

    2016-04-22

    Efficient procedures based on the use of iodine for the aromatization of a series of terpenoids possessing diene and homoallylic or allylic alcohol functionalities are described. Different examples are reported as a proof-of-concept study. Furthermore, iodine also proved to mediate the dehydrogenation of testosterone.

  15. Povidone iodine skin absorption: an ex-vivo study.

    PubMed

    Nesvadbova, Martina; Crosera, Matteo; Maina, Giovanni; Larese Filon, Francesca

    2015-06-15

    Povidone iodine is a water-soluble complex used to disinfect the skin surface and it exerts prolonged germicidal action against a broad spectrum of germs. Indeed, it is often applied on burned skin, large wounds, deep tissues or mucosa. Notably some surgical hand-scrub solutions, which are considered safe antiseptics, contain large amounts of iodine that can be absorbed by skin. The aim of present study was to study the skin absorption of iodine after the application on the skin of povidone-iodine solution, used by health care workers during surgical procedure. We use Franz diffusion static cells with human skin. After 24h from the beginning of our measurement the iodine concentration in the receiving compartment was 11.59±6.3μg/cm(2). The medium flux calculated was 0.73±0.33μg/cm(2)/h with a lag time of 8.9±1.5h. These in vitro results confirmed that povidone iodine could pass through the skin in a relevant amount that can explain the clinical findings in burned or surgically treated patients. In professional use the repetitive contact with povidone iodine, also as soap, can cause iodine skin permeation that must be considered when the washing procedures are repeated more than 20 times a day.

  16. The addition of iodine to tetramethylammonium iodide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, H.W.; Fleischer, M.

    1953-01-01

    The system tetramethylammonium iodide-iodine-toluene has been studied by the solubility method at 6 and at 25??. The compounds (CH3)4NI3, (CH3)4NI5 and (CH3)4NI11 were found to be stable phases at both temperatures. In addition, the compound (CH3)4NI10 was found at 6?? and the compound (CH3)4NI9 at 25??. The dissociation pressures of the compounds at these temperatures were calculated from the solubility data.

  17. Viscosity of high-temperature iodine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Steve H.; Kunc, Joseph A.

    1991-01-01

    The viscosity coefficient of iodine in the temperature range 500 - 3000 K is calculated. Because of the low dissociation energy of the I2 molecules, the dissociation degree of the gas increases quickly with temperature, and I + I2 and I + I collisions must be taken into account in calculation of viscosity at temperatures greater than 1000 deg. Several possible channels for atom-atom interaction are considered, and the resulting collision integrals are averaged over all the important channels. It is also shown that the rigid-sphere model is inaccurate in predictions of the viscosity.

  18. Neurocognitive outcomes of children secondary to mild iodine deficiency in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Caron, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Iodine deficiency is the most important preventable cause of brain damage worldwide. During pregnancy, severe iodine deficiency causes endemic cretinism, whereas mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency impairs neurocognitive function of the offspring. Numerous reports demonstrate the impact of iodine supplementation on prevention of cretinism, and recent studies evaluate the effects of iodine prophylaxis on neurocognitive development in children of women with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. Iodine prophylaxis is generally well tolerated without side effects for the pregnant women and the offspring. In France, the iodine status was recently considered as satisfactory in children and adult population, but regional studies conducted during the last two decades have shown that healthy women are mild-to-moderately iodine deficient during pregnancy. According to recent World Heath Organization guidelines, systematic iodine prophylaxis is recommended in women planning a pregnancy, during gestation and lactation in order to prevent maternal, neonatal and infantile consequences of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency.

  19. Peptides and food intake.

    PubMed

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  20. Peptides and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food