Reusser, Molly E; DiRienzo, Douglas B; Miller, Gregory D; McCarron, David A
Cardiovascular disease kills nearly as many Americans each year as the next seven leading causes of death combined. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease and most of its associated risk factors is markedly higher and increasing more rapidly among African Americans than in any other racial or ethnic group. Improving these statistics may be simply a matter of improving diet quality. In recent years, a substantial and growing body of evidence has revealed that dietary patterns complete in all food groups, including nutrient-rich dairy products, are essential for preventing and reducing cardiovascular disease and the conditions that contribute to it. Several cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, insulin resistance syndrome, and obesity, have been shown to be positively influenced by dietary patterns that include adequate intake of dairy products. The benefits of nutrient-rich dietary patterns have been specifically tested in randomized, controlled trials emphasizing African American populations. These studies demonstrated proportionally greater benefits for African Americans without evidence of adverse effects such as symptoms of lactose intolerance. As currently promoted for the prevention of certain cancers and osteoporosis, regular consumption of diets that meet recommended nutrient intake levels might also be the most effective approach for reducing cardiovascular disease risk in African Americans.
Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L
The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained.
Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida
The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in non-consumers. The PANDiet index was significantly higher in yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p < 0.001). The adequacy sub-score for 17 nutrients for which usual intake should be above the reference value was significantly higher among yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet.
Johnson-Down, Louise; Egeland, Grace M
Dietary habits among Arctic preschoolers are unknown. A cross-sectional health survey of 388 Inuit, aged 3-5 y, was conducted in 16 communities in Canada's Nunavut Territory. Twenty-four-hour recall and FFQ with parents and primary caregivers quantified diet from market and traditional foods (TF). The Institute of Medicine's Dietary Reference Intakes estimated adequacy comparing intakes with Estimated Average Requirement or Adequate Intakes (AI). High-sugar and high-fat food and sugar beverage consumption and the extent to which dietary habits followed the Canadian Food Guide were evaluated. The children's mean age was 4.4 +/- 0.9 y and the mean BMI percentile was 90.2%. Consumption of nutrient-poor and energy-dense food and beverages contributed to 35% of energy. Most children met the requirements for many nutrients despite not eating the recommended servings from Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide First Nations, Inuit and Métis. Higher intake of TF resulted in higher intakes of cholesterol, vitamins A and D, iron, magnesium, and zinc. The percent above the AI for vitamin D was 43.1, 56.8, and 83.2% among no, low, and high TF consumers, respectively (chi2 test; P-trend < 0.0001). Dietary habits indicate a population at risk for overweight, obesity, and tooth decay. Interventions should encourage TF, including plant-based TF; healthy market food choices, including fruit and vegetables; and milk or alternative sources of vitamin D and calcium and discourage unhealthy market food choices.
King, Janet C; Garza, Cutberto
The conceptual framework for the various NIVs is depicted in figure 1 along with the methodological approaches and applications. The NIVs consist of two values derived from a statistical evaluation of data on nutrient requirements, the average nutrient requirement (ANR), or nutrient toxicities, the upper nutrient level (UNL). The individual nutrient levelx (INLx) is derived from the distribution of average nutrient requirements. The percentile chosen is often 98%, which is equivalent to 2 SD above the mean requirement. Concepts underlying the NIVs include criteria for establishing a nutrient requirement, e.g., ferritin stores, nitrogen balance, or serum vitamin C. Once the requirement for the absorbed nutrient is determined, it may be necessary to adjust the value for food sources, i.e., bioavailability, or host factors, such as the effect of infection on nutrient utilization. Other concepts that committees may want to consider when establishing NIVs include the effects of genetic variation on nutrient requirements and the role of the nutrient in preventing long-term disease. Two fundamental uses of NIVs are for assessing the adequacy of nutrient intakes and for planning diets for individuals and populations. Establishing the NIV using the statistical framework proposed in this report improves the efficacy of the values for identifying risks of nutrient deficiency or excess among individuals and populations. NIVs also are applied to a number of aspects of food and nutrition policy. Some examples include regulatory issues and trade, labeling, planning programs for alleviating public health nutrition problems, food fortification, and dietary guidance.
Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.
A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.
Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping
The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors.A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L.The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg.In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L.
Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping
Abstract The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors. A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L. The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg. In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L. PMID:27902589
Doo, Miae; Kim, Yangha
Obesity has become one of the major public health problems all over the world. Recent novel eras of research are opening for the effective management of obesity though gene and nutrient intake interactions because the causes of obesity are complex and multifactorial. Through GWASs (genome-wide association studies) and genetic variations (SNPs, single nucleotide polymorphisms), as the genetic factors are likely to determine individuals’ obesity predisposition. The understanding of genetic approaches in nutritional sciences is referred as “nutrigenomics”. Nutrigenomics explores the interaction between genetic factors and dietary nutrient intake on various disease phenotypes such as obesity. Therefore, this novel approach might suggest a solution for the effective prevention and treatment of obesity through individual genetic profiles and help improve health conditions. PMID:25866743
Tremblay, Angelo; Bellisle, France
In the context of the worldwide epidemic of obesity affecting men and women of all ages, it is important to understand the mechanisms that control human appetite, particularly those that allow the adjustment of energy intake to energy needs. Satiety is one important psycho-biological mechanism whose function is to inhibit intake following the ingestion of a food or a beverage. According to the classical theories of appetite control, satiety is influenced by macronutrient intake and/or metabolism. Satiety also seems to be modified by micronutrients, non-nutrients, and some bioactive food constituents. Under optimal conditions, satiety should be well connected with hunger and satiation in a way that spontaneously leads to a close match between energy intake and expenditures. However, the current obesity epidemic suggests that dysfunctions often affect satiety and energy intake. In this regard, this paper presents a conceptual integration that hopefully will help health professionals address satiety issues and provide the public with informed advice to facilitate appetite control.
Fialkowski, Marie K; McCrory, Megan A; Roberts, Sparkle M; Tracy, J Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M; Boushey, Carol J
Diet is influential in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations including Native Americans. The objective of this report is to present the first comprehensive dietary survey, to our knowledge, of a representative sample of nonpregnant adults from Pacific Northwest tribal nations participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Only participants who completed 1-4 d of dietary records and had weights and heights measured in the laboratory were eligible for this analysis (n = 418). Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by gender for the total sample, those with plausibly reported energy intakes (rEI), and those with implausibly rEI. Estimates of nutrient intakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Nutrient estimates from NHANES 2001-2002 were used as a reference. Among both men and women, total fat contributed 34-37% of energy intake and saturated fat contributed 11-12% of energy intake. Daily cholesterol intakes ranged from 262 to 442 mg. A majority of men and women were not meeting recommendations for vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, and sodium. For a majority of the nutrients examined, plausibility resulted in higher mean estimates. The CoASTAL cohort nutrient profile is similar to NHANES 2001-2002, with a majority of DRI recommendations not being met. Adequate dietary intake information may be more important for this population, because Native Americans experience a disproportionate burden for diseases.
Calkins, B M; Whittaker, D J; Nair, P P; Rider, A A; Turjman, N
A 3-day diary with portion sizes weighed by the subject and a 24-h recall were obtained on 50 sets of subjects: Seventh-day Adventist lacto-ovo-vegetarians and nonvegetarians, and general population nonvegetarians, matched on age (+/- 5 yr), sex, marital status, education, type of milk preferred, and an index of the frequency of dairy and egg product use. An additional 18 unmatched persons who follow a pure vegetarian dietary pattern (use no meat, fish, fowl, dairy, or egg products) were recruited into the study. The rational for the dietary methods used is presented and details of each of the methods used are given. The results of the nutrient analysis of the 24-h recall and 3-day diary are presented. The 3-day nutrient intake means for the four groups are compared to the sex-specific recommended daily allowance both with and without supplements. The contribution of nutritional supplements to the nutrient intake is discussed. All groups show adequate or excess intake levels of calories, protein, and fat when either the 24-h recall or the 3-day diary values are considered. The higher intake of calories noted among nonvegetarians can be explained by a higher intake of both fat and protein in these groups. A, B, and C vitamin levels (3-day dairy estimates) are adequate both with and without supplements. Calcium intake is much below recommended levels for pure vegetarian females. Iron intake is low for all females. A heme iron source does not improve the intake levels for nonvegetarian females. A comparison of these results with prior reports of nutrient intake among Seventh-day Adventists is presented.
Paré, S; Barr, S I; Ross, S E
Studies have shown that severe daytime restriction of dietary protein improves the efficacy of L-dopa and reduces response fluctuations in some Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. This study investigated the nutritional adequacy of the daytime restricted-protein diet. Eleven free-living PD patients suffering from unpredictable response fluctuations to L-dopa were counseled to limit protein intake to approximately 10 g before 1700. Three sets of 6-d food records obtained during the 8-wk study showed that while on the test diet, mean intakes of most nutrients remained above the recommended nutrient intakes, although significant decreases occurred in protein, calcium, iron, phosphorus, riboflavin, and niacin intakes. The impact of the test diet on nutritional status as evaluated by changes in body weight and serum prealbumin was small. We conclude that healthy and highly motivated patients can maintain adequate intakes of most nutrients while restricting daytime protein intake. However, nutrient intakes might be compromised in patients whose regular diets are marginally adequate.
Hernández, Liza; Campos, Raquel; Enneman, Anke; Soto-Méndez, Maria José; Vossenaar, Marieke; Solomons, Noel W
Complementary foods (CF) are introduced earlier or later than appropriate in developing societies. They often contribute poorly to overall adequate micronutrient intake during the critical period for growth and development, which constitutes the period from 6 to 12 months of life. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of the CF nutrients to the total estimated nutrient intake in infants in the second semester of life. Three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls interviews were conducted with mothers of 64 infants, aged 6-12 months on enrolment, from a convenience sample in a marginal urban settlement in Guatemala City. Retrospective recording of early introduction of pre- and post-lacteal feeding and introduction of first foods and beverages was included. Human milk intakes were estimated by a model based on assumptions that human milk plus CF exactly satisfied the infant's daily energy needs. The WHO/FAO Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI) were the standards for adequate nutrient consumption. Instances of exclusive breast feeding to 6 months were rare, with the introduction of CF earlier than recommended. Baby food in jars was mentioned most frequently as the first food offered. The contribution of CF increased with age through the second semester of life. CF contributed more of a nutrient than human milk in all instances. However,CF nutrient density for Ca, Fe, and Zn fell below international standard. Fortified sugar contributed excessive amounts of Vitamin A to the diets. We conclude that for most nutrients, intakes reached or exceeded recommendation levels, unusual within the CF experience in scientific literature.
Leonard, T K; Mohs, M E; Watson, R R
High intakes of the macronutrients--proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates in the form of excess energy-have some cancer stimulating properties. On the contrary, epidemiologic and animal laboratory data indicate that high-level supplementation of some micronutrients--certain vitamins, minerals, and lipotropes, as well as some non-nutrients, most notably various types of dietary fiber, may be useful in the prevention of cancer. A wealth of data exists for macronutrients whereas most micronutrients are almost unstudied concerning their role in cancer prevention. Vitamins A, E, and C and selenium are the most well-studied micronutrients, and are recognized as effective with significant anticancer effects, at least in animal models. There are minimal data to suggest that some other micronutrients may also exert varying degrees of incidence reduction on one or more types of cancer. This is most true for folic acid, manganese, molybdenum, copper, the amino acids phenylalanine and methionine, and the lipotrope choline. Zinc and vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and pantothenic acid have even less data, and some data are contradictory. Therefore, it is premature to make recommendations concerning their usefulness in cancer prevention at present.
The objective of the study reported here was to assess the usual nutrient intakes of 3,273 US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, aged 0 to 47 months, who were surveyed in the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008; and to compare data on the usual nutrient intakes for the two waves of FITS...
Scott, Jane; Davey, Kristina; Ahwong, Ellen; Devenish, Gemma; Ha, Diep; Do, Loc
Breastfeeding is recommended beyond 12 months of age, but little is known about the contribution of breastmilk and infant formula to the nutritional intake of toddlers as they transition to a family diet in the second year of life. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a birth cohort study in Adelaide, Australia. Dietary intake data were collected when children were approximately 1 year of age by an interviewer-administered multi-pass 24 h recall and a mother-completed 2 days food diary. Children were categorized according to their milk feeding method, i.e., breastmilk, infant formula, combination or other, and their nutrient intakes compared with recommended nutrient reference values. Complete data were available for 832 children, of which 714 had plausible energy intakes. Breastmilk and formula made a substantial contribution to the nutrient intake of those toddlers, contributing 28% and 34% of total energy, and 16% and 26% of protein intake, respectively when not drunk in combination. In general, Australian toddlers transitioning to the family diet consumed nutritionally adequate diets, although almost one quarter of all children and half of breastfed children with plausible intakes had iron intakes below the estimated average requirement, placing them at risk of iron deficiency.
Fuglestad, Anita J; Fink, Birgit A; Eckerle, Judith K; Boys, Christopher J; Hoecker, Heather L; Kroupina, Maria G; Zeisel, Steven H; Georgieff, Michael K; Wozniak, Jeffrey R
This study evaluated dietary intake in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Pre-clinical research suggests that nutrient supplementation may attenuate cognitive and behavioral deficits in FASD. Currently, the dietary adequacy of essential nutrients in children with FASD is unknown. Dietary data were collected as part of a randomized, double-blind controlled trial of choline supplementation in FASD. Participants included 31 children with FASD, ages 2.5-4.9 years at enrollment. Dietary intake data was collected three times during the nine-month study via interview-administered 24-hour recalls with the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall. Dietary intake of macronutrients and 17 vitamins/minerals from food was averaged across three data collection points. Observed nutrient intakes were compared to national dietary intake data of children ages 2-5 years (What we Eat in America, NHANES 2007-2008) and to the Dietary Reference Intakes. Compared to the dietary intakes of children in the NHANES sample, children with FASD had lower intakes of saturated fat, vitamin D, and calcium. The majority (>50%) of children with FASD did not meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Adequate Intake (AI) for fiber, n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, choline, and calcium. This pattern of dietary intake in children with FASD suggests that there may be opportunities to benefit from nutritional intervention. Supplementation with several nutrients, including choline, vitamin D, and n-3 fatty acids, has been shown in animal models to attenuate the cognitive deficits of FASD. These results highlight the potential of nutritional clinical trials in FASD.
Banna, Jinan C; Fialkowski, Marie K; Townsend, Marilyn S
Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue.
Park, Song-Yi; Murphy, Suzanne P; Martin, Carrie L; Kolonel, Laurence N
A multivitamin/mineral supplement is the most widely used type of dietary supplement among American adults. Therefore, accurate assessment of intake from this supplement is crucial when studying diet and chronic diseases. From 1999 to 2001, the Multiethnic Cohort Study collected detailed information on multivitamin/mineral use among five ethnic groups: African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites. Daily nutrient intakes from multivitamin/minerals were calculated using the nutrient composition specified on the product label. For reported supplements with insufficient detail to match to a specific product, default nutrient profiles were assigned. Multivitamin/mineral use was reported by 50% of the participants (38% for Native Hawaiians to 57% for whites). Default profiles were assigned for 38% of users. The median daily nutrient intakes from multivitamin/minerals among users (n=75,865) were well above the Recommended Daily Allowance or Adequate Intake for vitamins A, B-6, B-12, and E, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, folate, and zinc. Although nutrient intakes from multivitamin/minerals varied widely among individuals, there was no substantial difference in the median intake across ethnic groups. To accurately estimate nutrient intakes from multivitamin/minerals, detailed information on the product consumed should be collected. When detailed information is not available, the same default nutrient profiles can be used when estimating intakes for these five ethnic groups.
de Sousa, Eliene F; Da Costa, Teresa H M; Nogueira, Julia A D; Vivaldi, Lúcio J
Adolescents aged 11-14 years (n 326), belonging to organized sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil were interviewed. Subjects (n 107) provided four non-consecutive days of food consumption and 219 subjects provided two non-consecutive days of intake. The objective was to assess their nutrient and water intake according to dietary reference intake values and their energy and macronutrient intake by sex and sports groups they were engaged in: endurance, strength-skill or mixed, according to the guidelines established by the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM). Dietary data were corrected for intra-individual variation. Total energy expenditure was higher among endurance athletes (P < 0.001) following their higher training time (P < 0.001) when compared to adolescents engaged in strength-skill or mixed sports. Total energy intake was only significantly higher among endurance-engaged females (P = 0.05). Protein intake of males was above the guidelines established by the ACSM for all sports groups. All male sport groups fulfilled the intake levels of carbohydrate per kg body weight but only females engaged in endurance sports fulfilled carbohydrate guidelines. Intakes of micronutrients with low prevalence of adequate intake were: vitamins B1, E and folate, magnesium and phosphorus. Few adolescents ( < 5 %) presented adequate intake for calcium, fibre, drinking water and beverages. For micronutrients, prevalence of adequacies were lower for females than males, except for liquids and water. Nutrition guidance is needed to help adolescents fulfil specific guidelines of macronutrient intake for their sports and to improve their intake of micronutrients and water. Special attention should be given to female adolescent athletes.
Murphy, Suzanne P; White, Kami K; Park, Song-Yi; Sharma, Sangita
Use of multivitamin-multimineral supplements is widespread and can contribute substantially to total nutrient intakes. In the Hawaii-Los Angeles Multiethnic Cohort (MEC), 48% of men and 56% of women without chronic diseases reported use of multivitamin supplements at least weekly over the past year. We calculated the prevalence of nutrient adequacy for 17 nutrients based on responses to a self-administered quantitative food-frequency questionnaire administered to MEC participants at baseline in 1993-1996. Although the prevalence of nutrient adequacy from food only was higher for multivitamin supplement users (n = 21,056) than for nonusers (n = 69,715), differences averaged only 2 percentage points. For multivitamin users, the prevalence of adequacy improved by an average of 8 percentage points for both men and women when intake from supplements was included. Users were also more likely to have potentially excessive intakes, particularly for iron, zinc, vitamin A, and niacin. The 26,735 MEC participants in Hawaii who answered an open-ended question about multivitamin use in 1999-2001 reported using 1246 different products. The nutrient profile of these products varied widely, and the composition of products at the 90th percentile was 10-fold greater than the composition at the median for some nutrients. We conclude that analyses of nutrient adequacy and excess for supplement users should be extended to national samples and that composition data on actual supplements used are preferable to assuming a default nutrient profile for multivitamin supplements. Multivitamin products could be better formulated to reduce the prevalence of inadequacy and also to reduce the risk of excessive intakes.
Noda, Yuka; Iide, Kazuhide; Masuda, Reika; Kishida, Reina; Nagata, Atsumi; Hirakawa, Fumiko; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Imamura, Hiroyuki
The purpose of this study was: 1) to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise athletes about nutrition practices that might enhance performance, and 2) to evaluate the dietary iron intake and blood iron status of Japanese collegiate soccer players. The subjects were 31 soccer players and 15 controls. Dietary information was obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. The mean carbohydrate (6.9 g.kg-1 BW) and protein (1.3 g/kg) intakes of the soccer players were marginal in comparisons with recommended targets. The mean intakes of calcium, magnesium, vitamin A, B1, B2, and C were lower than the respective Japanese recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate dietary intakes in the soccer players. The mean intakes of green and other vegetables, milk and dairy products, fruits, and eggs were lower than the recommended targets. Thus, we recommended athletes to increase the intake of these foodstuffs along with slight increase in carbohydrate and lean meat. The mean intake of iron was higher than the respective RDA in the soccer players. A high prevalence of hemolysis (71%) in the soccer players was found. None of the soccer players and controls had anemia. Two soccer players had iron depletion, while none was found in the controls. In those players who had iron deficiency, the training load need to be lowered and/or iron intake may be increased.
Mudryj, Adriana N; Yu, Nancy; Hartman, Terryl J; Mitchell, Diane C; Lawrence, Frank R; Aukema, Harold M
Pulses (dry beans, peas, lentils) are nutrient-dense foods that are recommended as good choices in either the vegetable or meat and alternative food groups in Canada's Food Guide. To examine the prevalence and the effect of pulse consumption on nutrient intake in Canadian adults ( ≥ 19 years), we analysed cross-sectional data (n 20,156) from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2·2. Participants were divided into non-consumers and quartiles of pulse intake. Sample weights were applied and logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association of nutrient intakes and pulse consumption, with cultural background, sex, age and economic status included as covariates. On any given day, 13 % of Canadians consume pulses, with the highest consumption in the Asian population. The pulse intake of consumers in the highest quartile was 294 (se 40) g/d and, compared with non-consumers, these individuals had higher intakes of carbohydrate, fibre and protein. As well, the micronutrient intake of pulse consumers was enhanced, resulting in fewer individuals who were below the estimated average requirement for thiamin, vitamin B6, folate, Fe, Mg, P and Zn, compared with non-consumers. Although pulses are generally low in Na, its intake also was higher in pulse consumers. Among the higher quartiles of pulse consumers, fruit and vegetable intake was one serving higher. These data indicate that pulse consumption supports dietary advice that pulses be included in healthful diets. Further studies elucidating the sources of increased Na in pulse consumers will be necessary so that dietary advice to increase consumption of pulses will maximise their nutritional benefits.
Pratt, Charlotte; Doyle, Margaret
The relationship of family environment to food use and nutrient intakes was investigated among a sample of working mothers in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The family environment scale that measured cohesion, expressiveness, conflict, intellectual-cultural orientation, morals and religious emphasis, organization, and control in the family was used to…
Walls, E K; Koopmans, H S
To assess the effect of gut signals on food intake two types of nutrients were infused intravenously for 17.5 hours in 17 hour fed rats. In the first experiment a solution of 25% d-glucose and 4.25% amino acids (Travasol) was infused at levels of 26 and 52 kcal/day for two consecutive four-day periods. During infusion periods, food intake was reduced from saline baseline levels by 18.9 +/- 1.7 and 34.8 +/- 1.8 kcal/day, respectively. This represents an oral intake reduction of approximately 70% of the infused calories. In contrast, food intake was reduced 17.4 +/- 1.7 kcal/day below saline baseline levels when 40 kcal of Nutralipid were infused. The reduction in food intake was only 43% of the lipid calories infused. These results indicate that infusions of glucose and amino acids are more effective than infusion of fats in inhibiting daily food intake, that gut signals associated with absorption of fat provide important satiety signals and that removal of fat from the bloodstream has relatively little effect on daily food intake.
Qureshi, Samera Azeem; Couto, Elisabeth; Hilsen, Marit; Hofvind, Solveig; Wu, Anna H; Ursin, Giske
Investigating the association between dietary factors and mammographic density (MD) could shed light on the relationship between diet and breast cancer risk. We took advantage of a national mammographic screening program to study the association between intake of nutrients and MD. In this study, we analyzed data of 2,252 postmenopausal women aged 50-69 yr who participated in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program in 2004. MD was assessed on digitized mammograms using a computer-assisted method. We used multivariate linear regression models to determine least square means of percent and absolute MD. Overall, we observed no associations between MD and intake of total calories, protein, carbohydrates, cholesterol, and dietary fiber. There was a positive borderline statistically significant association between absolute MD and total fat intake (P = 0.10) and between percent MD and intake of saturated fat (P = 0.06). There was no association between MD and intake of calcium, retinol, vitamins A, B12, C, or D, or combined intake of vitamin D and calcium. This study provides some evidence of an association between MD and dietary intake. Our study highlights the importance of adequate adjustments for BMI in studies of diet and MD.
Holen, T; Norheim, F; Gundersen, T E; Mitry, P; Linseisen, J; Iversen, P O; Drevon, C A
Biomarkers of nutrient intake or nutrient status are important objective measures of foods/nutrients as one of the most important environmental factors people are exposed to. It is very difficult to obtain accurate data on individual food intake, and there is a large variation of nutrient composition of foods consumed in a population. Thus, it is difficult to obtain precise measures of exposure to different nutrients and thereby be able to understand the relationship between diet, health, and disease. This is the background for investing considerable resources in studying biomarkers of nutrients believed to be important in our foods. Modern technology with high sensitivity and specificity concerning many nutrient biomarkers has allowed an interesting development with analyses of very small amounts of blood or tissue material. In combination with non-professional collection of blood by finger-pricking and collection on filters or sticks, this may make collection of samples and analyses of biomarkers much more available for scientists as well as health professionals and even lay people in particular in relation to the marked trend of self-monitoring of body functions linked to mobile phone technology. Assuming standard operating procedures are used for collection, drying, transport, extraction, and analysis of samples, it turns out that many analytes of nutritional interest can be measured like metabolites, drugs, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and many types of peptides and proteins. The advantage of this alternative sampling technology is that non-professionals can collect, dry, and mail the samples; the samples can often be stored under room temperature in a dry atmosphere, requiring small amounts of blood. Another promising area is the potential relation between the microbiome and biomarkers that may be measured in feces as well as in blood.
Delange, François; de Benoist, Bruno; Burgi, Hans
OBJECTIVE: Urinary iodine concentration is the prime indicator of nutritional iodine status and is used to evaluate population-based iodine supplementation. In 1994, WHO, UNICEF and ICCIDD recommended median urinary iodine concentrations for populations of 100- 200 micro g/l, assuming the 100 micro g/l threshold would limit concentrations <50 micro g/l to =20% of people. Some scientists felt this proportion was unacceptably high and wanted to increase the threshold above 100 micro g/l. The study was carried out to determine the frequency distribution of urinary iodine in iodine-replete populations (schoolchildren and adults) and the proportion of concentrations <50 micro g/l. METHOD: A questionnaire on frequency distribution of urinary iodine in iodine-replete populations was circulated to 29 scientific groups. FINDINGS: Nineteen groups reported data from 48 populations with median urinary iodine concentrations >100 micro g/l. The total population was 55 892, including 35 661 (64%) schoolchildren. Median urinary iodine concentrations were 111-540 (median 201) micro g/l for all populations, 100-199 micro g/l in 23 (48%) populations and >/=200 micro g/l in 25 (52%). The frequencies of values <50 micro g/l were 0-20.8 (mean 4.8%) overall and 7.2% and 2.5% in populations with medians of 100-199 micro g/l and >200 micro g/l, respectively. The frequency reached 20% only in two places where iodine had been supplemented for <2 years. CONCLUSION: The frequency of urinary iodine concentrations <50 micro g/l in populations with median urinary iodine concentrations >/=100 micro g/l has been overestimated. The threshold of 100 micro g/l does not need to be increased. In populations, median urinary iodine concentrations of 100-200 micro g/l indicate adequate iodine intake and optimal iodine nutrition. PMID:12219154
Lee, Yujin; Krawinkel, Michael
We described the body composition and nutrient intake of Buddhist vegetarians and compared the data with that of omnivores in South Korea. Vegetarian subjects were 54 Buddhist nuns, who adhered to a vegetarian diet in accordance with Buddhist teachings. We compared these finding with a group of 31 omnivore Catholic nuns who shared a similar lifestyle but different dietary pattern than those of the Buddhist nuns. All subjects completed the estimated three-day dietary record. Body composition was determined by a segmental multi-frequency-bioelectrical impedance analysis method. No height difference between the dietary groups existed but the vegetarians had a significantly higher body weight, fat free mass, body fat and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) than the omnivores. The median BMI of both vegetarians and omnivores fell in the normal range (22.6 vs. 20.7 kg/m2). In vegetarians, body fat was inversely correlated with the duration of vegetarianism (p for trend=0.043). The long duration group of the vegetarians had lower body fat than the short duration group (12.l vs. 15.0 kg, p=0.032). The status of the nutrient intake of Korean Buddhist vegetarians was comparable to that of omnivores, and the intake of some nutrients in vegetarians was more favorable than in the omnivores.
Nishimuta, Mamoru; Kodama, Naoko; Morikuni, Eiko; Yoshioka, Yayoi H; Matsuzaki, Nobue; Takeyama, Hidemaro; Yamada, Hideaki; Kitajima, Hideaki
In the previous analysis of our human mineral balance studies, we demonstrated positive correlations between the balances of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na) intake in the range of 3.06 and 4.06 g/d or 43.71 and 96.40 mg/kg body weight (BW)/d, but there was no correlation between Na intake and Na balance. This suggested that the balances of Ca and Mg are affected by Na intake. Therefore, in the current study, we recalculated equilibrium intakes for Ca and Mg when balances of their intakes and outputs were equal to zero within the above Na range to reduce the effects of Na intake. From 1986 to 2000, 90 volunteers (10 male, 80 female; age 18 to 28 y) took part in 9 mineral balance studies. The balance periods ranged from 8 to 12 d, with adaptation periods of 2 to 4 d. The dietary intakes of Ca and Mg ranged from 294 to 719 and 154 to 334 mg/d, or from 4.83 to 15.07 and 2.44 to 6.42 mg/kg BW/d, respectively. Intake of Ca significantly correlated with Ca balance (r2 = 0.268; p < 0.0001). When the balance was equal to zero, the mean value and upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for the regression equation between intake vs. balance were 10.072 and 10.660 mg/kg BW/d, respectively. Mg intake correlated significantly with Mg balance (r2 = 0.141, p = 0.003). When the balance was equal to zero, the mean value and upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for the regression equation between intake and balance were 4.078 and 4.287 mg/kg BW/d, respectively.
Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Cardon, Philippe; Enaux, Christophe; Nicolaou, Mary; Lien, Nanna; Terragni, Laura; Holdsworth, Michelle; Stronks, Karien; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline
Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP) with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation) with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This cross-sectional analysis included 91,900 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Nutrient intake was estimated using three 24-h records. We investigated associations between the three SEP factors and nutrient intake using sex-stratified analysis of covariance, adjusted for age and energy intake, and associations between income and nutrient intake stratified by education and occupation. Low educated participants had higher protein and cholesterol intakes and lower fibre, vitamin C and beta-carotene intakes. Low income individuals had higher complex carbohydrate intakes, and lower magnesium, potassium, folate and vitamin C intakes. Intakes of vitamin D and alcohol were lower in low occupation individuals. Higher income was associated with higher intakes of fibre, protein, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and folate among low educated persons only, highlighting effect modification. Lower SEP, particularly low education, was associated with lower intakes of nutrients required for a healthy diet. Each SEP indicator was associated with specific differences in nutrient intake suggesting that they underpin different social processes.
Loper, Hillary B.; La Sala, Michael; Dotson, Cedrick
It is well known that taste perception influences food intake. After ingestion, gustatory receptors relay sensory signals to the brain, which segregates, evaluates, and distinguishes the stimuli, leading to the experience known as “flavor.” It is well accepted that five taste qualities – sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami – can be perceived by animals. In this review, the anatomy and physiology of human taste buds, the hormonal modulation of taste function, the importance of genetic chemosensory variation, and the influence of gustatory functioning on macronutrient selection and eating behavior are discussed. Individual genotypic variation results in specific phenotypes of food preference and nutrient intake. Understanding the role of taste in food selection and ingestive behavior is important for expanding our understanding of the factors involved in body weight maintenance and the risk of chronic diseases including obesity, atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, liver disease, and hypertension. PMID:26024495
Cardon-Thomas, Danielle K.; Riviere, Timothy; Tieges, Zoë; Greig, Carolyn A.
Daily distribution of dietary protein may be important in protecting against sarcopenia, specifically in terms of per meal amounts relative to a proposed threshold for maximal response. The aims of this study were to determine total and per meal protein intake in older adults, as well as identifying associations with physical activity and sedentary behavior. Three-day food diaries recorded protein intake in 38 participants. Protein distribution, coefficient of variation (CV), and per meal amounts were calculated. Accelerometry was used to collect physical activity data as well as volume and patterns of sedentary time. Average intake was 1.14 g·kg−1·day−1. Distribution was uneven (CV = 0.67), and 79% of participants reported <0.4 g·kg−1 protein content in at least 2/3 daily meals. Protein intake was significantly correlated with step count (r = 0.439, p = 0.007) and negatively correlated with sedentary time (r = −0.456, p = 0.005) and Gini index G, which describes the pattern of accumulation of sedentary time (r = −0.421, p = 0.011). Total daily protein intake was sufficient; however, distribution did not align with the current literature; increasing protein intake may help to facilitate optimization of distribution. Associations between protein and other risk factors for sarcopenia may also inform protective strategies. PMID:28241469
Martinez-Victoria, Emilio; Martinez de Victoria, Ignacio; Martinez-Burgos, M Alba
Food composition databases (FCDBs) provide detailed information about the nutritional composition of foods. The conversion of food consumption into nutrient intake need a Food composition database (FCDB) which lists the mean nutritional values for a given food portion. The limitations of FCDBs are sometimes little known by the users. Multicentre studies have raised several methodology challenges which allow to standardize nutritional assessments in different populations and geographical areas for food composition and nutrient intake. Differences between FCDBs include those attributed to technical matters, such as description of foods, calculation of energy and definition of nutrients, analytical methods, and principles for recipe calculation. Such differences need to be identified and eliminated before comparing data from different studies, especially when dietary data is related to a health outcome. There are ongoing efforts since 1984 to standardize FCDBs over the world (INFOODS, EPIC, EuroFIR, etc.). Food composition data can be gathered from different sources like private company analysis, universities, government laboratories and food industry. They can also be borrowed from scientific literature or even from the food labelling. There are different proposals to evaluate the quality of food composition data. For the development of a FCDB it is fundamental document in the most detailed way, each of the data values of the different components and nutrients of a food. The objective of AECOSAN (Agencia Española de Consumo Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición) and BEDCA (Base de Datos Española de Composición de Alimentos) association was the development and support of a reference FCDB in Spain according to the standards to be defined in Europe. BEDCA is currently the only FCDB developed in Spain with compiled and documented data following EuroFIR standards.
Sterling, E J; Dierenfeld, E S; Ashbourne, C J; Feistner, A T
Data are presented on dietary and nutrient intake in a wild population of aye-ayes. Study animals ate 4 main food types: seeds, nectar, fungus and insect larvae. Calculated calorie intake was slightly lower during the cold season than during the hot, wet and the hot, dry seasons. Total intakes almost doubled to compensate for the lower energy content of the diet during the cold season. Comparison of natural and captive diets suggests that maintenance and even growth requirements of aye-ayes can be met by relatively low-fat, low-protein diets. Daily energy requirements were estimated to average about 280 kcal metabolizable energy/day. Animals in the wild were estimated to eat between 260 and 342 kcal, while captive animals consumed 260 kcal/day.
Méjean, Caroline; Morzel, Martine; Neyraud, Eric; Issanchou, Sylvie; Martin, Christophe; Bozonnet, Sophie; Urbano, Christine; Schlich, Pascal; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine; Feron, Gilles
Salivary flow and composition have an impact on flavor perception. However, very few studies have explored the relationship between saliva, individual liking and usual dietary intake. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of salivary flow and composition with both a liking for fat, saltiness and sweetness and the usual nutrient intake in an adult French population. Liking for fat, saltiness, and sweetness were inferred from liking scores obtained during hedonic tests on 32 food products among 282 French adults participating in the Nutrinet-Santé Study. Before assessing liking, resting saliva was collected. Standard biochemical analyses were performed to assess specific component concentrations and enzymatic activities. Dietary data were collected using three web-based 24h records. Relationships between salivary flow and composition, sensory liking and nutrient intake were assessed using linear regression. Total antioxidant capacity was positively associated with simple carbohydrate intake (β = 31.3, 95% CI = 1.58; 60.99) and inversely related to complex carbohydrate consumption (β = -52.4, 95% CI = -87.51; -19.71). Amylolysis was positively associated with both total (β = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.01; 0.38) and simple carbohydrate intake (β = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.01; 0.39). Salivary flow was positively associated with liking for fat (β = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.03; 0.25). Proteolysis was positively associated with liking for saltiness and for fat (β = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.02; 0.59; β = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.01; 0.56, respectively). Amylolysis was inversely associated with liking for sweetness (β = -10.13, 95% CI = -19.51; -0.75). Carbonic anhydrase 6 was inversely associated with liking for saltiness (β = -46.77, 95% CI = -86.24; -7.30). Saliva does not substantially vary according to a usual diet, except for carbohydrate intake, whereas the specific association between salivary flow/composition and sensory liking suggests the influence of saliva characteristics in
Shell-Duncan, Bettina; McDade, Thomas
The purpose of this study was to examine the context of iron deficiency and feeding patterns of iron-rich foods among northern Kenyan school-aged children. A nutrition survey was conducted among 300 subjects in two Rendille communities, Korr and Karare. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency as it relates to parasitic infection, dietary intake, and sociodemographic factors, as well as cultural food proscriptions influencing child feeding. Sociodemographic and qualitative data on food beliefs and child-feeding practices were obtained from the primary caretaker of each subject. From pediatric subjects, 24-hour dietary recall data were obtained with the help of the primary caretaker, and capillary blood from a fingerstick was used to detect iron deficiency based on measures of hemoglobin, the zinc protoporphyrin-to-heme ratio, C-reactive protein, and transferrin receptor. With an overall prevalence of 31.2%, iron deficiency was found to be associated with dietary iron intakes constrained by diverse economic, cultural, and environmental factors among Rendille children. In Karare, where children's iron intake approached recommended levels, iron deficiency was found to be attributable to low bioavailability of iron (only 4.3% of total iron intake), rather than low dietary intake per se. By contrast, in Korr the average daily iron intake was estimated at only 65% of recommended allowances, indicating that iron deficiency was the outcome not merely of low bioavailability, but rather of overall inadequate iron intake. Sociodemographic analysis showed a significant interaction between sex and economic status, revealing that girls in economically sufficient households were 2.4 times as likely to have iron deficiency as boys. This difference in risk parallels culturally defined gender-based proscriptions for child feeding: girls are believed to benefit from "soft foods," including rice, maize porridge, and tea, whereas boys benefitfrom "hard foods
Roodenburg, Annet J. C.; Schlatmann, Anke; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; Daamen, Robert; Dong, Jie; Guarro, Marta; Stergiou, Margarita; Sayed, Nazeeia; Ronoh, Eunice; Jansen, Léon; Seidell, Jacob C.
Introduction Nutrient profiling is defined as the science of categorising foods based on their nutrient composition. The Choices Programme is a nutrient profile system with criteria that determine whether foods are eligible to carry a “healthier option” stamp. The Daily Menu Method which has been developed to evaluate these criteria is described here. This method simulates the change in calculated nutrient intakes which would be the result of consumers changing their diets in favour of food products that comply with the criteria. Methods Average intakes of energy, trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids (SAFA), sodium, added sugar and fibre were derived from dietary intake studies and food consumption surveys of 7 countries: The Netherlands, Greece, Spain, the USA, Israel, China and South Africa. For each of the key nutrients, these average intakes were translated into three Typical Daily Menus per country. Average intakes based on these three menus were compared with average intakes from three Choices Daily Menus. To compose the Choices Menus, foods from the Typical Menus that did not comply with the Choices criteria were replaced with foods that did comply and are available on the market. Results Comparison of intakes from the Choices Menus with the survey data showed that calculated intakes of energy, SAFA, TFA, sodium and added sugar were reduced. Fibre intakes were increased. The size of the effect differed per country. Conclusion The Daily Menu Method is a useful means to predict the potential effects of nutrient profiles such as the Choices criteria, on daily nutrient intakes. The method can be applied internationally and confirms that the criteria of the Choices Programme are in line with the aim of the programme: to improve nutrient intakes in the direction of the recommendations. PMID:21373186
Hannan-Jones, Mary; Capra, Sandra
There are limited studies on the adequacy of prisoner diet and food practices, yet understanding these are important to inform food provision and assure duty of care for this group. The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intakes of prisoners to inform food and nutrition policy in this setting. This research used a cross-sectional design with convenience sampling in a 945-bed male high-secure prison. Multiple methods were used to assess food available at the group level, including verification of food portion, quality and practices. A pictorial tool supported the diet history method. Of 276 eligible prisoners, 120 dietary interviews were conducted and verified against prison records, with 106 deemed plausible. The results showed the planned food to be nutritionally adequate, with the exception of vitamin D for older males and long-chain fatty acids, with Na above upper limits. The Australian dietary targets for chronic disease risk were not achieved. High energy intakes were reported with median 13·8 (se 0·3) MJ. Probability estimates of inadequate intake varied with age groups: Mg 8 % (>30 years), 2·9 % (70 years), 1·5 % (<70 years); folate 3·5 %; Zn and I 2·7 %; and vitamin A 2·3 %. Nutrient intakes were greatly impacted by self-funded snacks. Results suggest the intakes to be nutritionally favourable when compared with males in the community. This study highlights the complexity of food provision in the prison environment and also poses questions for population-level dietary guidance in delivering appropriate nutrients within energy limits.
Grandner, Michael A; Jackson, Nicholas; Gerstner, Jason R; Knutson, Kristen L
Sleep symptoms are associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic disease. The potential role of diet has been largely unexplored. Data from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (n = 4552) to determine which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms in a nationally representative sample. Survey items assessed difficulty falling asleep, sleep maintenance difficulties, non-restorative sleep and daytime sleepiness. Analyses were adjusted for energy intake, other dietary factors, exercise, body mass index (BMI) and sociodemographics. Population-weighted, logistic regression, with backwards-stepwise selection, examined which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms. Odds ratios (ORs) reflect the difference in odds of sleep symptoms associated with a doubling in nutrient. Nutrients that were associated independently with difficulty falling asleep included (in order): alpha-carotene (OR = 0.96), selenium (OR = 0.80), dodecanoic acid (OR = 0.91), calcium (OR = 0.83) and hexadecanoic acid (OR = 1.10). Nutrients that were associated independently with sleep maintenance difficulties included: salt (OR = 1.19), butanoic acid (0.81), carbohydrate (OR = 0.71), dodecanoic acid (OR = 0.90), vitamin D (OR = 0.84), lycopene (OR = 0.98), hexanoic acid (OR = 1.25) and moisture (OR = 1.27). Nutrients that were associated independently with non-restorative sleep included butanoic acid (OR = 1.09), calcium (OR = 0.81), vitamin C (OR = 0.92), water (OR = 0.98), moisture (OR = 1.41) and cholesterol (OR = 1.10). Nutrients that were associated independently with sleepiness included: moisture (OR = 1.20), theobromine (OR = 1.04), potassium (OR = 0.70) and water (OR = 0.97). These results suggest novel associations between sleep symptoms and diet/metabolism, potentially explaining associations between sleep and cardiometabolic diseases.
Nakamura, Mieko; Tajima, Sanae; Yoshiike, Nobuo
The National Nutrition Survey is a unique survey that provides nationwide information on nutrient intake in Japan. Descriptive statistical data of nutrient intake, which has not been described in annual reports, are summarized in this report. A dataset from the National Nutrition Survey between 1995 and 1999 was used for analyses. The distribution of vitamin A intake had an extremely long right-hand tail and the difference between mean and median was very large. The results alert us to understand and use statistics properly when one summarizes the data. Means and medians of each nutrient intake except vitamin C were higher in men than in women, however, means and medians of nutrient density (per 1,000 kcal energy intake) for all nutrients were higher in women than in men. Fat intake was the highest in individuals in their 20 s and gradually declined in older age groups. Most of other forms of nutrient intake were the highest in individuals in their 50 s or 60 s and declined in older age groups. However, a declining trend with aging was not observed in the nutrient density of all nutrients except fat. These statistical data would support better interpretation of the survey data. Furthermore, some methodological limitations in the dietary assessment of the present survey, including the possibility of overestimating nutrient intake by not taking nutrient loss during the cooking process in households into account, were discussed. It is important to use and interpret the survey data under careful consideration on such methodological limitations.
Li, Kin-Kit; Concepcion, Rebecca Y.; Lee, Hyo; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Ebbeck, Vicki; Woekel, Erica; Readdy, R. Tucker
Objectives: To examine sex differences in eating habits and nutrient intakes and explore whether eating habits mediate the effects of sex on nutrient intakes and whether sex moderates the effects of eating habits on nutrient intakes. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of eating habits and food-intake frequency in a convenience sample of college…
Reducing nutrient intake in beef heifers after weaning decreases production costs; however, the impact of reduced nutrient intake on the ovarian reserve has not been investigated in this species. In rodent models, caloric restriction increased the number of primordial follicles and decreased the num...
The association between mushroom consumption and nutrient intake or diet quality has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between these variables in a nationally representative sample of adults. Dietary intake was determined using a 24-hour recall on adult 1...
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed on energy/nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality using a cross-sectional design. The setting was The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002. The sub...
Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Rubingh, Carina M.; Lanting, Caren I.; Joosten, Koen F. M.
The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10–48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diaries by caregivers at the day nursery and by parents at home on days that the children attended the daycare center. According to national and European reference values, the children had an adequate nutrient intake with exception of low intakes of total fat, n-3 fatty acids from fish and possibly iron. Intakes of energy and protein were substantially higher than recommended and part of the population exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for sodium, zinc and retinol. Consumption of fruit, fats, fish, and fluids was substantially less than recommended. The children used mostly (semi-)skimmed milk products and non-refined bread and cereals, as recommended. Two thirds of the consumed beverages, however, contained sugar and contributed substantially to energy intake. In young children, low intakes of n-3 fatty acids and iron are a potential matter of concern, as are the high intakes of energy, protein, sugared beverages, and milk, since these may increase the risk of becoming overweight. PMID:27428995
Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Rubingh, Carina M; Lanting, Caren I; Joosten, Koen F M
The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10-48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diaries by caregivers at the day nursery and by parents at home on days that the children attended the daycare center. According to national and European reference values, the children had an adequate nutrient intake with exception of low intakes of total fat, n-3 fatty acids from fish and possibly iron. Intakes of energy and protein were substantially higher than recommended and part of the population exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for sodium, zinc and retinol. Consumption of fruit, fats, fish, and fluids was substantially less than recommended. The children used mostly (semi-)skimmed milk products and non-refined bread and cereals, as recommended. Two thirds of the consumed beverages, however, contained sugar and contributed substantially to energy intake. In young children, low intakes of n-3 fatty acids and iron are a potential matter of concern, as are the high intakes of energy, protein, sugared beverages, and milk, since these may increase the risk of becoming overweight.
Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Markovic, Tania P; Ross, Glynis P; Foote, Deborah; Brand-Miller, Jennie C
Changes in the quality and quantity of carbohydrate foods may compromise nutrient intake in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We hypothesized that glycemic index, glycemic load (GL), carbohydrate intake, grains, and cereal product consumption would be associated with nutrient adequacy. Eighty-two women with GDM (61% of Asian background, 34% whites) completed a 3-day food record following their routine group nutrition education session. Nutrient intakes were compared to Nutrient Reference Values (NRV) for Australia and New Zealand. Nutrient intake across energy-adjusted tertiles of glycemic index, GL, carbohydrate intake, and intake of grains and cereal products were assessed. The majority of women (66%-99%) did not meet the NRV for fiber, folate, vitamin D, iodine, and iron, and exceeded NRV for saturated fat and sodium. Higher dietary GL was associated with lower intakes of total, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fat; vitamin E; and potassium (all P < .001). Higher grain intake was not significantly associated with intake of any micronutrients. In Australian women with GDM, high dietary GL predicts greater risk of poor nutrition.
Perrier, E T; Bottin, J H; Vecchio, M; Lemetais, G
Growing evidence suggests a distinction between water intake necessary for maintaining a euhydrated state, and water intake considered to be adequate from a perspective of long-term health. Previously, we have proposed that maintaining a 24-h urine osmolality (UOsm) of ⩽500 mOsm/kg is a desirable target for urine concentration to ensure sufficient urinary output to reduce renal health risk and circulating vasopressin. In clinical practice and field monitoring, the measurement of UOsm is not practical. In this analysis, we calculate criterion values for urine-specific gravity (USG) and urine color (UCol), two measures which have broad applicability in clinical and field settings. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis performed on 817 urine samples demonstrates that a USG ⩾1.013 detects UOsm>500 mOsm/kg with very high accuracy (AUC 0.984), whereas a subject-assessed UCol⩾4 offers high sensitivity and moderate specificity (AUC 0.831) for detecting UOsm >500 m Osm/kg.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 1 February 2017; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.269.
Dietary information was collected from a sample of women endurance athletes (n=16). Seven-day food intake records were taken using a semiweighted method. Questionnaires were used to obtain additional information on training, supplements, and attitudes toward diet. Notable features of the diets were a low average energy intake while mean intakes of…
Meier, Toni; Senftleben, Karolin; Deumelandt, Peter; Christen, Olaf; Riedel, Katja; Langer, Martin
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany--in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar--and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS) were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002-2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3-24.1 billion EUR) in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10%) of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR). This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0-12.1); salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2-7.3) and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million-4.7 billion). Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR.
Nicklas, Theresa A.; O'Neil, Carol E.; Fulgoni, Victor L.
Background Consumption of fruit has been associated with a variety of health benefits, yet, 75% of children have usual intakes of total fruit below minimum recommended amounts. Apples are the second most commonly consumed fruit in the United States; however, no studies have examined the impact of apple consumption on nutrient intake and adequacy in children's diets. Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the association between apple (various forms) consumption with nutrient intake and nutrient adequacy in a nationally representative sample of children. Design Participants were children aged 2–18 years (n=13,339), from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010. Least square means of total energy and nutrient intake, and the percentage of the population below the estimated average requirement (EAR) or above the adequate intake (AI) among apple consumers and non-consumers were examined. Results Consumers of total apple products had higher (p<0.01) total intakes of fiber, magnesium, and potassium and lower intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acid, and sodium than non-consumers. Apple consumers had higher (p<0.01) total sugar intake, but lower intake of added sugars compared to non-consumers. A lower (p<0.01) percentage of apple consumers were below the EAR for 13 of the 16 nutrients studied. Apple consumers had approximately a 10 percentage unit difference below the EAR for calcium and magnesium, and vitamins A, C, D, and E, than non-consumers. The percentage above the AI for fiber was significantly (p<0.0001) higher among total apple consumers (6.24±0.45 g) compared to non-consumers (0.57±0.07 g). The results were similar for individual apple products (i.e. apple juice, applesauce, and whole apples). Conclusion Consumption of any forms of apples provided valuable nutrients in the diets of children. PMID:26445211
Cox, D N; Anderson, A S; Reynolds, J; McKellar, S; Lean, M E; Mela, D J
This study reports results from a randomized controlled intervention trial, focusing on: (1) the identification of successful consumer strategies for increasing fruit and vegetable intakes to the recommended levels of more than five (80 g) portions per day and (2) impact on overall diet and nutrient intakes. Adult men and women (n 170) fulfilling the main recruitment criterion of eating less than five fruit and vegetable portions per day but contemplating increasing intakes were recruited. Complete valid dietary data was provided by 101 intervention (fifty-nine estimated fruit and vegetable intakes, and forty-two simultaneous weighted total dietary and estimated fruit and vegetable intakes) and twenty-four control subjects (weighed total dietary intakes). Intervention advice included the specific association of high fruit and vegetable intake with reduced risk of disease, practicalities, and portion definition with a target intake of greater than five 80 g fruit and vegetable portions per day for 8 weeks. There were significant effects (P < 0.001) on weighed intakes of fruit and vegetables in the intervention group, rising from 324 (SE 25) to 557 (SE 31) g/d and reflected by validated portion measures at 8 weeks intervention. Successful strategies chosen by 'achievers' of the target intake (65% of subjects) were conventional (fruit as a snack, vegetables with main meals etc.) and favoured fruit. There were significant increases in percentage energy from carbohydrate (from sugars not starch), vitamin C, carotenes and NSP and there was a significant decrease in percentage energy from fat for subjects who had high fat intakes (> 35% energy) at baseline. Follow-up self-reported measures at 6 and 12 months indicated mean intakes of 4.5 and 4.6 defined portions/d respectively, suggesting some sustainable effect. In conclusion, the intervention led to significant increases in fruit and vegetable intakes largely via conventional eating habits, with some desirable effects
The Saami diet consisted almost entirely of meat and fish in the past and has in general changed considerably during the twentieth century. The diet has become more like a western society diet with increased intake of carbohydrates, both as vegetables and fruits but also as sugar and a decreased intake of meat. These changes are confirmed in this dietary survey and the results reveals that the Saami diet today contains less protein and more carbohydrates and hence a lower phosphate/carbohydrate ratio than in the past. The old traditional diet contained high levels of nutrients such as zinc, phosphate, vitamin B12 and selenium due to high meat consumption. The todays Saami diet still contains more of these nutrients compared with the Swede's diet. The changes in food habits and nutrient intake, expressed in this study as nutrient density and nutrient ratios together with empirical statements in old documents are important to include in the discussion of diet, health and disease.
For insects, two of the most important dietary macronutrients are carbohydrates and protein, and many organisms regulate dietary intake of both. In the field, carbohydrate (C) to protein (P) intake of Mormon crickets is indicative of nutritional imbalance that has major effects on immunity to pathog...
King, Janet C; Vorster, Hester H; Tome, Daniel G
Although most countries and regions around the world set recommended nutrient intake values for their populations, there is no standardized terminology or framework for establishing these standards. Different terms used for various components of a set of dietary standards are described in this paper and a common set of terminology is proposed. The recommended terminology suggests that the set of values be called nutrient intake values (NIVs) and that the set be composed of three different values. The average nutrient requirement (ANR) reflects the median requirement for a nutrient in a specific population. The individual nutrient level (INLx) is the recommended level of nutrient intake for all healthy people in the population, which is set at a certain level x above the mean requirement. For example, a value set at 2 standard deviations above the mean requirement would cover the needs of 98% of the population and would be INL98. The third component of the NIVs is an upper nutrient level (UNL), which is the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects for almost all individuals in a specified life-stage group. The proposed framework for deriving a set of NIVs is based on a statistical approach for determining the midpoint of a distribution of requirements for a set of nutrients in a population (the ANR), the standard deviation of the requirements, and an individual nutrient level that assures health at some point above the mean, e.g., 2 standard deviations. Ideally, a second set of distributions of risk of excessive intakes is used as the basis for a UNL.
Kobayashi, Yukiko; Hattori, Mikako; Wada, Sayori; Iwase, Hiroya; Kadono, Mayuko; Tatsumi, Hina; Kuwahata, Masashi; Fukui, Michiaki; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Kido, Yasuhiro
Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1) assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2) characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females) aged 40–79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1) the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2) excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3) excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation. PMID:23803740
Kobayashi, Yukiko; Hattori, Mikako; Wada, Sayori; Iwase, Hiroya; Kadono, Mayuko; Tatsumi, Hina; Kuwahata, Masashi; Fukui, Michiaki; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Kido, Yasuhiro
Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1) assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2) characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females) aged 40-79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1) the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2) excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3) excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation.
Onyango, Agatha Christine; Walingo, Mary Khakoni; Mbagaya, Grace; Kakai, Rose
Background. Nutritional status is an important determinant of HIV outcomes. Objective. To assess the nutrient intake and nutrient status of HIV seropositive patients attending an AIDS outpatient clinic, to improve the nutritional management of HIV-infected patients. Design. Prospective cohort study. Setting. Comprehensive care clinic in Chulaimbo Sub-District Hospital, Kenya. Subjects. 497 HIV sero-positive adults attending the clinic. Main Outcome Measures. Evaluation of nutrient intake using 24-hour recall, food frequency checklist, and nutrient status using biochemical assessment indicators (haemoglobin, creatinine, serum glutamate pyruvate (SGPT) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV)). Results. Among the 497 patients recruited (M : F sex ratio: 1.4, mean age: 39 years ± 10.5 y), Generally there was inadequate nutrient intake reported among the HIV patients, except iron (10.49 ± 3.49 mg). All the biochemical assessment indicators were within normal range except for haemoglobin 11.2 g/dL (11.4 ± 2.60 male and 11.2 ± 4.25 female). Conclusions. Given its high frequency, malnutrition should be prevented, detected, monitored, and treated from the early stages of HIV infection among patients attending AIDS clinics in order to improve survival and quality of life. PMID:22997571
Troesch, Barbara; Biesalski, Hans K.; Bos, Rolf; Buskens, Erik; Calder, Philip C.; Saris, Wim H. M.; Spieldenner, Jörg; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred
A workshop held at the University Medical Center in Groningen, The Netherlands, aimed at discussing the nutritional situation of the population in general and the role diet plays during critical windows in the life course, during which the body is programmed for the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). NCDs are increasingly prevalent as our society ages, and nutrition is well known to play an important role in determining the risk and the time of onset of many common NCDs. Even in affluent countries, people have difficulties to achieve adequate intakes for a range of nutrients: Economic constraints as well as modern lifestyles lead people to consume diets with a positive energy balance, but low in micronutrients, resulting in increasing prevalence of obesity and suboptimal nutritional status. Information about nutrient density, which refers to the content of micronutrients relative to energy in food or diets, can help identify foods that have a low calorie to nutrient ratio. It thus allows the consumption of diets that cover nutritional needs without increasing the risk of becoming obese. Given the impact a nutrient dense, low energy diet can have on health, researchers, food industry and governments jointly should develop options for affordable, appealing nutrient-rich food products, which, in combination with physical activity, allow for optimal health throughout the life-course. PMID:26197337
Hoefkens, Christine; Sioen, Isabelle; Baert, Katleen; De Meulenaer, Bruno; De Henauw, Stefaan; Vandekinderen, Isabelle; Devlieghere, Frank; Opsomer, Anne; Verbeke, Wim; Van Camp, John
The health benefits of consuming organic compared to conventional foods are unclear. This study aimed at evaluating the nutrient and contaminant intake of adults through consumption of organic versus conventional vegetables, namely carrots, tomatoes, lettuce, spinach and potatoes. A probabilistic simulation approach was used for the intake assessment in two adult populations: (1) a representative sample of Belgians (n=3245) and (2) a sample of Flemish organic and conventional consumers (n=522). Although significant differences in nutrient and contaminant contents were previously found between organic and conventional vegetables, they were inconsistent for a component and/or vegetable. These findings were translated here into inconsistent intake assessments. This means that the intake of specific nutrients and contaminants can be higher or lower for organic versus conventional vegetables. However, when considering the consumption pattern of organic consumers, an increase in intake of a selected set of nutrients and contaminants is observed, which are explained by the general higher vegetable consumption of this consumer group. In public health terms, there is insufficient evidence to recommend organic over conventional vegetables. The general higher vegetable consumption of organic compared to conventional consumers outweighs usually the role of differences in nutrient and contaminant concentrations between organic and conventional vegetables.
Zadeh, Sara Sarrafi; Begum, Khyrunnisa
Insomnia has become a major public health issue in recent times. Although quality of sleep is affected by environmental, psychophysiological, and pharmacological factors, diet and nutrient intake also contribute to sleep problems. This study investigated the association between nutrient intake and co-morbid symptoms associated with sleep status among selected adults. Subjects in this study included 87 men and women aged 21-45 years. Presence of insomnia was assessed using the Insomnia Screening Questionnaire, and dietary intake was measured over three consecutive days by dietary survey. Descriptive analysis, ANOVA, and Chi-Square tests were performed to compute and interpret the data. Approximately 60% of the participants were insomniacs. People with insomnia consumed significantly lesser quantities of nutrients as compared to normal sleepers. Differences in intakes of energy, carbohydrates, folic acid, and B(12) were highly significant (P < 0.002). Further, intakes of protein, fat, and thiamine were significantly different (P < 0.021) between insomniacs and normal sleepers. The nutrient intake pattern of the insomniacs with co-morbid symptoms was quite different from that of the normal sleepers. Based on these results, it is probable that there is an association between nutrition deficiency, co-morbid symptoms, and sleep status. More studies are required to confirm these results.
Thommessen, M; Riis, G; Kase, B F; Larsen, S; Heiberg, A
We examined the effect of feeding problems and alternative feeding practices on the energy and nutrient intakes of disabled children. Subjects were 221 disabled children aged 1 to 16 years from seven diagnostic groups: a 4-day food record was obtained for 166 children. The children's energy and nutrient intakes were examined in relation to the presence or absence of four feeding problems (gross motor/self-feeding impairment, oral-motor dysfunction, lack of appetite, food aversions) and two alternate feeding practices (prolonged assisted feeding and use of pureed foods). Cross-sectional analyses showed that children with feeding problems or alternative feeding practices had lower energy and nutrient intakes than did children without these factors. The presence of oral-motor dysfunction or prolonged assisted feeding significantly reduced relative energy intake. In general, differences in energy and nutrient intakes between children with and without other feeding problems or practices were small, and few statistically significant differences were found. The findings indicate that some feeding problems may reduce food intake in disabled children, although this effect is lessened by the conscientious efforts of parents. Parents and families of disabled children should receive dietary counseling to prevent deteriorative effects on the physical growth and health of children with long-standing feeding problems.
Sari, M. I.; Sari, D. I.
Obesity is associated with the development of some of the most prevalent diseases of modern society. The World Health Organization estimates that at least 2.8 million adult die each year as result of being obesity. Nutrient intake is a key environmental factor that may interact with genotype to affect risk of obesity. The aim of study was assess the relation between nutrient intake and apolipoprotein A5 -1131T>C polimorphism with obesity. A cross sectional study has been carried out on 139 subjects. Nutrient intake data was collected by using a 24 hour dietary recall and analyzed by nutrisurvey software. Anthropometric variables were measured and body mass index (BMI). Apolipoprotein A5 -1131T>C polymorphism was visualized with 5% agarose gel after restriction length fragment polymorphism (RFLP) digested with MseI. Results : Subjects in this study were 55 male and 84 female, with average age 19.20 ± 1.08, 75 had obese and 64 non obese. Based on the chi square test is found a relationship between total energy intake and protein intake in obese group compared to the non-obese group (p = 0.029, p = 0.006) and no relationship was found in Apolipoprotein A5 -1131T> C polymorphism with obesity. These findings indicate that nutrient intake no depending with apolipoprotein A5 gene variant to modulate obesity
Hong, Se Ra; Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Na Ri; Chung, Hwan Wook
This study was performed to investigate the association between hair mineral levels and nutrient intakes, age, and BMI in female adults who visited a woman's clinic located in Seoul. Dietary intakes were assessed by food frequency questionnaire and mineral levels were measured in collected hairs, and the relationship between these was examined. The average daily nutrient intakes of subjects were compared to those of the KDRIs, and the energy intake status was fair. The average intake of calcium in women of 50 years and over was 91.35% of KDRIs and the potassium intake was greatly below the recommended levels in all age groups. In the average hair mineral contents in subjects, calcium and copper exceeded far more than the reference range while selenium was very low with 85.19% of subjects being lower than the reference value. In addition, the concentrations of sodium, potassium, iron, and manganese in the hair were below the reference ranges in over 15% of subjects. The concentrations of sodium, chromium, sulfur, and cadmium in the hair showed positive correlations (P < 0.05) with age, but the hair zinc level showed a negative correlation (P < 0.05) with age. The concentrations of sodium, potassium, chromium, and cadmium in the hair showed positive correlations (P < 0.05) with BMI. Some mineral levels in subjects of this study showed significant correlations with nutrient intakes, but it seems that the hair mineral content is not directly influenced by each mineral intake. As described above, some hair mineral levels in female adults deviated from the normal range, and it is considered that nutritional intervention to control the imbalance of mineral nutrition is required. Also, as some correlations were shown between hair mineral levels and age, BMI, and nutrient intakes, the possibility of utilizing hair mineral analysis for specific purposes in the future is suggested. PMID:20090887
Gomez-Amaro, Rafael L; Valentine, Elizabeth R; Carretero, Maria; LeBoeuf, Sarah E; Rangaraju, Sunitha; Broaddus, Caroline D; Solis, Gregory M; Williamson, James R; Petrascheck, Michael
Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged as a powerful model to study the genetics of feeding, food-related behaviors, and metabolism. Despite the many advantages of C. elegans as a model organism, direct measurement of its bacterial food intake remains challenging. Here, we describe two complementary methods that measure the food intake of C. elegans. The first method is a microtiter plate-based bacterial clearing assay that measures food intake by quantifying the change in the optical density of bacteria over time. The second method, termed pulse feeding, measures the absorption of food by tracking de novo protein synthesis using a novel metabolic pulse-labeling strategy. Using the bacterial clearance assay, we compare the bacterial food intake of various C. elegans strains and show that long-lived eat mutants eat substantially more than previous estimates. To demonstrate the applicability of the pulse-feeding assay, we compare the assimilation of food for two C. elegans strains in response to serotonin. We show that serotonin-increased feeding leads to increased protein synthesis in a SER-7-dependent manner, including proteins known to promote aging. Protein content in the food has recently emerged as critical factor in determining how food composition affects aging and health. The pulse-feeding assay, by measuring de novo protein synthesis, represents an ideal method to unequivocally establish how the composition of food dictates protein synthesis. In combination, these two assays provide new and powerful tools for C. elegans research to investigate feeding and how food intake affects the proteome and thus the physiology and health of an organism.
Baroudi, Olfa; Chaaben, Arij Ben; Mezlini, Amel; Moussa, Amel; Omrane, Ines; Jilson, Irene; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel; Chabchoub, Soufia
This study aims to show the relationship between lifestyle and risk of colorectal and gastric cancers in Tunisian population. The food frequency survey method was used to obtain information about the dietary intake and way of life. Nutrients intake was calculated according to the food composition database. According to our results, the consumption of vegetables, fruits, fish, as well as coffee seems to be protective against digestive cancer, while the consumption of citrus and olive oil is protective against gastric cancer. Tobacco, alcohol, and tea represent a risk against gastrointestinal cancer. Highly educated people are more conscious of the crucial role of prevention. In addition, nutrients were significantly associated with colorectal and gastric cancer. The findings suggest that lifestyle is associated with a risk of gastrointestinal cancer. Moreover, higher intake of nutrients from foods was observed more in cases with colorectal and gastric cancer than controls.
Frankenfeld, Cara L.; Lampe, Johanna W.; Shannon, Jackilen; Gao, Dao L.; Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta M.; Chen, Chu; King, Irena B.; Thomas, David B.
Objective To evaluate the validity of fruit and vegetable intake, using three classification schemes, as it relates to plasma carotenoid and vitamin C concentrations among Chinese women. Design Intakes were calculated from an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Fruits and vegetables, botanical groups, and high-nutrient groups were evaluated. These three classification schemes were compared with plasma carotenoid and vitamin C concentrations from blood drawn within one week of questionnaire completion. Setting Shanghai, China Subjects Participants (n=2031) were drawn from women who participated in a case-control study of diet and breast diseases nested within a randomized trial of breast self-examination among textile workers (n=266,064) Results Fruit intake was significantly (p<0.05) and positively associated with plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, α-carotene, β-carotene, retinyl palmitate, and vitamin C. Fruit intake was inversely associated with γ-tocopherol and lutein+zeaxanthin concentrations. Vegetable consumption was significantly and positively associated with γ-tocopherol, and β-cryptoxanthin concentrations. Each botanical and high-nutrient group was also significantly associated with particular plasma nutrient concentrations. Fruit and vegetable intake and most plasma nutrient concentrations were significantly associated with season of interview. Conclusions These results suggest that the manner in which fruits and vegetables are grouped provides different plasma nutrient exposure information, which may be an important consideration when testing and generating hypotheses regarding disease risk in relation to diet. Interview season should be considered when evaluating associations of reported intake and plasma nutrients with disease outcomes. PMID:21729475
The WHO recommends that exclusive breastfeeding should last up to 6 months. However, human milk intake of Sri Lankan infants has not been quantified scientifically. The objectives of this study were to measure the human milk intake of Sri Lankan infants during the first 6 months of age and to docume...
Prebiotics have been shown to enhance bone and gastrointestinal health. Recent data suggest a benefit to weight maintenance as well. However, few data are available in children or adolescents. The interactive effects of prebiotic intake and calcium intake on weight maintenance are unknown. Our objec...
Lewis, Michael J
Alcohol is not only a drug of abuse but is also a food. This combination has a significant impact on the development and consequences of alcohol abuse and dependence. Understanding the neurobiological and behavioral processes that mediate them is perhaps best approached from the perspective of ingestive behavior. Research from the Hoebel laboratory has provided innovation and leadership in understanding that feeding neuropeptides plays a significant role in alcohol intake. The research reviewed here shows that galanin and other feeding peptides increase intake and also motivate abuse and the development of dependence. In addition, the consequences of long term alcohol abuse and dependence alter nutritional systems and drinking behavior. A major challenge is understanding the role of alcohol's dual properties and feeding neuropeptide in the motivation to drink.
Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.
This report presents 3-day nutrient intake data for about 36,100 individuals in 48 states. Data are provided in 157 tables, and results are summarized in the text. The contribution of 14 food groups to intakes of food energy and 14 nutrients are presented. Also included are the average intakes of food energy and nutrients, the nutrient densities…
Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S; Fulgoni, Victor L; Schweitzer, Cindy M
Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003-2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey's reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth "mixed dishes" group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%-20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%-25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries.
Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Schweitzer, Cindy M.
Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003–2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey’s reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth “mixed dishes” group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%–20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%–25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries. PMID:26061017
Fukuda, Yoshiharu; Hiyoshi, Ayako
There is little evidence of socioeconomic differences in dietary intake in the Japanese population. This study examined the association between household expenditures and dietary intake using nationally representative surveys of Japan. We analyzed data from the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions and National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2003-2007. For subjects ages 18 to 74 years (11,240 men and 11,472 women), the sex-specific association between household expenditure quartiles and selected nutrient intake was examined using comparison of means and prevalence of a healthy intake. Higher household expenditures were associated with an increase in the mean levels of total energy, fat, protein, carbohydrates, calcium, vitamins A and C, niacin, and fiber for both men and women and salt for men. Prevalence comparison indicated that most of the recommendations for dietary intake were met for people with higher household expenditures than for those with lower household expenditures. There was no clear association between fat intake and expenditures. Higher household expenditures were associated with a healthy and balanced nutrient intake in Japanese adults. The findings suggest that socioeconomic differences in dietary patterns contribute to socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and morbidity in Japan.
Feeney, Emma L; Nugent, Anne P; Mc Nulty, Breige; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Eileen R
Dairy products are important contributors to nutrient intakes. However, dairy intakes are reportedly declining in developed populations, potentially due to concerns regarding Na and SFA in dairy foods, particularly cheese. This could impact other nutrient intakes. The present study used data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) to (1) examine dairy intakes, with a specific focus on cheese, and (2) to examine the contribution of cheese to population nutrient intakes. The NANS captured detailed dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample (n 1500) between 2008 and 2010 using 4-d semi-weighed food diaries; 99·9% of the population reported dairy intake. Mean daily population dairy intake was 290·0 (SD 202·1) g. Dairy products provided 8·7% of the population intake of reported dietary Na, 19·8% SFA, 39% Ca, 34·5% vitamin B12 and 10·5% Mg. Cheese alone provided 3·9% Na intake, 9·1% Ca, 12·6% retinol, 8·3% SFA, 3·7% protein, 3·4% vitamin B12 and 3·2% riboflavin. High dairy consumers had greater Ca and Mg intakes per 10 MJ, greater total energy intake, greater percentage of energy from carbohydrate and SFA and lower Na intakes compared with low dairy consumers. Similar trends were observed for high consumers of cheese for most nutrients except Na. These results demonstrate that dairy and cheese are important contributors to nutrient intakes of public health interest, such as Ca and B12. Our analysis also demonstrated that food-based dietary guidelines recommending lower-fat versions of dairy products are warranted.
Bush, J A; Freeman, D E; Kline, K H; Merchen, N R; Fahey, G C
Addition of fat to the diet of the equine is a popular method of increasing energy density of the diet while reducing feed intake. Reducing feed intake is of interest to race horse trainers because additional feed is seen as additional weight and, therefore, a hindrance to performance. Limited information is available regarding the interactions of fat with other dietary components, particularly fiber, in the equine digestive system. The effect of dietary fat on in vitro nutrient disappearance in equine cecal fluid was studied in Exp. 1 using a split-plot design within a 2 x 2 Latin square. Two ponies were fed alfalfa (ALF) alone or alfalfa plus 100 g/d corn oil. Five substrates were used to determine in vitro DM disappearance, OM disappearance, NDF disappearance, and total dietary fiber (TDF) disappearance. The substrates included: ALF, tall fescue (TF), red clover (RC), soybean hulls (SBH), and rolled oats (RO). Fat supplementation did not affect in vitro DM, OM, or NDF disappearance. Addition of fat to the diet increased (P < 0.05) the disappearance of NDF in RO. Among substrates, in vitro DM and OM disappearance were highest (P < 0.05) for RO, followed by SBH, ALF, RC, and TF. In vitro NDF and TDF disappearance were highest (P < 0.05) for SBH, followed by RO, ALF, RC, and TF. In Exp. 2, the effects of varying levels of fat on nutrient intake and total tract digestibility were examined using a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Four mature mares were fed a 60% forage-40% concentrate diet containing different concentrations of fat: 0% supplemental fat control (C); 5% supplemental corn oil (5% CO); 10% supplemental corn oil (10% CO); or 15% supplemental corn oil (15% CO). Treatment did not affect intake of the concentrate portion of the diet or CP, gross energy, or NDF intake. Mares consuming the C diet had the highest (P < 0.05) intake of alfalfa cubes, DM, and OM, followed by those on the 10, 5, and 15% CO treatments, respectively. Treatment did not affect nutrient
Chen, Shih-Neng; Tseng, Jauling
Objective: To assess various marginal effects of nutrient intakes, health behaviours and nutrition knowledge on the entire distribution of body mass index (BMI) across individuals. Design: Quantitative and distributional study. Setting: Taiwan. Methods: This study applies Becker's (1965) model of health production to construct an individual's BMI…
Workshops sponsored by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the World Health Organization (WHO) suggested that incorporating systematic reviews into the process of updating nutrient reference values would enhance the transparency of the process. The IOM issues the Dietary Reference Intake values (DR...
Dietary intake of one-carbon nutrients, particularly folate, vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and choline have been linked to the risk of cancers of the colon and breast in both human and animal studies. More recently, experimental and epidemiological data have emerged to suggest t...
Spann, Marisa; Smerling, Jennifer; Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Foss, Sophie; Monk, Catherine
Measuring and understanding fetal neurodevelopment provides insight regarding the developing brain. Maternal nutrient intake and psychological stress during pregnancy each impact fetal neurodevelopment and influence childhood outcomes and are thus important factors to consider when studying fetal neurobehavioral development. The authors provide an…
Archuleta, Martha; VanLeeuwen, Dawn; Halderson, Karen; Jackson, K'Dawn; Bock, Margaret Ann; Eastman, Wanda; Powell, Jennifer; Titone, Michelle; Marr, Carol; Wells, Linda
Objective: To determine whether cooking classes offered by the Cooperative Extension Service improved nutrient intake patterns in people with type 2 diabetes. Design: Quasi-experimental using pretest, posttest comparisons. Setting: Community locations including schools, churches, and senior centers. Participants: One hundred seventeen people with…
Ackroff, Karen; Bonacchi, Kristine; Magee, Michael; Yiin, Yeh-Min; Graves, Jonathan V; Sclafani, Anthony
Recent work suggested that the energy intake and weight gain of rats maintained on chow and 32% sucrose solution could be increased by simply offering more sources of sucrose [Tordoff M.G. Obesity by choice: the powerful influence of nutrient availability on nutrient intake. Am J Physiol 2002;282:R1536-R1539.]. In Experiment 1 this procedure was replicated but the effect was not: rats given one bottle of sucrose and five bottles of water consumed as much sucrose as those given five bottles of sucrose and one of water. Adding different flavors to the sucrose did not increase intakes further in Experiment 2. The relative potency of sucrose and other optional foods was studied in Experiment 3. Sucrose solution stimulated more overeating and weight gain than fat (vegetable shortening), and offering both sucrose and shortening did not generate further increases in energy intake. Finally, foods commonly used to produce overeating and weight gain were compared. Sucrose was less effective than a high-fat milk diet, and offering cookies in addition to the milk did not increase energy intake further. The nature of optional foods (nutrient composition and physical form) was markedly more important than the number of food sources available to the animals, and is a better contender as the reason for "obesity by choice".
Overvad, K; Tjønneland, A; Haraldsdóttir, J; Ewertz, M; Jensen, O M
Foods to be included in a Danish self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire were identified from food tables developed, together with data collected, for the survey 'Dietary habits in Denmark, 1985'. The questionnaire was to be used in a prospective study on diet, cancer and health, and the aim was to rank individuals with regard to intake of 19 different nutrients considered of prime importance in human carcinogenesis. The questionnaire for the dietary survey included 247 foods and recipes. From stepwise multiple regression analyses with the intake of each of the 19 nutrients as the dependent variable and the intake of the 247 foods and recipes as independent variables, the foods in the models explaining 90% of the between-person variability were considered for the final questionnaire. All relevant analyses were performed for the study group as a whole, for men and women separately, and in each gender for subgroups of energy intake. Taken together, the models explaining 90% of the between-person variability identified a total of 74 foods or recipes, which were important predictors of the intake of one or more of the nutrients considered. A few foods were excluded and a few foods were added to the final questionnaire based on common biological background information, and on information on foods providing important amounts of given nutrients, but which failed to contribute to regression analyses. The 92 foods and recipes, which were included in the final questionnaire provided altogether 81% of the average total supply of the nutrients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Comerford, Kevin B
In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older) from The NPD Group's National Eating Trends® (NET®) database during 2011-2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group's Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week); n = 2584, Average Can Users (3-5 canned items/week); n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week); n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients-potassium, calcium and fiber-when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans.
Péneau, Sandrine; Jeandel, Claude; Déjardin, Philippe; Andreeva, Valentina A; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle
Only a few studies have investigated the impact of nutrients and food groups on hearing level (HL) with a population-based approach. We examined the 13-year association between intake of specific nutrients and food groups and HL in a sample of French adults. A total of 1823 subjects, aged 45-60 years at baseline, participating in the Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals 2 cohort were selected. Nutrient and food intake was estimated at baseline among participants who had completed at least six 24 h dietary records. HL was assessed 13 years after baseline and was defined as the pure-tone air conduction of the worse ear at the following thresholds: 0·5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz. The relationship between quartiles of energy-adjusted nutrient and food intake and HL was assessed by multivariate linear regression analyses, in men and women separately. Intakes of retinol (P-trend ¼ 0·058) and vitamin B12 (P-trend=0·068) tended to be associated with better HL in women. Intakes of meat as a whole (P-trend=0·030), red meat (P-trend=0·014) and organ meat (P-trend=0·017) were associated with better HL in women. Higher intake of seafood as a whole (P-trend=0·07) and of shellfish (P-trend=0·097) tended to be associated with better HL in men. Consumption of meat is therefore associated with a better HL in women. Further research is required to better elucidate the mechanisms behind the associations between diet and hearing.
Conde-Sieira, Marta; Soengas, José L.
Evidence obtained in recent years in a few species, especially rainbow trout, supports the presence in fish of nutrient sensing mechanisms. Glucosensing capacity is present in central (hypothalamus and hindbrain) and peripheral [liver, Brockmann bodies (BB, main accumulation of pancreatic endocrine cells in several fish species), and intestine] locations whereas fatty acid sensors seem to be present in hypothalamus, liver and BB. Glucose and fatty acid sensing capacities relate to food intake regulation and metabolism in fish. Hypothalamus is as a signaling integratory center in a way that detection of increased levels of nutrients result in food intake inhibition through changes in the expression of anorexigenic and orexigenic neuropeptides. Moreover, central nutrient sensing modulates functions in the periphery since they elicit changes in hepatic metabolism as well as in hormone secretion to counter-regulate changes in nutrient levels detected in the CNS. At peripheral level, the direct nutrient detection in liver has a crucial role in homeostatic control of glucose and fatty acid whereas in BB and intestine nutrient sensing is probably involved in regulation of hormone secretion from endocrine cells. PMID:28111540
Conde-Sieira, Marta; Soengas, José L
Evidence obtained in recent years in a few species, especially rainbow trout, supports the presence in fish of nutrient sensing mechanisms. Glucosensing capacity is present in central (hypothalamus and hindbrain) and peripheral [liver, Brockmann bodies (BB, main accumulation of pancreatic endocrine cells in several fish species), and intestine] locations whereas fatty acid sensors seem to be present in hypothalamus, liver and BB. Glucose and fatty acid sensing capacities relate to food intake regulation and metabolism in fish. Hypothalamus is as a signaling integratory center in a way that detection of increased levels of nutrients result in food intake inhibition through changes in the expression of anorexigenic and orexigenic neuropeptides. Moreover, central nutrient sensing modulates functions in the periphery since they elicit changes in hepatic metabolism as well as in hormone secretion to counter-regulate changes in nutrient levels detected in the CNS. At peripheral level, the direct nutrient detection in liver has a crucial role in homeostatic control of glucose and fatty acid whereas in BB and intestine nutrient sensing is probably involved in regulation of hormone secretion from endocrine cells.
AD-RIE 126 NUTRIENT INTRKE EVALUATION OF HALE RND FENRL! CADETS RT THE UNITED STRTES..(U) LETTERMRN ARMY INST OF RESERRCH PRESIDIO OF SRN FRRNCISCO...TEsfi C H A R T Ii Ill -- INSTITUTE REPORT NO. 218 00 NUTRIENT INTAKE EVALUATION OF MALE AND FEMALE CADETS ’AT THE SUNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY...ARMY INSTITUTE OF RESEARCH PRESIDIO OF SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA 94129 Nutrient Intake Evaluation of Male and Female Cadets at the United States
Johnston, J L; Williams, C N; Weldon, K L
North American Indians have a higher morbidity from gallbladder disease, diabetes mellitus and obesity than other North Americans; this may result from their food intake. Nutrient intake and meal patterns were compared in 120 Micmac Indian and 115 Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS. Findings were compared with the Canadian Dietary Standard (CDS) and the Nutrition Canada national and Indian survey reports. The diet of Indian women had higher carbohydrate, lower protein and lower fibre content than that of Caucasian women, who derived a higher percentage of energy from protein and had a higher intake of vitamin A, niacin and ascorbic acid. Overnight fast was longer among Indian women. A high percentage of all women studied reported diets that did not reach the CDS for total energy intake in kilocalories or for calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin or riboflavin.
Johnston, J. L.; Williams, C. N.; Weldon, K. L.
North American Indians have a higher morbidity from gallbladder disease, diabetes mellitus and obesity than other North Americans; this may result from their food intake. Nutrient intake and meal patterns were compared in 120 Micmac Indian and 115 Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS. Findings were compared with the Canadian Dietary Standard (CDS) and the Nutrition Canada national and Indian survey reports. The diet of Indian women had higher carbohydrate, lower protein and lower fibre content than that of Caucasian women, who derived a higher percentage of energy from protein and had a higher intake of vitamin A, niacin and ascorbic acid. Overnight fast was longer among Indian women. A high percentage of all women studied reported diets that did not reach the CDS for total energy intake in kilocalories or for calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin or riboflavin. PMID:861896
Comerford, Kevin B.
In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older) from The NPD Group’s National Eating Trends® (NET®) database during 2011–2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group’s Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week); n = 2584, Average Can Users (3–5 canned items/week); n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week); n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients—potassium, calcium and fiber—when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans. PMID:26184294
Zhang, Ronghua; Wang, Zhaopin; Fei, Ying; Zhou, Biao; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Wang, Lijuan; Huang, Lichun; Jiang, Shuying; Liu, Zeyu; Jiang, Jingxin; Yu, Yunxian
Across countries, the predominant diets are clearly different and highly related with human health. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate dietary nutrients between them. This study aimed to evaluate dietary nutrients in China and compare those between Chinese and Mediterranean (Italian), Japanese and American diets. Dietary intakes of 2659 subjects in south-east China, Zhejiang province, from 2010 to 2012, were estimated by three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. The contribution of carbohydrate to total energy in Chinese subjects was lower than that in Japanese and American subjects, but higher than that in Italian subjects. However, the energy contribution from fat in Chinese subjects was higher than that in Japanese and American subjects, and similar to that in Italian subjects. Moreover, the Chinese diet had lower daily intakes of fiber, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and vitamin C, compared with the Japanese, American and Italian diets. Nevertheless, intakes of sodium, iron, copper and vitamin E were higher among Chinese people relative to the people of other three countries. The present study demonstrated that the structure of the Chinese diet has been shifting away from the traditional diet toward high-fat, low-carbohydrate and low-fiber diets, and nutrients intakes in Chinese people have been changing even worse than those in American people.
The amount of dietary protein needed to prevent deficiency in most individuals is defined in the United States and Canada by the Recommended Dietary Allowance and is currently set at 0.8 g protein per kg per day for adults. To meet this protein recommendation, the intake of a variety of protein food...
Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R
This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals) among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2-18 years old (n = 10,298) of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level) least square means (p < 0.05/3 race/ethnic groups). All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children.
Eicher-Miller, Heather A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.
This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals) among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2–18 years old (n = 10,298) of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level) least square means (p < 0.05/3 race/ethnic groups). All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children. PMID:26633491
Mardon, Julie; Habauzit, Véronique; Trzeciakiewicz, Anna; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Lebecque, Patrice; Mercier, Sylvie; Tressol, Jean-Claude; Horcajada, Marie-Noëlle; Demigné, Christian; Coxam, Véronique
Low energy and protein intake has been suggested to contribute to the increased incidence of osteoporosis in the elderly. The impact of dietary protein on bone health is still a matter of debate. Therefore, we examined the effect of the modulation of protein intake under adequate or deficient energy conditions on bone status in 16-month-old male rats. The animals were randomly allocated to six groups (n = 10/group). Control animals were fed a diet providing either a normal-protein content (13%, C-NP) or a high-protein content (26%) (C-HP). The other groups received a 40% protein/energy-restricted diet (PER-NP and PER-HP) or a normal protein/energy-restricted diet (ER-NP and ER-HP). After 5 months of the experiment, protein intake (13% or 26%) did not modulate calcium retention or bone status in those rats, although a low-grade metabolic acidosis was induced with the HP diet. Both restrictions (PER and ER) decreased femoral bone mineral density and fracture load. Plasma osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline levels were lowered, suggesting a decrease in bone turnover in the PER and ER groups. Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I levels were also lowered by dietary restrictions, together with calcium retention. Adequate protein intake in the ER condition did not elicit any bone-sparing effect compared to PER rats. In conclusion, both energy and protein deficiencies may contribute to age-related bone loss. This study highlights the importance of sustaining adequate energy and protein provision to preserve skeletal integrity in the elderly.
Bunin, Greta R; Li, Yimei; Ganguly, Arupa; Meadows, Anna T; Tseng, Marilyn
Purpose We conducted a case-control study to examine the role of parents’ nutrient intake before their child’s conception in the child’s risk of sporadic bilateral retinoblastoma, which results from a new germline RB1 mutation. Methods Parents of 206 cases from 9 North American institutions and 269 friend and relative controls participated; fathers of 182 cases and 223 controls and mothers of 202 cases and 260 controls provided useable information in telephone interviews on their diet in the year before the child’s conception. We also asked parents about supplements, a significant source of nutrients in users. Results Father’s intake of dairy-associated nutrients and his use of calcium supplements were associated with decreased risk while his intake of copper, manganese, and vitamin E was associated with increased risk. Mother’s use of multivitamins close to conception was associated with lower risk as was her intake of several micronutrients found in these supplements. In analyses to elucidate the primary factor from multiple correlated factors, the most robust findings were for father’s calcium intake (adjusted OR=0.46 – 0.63 for 700 mg increase) and calcium supplement use (OR=0.35 – 0.41) and mother’s multivitamin use (ORs 0.28 – 0.48). Conclusions There are few directly relevant studies but some data indirectly support the biologic plausibility of the inverse associations with father’s calcium intake and mother’s use of multivitamins; however, we cannot rule out contributions of bias, confounding, or chance. Our findings provide a starting point for further investigation of diet in the etiology of retinoblastoma and new germline mutation generally. PMID:23224327
Koch, Flávia; Ganzhorn, Joerg U; Rothman, Jessica M; Chapman, Colin A; Fichtel, Claudia
Fluctuations in food availability are a major challenge faced by primates living in seasonal climates. Variation in food availability can be especially challenging for females, because of the high energetic costs of reproduction. Therefore, females must adapt the particular demands of the different reproductive stages to the seasonal availability of resources. Madagascar has a highly seasonal climate, where food availability can be extremely variable. We investigated the seasonal changes in diet composition, nutrient and energy intake of female and male sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi) in a dry deciduous forest in western Madagascar. We examined how females adjust their diet to different reproductive stages. Seasonality affected the diet of both sexes; particularly in the dry season (Apr-Oct) with low availability of food items, especially fruits, males and females had a reduced nutrient and energy intake compared to the wet season (Nov-Mar) with higher food and fruit availability. The comparison of the diet between sexes in different reproductive stages showed that during the late stage of lactation (Nov-Jan) females had higher food intake, and as a result they had a higher intake of macronutrients (crude protein, fat and non-structured carbohydrates (TNC)) and energy than males. These differences were not present during the pregnancy of females, with both sexes having similar intake of macronutrients and energy during that stage. The increase in the intake of macronutrients observed for females during late lactation could be related to the higher energetic demands of this stage of reproduction. Thus, the observed pattern in the diet indicates that sifaka females are following a capital breeding strategy, whereby females potentially store enough nutrients to cope with the reproduction costs in periods of low food availability.
Villamor, Eduardo; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily
Methyl-donor nutrients are substrates for methylation reactions involved in neurodevelopment processes. The role of maternal intake of these nutrients on cognitive performance of the offspring is poorly understood. We examined the associations of maternal intake of folate, vitamin B12, choline, betaine and methionine during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, with tests of cognitive performance in the offspring at 3 years of age using data from 1210 participants in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts. We assessed nutrient intake with the use of food frequency questionnaires. Children's cognition at age 3 years was evaluated with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III (PPVT-III) and visual-motor skills with the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities test. In multivariable models adjusting for potential sociobehavioural and nutritional confounders, for each 600 µg/day increment in total folate intake during the first trimester, PPVT-III score at age 3 years was 1.6 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1, 3.1; P = 0.04] higher. There was a weak inverse association between vitamin B12 intake during the second trimester and PPVT-III scores [-0.4 points per 2.6 µg/day; 95% CI -0.8, -0.1; P = 0.01]. We did not find associations between choline, betaine or methionine and cognitive outcomes at this age. Results of this study suggest that higher intake of folate in early pregnancy is associated with higher scores on the PPVT-III, a test of receptive language that predicts overall intelligence, at age 3 years.
Masullo, Laura; Papas, Mia A; Cotugna, Nancy; Baker, Sandra; Mahoney, Lauren; Trabulsi, Jillian
Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, specific CAM therapies used within this population have not been thoroughly described, particularly the use of supplements, herbal remedies, and dietary modifications. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the prevalence of specific types of CAM used by adults with MS in the United States. Participants included adults who were diagnosed with MS at least 1 year prior to study enrollment. CAM use was measured using the CAM Supplement of the National Health Interview Survey, and nutrient intake was assessed using an Automated Self-Administered 24-h Recall. This study found that a majority (77 %, n = 27) of the sample used CAM within the past 12 months, the most prevalent type being vitamins/minerals (88.9 %, n = 24), nonvitamin, nonmineral, natural products (NP) (44.4 %, n = 12), relaxation techniques (33.3 %, n = 9), and special diets (29.6 %, n = 8). Regarding diet, median percent calories from fat (37 %) and saturated fat (12 %) were higher than current recommendations, while dietary fiber intake met only 87 % of the adequate intake. Participants following the Paleo (7.4 %, n = 2) diet did not meet the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins D and E, while those on the Swank diet (7.4 %, n = 2) were below the EAR for vitamins C, A, E, and folate. The results support previous findings that CAM therapies are commonly used by individuals with MS. Inadequate intakes of certain vitamins and minerals by those following the Swank and Paleo diet suggest these diets may be too restrictive, thus further research is warranted.
White, J A; Mok, E; Thibault, L; Booth, D A
To determine if an increase in intake at a meal before a long fast can be conditioned to food texture cues, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given a high- or low-fat diet in one texture (powder or pellet) for 1 h prior to a 12.5-h fast and in the other texture before a 3-h fast. Each group (N = 9) went through a pseudorandom sequence of four duplicates of each texture-fast pairing over 4 experimental days in each of three training trials, followed by one 4-day trial under extinction, i.e. without the difference in fast lengths between textures. Neither the high-fat group nor the low-fat group as a whole gave a clear indication of a learnt texture-cued increase in meal size before the longer fast relative to the shorter fast. However, the rats trained on the high-fat diet that had the highest intakes on the first 4 days of training showed a relative increase in the amount eaten of the texture predicting the longer fast during the third training trial, and this effect also approached statistical significance in the extinction test. These results provide some support for the conclusion that anticipatory hunger/satiety can be differentially conditioned to dietary texture cues, but only if sufficient food is eaten before a short fast to prevent the rise in hunger during longer fasts that reinforces the discriminative increase in meal size.
Hur, Inyoung; Jang, Myoung-Jin; Oh, Kyungwon
Objectives The present study investigated associations between income and intake of nutrients and food in adults (n = 11,063) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2009. Methods To examine relationships between individual dietary intake and anthropometric measures and family income, multiple linear regression models were constructed for each outcome variable. All models were adjusted for age, education, energy intake, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity. Results For men, intakes of protein, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and vitamin C were lower in low-income compared to high-income groups. For women, intakes of protein and niacin were lower in low-income groups. Lowest income group ate less dairy products in men and less fruits and fishes or shellfishes in women. Conclusion Low-income groups had severe food insecurity and low diet quality compared to high-income groups. The study results will provide direction for public health efforts regarding dietary intakes according to economic status among Korean men and women. PMID:24159472
García-Rovés, Pablo M; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Angeles M; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo
Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player's career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players.
García-Rovés, Pablo M.; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Ángeles M.; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo
Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players. PMID:25045939
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between almond consumption, the most widely consumed tree nut in the US, and nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and weight/adiposity in adults. Data from adults (N=24,808), 19+ years, participating in the NHANES 2001-2010 were u...
McCann, Susan E; Ambrosone, Christine B; Moysich, Kirsten B; Brasure, John; Marshall, James R; Freudenheim, Jo L; Wilkinson, Gregg S; Graham, Saxon
A number of epidemiological studies have suggested that diet may affect the etiology of prostate cancer, but few have investigated the impact of phytochemical intakes on this cancer. We conducted a case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in western New York involving 433 men with primary, histologically confirmed prostate cancer and 538 population-based controls, frequency matched to cases on age and county of residence. Diet was assessed with a detailed food-frequency questionnaire. We calculated daily intakes of nutrients and the phytochemicals beta-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, total phytosterols, total lignan precursors, quercetin, and kaempferol based on published food composition data. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) describing the association of prostate cancer risk with selected nutrients, phytochemicals, and food groups were estimated with unconditional logistic regression. Compared with men in the lowest quartile of intake, reduced risks were observed for men in the highest quartile of intake of vitamin C (OR = 0.49; 95% CI = 0.33-0.74), beta-carotene (OR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.36-0.79), alpha-carotene (OR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.47-0.97), lutein (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.37-0.81), lycopene (OR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.42-0.92), total lignan precursors (OR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.47-0.94), quercetin (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.44-0.92), and total vegetables (OR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.36-0.79), but weak increased risks were observed for snacks and sweets (OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 0.95-2.23). Estimates associated with nutrients and phytochemicals were attenuated after adjustment for total vegetable intake. Nevertheless, our results support the hypothesis that a phytochemical-rich, plant-based diet is of importance in reducing risks of hormone-related neoplasms.
Verly Junior, Eliseu; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Cesar, Chester Luis Galvão; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo
The aim of the current study was to describe the sources of variation of energy and nutrient intake and to calculate the number of repetitions of diet measurements to estimate usual intake in adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil. Data was collected using 24-hour dietary recalls (24hR) in 273 adolescents between 2007 and 2008. Individuals completed a repeat 24hR around two months later. The sources of variation were estimated using the random effect model. Variance ratios (within-person to between-person variance ratio) and the number of repetitions of 24hR to estimate usual intake were calculated. The principal source of variation was due to within-person variance. The contribution of day of week and month of year was less than 8%. Variations ranged from 1.15 for calcium to 7.31 for vitamin E. The number of 24hR repeats required to estimate usual intake varied according to nutrient and gender, numbering 15 for males and 8 for females.
Harris, Carla; Buyken, Anette; Koletzko, Sibylle; von Berg, Andrea; Berdel, Dietrich; Schikowski, Tamara; Koletzko, Berthold; Heinrich, Joachim; Standl, Marie
The relevance of dietary fatty acids (FA) for blood lipids should be assessed in the context of substituting nutrients. Such evidence is lacking for adolescents. This study describes prospective associations of dietary FA with changes in serum lipids during adolescence, and considers the theoretical isocaloric replacements of saturated FA (SFA) with other FA or carbohydrates (CHO). Children from the GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts, with data on FA intakes (at age 10 years) and serum lipids (at age 10 and 15 years), were included (n = 1398). Associations of SFA, monounsaturated FA (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated FA (n-3 PUFA) and n-6 PUFA, with changes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TAG), and total cholesterol to HDL ratio (TOTAL:HDL), were assessed by linear regression. Substitution models assessed isocaloric replacements of SFA with MUFA, n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA or CHO. Higher SFA intakes were associated with decreasing TAG. No associations were observed for fatty acid intakes with LDL, HDL or TOTAL:HDL. In females, replacing SFA with CHO was associated with increasing LDL, TAG and TOTAL:HDL. Our findings confirm observations in adults, although sex-specific determinants seem relevant in our adolescent population. Overlooking the nutrient context when limiting SFA intakes might have detrimental consequences appreciable as early as adolescence. PMID:28208667
Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Hong; Perkins, Anthony; Wang, Yan; Sun, Jing
This study aimed to evaluate dietary nutrient intake among Chinese pregnant women by comparison with Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) and to explore the association between dietary nutrients and preterm birth. A case-control design was conducted in Beijing with 130 preterm delivery mothers in case group and 381 term delivery mothers in control group. Information on mothers’ diet was collected using a food frequency questionnaire, and nutrients and energy intakes were subsequently calculated based on DRIs. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare the differences between term and preterm groups in relation to dietary nutrients. Dietary nutrient intakes were imbalanced in both groups compared with Chinese DRIs. Preterm delivery mothers had a lower level of fat and vitamin E intake than term delivery mothers (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed lower vitamin E intake in preterm delivery mothers with a prepregnancy BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 (p < 0.05) and higher carbohydrate intake in preterm delivery mothers with prepregnancy BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 (p < 0.05). An imbalanced diet in both groups and low level of dietary intakes of fat and vitamin E in preterm group suggest health education measures should be taken to improve the dietary quality of pregnant women, especially for those with an abnormal prepregnancy BMI. PMID:28257050
Cerqueira, M T; Fry, M M; Connor, W E
A nutritional survey of 372 semiacculturated Tarahumara Indians in the Sierra Madre Occidental Mountains of Mexico was carried out to determine the composition of their diet and its nutritional adequacy. Dietary histories from 174 adults and 198 children were obtained by interviews and field observations during 1973 and 1974. The histories for the children were calculated in part from the menus of six boarding church schools. Nutrient calculations of daily intake were based upon food composition tables and some actual analyses of Tarahumara foods. The protein intake was ample, at 87 g, and generously met the FAO/WHO recommendations for daily intake of essential amino acids. Fat contributed only 12% of total calories, its composition being 2% saturated and 5% polyunsaturated with a P/S ratio of 2. The mean dietary cholesterol intake was very low, less than 100 mg/day, and the plant sterol intake was high, over 400 mg/day. Carbohydrate comprised 75 to 80% of total calories, mostly from starch. Only 6% of total calories were derived from simple sugars. The crude fiber intake was high, 18 to 21 g/day. Salt consumption was moderately low, 5 to 8 g/day. The daily intakes of calcium, iron, vitamin A, ascorbic acid, thiamin niacin, riboflavin, and vitamin B6 exceeded or approximated the FAO/WHO recommendations. Thus, the simple diet of the Tarahumara Indians, composed primarily of beans and corn, provided a high intake of complex carbohydrate and was low in fat and cholesterol. Their diet was found to be generally of high nutritional quality and would, by all criteria, be considered antiatherogenic.
Vecchio, Maria Gabriella; Paramesh, Elizabeth Cherian; Paramesh, Haralappa; Loganes, Claudia; Ballali, Simonetta; Gafare, Claudia Elena; Verduci, Elvira; Gulati, Achal
Nowadays India is undergoing an impressive economic growth accompanied by a very slow decline, almost stagnation, in malnutrition levels. In developing countries, studies on dietary patterns and their relationship with nutritional status are scarce. Over the years some nutritional studies have been performed to explore different types of food consumed in various Indian regions, among different social samples. The aim of the present paper is to review and describe trends in food and nutrition intake patterns in the different states of India. The review was carried out in PubMed, using the advanced research criteria: [food* OR ("meal pattern*") OR ("eating pattern*")] AND ("nutrient intake") AND India*. PubMed research gave back 84 results and out of these, 7 papers due to their focus on food intake and consumption levels in India have been included in this study. Food intake patterns showed that most of the Indians are vegetarians and that food items rich in micronutrients (pulses, other vegetables, fruits, nuts, oilseeds and animal foods) are generally consumed less frequently. Poor and monotonous cereals-based diet may promote inadequate nutrition intakes according to Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) standards.
Lin, Chung-Tung Jordan; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Yen, Steven T
Nutrition labels on food packages are designed to promote and protect public health by providing nutrition information so that consumers can make informed dietary choices. High levels of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol in diets are linked to increased blood cholesterol levels and a greater risk of heart disease. Therefore, an understanding of consumer use of total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol information on food labels has important implications for public health and nutrition education. This study explores the association between dietary intakes of these three nutrients and psychological or demographic factors and the search for total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol information on food labels. Psychology literature suggests a negative association between intakes of these nutrients and probability of search for their information on food labels. Health behavior theories also suggest perceived benefits and costs of using labels and perceived capability of using labels are associated with the search behavior. We estimate the relationship between label information search and its predictors using logistic regressions. Our samples came from the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and Diet and Health Knowledge Survey conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture. Results suggest that search for total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol information on food labels is less likely among individuals who consume more of the three nutrients, respectively. The search is also related to perceived benefits and costs of using the label, perceived capability of using the label, knowledge of nutrition and fats, perceived efficacy of diets in reducing the risk of illnesses, perceived importance of nutrition in food shopping, perceived importance of a healthy diet, and awareness of linkage between excessive consumption of the nutrients and health problems. These findings suggest encouraging search of food label information among
Saltykov, M. Yu; Bartsev, S. I.
To create reliable Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) it is necessary to have models which can predict CELSS dynamic with good accuracy. However it was shown that conventional ecological models cannot describe CELSS correctly if it is closed by more than one element. This problem can be solved by means more complex models than conventional ones - so called flexible metabolism models. However it is possible that CELSS also can be described correctly in “semi-conventional” framework – when only one trophic level is described by flexible metabolism model. Another problem in CELSS modeling is existence of different and incompatible hypotheses about relationships between plants growth rate and amounts of nutrients (functional responses). Difficulty of testing these hypotheses is associated with multi-nutrient dependency of growth rate and comprehensive experimental studies are expensive and time-consuming. This work is devoted to testing the hypothesis that “semi-conventional” approach is enough to describe CELSS, and to planning the discrimination experiment on selecting correct type of the plant’s functional response. To do that three different models of plants (one flexible and two conventional) were investigated both in the scope of CELSS model, and in hemostat model. Numerical simulations show that each of the models has typical patterns which can be determined in experiment with real plants.
McCartney, Daniel M A; Younger, Katherine M; Walsh, Joanne; O'Neill, Marie; Sheridan, Claire; Kearney, John M
The present study aimed to investigate socio-economic disparities in food and nutrient intakes among young Irish women. A total of 221 disadvantaged and seventy-four non-disadvantaged women aged 18-35 years were recruited. Diet was assessed using a diet history protocol. Of the total population, 153 disadvantaged and sixty-three non-disadvantaged women were classified as plausible dietary reporters. Food group intakes, nutrient intakes and dietary vitamin and mineral concentrations per MJ of energy consumed were compared between the disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged populations, as was compliance with dietary fibre, macronutrient and micronutrient intake guidelines. The disadvantaged women had lower intakes than the non-disadvantaged women of fruit, vegetables, fish, breakfast cereals, low-fat milk and wholemeal bread (all P< 0·001), yogurt (P= 0·001), low-fat spread (P= 0·002) and fresh meat (P= 0·003). They also had higher intakes of butter, processed red meats, white bread, sugar-sweetened beverages, fried potatoes and potato-based snacks (all P< 0·001) and full-fat milk (P= 0·014). Nutritionally, the disadvantaged women had higher fat, saturated fat and refined sugar intakes; lower dietary fibre, vitamin and mineral intakes; and lower dietary vitamin and mineral densities per MJ than their more advantaged peers. Non-achievement of carbohydrate (P= 0·017), fat (P< 0·001), saturated fat (P< 0·001), refined sugar (P< 0·001), folate (P= 0·050), vitamin C (P< 0·001), vitamin D (P= 0·047) and Ca (P= 0·019) recommendations was more prevalent among the disadvantaged women. Both groups showed poor compliance with Fe and Na guidelines. We conclude that the nutritional deficits present among these socially disadvantaged women are significant, but may be potentially ameliorated by targeted food-based interventions.
Lu, Yanhui; An, Yu; Guo, Jin; Zhang, Xiaona; Wang, Hui; Rong, Hongguo; Xiao, Rong
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a pre-clinical stage of Alzheimer’s disease afflicting a large number of the elderly throughout the world. However, modifiable risk factors for the onset and progression of MCI remain unclear. A cross-sectional study was performed to explore whether and how daily dietary nutrients intake and lifestyle impacted the risk of MCI in the Chinese elderly. We examined 2,892 elderly subjects, including 768 MCI patients and 2,124 subjects with normal cognition in three different Provinces of China. Dietary intake of nutrients were collected by using a 33-item food frequency questionnaire and calculated based on the Chinese Food Composition database. The MCI patients were first screened by Montreal Cognitive Assessment and then diagnosed by medical neurologists. Multivariate logistic regression and exploratory factor analyses were applied to identify and rank the risk factors. Three dietary nutrient intake combination patterns were identified as the major protective factors of MCI, with eigenvalues of 14.11, 2.26, and 1.51 and adjusted odds ratios (OR) of 0.77, 0.81, and 0.83 (P < 0.05), respectively. The most protective combination was featured with eight vitamins and six minerals, and OR for the third and fourth quartiles of these nutrients intake ranged from 0.48 to 0.74 (P < 0.05). Carotenoids, vitamin C, and vitamin B6 exhibited the highest protective factor loadings of 0.97, 0.95, and 0.92 (P < 0.05), respectively. Education, computer use, reading, and drinking represented the most protective lifestyle factors (OR = 0.25 to 0.85, P < 0.05), whereas smoking and peripheral vascular diseases were associated with higher (OR = 1.40 and 1.76, P < 0.05) risk of MCI. Adequate dietary intake of monounsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol were significantly associated with decreased risk of MCI. In conclusion, adequate or enhanced intake of micronutrients seemed to lower the risk of MCI in the Chinese elderly. In addition, improving education
Jones, C K; Patience, J F
Pig weight variation represents an important source of lost production and profitability in the swine industry. To date, few experiments have classified how pigs of the same age but different weight utilize dietary energy and nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to characterize how pigs with varying weaning weights (WW) and postweaning growth performance differ in apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy or nutrient digestibility or energy utilization. Ninety-six barrows weaned at 18 to 22 d of age were selected from 960 to represent the 10% of the lightest (LWW), median (MWW), and heaviest (HWW) at weaning (n = 32 pigs per WW category). Pigs were housed in metabolism crates for a 5-d acclimation period and a 27-d study and fed ad libitum quantities of a common diet containing titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker. Fecal grab samples and total urine were collected during a 3-d collection period at the beginning and end of the experiment. After the experiment, pigs within each WW category were further classified into the 33% slowest, median, or fastest ADG categories. This resulted in a total of 9 treatments in a nested design. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. There were no differences in ATTD according to WW at the beginning or end of the experiment, or when ADG was nested within WW at the beginning of the experiment. However, the ATTD of DM, GE, N, and ash, as well as the related DE, ME, and NE content, were greatest (P < 0.01) in the median ADG categories of pigs at the end of the experiment. Energy intake increased with increasing WW (P < 0.001; NE intake = 1.40, 1.64, and 1.89 Mcal/d for pigs from the LWW, MWW, and HWW, respectively). However, the ratio of calculated to actual ME intake was lower in LWW pigs than HWW pigs (P = 0.04; 1.03 and 1.10 for LWW and HWW pigs, respectively). When ADG was nested within WW category, both increasing WW and ADG increased (P < 0.001) energy intake, utilization, and efficiency
Fruit juice (FJ) consumption has recently been viewed as a sweetened beverage with little regard to its nutrient contribution to the diet. NHANES, 2003–2006, data were used to examine the association of 100% FJ consumption, with nutrient intake and diet quality in children ages 2–5 y (n equals 1,665...
Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Bazylak, Grzegorz
The aim of present study was to estimate nutrient intake as well as nutritional status of female pharmacy students from Bydgoszcz, and to investigate relationship of these factors with type of usual residence place during academic year The 24-hour recall method was used to evaluate dietary intake of 47 subjects. Measured values of height, body mass and four skinfolds thickness were used for calculation of BM, FFM, %FM indices. An analysis of nutritional status of studied population showed lower body mass and BMI in the sub-group of female students residing outside of their family home. In comparison to the female students living without parents percentage of energy provided by total fat (29.9%) was significantly less and percentage of energy from carbohydrate was significantly higher (55.4%) than students who reside with their parents. Elevated intake of phosphorus and retinol accompanied by inadequate intake of riboflavin, calcium, iron and copper was exhibited in both residence-type related sub-groups of investigated female pharmacy students.
Martone, Deborah; Roccaldo, Romana; Censi, Laura; Toti, Elisabetta; Catasta, Giovina; D'Addesa, Dina; Carletti, Claudia
The food consumption and food habits of Italian third-class-primary-school children were assessed and their energy and nutrient intakes were compared with requirements. The study involved 1740 subjects (900 males and 840 females) aged 8-9 years, from the north, centre and south of Italy. Body weight and height were measured. Parents filled in a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire for their child. The results showed that the diet of Italian children is unbalanced in terms of macronutrients and deficient in fiber. The average daily intakes of fruit (234 g/d), vegetables (134 g/d) and legumes (17 g/d), were lower than the nationally recommended ones. The percentages of energy intake from fats (41%) and from carbohydrates (45%) were higher and lower respectively than recommended. Low intakes of fiber (13.5 g/d) were reported. A national nutrition policy in Italy should focus on nutrition education programs in schools and for parents.
Komada, Yoko; Narisawa, Hajime; Ueda, Fumitaka; Saito, Hitomi; Sakaguchi, Hiroyuki; Mitarai, Makoto; Suzuki, Rina; Tamura, Norihisa; Inoue, Shigeru; Inoue, Yuichi
Several studies have reported that short sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity and metabolic disease. Moreover, both sleep duration and sleep timing might independently be associated with dietary nutrient intake. In this study, we investigated the associations between self-reported sleep duration and dietary nutrient intake, with and without adjustments for variations in sleep timing (i.e., the midpoint of sleep). We conducted a questionnaire survey, comprising a validated brief self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) and the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) among 1902 healthy Japanese adults and found that the dietary intakes of several nutrients correlated with sleep duration among men regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep. Particularly, (1) small but significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and the percentage of energy from protein, regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep; (2) energy-adjusted intakes of sodium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 also significantly correlated with sleep duration; and (3) intakes of bread, pulses, and fish and shellfish correlated with sleep duration. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and dietary intakes among women. This study revealed that after controlling for the midpoint of sleep, sleep duration correlated significantly with the dietary intake of specific nutrients and foods in a population of Japanese men. PMID:28208812
Lactose intolerance is a complex condition that is complicated by cultural beliefs and perceptions about the consumption of dairy products. These attitudes about dairy may contribute to inadequate intake of key nutrients that may impact conditions that contribute to health disparities in African Americans. While a complex health problem, lactose intolerance is easy to treat. However, no treatment can improve the body's ability to produce lactase. Yet, symptoms can be controlled through dietary strategies. This position paper emphasizes the importance of using patient and provider-level strategies in order to reduce the risks to the health of African Americans that may accrue as a result of dairy nutrient deficiency. Evaluation and assessment of interventions tested is critical so that evidence-based approaches to addressing dairy nutrient deficiency and lactose Intolerance can be created. Lastly, it is essential for physicians to communicate key messages to their patients. Since dairy nutrients address important health concerns, the amelioration of lactose intolerance is an investment in health. Lactose intolerance is common, is easy to treat, and can be managed. It is possible to consume dairy even in the face of a history of maldigestion or lactose intolerant issues. Gradually increasing lactose in the diet--drinking small milk portions with food, eating yogurt, and consuming cheese--are effective strategies for managing lactose intolerance and meeting optimal dairy needs.
Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and dietary taurine intake, nutrient intake, anthropometric data and body composition in Korean male college students. One hundred seventy four subjects were divided into 2 groups based on abdominal obesity as estimated by waist circumference (cm) (Lee et al. 2006): normal group (waist circumference (cm): < 90 cm, n = 141), obese group (waist circumference (cm): > or = 90 cm, n = 33). A three day-recall method was used to assess diet (2 weekdays and 1 weekend). Anthropometric data and body composition were measured with Inbody 3.0 (Bioelectrical Impedance Fatness Analyzer). Average dietary intake of taurine in the normal and obese groups was 123.1 +/- 78.8 mg/day and 128.4 +/- 79.6 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine and nutrient intake between the normal and obese groups. However, data of anthropometric measurements and body composition in the obese group were significantly elevated compared to those of the normal group. In the normal group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with nutrient intake (p < 0.01), the exception being the intake of plant lipid and of animal calcium. In the obese group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with the intake of energy foods and of animal lipid (p < 0.05). There were positive correlations between dietary taurine intake, weight and hip circumference (p < 0.05) in the normal group. However, there was no significant correlation between dietary taurine intake and anthropometric and body composition data in the obese group. Therefore, the data suggest that further study is warranted to examine the relationship between dietary taurine intake and abdominal obesity.
Tabacchi, Garden; Filippi, Anna Rita; Breda, João; Censi, Laura; Amodio, Emanuele; Napoli, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino; Jemni, Monèm; Firenze, Alberto; Mammina, Caterina
dietary consumption in adolescents to adequately rank food, energy and nutrient intakes at a group level. PMID:25882537
Sirot, Véronique; Dumas, Céline; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Margaritis, Irène
Besides providing n-3 fatty acids with nutritional and health benefits, seafood consumption may contribute to the reduction of nutrient prevalences of inadequacy. To evaluate the contributions of seafood and other food groups to nutrient intakes of frequent seafood consumers, food consumption was evaluated through an FFQ on 991 French men and women (18-81 years) consuming seafood at least twice a week. Intakes, prevalence of inadequacies, risks of upper limit excess and food contributions to intakes were assessed for thirty-three nutrients. Mean fat contributions to total energy intakes (38·3 and 39·0 % for men and women, respectively) met French recommendations, but mean carbohydrate intakes (40·9 and 39·7 %, respectively) were insufficient. Micronutrient inadequacies were lower than in the French general population, the highest being for vitamin C (41·3 and 40·1 % for men and women, respectively), vitamin E (35·0 and 35·3 % for men and women, respectively) and Mg (37·5 and 25·5 % for men and women, respectively). Upper safety limits (USL) were exceeded mostly for Zn (6·2 %), Ca (3·7 %), retinol (2·0 %) and Cu (0·9 %). Mean contributions of seafood to vitamin D, B12, I and Se intakes ranged 40-65 %. Molluscs and crustaceans significantly contributed to vitamin B12 (13·7 %), Cu (11·4 %), Fe (11·5 %), Zn (8·4 %) and I (6·1 %) intakes, and canned fish contributed to vitamin D intake (13·4 %). Besides fish, contributions of mollusc and crustacean consumption to nutrient intakes should be considered from a public health viewpoint. Consuming seafood at least twice a week induces moderate inadequacies and risks of exceeding USL for some micronutrients, whereas macronutrient intakes remained imbalanced.
Masi, Shelly; Mundry, Roger; Ortmann, Sylvia; Cipolletta, Chloé; Boitani, Luigi; Robbins, Martha M.
The daily energy requirements of animals are determined by a combination of physical and physiological factors, but food availability may challenge the capacity to meet nutritional needs. Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) are an interesting model for investigating this topic because they are folivore-frugivores that adjust their diet and activities to seasonal variation in fruit availability. Observations of one habituated group of western gorillas in Bai-Hokou, Central African Republic (December 2004-December 2005) were used to examine seasonal variation in diet quality and nutritional intake. We tested if during the high fruit season the food consumed by western gorillas was higher in quality (higher in energy, sugar, fat but lower in fibre and antifeedants) than during the low fruit season. Food consumed during the high fruit season was higher in digestible energy, but not any other macronutrients. Second, we investigated whether the gorillas increased their daily intake of carbohydrates, metabolizable energy (KCal/g OM), or other nutrients during the high fruit season. Intake of dry matter, fibers, fat, protein and the majority of minerals and phenols decreased with increased frugivory and there was some indication of seasonal variation in intake of energy (KCal/g OM), tannins, protein/fiber ratio, and iron. Intake of non-structural carbohydrates and sugars was not influenced by fruit availability. Gorillas are probably able to extract large quantities of energy via fermentation since they rely on proteinaceous leaves during the low fruit season. Macronutrients and micronutrients, but not digestible energy, may be limited for them during times of low fruit availability because they are hind-gut fermenters. We discuss the advantages of seasonal frugivores having large dietary breath and flexibility, significant characteristics to consider in the conservation strategies of endangered species. PMID:26154509
Rubio-López, Nuria; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Pico, Yolanda; Livianos-Aldana, Lorenzo; Llopis-González, Agustín
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between nutritional intake and depressive symptoms in Valencian schoolchildren. The ANIVA (Antropometria y Nutricion Infantil de Valencia) study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During academic year 2013–2014, 710 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from eleven primary schools in Valencia (Spain). Children’s dietary intake was measured on three-day food records, completed by parents/guardians; children completed the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) Questionnaire to measure depressive symptoms. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI), and z-scores were evaluated in all subjects. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Spanish dietary recommended intakes (DRIs); 20.70% of the sample presented depressive symptoms. We identified a positive association between children with depressive symptoms and non-depressive symptoms for thiamin, vitamin K, and bromine (p < 0.05), and a negative association for protein, carbohydrates, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B12 and E, zinc, manganese, cobalt, and aluminum (p < 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found between both groups according to the DRIs for intakes of total energy (p = 0.026), fiber (p < 0.001), vitamin C (p < 0.001), vitamin E (p = 0.004), magnesium (p = 0.018), and iron (p = 0.013). Our results demonstrated that carbohydrates were the most closely associated factor with depressive symptoms, and highlight the potential significant public health implications of inadequate nutritional intake on schoolchildren’s mental health. PMID:27011198
Adaikalakoteswari, Antonysunil; Venkataraman, Hema; Maheswaran, Hendramoorthy; Saravanan, Ponnusamy
Objective To assess serum B12, folate and the associated homocysteine (Hcy) levels among women of childbearing age in the UK and examine their association with dietary intake in relation to the UK Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) for B12 and folate. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Data from two publicly available National Diet and Nutrition Surveys (NDNS 2000/2001 and 2008/2012) were used. These were population-based surveys of randomly selected samples of adults which were carried out in their households. Participants Women of childbearing age (aged 19–39 years), representative of the UK population. Those who were pregnant or breastfeeding were excluded. Outcome measures The associations between micronutrient intakes and blood levels of B12, folate and Hcy were assessed by correlation and stepwise linear regression. B12 intake was divided into quintiles and plotted against blood B12 and Hcy concentrations to determine the threshold of any associations. Results 299 women from the first NDNS cohort had complete intake and biomarker data. The prevalence of serum vitamin B12 (≤150 pmol/L) and serum folate (≤10 nmol/L) deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia (≥12 µmol/L) was 12.4%, 6.4% and 21.2%, respectively, despite seemingly adequate B12 intakes (median 3.8 μg/day, 96% consumed more than the UK RNI of 1.5 μg/day). B12 concentrations increased across all quintiles of intake with serum levels in quintiles 4 and 5 (median intake 4.9 and 7.1 μg/day, respectively) significantly higher than quintile 1. However, Hcy concentrations levelled off between quintiles 4 and 5. Comparison of micronutrient intake between the two surveys found that folate intake has reduced in the more recent cohort. Conclusions The UK RNI for B12 intake should be increased for women of childbearing age with intakes of around 5–7 μg/day likely to be associated with stable biomarker levels. B12 levels should also be measured in women preconceptionally or in early
The objective of this study was to investigate the association of nutrient intake and pregnancy outcome mediated by weight gain during pregnancy, job status, and household income. Maternal age, educational level, self-reported pre-pregnancy weights, educational level, and household income were collected from the women at 2 months postpartum. For each offspring, weight at birth, length at birth, and gestational age were collected. Participants were asked to report the frequency of consumption of foods between 28–42 weeks into the pregnancy. Diet was assessed by using a validated 106-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ) and women were asked portions and quantities based on pictures, food models, and measuring tools such as cups or teaspoons. Results showed that women who gained below the recommended weight gain during pregnancy, within, and over were 25.3%, 38.7%, 36.0%, respectively. In comparison to weight gain and the offspring's length and weight at birth, the offspring of mothers with a lower weight gain had a higher length. Energy, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin C, calcium, and potassium were significantly lower at employed group. We did not observe a significant difference between birth characteristics and maternal nutrient intake by income. Infants with a higher ponderal index at birth were born to women with a higher pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). PMID:28168179
Jung, You-Mi; Choi, Mi-Ja
The objective of this study was to investigate the association of nutrient intake and pregnancy outcome mediated by weight gain during pregnancy, job status, and household income. Maternal age, educational level, self-reported pre-pregnancy weights, educational level, and household income were collected from the women at 2 months postpartum. For each offspring, weight at birth, length at birth, and gestational age were collected. Participants were asked to report the frequency of consumption of foods between 28-42 weeks into the pregnancy. Diet was assessed by using a validated 106-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ) and women were asked portions and quantities based on pictures, food models, and measuring tools such as cups or teaspoons. Results showed that women who gained below the recommended weight gain during pregnancy, within, and over were 25.3%, 38.7%, 36.0%, respectively. In comparison to weight gain and the offspring's length and weight at birth, the offspring of mothers with a lower weight gain had a higher length. Energy, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin C, calcium, and potassium were significantly lower at employed group. We did not observe a significant difference between birth characteristics and maternal nutrient intake by income. Infants with a higher ponderal index at birth were born to women with a higher pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI).
Melkonian, Stephanie; Argos, Maria; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Pierce, Brandon; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Ahsan, Habibul
Risk of skin lesions due to chronic arsenic exposure can be further affected by nutrient intake. We prospectively evaluated the association of nutrient intake and gender with incident skin lesions using data from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Discrete time hazard models were used to estimate these effects in stratified analyses based on skin lesion severity. Overall, we observed significant associations between low intakes of various nutrients (retinol, calcium, fiber, folate, iron, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamins A, C, and E) and skin lesion incidence, particularly for keratotic skin lesions. Associations for vitamins C and E showed significant linear trends. Gender-specific analyses revealed an inverse association between the lowest quartile of nutrient intake and keratotic skin lesion incidence for retinol equivalents, calcium, folate, iron, and fiber among women. Interactions by gender were observed for retinol equivalents (P-interaction = 0.03), calcium (P-interaction = 0.04), vitamin A (P-interaction = 0.03), and riboflavin (P-interaction = 0.04) with the incidence of keratotic skin lesions. Understanding differential susceptibility to skin lesion incidence based on nutrient intake will help researchers develop targeted interventions to prevent health consequences of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh and beyond.
Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.
Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California…
Ghosh, Chaitali; Baker, Julie A; Moysich, Kirsten B; Rivera, Ruqayyah; Brasure, John R; McCann, Susan E
We investigated the relationships between intakes of selected dietary nutrients and food groups and risk of cervical cancer in a hospital-based, case-control study including 239 cases diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and 979 hospital patients with nonneoplastic diagnoses who completed a self-administered questionnaire between 1982 and 1998 at Roswell Park Cancer Institute. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusting for age, education, smoking status, use of oral contraceptives, barrier contraceptives and spermicides, family history of cervical cancer, year questionnaire completed, and energy intake. Significant reductions in risk of approximately 40-60% were observed for women in the highest vs. lowest tertiles of dietary fiber (OR=0.59, 95% CI=0.37-0.94), vitamin C (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.33-0.80), vitamin E (OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.27-0.72), vitamin A (OR=0.47, 95% CI=0.30-0.73), alpha-carotene (OR=0.41, 95% CI=0.27-0.63), beta-carotene (OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.29-0.68), lutein (OR=0.51, 95% CI=0.33-0.79), folate (OR=0.55, 95% CI=0.34-0.88), and total fruit and vegetable intake (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.34-0.77). Our findings suggest that a diet rich in plant-based nutrients may be important in reducing the risk of cervical cancer.
Giang, Nguyen Thien Truong; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang
The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS) feeding on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and rumen fermentation in dairy steers. Four rumen fistulated dairy steers, 167 ± 12 kg body weight (BW), were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were as follows: T1 = 100 % untreated rice straw (RS), T2 = 70 % RS + 30 % LS, T3 = 40 % RS + 60 % LS, and T4 = 100 % LS, respectively. All animals were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum with concentrate mixture supplemented at 0.2 % BW. The results found that dry matter intake and nutrient digestibility were the highest in dairy steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05). Ruminal temperature and pH were not affected by LS feeding (P > 0.05) while ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen concentration were linearly increased with increasing levels of LS feeding (P < 0.01). On the other hand, total volatile fatty acids and propionate (C3) were improved by LS feeding especially in steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05) whereas acetate (C2) production and C2/C3 ratio were decreased. Moreover, methane production was reduced together with increasing LS feeding level (P < 0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that 60 % LS feeding could enhance feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation end-product while reducing methane production in dairy steers. This study suggested that LS could be used as high-quality roughage for ruminant feeding in the tropical region.
Elorinne, Anna-Liisa; Alfthan, Georg; Erlund, Iris; Kivimäki, Hanna; Paju, Annukka; Salminen, Irma; Turpeinen, Ursula; Voutilainen, Sari; Laakso, Juha
Background Vegetarian and vegan diets have become more popular among adolescents and young adults. However, few studies have investigated the nutritional status of vegans, who may be at risk of nutritional deficiencies. Objective To compare dietary intake and nutritional status of Finnish long-term vegans and non-vegetarians. Methods Dietary intake and supplement use were estimated using three-day dietary records. Nutritional status was assessed by measuring biomarkers in plasma, serum, and urine samples. Vegans’ (n = 22) data was compared with those of sex- and age-matched non-vegetarians (n = 19). Results All vegans adhered strictly to their diet; however, individual variability was marked in food consumption and supplementation habits. Dietary intakes of key nutrients, vitamins B12 and D, were lower (P < 0.001) in vegans than in non-vegetarians. Nutritional biomarker measurements showed lower concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), iodine and selenium (corrected for multiple comparisons, P < 0.001), Vegans showed more favorable fatty acid profiles (P < 0.001) as well as much higher concentrations of polyphenols such as genistein and daidzein (P < 0.001). Eicosapentaenoic acid proportions in vegans were higher than expected. The median concentration of iodine in urine was below the recommended levels in both groups. Conclusions Long-term consumption of a vegan diet was associated with some favorable laboratory measures but also with lowered concentrations of key nutrients compared to reference values. This study highlights the need for nutritional guidance to vegans. PMID:26840251
Wallace, Lauren J; Summerlee, Alastair J S; Dewey, Cate E; Hak, Chantharith; Hall, Ann; Charles, Christopher V
In Cambodia, both anaemia and vitamin A deficiency are serious health problems. Despite this, few comprehensive nutritional surveys have been completed to date. This study evaluates the adequacy of iron and vitamin A intakes, as well as women's nutritional knowledge in rural Kandal province. Twenty-four hour recalls, pile sort activities, socioeconomic surveys, focus groups, and market surveys were carried out with 67 women from 5 villages in rural Kandal Province. Ninety seven percent of women did not meet their daily-recommended intake of iron, while 70% did not meet their daily-recommended intake of vitamin A. Although many women consume vitamin A-rich and iron rich-foods daily, they do not consume large enough quantities of these foods. Results suggest that both the cost of foods as well as the extent of health knowledge is linked to nutritional practice. Most animal-source iron and vitamin A-rich foods are considered expensive; however, small fish, and several plant-source vitamin A-rich foods are inexpensive and easy to access. Despite health education, food restrictions lead some healthy foods to be considered to be harmful to women. Ultimately, this study demonstrates the importance of developing comprehensive nutritional interventions in Cambodia. Health programming must provide women with not only suggestions to include low-cost nutrient-rich foods, but also advise them about the quantities that are likely to have an impact on nutritional status. Programs should take a community-based, inter-sectoral approach that simultaneously combines culturally informed health education with initiatives that combat poverty and increase access to nutrient rich foods.
Cai, Da; Zhao, Shancang; Li, Danlei; Chang, Fang; Tian, Xiangxu; Huang, Guohong; Zhu, Zhenjun; Liu, Dong; Dou, Xiaowei; Li, Shubo; Zhao, Mouming; Li, Quanyang
The relationships between diet and metabolites as well as element profiles in healthy centenarians are important but remain inconclusive. Therefore, to test the interesting hypothesis that there would be distinctive features of metabolites and element profiles in healthy centenarians, and that these would be associated with nutrient intake; the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), total bile acids and ammonia in feces, phenol, p-cresol, uric acid, urea, creatinine and ammonia in urine, and element profiles in fingernails were determined in 90 healthy elderly people, including centenarians from Bama county (China)-a famous longevous region-and elderly people aged 80-99 from the longevous region and a non-longevous region. The partial least squares-discriminant analysis was used for pattern recognition. As a result, the centenarians showed a distinct metabolic pattern. Seven characteristic components closely related to the centenarians were identified, including acetic acid, total SCFA, Mn, Co, propionic acid, butyric acid and valeric acid. Their concentrations were significantly higher in the centenarians group (p < 0.05). Additionally, the dietary fiber intake was positively associated with butyric acid contents in feces (r = 0.896, p < 0.01), and negatively associated with phenol in urine (r = -0.326, p < 0.01). The results suggest that the specific metabolic pattern of centenarians may have an important and positive influence on the formation of the longevity phenomenon. Elevated dietary fiber intake should be a path toward health and longevity.
Cai, Da; Zhao, Shancang; Li, Danlei; Chang, Fang; Tian, Xiangxu; Huang, Guohong; Zhu, Zhenjun; Liu, Dong; Dou, Xiaowei; Li, Shubo; Zhao, Mouming; Li, Quanyang
The relationships between diet and metabolites as well as element profiles in healthy centenarians are important but remain inconclusive. Therefore, to test the interesting hypothesis that there would be distinctive features of metabolites and element profiles in healthy centenarians, and that these would be associated with nutrient intake; the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), total bile acids and ammonia in feces, phenol, p-cresol, uric acid, urea, creatinine and ammonia in urine, and element profiles in fingernails were determined in 90 healthy elderly people, including centenarians from Bama county (China)—a famous longevous region—and elderly people aged 80–99 from the longevous region and a non-longevous region. The partial least squares-discriminant analysis was used for pattern recognition. As a result, the centenarians showed a distinct metabolic pattern. Seven characteristic components closely related to the centenarians were identified, including acetic acid, total SCFA, Mn, Co, propionic acid, butyric acid and valeric acid. Their concentrations were significantly higher in the centenarians group (p < 0.05). Additionally, the dietary fiber intake was positively associated with butyric acid contents in feces (r = 0.896, p < 0.01), and negatively associated with phenol in urine (r = −0.326, p < 0.01). The results suggest that the specific metabolic pattern of centenarians may have an important and positive influence on the formation of the longevity phenomenon. Elevated dietary fiber intake should be a path toward health and longevity. PMID:27657115
Background: Drinking plain water, such as tap or bottled water, provides hydration and satiety without adding calories. We examined plain water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in relation to energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants. Methods: Data came from the 2005–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, comprising a nationally-representative sample of 2900 adults who reported full-service restaurant consumption in 24-h dietary recalls. Linear regressions were performed to examine the differences in daily energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants by plain water and SSB consumption status, adjusting for individual characteristics and sampling design. Results: Over 18% of U.S. adults had full-service restaurant consumption on any given day. Among full-service restaurant consumers, 16.7% consumed SSBs, 2.6% consumed plain water but no SSBs, and the remaining 80.7% consumed neither beverage at the restaurant. Compared to onsite SSB consumption, plain water but no SSB consumption was associated with reduced daily total energy intake at full-service restaurants by 443.4 kcal, added sugar intake by 58.2 g, saturated fat intake by 4.4 g, and sodium intake by 616.8 mg, respectively. Conclusion: Replacing SSBs with plain water consumption could be an effective strategy to balance energy/nutrient intake and prevent overconsumption at full-service restaurant setting. PMID:27153083
Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Kolve, Cathrine Solheim; Kverndalen, Ingrid; Torheim, Liv Elin
The aim of the present paper was to describe food and nutrient intake among 12-month-old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants, with a focus on iron and vitamin D intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2013 through September 2014. Eighty-nine mothers/infants of Somali origin and 77 mothers/infants of Iraqi origin residing in Eastern Norway participated in the study. Data were collected using two 24-h multiple-pass recalls. Forty percent of the Norwegian-Somali infants and 47% of the Norwegian-Iraqi infants were breastfed at 12 months of age (p = 0.414). Median energy percentages (E%) from protein, fat and carbohydrates were within the recommended intake ranges, except the level of saturated fats (12–13 E%). Median intakes of almost all micronutrients were above the recommended daily intakes. Most of the infants consumed iron-enriched products (81%) and received vitamin D supplements (84%). The median intakes of iron and vitamin D were significantly higher among infants receiving iron-enriched products and vitamin D supplements compared to infants not receiving such products (p < 0.001). The findings indicate that the food and nutrient intake of this group of infants in general seems to be in accordance with Norwegian dietary recommendations. Foods rich in iron and vitamin D supplements were important sources of the infants’ intake of iron and vitamin D and should continue to be promoted. PMID:27690092
Background During nutritional stress, reduced intake may reduce the efficacy of anabolic implants. This study was conducted to evaluate basic cellular responses to a growth promotant implant at two intake levels. Methods Sixteen crossbred steers (293 ± 19.3 kg) were used to evaluate the impact of anabolic implants in either an adequate or a restricted nutritional state. Steers were trained to individual Calan gates, and then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of: presence or absence of an anabolic growth implant (Revalor-XS, 200 mg TBA and 40 mg estradiol; IMPLANT or CONTROL) and a moderate energy, pelleted, starting cattle diet fed at either 2.0 × or 1.0 × maintenance energy (NEM) requirements (HIGH or LOW). Serum (d 0, 14, and 28) was used for application to bovine muscle satellite cells. After treatment with the serum (20% of total media) from the trial cattle, the satellite cells were incubated for 72 h. Protein abundance of myosin heavy chain (MHC), phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase (phospho-ERK), and phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (phospho-mTOR) were analyzed to determine the effects of implant, intake, and their interaction (applied via the serum). Results Intake had no effect on MHC (P = 0.85) but IMPLANT increased (P < 0.01) MHC abundance vs. CONTROL. Implant status, intake status, and the interaction had no effect on the abundance of phospho-ERK (P ≥ 0.23). Implanting increased phospho-mTOR (P < 0.01) but there was no effect (P ≥ 0.51) of intake or intake × implant. Conclusions The nearly complete lack of interaction between implant and nutritional status indicates that the signaling molecules measured herein respond to implants and nutritional status independently. Furthermore, results suggest that the muscle hypertrophic effects of anabolic implants may not be mediated by circulating IGF-1. PMID:24245980
Despland, Emma; Noseworthy, Meghan
Nutritional regulation is a powerful mechanism used by generalist feeders to obtain the balance of nutrients they require from nutritionally diverse, perhaps unbalanced, foods. We examined nutritional regulation in a species with a narrow individual diet breadth: the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria. Fourth instar caterpillars were provided with artificial foods consisting of different ratios of protein to digestible carbohydrate in no-choice, choice and compensatory feeding experiments. In the no-choice test, caterpillars were confined to a single food source of varying protein/carbohydrate ratio for the duration of the fourth larval stadium. Caterpillars performed best on equal-ratio and slightly protein-biased diets. Significant reductions in performance were only observed on extremely protein- or carbohydrate-biased diets. Daily consumption of the three acceptable intermediate diets was consistent with volumetric regulation, but the timing of the moult to the next instar appeared linked instead to protein intake. In the choice test, caterpillars were provided with two complementary foods, one biased toward protein and the other toward carbohydrate, for the duration of the stadium. The caterpillars fed randomly from the two food sources presented to them, except for the extremely protein-biased diet (P:C ratio of 35:7), which they avoided. The compensatory feeding experiment tested whether forest tent caterpillars deprived of either protein or digestible carbohydrate would select a food containing the deficient nutrient. Insects were conditioned on either protein-only, carbohydrate-only, protein-and-carbohydrate or no-nutrient foods, then offered a choice between protein-only and carbohydrate-only foods. Unlike previously studied generalist feeders, our caterpillars did not compensate for protein deficiency and showed only very weak evidence of compensation for carbohydrate deficiency. Forest tent caterpillars are colonial trail-laying forest
Kon, I Ya; Safronova, A I; Gmoshinskaya, M V; Shcheplyagina, L A; Korosteleva, M M; Toboleva, M A; Aleshina, I V; Kurkova, V I; Larionova, Z G
Supporting of bone health is one of the main approaches to provide health in pregnant women considering intensive calcium and other mineral mobilization from mass bone that is necessary forforming fetus bone. This mobilization may lead to decrease of bone mineral density and development of osteopenia and osteoporosis. The important factors of development of bone impairment in pregnancy are nutrition and particular deficient consumption of protein, Ca, vitamin D. The possible role of reduced intake of pregnant women other nutrients remains unexplored. The aim of the research was estimating the prevalence of bone mineral density decrease in regard to the particular course of pregnancy and studying possible effects of key nutrients on bone mineral density in pregnant women. 131 women at different stages of pregnancy were involved in the survey. The bone density assessment was conducted using Bone Densitometer Omnisense 7000. As a criterion for bone density decrease in women used a Z-score, which was considered as normal to -1.0, as reduced from -1.0 to -2,0, and as significantly reduced when Z-score was less than -2,0. Analysis of the actual nutrition was performed by a 24-hour recording of 58 pregnant women. Normal bone mineral density was detected in 54 women or 41% of the total number of women surveyed. In 51 (39%) pregnant women reduced bone mineral density was discovered, and in 26 (20%) patients--significantly reduced bone density. There was a considerable deviation in pregnant patients' diet from the nutrition guidelines, which include, in particular, the high content of fat and saturated fatty acid, reduced intake of some micronutrients such as calcium, zinc, folic acid, β-carotene, vitamins A, B1, E. However, differences in the actual consumption of nutrients in women with varying bone mineral density have been identified only in case of consumption of fat and energy value of diets, also Mn and I. So, it may be suggested that the differences in bone mineral
Gagné, Doris; Blanchet, Rosanne; Lauzière, Julie; Vaissière, Émilie; Vézina, Carole; Ayotte, Pierre; Déry, Serge; O'Brien, Huguette Turgeon
Objectives To describe traditional food (TF) consumption and to evaluate its impact on nutrient intakes of preschool Inuit children from Nunavik. Design A cross-sectional study. Methods Dietary intakes of children were assessed with a single 24-hour recall (n=217). TF consumption at home and at the childcare centres was compared. Differences in children's nutrient intakes when consuming or not consuming at least 1 TF item were examined using ANCOVA. Results A total of 245 children attending childcare centres in 10 communities of Nunavik were recruited between 2006 and 2010. The children's mean age was 25.0±9.6 months (11–54 months). Thirty-six percent of children had consumed at least 1 TF item on the day of the recall. TF contributed to 2.6% of total energy intake. Caribou and Arctic char were the most reported TF species. Land animals and fish/shellfish were the main contributors to energy intake from TF (38 and 33%, respectively). In spite of a low TF intake, children who consumed TF had significantly (p<0.05) higher intakes of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, iron, phosphorus, zinc, copper, selenium, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, and vitamin B12, and lower intakes of energy and carbohydrate compared with non-consumers. There was no significant difference in any of the socio-economic variables between children who consumed TF and those who did not. Conclusion Although TF was not eaten much, it contributed significantly to the nutrient intakes of children. Consumption of TF should be encouraged as it provides many nutritional, economic, and sociocultural benefits. PMID:22818718
Wyszomierska, Agnieszka; Narojek, Lucyna; Myszkowska-Ryciak, Joanna
The influence of dialysis's day and time shifts on selected nutrients intake was examined on 38 patients with end stage renal disease. Time shift of dialysis influenced significantly carbohydrates content all groups) and energy content (time shift II vs. III) in daily food rations. There were no differences in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrates potassium (women) and phosphorous intake between day with and without dialysis. Our data strongly suggest that constant dietician care might be essential to correct nu:ients intake and prevent possible deficiencies among patients with end stage renal disease.
Morales, Eva; Porta, Miquel; Vioque, Jesús; López, Tomàs; Mendez, Michelle A; Pumarega, José; Malats, Núria; Crous‐Bou, Marta; Ngo, Joy; Rifà, Juli; Carrato, Alfredo; Guarner, Luisa; Corominas, Josep M; Real, Francisco X
Background No studies have investigated the relation between K‐ras mutations and dietary factors in exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC), and fewer than 10 studies have done so in other neoplasms. Patients and Methods Incident cases of EPC were prospectively identified, and interviewed face‐to‐face during hospital admission. Food and nutrient intakes were measured with a food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to compare EPC cases (n = 107) with and without K‐ras mutations (case‐case study). Results K‐ras mutations were more common among daily consumers of milk and other dairy products than among non‐daily consumers: the odds ratio adjusted by total energy, age, sex, smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption (ORa) was 5.1 (95% CI 1.1 to 24.5, p = 0.040). For all dairy products, including butter, the ORa for the medium and upper tertiles of intake were 5.4 and 11.6, respectively (p for trend = 0.023). The ORa for regular coffee drinkers further adjusted by dairy consumption was 4.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 20.7, p = 0.043). K‐ras mutated cases reported a lower intake of vitamin E (ORa = 0.2, p for trend = 0.036), polyunsaturated fats and omega 3 fatty acids (ORa = 0.2; p for trend <0.03). Conclusions Results support the hypothesis that in EPC exposure to specific dietary components or contaminants may influence the occurrence or persistence of K‐ras mutations. PMID:17568059
Corrao, Giovanni; Zambon, Antonella; Bagnardi, Vinccnzo; Aricò, Sarino; Loguercio, Carmelina; D'Amicis, Amleto
Several experimental studies have suggested that specific nutrients might play a role on the risk of liver damage. Nevertheless, few epidemiological studies have evaluated the role of diet on the risk of symptomatic liver cirrhosis, giving contradictory results. To evaluate the role of the intake of nutritional factors and dietary patterns on the risk of symptomatic liver cirrhosis and to examine their combined action with alcohol consumption we used data from the Italian Study on Liver Cirrhosis Determinants project. From 1994 to 1998 all the consecutive cirrhotic inpatients admitted to 19 Italian collaborative hospitals for signs of liver decompensation in whom the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis was made for the first time (259 cases) and one or two gender, age and area of residence matched individuals (416 controls) were recruited. Data on lifetime alcohol intake, usual consumption of 191 food items and on markers of hepatitis B and C viral infection were collected. The analysis of principal components identified a nutritional pattern positively correlated with vegetable and fruit intakes and negatively with animal and no-fruit sugar products. With respect to abstainers, relative risks in consumers of use < or = 25 and > or = 51 g/day of alcohol increased from 0.4 [95% confidence interval 0.0, 5.9] to 9.3 [1.3, 69.0] and from 2.1 [1.1, 4.2] to 18.1 [2.8, 118.3] for the lowest and the highest value of this nutritional pattern, respectively. Diet might therefore modulate the damaging effect of alcohol on the liver.
Background The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns among a representative sample of German adolescents and their associations with energy and nutrient intake, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, and overweight status. Methods In the analysis, data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were used. The survey included a comprehensive dietary history interview conducted among 1272 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Dietary patterns were determined with principal component analysis (PCA) based on 48 food groups, for boys and girls separately. Results Three dietary patterns among boys and two among girls were identified. Among boys, high adherence to the 'western' pattern was associated with higher age, lower socioeconomic status (SES), and lower physical activity level (PA). High adherence to the 'healthy' pattern among boys, but not among girls, was associated with higher SES, and higher PA. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was associated with higher age. Among girls, high adherence to the 'traditional and western' pattern was associated with lower age, lower SES and more hours watching TV per day. The nutrient density of several vitamins and minerals, particularly of B-vitamins and calcium, increased with increasing scores of the 'healthy' pattern among both sexes. Conversely, with increasing scores of the 'western' pattern among boys, most nutrient densities decreased, particularly of fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin D, biotin and calcium. Among girls with higher scores of the 'traditional and western' pattern, nutrient densities of vitamin A, C, E, K and folate decreased. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was correlated with higher densities of vitamin B12 and vitamin D and lower densities of fibre, magnesium and iron. No significant associations between dietary patterns and overweight were found. Conclusions Higher scores for dietary patterns characterized
Negesse, Tegene; Datt, Chander; Kundu, S S
A feeding trial with 18 Murrah buffalo heifers (238 ± 63 kg; 1.7 ± 0.4 years old) was conducted for 57 days, and feed intake and body weight were recorded followed by 7 days of urine and feces collection. Heifers were grouped into low (RFI-I) and high (RFI-II) feed efficiency groups by regressing DMI (g head(-1) day(-1)) on BWG (g head(-1) day(-1)) and mid-test MBW (kg). RFI-II heifers had slightly higher DMI (g head(-1) day(-1) and expressed per unit of BW, %BW, MBW, mid-test BW, and mid-test MBW) and all associated nutrient intakes, BWG, feed efficiency traits (FCR, CPCR), digestibility of nutrients, and retentions of crude protein and fat over RFI-I heifers. The corresponding intake values (kg head(-1) day(-1)) for RFI-I versus RFI-II were the following: DMI (6.73 ± 0.56 vs 6.51 ± 0.50), CPI (0.99 ± 0.008 vs 0.97 ± 0.07), DOMI (5.06 ± 0.47 vs 5.11 ± 0.42), and TDNI (4.95 ± 0.47 vs 5.00 ± 0.42). BWG (669 ± 52 vs 776 ± 47 g head(-1) day(-1)), feed efficiency traits (FCR: 10.32 ± 1.16 vs 8.77 ± 1.04 and CPCR: 1.52 ± 0.17 vs 1.30 ± 0.16), N balance (38 ± 9 vs 45 ± 8 g N head(-1) day(-1)), and protein and fat retentions (239 ± 57 vs 282 ± 51 g CP head(-1) day(-1) and 430 ± 6 vs 494 ± 59 g fat head(-1) day(-1)) of RFI-I were less than RFI-II heifers, respectively. Based on the predicted RFI values, RFI-II buffalo heifers could be selected for feed efficiency.
Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Theler, Jean-Marc; Guessous, Idris
Background Socioeconomic differences in diet are rarely assessed with more than one indicator. We aimed to assess differences in macro- and micro-nutrient intake in both sexes according to education, income, and occupation. Methods We used data from validated food frequency questionnaire measured dietary intake in 5087 participants (2157 women) from yearly adult population-based cross-sectional surveys conducted from 2005 to 2012 in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland. We used two ANOVA models: age-adjusted and multivariable adjusted simultaneously for all three socioeconomic indicators. Results Low-education men consumed more calcium but less vitamin D than high-education men; low-income men consumed less total and animal protein (80.9±0.9 vs 84.0±0.6 g/d; 55.6±1.0 vs 59.5±0.7 g/d) and more total carbohydrates and sugars (246±2 vs 235±2 g/d; 108±2 vs 103±1 g/d) than high-income men. Occupation and diet showed no association. Low-education women consumed less vegetable protein (20.7±0.2 vs 21.6±0.2 g/d), fibre (15.7±0.3 vs 16.8±0.2 g/d), and carotene (4222±158 vs 4870±128 μg/d) than high-education women; low-income women consumed more total carbohydrates (206±2 vs 197±1 g/d) and less monounsaturated fat (27.7±0.4 vs 29.3±0.3 g/d) than high-income women. Finally, low-occupation women consumed more total energy (1792±27 vs 1714±15 kcal/d) and total carbohydrates (206±2 vs 200±1 g/d), but less saturated fat (23.0±0.3 vs 24.4±0.2 g/d), calcium (935±17 vs 997±10 mg/d) and vitamin D (2.5±0.1 vs 2.9±0.1 μg/d), than high-occupation women. Conclusion In Switzerland, the influence of socioeconomic factors on nutrient intake differs by sex; income and education, but not occupation, drive differences among men; among women, all three indicators seem to play a role. Interventions to reduce inequalities should consider the influence of education, income, and occupation in diet to be most effective. PMID:28369086
Guligowska, Agnieszka; Pigłowska, Małgorzata; Fife, Elizaveta; Kostka, Joanna; Sołtysik, Bartłomiej K; Kroc, Łukasz; Kostka, Tomasz
Objectives The study is a case-control analysis of whether depression impairs physical and cognitive functioning and quality of life, and whether there is a relationship between nutrient deficiencies and these adverse changes. Patients and methods A total of 130 older subjects participated in the study: 65 with diagnosed depression (16 men and 49 women) and 65 age- and sex-matched controls without depression. All patients underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment. Nutritional state was assessed with the Mini Nutritional Assessment, cognitive performance was evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination and physical functioning by the Timed “Up & Go” test and handgrip strength. The pattern of consumption of various nutrients was analyzed in detail. Results The differences in cognitive functioning observed between the groups were related to specific nutrient intake, as was handgrip strength to some extent. The differences in nutritional status, several functional tests and muscle strength were related to both the presence of depression and inappropriate consumption of certain nutrients. Conclusion The incidence of falls and poor quality of life may be partially associated with the presence of depression. The inappropriate intake of selected nutrients may impair the functioning and quality of life of older adults with depression, such as the excess consumption of sucrose and insufficient consumption of protein, fiber, eicosapentaenoic acid, niacin and vitamin B6. Particular nutrients should be translated into dietary patterns which allow the individual patient to address these nutrient deficiencies. PMID:27822023
Fruit juice (FJ) consumption has been under scrutiny despite its nutrient profile. NHANES (2003–2006) data were used to compare the proportion of children ages 2–18 years with intakes of selected vitamins/minerals below recommended levels among consumers (n = 3,976; 51% females) and non-consumers (n...
The Food Surveys Research Group of the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center has analyzed nutrient intakes from foods and beverages consumed from restaurants and released 12 additional summary data tables. Using dietary data from the What We Eat in America (WWEIA), National Health and Nutritio...
Jacoby, Ann; And Others
The stated purpose of the study discussed here was to investigate the relationship of socio-economic factors to both nutrient intake and nutritional status using data gathered in Kent from September 1968 to March 1970; for each child in the study, information collected comprised a weighed diet record, a socio-economic questionnaire, and a medical…
A woman’s diet while pregnant can play an important role in her reproductive health as well as the health of her unborn child. Diet quality and nutrient intake amongst pregnant women residing in the rural Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of the United States is strikingly inadequate. The Delta H...
Epidemiologic studies assessing chickpea/hummus consumption and the association with nutrient intake, diet quality, and health biomarkers are lacking. The association between chickpea/hummus consumption and nutrient intake, dietary quality, and health biomarkers was examined in adults using data fro...
The consumption of whole grains and its association with nutrient intake has not been assessed in a recent nationally representative population. The objective was to examine the association of consumption of whole grains, using the new whole-grain definition, with diet quality and nutrient intake in...
The effect of different breakfast consumption patterns on nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity status is unknown. The objective was to compare nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity measures of consumers assigned to different breakfast patterns with breakfast skippers. Th...
Norhayati, M; Noor Hayati, M I; Oothuman, P; Fatmah, M S; Zainudin, B; Fatimah, A
A dietary survey was carried out in 216 children (109 males, 107 females) aged 1-7 years, living in rural villages in Selangor, Malaysia to assess their nutrient intake and to determine the association between nutrient consumption and socio-economic background. All the children studied had inadequate intakes of energy, iron and niacin according to Recommended Daily Intake (RDI). Children aged of 4-9 years showed inadequate intake of calcium, thiamine and riboflavin. However, the intake of protein, vitamin A and ascorbic acid were above the recommended value. The mean percentage requirements of protein, iron and niacin were significantly higher in children from small families compared with children from large families. However the employment status of mothers had a significantly effect on the mean percentage requirements of niacin. The results indicate that education level of the mothers, is strongly associated with the mean percentage nutrient requirements of children and we strongly feel that this is a strategy to be adopted for improvement in nutrition of children.
Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Kim, Jean; Sritharan, Nilani; Petocz, Peter
Recent data on breakfast consumption among Australian children are limited. This study examined the impact of breakfast skipping and breakfast type (cereal or non-cereal) on nutrient intakes, likelihood of meeting nutrient targets and anthropometric measures. A secondary analysis of two 24-h recall data from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey was conducted (2-16 years; n = 4487) to identify (a) breakfast skippers and (b) breakfast consumers, with breakfast consumers further sub-divided into (i) non-cereal and (ii) cereal consumers. Only 4% skipped breakfast and 59% of skippers were 14-16 years. Breakfast consumers had significantly higher intakes of calcium and folate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat than breakfast skippers. Cereal consumers were more likely to meet targets and consume significantly higher fibre, calcium, iron, had significantly higher intakes of folate, total sugars and carbohydrate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat and sodium than non-cereal consumers. The prevalence of overweight was lower among breakfast consumers compared to skippers, and among cereal consumers compared to-cereal consumers (p < 0.001), while no significant differences were observed for mean body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score, waist circumference and physical activity level across the categories. Breakfast and particularly breakfast cereal consumption contributes important nutrients to children's diets.
Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Kim, Jean; Sritharan, Nilani; Petocz, Peter
Recent data on breakfast consumption among Australian children are limited. This study examined the impact of breakfast skipping and breakfast type (cereal or non-cereal) on nutrient intakes, likelihood of meeting nutrient targets and anthropometric measures. A secondary analysis of two 24-h recall data from the 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey was conducted (2–16 years; n = 4487) to identify (a) breakfast skippers and (b) breakfast consumers, with breakfast consumers further sub-divided into (i) non-cereal and (ii) cereal consumers. Only 4% skipped breakfast and 59% of skippers were 14–16 years. Breakfast consumers had significantly higher intakes of calcium and folate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat than breakfast skippers. Cereal consumers were more likely to meet targets and consume significantly higher fibre, calcium, iron, had significantly higher intakes of folate, total sugars and carbohydrate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat and sodium than non-cereal consumers. The prevalence of overweight was lower among breakfast consumers compared to skippers, and among cereal consumers compared to-cereal consumers (p < 0.001), while no significant differences were observed for mean body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score, waist circumference and physical activity level across the categories. Breakfast and particularly breakfast cereal consumption contributes important nutrients to children’s diets. PMID:27517957
Gnagnarella, Patrizia; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Bellomi, Massimo; Rampinelli, Cristiano; Bertolotti, Raffaella; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Palli, Domenico; Veronesi, Giulia
The role of nutrients in lung cancer aetiology remains controversial and has never been evaluated in the context of screening. Our aim was to investigate the role of single nutrients and nutrient patterns in the aetiology of lung cancer in heavy smokers. Asymptomatic heavy smokers (≥20 pack-years) were invited to undergo annual low-dose computed tomography. We assessed diet using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire and collected information on multivitamin supplement use. We performed principal component analysis identifying four nutrient patterns and used Cox proportional Hazards regression to assess the association between nutrients and nutrients patterns and lung cancer risk. During a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, 178 of 4,336 participants were diagnosed with lung cancer by screening. We found a significant risk reduction of lung cancer with increasing vegetable fat consumption (HR for highest vs. lowest quartile = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.31-0.80; P-trend = 0.02). Participants classified in the high "vitamins and fiber" pattern score had a significant risk reduction of lung cancer (HR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.36-0.90, P-trend = 0.01). Among heavy smokers enrolled in a screening trial, high vegetable fat intake and adherence to the "vitamin and fiber" nutrient pattern were associated with reduced lung cancer incidence.
Newby, P K; Noel, Sabrina E; Grant, Rachael; Judd, Suzanne; Shikany, James M; Ard, Jamy
Stroke mortality rates and prevalence of several chronic diseases are higher in Southern populations and blacks in the US. This study examined the relationships of race (black, white) and region (Stroke Belt, Stroke Buckle, other) with selected nutrient intakes among black and white American men (n = 9229). The Block 98 FFQ assessed dietary intakes and multivariable linear regression analysis was used to examine whether race and region were associated with intakes of fiber, saturated fat, trans fat, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and cholesterol. Race and region were significant predictors of most nutrient intakes. Black men consumed 1.00% lower energy from saturated fat compared with white men [multivariable-adjusted β: 1.00% (95% CI = -0.88, -1.13)]. A significant interaction between race and region was detected for trans fat (P < 0.0001), where intake was significantly lower among black men compared with white men only in the Stroke Belt [multivariable-adjusted β: -0.21 (95% CI = -0.11, -0.31)]. Among black men, intakes of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium were lower, whereas cholesterol was higher, compared with white men (P < 0.05 for all). Comparing regions, men in the Stroke Buckle had the lowest intakes of fiber, potassium, magnesium, and calcium compared with those in the Stroke Belt and other regions; men in both the Stroke Buckle and Stroke Belt had higher intakes of cholesterol compared with those in other regions (P < 0.005 for all). Given these observed differences in dietary intakes, more research is needed to understand if and how they play a role in the health disparities and chronic disease risks observed among racial groups and regions in the US.
Huang, Joyce Y.; Butler, Lesley M.; Wang, Renwei; Jin, Aizhen; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min
Background Nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism are hypothesized to protect against pancreatic cancer development. Methods The Singapore Chinese Health Study database was used to prospectively examine the association between intake of one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients and pancreatic cancer risk. Between 1993 and 1998, 63,257 men and women aged 45–74 years were enrolled into the cohort. The daily intakes of the following one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients were assessed at enrollment using a 165-item food frequency questionnaire: betaine, choline, folate, and vitamins B2, B6, and B12. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for pancreatic cancer risk associated with dietary intakes of one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients were calculated. Results As of December 2013, 271 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified during an average of 16.3 years of follow-up. Higher intake of vitamin B6 and choline were associated with statistically significant decreases in the risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Compared with the lowest quartile, HRs (95% CIs) for the highest quartiles of vitamin B6 and choline were 0.52 (0.36, 0.74) (P trend = 0.001) and 0.67 (0.48, 0.93) (P trend = 0.04), respectively. There were no clear associations between the other one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients and pancreatic cancer risk. Conclusion Our study suggests that higher intake of vitamin B6 and choline may lower the risk of pancreatic cancer. Impact Our prospective findings are consistent with the in vivo evidence for protective roles of vitamin B6 and choline on pancreatic cancer development. PMID:26711329
Osowski, Christine Persson; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Barbieri, Heléne Enghardt; Becker, Wulf
Background In Sweden, school meals are served free of charge and Swedish law states that school meals must be nutritious. Nevertheless, data on children's energy and nutrient intake from school meals are scarce. Objective The aim was to describe the contribution of school meals to Swedish children's nutrient and energy intake during weekdays and compare this to the reference values based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR), which have been adopted as the official Swedish recommendations. Design A cross-sectional food consumption survey was performed on 1,840 Swedish children attending Grade 2 (mean age 8.6) and Grade 5 (mean age 11.7). The children's nutrient and energy intake was compared to the reference values based on the NNR. Results The mean intake from school meals of energy, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and vitamins D and E did not reach the reference values and the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and sodium exceeded the reference values in both age groups (significant differences, all p≤0.001). Additionally, the pupils in Grade 5 did not reach the reference values for folate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, selenium, and zinc (significant differences, all p≤0.001). Standardized for energy, dietary fiber, PUFA, and vitamins D and E did not reach the reference values, whereas the reference values for SFA and sodium were exceeded in both age groups (significant differences, all p≤0.001). Conclusions The study pointed to some central nutrients in need of improvement as regards school meals in Sweden, namely the quality of fat, dietary fiber, sodium, vitamin D, and iron. Some of these results may be attributed to the children not reporting eating the recommended number of calories, the children omitting some components of the meal, or underreporting, as a consequence of which the reference values for several nutrients were not met. PMID:26522664
Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Seokhwa
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Emerging evidence shows that eating breakfast and breakfast types may be associated with health outcomes and dietary intakes in various populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between breakfast types in Korean adults with their daily nutrient intakes and health outcomes. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 11,801 20- to 64-year-old adults (age 42.9 ± 11.8 yrs [mean ± standard error of the mean]; male 41.1%, female 58.9%) in 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey data were divided into 5 groups based on breakfast types in a 24-hr dietary recall: rice with 3 or more side dishes (Rice3+, 35.3%), rice with 0-2 side dishes (Rice0-2, 34.73%), noodles (1.56%), bread and cereal (6.56%), and breakfast skipping (21.63%). Daily nutrient intakes and the risk of metabolic syndrome were compared among five groups. RESULTS Compared with Korean Recommended Nutrient Intake levels, the breakfast-skipping group showed the lowest intake level in most nutrients, whereas the Rice3+ group showed the highest. Fat intake was higher in the bread and noodle groups than in the other groups. When compared with the Rice3+ group, the odds ratios for the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome were increased in the breakfast skipping, Rice0-2, and noodle groups after controlling for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS The rice-based breakfast group showed better nutritional status and health outcomes when eating with 3 or more side dishes. Nutrition education is needed to emphasize both the potential advantage of the rice-based, traditional Korean diet in terms of nutritional content and the importance of food diversity. PMID:26060541
Chongsuwat, Rewadee; Viwatwongkasem, Chukiat; Kitvorapat, Wanicha
Rapid changes in Thailand's nutrition and lifestyles have led to increasing diet-related pathologies among people with sedentary occupations. This study examines the extent to which the dietary intake of nutrients and energy by a sample of Thai sedentary workers conforms to the Thai Dietary Reference Intakes (Thai DRIs). The nutrients and energy intake estimates were based on self-reported information collected with a single 24-hour dietary recall and nonweighed 2-day food record. The study participants were Thai adults aged 20–50 years employed in sedentary occupations. A convenience sample of 215 healthy individuals (75 males and 140 females) was based on four randomly selected worksites in the Bangkok metropolitan area. For male participants, the study found a median energy intake of 1,485 kcal/day, with 54.4% of energy coming from carbohydrate, 15.9% from protein, and 29.6% from fat. Females' median energy intake was 1,428 kcal/day, 56% of which came from carbohydrate, 16.2% from protein, and 28.6% from fat. Both genders showed insufficient intake of fiber and most micronutrients. This study provides the material for preventive public health interventions focusing on nutrition-related diseases affecting Thailand's rapidly growing sedentary workforce. PMID:25525512
McCann, Susan E; Freudenheim, Jo L; Marshall, James R; Graham, Saxon
Intakes of specific nutrients and food groups have been shown previously to be related to ovarian cancer risk, but no studies, to our knowledge, have emphasized the effect of phytochemical intakes on this cancer. We conducted a case-control study of diet and ovarian cancer in western New York involving 124 primary, histologically confirmed ovarian cancer cases and 696 population-based controls, frequency matched to cases on age and county of residence. Diet was assessed with a detailed food-frequency questionnaire. Nutrient and phytochemical intakes were calculated from published food composition data. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI for risk of ovarian cancer with each nutrient, phytochemical and food group were estimated with unconditional logistic regression adjusting for age, education, total months menstruating, difficulty becoming pregnant, oral contraceptive use, menopausal status and energy intake. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, reduced risks were observed for women in the highest quintile of intake of dietary fiber (OR 0.43, 95% CI, 0.20-0.94), total carotenoids (OR 0.33, 95% CI, 0.16-0.68), stigmasterol (OR 0.42, 95% CI, 0.20-0.87), total lignans (OR 0.43, 95% CI, 0.21-0.85), vegetables (OR 0.47, 95% CI, 0.23-0.97) and poultry (OR 0.45, 95% CI, 0.22-0.92). These results support a protective effect on ovarian cancer of phytoestrogen intakes, and our results support the hypothesis that a plant-based diet may be important in reducing risks of hormone-related neoplasms.
Onyango, Agatha Christine; Walingo, Mary Khakoni; Othuon, Lucas
As the causes and consequences of the AIDS epidemic become clearer, so does the fundamental importance of food and nutritional security for HIV-affected individuals. Even as food insecurity remains a major problem in poor households, its effects are worsened in disease states like HIV infection. Food deficiency and nutritional inadequacy compromise an individual's physical status and work capacity, and may also diminish their resource base and household provisioning. The prevalence of HIV and AIDS in Kenya threatens food production systems, which intensifies poverty, increases the nutritional implications for HIV-infected individuals, accelerates the rate of orphanhood beyond what existing social networks can cope with, and basically affects all indicators of socio-economic development in the country. This cross-sectional study sought to assess food and nutrient intake in HIV-affected versus non-HIV-affected households. Purposive sampling was used to select 160 households (77 HIV-affected households and 83 non-HIV-affected households) in Kisumu district, a lowland area along Lake Victoria. A consolidated questionnaire that included a food-frequency checklist and personal 24-hour dietary recall was used to gather information from 40 households. The data were analysed quantitatively; descriptive statistics were mainly measures of central tendency, and inferential statistics involved chi-square tests and independent t-test samples. A table depicting food composition was used to compute the nutrient intake of each household. The findings reveal a significant relationship between a household's HIV/AIDS status and nutrient intake.
Bazzano, Lydia A; He, Jiang; Ogden, Lorraine G; Loria, Catherine M; Vupputuri, Suma; Myers, Leann; Whelton, Paul K
The objective of this study was to assess agreement on nutrient intake between the nutrient database of the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) and an up-to-date (December 1998) nutrient database, the ESHA Food Processor. Analysis was conducted among 11,303 NHANES I participants aged 25-74 years in 1971-1975 who had undergone dietary assessment. A list of all unique foods consumed was obtained from a single 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire administered during the baseline NHANES I visit. Foods on the list were matched to foods in the ESHA Food Processor software. Agreement between participants' nutrient intakes as calculated with the NHANES I and ESHA nutrient databases was assessed using intraclass correlation analysis, linear regression analysis, and graphic methods. Intraclass correlation analysis demonstrated excellent concordance between most nutrient intakes, with coefficients above 0.95 for intakes of energy, carbohydrates, protein, cholesterol, and calcium; coefficients between 0.90 and 0.95 for intakes of total fat, saturated fat, potassium, and vitamin C; and coefficients of approximately 0.85 for intakes of sodium and vitamin A. Graphic methods and regression analyses also showed good-to-excellent correspondence for most nutrients. These findings support the validity of expanding existing nutrient intake databases to explore current hypotheses, provided that food formulation, enrichment, and fortification practices have not changed substantially over time.
Kim, Hyesook; Jang, Won; Kim, Ki-Nam; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Chung, Hae-Kyung; Yang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Jin-Hee; Moon, Gui-Im; Lee, Jin-Ha; Kang, Tae-Seok; Chang, Namsoo
This study was performed to compare the dietary food and nutrient intakes according to supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul. The subjects were composed of 201 pregnant and 104 lactating women, and their dietary food intake was assessed using the 24-h recall method. General information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as health-related behaviors, including the use of dietary supplements, were collected. About 88% and 60% of the pregnant and lactating women took dietary supplements, respectively. The proportion of dietary supplements used was higher in pregnant women with a higher level of education. After adjusting for potential confounders, among the pregnant women, supplement users were found to consume 45% more vegetables, and those among the lactating women were found to consume 96% more beans and 58% more vegetables. The intakes of dietary fiber and β-carotene among supplement users were higher than those of non-users, by 23% and 39%, respectively. Among pregnant women, the proportion of women with an intake of vitamin C (from diet alone) below the estimated average requirements (EAR) was lower among supplement users [users (44%) vs. non-users (68%)], and the proportion of lactating women with intakes of iron (from diet alone) below the EAR was lower among supplement users [usesr (17%) vs. non-users (38%)]. These results suggest that among pregnant and lactating women, those who do not use dietary supplements tend to have a lower intake of healthy foods, such as beans and vegetables, as well as a lower intake of dietary fiber and β-carotene, which are abundant in these foods, and non-users are more likely than users to have inadequate intake of micro-nutrient such as vitamin C and iron.
Banqué, Marta; Raidó, Blanca; Masuet, Cristina; Ramon, Josep M
Although evidence supports that colorectal cancer (CRC) has an environmental etiology, the potential influence of diet appears to be one of the most important components. We studied the relation between food groups and nutrient intake and the risk of CRC. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Spain between 2007 and 2009. The authors matched 245 patients with incident histologically confirmed CRC by age, gender, and date of admission with 490 controls. Information about nutrient intake was gathered by using a semiquantitative frequency food questionnaire. Univariate analysis was done with individual food items. Odds ratios (ORs) for consecutive tertiles of nutrient intake were computed after allowance for sociodemographic variables and consumption of food groups. Vitamin B6 (OR: 0.26), vitamin D (OR: 0.45), vitamin E (OR: 0.42), polyunsaturated fatty acids (OR: 0.57), and fiber (OR: 0.40) were inversely associated with CRC, whereas carbohydrates (OR: 1.82) were significantly associated with CRC risk for the upper tertile. In multivariate analysis adjusting for major covariables (energy, age, and gender), vitamin D (OR:0.45), vitamin E (OR:0.36), and fiber (OR:0.46) remained associated with CRC. Data suggest that the etiology of colorectal cancer is not due to lifestyle and dietary patterns being important the effect of single nutrients.
Visvanathan, Renuka; Ahmad, Zaiton
A low body mass index in older people has been associated with increased mortality. The main objective of this study was to identify factors associated with low body mass indices [ BMIs] (< 18.5 kg/m2) in older residents of shelter care facilities in Peninsular Malaysia. 1081 elderly people (59% M) over the age of 60 years were surveyed using questionnaires determining baseline demographics, nutritional and cognitive status, physical function and psychological well being. Body mass index was also determined. Subjects were recruited from publicly funded shelter homes in Peninsular Malaysia. 14.3% of residents had BMIs < 18.5 kg/m2. Multivariate analyses (adjusted for age and sex) revealed that having no family (RR 1.98[95%CI 1.40-2.82], p<0.001) and negative responses to statement 3 [I eat few fruits or vegetables or milk products] (RR 0.62 [95% CI 0.42-0.90]; P= 0.013) and statement 5 [I have tooth or mouth problems that make it hard for me to eat] (RR 0.69 [95%CI 0.50-0.96]; P= 0.023) of the ' Determine Your Nutritional Health Checklist' were independently associated with low BMIs (<18.5 kg/m2). Older people with no family support were at risk of becoming underweight. Older people who consumed fruits, vegetables or milk or had good oral health were less likely to be underweight. Nutrient intake, oral health and social support were important in ensuring healthy body weight in older Malaysians.
Bresnahan, Kara A; Chileshe, Justin; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A
Vitamin A supplementation improves status, which may protect against malarial infection. Provitamin A carotenoid biofortified staple crops may provide a more sustainable approach to alleviate vitamin A deficiency than supplementation, but the impact of febrile illness on food intake must be considered in malaria endemic regions. Morbidity data and food logs from a three-month efficacy trial on provitamin A biofortified (orange) maize in preschool Zambian children (n = 181, age 3-5 years) were systematically analyzed over time to determine the impact of malaria on food intake. Nutrients examined included macronutrients, iron, zinc, and vitamin A. Comparisons based on individual intakes in healthy and malarial states over three-day intervals were made including children from both the orange and white maize groups (n = 100). Malaria prevalence did not differ overall or between treatment groups over time (all P > 0.05). Lower nutrient intakes were observed for all variables during malaria outbreaks (food 289 ± 412 g; energy 248 ± 346 kcal; carbohydrate 42 ± 62 g; protein 8 ± 12 g; fat 5 ± 7 g; iron 1 ± 2 mg; zinc 1 ± 1 mg; vitamin A 58 ± 100 retinol activity equivalents; all P < 0.05). No differences were observed between nutrient decreases in orange and white maize groups (P > 0.05). Considering the impact of malaria on food and nutrient intakes and increased vitamin A utilization and excretion due to the acute phase response, biofortification targets for provitamin A carotenoids may need to be elevated in malaria endemic regions.
Nicklas, Theresa A; O'Neil, Carol E; Zanovec, Michael; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L
This study examined the association between the nutrient contribution of beef, in its lowest and highest fat forms, and diet quality and food patterns in individuals 4+years of age. Beef consumers were categorized into three groups (lowest lean/highest fat [LLHF]; middle lean/middle fat content; and highest lean/lowest fat [HLLF]) based on the lean and fat content of beef consumed. Compared to non-beef consumers, HLLF consumers had higher intakes of vitamins B(6) and B(12), iron, zinc, and potassium. Non-beef consumers had higher intakes of thiamin, folate, calcium, and magnesium than HLLF beef consumers. The HLLF group had significantly higher intakes of vitamins A, C, B(6), and B(12); niacin; phosphorus; magnesium; iron; zinc; and potassium, protein and lower intakes of total energy; total fat; SFA; MUFA; total carbohydrates. There was no difference in diet quality between HLLF beef consumers and non-beef consumers. Moderate consumption of lean beef contributes to intakes of selected nutrients and diet quality was similar to non-beef consumers.
Abdulrazzaq, Y M; Nagelkerke, N; Abdulla, S; Belhaj, G
This descriptive study evaluated the nutrient adequacy of the diet of infants (aged 6-11.9 months) and toddlers (aged 12-24 months) in the United Arab Emirates. A random sample of 1000 infants and toddlers was recruited from 2 cities (Al Ain and Dubai) from March 2011 to February 2012 and their usual nutrient intake was determined using 24-hour recall. In all, 54.2% of infants and 25.2% of toddlers were breastfeeding. Mean energy intake of infant girls in Al Ain and Dubai was 747 (SD 189) kcal and 773 (SD 215) kcal respectively and 810.5 (SD 232.2) kcal and 821.9 (SD 262) kcal for boys. In toddlers, mean energy intake for girls in Al Ain and Dubai was 1032.8 (SD 252) kcal and 1013 (SD 339.1) kcal respectively and 1057.2 (SD 201.8) kcal and 1030.3 (SD 341.7) kcal for boys. Iron intake was low in both groups. Mean body mass index and body weight and height were similar to World Health Organization figures but significant numbers of infants and toddlers of both sexes were over- or underweight. Although mean energy and macronutrient intakes were comparable to the RDA, significant numbers were over- or underfed.
Cifelli, Christopher J.; Houchins, Jenny A.; Demmer, Elieke; Fulgoni, Victor L.
Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387) were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i) plant-based foods; (ii) protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy); and (iii) milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i) and (ii) had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2–18 years) and adults (≥19 years), the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that increasing plant
Cifelli, Christopher J; Houchins, Jenny A; Demmer, Elieke; Fulgoni, Victor L
Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387) were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i) plant-based foods; (ii) protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy); and (iii) milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i) and (ii) had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2-18 years) and adults (≥19 years), the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that increasing plant
Stamm, Rosemary A.; Houghton, Lisa A.
Folate is a B-vitamin with particular importance during reproduction due to its role in the synthesis and maintenance of DNA. Folate is well known for its role in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) during the periconceptional period. There is also an increased need for folate throughout pregnancy to support optimal growth and development of the fetus and blood volume expansion and tissue growth of the mother. During lactation, women are at risk of folate deficiency due to increased demands to accommodate milk folate levels. Nutrient Intake Values (NIVs) for folate have been calculated to take into account additional needs during pregnancy and lactation. However, these values vary widely between countries. For example, the folate requirement that is set to meet the needs of almost all healthy women during pregnancy varies from 300 µg/day in the United Kingdom to 750 µg/day in Mexico. Currently, there is no accepted standardized terminology or framework for establishing NIVs. This article reviews country-specific NIVs for folate during pregnancy and lactation and the basis for setting these reference values. PMID:24084052
Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Orjuela, Manuela A.; García-Guerra, Armando; Quezada-Sanchez, Amado David; Neufeld, Lynnette M.
Objective Case control studies evaluating the relationship between dietary intake of specific nutrients and risk of congenital, neonatal or early childhood disease require the ability to rank relative maternal dietary intake during pregnancy. Such studies are limited by the lack of validated instruments for assessing gestational dietary intake several years post-partum. This study aims to validate a semi-quantitative interview-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for retrospectively estimating nutrient intake at two critical time points during pregnancy. Methods The FFQ was administered to women (N=84), who 4 to 6 years earlier had participated in a prospective study to evaluate dietary intake during pregnancy. The FFQ queried participants about intake during the previous month (FFQ-month). This was then used as a reference point to estimate consumption by trimester (FFQ-pregnancy). The resulting data were compared to data collected during the original study from two 24-hour recalls (24hr-original) using Spearman correlation and Wilcoxon sign-rank-test. Results Total energy intake as estimated by the retrospective and original instruments did not differ and was only weakly correlated in the trimesters (1st & 3rd) as a whole (r = 0.18-32), though more strongly correlated when restricted to the first half of the 1st trimester (r=0.32) and later half of the 3rd trimester (r=0.87). After energy adjustment, correlation between the 24hR-original and FFQ-pregnancy in the 3rd trimester were r=0.25 (p<0.05) for dietary intake of vitamin A, and r=0.26 (p<0.05) for folate, and r= 0.23-0.77 (p<0.005) for folate, and vitamins A, B6 and B12 in the 1st and 3rd trimester after including vitamin supplement intake. Conclusions The FFQ-pregnancy provides a consistent estimate of maternal intake of key micronutrients during pregnancy and permits accurate ranking of intake 4-6 years post-partum. PMID:22116778
Redmer, D A; Milne, J S; Aitken, R P; Johnson, M L; Borowicz, P P; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S; Wallace, J M
When pregnant adolescent sheep are overnourished during pregnancy normal nutrient partitioning priorities to the gravid uterus are altered, leading to impaired placental development and fetal growth restriction. We hypothesized that decreasing dietary intake in overnourished dams during the final third of gestation may reverse this inappropriate nutrient partitioning in favor of the fetus. Adolescent ewes were offered control (C; n = 12) or high (H; n = 20) dietary intakes to induce normal vs. compromised placental development. Ten ewes receiving the H intake were switched to a low intake at d90 of gestation (HL). Between d90 to 130, HL dams lost weight and adiposity, and metabolic hormones and glucose at d130 were less than H and similar to C. In spite of these maternal changes, at d130 fetal bodyweight was equivalent in HL and H groups and ∼20% less than in C. A greater degree of brain sparing was evident in HL fetuses and glucose and insulin concentrations were more perturbed than in H fetuses. Relative to C, placentome weight was reduced by 46 and 32% in H and HL and the fetal:placentome weight ratio was H > HL > C. Placental vascular morphology was largely unaffected by maternal diet during late gestation but mRNA expression of five angiogenic genes was up-regulated in the fetal cotyledon of HL pregnancies, commensurate with blood vessel remodeling. Nevertheless, overfeeding to promote maternal anabolic growth during adolescent pregnancy impairs feto-placental development that cannot be rescued by reducing maternal intake during the final third of gestation.
Ashley, Judith M; Herzog, Holly; Clodfelter, Sharon; Bovee, Vicki; Schrage, Jon; Pritsos, Chris
incorporating fortified meal replacements tended to have a more adequate essential nutrient intake compared to the group following a more traditional food group diet. This study supports the need to incorporate fortified foods and/or dietary supplements while following an energy-restricted diet for weight loss. PMID:17592648
Fernández-Estívariz, Concepción; Luo, Menghua; Umeakunne, Kay; Bazargan, Niloofar; Galloway, John R.; Leader, Lorraine M.; Ziegler, Thomas R.
Background and Aims Little data are published on habitual home oral diet of short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients living in the United States. Methods We assessed habitual macro-and micronutrient intake from oral food and beverages in 19 stable patients with severe SBS who live in the Southeastern United States. Intestinal absorption of energy, fat, nitrogen (N) and carbohydrate (CHO) was determined in a metabolic ward setting. Results We studied 12 women and 7 men, age 48±3 years (mean±SE) receiving chronic PN for 31±8 months following massive small bowel resection (118±25 cm residual small bowel). Patients had intact (N=5), partial (N=9), or no residual colon (N=5). The subjects demonstrated severe malabsorption of energy (59±3% of oral intake), fat (41±5%), N (42±5%) and CHO (76±3%). Average oral energy intake was 2656±242 kcal/day (39±3 kcal/kg/day) and oral protein intake was 1.4 ±0.1 g/kg/d. Oral food/beverage intake constituted 49±4% of total (enteral + parenteral) daily fluid intake, 66±4% of total daily kcal and 58±5% of total daily N intake. Oral fat intake averaged 92±11g/day (≈ 35% of total oral energy). Oral fluid intake averaged 2712±240 ml/d, primarily from water, soft drinks, sweet tea and coffee. Simple sugars comprised 42±3% of oral CHO intake. Usual dietary intake of multiple micronutrients were below the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) in a large percentage of patients: vitamin A (47%), vitamin D (79%), vitamin E (79%), vitamin K (63%), thiamine (42%), vitamin B6 (68%), vitamin B12 (11%), vitamin C (58%), folate (37%), iron (37%), calcium (63%), magnesium (79%) and zinc (68%). Only 7 patients (37%) were taking oral multivitamin-mineral supplements and only 6 subjects (37%) were taking oral iron and calcium supplements, respectively. Conclusions In these SBS patients living in the Southeastern United States, oral diet provides a significant proportion of daily nutrient intake. However, the types of foods and fluids consumed
St-Jules, DE.; Woolf, K.; Pompeii, M.; Sevick, MA.
Objective To identify the problems experienced by hemodialysis (HD) patients in attempting to follow the HD diet, and their relation to energy and nutrient intakes. Design Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the BalanceWise Study. Setting Community-dwelling adults recruited from outpatient HD centers. Subjects After excluding participants with incomplete dietary analyses (n = 50), 140 community-dwelling African American and white (40/60%) men and women (52/48%) on chronic intermittent HD for at least three months (median three years) were included. Intervention Participant responses, on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from “not at all a problem” to “a very important problem for me”, to 34 questions pertaining to potential barriers to following the HD diet in the previous two months were classified as either a problem (1) or not a problem (2–5). Main Outcome Measure Energy and nutrient intakes determined using the Nutrition Data System for Research® based on three, non-consecutive, unscheduled, two-pass 24-hour dietary recalls collected on one dialysis and one non-dialysis weekday, and one non-dialysis weekend day. Results More than half of participants reported having problems related to specific behavioral factors (e.g., feeling deprived), technical difficulties (e.g., tracking nutrients) and physical condition (e.g., appetite), but issues of time and food preparation, and behavioral factors tended to be most deterministic of reported dietary intakes. Longer duration of HD was associated with lower intakes of protein, potassium, and phosphorus (p <0.05). Conclusion Registered dietitian nutritionists should consider issues of time and food preparation, and behavioral factors in their nutrition assessment of HD patients, and should continually monitor HD patients for changes in protein intake that may occur over time. PMID:26586249
Background The food group intake patterns of low income Hispanic and African American preschool children are not well documented. The aim of this study was to perform a food group intake analysis of low income minority preschool children and evaluate how macronutrient and micronutrient intake compares to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Methods A cross sectional study design using three-day food diaries analyzed by dietary analysis software (Nutrient Database System for Research) was used. Children were recruited from well-child clinics at Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta at Hughes Spalding and North Dekalb Grady Satellite Clinic, Atlanta, GA. Low-income, African American and Hispanic preschool age children (n = 291) were enrolled. A total of 105 completed and returned the 3-day food diaries. Chi-squared tests were used to assess demographic variables. The mean percentage of intake per day of specific food groups and sub-groups were obtained (servings of given food group/total daily servings). Food intake data and proportion of children meeting DRIs for macro- and micronutrients were stratified by race/ethnicity, nutritional status, and caloric intake, and were compared using t-tests. Regression models controlling for age, BMI and sex were obtained to assess the effect of total caloric intake upon the proportional intake of each studied food group. Results The mean age of African American children was 2.24 ± 1.07 years and Hispanic children 2.84 ± 1.12 years. African Americans consumed more kcal/kg/day than Hispanics (124.7 ± 51 vs. 96.9 ± 33, p < 0.05). Hispanics consumed more fruits (22.0 ± 10.7% vs. 14.7 ± 13.7%, p < 0.05), while African Americans consumed more grains (25.7 ± 7.8% vs. 18.1 ± 6.4%, p < 0.05), meats (20.7 ± 9.0% vs. 15.4 ± 6.1%, p < 0.05), fats (9.8 ± 5.4% vs. 7.0 ± 5.8%, p < 0.05), sweet drinks (58.7 ± 17.1% vs. 41.3 ± 14.8%, p < 0.05) and low
López-Aguirre, Daniel; Hernández-Meléndez, Javier; Rojo, Rolando; Sánchez-Dávila, Fernando; López-Villalobos, Nicolás; Salem, Abdel-Fattah Z M; Martínez-González, Juan Carlos; Vázquez-Armijo, José Fernando; Ruíz, Salomón
Pelibuey sheep is the main breed in the tropical and subtropical regions of Mexico, and high demand of sheep meat has favored the finishing of lambs in feedlots with diets containing high levels of grains. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of exogenous enzymes (EE) and application method on nutrient intake and digestibility and performance of growing Pelibuey lambs. Treatments were based on comparison of two different methods of adding an enzyme product (sprayed on the total mixed ration or applied orally to the lambs) versus control treatment (no added enzyme). Twenty-one Pelibuey lambs, weighing 15.7 kg (SD = 1.8 kg) initial body weight, were individually housed in shaded pens and assigned randomly to one of the three enzyme treatments. At the end of study (lasting for 45 days), three lambs from each treatment were randomly selected and adapted to a pants and harness designed for fecal collection to measure nutrient digestibilities. Total body gain and average daily gain were affected (P < 0.05) by supplemental EE. The application method of EE had significant (P < 0.05) effect on FCE and FCR, but no effects were observed on nutrient intake. Supplemental EE did improve (P < 0.05) the digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, neutral and acid detergent fiber, but no differences were observed in crude protein digestibility. The application method of EE had significant (P < 0.05) effect on the digestibility of acid detergent fiber. Supplemental EE can improve body weight gain and nutrient digestibilities without affecting nutrient intake in Pelibuey lambs, but the results of feed conversion efficiency and acid detergent fiber digestibility depend on the application method used of the EE.
Pentz, Mary Ann; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Chou, Chih Ping; Riggs, Nathaniel R
Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction specificity. Male gender, free/reduced lunch, low perceived safety and low inhibitory control independently predicted both gaming and HCLN intake. Ethnicity and low stress predicted HCLN. The findings raise questions about whether living in some impoverished neighborhoods may contribute to social isolation characterized by staying indoors, and HCLN intake and video gaming as compensatory behaviors. Future prevention programs could include skills training for inhibitory control, combined with changes in the built environment that increase safety, e.g., implementing Safe Routes to School Programs.
Kennedy, Gina; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Seghieri, Chiara; Arimond, Mary; Koreissi, Yara; Dossa, Romain; Kok, Frans J; Brouwer, Inge D
The prevalence of micronutrient deficiency is high among women of reproductive age living in urban Mali. Despite this, there are little data on the dietary intake of micronutrients among women of reproductive age in Mali. This research tested the relationship between the quantity of intake of 21 possible food groups and estimated usual micronutrient (folate, vitamin B-12, calcium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin A, iron, thiamin, vitamin B-6, vitamin C, and zinc) intakes and a composite measure of adequacy of 11 micronutrients [mean probability of adequacy (MPA)] based on the individual probability of adequacy (PA) for the 11 micronutrients. Food group and micronutrient intakes were calculated from 24-h recall data in an urban sample of Malian women. PA was lowest for folate, vitamin B-12, calcium, and riboflavin. The overall MPA for the composite measure of 11 micronutrients was 0.47 ± 0.18. Grams of intake from the nuts/seeds, milk/yogurt, vitamin A-rich dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV), and vitamin C-rich vegetables food groups were correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.20-0.36; P < 0.05) with MPA. Women in the highest consumption groups of nuts/seeds and DGLV had 5- and 6-fold greater odds of an MPA > 0.5, respectively. These findings can be used to further the development of indicators of dietary diversity and to improve micronutrient intakes of women of reproductive age.
Neville, C E; Robson, P J; Murray, L J; Strain, J J; Twisk, J; Gallagher, A M; McGuinness, M; Cran, G W; Ralston, S H; Boreham, C A G
Optimizing peak bone mass in early life may reduce osteoporosis risk in later life. Such optimization may be partly dependent upon diet. In the present study, nutrient intakes and selected lifestyle parameters were assessed in adolescent subjects (238 males, 205 females; aged 15 y) and again, in the same subjects, on one occasion in young adulthood (aged between 20 and 25 y). The extent of the relationships between these parameters and bone mineral density (BMD), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), lumbar spine (L2-L4), and femoral neck measured concurrently with diet in young adulthood only, was assessed. Adjusted linear regression models were constructed. Variables included a measure of pubertal status (at age 15 y), age (at young adulthood), height, weight, physical activity, smoking, and mean daily intakes of energy, calcium, protein, vitamin D, phosphorus, total fat, and alcohol. In both sexes, body weight at adolescence and young adulthood was the only factor consistently positively associated with BMD at both measurement sites. Effects of nutrient intake on BMD were inconsistent. Vitamin D and calcium intakes reported by female adolescents showed significant positive relationships with BMD measured in young adulthood (vitamin D measured at the lumbar spine; calcium measured at the femoral neck). The positive relationship between vitamin D and BMD remained significant at young adulthood, but at the femoral neck rather than at the lumbar spine. Also in females, intakes of phosphorus and the calcium:phosphorus ratio (Ca:P) at adolescence were strongly negatively related to femoral neck BMD measured at young adulthood. In males, however, Ca:P reported at young adulthood had a significant positive relationship with lumbar spine BMD, whereas Ca:protein was negatively associated with BMD at the lumbar spine. Intakes of Ca reported by adolescent males also had a strong negative effect on lumbar spine BMD measured at young adulthood.
Bruins, Maaike J.; Mugambi, Gladys; Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Hoekstra, Jeljer; Kraemer, Klaus; Osendarp, Saskia; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Gallagher, Alison M.; Verhagen, Hans
Fortification of foods consumed by the general population or specific food products or supplements designed to be consumed by vulnerable target groups is amongst the strategies in developing countries to address micronutrient deficiencies. Any strategy aimed at dietary change needs careful consideration, ensuring the needs of at-risk subgroups are met whilst ensuring safety within the general population. This paper reviews the key principles of two main assessment approaches that may assist developing countries in deciding on effective and safe micronutrient levels in foods or special products designed to address micronutrient deficiencies, that is, the cut-point method and the stepwise approach to risk–benefit assessment. In the first approach, the goal is to shift population intake distributions such that intake prevalences below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) are both minimized. However, for some micronutrients like vitamin A and zinc, a narrow margin between the EAR and UL exists. Increasing their intakes through mass fortification may pose a dilemma; not permitting the UL to be exceeded provides assurance about the safety within the population but can potentially leave a proportion of the target population with unmet needs, or vice versa. Risk–benefit approaches assist in decision making at different micronutrient intake scenarios by balancing the magnitude of potential health benefits of reducing inadequate intakes against health risks of excessive intakes. Risk–benefit approaches consider different aspects of health risk including severity and number of people affected. This approach reduces the uncertainty for policy makers as compared to classic cut-point methods. PMID:25630617
Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshiko
Although fish and meat may exert opposing influences on chronic disease, information on the balance of intake between fish and meat to overall diet quality is limited, particularly in Japanese, who have a much higher fish intake than Western populations. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that intake balance between fish and meat is associated with food and nutrient intakes in young Japanese women. The subjects were 3716 Japanese dietetic students aged 18 to 20 years. Diet was assessed by a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. The dietary ratio of fish to meat was calculated from fish and meat intakes as a temporal indicator of overall intake balance. The ratio of fish to meat intake was associated positively with intakes of vegetables, fruits, pulses, dairy products, and alcohol, and negatively with those of energy-containing beverages and fat and oils. At the nutrient level, the ratio of fish to meat intake was associated negatively with intakes of energy, total fat, saturated fatty acids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin B(1), and zinc, and positively with those of protein, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, and key vitamins and minerals. After limiting analysis to nutrients derived from foods other than fish and meat, the ratio of fish to meat intake was positively associated with intakes of almost all vitamins and minerals examined. In conclusion, women who consumed more fish than meat (ratio >1) tended to choose more favorable food groups that included higher amounts of vegetables and fruits, resulting in a better profile of nutrient intake patterns.
This report presents national estimates of usual nutrient intake distributions from food and water for vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium and compares those estimates to the Dietary Reference Intakes published by the Institute of Medicine in 1997. Estimates are based on data from 8,437 in...
Omi, N; Ezawa, I
Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important nutrients for bone metabolism, such as calcium. In general, P intake is usually adequate in our daily diet, and there is a risk of over-consumption from processed food. On the other hand, Ca intake is not always adequate from the Japanese daily diet. When Ca/P is taken from the daily diet at a level of 0.5 - 2.0, the P intake level dose not affect intestinal Ca absorption. Therefore, it is important not only to pay attention to preventing the over-consumption of P, but also to obtain a sufficient intake of Ca. For the prevention of osteoporosis, it is important to consume sufficient Ca and to maintain and appropriate Ca/P balance from diet.
Beydoun, May A; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Beydoun, Hind A; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tucker, Katherine L; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B
Among modifiable lifestyle factors, diet may affect cognitive health. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations may exist between dietary exposures [e.g., caffeine (mg/d), alcohol (g/d), and nutrient adequacy] and cognitive performance and change over time. This was a prospective cohort study, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n = 628-1305 persons depending on the cognitive outcome; ∼2 visits/person). Outcomes included 10 cognitive scores, spanning various domains of cognition. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and a nutrient adequacy score (NAS) were estimated from 7-d food diaries. Among key findings, caffeine intake was associated with better baseline global cognition among participants with a baseline age (Agebase) of ≥70 y. A higher NAS was associated with better baseline global cognition performance (overall, women, Agebase <70 y), better baseline verbal memory (immediate and delayed recall, Agebase ≥70 y), and slower rate of decline or faster improvement in the attention domain (women). For an Agebase of <70 y, alcohol consumption was associated with slower improvement on letter fluency and global cognition over time. Conversely, for an Agebase of ≥70 y and among women, alcohol intake was related to better baseline attention and working memory. In sum, patterns of diet and cognition associations indicate stratum-specific associations by sex and baseline age. The general observed trend was that of putative beneficial effects of caffeine intake and nutrient adequacy on domains of global cognition, verbal memory, and attention, and mixed effects of alcohol on domains of letter fluency, attention, and working memory. Further longitudinal studies conducted on larger samples of adults are needed to determine whether dietary factors individually or in combination are modifiers of cognitive trajectories among adults.
Frentsos, J A; Baer, J T
Dietary habits were evaluated in 6 elite triathletes (4 male, 2 female). Analysis of 7-day diet records showed mean daily energy and carbohydrate intake to be insufficient to support estimated requirements. Mean intakes of vitamins and most minerals exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) except zinc chromium, which did not meet 66% of recommended amounts. Individualized nutrition intervention using the Diabetic Food Exchange System to support performance during training and competition was provided. To improve dietary intake, subjects consumed fortified nutrition supplements (Reliv, Inc.) before and after daily training. Follow-up 7-day diet records showed that average energy intake and percentage of energy from carbohydrate increased, as did intakes of zinc and chromium. Triathletes' performance in a short course triathlon was improved compared to a similar competition completed prior to the nutrition intervention. Following the intervention, triathletes were able to meet recommended daily energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes and improve endurance performance.
Body weight changes from arrival at site (Day 0 PM) to the last afternoon (Day 8 PM) 95 31 Potassium intake (mg/day) 97...deployment 31 2 Percent change in body weight during deployment 33 3 Daily (Mean+SE) fluid intake of soldiers working in the heat for 8 days...means for fluid intake (Table 17). The percent change in body weight (Figure 21) normalizes body weight changes to the pre-deployment
Dickhoefer, U; Mahgoub, O; Schlecht, E
Intensive livestock grazing can largely deplete the natural fodder resources in semi-arid, subtropical highlands and together with the low nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation limit the growth and production of grazing animals. To evaluate the contribution of homestead feeding of grazing goats to rangeland conservation and animal nutrition, two researcher-managed on-farm trials were conducted in a mountain oasis of Northern Oman. Goats' feed intake on pasture in response to four rations containing different levels of locally available green fodder and concentrate feeds was determined in six male goats each (35 ± 10.2 kg body weight (BW)). Total feed intake was estimated using titanium dioxide as external fecal marker as well as the diet organic matter (OM) digestibility derived from fecal crude protein concentration. The nutritional quality of selected fodder plants on pasture was analyzed to determine the animals' nutrient and energy intake during grazing. The pasture vegetation accounted for 0.46 to 0.65 of the goats' total OM intake (87 to 107 g/kg0.75 BW), underlining the importance of this fodder resource for the husbandry system. However, metabolizable energy (7.2 MJ/kg OM) and phosphorus concentrations (1.4 g/kg OM) in the consumed pasture plants were low. Homestead feeding of nutrient and energy-rich by-products of the national fishery and date palm cultivation to grazing goats increased their daily OM intake (R2 = 0.36; P = 0.005) and covered their requirements for growth and production. While the OM intake on pasture was highest in animals fed a concentrate-based diet (P = 0.003), the daily intake of 21 g OM/kg0.75 BW of cultivated green fodder reduced the animals' feed intake on pasture (R2 = 0.44; P = 0.001). Adjusting homestead supplementation with locally available feedstuffs to the requirements of individual goats and to the nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation improves animal performance and eases the grazing pressure exerted on
Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang; Kim, Jeongseon
Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The average age of the instant noodle consumers (INC) was 36.2 and that of the non-instant noodle consumers (non-INC) was 44.9; men consumed more instant noodles than women (P < 0.001). With the exception of cereals and grain products, legumes, seaweeds, eggs, and milk and dairy products, INC consumed significantly fewer potatoes and starches, sugars, seeds and nuts, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, seasonings, beverages, meats, fishes, and oils and fats compared with those in the non-INC group. The INC group showed significantly higher nutrient intake of energy, fat, sodium, thiamine, and riboflavin; however, the INC group showed a significantly lower intake of protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, and vitamin C compared with those in the non-INC group. This study revealed that consuming instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of energy, fats, and sodium but may also cause increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutritional education helping adults to choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodles should be implemented. Additionally, instant noodle manufacturers should consider nutritional aspects when developing new products.
This study examined the impact of various levels of 100% fruit juice (FJ) consumption on intake of nutrients, diet quality, and weight in children using the more recent national data. We conducted a cross-sectional study examining the data from children 2-18 years of age (n=6,090). Intake of nutrien...
Walingo, Mary K.; Musamali, Betty
Objective: To compare nutrient intake and indicators of nutritional status of western Kenyan pupil participants and nonparticipants of a parent-supported school lunch program. Design: Pupils and their caregivers were interviewed to assess their 24-hour dietary intake and the socioeconomic status of the family. Pupils' weights and heights were…
Méjean, Caroline; Deglaire, Amélie; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge; Schlich, Pascal; Castetbon, Katia
Apart from the established association between liking for fat and fat intake, little is known about the association between liking for fat and intake of specific nutrients or food groups. We investigated the association between dietary intake and liking for fat, fat-and-sweet and fat-and-salt. Liking scores were constructed using a validated preference questionnaire administered to 41,595 French adults participating in the Nutrinet-Santé study. Dietary data were collected using web-based 24 h records. Relationships between liking and dietary intake were assessed using linear regression adjusted for age and energy intake. Results are expressed in percentage difference of intake between individuals with low liking and those with high liking. Compared with participants with low liking for fat, individuals with a strong liking for fat had higher intakes of total energy (+10.1% in women (W); +8.4% in men (M)), fats (W: +7.3%; M: +10.0%), saturated fats (W: +10.8%; M+15.4%), meat (W: +13.0%; M: +12.6%), butter (W: +34.0%; M: +48.1%), sweetened cream desserts (W: +14.8%; M: +21.1%) and croissant-like pastries (W: +27.2%; M: +36.9). They also consumed lower quantities of omega-3 fatty acids (W: -6.2%;M: -6.0%), fiber (W: -16.4%; M: -18.9%), fruits (W: -28.8%; M: -29.5%), vegetables (W: -16.4%; M: -19.7%) and yogurt (W: -12.1%; M: -14.8%). Participants with high liking for fat-and-salt had higher intakes of total energy, sodium and alcoholic beverages and lower consumption of total and simple carbohydrates and fruit and vegetables than persons with high liking for fat-and-sweet. Our study contributes to the understanding of liking as a determinant of dietary intake. It highlighted that increased liking for fat, especially fat-and-salt liking, was associated with a lower intake of healthy foods, such as fruit and vegetables.
Fiorentino, Marion; Landais, Edwige; Bastard, Guillaume; Carriquiry, Alicia; Wieringa, Frank T.; Berger, Jacques
Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal). The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Children attending urban state primary schools in the Dakar area were selected through a two-stage random cluster sampling (30 schools × 20 children). Dietary intake data were obtained from two 24 h recalls and blood samples were collected from 545 children (aged 5–17 years, 45% < 10 years, 53% girls) and adjusted for intra-individual variability to estimate nutrient usual intakes. Energy intake was insufficient and unbalanced with insufficient contribution of protein and excessive contribution of fat to global energy intake in one third of the children. Proportions of children with insufficient intake were: 100% for calcium, 100% for folic acid, 79% for vitamin A, 69% for zinc, 53% for vitamin C and 46% for iron. Insufficient iron and protein intake were risk factors for iron deficiency (odds ratio, OR 1.5, 2.2). Insufficient zinc intake and energy intake from protein were risk factors for zinc deficiency (OR 1.8, 3.0, 1.7, 2.9). Insufficient iron and vitamin C intake, and insufficient energy intake from protein were risk factors for marginal vitamin A status (OR 1.8, 1.8, 3.3). To address nutritional deficiencies associated with a diet deficient in energy, protein and micronutrients, nutrition education or school feeding programs are needed in urban primary schools of Senegal. PMID:27775598
Fiorentino, Marion; Landais, Edwige; Bastard, Guillaume; Carriquiry, Alicia; Wieringa, Frank T; Berger, Jacques
Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal). The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Children attending urban state primary schools in the Dakar area were selected through a two-stage random cluster sampling (30 schools × 20 children). Dietary intake data were obtained from two 24 h recalls and blood samples were collected from 545 children (aged 5-17 years, 45% < 10 years, 53% girls) and adjusted for intra-individual variability to estimate nutrient usual intakes. Energy intake was insufficient and unbalanced with insufficient contribution of protein and excessive contribution of fat to global energy intake in one third of the children. Proportions of children with insufficient intake were: 100% for calcium, 100% for folic acid, 79% for vitamin A, 69% for zinc, 53% for vitamin C and 46% for iron. Insufficient iron and protein intake were risk factors for iron deficiency (odds ratio, OR 1.5, 2.2). Insufficient zinc intake and energy intake from protein were risk factors for zinc deficiency (OR 1.8, 3.0, 1.7, 2.9). Insufficient iron and vitamin C intake, and insufficient energy intake from protein were risk factors for marginal vitamin A status (OR 1.8, 1.8, 3.3). To address nutritional deficiencies associated with a diet deficient in energy, protein and micronutrients, nutrition education or school feeding programs are needed in urban primary schools of Senegal.
Huang, Chun-Jen; Fan, Yen-Chun; Liu, Jen-Fang; Tsai, Pei-Shan
The present study examines the prevalence and characteristics of vegetarians in the Taiwanese elderly. We analysed data from the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000), which used a multi-staged, stratified, clustered probability sampling design. Community-dwelling elderly (n 1071), aged 65 years and older, were included. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and metabolic variables, and eating habits were obtained through household interviews and health examinations. Nutrient intake was assessed using a 24 h dietary recall. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to examine factors significantly and independently associated with vegetarian status and to estimate the OR of the hypertension and the metabolic syndrome (MS) for vegetarians compared with omnivores. About 25 % of the Taiwanese elderly persons were vegetarians. Systolic pressure (OR 1·01, 95 % CI 1, 1·02, P = 0·038), female sex (OR 5·02, 95 % CI 3·11, 8·1, P < 0·001), smoking status (P = 0·034; current smoker (OR 0·45, 95 % CI 0·24, 0·85, P = 0·014)) and regular exercise (OR 1·87, 95 % CI 1·37, 2·56, P < 0·001) were independently associated with vegetarian status among Taiwanese elderly persons. Vegetarians consumed significantly lower daily total energy (P < 0·001), lower cholesterol (P = 0·002), a higher percentage of fat as PUFA (P = 0·022), higher Ca (P < 0·001) and higher crude fibres (P = 0·041) compared with omnivores. Between the two vegetarian diets, ovo- or lacto-vegetarian diets contained more beneficial micronutrients, such as K, Ca and Mg, and higher crude fibres than vegan diets (all P < 0·05). The likelihood of having hypertension and the MS was not significantly different between vegetarians and omnivores as examined by sex- or multivariate-adjusted logistic regression.
Gamero, H; Arita, M; Bulux, J; Solomons, N W
We present here the results of a nutritional survey to show the pattern of food consumption, as well as nutrient intake, of 303 pre-school children (six to 71 months old) from three rural hamlets of the South-East region of Guatemala. This survey was performed prior to the establishment of a nutritional intervention in the same geographical area. Information was gathered from June through August 1991, by personnel from the Center for Studies of Sensory Impairment, Aging, and Metabolism (CeSSIAM) using two data collection instruments during home visits. Informats were mothers or other caretakers in charge of the children feeding. Data collected were initially converted to individual food item weight, and then, to micronutrients values. These values were used to establish their adequacy to standard requirements for children of these ages. Results showed a pattern in which corn tortilla, and beans were the most commonly consumed food items. Those items were also the relatively most important sources of calories, protein, and iron. Vitamin A intake was low, and it came mainly from plant sources. Nutrients intake was below the recommended dietary allowances, except for protein and iron.
Adequately Diversified Dietary Intake and Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy Is Associated with Reduced Occurrence of Symptoms Suggestive of Pre-Eclampsia or Eclampsia in Indian Women
Agrawal, Sutapa; Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Stuckler, David
Background/Objective Pre-eclampsia or Eclampsia (PE or E) accounts for 25% of cases of maternal mortality worldwide. There is some evidence of a link to dietary factors, but few studies have explored this association in developing countries, where the majority of the burden falls. We examined the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E in Indian women. Methods Cross-sectional data from India’s third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-06) was used for this study. Self-reported symptoms suggestive of PE or E during pregnancy were obtained from 39,657 women aged 15-49 years who had had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E after adjusting for maternal, health and lifestyle factors, and socio-demographic characteristics of the mother. Results In their most recent pregnancy, 1.2% (n=456) of the study sample experienced symptoms suggestive of PE or E. Mothers who consumed an adequately diversified diet were 34% less likely (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.51-0.87) to report PE or E symptoms than mothers with inadequately diversified dietary intake. The likelihood of reporting PE or E symptoms was also 36% lower (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88) among those mothers who consumed iron and folic acid supplementation for at least 90 days during their last pregnancy. As a sensitivity analysis, we stratified our models sequentially by education, wealth, antenatal care visits, birth interval, and parity. Our results remained largely unchanged: both adequately diversified dietary intake and iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were associated with a reduced occurrence of PE or E symptoms. Conclusion Having a adequately diversified dietary
Glanz, Karen; And Others
Data on dietary intake and stages of change from 17,121 employees in the Working Well Trail show that a greater proportion have tried to reduce fat rather than increase fiber consumption. Stage of change predicted 8-13% of variance in dietary intake. (SK)
Gibney, M J; Moloney, M; Shelley, E
1. Sixty healthy subjects aged 35-44 years (thirty men and thirty women) were randomly selected from electoral registers to participate in a dietary survey using the 7 d weighed-intake method during June-August 1985. 2. Energy intake (MJ/d) was 12.5 for men and 8.4 for women. Fat contributed 36.0 and 39.1% of the total energy intake of men and women respectively. When this was adjusted to exclude energy derived from alcoholic beverages, the corresponding values were 38.8 and 39.7% respectively. The major sources of dietary fat (%) were spreadable fats (28), meat (23), milk (12) and biscuits and cakes (11). 3. The subjects were divided into low- and high-fat groups both on the relative intake of fat (less than 35% or greater than 40% dietary energy from fat) and on the absolute intake of fat (greater than or less than 120 g fat/d). By either criterion, high-fat consumers had lower than average intakes of low-fat, high-carbohydrate foods such as potatoes, bread, fruit and table sugar, and higher intakes of milk, butter and confectionery products. Meat intake was higher among high-fat eaters only when a high-fat diet was defined as a percentage of energy.
Dietary Protein Intake in Young Children in Selected Low-Income Countries Is Generally Adequate in Relation to Estimated Requirements for Healthy Children, Except When Complementary Food Intake Is Low.
Arsenault, Joanne E; Brown, Kenneth H
Background: Previous research indicates that young children in low-income countries (LICs) generally consume greater amounts of protein than published estimates of protein requirements, but this research did not account for protein quality based on the mix of amino acids and the digestibility of ingested protein.Objective: Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake by young children in LICs, accounting for protein quality.Methods: Seven data sets with information on dietary intake for children (6-35 mo of age) from 6 LICs (Peru, Guatemala, Ecuador, Bangladesh, Uganda, and Zambia) were reanalyzed to estimate protein and amino acid intake and assess adequacy. The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score of each child's diet was calculated and multiplied by the original (crude) protein intake to obtain an estimate of available protein intake. Distributions of usual intake were obtained to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake for each cohort according to Estimated Average Requirements.Results: The prevalence of inadequate protein intake was highest in breastfeeding children aged 6-8 mo: 24% of Bangladeshi and 16% of Peruvian children. With the exception of Bangladesh, the prevalence of inadequate available protein intake decreased by age 9-12 mo and was very low in all sites (0-2%) after 12 mo of age. Inadequate protein intake in children <12 mo of age was due primarily to low energy intake from complementary foods, not inadequate protein density.Conclusions: Overall, most children consumed protein amounts greater than requirements, except for the younger breastfeeding children, who were consuming low amounts of complementary foods. These findings reinforce previous evidence that dietary protein is not generally limiting for children in LICs compared with estimated requirements for healthy children, even after accounting for protein quality. However, unmeasured effects of infection and
Kolahdooz, Fariba; Butler, Jennie L.; Christiansen, Karina; Diette, Gregory B.; Breysse, Patrick N.; Hansel, Nadia N.; McCormack, Meredith C.; Sheehy, Tony; Gittelsohn, Joel; Sharma, Sangita
Objective To describe food and nutrient intake for low-income, urban African American children and adolescents to highlight the need for further nutrition intervention programs and appropriate tools to address overweight and obesity. Methods This was a cross sectional study using interviewer-administered single 24-hour dietary recalls. Participants were low income African American boys and girls aged 5–16 years or their caregivers in Baltimore City. Frequency of food consumption and dietary intakes were analysed by gender and age groups. Results Eighty-one participants were included for analysis. Mean daily energy intakes exceeded Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) from 10 to 71% across all gender-age groups: 2,304 kcal for children aged 5–8 years; 2,429 kcal and 2,732 kcal for boys and girls aged 9–13 years, respectively; and 3,339 kcal and 2,846 kcal for boys and girls aged 14–16 years, respectively. The most frequently reported consumed foods were sweetened drinks, chips, candies, and milk across all age groups. The majority of participants (79–100%) did not meet the DRIs for dietary fiber and vitamin E across all gender-age groups. Milk accounted for 14%, 17%, and 21% of energy, fat, and protein intake, respectively, among children 5–8 years of age, while pizza was the top source of energy, fat, and protein (11%, 13%, and 18%, respectively) among 14–16 year old adolescents. Sweetened drinks and sweetened juices were major sources of sugar, contributing 33% for 5–8 year olds, 29% for 9–13 year olds and 35% for 14–16 year olds. Conclusions Mean daily energy intake exceeded dietary recommendations across all gender-age groups. This study has provided previously unavailable information on diet and highlights foods to be targeted in nutrition intervention programs. PMID:25856051
Lay, Whitney A; Vickery, Courtney R; Ward-Ritacco, Christie L; Johnson, Kristen B; Berg, Alison C; Evans, Ellen M; Johnson, Mary Ann
This study's objective is to assess differences in dietary intakes in breast cancer survivors (n = 13) and women without a history of breast cancer (controls, n = 71). In a cross-sectional design, intake of foods, food groups, nutrients, and non-nutritive sweeteners was assessed using participant-completed three-day food records. All women were postmenopausal (mean age (SD) 58.5 (±3.8) y, 95% White, 2.4% Asian Pacific, and 2.4% Black). The two groups did not differ in age, energy intake, or body mass index (p > 0.05). Compared to controls, survivors consumed less dairy products, animal protein, total protein, and calcium, but more legumes, noncitrus fruit, and carbohydrates (p ≤ 0.05). Calcium intakes were of particular concern in survivors who consumed an average of 686 mg calcium/d, which is <60% of the recommended 1200 mg/d. Given the important role of calcium in bone health and protein in muscle function among aging women, breast cancer survivors may benefit from consultation with a Registered Dietitian or other health professional knowledgeable in nutritional recommendations for postmenopausal breast cancer survivors.
Vercambre, Marie-Noël; Fournier, Agnès; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Ringa, Virginie; Berr, Claudine
Observational studies and randomized controlled trials have produced divergent results concerning the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on cardiovascular disease and, to a lesser extent, dementia. Residual confounding (confounding that remains even after adjustment for various socioeconomic and lifestyle factors) is one explanation that has been offered for these divergent results. The authors used data collected between 1990 and 1995 from 6,697 French women aged 61-72 years participating in a prospective cohort study to explore the hypothesis that nutritional intake varies according to HRT use and thus may be a source of residual confounding. After the authors adjusted for health and lifestyle factors, HRT users, compared with never users, had significantly higher intakes of alcohol; omega3 fatty acids; vitamins B6, B12, and D; and phosphorus and a lower intake of starch. These differential nutrient intakes were related to differences in eating habits. In particular, HRT users in the studied sample, compared with nonusers, ate significantly more fish. Most of the dietary differences were seen in both early users and delayers of HRT. To limit residual confounding in observational studies, dietary factors may be important parameters to be taken into account in analyses of HRT use and health outcomes.
Beiglböck, Christoph; Burmester, Marion; Guschlbauer, Maria; Lengauer, Astrid; Schröder, Bernd; Wilkens, Mirja; Breves, Gerhard
Northern ungulates acclimatize to winter conditions with restricted food supply and unfavorable weather conditions by reducing energy expenditure and voluntary food intake. We investigated in a study on red deer whether rates of peptide and glucose transport in the small intestines are also reduced during winter as part of the thrifty phenotype of winter-acclimatized animals, or whether transport rates are increased during winter in order to exploit poor forage more efficiently. Our results support the latter hypothesis. We found in a feeding experiment that total energy intake was considerably lower during winter despite ad libitum feeding. Together with reduced food intake, mass of visceral organs was significantly lower and body fat reserves were used as metabolic fuel in addition to food. However, efficacy of nutrient absorption seemed to be increased simultaneously. Extraction of crude protein from forage was higher in winter animals, at any level of crude protein intake, as indicated by the lower concentration of crude protein in feces. In line with these in vivo results, Ussing chamber experiments revealed greater electrogenic responses to both peptides and glucose in the small intestines of winter-acclimatized animals, and peptide uptake into jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles was increased. We conclude that reduced appetite of red deer during winter avoids energy expenditure for unproductive search of scarcely available food and further renders the energetically costly maintenance of a large gut and visceral organs unnecessary. Nevertheless, extraction of nutrients from forage is more efficient in the winter to attenuate an inevitably negative energy balance. PMID:26017492
Lehloenya, K V; Krehbiel, C R; Mertz, K J; Rehberger, T G; Spicer, L J
The effects of feeding Propionibacterium strain P169 (P169), yeast culture (XPY), and their combination on nutrient intake, site and extent of digestion, and ruminal kinetics were evaluated in a completely randomized experimental design. Ruminally and duodenally cannulated Angus x Hereford steers (n = 12) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in each of 2 periods: 1) control, fed a sorghum silage-based total mixed ration; 2) P169, fed the control plus P169 (6 x 10(11) cfu/steer per d); 3) XPY, fed the control plus XPY (56 g/steer per d); and 4) P169 + XPY, fed the control plus P169 and XPY (at 6 x 10(11) cfu/steer per d and 56 g/steer per d, respectively). Each period lasted 21 d; d 1 to 15 were used for diet adaptation and d 16 to 21 were used for fecal, duodenal, ruminal, and blood sample collection. Steers were individually housed and fed. Feeding XPY tended to decrease intake of organic matter, acid detergent fiber, and N, and decreased intake of neutral detergent fiber. However, feeding XPY alone tended to increase total tract digestibility of organic matter, N, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber. Ruminal digestibility, duodenal flow, microbial N synthesis, microbial efficiency, and fluid and particulate passage rates were not affected by dietary treatments. Feeding P169 tended to decrease molar proportion of acetate, increased molar proportion of propionate (by 9.7%), and tended to decrease acetate:propionate ratio compared with control steers. No other effects of XPY or P169 on ruminal fermentation were observed. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were not affected by dietary treatment. Our results suggest that feeding P169 alters ruminal metabolism toward increased propionate without affecting feed intake or ruminal kinetics, whereas feeding XPY alone tended to increase total tract digestibilities of nutrients.
Bae, Hyun Sook; Kim, Sun Young; Ahnv, Hong Seok; Cho, Yeon Kyung
The aim of this study was to analyse effects that the degree of depression have on the life style variables, nutrient intake, iron indices and pregnancy outcome. Subjects were 114 pregnant women who were receiving prenatal care at a hospital in Seoul. We collected data for general characteristics and lifestyle variables from general survey instrument and for depression score from the questionnaire on depression. Dietary intakes of subjects were estimated by 24 hour dietary recall method. Also we analysed iron indices and pregnancy outcomes. We classified subjects by 10 point, which was the average depression score, into two groups [Low depression score group (LS) : High depression score group (HS)]. As to the intakes of total calcium, plant-calcium, plant-iron, potassium, total folate and dietary folate, LS group was far higher than HS group (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001, P < 0.05, and P < 0.01, respectively). As to pre-pregnancy alcohol drinking, LS group had 41.9% in non-drinker, which was far higher than 28% in HS group in non-drinker (P < 0.05). As for drinking coffee during pre-pregnancy, pregnant women who don't drink coffee in LS group took 43.6%, which was higher than 38% in HS group (P < 0.01). Regarding delivery type, the cesarean section in LS group (18%) was significantly lower than that in HS group (45%) (P < 0.01). Bivariate analysis showed that birth weight was significantly associated with the gestational age (P < 0.01). The pregnant women with higher depression score tended to have undesirable life habit, which might affect negative pregnancy outcomes. A better understanding of how depression and intake of nutrients work together to modulate behavior will be benefit nutritional research.
Eating ready-to-eat cereal for breakfast is positively associated with daily nutrient intake, but not weight, in Mexican-American children and adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002
Ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) has been associated with improved nutrient intake and weight status, but intake has not been studied in Mexican-American (MA) children. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutrient intake, mean adequacy ratio (MAR), and weight were associated with classificat...
Irwin, Mitchell T; Raharison, Jean-Luc; Raubenheimer, David R; Chapman, Colin A; Rothman, Jessica M
Animals experience spatial and temporal variation in food and nutrient supply, which may cause deviations from optimal nutrient intakes in both absolute amounts (meeting nutrient requirements) and proportions (nutrient balancing). Recent research has used the geometric framework for nutrition to obtain an improved understanding of how animals respond to these nutritional constraints, among them free-ranging primates including spider monkeys and gorillas. We used this framework to examine macronutrient intakes and nutrient balancing in sifakas (Propithecus diadema) at Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar, in order to quantify how these vary across seasons and across habitats with varying degrees of anthropogenic disturbance. Groups in intact habitat experience lean season decreases in frugivory, amounts of food ingested, and nutrient intakes, yet preserve remarkably constant proportions of dietary macronutrients, with the proportional contribution of protein to the diet being highly consistent. Sifakas in disturbed habitat resemble intact forest groups in the relative contribution of dietary macronutrients, but experience less seasonality: all groups' diets converge in the lean season, but disturbed forest groups largely fail to experience abundant season improvements in food intake or nutritional outcomes. These results suggest that: (1) lemurs experience seasonality by maintaining nutrient balance at the expense of calories ingested, which contrasts with earlier studies of spider monkeys and gorillas, (2) abundant season foods should be the target of habitat management, even though mortality might be concentrated in the lean season, and (3) primates' within-group competitive landscapes, which contribute to variation in social organization, may vary in complex ways across habitats and seasons.
Irwin, Mitchell T.; Raharison, Jean-Luc; Raubenheimer, David R.; Chapman, Colin A.; Rothman, Jessica M.
Animals experience spatial and temporal variation in food and nutrient supply, which may cause deviations from optimal nutrient intakes in both absolute amounts (meeting nutrient requirements) and proportions (nutrient balancing). Recent research has used the geometric framework for nutrition to obtain an improved understanding of how animals respond to these nutritional constraints, among them free-ranging primates including spider monkeys and gorillas. We used this framework to examine macronutrient intakes and nutrient balancing in sifakas (Propithecus diadema) at Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar, in order to quantify how these vary across seasons and across habitats with varying degrees of anthropogenic disturbance. Groups in intact habitat experience lean season decreases in frugivory, amounts of food ingested, and nutrient intakes, yet preserve remarkably constant proportions of dietary macronutrients, with the proportional contribution of protein to the diet being highly consistent. Sifakas in disturbed habitat resemble intact forest groups in the relative contribution of dietary macronutrients, but experience less seasonality: all groups’ diets converge in the lean season, but disturbed forest groups largely fail to experience abundant season improvements in food intake or nutritional outcomes. These results suggest that: (1) lemurs experience seasonality by maintaining nutrient balance at the expense of calories ingested, which contrasts with earlier studies of spider monkeys and gorillas, (2) abundant season foods should be the target of habitat management, even though mortality might be concentrated in the lean season, and (3) primates’ within-group competitive landscapes, which contribute to variation in social organization, may vary in complex ways across habitats and seasons. PMID:26061401
Schmaelzle, Samantha; Kaliwile, Chisela; Arscott, Sara A.; Gannon, Bryan; Masi, Cassim; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.
Background Many programs aim to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Biofortification is an approach to improve provitamin A carotenoid concentrations of staple crops in some developing countries. In rural Zambia, maize accounts for the majority of energy intake. Provitamin A–biofortified (orange) maize has been released in Zambia. Objective This study quantified food intake of Zambian children from records collected in a feeding trial in 2012 in order to compare adoption of orange maize and a new vegetable (green beans) with white maize and traditional foods. Methods One hundred thirty-six children with a mean age of 71.5 ± 6.9 months were fed three meals a day for 6 days a week for 15 weeks at four feeding centers. Breakfast consisted of maize porridge, and lunch and dinner were stiff porridge (nshima) with various side dishes (relishes). There were three treatment groups, which received orange maize and placebo oil, white maize and placebo oil, or white maize and a daily vitamin A supplement. Food was weighed before and after consumption. Nutritionists were trained to interview the children’s caregivers about the previous day’s intake using dietary recalls. Nine dietary recalls for each child were recorded and analyzed. Results Total food intake did not differ among the groups (p = .31) and energy intakes on Sundays (<880 kcal) were below recommendations. Nshima intake was lower in the orange-maize group (p = .008), largely due to a genotype effect. Intakes of relish, green bean, and porridge did not differ among the groups (p > .19). Dietary recalls revealed that children living in sites closer to the main road consumed more on Sundays than children living about 8 km from the main road, but less in the evenings when children were off site. Conclusions The intakes of energy of these Zambian children suggest inadequacy. Implementation and adoption of new and biofortified foods is possible with promotion. PMID:24791580
Binnington, Matthew J; Curren, Meredith S; Chan, Hing Man; Wania, Frank
For indigenous Arctic Canadians, traditional food consumption represents a key source of nutrients and environmental contaminants. Particularly, ingestion of marine mammal blubber and meat may lead to persistent organic pollutant levels and mercury intakes that exceed regulatory thresholds for sensitive populations. We investigated whether temporary adjustments to the consumption of traditional food derived from marine mammals appreciably impacted contaminant exposure and nutrient intakes among indigenous women of childbearing age. Such adjustments can be motivated by the desire to lower contaminant exposure or to increase nutrition, or by the diminishing availability of other traditional food sources. We combined the contaminant fate and transport model GloboPOP with the food chain bioaccumulation model ACC-Human Arctic to simulate polychlorinated biphenyl exposures in female 2007-08 Inuit Health Survey participants. We also calculated daily mercury and nutrient intake rates. Our results suggest that a temporary decrease in marine mammal consumption is largely ineffective at reducing exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, because of their long elimination half-lives. In contrast, substitution of marine mammals was highly efficient at reducing mercury intake, but also appreciably lowered intakes of iron, manganese, selenium, and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The impact of increasing intake of traditional food derived from marine mammals during childbearing age greatly depended on baseline consumption rates; replacement is ill-advised for those who already consume a lot of traditional food due to greater polychlorinated biphenyl and mercury exposures, while replacement was potentially beneficial for those with very limited marine mammal consumption due to increased nutrient intakes. Our calculations primarily suggest that considering baseline traditional food intake rates is critical to devising reproductive dietary adjustment strategies that maximize nutrient
Shin, Eung-Jin; Yeom, Jeong-Won; Park, Yoon-Hyung
The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference of nutritional status according to metabolic syndrome in colorectal cancer patients. The subjects were divided into 2 groups (metabolic syndrome group and normal group) according to the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome in 143 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer, and their lifestyle and nutritional status were analyzed. Recall method was used for the dietary survey, and metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of 3 or more of waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and blood pressure. This study showed that the metabolic syndrome group had a low age, a high body mass index (BMI), and a high drinking rate. The intake of energy, protein, fat, calcium, and phosphorus was significantly higher in the metabolic syndrome group than in the normal group, and the intake of β-carotene, vitamin C, and folic acid was significantly low. The intake of cholesterol, fatty acid, saturated fatty acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acid was also higher in the metabolic syndrome group. Higher BMI, alcohol consumption, intake of fat, total fatty acid or saturated fatty acid increased the risk of metabolic syndrome, but fiber, vitamin C, or folic acid intake lowered the risk.Weight management and balanced nutritional intake should be emphasized to prevent metabolic syndrome and to improve the condition in patients with colorectal cancer. PMID:28168180
Lim, Hee-Sook; Shin, Eung-Jin; Yeom, Jeong-Won; Park, Yoon-Hyung; Kim, Soon-Kyung
The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference of nutritional status according to metabolic syndrome in colorectal cancer patients. The subjects were divided into 2 groups (metabolic syndrome group and normal group) according to the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome in 143 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer, and their lifestyle and nutritional status were analyzed. Recall method was used for the dietary survey, and metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of 3 or more of waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and blood pressure. This study showed that the metabolic syndrome group had a low age, a high body mass index (BMI), and a high drinking rate. The intake of energy, protein, fat, calcium, and phosphorus was significantly higher in the metabolic syndrome group than in the normal group, and the intake of β-carotene, vitamin C, and folic acid was significantly low. The intake of cholesterol, fatty acid, saturated fatty acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acid was also higher in the metabolic syndrome group. Higher BMI, alcohol consumption, intake of fat, total fatty acid or saturated fatty acid increased the risk of metabolic syndrome, but fiber, vitamin C, or folic acid intake lowered the risk.Weight management and balanced nutritional intake should be emphasized to prevent metabolic syndrome and to improve the condition in patients with colorectal cancer.
Pearce, Sarah C.; Lonergan, Steven M.; Huff-Lonergan, Elisabeth; Baumgard, Lance H.; Gabler, Nicholas K.
Heat stress and reduced feed intake negatively affect intestinal integrity and barrier function. Our objective was to compare ileum protein profiles of pigs subjected to 12 hours of HS, thermal neutral ad libitum feed intake, or pair-fed to heat stress feed intake under thermal neutral conditions (pair-fed thermal neutral). 2D-Differential In Gel Electrophoresis and gene expression were performed. Relative abundance of 281 and 138 spots differed due to heat stress, compared to thermal neutral and pair-fed thermal neutral pigs, respectively. However, only 20 proteins were different due to feed intake (thermal neutral versus pair-fed thermal neutral). Heat stress increased mRNA expression of heat shock proteins and protein abundance of heat shock proteins 27, 70, 90-α and β were also increased. Heat stress reduced ileum abundance of several metabolic enzymes, many of which are involved in the glycolytic or TCA pathways, indicating a change in metabolic priorities. Stress response enzymes peroxiredoxin-1 and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A were decreased in pair-fed thermal neutral and thermal neutral pigs compared to heat stress. Heat stress increased mRNA abundance markers of ileum hypoxia. Altogether, these data show that heat stress directly alters intestinal protein and mRNA profiles largely independent of reduced feed intake. These changes may be related to the reduced intestinal integrity associated with heat stress. PMID:26575181
Thakwalakwa, Chrissie M; Ashorn, Per; Phuka, John C; Cheung, Yin Bun; Briend, André; Maleta, Kenneth M
Nutrition interventions have an effect on growth, energy and nutrient intake, and development, but there are mixed reports on the effect of supplementation of energy-dense foods on dietary intake. This substudy aimed at assessing the effect of supplementation with corn-soy blend (CSB) or lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) on energy and nutrient intake in moderately underweight children participating in a clinical trial. A total of 188 children aged 8-18 months participated and received daily either 284 kcal from CSB or 220 kcal from LNS and no supplements (control). An interactive 24-h recall method was used to estimate energy and nutrient intakes in the groups. Total mean energy intake was 548 kcal, 551 kcal and 692 kcal in the control, CSB and LNS groups, respectively (P = 0.011). The mean (95% confidence interval) intake of energy and protein were 144 (37-250; P < 0.001) and 46 (1.5-7.6; P < 0.001) larger, respectively, in the LNS group than among the controls. No significant differences were observed between the control and CSB groups. Energy intake from non-supplement foods was significantly lower in the CSB group compared with the control group, but not in the LNS group, suggesting a lower displacement of non-supplement foods with LNS. Both CSB and LNS supplementation resulted in higher intakes of calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin C compared with controls (all P ≤ 0.001). This study indicates that LNS might be superior to CSB to supplement underweight children as it results in higher energy intake, but this requires confirmation in other settings.
Sun, H Q; Zhou, Y F; Tan, C Q; Zheng, L F; Peng, J; Jiang, S W
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of konjac flour (KF) inclusion in gestation diets of sows on nutrients digestibility, lactation feed intake, reproductive performance of sows and preweaning performance of piglets. Two isoenergetic and isonitrogenous gestation diets were formulated: a control diet and a 2.1% KF-supplemented diet (KF diet). Both diets had the same NDF and insoluble fiber (ISF) levels, but the KF diet had higher soluble fiber (SF) level. The day after breeding, 96 multiparous sows were assigned to the two dietary treatments. Restrict-fed during gestation, in contrast, all sows were offered the same lactation diet ad libitum. Response criteria included sow BW, backfat depth, lactation feed intake, weaning-to-estrus interval, litter size and piglet's weight at parturition and day 21 of lactation. On day 60 of gestation, 20 sows were used to measure nutrient digestibility. Results showed that the digestibility of dry matter, gross energy, crude fiber and ADF were not affected by the dietary treatments. The inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased NDF digestibility (P<0.05) and tended to increase the digestibility of CP (P=0.05) compared with the control diet group. In addition, dietary treatment during gestation did not affect litter size, BW and backfat gain during gestation, lactation weight, backfat loss or weaning-to-estrus interval of sows. However, sows fed the KF diet consumed more (P<0.05) lactation diet per day than sows in the control group. Accordingly, sows fed the KF diet showed greater average piglet weights on day 21 of lactation (P=0.09), and the litter weight of sows fed the KF diet on day 21 of lactation increased by 3.95 kg compared with sows fed the control diet (not significant). In conclusion, the inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased lactation feed intake of sows and tended to improve litter performance.
Khan, Sohail H; Shahzad, Muhammad Aasif; Nisa, Mahr; Sarwar, Muhammad
The experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and millet (Pennisetum americannum) silages with or without concentrate on nutrients intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and weight gain in Sipli sheep. Six experimental diets were formulated having 100% maize silage (MS), maize silage and concentrate as 50:50 (MSC), 100% sorghum silage (SS), sorghum silage and concentrate as 50:50 (SSC), 100% millet silage (MiS) and millet silage and concentrate as 50:50 (MiSC), respectively. For this purpose, 24 Sipli lambs were randomly allotted to six experimental diets in a completely randomized design for 90 days, four lambs per diet. The results indicated that among various silage diets, lambs fed MS diet consumed higher dry matter (DM) than those fed SS and MiS diets. Likewise, lambs offered MSC had higher dry matter intake than those fed SSC and MiSC diets. Crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) consumed by the lambs also followed the similar trend. Higher DM, CP and NDF digestibilities were also observed in lambs fed MS and MSC diets than those fed SS, SSC, MiS and MiSC diets. Overall digestibilities of DM, CP and NDF were higher in experimental diets containing silage with concentrate. Lambs fed MS diet had 2.79 g/day and 4.45 g/day higher N retention than those fed SS and MiS, respectively. Similarly, lambs fed MSC diet had 2.24 g/day and 5.12 g/day higher N retention than those fed SSC and MiSC diets, respectively. The results showed that lambs fed MSC gained more daily weight gain had better feed conversion ratio than those fed MS, SS, SSC, MiS and MiSC diets. The findings of the present study indicated that lambs fed MSC diet had higher nutrients intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and weight gain.
Karcher, D M; Jones, D R; Abdo, Z; Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Xin, H
The US egg industry is exploring alternative housing systems for laying hens. However, limited published research related to cage-free aviary systems and enriched colony cages exists related to production, egg quality, and hen nutrition. The laying hen's nutritional requirements and resulting productivity are well established with the conventional cage system, but diminutive research is available in regards to alternative housing systems. The restrictions exist with limited availability of alternative housing systems in research settings and the considerable expense for increased bird numbers in a replicate due to alternative housing system design. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the impact of nutrient and energy intake on production and egg quality parameters from laying hens housed at a commercial facility. Lohmann LSL laying hens were housed in three systems: enriched colony cage, cage-free aviary, and conventional cage at a single commercial facility. Daily production records were collected along with dietary changes during 15 production periods (28-d each). Eggs were analyzed for shell strength, shell thickness, Haugh unit, vitelline membrane properties, and egg solids each period. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coupled with a principal components analysis (PCA) approach was utilized to assess the impact of nutritional changes on production parameters and monitored egg quality factors. The traits of hen-day production and mortality had a response only in the PCA 2 direction. This finds that as house temperature and Met intake increases, there is an inflection point at which hen-day egg production is negatively effected. Dietary changes more directly influenced shell parameters, vitelline membrane parameters, and egg total solids as opposed to laying hen housing system. Therefore, further research needs to be conducted in controlled research settings on laying hen nutrient and energy intake in the alternative housing systems
Polesel, J; Negri, E; Serraino, D; Parpinel, M; Barzan, L; Libra, M; Bosetti, C; Garavello, W; Montella, M; La Vecchia, C; Franceschi, S; Talamini, R
Background: Dietary habits have been related to the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), but information on a wide range of macro- and micronutrients is still lacking, particularly for low-incidence countries. Methods: We conducted a hospital-based case–control study in Italy on 198, histologically confirmed, NPC cases of Caucasian ethnicity of 18–76 years of age. Controls were 594 Caucasian cancer-free patients admitted to general hospitals for acute conditions. Nutrients intake was assessed through a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated through logistic regression. Results: Dietary intake of carotenoids were inversely related to NPC risk, notably carotene (OR for highest vs lowest quartile=0.46; 95% CI: 0.26–0.79), α-carotene (OR=0.57; 95% CI: 0.33–0.97), and β-carotene (OR=0.42; 95% CI: 0.24–0.75). Increased NPC risk was observed for elevate cholesterol intake (OR=1.85; 95% CI: 1.12–3.05). Conclusion: Study findings suggest a protective effect of carotenoids against NPC in a low-risk population, adding further support to a possible beneficial role of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables in cancers of the head and neck. PMID:22968647
de Wild, Victoire W T; de Graaf, Cees; Jager, Gerry
Children's consumption of vegetables is still below recommendations. Since preference is the most important predictor of children's intake and most children dislike vegetables, new strategies are needed to increase their preferences for vegetables. Flavour nutrient learning (FNL) could be an effective mechanism to change preferences. Forty healthy toddlers were included in a randomized intervention study. During an intervention period of 7weeks, they consumed vegetable soups (endive and spinach) twice per week. Half of the group received a high-energy variant of one soup (e.g. HE spinach) and a low energy variant of the other (LE endive), whereas for the other half the order was reversed (HE endive, LE spinach). Primary outcome measures were preference and ad libitum consumption (with a maximum of 200g) of both vegetable products (LE), measured before, shortly after the intervention period, and 2 and 6months following conditioning to assess longer-term effects. After completion of the intervention period, 28 children (14 girls and 14 boys, age 35months; SD±8.3) met criteria for FNL to occur, and were included in further data analysis. Results showed a significant increase (~58g) in ad libitum intake for both vegetable soups (stable over time), but irrespective of the energy content. This indicates a robust effect of mere exposure on intake, but no FNL. For preference, however, results showed a significant shift in liking for the vegetable soup consistently paired with high energy, supporting FNL.
Gedir, Jay V; Cain, James W; Krausman, Paul R; Allen, Jamison D; Duff, Glenn C; Morgart, John R
Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons) and moisture (autumn and winter) during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains), female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8-55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental water during
Gedir, Jay V.; Cain, James W.; Krausman, Paul R.; Allen, Jamison D.; Duff, Glenn C.
Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons) and moisture (autumn and winter) during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains), female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8–55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental water during
Gedir, Jay V.; Cain, James W.; Krausman, Paul R.; Allen, Jamison D.; Duff, Glenn C.; Morgart, John R.
Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons) and moisture (autumn and winter) during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains), female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8–55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental water during
Pham-Short, Anna; Donaghue, Kim C; Ambler, Geoffrey; Garnett, Sarah; Craig, Maria E.
The gluten free diet (GFD) has a high glycemic index and low-fiber content, which potentially influences glycemic excursions in type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease (CD). Participants in this case-control study of youth with T1D+CD (n = 10) and T1D only (n = 7) wore blinded continuous glucose monitoring systems for six days. Blood glucose levels (BGLs) were compared between groups for each meal, including pre-meal, peak, 2-hour postprandial and time-to-peak. Participants consumed a test-breakfast of GF cereal and milk for three days and kept weighed food diaries; nutrient intake was analyzed and compared to national recommendations. Youth with T1D+CD had shorter time-to-peak BGL (77 vs 89 mins, P = 0.03), higher peak (9.3 vs 7.3 mmol/L, P = 0.001) and higher postprandial BGLs than T1D (8.4 vs 7.0 mmol/L, P = 0.01), despite similar pre-meal BGLs (9.2 vs 8.6 mmol/L, P = 0.28). Regarding test breakfast, greater pre and post-meal BGL difference correlated with longer CD duration (R = 0.53, P = 0.01). Total energy and macronutrient intake didn’t differ between groups; however the majority of participants collectively had inadequate intake of calcium (76%), folate (71%) and fiber (53%), with excessive saturated fat (12%) and sodium (>2,000 mg/day). The GFD is associated with greater glycemic excursions and inadequate nutritional intake in youth with T1D+CD. Clinical management should address both glycemic variability and dietary quality. PMID:28338063
Tham, Ho Thanh; Udén, Peter
Four crossbred Sindhi heifers with an average body weight (BW) of 135 kg and a mean age of 17 months were used to investigate the effect of feeding different combinations of rice straw and ensiled water hyacinth (EWH) supplemented with a source of protein in the form of cottonseed cake (CSC) on intake and digestibility. Four treatments consisting of graded levels of EWH were arranged in a 4×4 Latin square. The levels of EWH were set at: 0 (EWH0), 15 (EWH15), 30 (EWH30), and 45% (EWH45) of an expected total dietary dry matter (DM) intake of 30 g total DM per kg BW per day. Rice straw was offered ad libitum, while CSC was given at a fixed level of 5 g DM/kg body weight (BW). Voluntary intake and digestibility were measured consecutively in the 4 experimental periods which each lasted 28 days. The crude protein (CP) content of EWH, rice straw and CSC were 174, 53 and 370 g/kg DM, respectively. Rice straw had the highest neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content (666 g/kg DM), followed by EWH (503 g/kg DM) and the lowest content was 418 g/kg DM in the CSC. The actual EWH contents in the consumed diets were 0, 17, 32 and 52% for EWH0, EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45, respectively. Rice straw intake decreased with level of EWH offered from 3049 for EWH0 to 1014 g/day for EWH45. Crude protein intake was 16, 25 and 33% higher (p<0.001) in EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45 treatments, respectively, as compared to EWH0. Digestibility of organic matter (OM), CP, NDFom and acid detergent fibre (ADFom) increased with increasing level of EWH offered. The highest OM digestibility (72.2%) was found for treatment EWH45 and the lowest (47.4%) for treatment EWH0. In spite of similar dietary CP contents, CP digestibility increased by 21 (EWH15), 31 (EWH30) and 40% (EWH45) with increasing level of EWH in comparison with treatment EWH0. It is concluded that increasing level of EWH in cattle diets considerably improved CP intake and digestibility of nutrients.
Gose, Maria; Krems, Carolin; Heuer, Thorsten; Hoffmann, Ingrid
The German National Nutrition Monitoring (NEMONIT) is a longitudinal and nationwide study to assess changes in food consumption and nutrient intake in Germany. A sample of 1840 participants (baseline age: 14-80 years) was drawn from the nationally representative German National Nutrition Survey (NVS) II (2005-2007). The participants have been interviewed by telephone annually since 2008. Food consumption was assessed by two 24-h recalls in the NVS II and the 4 years of NEMONIT (2008-2012/2013), respectively. Energy and nutrient intakes were calculated using the German Nutrient Database 3.02. Diet quality was evaluated using the Healthy Eating Index-NVS (HEI-NVS) II. Time trends were analysed by generalised estimating equation. Consumption of fruit/fruit products and fruit juice/nectar among men and women decreased, whereas consumption of water, soft drinks and coffee/tea increased over the 6-year period. Furthermore, increased consumption of confectionery and animal fats was observed among women. HEI-NVS II did not change since NVS II in both sexes. There were no changes in energy and protein intakes, but carbohydrate intake declined while fat intake increased over time. Regarding micronutrients, a decreasing intake of thiamin, riboflavin and vitamin B6 was observed in both sexes, but intake of Mg, Fe and niacin increased among women over time. In conclusion, food consumption and nutrient intake remained relatively stable between 2005-2007 and 2012/2013 within this German cohort. A few favourable and unfavourable changes were observed. Compared with national dietary guidelines, consumption of food of plant origin remained too low and consumption of meat/meat products remained too high in Germany.
Yates, Allison A; Erdman, John W; Shao, Andrew; Dolan, Laurie C; Griffiths, James C
There is increasing interest by consumers, researchers, and regulators into the roles that certain bioactive compounds, derived from plants and other natural sources, can play in health maintenance and promotion, and even prolonging a productive quality of life. Research has rapidly emerged suggesting that a wide range of compounds and mixtures in and from plants (such as fruits and vegetables, tea and cocoa) and animals (such as fish and probiotics) may exert substantial health benefits. There is interest in exploring the possibility of establishing recommended intakes or dietary guidance for certain bioactive substances to help educate consumers. A key aspect of establishing dietary guidance is the assessment of safety/toxicity of these substances. Toxicologists need to be involved in both the development of the safety framework and in the evaluation of the science to establish maximum intake/upper limits.
Sharma, Vijay K; Kundu, Shivlal S; Prusty, Sonali; Datt, Chander; Kumar, Muneendra
The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilisation between buffalo calves with low and high residual feed intake (RFI) by comparing feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth traits and blood metabolites. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves (aged 4-6 months; 70 ± 1.0 kg body weight) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration for 120 d. Based on linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body size, calves were assigned into low and high RFI groups. The RFI varied from -0.33 to +0.28 kg DM/d with an average RFI of -0.14 and 0.14 kg DM/d in low and high RFI calves, respectively. Calves had a mean DMI of 1.9 and 2.4 kg/d and an ADG of 0.5 and 0.6 kg/d in low and high RFI groups, respectively. Low RFI calves ate 19.0% less DM each day and required significantly less metabolisable energy for maintenance compared with high RFI calves (12.5 vs. 16.7 MJ/d). Nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance did not differ among low and high RFI calves. In more efficient animals (low RFI calves) higher (p < 0.05) plasma level of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), triiodothyronine (T3) and lower concentration of thyroxin hormone were detected. No significant differences in levels of insulin, hydroxyproline, plasma and urine creatinine, total protein and albumin between high and low RFI groups were found. Blood metabolites showed significant (p < 0.05) differences at initial and final stages of study in both groups. At final stage of study, RFI showed negative correlations with growth hormone, IGF-1, T3, urine creatinine and albumin. Low RFI buffalo calves are more efficient in feed utilisation and the differences in blood metabolites are probably due to differences in feed intake and body metabolism.
Lowe, Michael R; Tappe, Karyn A; Butryn, Meghan L; Annunziato, Rachel A; Coletta, Maria C; Ochner, Christopher N; Rolls, Barbara J
Modifying the food environment is a promising strategy for promoting healthier eating behavior. This study aimed to evaluate nutritional and weight changes in a program that used worksite cafeterias to reduce employees' calorie content of purchased foods and improve their macronutrient intake. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: 1) only environmental change (i.e., the introduction of 10 new low-energy-density (ED) foods and provision of labels for all foods sold at lunch, which listed ED, calories, and macronutrient content) or 2) the environmental change plus pricing incentives for purchasing low-ED foods and education about low-ED eating delivered in four, 1-hour group sessions. Participant lunch choices were monitored electronically at the point of purchase for 3 months before the intervention was instituted (i.e., the baseline period) and for 3 months afterward (i.e., intervention period). Participants were adults (n=96, BMI=29.7+/-6.0 kg/m(2)) who regularly ate lunch at their workplace cafeteria. There was no difference between groups in total energy intake over the study period. Across groups, energy and percent of energy from fat decreased and percent of energy from carbohydrate increased from baseline to the intervention period (all p<.01). Follow-up analyses, conducted by averaging Baseline Months 1 and 2 and comparing them to Intervention Month 3 as a conservative estimate of overall impact of the intervention, indicated that change in energy, carbohydrate, and fat intake remained significant (p<.001). Providing nutrition labels and reducing the ED of selected foods was associated with improved dietary intake.
Perry, M.C.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Williams, B.K.; Serafin, J.A.
Dramatic changes in the food habits and distribution of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) in Chesapeake Bay during the 1970's generated a need to evaluate the nutritional value of food items and the requirements of this species on its wintering grounds. Groups of captive canvasbacks were maintained ad libitum on 5 diets during the winters of 1978-79 and 1979-80 to evaluate the effects of varying protein and energy levels on feed intake and condition. Feed intake during the 1979-80 winter was 42% greater for those ducks fed the low energy (1,543 kcal/kg) diet than for those fed the high energy (3,638 kcal/kg) diet. Canvasbacks fed the high energy diet, however, consumed 317 kcal/bird day, whereas those fed the low energy diet consumed only 191 kcal/bird day. Body weight of males and females did not differ among groups fed different diets, but there were seasonal differences (P < 0.05) for both sexes aggregated across diets. Data from this study indicate that canvasbacks may be unable to adjust intake rates to compensate for low energy foods and subsequently may store less fat or modify behavior. However, decreased weight, feed intake, and activity of ducks fed ad libitum rations occurred in mid-winter irrespective of diet quality and appeared to be an endogenous component of their annual cycle that persists in captivity. These changes apparently have a selective advantage of increasing the probability of survival in ducks by decreasing energy expenditure during periods of winter stress.
Chun, Yu Jeong; Sohn, Seung-Kook; Song, Hye Kyung; Lee, Song Mi; Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Seungmin; Park, Hyojin
This study aimed to examine the associations between intakes of various nutrients and food groups and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study among Koreans aged 20 to 80 years. A total of 150 new cases and 116 controls were recruited with subjects' informed consent. Dietary data were collected using the food frequency questionnaire developed and validated by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal cancer incidence. High intakes of total lipid (ORT3 vs T1 = 4.15, 95% CI: 1.33-12.96, p for trend = 0.034), saturated fatty acid (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.24-7.04, p for trend = 0.016) and monounsaturated fatty acid (ORT3 vs T1 = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.23-7.54, p for trend = 0.018) were significantly associated with increased incidence of colorectal cancer. High dietary fiber (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.56, p for trend = 0.002) and vitamin C (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14-1.05, p for trend = 0.021) intakes were significantly associated with reduced colorectal cancer incidence. From the food group analysis, bread (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.26, 95% CI: 0.96-5.33, p for trend = 0.031), red meat (ORT3 vs T1 = 7.33, 95% CI: 2.98-18.06, p for trend < 0.001), milk·dairy product (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.42, 95% CI: 1.10-5.31, p for trend = 0.071) and beverage (ORT3 vs T1 = 3.17, 95% CI: 1.35-7.48, p for trend = 0.002) intakes were positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. On the other hand, high intake of traditional rice cake (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.14-0.86, p for trend = 0.024) was linked with lower colorectal cancer incidence. In conclusion, eating a diet high in total lipid, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids is associated with higher incidence of colorectal cancer, whereas a diet high in dietary fiber and vitamin C was found to lower the incidence in Korean adults. Interestingly high
Dunn-Emke, Stacey R; Weidner, Gerdi; Pettengill, Elaine B; Marlin, Ruth O; Chi, Christine; Ornish, Dean M
This study assessed the nutrient adequacy of a very low-fat vegan diet. Thirty-nine men (mean age=65 years) with early stage prostate cancer who chose the "watchful waiting" approach to disease management, were instructed by a registered dietitian and a chef on following a very low-fat (10%) vegan diet with the addition of a fortified soy protein powdered beverage. Three-day food diaries, excluding vitamin and mineral supplements, were analyzed and nutrient values were compared against Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Mean dietary intake met the recommended DRIs. On the basis of the Adequate Intake standard, a less than adequate intake was observed for vitamin D. This demonstrates that a very low-fat vegan diet with comprehensive nutrition education emphasizing nutrient-fortified plant foods is nutritionally adequate, with the exception of vitamin D. Vitamin D supplementation, especially for those with limited sun exposure, can help assure nutritional adequacy.
Ijarotimi, O S; Keshinro, O O
This study aimed at assessing the anthropometry, dietary intake and micronutrient status of hypertensive patients attending specialist hospitals in Ondo State, Nigeria. A descriptive case control study was conducted among subjects attending two specialist hospitals located in Akure and Ondo towns. A total of 452 subjects (44.9% males and 55.1% females), was purposely selected from the study centres. A structured questionnaire was designed to collect information on demographic characteristics, socio-economic parameters, nutrition knowledge and dietary intakes of the subjects. The quantities of subjects' dietary intakes were measured using household measurements. Weight, height, systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures were measured using electronic bathroom scale, standiometer and sphygmomanometer, respectively. The subject's urine was collected; and vitamin C, sodium, potassium, calcium, zinc and magnesium were determined using standard procedures. The results showed the following means: age 52.4 +/- 2.38 years, weight 66.4 +/- 1.63kg, height 1.64 +/- 0.01m, body mass index (BMI) 24.13 +/- 0.69kg/m2, SBP 124.86 +/- 2.3mmHg and DBP 76.22 +/- 1.86 mmHg. Blood pressure (BP) of the subjects showed that 46.9% had optimal BP, 14.2% normal BP, 11.5% high normal BP, 12.8% mild hypertension, 9.7% moderate hypertension and 4.9% severe hypertension. For BMI, 8.8% were underweight, 47.1% normal, 30.3% overweight, 6.0% obesity class I, 6.0% obesity class II and 1.8% obesity class III. The proportion of hypertensive subjects that were obese was significantly (P = 0.0001) higher than control subjects. Three-fifth of the control subjects had good nutrition knowledge compared to one-fifth of hypertensive subjects. The estimated mean energy intake was 8.46 MJ, protein 93.1g, carbohydrate 314.5g, fat 42.9g, fibres 5.6g and appreciable amount of vitamin C, calcium, zinc, magnesium, sodium and potassium. The subjects' urinary vitamin C concentration was 32.49 +/- 2.53mg
Ueno, Kimiko; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Nishiwaki, Tomoko; Saito, Toshiko; Okuda, Yoko; Yamamoto, Masaharu
The purposes of this study were to determine intakes of nutrients related to bone health, such as calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), potassium (K), and protein, in Japanese female college students, using the duplicate portion sampling method, and to identify possible lifestyle factors explaining their calcium intakes. Subjects were 106 Japanese female college students aged 19-23 years. All foods in the duplicate portions, as eaten by the subjects during a three-weekday period, were collected. The minerals and protein in the food samples were analyzed. Life-style information was obtained by interview. Levels of cognitive eating restraint (CER) were assessed by the Three-Factor Eating Inventory. Average intakes of dietary Ca, P, Na, K, and protein were 380 (SD 209) mg/day, 649 (SD 212) mg/day, 2,535 (SD 847) mg/day, 1,108 (SD 429) mg/day, and 41.7 (SD 12.6) g/day, respectively. Ca intake was significantly associated with the frequency of milk intake (R2 = 0.278, p < 0.001), intake of other dairy products (R2 = 0.338, p < 0.001), and meal skipping (R2 = 0.161, p < 0.001), but not with CER score (p = 0.378). Female college students are at high risk for poor Ca nutrition. Low intake of nutrients relevant to bone health is considered to adversely affect bone metabolism in young women.
Chung, Hai V; Iversen, Cara S; Lai, Morris; Saka, Susan; Mahabub-ul Anwar, Md; Nigg, Claudio R
The omega-3 fatty acids found mostly in seafood are essential nutrients that may help prevent or control a number of diseases; however, the evidence for this is not conclusive. The positive effects may be because of other dietary and lifestyle factors. Therefore, we investigated the association between fish intake and other nutrition indicators and lifestyle and demographic factors among children. The study employed grade-4 student data of the 2000-2004 Hawaii Nutrition Education Needs Assessment Survey. In a sample 666 children (mean age = 9.57 ± 0.06 years, 55.6% female, 62.4% Asian/Pacific Islander), analysis indicated that fish consumption is positively associated with healthy lifestyle indicators, such as physical activity and a healthy body mass index. Fish consumption is also positively associated with protein and kilocalories intake but not with fruits and vegetables consumption. Findings suggest that the positive health behaviors linked to fish consumption may lie more in physical activity than in diet behaviors. Given that fish consumption is important for children, interventions promoting fish consumption in a balanced diet with fruit and vegetable, as well as other positive lifestyle behaviors are warranted.
Nikolić, Marina; Glibetić, Maria; Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Khokhar, Santosh; Chillo, Stefania; Abaravicius, Jonas Algis; Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco
The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP). This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project’s objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe. PMID:24699195
Nikolić, Marina; Glibetić, Maria; Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Khokhar, Santosh; Chillo, Stefania; Abaravicius, Jonas Algis; Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco
The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP). This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project's objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe.
Dey, Avijit; De, Partha Sarathi; Gangopadhyay, Prabir Kumar
Objective An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of dietary supplementation of dried and ground foliage of black gram (Vigna mungo L.) on feed intake and utilization, and production performance of crossbred lactating cows. Methods Eighteen lactating crossbred (Bos taurus×Bos indicus) cows (body weight 330.93± 10.82 kg) at their second and mid lactation (milk yield 6.77±0.54 kg/d) were randomly divided into three groups of six each in a completely randomized block design. Three supplements were formulated by quantitatively replacing 0, 50, and 100 per cent of dietary wheat bran of concentrate mixture with dried and ground foliage of black gram. The designated supplement was fed to each group with basal diet of rice straw (ad libitum) to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production. Daily feed intake and milk yield was recorded. A digestion trial was conducted to determine the total tract digestibility of various nutrients. Results The daily feed intake was increased (p<0.05) with the supplementation of black gram foliage. Although the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and ether extract did not vary (p>0.05), the fibre digestibility was increased (p<0.05), which ultimately improved (p<0.05) the total digestible nutrients content of composite diet. Although, the average milk yield (kg/animal/d) and composition did not differ (p>0.05) among the groups, milk yield was increased by 10 per cent with total replacement of wheat bran in concentrate mixture with of black gram foliage. The economics of milk production calculated as feed cost per kg milk yield (INR 10.61 vs 7.98) was reduced by complete replacement of wheat bran with black gram foliage. Conclusion Black gram foliage could be used as complete replacement for wheat bran in concentrate mixture of dairy cows in formulating least cost ration for economic milk production in small holders’ animal production. PMID:27282971
Recent epidemiologic studies assessing tree nut (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) consumption and the association with nutrient intake and diet quality are lacking. This study determined the association of tree nut consumption and ...
HANES (1999–2004), data were used to examine the association of out-of-hand tree nut consumption (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, filberts, macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) with diet quality, nutrient intakes, and health risks in adults 19+ yrs (n equals 13,292). Using 24 hour ...
The objective of this study was to examine the association of consumption of whole grains (WG) with diet quality and nutrient intake in children and adolescents by a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. The 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to study children ...
Studies assessing mango consumption and the association with nutrient intake, diet quality, and health biomarkers are lacking. This study assessed these associations using a nationally representative sample of children 2-18 years old (n=11,974; 50% female) and adults 19+ years (n=17,568; 48.8% femal...
The objective of this study was to assess the association between oatmeal consumption and nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity of children aged 2-18. A nationally representative sample of children aged 2-18 (N=14,690) participating in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2...
The purpose of this study was to determine the association of out-of-hand nut (OOHN) consumption with nutrient intake, diet quality, and the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Data from 24-hour recalls from individuals aged 2+ years (n = 24,385) participati...
No studies have examined the association of consuming fresh pears on nutrient intake or adequacy, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). The purpose of this study was to examine these association in adults (n=24,808) participating the NHANES 2001-2010. Covariate adjusted linear regres...
Tucker, H A; Petitclerc, D; Zinn, S A
Increasing daily light exposure from 8 to 16 h increases average daily body weight gains of sheep and Holstein cattle but reduces gains of white-tailed doe fawns. Some of these effects on average daily gain in sheep are the result of increased gut fill and pelt weight. Increasing daily exposure to light increases feed intake when sheep or cattle are fed ad libitum. However, increased feed intake is not a prerequisite for the anabolic effects of long duration exposures to light because increased growth occurs in the animals given 16 h light:8 h dark (16L:8D) even when feed intake is restricted. The anabolic effects of increased duration photoperiods in sheep are independent of the gonads, whereas in cattle they are dependent on the gonads. Consistent increases in average daily gains of cattle in response to longer duration photoperiods have not always been achieved. The lack of consistency may be associated with sexual maturity or rate of fattening of the animal. For example, the stimulatory effects of 16L:8D photoperiods on live weight gain are not readily manifested in immature prepubertal heifers, but occur primarily during the peripubertal period. Short days are conducive to deposition of fat, which may account for the stimulatory effects of short days on live weight gain of white-tailed doe fawns and excessively fattened Holsteins. In contrast, long duration photoperiods stimulate protein accretion in cattle. The hormonal signals that mediate the anabolic effects of increasing exposure to light are not associated with change in insulin, thyroxine or growth hormone concentrations in the blood. Glucocorticoid concentrations in serum decrease with longer duration photoperiods which is consistent with an anabolic effect. Increasing daily light exposure to 16 h/d hastens the increase in concentrations of progesterone and testosterone in sera of peripubertal heifers and prepubertal bulls, respectively. Thus, change in secretion of reproductive hormones in the
Schulze, M B; Hoffmann, K; Kroke, A; Boeing, H
Dietary pattern analysis has recently received growing attention, as it might be more appropriate in studies of diet-disease associations than the single food or nutrient approach that has dominated past epidemiological research. Factor analysis is a technique which is commonly used to identify dietary patterns within study populations. However, the ability of factor solutions to account for variance of food and nutrient intake has so far remained unclear. The present study therefore explored the statistical properties of dietary patterns with regard to the explained variance. Food intake of 8975 men and 13 379 women, assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire, was aggregated into forty-seven separate food groups. Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis and subsequent varimax rotation. Seven factors were retained for both men and women, which accounted for about 31 % of the total variance. The explained variance was relatively high (>40 %) for cooked vegetables, sauce, meat, dessert, cake, bread other than wholemeal, raw vegetables, processed meat, high-fat cheese, butter and margarine. Factor scores were used to investigate associations between the factors and nutrient intake. The patterns accounted for relatively large proportions of variance of energy and macronutrient intake, but for less variance of alcohol and micronutrient intake, especially of retinol, beta-carotene, vitamin E, Ca and ascorbic acid. In addition, factors were related to age, BMI, physical activity, education, smoking and vitamin and mineral supplement use.
Retama-Flores, C; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Cámara-Sarmiento, R; Canul-Ku, H L
This trial evaluated the effect of maize supplementation on the ingestive behavior, nutrient intake and the resilience against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection of hair sheep in a silvopastoral system containing tropical grasses and legume trees. In addition, it attempted to determine the metabolic cost of the natural GIN infection in supplemented and non-supplemented animals. Twenty-nine 3-month-old lambs (male and female), raised nematode free, were allocated to four groups: I-NS (infected, not supplemented, n = 8), I-S (infected, supplemented with maize at 1.5% live weight (LW), n = 7), T-NS (treated with moxidectin 0.2 mg/kg LW every 28 days, and not supplemented, n = 7) and T-S (treated with moxidectin and supplemented with maize at 1.5% LW, n = 7). During the 70-day trial, fodder intake, fodder selection, LW change (LWC), red blood cell counts (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht) and eggs per gram of feces (EPG) were measured every 14 days. Supplement consumption was recorded daily. Metabolizable energy (ME) and protein (MP) consumption from the feeds were estimated. Maize supplementation helped to improve the resilience of hair sheep lambs against GIN infections. The I-S and T-NS groups showed similar LWC, RBC, Hb and Ht (P > 0.05) and both were higher than those in the I-NS group (P < 0.05). No difference was found in EPG between the I-NS and the I-S groups (P > 0.05). No effect of sex was observed in the different variables. Although all groups showed low dry matter intake (DMI) (< 2% LW), supplemented groups (T-S and I-S) showed higher total DMI (fodder + maize; P < 0.05), hence higher ME and MP intakes than the non-supplemented groups (T-NS and I-NS). All groups showed similar fodder selection patterns. The estimated metabolic cost of parasitism was ME = 0.70 MJ/day and MP = 9.2 g/day in the I-S animals. Meanwhile, the cost in the I-NS animals was ME = 1.46 MJ/day and MP = 12.71 g/day. Maize supplementation was an economically viable strategy
O'Neil, Carol E; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A
Recent epidemiologic studies assessing tree nut (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) consumption and the association with nutrient intake and diet quality are lacking. This study determined the association of tree nut consumption and nutrient intake and diet quality using a nationally representative sample of adults. Adults 19+ years (y) (n=13,292) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Intake was determined from 24-hour diet recalls; tree nut consumers were defined as those consuming > or =(1/4) ounce/day (7.09 g). Means, standard errors, and ANOVA (adjusted for covariates) were determined using appropriate sample weights. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Among consumers, mean intake of tree nuts/tree nut butters was 1.19 +/- 0.04 oz/d versus 0.01 +/- 0.00 oz/d for non-consumers. In this study, 5.5 +/- 0.3 % of individuals 19-50 y (n=7,049) and 8.4 +/- 0.6 % of individuals 51+ y (n=6,243) consumed tree nuts/tree nut butters. Mean differences (p<0.01) between tree nut consumers and non-consumers of adult shortfall nutrients were: fiber (+5.0 g/d), vitamin E (+3.7 mg AT/d), calcium (+73 mg/d), magnesium (+95 mg/d), and potassium (+260 mg/d). Tree nut consumers had lower sodium intake (-157 mg/d, p<0.01). Diet quality was significantly higher in tree nut consumers (58.0+/-0.4 vs. 48.5+/-0.3, p<0.01). Tree nut consumption was associated with a higher overall diet quality score and improved nutrient intakes. Specific dietary recommendations for nut consumption should be provided for consumers.
Zheng, T; Boyle, P; Willett, W C; Hu, H; Dan, J; Evstifeeva, T V; Niu, S; MacMahon, B
A case-control study of oral cancer was conducted in Beijing, People's Republic of China to examine the association between dietary nutrient intake and risk of oral cancer, both in terms of estimated intake of nutrients and micro-nutrients, and in terms of specific foods and food groups. The study was hospital-based and controls were hospital in-patients matched for age and sex with the cases. The response rate for cases and controls was 100% and 404 case/control pairs were interviewed. The results suggest that increased protein and fat intake are related to a decreased risk of oral cancer. Carbohydrate intake, however, showed a moderate increased risk for oral cancer. Total carotene intake and carotene intake from fruits and vegetables are inversely associated with risk of oral cancer. A similar pattern was observed for dietary vitamin C intake. Dietary fibre derived from fruits and vegetables showed a strong negative association with oral cancer risk, but fibre derived from other sources did not exhibit any protective effect. At the level of foods and food groups, increased consumption of fresh meat, chicken and liver was significantly associated with a reduction in oral cancer risk: the tests for trend were all statistically significant at the P < 0.01 level. Consumption of common carp, hairtail, shrimp and lobster were also associated with decreased risk. Risk was found to increase with increasing consumption of millet and corn bread (P < 0.01) but to decrease with increasing consumption of rice (P < 0.01). Increased consumption of grapes, bananas, oranges, tangerines, peaches and pears were associated with reduced risk.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Stevenson, Abigail E; Blackburn, Judith M; Markwell, Peter J; Robertson, William G
Nutrient intake and urine composition were analyzed in calcium oxalate (CaOx)stone-forming and healthy control dogs to identify factors that contribute to CaOx urolithiasis. Stone-forming dogs had significantly lower intake of sodium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus and significantly higher urinary calcium and oxalate concentrations, calcium excretion, and CaOx relative supersaturation (RSS). Feeding a diet used in the treatment of canine lower urinary tract disease for 1 month was associated with increased intake of moisture, sodium, and fat; reduced intake of potassium and calcium; and decreased urinary calcium and oxalate concentrations, calcium excretion, and CaOx RSS. No clinical signs of disease recurrence were observed in the stone-forming dogs when the diet was fed for an additional 11 months. The results suggest that hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria contribute to the formation of CaOx uroliths in dogs and show that dietary modifications can alter this process.
Possamai, Ana Paula Silva; Alcalde, Claudete Regina; de Souza, Rodrigo; Gomes, Ludmila Couto; de Macedo, Francisco de Assis Fonseca; Martins, Elias Nunes
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding Saanen goat kids with calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) in diet, on intake, performance, digestibility of nutrients, and blood parameters. Twenty-eight uncastrated male goat kids, with round average age to 112.86 ± 4.81 days and an average body weight (BW) of 19.54 ± 2.76 kg, were distributed in a completely randomized design distributed into four groups with seven animals per group: one control group fed a diet containing 2.5 Mcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg dry matter (DM) and three groups fed a diet containing 2.6, 2.7, or 2.8 Mcal ME/kg DM, with CSFA added to increase the energy levels. The animals were fed the diets until they reached an average BW of 28 kg. There was hardly any apparent effect of dietary CSFA on intake of DM and organic matter (OM). The digestibility of DM and OM showed an improvement with 2.64 and 2.65 Mcal ME/kg DM in the diet. The diets containing CSFA improved average daily gain and reduced the time on the feedlot to 30 days fed diet with 2.8 Mcal ME/kg DM. However, lipid supplementation increased serum cholesterol levels. Thus, CSFA can be used to increase the energy density of the diet in finisher Saanen goat kids and improve performance by reducing days on feedlot.
Kwon, Song Hee; Park, Hae Ryun; Lee, Young Mi; Kwon, Soo Youn; Kim, Ok Sun; Kim, Hee Young
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Chewing difficulty is a factor contributing to a poor nutritional status in the elderly. The aim of this study was to examine disparities in food and nutrition intakes among Korean elderly people with and without chewing difficulty. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study utilized data from the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2013. The study subjects included males and females over 65 years of age who were not required to adhere to a special diet due to disease or sickness. They were divided into groups according to their chewing ability. Those who found chewing “very difficult” or “difficult”, were combined to form the chewing difficulty group. Similarly, those who found chewing “moderately difficult”, “easy”, and “very easy” were combined to form the normal chewing group. RESULTS Of the 999 subjects, 47.7% had chewing difficulties and the prevalence of chewing difficulty was higher in females than in males (P = 0.03) and higher in those 75 years of age and over than in younger individuals (P < 0.001). The chewing difficulty group had a significantly lower intake of fruits and vegetables (P < 0.05) and lower vitamin C and potassium intake than those in the normal group. Comparison of the percentages of Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans (KDRIs) in the two groups indicated that the intake of most nutrients (energy, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and iron) were significantly lower in the chewing difficulty group than in the normal group. In particular, calcium intake was inadequate (51% of KDRIs) in the chewing difficulty group. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate that chewing difficulty is closely related to food and nutrient intake in the elderly and can result in vitamin and mineral intake deficiencies. It is evident that the care of elderly subjects with chewing difficulty is essential for maintaining a healthy lifestyle. PMID:28386387
Pousga, S; Boly, H; Lindberg, J E; Ogle, B
A study on scavenging local (n = 64) and crossbred (n = 64) pullets was undertaken in the dry and rainy seasons in two villages in Burkina Faso: Korea in the arid northern Sahelian region and Bounouna in the sub-humid south. After 4 weeks of scavenging, the birds were killed and the crop contents were subjected to physical and chemical analysis. Cereal grains, brans, green and dry forages, insects/worms and household leftovers were the main physical components. The proportion of cereal grains was higher in the rainy season, whereas the proportion of bran, peanut and sand/grit was higher in the dry season (p < 0.05). The proportion of kitchen waste and millet/milo grains was higher in local than in crossbred birds, whereas the opposite was the case for millet/milo bran (p < 0.05). Rice and local beer residues were not found in the crops of birds from Korea. Dry matter, ash, crude fibre and potassium contents were higher in the dry season (p < 0.05), while calculated metabolizable energy content was higher in the rainy season (p < 0.05). There were no location or breed effects on chemical composition parameters (p > 0.05), except that potassium content was higher in Korea. Mean live weight at slaughter was 806 +/- 22.0 g (local breed) and 881 +/- 22.0 g (crossbreds) (p < 0.05). Digestive organ weights, including contents, were higher for crossbred birds (p < 0.05). Gastrointestinal tract percentage was higher in the rainy season and in Bounouna (p < 0.05). The nutrient composition of the crop contents indicates the need for supplementation, particularly of protein, for higher levels of production.
Porter, Judi; Huggins, Catherine E; Truby, Helen; Collins, Jorja
(1) Background: Mobile technologies may be utilised for dietary intake assessment for people with diabetes. The published literature was systematically reviewed to determine the effect of using mobile electronic devices to record food or nutrient intake on diabetes control and nutrition outcomes; (2) Methods: The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO: registration number CRD42016050079, and followed PRISMA guidelines. Original research of mobile electronic devices where food or nutrient intake was recorded in people with diabetes with any treatment regimen, and where this intervention was compared with usual care or alternative treatment models, was considered. Quality was assessed using the Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research; (3) Results: Nine papers formed the final library with a range of interventions and control practices investigated. The food/nutrient intake recording component of the intervention and patient engagement with the technology was not well described. When assessed for quality, three studies rated positive, five were neutral and one negative. There was significantly greater improvement in HbA1c in the intervention group compared to the control group in four of the nine studies; (4) Conclusion: Based on the available evidence there are no clear recommendations for using technology to record dietary data in this population.
Porter, Judi; Huggins, Catherine E.; Truby, Helen; Collins, Jorja
(1) Background: Mobile technologies may be utilised for dietary intake assessment for people with diabetes. The published literature was systematically reviewed to determine the effect of using mobile electronic devices to record food or nutrient intake on diabetes control and nutrition outcomes; (2) Methods: The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO: registration number CRD42016050079, and followed PRISMA guidelines. Original research of mobile electronic devices where food or nutrient intake was recorded in people with diabetes with any treatment regimen, and where this intervention was compared with usual care or alternative treatment models, was considered. Quality was assessed using the Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research; (3) Results: Nine papers formed the final library with a range of interventions and control practices investigated. The food/nutrient intake recording component of the intervention and patient engagement with the technology was not well described. When assessed for quality, three studies rated positive, five were neutral and one negative. There was significantly greater improvement in HbA1c in the intervention group compared to the control group in four of the nine studies; (4) Conclusion: Based on the available evidence there are no clear recommendations for using technology to record dietary data in this population. PMID:27999302
Fiorentini, Giovani; Carvalho, Isabela P. C.; Messana, Juliana D.; Canesin, Roberta C.; Castagnino, Pablo S.; Lage, Josiane F.; Arcuri, Pedro B.; Berchielli, Telma T.
The present study was conducted to determine the effect of lipid sources with different fatty acid profiles on nutrient digestion and ruminal fermentation. Ten rumen and duodenal fistulated Nellore steers (268 body weight±27 kg) were distributed in a duplicated 5×5 Latin square. Dietary treatments were as follows: without fat (WF), palm oil (PO), linseed oil (LO), protected fat (PF; Lactoplus), and whole soybeans (WS). The roughage feed was corn silage (600 g/kg on a dry matter [DM] basis) plus concentrate (400 g/kg on a DM basis). The higher intake of DM and organic matter (OM) (p<0.001) was found in animals on the diet with PF and WF (around 4.38 and 4.20 kg/d, respectively). Treatments with PO and LO decreased by around 10% the total digestibility of DM and OM (p<0.05). The addition of LO decreased by around 22.3% the neutral detergent fiber digestibility (p = 0.047) compared with other diets. The higher microbial protein synthesis was found in animals on the diet with LO and WS (33 g N/kg OM apparently digested in the rumen; p = 0.040). The highest C18:0 and linolenic acid intakes occurred in animals fed LO (p<0.001), and the highest intake of oleic (p = 0.002) and C16 acids (p = 0.022) occurred with the diets with LO and PF. Diet with PF decreased biohydrogenation extent (p = 0.05) of C18:1 n9,c, C18:2 n6,c, and total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; around 20%, 7%, and 13%, respectively). The diet with PF and WF increased the concentration of NH3-N (p<0.001); however, the diet did not change volatile fatty acids (p>0.05), such as the molar percentage of acetate, propionate, butyrate and the acetate:propionate ratio. Treatments PO, LO and with WS decreased by around 50% the concentration of protozoa (p<0.001). Diets with some type of protection (PF and WS) decreased the effects of lipid on ruminal fermentation and presented similar outflow of benefit UFA as LO. PMID:26580282
Fiorentini, Giovani; Carvalho, Isabela P C; Messana, Juliana D; Canesin, Roberta C; Castagnino, Pablo S; Lage, Josiane F; Arcuri, Pedro B; Berchielli, Telma T
The present study was conducted to determine the effect of lipid sources with different fatty acid profiles on nutrient digestion and ruminal fermentation. Ten rumen and duodenal fistulated Nellore steers (268 body weight±27 kg) were distributed in a duplicated 5×5 Latin square. Dietary treatments were as follows: without fat (WF), palm oil (PO), linseed oil (LO), protected fat (PF; Lactoplus), and whole soybeans (WS). The roughage feed was corn silage (600 g/kg on a dry matter [DM] basis) plus concentrate (400 g/kg on a DM basis). The higher intake of DM and organic matter (OM) (p<0.001) was found in animals on the diet with PF and WF (around 4.38 and 4.20 kg/d, respectively). Treatments with PO and LO decreased by around 10% the total digestibility of DM and OM (p<0.05). The addition of LO decreased by around 22.3% the neutral detergent fiber digestibility (p = 0.047) compared with other diets. The higher microbial protein synthesis was found in animals on the diet with LO and WS (33 g N/kg OM apparently digested in the rumen; p = 0.040). The highest C18:0 and linolenic acid intakes occurred in animals fed LO (p<0.001), and the highest intake of oleic (p = 0.002) and C16 acids (p = 0.022) occurred with the diets with LO and PF. Diet with PF decreased biohydrogenation extent (p = 0.05) of C18:1 n9,c, C18:2 n6,c, and total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; around 20%, 7%, and 13%, respectively). The diet with PF and WF increased the concentration of NH3-N (p<0.001); however, the diet did not change volatile fatty acids (p>0.05), such as the molar percentage of acetate, propionate, butyrate and the acetate:propionate ratio. Treatments PO, LO and with WS decreased by around 50% the concentration of protozoa (p<0.001). Diets with some type of protection (PF and WS) decreased the effects of lipid on ruminal fermentation and presented similar outflow of benefit UFA as LO.
Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Ginsberg, Mindy; Himes, John H; Liu, Kiang; Loria, Catherine M; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Rock, Cheryl L; Rodriguez, Brendaly; Gellman, Marc D; Van Horn, Linda
Background: Hispanics are a heterogeneous group of individuals with a variation in dietary habits that is reflective of their cultural heritage and country of origin. It is important to identify differences in their dietary habits because it has been well established that nutrition contributes substantially to the burden of preventable diseases and early deaths in the United States. Objective: We estimated the distribution of usual intakes (of both food groups and nutrients) by Hispanic and Latino backgrounds by using National Cancer Institute methodology. Design: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos is a population-based cohort study that recruited participants who were 18–74 y of age from 4 US cities in 2008–2011 (Miami, Bronx, Chicago, and San Diego). Participants who provided at least one 24-h dietary recall and completed a food propensity questionnaire (n = 13,285) were included in the analyses. Results were adjusted for age, sex, field center, weekend, sequencing, and typical amount of intake. Results: Overall, Cubans (n = 2128) had higher intakes of total energy, macronutrients (including all subtypes of fat), and alcohol than those of other groups. Mexicans (n = 5371) had higher intakes of vitamin C, calcium, and fiber. Lowest intakes of total energy, macronutrients, folate, iron, and calcium were reported by Dominicans (n = 1217), whereas Puerto Ricans (n = 2176) had lowest intakes of vitamin C and fiber. Food-group servings reflected nutrient intakes, with Cubans having higher intakes of refined grains, vegetables, red meat, and fats and Dominicans having higher intakes of fruit and poultry, whereas Puerto Ricans had lowest intakes of fruit and vegetables. Central and South Americans (n = 1468 and 925, respectively) were characterized by being second in their reported intakes of fruit and poultry and the highest in fish intake in comparison with other groups. Conclusion: Variations in diet noted in this study, with additional analysis
Becker, Wulf; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Nälsén, Cecilia; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Öhrvik, Veronica
Background Dietary intake and nutritional status are important for pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. Dietary advice on folate, targeted to women of childbearing age, aims at preventing neural tube defects in the offspring. Aim To describe food and nutrient intake and nutritional status among women of childbearing age in Sweden in relation to current nutrition recommendations. Methods Dietary intake was assessed using a web-based four-day consecutive food record among adults aged 18–80 years—‘Riksmaten 2010–11 adults’. In a subsample, biomarkers of folate, vitamin D, iodine, and iron status were assessed. Results Women of childbearing age had lower intakes of fruit and vegetables, fish, and whole grains, but higher intakes of soft drinks. Macronutrient composition was generally in line with the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, except for a lower intake of fibre, a higher intake of saturated fatty acids, and added sugars. Mean intakes of vitamin D, folate, and iron were below recommended intakes (RI). Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 74 μg/L, 20% had insufficient vitamin D status, and 3% low folate concentrations with no age differences. Furthermore, 29% of women 18–44 years of age had depleted iron stores. Conclusions The dietary pattern among women of childbearing age (18–44 years) was less favourable compared to older women. Intakes of some micronutrients were below RI, but no differences in vitamin D, folate, or iodine status between age groups were observed. However, improvements of folate and iodine status among women of childbearing age are warranted. This can be achieved by following dietary guidelines including use of folic acid-containing supplements. PMID:27560303
Mangels, Ann Reed
The process of bone mineralization and resorption is complex and is affected by numerous factors, including dietary constituents. Although some dietary factors involved in bone health, such as calcium and vitamin D, are typically associated with dairy products, plant-based sources of these nutrients also supply other key nutrients involved in bone maintenance. Some research suggests that vegetarian diets, especially vegan diets, are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this does not appear to be clinically significant. Vegan diets are not associated with an increased fracture risk if calcium intake is adequate. Dietary factors in plant-based diets that support the development and maintenance of bone mass include calcium, vitamin D, protein, potassium, and soy isoflavones. Other factors present in plant-based diets such as oxalic acid and phytic acid can potentially interfere with absorption and retention of calcium and thereby have a negative effect on BMD. Impaired vitamin B-12 status also negatively affects BMD. The role of protein in calcium balance is multifaceted. Overall, calcium and protein intakes in accord with Dietary Reference Intakes are recommended for vegetarians, including vegans. Fortified foods are often helpful in meeting recommendations for calcium and vitamin D. Plant-based diets can provide adequate amounts of key nutrients for bone health.
Aljuraiban, Ghadeer S.; Chan, Queenie; Griep, Linda M. Oude; Brown, Ian J.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Stamler, Jeremiah; Van Horn, Linda; Elliott, Paul; Frost, Gary S.
Background Epidemiologic evidence is sparse on the effect of dietary behaviors and diet quality on body mass index (BMI) that may be important drivers of the obesity epidemic. Objective This study investigated the relationships of frequency of eating and time of intake to energy density, nutrient quality and BMI using data from the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP) including 2,696 men and women aged 40-59 from the United States and the United Kingdom. Design INTERMAP is a cross-sectional investigation with four 24-hour dietary recalls and BMI measurements conducted between 1996 and 1999. Consumption of solid foods was aggregated into eating occasion. Nutrient density is expressed using the Nutrient Rich Food (NRF 9.3) index. The ratio of evening/morning energy intake was calculated; mean values of four visits were used. Statistical analyses performed Characteristics across eating occasion categories are presented as adjusted mean with corresponding 95% confidence interval. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine associations of eating occasions, ratio of evening/morning energy intake, dietary energy density, and NRF 9.3 index with BMI. Results Compared to participants with < 4 eating occasions/24-hours, those with ≥ 6 eating occasions/24-hours had lower mean: BMI: 27.3 vs. 29.0 kg/m2; total energy intake: 2,129 vs. 2,472 kcal/24-hours; dietary energy density: 1.5 vs. 2.1 kcal/g; and higher NRF 9.3 index: 34.3 vs. 28.1. In multiple regression analyses, higher evening intake relative to morning intake was directly associated with BMI; however this did not influence the relationship between eating frequency and BMI. Conclusions Our results suggest that a larger number of small meals may be associated with improved diet quality and lower BMI. This may have implications for behavioral approaches to controlling the obesity epidemic. PMID:25620753
Frongillo, Edward A; Wolfe, Wendy S
The aim of this study was to determine if (1) participation in Home-Delivered Meals (HDM) results in improved dietary patterns and nutrient intake, lower food insecurity, and reduced loss of weight; (2) subgroups of older persons are more likely to benefit; and (3) nutritional indicators of impact other than nutrient intake may be useful. The design used was quasi-experimental, with longitudinal assessment of individuals on HDM at baseline (before receipt of services), 6, and 12 months, and comparison to non-randomized group receiving other services. Outcomes included measured weight and height, 24-hour dietary recall, and food insecurity. Paired t test, multiple linear regression, and selection models using multiple logistic regression were performed. All older persons in three New York State counties referred for aging services over a 5-month period were asked to participate (n = 456), and 212 agreed (171 on HDM). At 6 months, the sample size was 101 (34 discharged, 42 hospital/died/moved, 26 chose not to continue), and at 12 months it was 68 (similar reasons). After receiving meals for 6 and 12 months, participants showed greater improvement in most dietary intake variables than either a non-HDM comparison group or HDM participants who ate no HDM meal on the day of assessment. Compared to initial values, participants improved significantly in some variables for dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and nutrient density, and were less likely to be food insecure. Furthermore, HDM was more likely to impact those living alone and those with poorer initial status. This study provides strong evidence that HDM has a positive impact on the nutritional well-being of older persons. Food insecurity and dietary patterns are useful nutritional indicators of impact.
Rakhshandeh, Anoosh; Htoo, John K; Karrow, Neil; Miller, Stephen P; de Lange, Cornelis F M
The impact of immune system stimulation (ISS) on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of dietary methionine plus cysteine (SAA) intake for whole-body protein deposition (PD) was evaluated in growing pigs. For this purpose, sixty barrows were used in two experiments: thirty-six pigs in Expt I and twenty-four pigs in Expt II. Pigs were feed restricted and assigned to five levels of dietary SAA allowance (three and two levels in Expt I and II, respectively) from SAA-limiting diets. Following adaptation, pigs at each dietary SAA level were injected with either increasing amounts of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (ISS+; eight and six pigs per dietary SAA level in Expt I and II, respectively) or saline (ISS - ; four and six pigs in Expt I and II, respectively) while measuring the whole-body nitrogen (N) balance. After N-balance observations, pigs were euthanised, organs were removed and ileal digesta were collected for determining nutrient digestibility. Ileal digestibility of gross energy, crude protein and amino acids was not affected by ISS (P>0·20). ISS reduced PD at all levels of dietary SAA intake (P< 0·01). The linear relationship between daily dietary SAA intake and PD observed at the three lowest dietary SAA intake levels indicated that ISS increased extrapolated maintenance SAA requirements (P< 0·05), but had no effect on the partial efficiency of the utilisation of dietary SAA intake for PD (P>0·20). Physiological and metabolic changes associated with systemic ISS had no effect on the ileal digestibility of nutrients per se, but altered SAA requirements for PD in growing pigs.
Bharti, Vijay K; Gupta, Meenakshi; Lall, D
It is well known that excessive accumulation of fluorides can exert toxic effects on various tissues and organs so as to severely damage the health and production of animals. The aim of this study was to determine beneficial effect of boron on nutrient utilization in buffalo calves exposed to high fluoride (F) ration. For this purpose, we used three groups of four male Murrah buffalo calves (body weight 98-100 kg, aged 6-8 month) each. Control animal was given only basal diet and concentrate mixture. However, treatment I animals were fed basal diet, concentrate mixture, and F [as NaF, 60 ppm of dry matter (DM)]. The treatment II animals were fed basal diet, concentrate mixture, F (as NaF, 60 ppm of DM), and B (as sodium tetraborate, 140 ppm of DM). After 90 days of experimental feeding, a metabolism trial of 7 days duration was conducted to study the treatment effect on nutrient utilization of proximate nutrients, absorption, excretion, and retention of N, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, and F. Dietary F significantly (p < 0.05) depressed the dry matter intake and increased the apparent digestibility, absorption, and retention of F. However, boron supplementation significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the apparent digestibility, absorption, and retention of F and improved the dry matter intake, fecal excretion, and percent of absorbed F excreted via urine. Apparent digestibility of proximate nutrients (viz. DM, crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract, and nitrogen free extract) was unaffected on either F or F+B treatment. However, absorption and excretion of N, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, and Cu were affected significantly (p < 0.05) on F or F+B treatment. These findings suggest that fluoride-containing diet for short duration has effect on nutrient utilization, and boron at 140-ppm dose level, in general, antagonized the absorption and retention of F and also improved the feed intake in buffalo calves.
Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; García, Esther López; Gorgojo, Lydia; Garcés, Carmen; Royo, Miguel Angel; Martín Moreno, José María; Benavente, Mercedes; Macías, Alfonso; De Oya, Manuel
The present study tests the hypothesis that higher consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt is associated with higher intake of energy, saturated fats, sugars and worse overall diet quality among Spanish children. This is a cross-sectional study covering 1112 children aged 6.0-7.0 years in four Spanish cities. Nutrient and food intake were obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire, and overall diet quality calculated using the healthy-eating index (HEI) developed by Kennedy et al. (1995). Standardized methods were used to measure anthropometric variables. Associations of interest were summarized as the difference in nutrient and food consumption between the value of the fifth and the first quintile of consumption (dq) of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks or yogurt, adjusted for energy intake and BMI. Bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt supplied 15.5, 1.0 and 5.6 % energy intake respectively. Higher consumption of these three foods was associated with greater energy intake (P<0.001), but not with higher BMI. Consumption of bakery products was associated with the proportion of energy derived from intake of total carbohydrates (dq 4.5 %, P<0.001) and sugars (dq 2 %, P<0.001), but did not show association with the HEI. Consumption of sweetened soft drinks was associated with a lower consumption of milk (dq -88 ml, P<0.001) and Ca (dq -175 mg/d, P<0.001), and worse HEI (dq -2, P<0.01). Consumption of yogurt, while associated with higher energy intake from saturated fats (dq 1.77 %, P<0.001) and sugars (dq 2.02 %, P<0.001), showed no association with the HEI. Differences in the intake of nutrients and foods across quintiles of consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt were usually very small. We conclude that the impact of the consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt on the quality of the diet of Spanish children is only modest, although it may contribute to aggravating
De Castro, J M
The influence of the ingestion of particular beverages and foods on the overall nutrient intakes and meal patterns of humans was investigated by paying 323 adults to maintain 7-day diaries of everything they ingested, time of ingestion, and subjective and social conditions. Ingestion of noncaloric beverages, diet sodas, and coffee or tea, were associated with low overall intakes but were not found to influence the amount eaten over the course of the day or in individual meals. Fifteen different caloric containing drink or food types were found, in general, to add to the total calories ingested in meals or over the day without displacing calories ingested in other forms. The results indicate that individual foods or beverages are ingested independent of other constituents and that intake within meals or over the entire day is elastic and readily influenced by nonregulatory factors.
Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Hong; Perkins, Anthony; Wang, Yan; Sun, Jing
This study aimed to evaluate dietary nutrient intake among Chinese pregnant women by comparison with Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) and to explore the association between dietary nutrients and preterm birth. A case-control design was conducted in Beijing with 130 preterm delivery mothers in case group and 381 term delivery mothers in control group. Information on mothers' diet was collected using a food frequency questionnaire, and nutrients and energy intakes were subsequently calculated based on DRIs. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare the differences between term and preterm groups in relation to dietary nutrients. Dietary nutrient intakes were imbalanced in both groups compared with Chinese DRIs. Preterm delivery mothers had a lower level of fat and vitamin E intake than term delivery mothers (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed lower vitamin E intake in preterm delivery mothers with a prepregnancy BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 (p < 0.05) and higher carbohydrate intake in preterm delivery mothers with prepregnancy BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 (p < 0.05). An imbalanced diet in both groups and low level of dietary intakes of fat and vitamin E in preterm group suggest health education measures should be taken to improve the dietary quality of pregnant women, especially for those with an abnormal prepregnancy BMI.
Grimes, Carley A; Riddell, Lynn J; Nowson, Caryl A
Overall the diets of Australian schoolchildren are suboptimal, but differences in nutrient and food intake on school versus non-school days have not been assessed. The aim of this study was to examine differences in nutrient and core and non-core food intake on school days versus non-school days in Australian schoolchildren aged 6-16 years. Cross-sectional analysis of the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Dietary intake was assessed via one 24-h dietary recall. A school day was defined as Monday-Friday, a non-school day included Saturday, Sunday and public/school holidays. Independent t-tests and χ(2) tests were used to assess differences in continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multiple linear and logistic regression was used to adjust for confounders. Forty-eight per cent of recalls were completed on a non-school day. On non-school days primary schoolchildren aged 6-11 years (n = 1334) and secondary schoolchildren aged 12-16 years (n = 1362) had significantly higher absolute intakes of sugars, total fat and saturated fat (all P < 0.05). In addition the energy density of foods consumed was greater (P < 0.001), but there was no difference in the energy density of fluids. The sodium density of the diet did not differ across day types. On non-school days, total core food intake was ~30% higher and children were more likely to consume sugar-sweetened beverages, fried potatoes and take-away pizzas and burgers (all P < 0.05). Important differences in the intake of sugar, total fat, and saturated fat and noncore foods exist on non-school days compared to school days in Australian schoolchildren. To improve the diets of schoolchildren there is scope for strategies that target non-school day eating practices.
Schober, Gudrun; Lange, Kylie; Steinert, Robert E; Hutchison, Amy T; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Landrock, Maria F; Horowitz, Michael; Seimon, Radhika V; Feinle-Bisset, Christine
We have previously identified pyloric pressures and plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations as independent determinants of energy intake following administration of intraduodenal lipid and intravenous CCK. We evaluated in healthy men whether these parameters also determine energy intake in response to intraduodenal protein, and whether, across the nutrients, any predominant gastrointestinal (GI) factors exist, or many factors make small contributions. Data from nine published studies, in which antropyloroduodenal pressures, GI hormones, and GI /appetite perceptions were measured during intraduodenal lipid or protein infusions, were pooled. In all studies energy intake was quantified immediately after the infusions. Specific variables for inclusion in a mixed-effects multivariable model for determination of independent predictors of energy intake were chosen following assessment for collinearity, and within-subject correlations between energy intake and these variables were determined using bivariate analyses adjusted for repeated measures. In models based on all studies, or lipid studies, there were significant effects for amplitude of antral pressure waves, premeal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and time-to-peak GLP-1 concentrations, GLP-1 AUC and bloating scores (P < 0.05), and trends for basal pyloric pressure (BPP), amplitude of duodenal pressure waves, peak CCK concentrations, and hunger and nausea scores (0.05 < P ≤ 0.094), to be independent determinants of subsequent energy intake. In the model including the protein studies, only BPP was identified as an independent determinant of energy intake (P < 0.05). No single parameter was identified across all models, and effects of the variables identified were relatively small. Taken together, while GI mechanisms contribute to the regulation of acute energy intake by lipid and protein, their contribution to the latter is much less. Moreover, the effects are likely to reflect small, cumulative
Flax, Valerie L; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Reinhart, Greg A; Bentley, Margaret E
Inadequate energy intake and poor diet quality are important causes of chronic child undernutrition. Strategies for improving diet quality using lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) are currently being tested in several countries. To date, information on children's dietary intakes during LNS use is available only from Africa. In this study, we collected 24-h dietary recalls at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months on Honduran children (n = 298) participating in a cluster-randomised trial of LNS. Generalised estimating equations were used to examine differences in number of servings of 12 food groups in the LNS and control arms, and multi-level mixed effects models were used to compare macro- and micronutrient intakes. Models accounted for clustering and adjusted for child's age, season and breastfeeding status. Mean daily servings of 12 food groups did not differ by study arm at baseline and remained similar throughout the study with the exception of groups that were partially or entirely supplied by LNS (nuts and nut butters, fats, and sweets). Baseline intakes of energy, fat, carbohydrates, protein, folate and vitamin A, but not vitamin B12, iron and zinc were lower in the LNS than control arm. The change in all macro- and micronutrients from baseline to each study visit was larger for the LNS arm than the control, except for carbohydrates from baseline to 9 months. These findings indicate that LNS improved the macro- and micronutrient intakes of young non-malnourished Honduran children without replacing other foods in their diet.
Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Samsudin, Anjas Asmara; Alimon, Abd Rasak; Karim, Roselina; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Sabow, Azad Behnan
The study examined the effects of blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil (BCPO) on nutrient intake and digestibility, growth performance, rumen fermentation and fatty acids (FA) in goats. Twenty-four Boer bucks were randomly assigned to diets containing 0, 4 and 8% BCPO on a dry matter basis, fed for 100 days and slaughtered. Diet did not affect feed efficiency, growth performance, intake and digestibility of all nutrients except ether extract. Intakes and digestibilities of ether extract, unsaturated fatty acids (FA) and total FA were higher (P < 0.05) while digestibility of C18:0 was lower (P < 0.05) in oil-fed goats than the control goats. Total volatile FA, acetate, butyrate, acetate/propionate ratio and methane decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing BCPO but propionate, NH3 -N and rumen pH did not differ between diets. Ruminal concentration of C18:0, n-3 FA and total FA increased (P < 0.05) while C12:0, C14:0, C15:0 and n-6 FA decreased with increasing BCPO. Analysis of the FA composition of Triceps brachii muscle showed that concentrations of C16:0, C14:0 and C18:2n-6 were lower (P < 0.05) while C18:1n-9, C18:3n-3 and C20:5n-3 were higher in oil-fed goats compared with control goats. Dietary BCPO altered muscle lipids without having detrimental effects on nutrient intake and digestibility and growth performance in goats.
Hilger, Jennifer; Goerig, Tatiana; Weber, Peter; Hoeft, Birgit; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Costa Carvalho, Nina; Goldberger, Ursula; Hoffmann, Kristina
Adequate nutrient intake during early childhood is of particular importance for optimal growth and future health. However, cross-national comparative research on nutrient intake of toddlers is still limited. We conducted a literature review to examine the nutrient intake in healthy toddlers from some of the world’s most populous nations currently on different stages of socioeconomic development: Brazil, Germany, Russia and the United States. We aimed to identify national surveys reporting mean intakes of the following nutrients: vitamins A, D, E, folate, calcium, iron and zinc. To calculate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake, we used a modified version of the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Overall, five studies with 6756 toddlers were eligible for inclusion in this review. In countries where data were available, a prevalence of inadequate intake higher than 20% was found for vitamins A, D, E and calcium. In Germany, folate intake also appeared to be inadequate. The results of our review indicate that inadequate micronutrient intake in toddlers might be a global challenge affecting also affluent countries. However, to explore the full scope of this important public health issue joint efforts of researchers worldwide are needed to combine existing data and fill in data gaps. PMID:26295254
Awawdeh, M. S.; Obeidat, B. S.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of partial replacement of wheat hay with sun-dried (SOC) or acid-treated SOC (ASOC) olive cake on nutrient intake and performance of Awassi lambs. An additional objective was to study the effects of acid treatment of olive cake (OC) on its chemical composition and nutritive value. On DM basis, sun-drying of OC did not dramatically affect its chemical composition. On the other hand, treating SOC with phosphoric acid decreased (p<0.05) SOC contents of neutral detergent fiber. Twenty seven male lambs (17.6±0.75 kg body weight) individually housed in shaded pens were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments (9 lambs/treatment). Dietary treatments were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous by replacing 50% of wheat hay in the control diet (CTL) with SOC or ASOC and to meet all nutrient requirements. Dietary treatments had no effects on nutrient intake or digestibility except for ether extract. Lambs fed the SOC diet had (p = 0.05) faster growth rate, greater final body weight, and greater total body weight gain in comparison with the CTL diet, but not different from the ASOC diet. Additionally, lambs fed the SOC diet had greater (p = 0.03) hot and cold carcass weights than the ASOC diet, but not different from the CTL diet. However, feed conversion ratios and dressing percentages were similar among dietary treatments. In conclusion, replacing half of dietary wheat hay with SOC improved performance of Awassi lambs with no detrimental effects on nutrients intake or digestibility. No further improvements in the nutritive value of SOC and lambs performance were detected when SOC was treated with acid. PMID:25049836
Santana, A; Cajarville, C; Mendoza, A; Repetto, J L
Diets combining herbage and total mixed rations (TMR) are increasingly used in temperate regions for feeding ruminants, but little information is available regarding the effects on nutrient intake and digestion of this feeding management in beef cattle. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of combining TMR (10% CP and 13% ADF), and legume-based herbage (14% CP and 27% ADF) on intake, nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, microbial N flow and glucose and nitrogen metabolism in heifers. The experiment was a 3×3 Latin square design replicated three times; each period lasted 18 days (10 adaptation days and 8 measurement days). Nine cross-bred (Aberdeen Angus×Hereford) heifers (214±18 kg) fitted with permanent rumen catheters and housed in individual metabolic cages were assigned to one of three treatments: 24 h access to TMR ( T ), 24 h access to herbage ( H ) or combined diets with 18 h access to TMR and 6 h access to herbage ( T+H ). Data were evaluated using a mixed model. Animals fed T+H (TMR 71% and herbage 29%) diets tended to have a higher dry matter intake as a proportion of their BW than animals fed T. The T+H diet did not change ruminal fermentation (pH, N-NH3 and volatile fatty acids) or the N metabolism relative to the T diet, but increased the glucagon concentration and altered glucose metabolism. Conversely, animals fed T+H had increased purine derivatives excretion, increased N use efficiency for microbial protein synthesis and decreased plasma urea and urinary N excretion relative to animals fed H diet. The use of combined diets led to consumption of nutrients similar to a TMR diet, without reducing nutrient use and could improve N utilization compared with the herbage-only diet.
Freitas-Vilela, Ana Amélia; Smith, Andrew D A C; Kac, Gilberto; Pearson, Rebecca M; Heron, Jon; Emond, Alan; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade; Emmett, Pauline M
Little is known about how dietary patterns of mothers and their children track over time. The objectives of this study are to obtain dietary patterns in pregnancy using cluster analysis, to examine women's mean nutrient intakes in each cluster and to compare the dietary patterns of mothers to those of their children. Pregnant women (n = 12 195) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children reported their frequency of consumption of 47 foods and food groups. These data were used to obtain dietary patterns during pregnancy by cluster analysis. The absolute and energy-adjusted nutrient intakes were compared between clusters. Women's dietary patterns were compared with previously derived clusters of their children at 7 years of age. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to evaluate relationships comparing maternal and offspring clusters. Three maternal clusters were identified: 'fruit and vegetables', 'meat and potatoes' and 'white bread and coffee'. After energy adjustment women in the 'fruit and vegetables' cluster had the highest mean nutrient intakes. Mothers in the 'fruit and vegetables' cluster were more likely than mothers in 'meat and potatoes' (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.00; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.69-2.36) or 'white bread and coffee' (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.87-2.53) clusters to have children in a 'plant-based' cluster. However the majority of children were in clusters unrelated to their mother dietary pattern. Three distinct dietary patterns were obtained in pregnancy; the 'fruit and vegetables' pattern being the most nutrient dense. Mothers' dietary patterns were associated with but did not dominate offspring dietary patterns.
Cheng, Yipeng; Zhang, Kewei; Chen, Yang; Li, Yanchuan; Li, Yuzheng; Fu, Kuang; Feng, Rennan
Dietary habits are crucial in the progression of hepatic lipid accumulation and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, there are limited studies using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and dual-echo in-phase and out-phase magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (dual-echo MRI) to assess the effects of dietary nutrient intakes on hepatic lipid contents. In the present study, we recruited 36 female adults (NAFLD:control = 19:17) to receive questionnaires and medical examinations, including dietary intakes, anthropometric and biochemical measurements, and 1H-MRS and dual-echo MRI examinations. NAFLD patients were found to consume diets higher in energy, protein, fat, saturated fatty acid (SFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Total energy intake was positively associated with hepatic fat fraction (HFF) and intrahepatic lipid (IHL) after adjustment for age and body-mass index (BMI) (HFF: β = 0.24, p = 0.02; IHL: β = 0.38, p = 0.02). Total fat intake was positively associated with HFF and IHL after adjustment for age, BMI and total energy intake (HFF: β = 0.36, p = 0.03; IHL: β = 0.42, p = 0.01). SFA intake was positively associated with HFF and IHL after adjustments (HFF: β = 0.45, p = 0.003; IHL: β = 1.16, p = 0.03). In conclusion, hepatic fat content was associated with high energy, high fat and high SFA intakes, quantified by 1H-MRS and dual-echo MRI in our population. Our findings are useful to provide dietary targets to prevent the hepatic lipid accumulation and NAFLD. PMID:27618908
Cheng, Yipeng; Zhang, Kewei; Chen, Yang; Li, Yanchuan; Li, Yuzheng; Fu, Kuang; Feng, Rennan
Dietary habits are crucial in the progression of hepatic lipid accumulation and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, there are limited studies using ¹H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS) and dual-echo in-phase and out-phase magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (dual-echo MRI) to assess the effects of dietary nutrient intakes on hepatic lipid contents. In the present study, we recruited 36 female adults (NAFLD:control = 19:17) to receive questionnaires and medical examinations, including dietary intakes, anthropometric and biochemical measurements, and ¹H-MRS and dual-echo MRI examinations. NAFLD patients were found to consume diets higher in energy, protein, fat, saturated fatty acid (SFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Total energy intake was positively associated with hepatic fat fraction (HFF) and intrahepatic lipid (IHL) after adjustment for age and body-mass index (BMI) (HFF: β = 0.24, p = 0.02; IHL: β = 0.38, p = 0.02). Total fat intake was positively associated with HFF and IHL after adjustment for age, BMI and total energy intake (HFF: β = 0.36, p = 0.03; IHL: β = 0.42, p = 0.01). SFA intake was positively associated with HFF and IHL after adjustments (HFF: β = 0.45, p = 0.003; IHL: β = 1.16, p = 0.03). In conclusion, hepatic fat content was associated with high energy, high fat and high SFA intakes, quantified by ¹H-MRS and dual-echo MRI in our population. Our findings are useful to provide dietary targets to prevent the hepatic lipid accumulation and NAFLD.
Background: Picky eating (PE) is characterized by an unwillingness to eat certain foods and by strong food preferences. PE may result in lower intakes of energy and nutrients, which may compromise health. Objectives: We quantified nutrient and food group intakes in children identified as picky eaters or nonpicky eaters and compared intakes between groups and with United Kingdom reference nutrient intakes. Design: PE was identified in an observational cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) from questionnaires administered when children were aged 2, 3, 4.5, and 5.5 y. Dietary intake was assessed at 3.5 and 7.5 y with a 3-d food record. The dietary assessment at 3.5 y compared picky eaters with nonpicky eaters identified at age 3 y, and the assessment at 7.5 y compared longitudinally defined PE groups. Results: Picky eaters aged 3 y had lower mean carotene, iron, and zinc intakes than nonpicky eaters. There were similar differences between the longitudinally defined PE groups. Iron and zinc intakes were most likely to be below recommended amounts, with free sugar intake much higher than recommended. There were no significant differences in energy intakes between the groups, and intakes were adequate relative to estimated average requirements. Nutrient differences were explained by lower intakes of meat, fish, vegetables, and fruits in picky eaters than in nonpicky eaters. There were higher intakes of sugary foods and drinks in older picky eaters. Conclusions: PE did not result in compromised macronutrient intakes, although intakes of zinc and iron were more likely to be below recommendations for picky eaters than for nonpicky eaters. Emphasis should be placed on allaying parental concerns about picky eaters being prone to inadequate nutrient intakes and on encouraging all parents to extend their child’s diet to include more nutrient-rich items, especially fruits and vegetables, and less nutrient-poor sugary foods. PMID:27935522
Effects of segregation and impact of specific feeding behaviour and additional fruit on voluntary nutrient and energy intake in yellow-shouldered amazons (Amazona barbadensis) when fed a multi-component seed diet ad libitum.
Kalmar, I D; Veys, A C; Geeroms, B; Reinschmidt, M; Waugh, D; Werquin, G; Janssens, G P J
Parrots are commonly fed multi-component seed diets; however, both segregation and feeding behaviour might alter ingredient and nutrient composition of the offered diet. First, the nutritional impact of segregation was assessed as it occurs when multi-component diets are temporarily stored in food containers that are replenished before completely emptied and birds being fed from the upper layer. The most detrimental effect hereof was a vast decrease in mineral supplements, leading to a decrease in Ca:P ratio in the offered food in relation to the formulated diet. Next, caloric distribution shifted towards more EE energy at the expense of NFE energy, as proportion of oilseeds increased and NFE-rich seeds decreased. Next, a feeding trial was performed on six yellow-shouldered amazons (Amazona Barbadensis) in which nutritional impact of parrot-specific feeding behaviour was assessed as well as the influence of additional provision of fruit next to the seed mixture. Profound selective feeding behaviour and dehusking of seeds resulted in a vast increase in energetic density by up to 64% in the ingested fraction in relation to the offered mixture in toto. Furthermore, the already suboptimal Ca:P ratio further deteriorated and caloric distribution shifted by over twofold towards EE energy accompanied with a vast decline in NFE energy, CP energy remaining similar. Finally, provision of fruit next to the seed diet significantly lowered voluntary energy intake from 936 ± 71 to 809 ± 109 kJ ME/kg(0.75)/day, without compromising adequate protein intake. In conclusion, notwithstanding efforts of nutritionists to formulate diets to approximate estimated, species-specific requirements, nutritional composition of the actually consumed fraction of multi-component seed diets can be vastly deteriorated by both animal and management factors. Furthermore, offering of fruit next to a seed-based diet effectively reduces voluntary energy intake and can hence be applied to abate obesity.
Rosol, Renata; Powell-Hellyer, Stephanie; Chan, Hing Man
Background The pervasive food insecurity and the diet transition away from local, nutrient-rich country foods present a public health challenge among Inuit living in the Canadian Arctic. While environmental factors such as climate change decreased the accessibility and availability of many country food species, new species were introduced into regions where they were previously unavailable. An adaptation such as turning to alternate country food species can be a viable solution to substitute for the nutrients provided by the declined food species. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact on nutrient intake using hypothetical scenarios that current commonly harvested country foods were reduced by 50%, and were replaced with alternate or new species. Methods Data collected during the 2007–2008 Inuit Health Survey from 36 Canadian Arctic communities spanning Nunavut, the Inuvialuit Settlement Region and Nunatsiavut were used. Results A 50% decline in consumption of fish, whale, ringed seals and birds (the food that was reported to be in decline) resulted in a significant decrease in essential nutrient intake. Possible substitute foods were identified but some nutrients such as zinc and especially vitamin D were most often found lacking in the alternative diet. Conclusions If the alternative species are not available or feasible, more expensive and less nutritionally dense store-bought foods may be sought. Given the superior quality of country foods and their association with food security, and Inuit cultural health and personal identity, developing skills and awareness for adaptation, promoting regional sharing networks, forming a co-management agency and continuing nutritional monitoring may potentially preserve the nutritional integrity of Inuit diet, and in turn their health and cultural survival. PMID:27388896
Purttiponthanee, Sasiumphai; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen; Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Senaprom, Sayamon; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul
The study investigated the association between breakfast types consumed, daily energy intake, and body mass index for age Z-score (BAZ). Cross-sectional data from 1258 children aged 7 to 12.9 years were analyzed for breakfast type, nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight or obesity. Analysis of covariance was used to compare energy and nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight/obese children between breakfast groups. Only 19% of children had adequate energy intake from breakfast. Those consuming snacks had a significantly lower BAZ (Z = -0.73), with 5% of them being overweight/obese. Those consuming beverages and desserts had the lowest total daily energy intake (1314 kcal) and lowest protein intake (8.4 g). The results suggest that breakfast type is associated with daily energy intake and BAZ. Most breakfasts are not adequate. School-based nutrition education programs involving families, teachers, and health professionals can contribute to improve this situation.
Bowman, Elizabeth; Tatar, Marc
BACKGROUND: The ratio of protein to carbohydrate (P:C) consumed influences reproduction and lifespan, outcomes that are often maximized by different P:C intake. OBJECTIVE: Determine if reproduction in female Drosophila drives elevated P:C intake. Distinguish whether such a preference is driven by egg production or from male-derived sex peptides in seminal fluid. METHODS: Intake of protein and carbohydrate was measured in a diet-choice assay. Macronutrient intake was calculated for mated and unmated fertile females, mated and unmated sterile females, and both types of female when mated to wildtype males and to males lacking sex peptide. RESULTS: Mated females have high P:C intake relative to unmated females and mated, sterile females. Fertile females mated to wildtype males and to males lacking sex peptide have high P:C intake, but sterile females have similar, low P:C intake when unmated and when mated to males lacking sex peptide. CONCLUSIONS: The metabolic demands of egg production and sex peptides are individually sufficient to drive elevated P:C intake in adult female Drosophila. Reproductive state can thus modulate how animals consume macronutrients, which in turn can impact their health and aging. PMID:28035342
Elbers, Clara C.; de Kovel, Carolien G. F.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Meijboom, Juliaan R.; Bauer, Florianne; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Trynka, Gosia; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte
There is a large variation in caloric intake and macronutrient preference between individuals and between ethnic groups, and these food intake patterns show a strong heritability. The transition to new food sources during the agriculture revolution around 11,000 years ago probably created selective pressure and shaped the genome of modern humans. One major player in energy homeostasis is the appetite-stimulating hormone neuropeptide Y, in which the stimulatory capacity may be mediated by the neuropeptide Y receptors 1, 2 and 5 (NPY1R, NPY2R and NPY5R). We assess association between variants in the NPY1R, NPY2R and NPY5R genes and nutrient intake in a cross-sectional, single-center study of 400 men aged 40 to 80 years, and we examine whether genomic regions containing these genes show signatures of recent selection in 270 HapMap individuals (90 Africans, 90 Asians, and 90 Caucasians) and in 846 Dutch bloodbank controls. Our results show that derived alleles in NPY1R and NPY5R are associated with lower carbohydrate intake, mainly because of a lower consumption of mono- and disaccharides. We also show that carriers of these derived alleles, on average, consume meals with a lower glycemic index and glycemic load and have higher alcohol consumption. One of these variants shows the hallmark of recent selection in Europe. Our data suggest that lower carbohydrate intake, consuming meals with a low glycemic index and glycemic load, and/or higher alcohol consumption, gave a survival advantage in Europeans since the agricultural revolution. This advantage could lie in overall health benefits, because lower carbohydrate intake, consuming meals with a low GI and GL, and/or higher alcohol consumption, are known to be associated with a lower risk of chronic diseases. PMID:19759915
Thompson, S N; Borchardt, D B; Wang, L-W
This study examined the effects of dietary casein and sucrose levels on nutrient intake, and distinguished the effects of carbohydrate and protein consumption on growth, fat content, pyruvate metabolism and blood trehalose level of 5th instar Manduca sexta larvae. Growth increased with increasing casein consumption but was unaffected by carbohydrate intake. Fat content also increased with carbohydrate consumption, but on carbohydrate-free diets fat content increased with increased protein consumption. Blood trehalose level and pyruvate metabolism were examined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis of blood following administration of (3-(13)C)pyruvate. On diets containing sucrose, blood trehalose increased with increasing carbohydrate intake, and on most diets trehalose was synthesized entirely from dietary sucrose. Pyruvate cycling, indicated by the alanine C2/C3 (13)C enrichment ratio, increased with carbohydrate consumption reflecting increased glycolysis, and pyruvate decarboxylation exceeded carboxylation on all sucrose diets. Larvae that consumed <75 mg/day sucrose were gluconeogenic, based on the [2 (trehalose C6)(Glx C3/C2)]/alanine C2] (13)C enrichment ratio. On carbohydrate-free diets, blood trehalose levels were low and maintained entirely by gluconeogenesis. Blood trehalose level increased with increasing protein intake. Pyruvate cycling was very low, although many insects displayed higher levels of pyruvate decarboxylation than carboxylation. All gluconeogenic larvae displayed alanine (13)C enrichment ratios <0.35 and had blood trehalose levels <50 mM.
Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Paknahad, Zamzam; Khoigani, Masoomeh Goodarzi
Background: Since preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is one of the most important complications of pregnancy and its relationship with nutrition status have not been surveyed comprehensively, we decided to study the relationship of maternal received nutrients (36 macro- and micro-nutrients) in three trimesters and PPROM which could be considered as a unique study. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, data was collected by filling a questionnaire through interviews with 620 pregnant women who had no parameters to affect pregnancy outcome. 48-hr dietary recalls were completed for eligible women at 11th–15th, 26th, 34th–37th weeks of gestation. Physical activity was also assessed using a standard questionnaire. Also pregnant mother's reproductive and demographic characteristic and supplementation are considered. Results: The mean value of received saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and energy, in the first trimester (P < 0.001, P = 0.007, and P < 0.001 respectively), the mean values of calcium, sodium intake in the second trimester (P = 0.045, P = 0.006, and P = 0.004 respectively), Vitamins C, A (mg), β-carotene, cartenoids intake in the second trimester (P = 0.03, P = 0.001, P = 0.007, and P = 0.01 respectively), and higher Vitamin C intake during the first trimester (P = 0.02) was significantly greater among subjects with PPROM compared to the others. Conclusions: The mean value of mentioned received nutrients in subjects who experienced PPROM later in pregnancy was higher than the others, which is independent of demographic and reproductive characteristic, estimated physical activity, and supplementation. Therefore, these findings could be considered in the nutritional programming for pregnant women to manage the risk of PPROM. PMID:27713876
Sharkey, Joseph R
This study examined the independent association of food sufficiency status with lowest nutrient intakes and multimorbidity among homebound older women who received home-delivered meals. Baseline data from the Nutrition and Function Study were used to identify three categories of food sufficiency status [food sufficient (FS), risk of food insufficiency (RFI) and food insufficient (FI)], calculate summary measures of musculoskeletal (calcium, vitamin D, magnesium and phosphorus) and overall nutrient intakes, and examine, using multivariable logistic regression models, the association of food sufficiency status with nutrition and health outcomes among 279 women who received regular home-delivered meals service (5 weekday meals/wk) and completed an in-home assessment and three 24-h dietary recalls. Independent of income and other variables, the adjusted odds for reporting lowest intakes in individual and multiple nutrients (> or = 2 musculoskeletal and > or = 5 overall) were significantly greater among women who reported RFI [odds ratio (OR) = 1.96 to 2.91] and FI (OR = 2.85 to 5.21). In addition, FI women were more likely to report a burden of multimorbidity (OR = 3.69). Considering the importance of home-delivered meals as a primary source of food assistance to homebound older women, the results of this study suggest the need to reevaluate the traditional model of home-delivered meals and to include measures of food sufficiency status as an integral component of program assessment and evaluation for the targeting and monitoring of new, innovative and cost-effective strategies to alleviate risk and the presence of food insufficiency.
Kong, Angela; Beresford, Shirley A A; Alfano, Catherine M; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Neuhouser, Marian L; Johnson, Donna B; Duggan, Catherine; Wang, Ching-Yun; Xiao, Liren; Bain, Carolyn E; McTiernan, Anne
Snacking may play a role in weight control. The associations of timing and frequency of snacking with observed weight change and nutrient intake were assessed in an ancillary study to a 12-month randomized controlled trial in Seattle, WA. Overweight-to-obese postmenopausal women (n=123) enrolled in the two dietary weight-loss arms from 2007 to 2008 with complete data at 12 months were included in these analyses. Generalized linear models were used to test the associations between snacking and weight loss (percent) and nutrient intake at the 12-month time point. Participants were, on average, 58 years old and mainly non-Hispanic white (84%). Ninety-seven percent reported one or more snacks per day. Weight loss (percent) was significantly lower among mid-morning (10:30 am to 11:29 am) snackers (7.0%, 95% confidence interval: 4.3 to 9.7) compared to non-mid-morning snackers (11.4%, 95% confidence interval: 10.2 to 12.6; P=0.005). A higher proportion of mid-morning snackers reported more than one snack per day (95.7%), compared to afternoon (82.8%) and evening (80.6%) snackers, although differences were not statistically significant (P>0.005). Women who reported two or more snacks per day vs one or no snacks per day had higher fiber intake (P=0.027). Afternoon snackers had higher fruit and vegetable intake compared to non-afternoon-snackers (P=0.035). These results suggest that snack meals can be a source for additional fruits, vegetables, and fiber-rich foods; however, snacking patterns might also reflect unhealthy eating habits and impede weight-loss progress. Future dietary weight-loss interventions should evaluate the effects of timing, frequency, and quality of snacks on weight loss.
Park, Sunmin; Ahn, Jaeouk; Lee, Byung-Kook
Despite advertised health warnings regarding the deadly hazards of smoking, many people have not heeded recommendations to quit smoking. We examined factors that affect self-rated subjective health status (SRH) scores among lifestyle, nutrient intake and biochemical parameters, and the association of SRH scores and smoking status in a large Korean adult population. Adjusted odd ratios for SRH were calculated for smoking status, selected biochemical data, and food and nutrient intake obtained using the 24-hr recall method after covariate adjustment in the 2007-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (27,534 men and women aged ≥ 20 yr). Age, sex, income, education, drinking, exercise and stress levels were associated with SRH scores, regardless of smoking status (P < 0.001). Interestingly, people in any smoking status groups considered the well-known indicators for metabolic diseases (HDL cholesterol, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase in the circulation), and the intake of fiber, total vitamins A, and vitamin C as indicators of SRH. Especially in current smokers, higher intake of nutritious food groups such as grains (OR = 1.227), vegetables (OR = 1.944), and milk (OR = 2.26) significantly increased the adjusted odds ratio of SRH. However, smoking status was not associated with SRH scores. In conclusion, SRH is affected by the indices related to health but not smoking status in Korean adults. The development of a new indicator of the direct adverse effects of smoking at regular health check-ups might be required to modulate the SRH in smokers and a nutritional education should not include the possible attenuation of adverse effects of smoking by good nutrition.
Subhashchandra Bose, Bisitha Kattiparambil; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Tho, Nguyen Thi Be; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Sontakke, Umesh Balaji
Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its body weight and growth rate over a specific period. The objective of this study was to determine the RFI of buffalo calves using residuals from appropriate linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body weight. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 months were selected and fed individually. A feeding trial using ad libitum feeding of total mixed ration (TMR, concentrate/roughage = 40:60) was conducted for 52 days in which the daily DMI, weekly body weight (BW) and growth rate of the calves were monitored. RFI of calves ranged from -0.20 to +0.23 kg/day. Mean DMI (in grams per kilogram of BW(0.75)) during the feeding trial period was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (79.66 g/kg BW(0.75)) compared to high RFI (87.74 g/kg BW(0.75)). Average initial BW, final BW and mid-test BW(0.75) did not differ (P > 0.05) between low and high RFI groups. Over the course of a trial period, low RFI group animals consumed 10% less feed compared to high RFI group of animals, yet performed in a comparable manner in terms of growth rate. Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (13.54 MJ/100 kg BW) as compared to that of high RFI group (15.56 MJ/100 kg BW). The present study indicates that RFI is a promising selection tool for the selection of buffaloes for increased feed efficiency.
Hennessy, Áine; Hannon, Evelyn M; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert
Because of the discretionary nature of voluntary food fortification in the European Union, there is a need to monitor fortification practices and consumption of fortified foods in order to assess the efficacy and safety of such additions on an ongoing basis. The present study aimed to investigate the nutritional impact of changes in voluntary fortification practices in adults aged 18-64 years using dietary intake data from two nationally representative cross-sectional food consumption surveys, the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey (NSIFCS) (1997-9) and the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) (2008-10). The supply of fortified foods increased between 1997-9 and 2008-10, resulting in a higher proportion of adults consuming fortified foods (from 67 to 82 ) and a greater contribution to mean daily energy intake (from 4.6 to 8.4%). The overall nutrient profile of fortified foods consumed remained favourable, i.e. higher in starch and dietary fibre and lower in fat and saturated fat, with polyunsaturated fat, sugars and Na in proportion to energy. Women, particularly those of childbearing age, remained the key beneficiaries of voluntary fortification practices in Ireland. Continued voluntary fortification of foods has increased protection against neural tube defect-affected pregnancy by folic acid and maintained the beneficial impact on the adequacy of Fe intake. Increased consumption of fortified foods did not contribute to an increased risk of intakes exceeding the tolerable upper intake level for any micronutrient. Recent increases in voluntary fortification of foods in Ireland have made a favourable nutritional impact on the diets of adults and have not contributed to an increased risk of adverse effects.
Lee, Bora; Kim, Hyogyoo; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of television food advertising on participant food intake and risk of obesity. A total of 2419 children aged 11-13 years were selected from 118 elementary schools in South Korea. All participants completed a self-administered questionnaire with questions about height, weight, television viewing times, food preferences, and food intakes. To estimate actual exposure to food advertising, we asked participants to specify the times at which they usually watched television. We then collected data on the various types of food advertisement broadcast on five different television networks during those viewing times over the course of the previous 7 months. The amount of television watched and exposure to energy-dense/nutrient-poor (EDNP) food advertising were associated with an increased risk of being overweight or obese. Exposure to television advertising for EDNP food was also significantly associated with higher EDNP food preference and intake and lower fruit and vegetable intake. However, these relationships disappeared for all foods after adjusting for the overall amount of television watched. Although it was not possible to conclude that exposure to television advertising for EDNP food was associated with an increased risk of obesity, preference for EDNP foods, or overall food intake due to the strong comprehensive effects of television viewing time, there was a reason to believe the evidence of the effects of advertising in this study. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine the exclusive effects of exposure to television advertising for EDNP food.
Murakami, Kentaro; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Livingstone, M Barbara E
The diversity of the associations of dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) with dietary intake and body fatness observed in epidemiological studies may be partly due to the differences in underlying dietary intake patterns. We examined the cross-sectional associations of dietary GI and GL with food and nutrient intakes and indices of body fatness in 818 children aged 4-10 years and 818 adolescents aged 11-18 years in Britain, based on the data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Dietary intake was assessed using a 7 d weighed dietary record. Overweight was defined as BMI ≥ 85th percentile of the age- and sex-specific British growth reference data. Central obesity was defined as waist:height ratio (WHtR) ≥ 0·5 (adolescents only). Breads, breakfast cereals and potatoes were the positive predictive food groups for dietary GI, while dairy products, fruit juice, other cereals and fruit were the negative predictors. Dietary GL was closely correlated with carbohydrate intake. Dietary GI showed no associations with overweight or central obesity. Conversely, dietary GL showed an independent association with a higher risk of overweight in children and a higher risk of central obesity (but not overweight) in adolescents. However, dietary GI and GL were not associated with BMI z-score in children and adolescents or WHtR in adolescents. In conclusion, the present study showed that dietary GL was independently associated with overweight in children and with central obesity in adolescents. Nevertheless, given no associations when body fatness measures were treated as continuous variables, the results must be interpreted cautiously.
Gibson, Sigrid A; Horgan, Graham W; Francis, Lucy E; Gibson, Amelia A; Stephen, Alison M
It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008-2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods.
Gibson, Sigrid A.; Horgan, Graham W.; Francis, Lucy E.; Gibson, Amelia A.; Stephen, Alison M.
It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008–2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods. PMID:26729159
Meshram, Indrapal Ishwarji; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Mallikharjuna Rao, Kodavanti; Laxmaiah, Avula; Brahmam, Ginnela Nag Veera
Undernutrition among children under five year is a significant public health problem in India. The present study was carried out to assess trends in nutritional status, nutrient and food intake among children under five year over two time periods. It was a community-based cross-sectional study, carried out in tribal areas of India. A total of 14,587 children, 0-5 years old were covered for nutritional assessment in terms of underweight, stunting and wasting. A 24 hour diet survey was carried out in a sub-sample of households surveyed. Wealth index was constructed using principle component analysis. The prevalence of underweight and stunting had declined significantly over the periods (49% vs 57%, 51% vs 58%, respectively), while the prevalence of wasting remained similar (22% vs 23%). There was marginal decrease in the intake of foods and nutrients over the periods, and was below recommended levels. Stepwise regression showed that the risk of underweight and stunting was significantly (p<0.01) higher among children of illiterate mothers and children from lowest and middle households wealth index. Morbidities during preceding fortnight had 1.3 times higher risk of underweight and wasting. In conclusion, undernutrition is a significant health problem among tribal children and is associated with literacy status of mothers, household wealth index and morbidities. Therefore implementation of appropriate nutritional intervention strategies and improvement in households food security through public distribution systems, food intakes, socioeconomic condition, literacy of parents and personal hygiene may help in improving the nutritional status of tribal children.
Micke, G C; Sullivan, T M; Gatford, K L; Owens, J A; Perry, V E A
Fetal and postnatal growth are mediated by insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs). Maternal nutrient intake during gestation can program the postnatal IGF-axis. This may have significant economic implications for beef cattle production. We investigated the effect of high (H=240%) and low (L=70%) levels of recommended daily crude protein (CP) intake for heifers during the first and second trimesters of gestation in a two-by-two factorial design on progeny (n=68) plasma IGF-I, IGF-II, total IGFBP (tIGFBP), postnatal growth and carcass traits. Calves were heavier at birth following high CP diets during the second trimester (P=0.03) and this persisted to 29d. Plasma IGF-I concentrations of males were greater for HL compared to LL (P<0.01) and HH (P>0.04) from 29 to 657d, and for LH compared to LL from 29 until 379d (P=0.02). Exposure to low CP diets during the first trimester resulted in heavier males from 191d onwards (P=0.04) but a tendency for lighter females from 552d onwards (P=0.07) that had lighter carcass weights (P=0.04). Longissimus dorsi cross-sectional area of all carcasses was greater following exposure to low CP diets during the second trimester (P=0.04). Heifer nutrient intake during the first and second trimesters causes persistent and sex-specific programming of progeny plasma IGF-I, postnatal liveweight and carcass weight. Refining heifer nutritional programs during early gestation may optimize production objectives in progeny.
Yamazaki, Toru; Martiniuk, Alexandra LC; Irie, Koichiro; Sokejima, Shigeru; Lee, Crystal Man Ying
Objectives The need for denture treatment in public health will increase as the population ages. However, the impact of dentures on nutrition, particularly overdenture treatment, remains unclear although the physical and psychological effects are known. We investigated whether treatment with a mandibular implant supported overdenture improves nutrient intake and markers of nutritional status better than a conventional complete denture in edentulous patients. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for eligible studies published up to April 2016. We included studies which compared the treatment effect of an overdenture to conventional denture on nutrition, in which primary outcomes included changes in intake of macronutrients and/or micronutrients and/or indicators of nutritional status. Two reviewers independently evaluated eligible studies and assessed the risk of bias. We used a fixed effects model to estimate the weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% CI for change in body mass index (BMI), albumin and serum vitamin B12 between overdenture and conventional denture 6 months after treatment. Results Of 108 eligible studies, 8 studies involving 901 participants were included in the narrative appraisal. Four studies reported changes in markers of nutritional status and nutrient intake after treatment with a prosthetic, regardless of type. In a meta-analysis of 322 participants aged 65 years or older from three studies, pooled analysis suggested no significant difference in change in BMI between an overdenture and conventional denture 6 months after treatment (WMD=−0.18 kg/m2 (95% CI −0.52 to 0.16)), and no significant difference in change in albumin or vitamin B12 between the two treatments. Conclusions The modifying effect of overdenture treatment on nutritional status might be limited. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness and efficacy of
Gerude Neto, Osman José de Aguiar; Parente, Michelle de Oliveira Maia; Alves, Arnaud Azevedo; dos Santos, Paull Andrews Carvalho; Moreira Filho, Miguel Arcanjo; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Gomes, Ruan Mourão da Silva
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on intake, apparent digestibility, and ruminal constituents of sheep in response to the addition of increasing levels of babassu mesocarp flour (BMF) to the diet. Twenty crossbred sheep (29.17 ± 2.23 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design. Lambs were confined for 21 days, with 16 days for diet adaptation and 5 days for data collection, in which they were fed an isonitrogenous diet (16.5 ± 0.2 CP, DM basis) containing 70% of concentrate and 30% (DM basis) of Tifton 85 hay. Increasing levels of BMF were 0, 10, 20, and 30% (DM basis). There was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on the DM intake, nutrients intake, and digestibility of CP and NFC. The digestibility of DM, OM, TC, and NDF decreased linearly, while EE digestibility increased linearly with increasing levels of BMF. The high NDF content presented in the chemical composition of the babassu mesocarp flour ranked the same as fibrous food, which can limit the inclusion in the diet of high production animals. So, babassu mesocarp flour is an alternative for energy source in lambs feed and can be added at levels up to 10%. PMID:27957525
Hawley, Jesse; Simpson, Stephen J; Wilder, Shawn M
The nutritional composition of diets can vary widely in nature and have large effects on the growth, reproduction and survival of animals. Many animals, especially herbivores, will tightly regulate the nutritional composition of their body, which has been referred to as nutritional homeostasis. We tested how experimental manipulation of the lipid and protein content of live prey affected the nutrient reserves and subsequent diet regulation of web-building spiders, Argiope keyserlingi. Live locusts were injected with experimental solutions containing specific amounts of lipid and protein and then fed to spiders. The nutrient composition of the spiders' bodies was directly related to the nutrient composition of the prey on which they fed. We then conducted an experiment where spiders were fed either high lipid or high protein prey and subsequently provided with two large unmanipulated locusts. Prior diet did not affect the amount or ratio of lipid and protein ingested by spiders when feeding on unmanipulated prey. Argiope keyserlingi were flexible in the storage of lipid and protein in their bodies and did not bias their extraction of nutrients from prey to compensate for previously biased diets. Some carnivores, especially those that experience frequent food limitation, may be less likely to strictly regulate their body composition than herbivores because food limitation may encourage opportunistic ingestion and assimilation of nutrients.
Frei, Simone; Frei, Balz; Bobe, Gerd
Are Extension healthy youth programs needed in highly educated U.S. communities? To answer this question, 175 children from four public elementary schools in Corvallis, Oregon, self-reported in a cross-sectional study their dietary intake, and 71 children provided a blood sample for measuring vitamin D concentrations. Most children had…
Cook, Judith; And Others
Survey focused on school children 8-11 and 13-15 years in Kent (England) between September 1968 and March 1970. Sex, age, and weight were found independently associated with highly significant differences in nutritional intake. Social class, number of siblings, and mother's work status were not generally associated with significant differences in…
This study examined the association between the nutrient contribution of beef, in its lowest and highest fat forms, and diet quality and food patterns in individuals 4+ years of age. Beef consumers were categorized into three groups (lowest lean/highest fat [LLHF]; middle lean/middle fat content; an...
Our objective was to determine what foods, nutrients, and dietary patterns are associated with development of kwashiorkor in populations of vulnerable 1- to 3-year-old Malawian children. This was a prospective observational study conducted in 8 rural villages. Upon enrollment, demographic, anthropom...
Pathak, A. K.; Dutta, Narayan; Banerjee, P. S.; Pattanaik, A. K.; Sharma, K.
The study assessed the effect of dietary supplementation of leaf meal mixture (LMM) containing condensed tannins (CT) on feed intake, nutrient utilization and performance of sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Eighteen adult sheep of similar age and body weight (25.03±1.52) were included in this study and out of these, 12 sheep were infected with single dose of infective third stage larvae of H. contortus at 2,000 larvae per sheep. The experimental sheep were allocated in three different groups’ i.e. negative control (NC; no infection), control (C; H. contortus infected) and treatment (T; H. contortus infected+CT at 1.5% of the DM through LMM) and the experiment was conducted for a period of 90 d. The intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and digestibility of DM, OM, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were comparable among three animal groups. However, digestibility of crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in NC group as compared to both C and T groups. Nitrogen (N) retention (g/d or % of N intake) was significantly (p = 0.038) lower in C group as compared to T and NC groups. Daily intake (g/kg W0.75) of digestible crude protein (DCP), digestible organic matter (DOM) and total digestible nutrient (TDN) did not differ significantly (p<0.05) in the three groups. Haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly (p<0.001) higher in treatment group as compared to control. The level of Hb and PCV reduced (p<0.001) after 30 days of experimental feeding. CT significantly (p<0.001) reduced serum urea in T group as compared to NC and C groups. Serum proteins differed significantly (p<0.01) among the three groups. The activity of serum enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and LDH were also statistically non significant (p<0.05) among treatments. The weight of abomasal lymph nodes (ALN) in T group was higher (p<0.05) than in C group. Treatment group had lower (p<0.05) total worms and fecal egg
Kawashima, Aiko; Sugawara, Shiori; Okita, Misako; Akahane, Takemi; Fukui, Kennichi; Hashiuchi, Maiko; Kataoka, Chieko; Tsukamoto, Ikuyo
To examine predictive factors for abdominal obesity or metabolic syndrome, we investigated the association of plasma fatty acid composition, estimated desaturase activity, and nutrient intakes, with abdominal obesity or metabolic syndrome in Japanese males. Clinical characteristics, the fatty acid composition of plasma cholesteryl esters, and energy and nutrient intakes were analyzed in 3 groups: metabolic syndrome (MS, n=24), abdominal obesity (OB, n=43), and control (n=27). The estimated desaturase activities were calculated by the ratio of 16:1n-7/16:0, 18:3n-6/18:2n-6, and 20:4n-6/20:3n-6 in plasma cholesteryl esters as surrogates of the measure of the delta 9, delta 6, delta 5 desaturase (D9-16D, D6D and D5D) activities, respectively. Plasma fatty acid composition did not differ significantly between the OB group and the control group. The MS group had higher levels of palmitoleic, oleic, and gamma-linolenic acids, but a lower level of linoleic acid than the control. Stronger D6D activity and weaker D5D activity were observed in the OB group. A higher level of D9-16D activity as well as a higher level of D6D activity and a lower level of D5D activity was observed in the MS group. A logistic regression analysis showed that the low D5D activity and high D9-16D activity were predictive of the development of abdominal obesity from controls (odds ratio=0.39, p<0.05) and metabolic syndrome from abdominal obesity (odds ratio=2.44, p<0.05), respectively. In the multiple linear regression analysis, D5D activity positively correlated with the intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). In conclusion, the estimated D5D activity was a predictive factor for abdominal obesity and the estimated D9-16D activity was a predictive factor for developing metabolic syndrome from abdominal obesity in Japanese male subjects. Dietary intake of EPA would play an important role in preventing abdominal obesity and the development of metabolic syndrome.
Bilsborough, Johann C; Greenway, Kate; Livingston, Steuart; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron J
The purpose of this study was to examine the seasonal changes in body composition, nutrition, and upper-body (UB) strength in professional Australian Football (AF) players. The prospective longitudinal study examined changes in anthropometry (body mass, fat-free soft-tissue mass [FFSTM], and fat mass) via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry 5 times during an AF season (start preseason, midpreseason, start season, midseason, end season) in 45 professional AF players. Dietary intakes and strength (bench press and bench pull) were also assessed at these time points. Players were categorized as experienced (>4 y experience, n = 23) or inexperienced (<4 y experience, n = 22). Fat mass decreased during the preseason but was stable through the in-season for both groups. %FFSTM was increased during the preseason and remained constant thereafter. UB strength increased during the preseason and was maintained during the in-season. Changes in UB FFSTM were related to changes in UB-strength performance (r = .37-.40). Total energy and carbohydrate intakes were similar between the experienced and inexperienced players during the season, but there was a greater ratio of dietary fat intake at the start-preseason point and an increased alcohol, reduced protein, and increased total energy intake at the end of the season. The inexperienced players consumed more fat at the start of season and less total protein during the season than the experienced players. Coaches should also be aware that it can take >1 y to develop the appropriate levels of FFSTM in young players and take a long-term view when developing the physical and performance abilities of inexperienced players.
Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro
The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05) in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass.
Markovic, Tania P; Natoli, Sharon J
Overweight and obese patients may develop paradoxical nutritional deficiency from eating high-energy foods with a poor nutrient content. In such patients, this condition is probably under-recognised, and thus untreated. The nutrient density of foods has recently been defined by a score--the naturally nutrient-rich (NNR) score--which assesses the contribution a food makes to the nutrient intake of a 2000 calorie (8360 kJ) daily diet and includes 14 key macronutrients. NNR foods are whole foods that provide the highest nutrient-to-kilojoule ratio. An awareness of the importance of the nutrient density of foods can assist health practitioners to recognise and effectively manage paradoxical nutritional deficiency. Knowledge of the nutrient density of foods helps people wanting to reduce their kilojoule intake to maintain a nutritionally sound diet, providing adequate vitamins, minerals and macronutrients.
Sathyamala, C; Kurian, NJ; DE, Anuradha; Saxena, KB; Priya, Ritu; Baru, Rama; Srivastava, Ravi; Mittal, Onkar; Noronha, Claire; Samson, Meera; Khalsa, Sneh; Puliyel, Ashish
The Public Report on Health (PRoH) was initiated in 2005 to understand public health issues for people from diverse backgrounds living in different region specific contexts. States were selected purposively to capture a diversity of situations from better-performing states and not-so-well performing states. Based on these considerations, six states – the better-performing states of Tamil Nadu (TN), Maharashtra (MH) and Himachal Pradesh (HP) and the not-so-well performing states of Madhya Pradesh (MP), Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Orissa (OR) – were selected. This is a report of a study using food diaries to assess food intakes in sample households from six states of India. Method: Food diaries were maintained and all the raw food items that went into making the food in the household was measured using a measuring cup that converted volumes into dry weights for each item. The proportion consumed by individual adults was recorded. A nutrient calculator that computed the total nutrient in the food items consumed, using the ‘Nutritive Value of Indian Foods by Gopalan et al., was developed to analyze the data and this is now been made available as freeware (http://bit.ly/ncalculator). The total nutrients consumed by the adults, men and women was calculated. Results: Identifying details having been removed, the raw data is available, open access on the internet http://bit.ly/foodlogxls.The energy consumption in our study was 2379 kcal per capita per day. According to the Summary Report World Agriculture the per capita food consumption in 1997-99 was 2803 which is higher than that in the best state in India. The consumption for developing countries a decade ago was 2681 and in Sub-Saharan Africa it was 2195. Our data is compatible in 2005 with the South Asia consumption of 2403 Kcal per capita per day in 1997-99. For comparison, in industrialized countries it was 3380. In Tamil Nadu it was a mere 1817 kcal. Discussion: The nutrient consumption in this study suggests that
Rubio-López, Nuria; Llopis-González, Agustín; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María
Calcium is an important nutrient for child development. The main objective of this study was to assess calcium intake and its adequacy with dietary reference intake (DRI) in Spanish children. The ANIVA (Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia) study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During two academic years 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, 1176 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from 14 primary schools in Valencia (Spain). Three-day food records were used to assess dietary intake, completed by parents/guardian. Anthropometric data (weight and height) were evaluated in all subjects. Nutritional intake was compared to estimated average requirements (EARs) and adequate intake (AI) values to determine nutritional adequacy. A percentage of 25.77% had inadequate calcium intake, and a significantly higher prevalence was observed in girls (p = 0.006). Adequate calcium intake showed a positive association with the height z-score (p = 0.032). When assessing dietary patterns, schoolchildren with adequate calcium intakes had better nutritional adequacy in all nutrients, except cholesterol (p = 0.086) and fluorine (p = 0.503). These results suggest a public health problem that must be addressed through nutrition education programs to increase intake of calcium-rich food and to correct the associated dietary pattern. PMID:28230804
Liu, J; Liu, Z; Gao, L; Chen, L; Zhang, H
The objective of the present study was to investigate the intestinal development of newborn intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) piglets subjected to normal nutrient intake (NNI) or restricted nutrient intake (RNI). Newborn normal birth weight (NBW) and IUGR piglets were allotted to NNI or RNI levels for 4 weeks from day 8 postnatal. IUGR piglets receiving NNI had similar growth performance compared with that of NBW piglets. Small intestine length and villous height were greater in IUGR piglets fed the NNI than that of piglets fed the RNI. Lactase activity was increased in piglets fed the NNI compared with piglets fed the RNI. Absorptive function, represented by active glucose transport by the Ussing chamber method and messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of two main intestinal glucose transporters, Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), were greater in IUGR piglets fed the NNI compared with piglets fed the RNI regimen. The apoptotic process, characterized by caspase-3 activity (a sign of activated apoptotic cells) and mRNA expressions of p53 (pro-apoptotic), bcl-2-like protein 4 (Bax) (pro-apoptotic) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) (anti-apoptotic), were improved in IUGR piglets fed the NNI regimen. To test the hypothesis that improvements in intestinal development of IUGR piglets fed NNI might be mediated through circulating glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), GLP-2 was injected subcutaneously to IUGR piglets fed the RNI from day 8 to day 15 postnatal. Although the intestinal development of IUGR piglets fed the RNI regimen was suppressed compared with those fed the NNI regimen, an exogenous injection of GLP-2 was able to bring intestinal development to similar levels as NNI-fed IUGR piglets. Collectively, our results demonstrate that IUGR neonates that have NNI levels could improve intestinal function via the regulation of GLP-2.
Alshammari, Eyad; Suneetha, Epuru; Khan, Saif; Alazzeh, Awfa
Hail region of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has the highest adult obesity rates in the entire kingdom and limited information is available about the prevalence and patterns of growth markers. Therefore, it is important to monitor the growth trends to implement effective public health preventive strategies for the region. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of growth profile patterns (stunting, wasting, underweight, and overweight) and its associations with nutrient intake and dietary patterns among children and adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted involving 1420 children and adolescents (2–18 years), selected using a multistage stratified random-sampling technique representing both female and male schools from Hail region, KSA. Growth profile z-scores were generated using 2006 and 2007 WHO growth standards. The overall prevalence of 4.73% moderate and 1.54% severe underweight; 6.65% moderate and 2.59% severe stunting; 6.34% moderate and 2.55% severe wasting was present in the study population. Stunting decreased as age progressed with concurrent increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. There was a significantly higher prevalence of overweight (18.55% versus 23.05%; P < 0.001) and obesity (8.7% versus 13.85%; P < 0.001) in adolescents than in school-age children with higher prevalence in females as compared to males. Both stunted and overweight/obesity groups had significantly lower mean intakes for critical micronutrients necessary for growth as compared to normal children. PMID:28316981
Early sugar-sweetened beverage consumption frequency is associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.
Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Hirota, Yoshio
Evidence from Western countries shows that higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with lower quality of young children's diets, but little is known about these relations in non-Western countries with relatively low consumption levels of SSBs. We hypothesized that SSB consumption in infancy would be associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children. The study subjects were 493 Japanese mother-child pairs from a prospective birth cohort study. Dietary data on children were collected from the mothers using self-administered questionnaires when the children were aged 16-24 months and 41-49 months. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between SSB consumption frequency in infancy and later intake of foods and nutrients. At 16-24 months of age, more than half of the children (56.4%) consumed SSBs less than once a week, whereas 11.6% consumed SSBs at least once daily. More frequent consumption of SSBs in infancy was associated with higher intake of confectionaries and SSBs and lower intake of fruits and vegetables at 41-49 months of age. These associations were still evident after adjustment for maternal SSB consumption and socioeconomic status. At the nutrient level, SSB consumption frequency was positively associated with energy intake and inversely associated with intake of many nutrients, such as protein, dietary fiber, and most of the micronutrients examined. In conclusion, higher consumption frequency of SSBs at an early age is associated with poor quality of overall dietary intake among young Japanese children 1.5-2.5 years later.
Green, H; Fern, E
This study compared nutrient intakes from 7-day menus for the US MyPlate and DASH Eating Plan versus the cutoff points for green lights defined by the UK's multiple traffic light (MTL) scheme. For both diets, the foods achieved green lights for saturated fat and salt, and for beverages for total fat, saturated fat and salt. The other nutrients achieved amber lights but were within the range of the two diets. By contrast, the MTL threshold for salt in beverages was outside the range of the diets. The values for salt in beverages in the MyPlate and Dash diet plans were 0.06±0.07 and 0.19±0.01 (s.d.) g/100 ml, which are both considerably lower compared with the cutoff of 0.3 g/100 ml for an MTL green light. Adjusting the green MTL threshold values to the median values for a healthful diet could help make MTL labelling a more valid way of helping consumers choose a healthful diet.
Laureano, Greice H C; Torman, Vanessa B L; Crispim, Sandra P; Dekkers, Arnold L M; Camey, Suzi A
Various methods are available for estimating usual dietary intake distributions. Hence, there is a need for simulation studies to compare them. The methods Iowa State University (ISU), National Cancer Institute (NCI), Multiple Source Method (MSM) and Statistical Program to Assess Dietary Exposure (SPADE) were previously compared in another study, but some results were inconclusive due to the small number of replications used in the simulation. Seeking to overcome this limitation, the present study used 1000 simulated samples for 12 different scenarios to compare the accuracy of estimates yielded by the aforementioned methods. The focus is on scenarios that exhibited the most uncertainty in the conclusions of the mentioned study above, i.e., scenarios with small sample sizes, skewed intake distributions, and large ratios of the between- and within-person variances. Bias was used as a measure of accuracy. For scenarios with small sample sizes (n = 150), the ISU, MSM and SPADE methods generally achieved more accurate estimates than the NCI method, particularly for the 10th and 90th percentiles. The differences between methods became smaller with larger sample sizes (n = 300 and n = 500). With few exceptions, the methods were found to perform similarly.
Background Several parameters are associated with high bone mineral density (BMD), such as overweight, black background, intense physical activity (PA), greater calcium intake and some medications. The objectives are to evaluate the prevalence and the main aspects associated with high BMD in healthy women. Methods After reviewing the database of approximately 21,500 BMD scans performed in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, from June 2005 to October 2010, high BMD (over 1400 g/cm2 at lumbar spine and/or above 1200 g/cm2 at femoral neck) was found in 421 exams. Exclusion criteria were age below 30 or above 60 years, black ethnicity, pregnant or obese women, disease and/or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. A total of 40 women with high BMD were included and matched with 40 healthy women with normal BMD, paired to weight, age, skin color and menopausal status. Medical history, food intake and PA were assessed through validated questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated through a GE-Lunar DPX MD + bone densitometer. Radiography of the thoracic and lumbar spine was carried out to exclude degenerative alterations or fractures. Biochemical parameters included both lipid and hormonal profiles, along with mineral and bone metabolism. Statistical analysis included parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression models. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results The mean age was 50.9 (8.3) years. There was no significant difference between groups in relation to PA, smoking, intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as laboratory tests, except serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX), which was lower in the high BMD group (p = 0.04). In the final model of multivariate regression, a lower fat intake and body fatness as well a better profile of LDL-cholesterol predicted almost 35% of high BMD in women. (adjusted R2 = 0.347; p < 0.001). In addition, greater amounts of lean mass and higher IGF-1 serum concentrations played a
Waern, Rosilene V R; Cumming, Robert G; Blyth, Fiona; Naganathan, Vasi; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Le Couteur, David; Simpson, Stephen J; Kendig, Hal; Hirani, Vasant
Previous research shows that older men tend to have lower nutritional intakes and higher risk of under-nutrition compared with younger men. The objectives of this study were to describe energy and nutrient intakes, assess nutritional risk and investigate factors associated with poor intake of energy and key nutrients in community-dwelling men aged ≥75 years participating in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project - a longitudinal cohort study on older men in Sydney, Australia. A total of 794 men (mean age 81·4 years) had a detailed diet history interview, which was carried out by a dietitian. Dietary adequacy was assessed by comparing median intakes with nutrient reference values (NRV): estimated average requirement, adequate intake or upper level of intake. Attainment of NRV of total energy and key nutrients in older age (protein, Fe, Zn, riboflavin, Ca and vitamin D) was incorporated into a 'key nutrients' variable dichotomised as 'good' (≥5) or 'poor' (≤4). Using logistic regression modelling, we examined associations between key nutrients with factors known to affect food intake. Median energy intake was 8728 kJ (P5=5762 kJ, P95=12 303 kJ), and mean BMI was 27·7 (sd 4·0) kg/m2. Men met their NRV for most nutrients. However, only 1 % of men met their NRV for vitamin D, only 19 % for Ca, only 30 % for K and only 33 % for dietary fibre. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only country of birth was significantly associated with poor nutritional intake. Dietary intakes were adequate for most nutrients; however, only half of the participants met the NRV of ≥5 key nutrients.
Naserian, A A; Staples, C R; Ghaffari, M H
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pistachio skins (PiS) as a replacement of wheat bran on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats. Eight multiparous lactating Saanen goats (55 ± 7.2 days post-partum, 45 ± 2 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments arranged in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were 1) 0 g/kg PiS and 210 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (0PiS), 2) 70 g/kg PiS and 140 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (7PiS), 3) 140 g/kg PiS and 70 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (14PiS) and 4) 210 g/kg PiS and 0 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (21PiS). The trial consisted of four 21-day periods, each composed of 14 days adaptation and 7 days data collection. Dry matter intake (p < 0.05) and crude protein digestibility (p < 0.01) increased linearly with increasing PiS proportions in the diet. Increasing the proportion of PiS in the diet caused a quadratic increase in apparent digestibility of dry matter (p < 0.05), and tended (p = 0.05) to increase quadratically organic matter, and ether extract digestibility. Replacing wheat bran with PiS in the diet had no effects on milk yield, whereas milk fat concentration increased linearly (p < 0.01) with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. As the dietary proportion of PiS increased, ruminal pH tended (p = 0.07) to increase linearly, whereas ammonia-N concentration declined in the rumen. Plasma concentrations of glucose and BUN remained unaffected, whereas triglycerides (p < 0.05) and cholesterol (p < 0.01) concentrations increased linearly with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. It was concluded that PiS based on local ingredients can successfully replace wheat bran in diets of dairy goats without detrimental effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production.
The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumption with nutrient intake and weight status in children and adolescents: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006
National data comparing nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures in children and adolescents in the United States who skip breakfast or consume different types of breakfasts are limited. The objective was to examine the relationship between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with ...
Kim, Nam; Tam, Chick F.; Poon, George; Lew, Polong; Kim, Samuel Saychang; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook
This study was to investigate how dietary pattern, food choice, food consumption, nutrient intake and body mass index (BMI) vary with length of residence for Korean American college students. The respondents were 60 Korean American residents living in the Los Angeles Area. They were divided into two groups based on the length of stay in the U.S.:…
Barr, Susan I
Sodium is a required nutrient; Adequate Intakes for adults range from 1200 to 1500 mg*day(-1), depending on age. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for sodium is 2300 mg*day(-1) for adults, based on the relationship between sodium intake and increased blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure, which is prevalent among Canadians, is, in turn, a major risk factor for stroke, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease. Sodium intake is not the only determinant of blood pressure; other modifiable risk factors include relative mass, physical activity, overall dietary quality, and alcohol consumption. However, because >90% of adult Canadian men and two thirds of Canadian women have sodium intakes above the UL, Health Canada's Working Group on Dietary Sodium Reduction has been charged with developing, implementing, and overseeing a strategy to reduce Canadians' sodium intakes. It is estimated that approximately 75% of dietary sodium is added during food processing; in addition to taste and palatability, sodium also has functional roles in food manufacturing and preservation, although the amounts used often exceed those required. Because of the central role of processed foods in sodium intake, the strategy proposed by Health Canada's Working Group includes voluntary reduction of sodium in processed foods and foods sold in food service establishments. It will also include an education and awareness campaign, and research and surveillance. Initiatives to reduce sodium in other parts of the world have demonstrated that it will be challenging to reduce sodium intake to the recommended range and will likely require many years to accomplish.
Hlaing, Lwin Mar; Fahmida, Umi; Htet, Min Kyaw; Utomo, Budi; Firmansyah, Agus; Ferguson, Elaine L
Poor feeding practices result in inadequate nutrient intakes in young children in developing countries. To improve practices, local food-based complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) are needed. This cross-sectional survey aimed to describe current food consumption patterns of 12-23-month-old Myanmar children (n 106) from Ayeyarwady region in order to identify nutrient requirements that are difficult to achieve using local foods and to formulate affordable and realistic CFR to improve dietary adequacy. Weekly food consumption patterns were assessed using a 12-h weighed dietary record, single 24-h recall and a 5-d food record. Food costs were estimated by market surveys. CFR were formulated by linear programming analysis using WHO Optifood software and evaluated among mothers (n 20) using trial of improved practices (TIP). Findings showed that Ca, Zn, niacin, folate and Fe were 'problem nutrients': nutrients that did not achieve 100 % recommended nutrient intake even when the diet was optimised. Chicken liver, anchovy and roselle leaves were locally available nutrient-dense foods that would fill these nutrient gaps. The final set of six CFR would ensure dietary adequacy for five of twelve nutrients at a minimal cost of 271 kyats/d (based on the exchange rate of 900 kyats/USD at the time of data collection: 3rd quarter of 2012), but inadequacies remained for niacin, folate, thiamin, Fe, Zn, Ca and vitamin B6. TIP showed that mothers believed liver and vegetables would cause worms and diarrhoea, but these beliefs could be overcome to successfully promote liver consumption. Therefore, an acceptable set of CFR were developed to improve the dietary practices of 12-23-month-old Myanmar children using locally available foods. Alternative interventions such as fortification, however, are still needed to ensure dietary adequacy of all nutrients.
Perland, Emelie; Hellsten, Sofie V; Lekholm, Emilia; Eriksson, Mikaela M; Arapi, Vasiliki; Fredriksson, Robert
Membrane-bound solute carriers (SLCs) are essential as they maintain several physiological functions, such as nutrient uptake, ion transport and waste removal. The SLC family comprise about 400 transporters, and we have identified two new putative family members, major facilitator superfamily domain containing 1 (MFSD1) and 3 (MFSD3). They cluster phylogenetically with SLCs of MFS type, and both proteins are conserved in chordates, while MFSD1 is also found in fruit fly. Based on homology modelling, we predict 12 transmembrane regions, a common feature for MFS transporters. The genes are expressed in abundance in mice, with specific protein staining along the plasma membrane in neurons. Depriving mouse embryonic primary cortex cells of amino acids resulted in upregulation of Mfsd1, whereas Mfsd3 is unaltered. Furthermore, in vivo, Mfsd1 and Mfsd3 are downregulated in anterior brain sections in mice subjected to starvation, while upregulated specifically in brainstem. Mfsd3 is also attenuated in cerebellum after starvation. In mice raised on high-fat diet, Mfsd1 was specifically downregulated in brainstem and hypothalamus, while Mfsd3 was reduced consistently throughout the brain.
Cheng, Ren-Chung; Zhang, Shichang; Chen, Yu-Chun; Lee, Chia-Yi; Chou, Yi-Ling; Ye, Hui-Ying; Piorkowski, Dakota; Liao, Chen-Pan; Tso, I-Min
While molting occurs in the development of many animals especially in arthropods, post-maturity molting (PMM, organisms continue to molt after sexual maturity) has received little attention. Mechanism of molting has been studied intensively, however, the mechanism of PMM remains unknown although it is suggested to be crucial for the development of body size. In this study, we investigated factors that potentially induce PMM in the golden orb-web spider Nephila pilipes, which has the greatest degree of sexual dimorphism among terrestrial animals. We manipulated the mating history and the nutrient consumption of the females to examine whether they can affect PMM. The results showed that female spiders under low nutrition were more likely to molt as adults, and mating had no significant influence to the occurrence rate of PMM. Moreover, spiders that experienced PMM lived longer than those without and their body sizes were significantly increased. Therefore, we concluded that it is the nutritional condition rather than the mating history that has affected PMM.
Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Valencia-Núñez, Keyla; Bastida-López, Jesús; Estrada-Flores, Julieta Gertrudis; Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro Cvabodni; Cruz-Monterrosa, Rosy Gabriela; Rayas-Amor, Adolfo Armando
Sheep raising in the state of Guerrero, México, is a primary activity that is worth about US$3,251,931 annually. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition, degradability, nutrient intake, and animal performance of Pelibuey lambs fed on different combinations of maize-soybean silages. Twenty-one combinations of maize silage (MS) and soybean silage (SS) were evaluated at day 45 post-ensiling; in each combination, MS was replaced by 5 % of SS. The 21 combinations were analysed for crude protein (CP) and chemical composition. In order to obtain a statistical criterion of potential treatments for the animal feeding test, a cluster analysis was performed based on the CP contents of all combinations at day 45 post-ensiling. From cluster analysis, four treatments were selected T1 = 100-0 % (MS/SS), T8 = 65-35 %, T12 = 45-55 %, and T16 = 25-75 %. Results indicated that cluster analysis was useful for identifying the potential treatments for animal feeding based on the crude protein content. The dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and acid detergent lignin (ADL) contents did not declined significantly (P > 0.05) during the fermentation of silages but CP content decreased from day 0 to 45 post-ensiling. The treatment with the highest estimated microbial crude protein synthesis was T8 and it showed the highest metabolizable energy intake, high feed efficiency with a forage-concentrate ratio of 84:16.
Fish, J A; DeVries, T J
The objective of this study was to determine if feed sorting can be reduced and if nutrient consumption can be limited in late-lactation cows through water addition to a nutrient-dense total mixed ration (TMR) with a dry matter (DM) content greater than 60%. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (214.8±28.5 d in milk) were exposed to 2 diets in a crossover design with 28-d periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition and differed only in DM percentage, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets were (1) dry TMR (61.7% DM) and (2) wet TMR (51.9% DM). Dry matter intake and milk production (4% fat-corrected milk; FCM) were recorded for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 4 d of each period, fresh feed and orts were sampled for particle size analysis and subsequent calculation of sorting activity (expressed as a percentage of predicted intake). Adding water to the diet tended to decrease the amount of DM in the fine particle fraction, increase starch concentration in the longer ration particles, and reduce starch concentration in the shortest ration particles. All cows sorted against long ration particles; the extent of this sorting did not differ between the dry and wet treatments (72.9 vs. 77.6%). There tended to be more sorting for fine ration particles on the dry diet compared with the wet (106.3 vs. 104.0%). Water addition had no effect on production, with similar DMI (27.9 vs. 26.5 kg/d), 4% FCM (28.7 vs. 27.6 kg/d), and efficiency of production (0.98 vs. 1.00 kg of 4% FCM/kg of DMI) between the dry and wet treatments. Adding water to a TMR with greater than 60% DM containing primarily haylage and corn silage forage sources may change ration particle DM distribution and particle starch content, possibly contributing to less sorting for the smallest ration particles. This research does not provide evidence that water addition to such a TMR can effectively limit DMI in late-lactation cows and, thus, improve efficiency of milk
Papanikolaou, Yanni; Brooks, James; Reider, Carroll; Fulgoni, Victor L
Using total nutrient intake from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010, we determined usual nutrient intakes in non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White children and adults. Mean usual intakes for calcium; phosphorus; magnesium; and vitamins A, C, and D for non-Hispanic Black children and adults were significantly lower across ages compared with their non-Hispanic White counterparts. A greater percentage of non-Hispanic Blacks were below the Estimated Average Requirement for calcium, phosphorus and magnesium relative to non-Hispanic Whites across all ages. Similarly, a greater percentage of non-Hispanic Black children and adults had a greater percentage below the EAR for vitamins A and D compared with non-Hispanic Whites. These data demonstrate that U.S. children and adults are falling short of reaching nutrient recommendations, with non-Hispanic Blacks being particularly vulnerable. As dietary and nutrient recommendations evolve, specific strategies to increase consumption of vitamins and minerals in the U.S. non-Hispanic Black population should be considered.
Malisetty, Venkateswarlu; Yerradoddi, Ramana Reddy; Devanaboina, Nagalakshmi; Mallam, Mahender; Mitta, Pavani
An experiment was conducted by feeding sorghum straw (Sorghum bicolor) based complete rations at roughage concentrate ratio 70:30 (CR-I), 60:40 (CR-II), 50:50 (CR-III), and 40:60 (CR-IV) for 180 days to find out suitable ratio of sorghum straw in the complete ration (mash form) on nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance in Nellore ram lambs. The DMI (g/day) increased significantly (P < 0.05) as level of concentrate increased in complete rations. No significant difference was found in digestibilities of proximate nutrients. However, CP digestibility was higher either significantly or nonsignificantly by 2.12, 5.50, and 9.36 %, respectively, in lambs fed with CR-II (P > 0.05), CR-III (P > 0.05), and CR-IV (P < 0.05) rations in comparison to lambs fed with CR-I ration. Furthermore, CP digestibility was higher by 7.09 and 3.66 % in lambs fed with CR-IV ration than those fed with CR-II (P < 0.05) and CR-III (P > 0.05) ration. The average CWC digestibility coefficients were comparable among four rations. The N intake (g/day) was significantly (P < 0.01) different and progressively increased by 31.46, 48.69, and 82.86 % in ram lambs fed with CR-II, CR-III, and CR-IV rations, respectively, in comparison to CR-I ration. The N balance (g/day) was higher either significantly or nonsignificantly by 34.46 (P > 0.05), 133.46 (P < 0.01), and 198.87 % (P < 0.01) with CR-II, CR-III, and CR-IV rations, respectively, in comparison to CR-I ration. Based on results, it is inferred that the level of sorghum straw in complete ration had no effect on digestibility of nutrients barring crude protein in Nellore ram lambs.
Association between the frequency of meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" (Staple food, main dish, and side dish) and intake of nutrients and food groups among Japanese young adults aged 18-24 years: a cross-sectional study.
Kakutani, Yuya; Kamiya, Saori; Omi, Naomi
"Shushoku," "Shusai," and "Hukusai" are staple food, main dish, and side dish, respectively. The recommended meal in Japan is a combination of "Shushoku," "Shusai," and "Hukusai"; however, it remains unclear whether there is an association between the frequency of these meals and intake of nutrients and food groups. This cross-sectional study examined the association between the frequency of meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" and intake of nutrients and food groups among 664 Japanese young adults aged 18-24 y. The dietary habits of the subjects during the preceding month were assessed using a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. The frequency of meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" was self-reported according to four categories: "less than 1 d or 1 d/wk," "2 or 3 d/wk," "4 or 5 d/wk," and "every day." In both women and men, there was an association between the higher frequency of these meals and higher intake of the following food groups: pulses, green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, mushrooms, seaweeds, fish and shellfish, and eggs. Moreover, there was an association with higher intake of protein, polyunsaturated fat, n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fat, total dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, pantothenic acid, vitamin C, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, and copper, and lower intake of carbohydrate in both women and men. Our findings support the hypothesis that the meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" may be associated with intake of many food groups and nutrients among Japanese young adults.
Energy density of the diets of Japanese adults in relation to food and nutrient intake and general and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional analysis from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan.
Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi
The associations of dietary energy density with dietary intake and obesity have been largely unexplored in non-Western populations. The present cross-sectional study examined the associations using data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan. Dietary intake was assessed using a 1-d semi-weighed dietary record in 15 618 Japanese adults aged ≥20 years. Mean dietary energy density (calculated on the basis of foods only) was 5·98 (sd 1·20) kJ/g in men and 5·72 (sd 1·16) kJ/g in women. Dietary energy density was positively associated with intakes of bread, noodles (only men), meat, fats and oils, and sugar and confectionery but inversely with intakes of white rice (only men), potatoes, pulses, vegetables, fruits, and fish and shellfish. For nutrient intake, dietary energy density was positively associated with total fat and SFA but inversely associated with all other nutrients examined such as protein, carbohydrate, alcohol (only women), dietary fibre, and several vitamins and minerals, including Na. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, dietary energy density was positively associated with abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥80 cm) in women (adjusted prevalence ratio between the extreme tertiles 1·07; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·12; P for trend=0·003). Dietary energy density was also positively but non-significantly associated with general obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) in women (P for trend=0·08). There were no such associations in men. In conclusion, lower energy density of the diets of Japanese adults was associated with favourable food and nutrient intake patterns, except for higher Na, and, in only women, a lower prevalence of abdominal obesity.
McArthur, Jennifer O.; Gough, Natalie M.; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir
Adherence of young women to dietary recommendations has been examined predominantly by surveys. This study aimed to determine the quality of women’s diets relative to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE); and to evaluate dietary changes during an intervention trial with pork meat or an iron supplement. A 12-week randomized trial was conducted in young women who were assigned to one of three groups. They maintained three, seven-day food diaries while continuing their routine diet (CG); taking an iron supplement (SG); or incorporating into their diets 500 g/week of pork (PG). Participants (n = 58) provided dietary information on 1218 diary-days. The serves consumed from the vegetable, fruit and dairy groups were lower (p < 0.001), and from the meat and alternatives group greater (p < 0.001) than the recommended serves. PG consumed significantly fewer (p < 0.001) serves of “extra” foods, and ate fruit more frequently (p < 0.001) than CG and SG. The participants’ dietary self-assessment showed poor agreement with the AGHE description of “serve”. The inclusion of pork in the diets of young women is associated with the reduced consumption of energy-dense nutrient-poor “extra” foods and increased frequency of fruit intake. The effect may be explained by diverse factors such as increased food knowledge, cooking skills and the effect of pork on satiety. PMID:24949547
Spence, Suzanne; Delve, Jennifer; Stamp, Elaine; Matthews, John N S; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley J
In 2005, the nutritional content of children's school lunches in England was widely criticised, leading to a major policy change in 2006. Food and nutrient-based standards were reintroduced requiring primary schools to comply by September 2008. We aimed to determine the effect of the policy on the nutritional content at lunchtime and in children's total diet. We undertook a natural experimental evaluation, analysing data from cross-sectional surveys in 12 primary schools in North East England, pre and post policy. Dietary data were collected on four consecutive days from children aged 4-7 years (n = 385 in 2003-4; n = 632 in 2008-9). We used linear mixed effect models to analyse the effects of gender, year, and lunch type on children's mean total daily intake. Both pre- and post-implementation, children who ate a school lunch consumed less sodium (mean change -128 mg, 95% CI: -183 to -73 mg) in their total diet than children eating home-packed lunches. Post-implementation, children eating school lunches consumed a lower % energy from fat (-1.8%, -2.8 to -0.9) and saturated fat (-1.0%; -1.6 to -0.5) than children eating packed lunches. Children eating school lunches post implementation consumed significantly more carbohydrate (16.4 g, 5.3 to 27.6), protein (3.6 g, 1.1 to 6.0), non-starch polysaccharides (1.5 g, 0.5 to 1.9), vitamin C (0.7 mg, 0.6 to 0.8), and folate (12.3 µg, 9.7 to 20.4) in their total diet than children eating packed lunches. Implementation of school food policy standards was associated with significant improvements in the nutritional content of school lunches; this was reflected in children's total diet. School food- and nutrient-based standards can play an important role in promoting dietary health and may contribute to tackling childhood obesity. Similar policy measures should be considered for other environments influencing children's diet.
Jakobsen, M; Kongsted, A G; Hermansen, J E
In organic pig production one of the major challenges is to be able to fulfil amino acid requirements based on organic and locally grown protein feed crops. The pig is an opportunistic omnivore with a unique capacity for foraging above and below the soil surface. It is hypothesized that direct foraging in the range area can pose an important contribution in terms of fulfilling nutrient requirements of growing pigs. Foraging activity, lucerne nutrient intake and pig performance were investigated in 36 growing pigs, foraging on lucerne or grass and fed either a standard organic pelleted feed mixture (HP: high protein) or a grain mixture containing 48% less CP (LP: low protein) compared with the high protein feed mixture, from an average live weight of 58 kg to 90 kg in a complete block design in three replicates. The pigs were fed 80% of energy recommendations and had access to 4 m2 of pasture/pig per day during the 40 days experimental period from September to October 2013. Behavioural observations were carried out 12 times over the entire experimental period. For both crops, LP pigs rooted significantly more compared with HP pigs but the effect of CP level was more pronounced in grass (44% v. 19% of all observations) compared with lucerne (28% v. 16% of all observations). Feed protein level turned out not to have any significant effect on grazing behaviour but pigs foraging on lucerne grazed significantly more than pigs foraging on grass (10% v. 4% of all observations). Daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly affected by feed protein and forage crop interactions. Compared to HP pigs, LP treated pigs had 33% lower daily weight gain (589 v. 878 g) and 31% poorer feed conversion ratio (3.75 v. 2.59 kg feed/kg weight gain) in grass paddocks, whereas in lucerne paddocks LP pigs only had 18% lower daily weight gain (741 v. 900 g) and a 14% poorer feed conversion ratio (2.95 v. 2.54 kg feed/kg weight gain) compared with HP pigs. LP pigs foraging on
Anding, Jenna D.; Suminski, Richard R.; Boss, Linda
Surveyed the diet, exercise, and health habits of female college students, calculating body mass index, assessing physical activity, and estimating food and nutrient intake. Overall, no participants had adopted all of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Diets were nutritionally adequate but exceeded national recommendations for fat, sugar, and…
Albertson, Ann M; Thompson, Douglas R; Franko, Debra L; Holschuh, Norton M
Few studies have explored the relationship between sugar content in cereal and health outcome among children and adolescents. This study was designed to investigate the associations between ready-to-eat cereals, categorized by sugar content, with weight indicators and nutrient intake profiles. Data collected from 6- to 18-year-old US children and adolescents (N = 9660) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-06 were used to analyze cereal consumption. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age, waist-to-height ratio, percent overweight or obese, mean day-1 intake, and usual daily intake of macronutrients and micronutrients were the dependent variables; day-1 cereal intake, categorized by tertiles of sugar content, was the main independent variable. Weighted regression with adjustment for the survey design was used to model the dependent variables as a function of day-1 cereal intake, adjusting for age group, sex, race/ethnicity, total day-1 intake of energy, calcium and sugar, the Healthy Eating Index-2005 total score, and household income. For all tertiles of sugar classifications of cereal, children who consumed cereal had significantly lower BMI compared with children who consumed no cereal (P's < .05). Similarly, when compared with children who consumed no cereal, those who ate cereal consumed significantly less fat and cholesterol and significantly more carbohydrates, sugar, whole grains, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B(6), folic acid, vitamin B(12), vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Lower weight and positive nutrient profiles were associated with cereal consumption regardless of sugar content.
Mistura, Lorenza; D’Addezio, Laura; Turrini, Aida
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate total water intake (TWI) from water, beverages and foods among Italian adults and the elderly. Methods: Data of 2607 adults and the elderly, aged 18–75 years from the last national food consumption survey, INRAN-SCAI 2005-06, were used to evaluate the TWI. The INRAN-SCAI 2005-06 survey was conducted on a representative sample of 3323 individuals aged 0.1 to 97.7 years. A 3-day semi-structured diary was used for participants to record the consumption of all foods, beverages and nutritional supplements. Results: On average, TWI was 1.8 L for men and 1.7 L for women. More than 75% of women and 90% of men did not comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Adequate Intake. The contribution of beverages to the total energy intake (EI) was 6% for the total sample. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by alcoholic beverages for men and hot beverages for women. Conclusion: According to the present results, adults and elderly Italians do not reach the adequate intake for water as suggested by the EFSA and by the national reference level of nutrient and energy intake. Data on water consumption should also be analyzed in single socio-demographic groups in order to identify sub-groups of the population that need more attention and to plan more targeted interventions. PMID:27792160
Nasrollahi, S M; Imani, M; Zebeli, Q
A meta-analysis of the effect of forage particle size (FPS) on nutrient intake, digestibility, and milk production of dairy cattle was conducted using published data from the literature (1998-2014). Meta-regression was used to evaluate the effect of forage level, source, and preservation method on heterogeneity of the results for FPS. A total of 46 papers and 28 to 91 trials (each trial consisting of 2 treatment means) that reported changes in FPS in the diet of dairy cattle were identified. Estimated effect sizes of FPS were calculated on nutrient intake, nutrient digestibility, and milk production and composition. Intakes of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber increased with decreasing FPS (0.527 and 0.166kg/d, respectively) but neutral detergent fiber digestibility decreased (0.6%) with decreasing FPS. Heterogeneity (amount of variation among studies) was significant for all intake and digestibility parameters and the improvement in feed intake only occurred with decreasing FPS for diets containing a high level of forage (>50%). Also, the improvement in dry matter intake due to lowering FPS occurred for diets containing silage but not hay. Digestibility of dry matter increased with decreasing FPS when the forage source of the diet was not corn. Milk production consistently increased (0.541kg/d; heterogeneity=19%) and milk protein production increased (0.02kg/d) as FPS decreased, but FCM was not affected by FPS. Likewise, milk fat percentage decreased (0.058%) with decreasing FPS. The heterogeneity of milk parameters (including fat-corrected milk, milk fat, and milk protein), other than milk production, was also significant. Decreasing FPS in high-forage diets (>50%) increased milk protein production by 0.027%. Decreasing FPS increased milk protein content in corn forage-based diets and milk fat and protein percentage in hay-based diets. In conclusion, FPS has the potential to affect feed intake and milk production of dairy cows, but its effects depend upon
The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are a set of recommendations intended to provide guidance in evaluating nutrient intakes and planning meals on the basis of nutrient adequacy. In contrast to their predecessor, Recommended Dietary Allowances last published in 1989, the DRIs differ in two ways: th...
Constraints and opportunities for implementing nutrition-specific, agricultural and market-based approaches to improve nutrient intake adequacy among infants and young children in two regions of rural Kenya.
Hotz, Christine; Pelto, Gretel; Armar-Klemesu, Margaret; Ferguson, Elaine F; Chege, Peter; Musinguzi, Enock
Several types of interventions can be used to improve nutrient intake adequacy in infant and young child (IYC) diets, including fortified foods, home fortification, nutrition education and behaviour change communication (BCC) in addition to agricultural and market-based strategies. However, the appropriate selection of interventions depends on the social, cultural, physical and economic context of the population. Derived from two rural Kenyan populations, this analysis combined information from: (1) a quantitative analysis to derive a set of food-based recommendations (FBRs) to fill nutrient intake gaps in IYC diets and identify 'problem nutrients' for which intake gaps require solutions beyond currently available foods and dietary patterns, and (2) an ethnographic qualitative analysis to identify contextual factors posing opportunities or constraints to implementing the FBRs, including perceptions of cost, convenience, accessibility and appropriateness of the recommended foods for IYC diets and other social or physical factors that determine accessibility of those foods. Opportunities identified included BCC to increase the acceptability and utilisation of green leafy vegetables (GLV) and small fish and agronomic interventions to increase the productivity of GLV and millet. Value chains for millet, beans, GLV, milk and small fish should be studied for opportunities to increase their accessibility in local markets. Processor-level interventions, such as partially cooked fortified dry porridge mixes or unfortified cereal mixes incorporating millet and beans, may increase the accessibility of foods that provide increased amounts of the problem nutrients. Multi-sectoral actors and community stakeholders should be engaged to assess the feasibility of implementing these locally appropriate strategies.
In the dietary reference intakes, EAR(estimated average requirement), RDA(recommended dietary allowance), AL(adequate intake), DG(tentative dietary goal for preventing life style related diseases) and UL(tolerable upper intake level) of eight types of trace elements (iron: Fe, zinc: Zn, copper: Cu, manganese: Mn, iodine: I, selenium: Se, chromium: Cr, molybdenum: Mo) have been set. However, in the meals of hospitals, only iron of which has been taken into account. The content of these trace elements in the enteral nutrient released after 2000 was determined by considering the content of dietary reference intakes of trace elements for Japanese and considered so not fall into deficiency. However, enteral nutrient must be used considering the content of Zn, Cu and the Zn/Cu ratio, the selenium content, and the route of administration, in order to avoid falling into deficiency.
Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen GHM; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile
The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients. PMID:25768954
Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile
The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9-13-year-old children; 40-60-year-old adults; and 50-75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%-44.1% and 4.2%-7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients.
Atteh, J O; Onagbesan, O M; Tona, K; Decuypere, E; Geuns, J M C; Buyse, J
A perennial schrub, stevia, and its extracts are used as a natural sweetener and have been shown to possess antimicrobial properties. Stevia contains high levels of sweetening glycosides including stevioside which is thought to possess antimicrobial and antifungal properties. Little is known about the nutritional value of the schrub in livestock. This study determined the potential use of the shrub as a prebiotic animal feed supplement in light of the recent ban on the use of antibiotics in animal feed and the role of its constituent stevioside in the effects of the shrub. Male Cobb broiler chicks were fed a basal broiler diet without antibiotic but with performance enhancing enzyme mix (positive control), a basal diet without antibiotic and enzymes (negative control), or diets in which 2% of the negative control diet was replaced with either dried ground stevia leaves or 130 ppm pure stevioside during 2 week starter and 2 week grower periods. Body weight gains, feed conversion, abdominal fat deposition, plasma hormone and metabolites and caecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were measured in the broilers at 2 and 4 weeks of age. There was no significant effect of the treatments on feed intake during the starter period but birds fed diet supplemented with stevia leaves and stevioside consumed more feed (p < 0.05) than those fed the positive control diet during the grower period. Weight gain by birds fed the positive control and stevioside diets was higher (p < 0.05) than those fed other diets only during the starter period. Feed/gain ratio of birds fed the positive control and stevioside diets was superior (p < 0.05) to others. There was no effect of the treatments on nutrient retention and water content of the excreta. Dietary stevia leave and stevioside decreased total concentration of SCFA and changed their profile in the ceca. There was no effect of the treatments on pancreas weight. Dietary stevia reduced blood levels of glucose, triglycerides and
Singh, Surender; Pathak, A. K.; Sharma, R. K.; Khan, Muzaffer
Aim: The aim was to assess the effect of multi nutrient block (MNB) supplementation with and without tanniferous leaf meal mixture on feed intake, hematological profile, immune response, and body weight changes of goats that were experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Materials and Methods: Total 12 adult male goats of similar age and body weight (26.49±0.87) were allocated in 3 groups in completely randomized design. MNB supplemented in first two groups i.e. in T1 (no infection) and T2 (H. contortus infection @ 1500 L3/goat) group, while, MNB-condensed tannin (CT) supplemented in T3 (H. contortus infection @ 1500 L3/goat + CT source). All goats were fed concentrate mixture @ 100 g/day/goat, ad lib wheat straw and MNB or MNB-CT to meet their requirement for maintenance. Body weights were recorded and blood and fecal samples were collected at 0 day and thereafter at 15 days intervals for a period of 75 days for the assessment of body weight changes, hematological profile and H. contortus loads. Both humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) response were assessed at the end of feeding trial. Results: Mean hemoglobin and packed cell volume (PCV) levels were found to be highest (p<0.001, p<0.05) in T1 group followed by T3 group and lowest values were observed in T2 group. However, The PCV values between T1 and T3 groups were found to be statistically non-significant (p<0.05). The humoral and CMI response were significantly (p<0.036) higher in T3 group as compared to T2 group. MNB-CT supplementation significantly (p<0.001) reduced fecal egg counts in T3 group as compared to MNB supplemented T2 group. Conclusion: Supplementation of MNB-CT could be used as an alternative sustainable method to control H. contortus and maintained health status and performance of goats in face of parasitic challenge. PMID:27047137
Food intake, physical activity and genetic make-up each impact health and each factor influences the impact of the other two factors. Nutrigenomics is a term used to describe interactions between food intake, physical activity and genomics. Knowledge about the interplay between environment and ge...
Crawley, H F
As part of the 16-17 year follow-up of the 1970 longitudinal birth cohort study, The International Centre for Child Studies collected dietary data from a National sample of 4760 teenagers. Dietary intake data were collected in 4 d unweighed dietary diaries, distributed by schools and returned by post. Dietary intake data were quantitatively coded, and the intakes of energy, macronutrients and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) are reported. Intakes of fat and extrinsic sugars, expressed as a percentage of energy intake, exceeded recent recommendations (Department of Health, 1991), and the intakes of intrinsic sugars, milk sugars and starch, and NSP were considerably lower than recommended. Only 25% of males and 10% of females achieved intakes of 18 g NSP/d. The main food groups contributing fat (%) to the diets of teenagers (for males and females respectively) were meat and meat products (24.2, 22.1), spreading fats (18.6, 18.1) and cereals and cereal products (18, 17.8), whilst the major sources of sugars (%) were (for males and females respectively) sugar and confectionary (28.2, 26.4), cereals and cereal products (24.5, 23) and beverages (21.9, 21.5). Less than half the cohort drank alcohol during the recording period, and about 6% of females drank more than 2 units alcohol/d, and about 6% of males drank more than 3 units alcohol/d.
Vercambre, Marie-Noël; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Ritchie, Karen; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Berr, Claudine
The objective of the present study was to determine the potential long-term impact of dietary habits on age-related decline among 4809 elderly women (born between 1925 and 1930) in the 'Etude Epidémiologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale' (E3N) study, a French epidemiological cohort. In 1993, an extensive diet history self-administered questionnaire was sent to all participants, and in 2006 another questionnaire on instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and recent cognitive change was sent to a close relative or friend of each woman. Logistic models adjusted for socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors were performed to evaluate associations between habitual dietary intakes and two outcomes of interest based on the informant response: recent cognitive decline and IADL impairment. Recent cognitive decline was associated with lower intakes of poultry, fish, and animal fats, as well as higher intakes of dairy desserts and ice-cream. IADL impairment was associated with a lower intake of vegetables. The odds of recent cognitive decline increased significantly with decreasing intake of soluble dietary fibre and n-3 fatty acids but with increasing intake of retinol. The odds of IADL impairment increased significantly with decreasing intakes of vitamins B2, B6 and B12. These results are consistent with a possible long-term neuroprotective effect of dietary fibre, n-3 polyunsaturated fats and B-group vitamins, and support dietary intervention to prevent cognitive decline.
Vercambre, Marie-Noël; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Ritchie, Karen; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Berr, Claudine
The objective of this study was to determine the potential long-term impact of dietary habits on age-related decline among 4,809 elderly women (born between 1925 and 1930) in the E3N study, a French longitudinal cohort. In 1993, an extensive diet history self-administered questionnaire was sent to all participants, and in 2006 another questionnaire on instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and recent cognitive change was sent to a close relative/friend of each woman. Logistic models adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle and health factors were performed to evaluate associations between habitual dietary intakes and two outcomes of interest based on the informant response: recent cognitive decline and IADL impairment. Recent cognitive decline was associated with lower intakes of poultry, fish, and animal fats, as well as higher intakes of dairy dessert and ice-cream. IADL impairment was associated with lower intake of vegetables. The odds of recent cognitive decline increased significantly with decreasing intake of soluble dietary fibre and n-3 fatty acids but with increasing intake of retinol. The odds of IADL impairment increased significantly with decreasing intake of vitamins B2, B6, and B12. These results are consistent with a possible long-term neuroprotective effect of dietary fibre, n-3 polyunsaturated fats, and B-group vitamins, and support dietary intervention to prevent cognitive decline. PMID:19203415
Constraints and opportunities for implementing nutrition‐specific, agricultural and market‐based approaches to improve nutrient intake adequacy among infants and young children in two regions of rural Kenya
Pelto, Gretel; Armar‐Klemesu, Margaret; Ferguson, Elaine F.; Chege, Peter; Musinguzi, Enock
Abstract Several types of interventions can be used to improve nutrient intake adequacy in infant and young child (IYC) diets, including fortified foods, home fortification, nutrition education and behaviour change communication (BCC) in addition to agricultural and market‐based strategies. However, the appropriate selection of interventions depends on the social, cultural, physical and economic context of the population. Derived from two rural Kenyan populations, this analysis combined information from: (1) a quantitative analysis to derive a set of food‐based recommendations (FBRs) to fill nutrient intake gaps in IYC diets and identify ‘problem nutrients’ for which intake gaps require solutions beyond currently available foods and dietary patterns, and (2) an ethnographic qualitative analysis to identify contextual factors posing opportunities or constraints to implementing the FBRs, including perceptions of cost, convenience, accessibility and appropriateness of the recommended foods for IYC diets and other social or physical factors that determine accessibility of those foods. Opportunities identified included BCC to increase the acceptability and utilisation of green leafy vegetables (GLV) and small fish and agronomic interventions to increase the productivity of GLV and millet. Value chains for millet, beans, GLV, milk and small fish should be studied for opportunities to increase their accessibility in local markets. Processor‐level interventions, such as partially cooked fortified dry porridge mixes or unfortified cereal mixes incorporating millet and beans, may increase the accessibility of foods that provide increased amounts of the problem nutrients. Multi‐sectoral actors and community stakeholders should be engaged to assess the feasibility of implementing these locally appropriate strategies. PMID:26778801
The objective of this study was to compare inter- and intra-group nutrient density (ND) scores of orange vegetables based on type and preparation. ND scores of carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, and 3 varieties of winter squash were calculated using 6 methods. Nutrient profiles/100 g of food was calc...
Consumption of vegetables and fruits is associated with a reduced risk of stroke, but it is unclear whether their protective effects are due to antioxidant vitamins or folate and metabolically related B vitamins. The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that intake of fruits and vegetables, which are major sources of antioxidant and vitamin B complex vitamins, reduces the risk of stroke. Cases consisted of patients diagnosed with first event of stroke (n = 69). Controls (n = 69) were age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched to cases. Multivariable-adjusted regression analysis showed that subjects who ate four to six servings of vegetable per day had a 32% reduction in the risk of stroke, and those with more than six servings per day had a reduction of 69% after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, and family history of stroke. Intakes of total fat, plant fat, calcium, potassium, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, niacin, and folate were significantly and negatively associated with the risk of stroke. Although the trend was not significant, stroke risk was reduced in the second quartile (1.21-2.66 servings per week) of fish intake. However, intake of fruits (average daily intake of 1.0 serving) and antioxidant vitamins such as carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E was not associated with the risk of stroke. In conclusion, our observational study suggests that intake of fat and vegetables, rich sources of vitamin B complex, calcium, and potassium may protect against stroke. PMID:20827346
Assessment of Caregiver’s Knowledge, Complementary Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Nutrient Intake from Homemade Foods for Children of 6–23 Months in Food Insecure Woredas of Wolayita Zone, Ethiopia
Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D.; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho
Complementary feeding should fill the gap in energy and nutrients between estimated daily needs and amount obtained from breastfeeding from 6-month onward. However, homemade complementary foods are often reported for inadequacy in key nutrients despite reports of adequacy for energy and proteins. The aim of this study was to assess caregiver’s complementary feeding knowledge, feeding practices, and to evaluate adequacy daily intakes from homemade complementary foods for children of 6–23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study assessing mothers/caregiver’s knowledge and complementary feeding practice, adequacy of daily energy, and selected micronutrient intakes using weighed food record method. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was also used to select 68 households. Caregivers had good complementary feeding knowledge. Sixty (88.2%) children started complementary feeding at 6 months and 48 (70.6%) were fed three or more times per day. Daily energy intake, however, was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than estimated daily needs, with only 151.25, 253.77, and 364.76 (kcal/day) for 6–8, 9–11, and 12–23 months, respectively. Similarly, Ca and Zn intakes (milligrams per day) were below the daily requirements (p = 0.000), with value of 37.76, 0.96; 18.83, 1.21; 30.13, 1.96; for the 6–8, 9–11, and 12–23 months, respectively. Significant shortfall in daily intake of Fe (p = 0.000) was observed among the 6–8 and 9–11 months (3.25 and 4.17 mg/day, respectively), even accounting for high bioavailability. The complementary foods were energy dense. Daily energy, Ca, Zn, and Fe (except 12–23 months) intake, however, was lower than estimated daily requirements. PMID:27574604
Won, Myeong Suk; Kim, Sunghee; Yang, Yoon Jung
This study aimed to provide supporting data for the management of dietary habits in depression by comparing health and nutrition in adult Korean women according to depression status. A total of 2,236 women aged between 19 and 64 years who participated in the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into a depression group (n = 315) and a non-depression group (n = 1,921). Among 19-29-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, and suicidal thoughts than the non-depression group. The depression group showed lower intake of cereal, chocolate, meat, and carbonated drinks, as well as a lower index of nutritional quality (INQ) for protein, iron, and niacin. Among 30-49-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, chronic disease, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of rice with mixed grains and higher intake of instant and cup noodles than the non-depression group. Among 50-64-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of vegetables, mushrooms, and seaweed, lower nutritional intake of fat, saturated fat, and n-3 fatty acids, as well as a lower INQ for niacin and a lower Recommended Food Score. For all age groups, individuals with depression showed poorer health and nutritional intake than healthy individuals, demonstrating a correlation of depression with health and nutritional intake.
Won, Myeong Suk; Kim, Sunghee
This study aimed to provide supporting data for the management of dietary habits in depression by comparing health and nutrition in adult Korean women according to depression status. A total of 2,236 women aged between 19 and 64 years who participated in the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into a depression group (n = 315) and a non-depression group (n = 1,921). Among 19–29-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, and suicidal thoughts than the non-depression group. The depression group showed lower intake of cereal, chocolate, meat, and carbonated drinks, as well as a lower index of nutritional quality (INQ) for protein, iron, and niacin. Among 30–49-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, chronic disease, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of rice with mixed grains and higher intake of instant and cup noodles than the non-depression group. Among 50–64-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of vegetables, mushrooms, and seaweed, lower nutritional intake of fat, saturated fat, and n-3 fatty acids, as well as a lower INQ for niacin and a lower Recommended Food Score. For all age groups, individuals with depression showed poorer health and nutritional intake than healthy individuals, demonstrating a correlation of depression with health and nutritional intake. PMID:27152301
Rice, Barbara L.; Dlouhy, Holly; Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.
Background: Maintaining adequate nutrient intake in microgravity is important not only to meet health maintenance needs of astronauts but also to help counteract the negative effects of space flight. Beyond this, food provides psychosocial benefits throughout a mission. Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to discuss dietary intake data from multiple space programs, including Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Description: These data arise from medical monitoring of both dietary intake and crew health, as well as research protocols designed to assess the role of diet in counteracting bone loss and other health concerns. Ground-based studies are conducted to better understand some of the negative issues related to space flight. Examples of these analog studies are extended bed rest studies, vitamin D supplementation studies in Antarctica, and saturation diving missions on the floor of the ocean. Methods and findings will be presented describing the use of weighed records, diet diaries, and food frequency questionnaires in these various environments. Provision of food and nutrients in spaceflight is important for many body systems including cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, endocrine, immune, and others. Some key areas of concern are loss of body mass, bone and muscle loss, radiation exposure, nutrient intakes during spacewalks, depletion of nutrient stores, and inadequate dietary intake. Initial experimental research studies using food and nutrition as a countermeasure to aid in mitigating these concerns are underway. Conclusion: Beyond their importance for the few individuals leaving the planet, these studies have significant implications for those remaining on Earth.
Xu, Xiaoyue; Byles, Julie E; Shi, Zumin; Hall, John J
Little is known about the macronutrient intake status of older Chinese people. The present study evaluated the macronutrient intake status of older Chinese people (aged ≥ 60 years), investigated whether they had intake levels that met the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and explored the associations between macronutrient intakes and age groups, sex, education levels, work status, BMI groups, urbanicity levels and four socio-economic regions of China (Northeast, East Coast, Central and Western). Dietary intake data of 2746 older Chinese with complete dietary intake data in the Longitudinal China Health and Nutrition Survey (2009 wave) carried out across four diverse regions were analysed. Dietary intake data were obtained by interviews using 24 h recalls over three consecutive days. The MUFA:SFA ratios were calculated based on the Chinese Food Composition Table. Less than one-third of the older Chinese people included in the present study had intake levels meeting the adequate intake for carbohydrate-energy and fat-energy; less than one-fifth had intake levels meeting the recommended nutrient intake for protein-energy; and more than half of the older people had fat-energy intakes higher than the DRI. There were strong associations between the proportions of energy from the three macronutrients and education levels, urbanicity levels and the four socio-economic regions of China, with older people living in the East Coast region having different patterns of macronutrient-energy intakes when compared with those living in the other three regions. Macronutrient intakes across different urbanicity levels in the four regions revealed considerable geographical variations in dietary patterns, which will affect the risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Clinical interventions and public health policies should recognise these regional differences in dietary patterns.
Xia, Wei; Zhou, Yanjuan; Sun, Caihong; Wang, Jia; Wu, Lijie
Parents of children with autism often report gastrointestinal problems as well as picky eating and selective eating in their children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status and the nutrient intake in 111 Chinese children with autism, aged between 2 and 9 years. Anthropometric data were expressed as Z scores. A 3-day dietary recall was provided by the parents, and the data were compared with the national Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) standards for Chinese children. The results showed that only nine of the autistic children (8.1%) were acute or chronically malnourished. From the remaining 102 patients, 67 (60.4%) were eutrophic and 35 (31.5%) had either overweight or obesity. Intakes of both calories and proteins were adequate in the vast majority of these children, but the calories from fat was lower than DRI in the same age group. The average intake of vitamin E and niacin exceeded 100% of DRI, and the intakes of vitamin B1 and B2, magnesium, and iron were between 80% and 90% of DRI range. However, the following nutrients did not meet the DRI requirements at all: vitamins A, B6 and C, folic acid, calcium, and zinc. Although growth was satisfactory in the vast majority of these children with autistic disorder, this study revealed serious deficiencies in the intakes of several vitamins and essential nutrients.
Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia
Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001), a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible solution
Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia
Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall’s W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001), a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible solution
The effect of a nutritional education program on the nutritional status of elderly patients in a long-term care hospital in Jeollanamdo province: health behavior, dietary behavior, nutrition risk level and nutrient intake.
Kim, Bok Hee; Kim, Mi-Ju; Lee, Yoonna
This study was conducted to assess improvements in nutritional status following the application of nutrition education to elderly patients in a long-term care hospital. The study was carried out from January to May 2009, during which a preliminary survey, a pretest, the application of nutrition education, and a post-test were applied in stages. The number of subjects at pretest was 81, and the number of participants included in the final analysis was 61 (18 men, 43 women), all of whom participated in both the nutrition education program and the post-test. The survey consisted of general demographic items, health behaviors, dietary behaviors, the Nutrition Screening Initiative checklist, and nutrient intake assessment (24 hour recall method). The nutrition education program lasted for four weeks. It included a basic education program, provided once a week, and mini-education program, which was offered daily during lunch times. The survey was conducted before and after the education program using the same assessment method, although some items were included only at pretest. When analyzing the changes in elderly patients after the nutritional education program, we found that, among subjective dietary behaviors, self-rated perceptions of health (P < 0.001) and of depression (P < 0.001) improved significantly and that dietary behavior scores also improved significantly (P < 0.001), while nutritional risk levels decreased. In terms of nutrient intake, subjects' intake of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C all increased significantly (P < 0.001). These results indicated that nutritional education is effective in improving the nutritional status of elderly patients. We hope that the results of this study can be used as preliminary data for establishing guidelines for nutrition management tailored to elderly patients in long-term care hospitals.
Consumption of fruit has been associated with a variety of health benefits, yet, 75% of children have usual intakes of total fruit below minimum recommended amounts. Apples are the second most commonly consumed fruit in the United States; however, no studies have examined the impact of apple consump...
Worobey, John; Worobey, Harriet S.
Two studies examined nutritional differences between home breakfasts and breakfasts served at preschool following School Breakfast Program guidelines and evaluated nutritional impact of program participation on 4-year olds' preacademic performance. Results indicated that breakfast intake was altered under school breakfast conditions. Performance…
To assess the impact of milk and sweetened beverage (SwB) intake on diet and weight in Head Start mothers, three 24-hour dietary recalls were collected on 609 Black (43%), Hispanic (33%), or White (24%) women in AL and TX. Women were divided into four beverage consumption groups: low milk/high SwB, ...
Reeves, Sue; Huber, Jörg W; Halsey, Lewis G; Horabady-Farahani, Yasmin; Ijadi, Mehrnaz; Smith, Tina
The effect of breakfast and breakfast omission on daily food intake in normal and overweight participants was investigated. 37 participants were recruited for this experimental study and assigned to one of four groups on the basis of their body mass index (BMI) (normal weight BMI <25 kg/m(2) or overweight/obese BMI >25 kg/m(2)) and breakfast habits (breakfast eater or breakfast omitter). All participants were requested to eat breakfast for an entire week, and then following a washout period, omit breakfast for an entire week, or vice versa. Seven-day food diaries reporting what was consumed and the timing of consumption were completed for each breakfast condition. Overall more energy was consumed during the breakfast than the no breakfast week. The present study revealed significant effects of timing on energy intakes; more energy was consumed during the afternoon in the no breakfast week compared to the breakfast week. Overweight participants consumed greater amounts of energy than normal weight participants in the early evening. Breakfast omitters consumed more than did breakfast eaters later in the evening. All groups consumed significantly less energy, carbohydrate and fibre in the no breakfast week; however, overweight participants increased their sugar intakes. Consumption of the micronutrients iron and folate was reduced in the no breakfast week. The findings highlight that the timing of food intake and habitual breakfast eating behaviour are important factors when investigating why breakfast consumption may be associated with BMI.
Parents play an important role in shaping children's eating habits. Few studies have evaluated the influence of both parenting style and parenting practices on child outcomes such as dietary intake. Ninety-nine parent–child dyads from four rural US areas participated in this cross-sectional study. C...
Aberrant DNA methylation plays a critical role in carcinogenesis, and the availability of dietary factors involved in 1-carbon metabolism may contribute to aberrant DNA methylation. We investigated the association of intake of folate, vitamins B(2), B(6), B(12), and methionine with promoter methylat...
Gurfinkel, Debbie M.; Wolever, Thomas M. S.
The completion of a 3-d food record, using commonly available nutrient analysis software, is a typical assignment for students in nutrition and food science programs. While these assignments help students evaluate their personal diets, it is insufficient to teach students about surveys of large population cohorts. This paper shows how the Test,…
Sharp, William G.; Berry, Rashelle C.; McCracken, Courtney; Nuhu, Nadrat N.; Marvel, Elizabeth; Saulnier, Celine A.; Klin, Ami; Jones, Warren; Jaquess, David L.
We conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of research regarding feeding problems and nutrient status among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The systematic search yielded 17 prospective studies involving a comparison group. Using rigorous meta-analysis techniques, we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) with…
Silver, Heidi J
Despite the current global obesity crisis, undernutrition remains prevalent among older adults worldwide. This review compares the efficacy of the main oral strategies used to increase older adults' energy and nutrient intakes, i.e., meal enhancement, multivitamin/multimineral supplementation and oral liquid nutrition supplements. Well-designed long-term investigations that are adequately powered to differentiate effects on nutritional, clinical, functional, and cost outcomes are much needed before scientific and clinical consensus can be reached on where and when to implement any strategy as the optimal choice for improving dietary intakes in a specific older adult population.
Dwyer, Johanna T.; Jacques, Paul F.; McCullough, Marjorie L.
Imprecision in estimating intakes of non-nutrient bioactive compounds such as flavonoids is a challenge in epidemiologic studies of health outcomes. The sources of this imprecision, using flavonoids as an example, include the variability of bioactive compounds in foods due to differences in growing conditions and processing, the challenges in laboratory quantification of flavonoids in foods, the incompleteness of flavonoid food composition tables, and the lack of adequate dietary assessment instruments. Steps to improve databases of bioactive compounds and to increase the accuracy and precision of the estimation of bioactive compound intakes in studies of health benefits and outcomes are suggested. PMID:26084477
Vossenaar, M; Jaramillo, P M; Soto-Méndez, M-J; Panday, B; Hamelinck, V; Bermúdez, O I; Doak, C M; Mathias, P; Solomons, N W
Adequate nutrition is critical to child development and institutions such as day-care centers could potentially complement children's diets to achieve optimal daily intakes. The aim of the study was to describe the full-day diet of children, examining and contrasting the relative contribution of home-derived versus institutional energy and nutrient sources. The present comparison should be considered in the domain of a case-study format. The diets of 33, 3-6 y old children attending low-income day-care centers serving either 3 or a single meal were examined. The home-diet was assessed by means of 3 non-consecutive 24-hr recalls. Estimated energy and nutrient intakes at the centers and at home were assessed and related to Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). Nutrient densities, critical densities and main sources of nutrients were computed. We observed that in children attending the day-care center serving three meals, home-foods contributed less than half the daily energy (47.7%) and between 29.9% and 53.5% of daily nutrients. In children receiving only lunch outside the home, energy contribution from the home was 83.9% and 304 kcal lower than for children receiving 3 meals. Furthermore, between 59.0% and 94.8% of daily nutrients were provided at home. Daily energy, nutrient intakes and nutrient densities were well above the nutrient requirements for this age group, and particularly high for vitamin A. The overall dietary variety was superior in the situation of greater contribution of home fare, but overall the nutrient density and adequacy of the aggregate intakes did not differ in any important manner.
Children generally do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables (F/V). Eating more F/V can improve energy density and overall diet quality. Our aim was to investigate whether improvements in F/V consumption were associated with improvements in energy density, total calories, and dietary ...
O'Neil, Carol E; Keast, Debra R; Nicklas, Theresa A; Fulgoni, Victor L
The purpose of this study was to determine the association of out-of-hand nut (OOHN) consumption with nutrient intake, diet quality, and the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Data from 24-hour recalls from individuals aged 2+ years (n = 24,385) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The population was divided into children aged 2 to 11, 12 to 18, and adults 19+ years, and each group was dichotomized into OOHN consumers and nonconsumers. Out-of-hand nut consumers were defined as those individuals consuming ¼ oz of nuts or more per d. Means, standard errors, and covariate-adjusted analyses of variance were determined using appropriate sample weights. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Significance was set at P < .05. The percent of OOHN consumers increased with age: 2.1% ± 0.3%, 2.6% ± 0.3%, 6.5% ± 0.5%, and 9.6% ± 0.5% those aged 2 to 11, 12 to 18, 19 to 50, and 51+ years, respectively. The 2 latter groups were combined into a single group of consumers aged 19+ years for subsequent analyses. Consumers of OOHN from all age groups had higher intakes of energy, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, copper, and magnesium and lower intakes of carbohydrates, cholesterol, and sodium than did nonconsumers. Diet quality was higher in OOHN consumers of all age groups. In children aged 2 to 11 years, consumers had a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity. In those aged 12 to 18 years, weight and percent overweight were lower in consumers. Adult consumers had higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, red blood cell folate, and serum folate levels and lower insulin, glycohemoglobin, and C-reactive protein levels than did nonconsumers. Adult consumers also had a 19% decreased risk of hypertension and a 21% decreased risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Data suggested that OOHN consumption was
Wilson, H R; Harms, R H
Two experiments were conducted to determine if previously suggested nutrient requirements of broiler breeders (23 g protein, 850 mg sulfur amino acids, 4.5 g calcium, and 750 mg phosphorus/bird/day) are in excess and could be reduced during the laying period. In Experiment 1, Cobb color-sex broiler breeders were fed daily nutrient allowances that were 100.0, 96.3, 92.5, 89.4, and 86.6% of the suggested requirements. In Experiment 2, Cobb feather-sex breeders were fed daily allowances that were 92.5, 89.4, 86.6, 83.4, and 80.9% of the suggested requirements. Birds on all diets were fed the same energy level; however, energy varied with season to maintain body weight. Egg production, fertility, hatchability, egg weight, and shell quality were not significantly affected by the reductions in nutrient intake in either experiment. The diet with the lowest nutrient level (80.9% of the suggested requirement) was adequate, indicating a considerable margin of safety for the stated requirements. Body weight was quite variable but tended to decrease with nutrient restriction. Weights of broilers hatched from treated breeders were not significantly affected at 49 days of age by the breeder dietary treatments. These results indicate that broiler breeder diets formulated to meet presently suggested requirements have a large margin of safety and a reduction of specifications by approximately 10% is suggested. The revised daily intakes recommended are: 20.6 g protein, 754 mg sulfur amino acids, 400 mg methionine, 938 mg lysine, 1379 mg arginine, 256 mg tryptophan, 4.07 g calcium, 683 mg total phosphorus, and 170 mg sodium.
Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others
In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)
Schröder, Helmut; Vila, Joan; Marrugat, Jaume; Covas, Maria-Isabel
Nutrient adequacy in the diet is of paramount importance to physical and mental health. The aim of this study was to characterize the dietary pattern associated with a low energy density diet and determine its nutrient adequacy in elderly men and women. The subjects were men (n = 1150) and women (n = 1094) >65 y, examined in 2 population-based cross-sectional surveys (2000 and 2005) in northeast Spain (Girona). Dietary data were recorded using a 165-item FFQ. Reduced rank regression (RRR) analysis was used to identify an energy density-associated dietary pattern. A nutrient adequacy score (NAS) and Mediterranean diet score (MDS) were computed to estimate the association of diet adequacy with energy density. The RRR-derived factor (dietary pattern) predicted 75.4% of the variance in energy density of the diet. Vegetables, fruits, legumes, cooked potatoes, and low-fat milk and yogurt were key to the low energy density of the diet. Higher proportions of men and women consuming low energy density diets met dietary recommendations for total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, total fiber, vitamin C, vitamin E, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, folate, calcium, and magnesium than their peers on high energy density diets. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed an inverse association (P < 0.001) of the NAS and MDS with energy density and energy density-related patterns. A low energy density diet has a higher capacity to prevent nutrient deficiency, despite lower energy content, than a high energy density diet in the elderly population studied.
Gould, Lisa; Power, Michael L; Ellwanger, Nicholas; Rambeloarivony, Hajamanitra
Strong resource seasonality in Madagascar has led to the evolution of female feeding priority and weaning synchrony in most lemur species. For these taxa, pregnancy/early lactation periods coincide with low food availability, and weaning of infants is timed with increased resources at the onset of the rainy season. Reproductive females experience high metabolic requirements, which they must accommodate, particularly when food resources are scarce. Female ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) residing in spiny forest habitat must deal with resource scarcity, high temperatures (∼36-40°C) and little shade in early to mid-lactation periods. Considered "income breeders," these females must use resources obtained from the environment instead of relying on fat stores; thus, we expected they would differ from same-sized males in time spent on feeding and in the intake of food and nutrients. We investigated these variables in two groups (N = 11 and 12) of Lemur catta residing in spiny forest habitat during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods. Focal animal data and food plant samples were collected, and plants were analyzed for protein, kcal, and fiber. We found no sex differences for any feeding or nutrient intake variable for the top five food species consumed. Females in early gestation spent more time feeding compared with early/mid-lactation. Physiological compensation for spiny forest-dwelling females may be tied to greater time spent resting compared with gallery forest conspecifics, consuming foods high in protein, calories, and water, reduced home range defense in a sparsely populated habitat, and for Lemur catta females in general, production of relatively dilute milk compared with many strepsirrhines.
Ciriaco, F M; Henry, D D; Mercadante, V R G; Schulmeister, T; Ruiz-Moreno, M; Lamb, G C; DiLorenzo, N
Two experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of different levels of supplementation with a 50:50 (as-fed) mixture of molasses:crude glycerol on animal performance, total tract digestibility of nutrients, and ruminal in situ degradability of nutrients in beef heifers and steers consuming Tifton 85 Bermuda grass (Cynodon spp.) hay. For Exp. 1, 24 Angus crossbred heifers (380 ± 31 kg BW) were used in a generalized randomized block design. For Exp. 2, 8 ruminally cannulated Angus crossbred steers (323 ± 42 kg BW) were used in a 4 × 4 duplicated Latin square design. For both experiments, animals were housed in individual pens at the University of Florida Feed Efficiency Facility, had ad libitum access to Tifton 85 Bermuda grass hay, and were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: 1) CTRL, no supplementation; 2) SUP1, 0.45 kg/d (as fed) of 50:50 mixture; 3) SUP3, 1.36 kg/d (as fed) of 50:50 mixture; and 4) SUP5, 2.27 kg/d (as fed) of a 50:50 mixture. Individual feed intake was recorded. Total DMI increased linearly (P = 0.005) as the level of supplementation increased. Hay intake ranged from 1.36 (CTRL) to 1.23% (SUP5) of BW, and was not affected (P ≥ 0.10) by liquid supplementation. Final BW was not affected by liquid supplementation ( ≥ 0.10). There was a linear increase (P = 0.027) in ADG as the liquid supplementation amounts increased. Liquid supplementation did not affect G:F (P ≥ 0.10). Apparent total tract digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, and ADF increased linearly (P < 0.001), while CP total tract digestibility decreased linearly (P = 0.002) as the level of supplementation increased. Ruminal pH was decreased linearly (P = 0.012) as the level of supplementation increased. No effect (P ≥ 0.10) of liquid supplementation was detected on lag time for NDF and ADF content of bermudagrass hay; however, rate of degradation (Kd) of NDF tended (P = 0.076) to be affected cubically by liquid supplementation. In addition, liquid supplementation linearly
Gorniak, T; Meyer, U; Hackelsperger, F; Dänicke, S
The aim of the present trials was to determine the effect of an experimental Brown-midrib (Bm) corn hybrid in relation to a commercial corn hybrid (Con) on digestibility in wethers and on dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield and milk composition in dairy cows. Digestibility of crude fibre (CF), neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) and acid detergent fibre (ADFom) were higher for Bm (CF Con: 57.8%; Bm: 67.2%; NDFom Con: 56.8%; Bm: 64.8%; ADFom Con: 52.0%; Bm: 63.9%), but concentration of net energy for lactation did not differ (Con: 6.4 MJ/kg DM; Bm: 6.3 MJ/kg DM). A total of 64 lactating German Holstein cows were assigned to one of the two dietary treatments Con or Bm according to milk yield, lactation number, days in milk and live weight. In Trial 1, cows were fed a total mixed ration consisting of 50% corn silage (Con or Bm) and 50% concentrate on dry matter (DM) basis. In Trial 2, the same animals were fed the respective silage for ad libitum intake and 5.3 kg of concentrate DM per animal per day. In Trial 1, DMI and milk-fat content were decreased significantly for the Bm-treatment (DMI Con: 22.5 kg/day; Bm: 21.5 kg/day; milk fat Con: 3.8%; Bm: 3.3%). In Trial 2, milk yield and fat-corrected milk (FCM) were increased significantly, whereas milk-fat% was decreased significantly (milk yield Con: 25.8 kg/day; Bm: 29.4 kg/day; FCM Con: 27.2 kg/day; Bm: 29.6 kg/day; fat Con: 4.4%; Bm: 4.0%). Diets did not influence ruminal pH or temperature. Diets, furthermore, did not influence rumination in either trial. Additional research on digestibility and rumen fermentation should, however, be carried out using dairy cows at respective intake levels as trials with wethers cannot be transferred to high-yielding ad libitum fed cows.
Kratz, S; Halle, I; Rogasik, J; Schnug, E
1. Flock balances of nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc and copper (N, P, Zn, Cu) were calculated in order to evaluate environmental effects of three different broiler production systems (intensive indoor, free range and organic). 2. Nutrient gain in birds per unit nutrient intake (retention) in intensive indoor production was higher than in free range and organic production. 3. Nutrient surplus relative to nutrient retention was higher in organic production than in free range and intensive indoor production. 4. The main reasons for differences in nutrient efficiency between intensive indoor, free range and organic production were duration of growth period, strain of broilers and feeding strategy. 5. The calculation of whole farm indicators (livestock density, N and P excretions per hectare of farmland) demonstrates how defining system boundaries affects the outcome of an evaluation: organic farms had the smallest livestock densities and the lowest N and P excretions per hectare of farmland. 6. In the efforts to reach a more holistic evaluation of agricultural production systems, the definition of adequate system boundaries must be discussed. In addition to nutrient balances, further indicators of sustainability, such as human and ecological toxicity, should be considered.
Atakan, Cemal; Alkan, Baris; Sahin, Afsin
Adequate intake of fruits and vegetables as part of the daily diet may help prevent major diseases. Low fruit intake is a major risk factor for cancer, coronary heart disease and stroke. The World Health Organization recommends eating at least five portions of a variety of fruit, which is nearly 400 g/day. Essential nutrients, water, carbohydrates, oils and vitamins are needed in appropriate quantities in order to have a well-functioning body. In this study we try to carry out a food composition study to identify and determine the chemical nature of the organic and inorganic macro-nutrient and micro-nutrient properties of the main fruit types that affect human nature, by a biplot graphical approach. The biplot can be considered as multivariate equivalents of scatter plots that have been used for graphically analyzing bivariate data. Biplot approaches show a simultaneous display of fruits and nutrient components in low dimensions. In the present study, the theory of biplot and different types of biplot will be given and than an application of the biplot approach will be applied to the real data.
Mendler, Edward Charles
The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.
Tetens, Inge; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Spagner, Camilla; Christensen, Tue; Gille, Maj-Britt; Bügel, Susanne; Banke Rasmussen, Lone
Objectives To evaluate the intake of micronutrients from the diet and from supplements in users and non-users of dietary supplements, respectively, in a representative sample of the Danish adult population. A specific objective was to identify the determinants of supplement use. Design A cross-sectional representative national study of the intake of vitamins and minerals from the diet and from dietary supplements. Method The Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity, 2000–2004. Participants (n=4,479; 53% females) aged 18–75 years gave information about the use of dietary supplements in a personal interview. The quantification of the micronutrient contribution from supplements was estimated from a generic supplement constructed from data on household purchases. Nutrient intakes from the diet were obtained from a self-administered 7-day pre-coded dietary record. Median intakes of total nutrients from the diets of users and non-users of supplements were analysed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results Sixty percent of females and 51% of males were users of supplements. With the exception of vitamin D, the intake of micronutrients from the diet was adequate at the group level for all age and gender groups. Among females in the age group 18–49 years, the micronutrient intake from the diet was significantly higher compared with the non-users of dietary supplements. The use of dietary supplements increased with age and with ‘intention to eat healthy.’ Conclusion Intake of micronutrients from the diet alone was considered adequate for both users and non-users of dietary supplements. Younger females who were supplement users had a more micronutrient-dense diet compared to non-users. PMID:21909288
The objectives of this study were to 1) determine the variation of nutrient digestion, plasma metabolites and oxidative stress parameters triggered by induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA); and 2) evaluate the ability of pelleted beet pulp (BP) as a replacement for ground corn to alleviate SARA. Eight Holstein-Friesian cows were fed four diets during four successive17-day periods: 1) total mixed ration (TMR) containing 0% finely ground wheat (FGW) (W0); 2) TMR containing 10% FGW (W10); 3) TMR containing 20% FGW (W20); and 4) TMR containing 10% BP as a replacement for 10% ground corn (BP10). The SARA induction protocol reduced the mean ruminal pH from 6.37 to 5.94, and the minimum ruminal pH decreased from 5.99 to 5.41 from baseline to challenge period. Mean ruminal pH increased from 5.94 to 6.05, and minimum daily ruminal pH increased from 5.41 to 5.63, when BP was substituted for corn. The apparent digestibility of nutrients was not affected by the dietary treatments, except that the digestibility of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) was reduced in cows fed the W20 diet compared with cows fed the W0 and W10 diets, and cows fed the BP10 diet had higher NDF and ADF digestibility than the cows fed the W20 diet. Cows fed the W20 diet had a lower plasma concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol, triglyceride, and total antioxidative capacity (TAC), and a higher plasma concentration of glucose, insulin, malonaldehyde (MDA), super oxygen dehydrogenises (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) than cows fed the W0 diet. Substitution of BP for corn increased concentrations of plasma BHBA and TAC, but decreased concentrations of plasma MDA. Our results indicate that reduction of fibre digestion; the concomitant increase of plasma glucose and insulin; the decrease of plasma BHBA, NEFA, cholesterol, and triglyceride; and changes of plasma oxidative stress parameters are highly related to SARA
Urquiza-Haas, Tania; Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos; Hernández-Salazar, Laura Teresa
There continue to remain uncertainty concerning the nutritional importance of figs (Ficus spp.) in the primate diet. Although studies have been performed on the nutritional analysis of fig pulp and seed fractions separately, there has not been an attempt to quantify the contribution of animal matter within figs. Here we report nutritional values of figs (Ficus perforata) (Urostigma) consumed by a troop of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata mexicana). Separate nutritional assays were performed on the pulp, seed, and animal fraction. Whole-fig analyses significantly exaggerate the concentrations of all nutrients (lipids especially) as seeds, which represent a large proportion of the fig (45%), cannot be digested. Animal matter only represents 1% of the fig, and augments fig protein and lipid content by 0.44 and 0.30%, respectively. This represents the 11 and 9% of the fraction available for digestion. Differences in fig consumption were observed between age and sex classes (P=0.04) and periods of the day (P=0.001); females consumed more figs than males and the highest consumption of figs was observed in the afternoon. F. perforata figs may be an important component of the howler monkeys diet owing to their high content of water and calcium.
Maalouf, Joyce; Cogswell, Mary E; Yuan, Keming; Martin, Carrie; Gillespie, Cathleen; Ahuja, Jaspreet Kc; Pehrsson, Pamela; Merritt, Robert
The sodium concentration (mg/100g) for 23 of 125 Sentinel Foods (e.g. white bread) were identified in the 2009 CDC Packaged Food Database (PFD) and compared with data in the USDA's 2013 National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference(SR 26). Sentinel Foods are foods identified by USDA to be monitored as primary indicators to assess the changes in the sodium content of commercially processed foods from stores and restaurants. Overall, 937 products were evaluated in the CDC PFD, and between 3 (one brand of ready-to-eat cereal) and 126 products (white bread) were evaluated per selected food. The mean sodium concentrations of 17 of the 23 (74%) selected foods in the CDC PFD were 90%-110% of the mean sodium concentrations in SR 26 and differences in sodium concentration were statistically significant for 6 Sentinel Foods. The sodium concentration of most of the Sentinel Foods, as selected in the PFD, appeared to represent the sodium concentrations of the corresponding food category. The results of our study help improve the understanding of how nutrition information compares between national analytic values and the label and whether the selected Sentinel Foods represent their corresponding food category as indicators for assessment of change of the sodium content in the food supply.
Maalouf, Joyce; Cogswell, Mary E.; Yuan, Keming; Martin, Carrie; Gillespie, Cathleen; Ahuja, Jaspreet KC; Pehrsson, Pamela; Merritt, Robert
The sodium concentration (mg/100g) for 23 of 125 Sentinel Foods (e.g. white bread) were identified in the 2009 CDC Packaged Food Database (PFD) and compared with data in the USDA’s 2013 National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference(SR 26). Sentinel Foods are foods identified by USDA to be monitored as primary indicators to assess the changes in the sodium content of commercially processed foods from stores and restaurants. Overall, 937 products were evaluated in the CDC PFD, and between 3 (one brand of ready-to-eat cereal) and 126 products (white bread) were evaluated per selected food. The mean sodium concentrations of 17 of the 23 (74%) selected foods in the CDC PFD were 90%–110% of the mean sodium concentrations in SR 26 and differences in sodium concentration were statistically significant for 6 Sentinel Foods. The sodium concentration of most of the Sentinel Foods, as selected in the PFD, appeared to represent the sodium concentrations of the corresponding food category. The results of our study help improve the understanding of how nutrition information compares between national analytic values and the label and whether the selected Sentinel Foods represent their corresponding food category as indicators for assessment of change of the sodium content in the food supply. PMID:26484010
Payandeh, S; Kafilzadeh, F
This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SC47) on finishing performance, digestibility, some blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of male lambs fed a diet based on dried Molasses Sugar Beet-Pulp (MSBP). Eighteen Sanjabi male lambs (20.95 +/- 2.7 kg initial body weight and 3 month of age) were used in a completely randomized design. Animals were assigned to one of the two dietary treatments (with or without yeast). Digestibility and nitrogen balance experiment was carried out using six mature rams on finishing diet with and without yeast. Serum metabolites were determined in samples taken from lambs at the end of finishing period. Dry matter digestibility of finishing diet was significantly increased by yeast addition. However, yeast did not have any significant effect on apparent digestibility of OM, NDF, CP and energy. Nitrogen retention was also not affected by yeast addition. Yeast resulted in a significant increase in the average daily gain, dry matter and organic matter intake. However, feed conversion ratio was not significantly affected by addition of yeast. The concentration of the serum metabolites including glucose, urea, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorous and cratinine were not affected significantly by yeast supplementation, but triglyceride concentrations increased significantly when yeast was fed. Addition of yeast to the diet did not have any significant effect on the carcass characteristics. Results of this study suggest that feeding saccharomyces cerevisiae with a diet based on MSBP can improve the performance of fattening lambs without any change in carcass characteristics or cuts.
Phosphorus (P) exists at the all organs and plays important physiological roles in the body. A wide range of food contains P, which is absorbed at a higher level (60-70%) and its insufficiency and deficiency are rarely found. P is used as food additives in many processed food, where risk of overconsumption could be an issue. P has less evidence in terms of nutrition. P has the adequate intake and the tolerable upper intake level, for risk reduction of health disorders associated with excess intake, at the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2010 edition).
Celada, Paloma; Delgado-Pando, Gonzalo; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Ruperto, Mar; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J
Introducción: la carne es una matriz adecuada para la inclusión de ingredientes funcionales. En un estudio no secuencial controlado y aleatorio se evaluó el impacto del consumo de productos cárnicos, en los que se sustituyó la grasa animal por una combinación de aceite de oliva, de linaza y de pescado, sobre la ingesta de energía y nutrientes y sobre los marcadores antropométricos. Métodos: dieciocho voluntarios con elevado riesgo cardiovascular consumieron semanalmente 200 g de salchichas tipo frankfurt y 250 g de paté durante tres períodos sucesivos de 4 semanas (bajo en grasa (RF); enriquecidos en n-3 (n-3RF), y grasa normal (NF)), separados por un lavado de 4 semanas. Se evaluó la ingesta de nutrientes y energía, el índice de alimentación saludable (HEI) y los cambios antropométricos. Resultados: hubo diferencias significativas entre períodos para las tasas de cambio de la grasa corporal y de la relación cintura/cadera (p = 0,018 y p = 0,031, respectivamente), disminuyendo la masa grasa, el perímetro de la cintura y la relación cintura/cadera en el periodo RF, e incrementándose la grasa corporal en el periodo NF (todos p = 0,05). En el período n-3RF las tasas de cambio de IMC y del peso ideal correlacionaron inversa y significativamente (p = 0.003 y p = 0.006, respectivamente) con el cociente hidratos de carbono/AGS. El HEI inicial de las dietas fue muy bajo (valor medio < 60). La contribución energética de carbohidratos, grasa y proteínas fue 40%, 41% y 16%, respectivamente. Más del 33% de los voluntarios no cubrían al inicio el 70% de las RDA para minerales y vitaminas. La intervención mejoró en todos los períodos la ingesta de Zn, Ca, equivalentes de retinol, folatos y vitamina B12. En el período n-3RF incrementó los AGPn-3 y redujo el cociente n-6/n-3. Conclusión: los productos cárnicos con menos grasa o enriquecidos en AGP n-3 son alimentos funcionales para personas con sobrepeso/obesidad, ya que su consumo mejora los
Morimoto, Juliana Masami; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Fisberg, Regina Mara
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake and excess sodium intake among adults age 19 years and older in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall and sociodemographic data were collected from each participant (n=1,663) in a cross-sectional study, Inquiry of Health of São Paulo, of a representative sample of the adult population of the city of São Paulo in 2003 (ISA-2003). The variability in intake was measured through two replications of the 24-hour recall in a subsample of this population in 2007 (ISA-2007). Usual intake was estimated by the PC-SIDE program (version 1.0, 2003, Department of Statistics, Iowa State University), which uses an approach developed by Iowa State University. The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy was calculated using the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method for vitamins A and C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, copper, phosphorus, and selenium. For vitamin D, pantothenic acid, manganese, and sodium, the proportion of individuals with usual intake equal to or more than the Adequate Intake value was calculated. The percentage of individuals with intake equal to more than the Tolerable Upper Intake Level was calculated for sodium. The highest prevalence of inadequacy for males and females, respectively, occurred for vitamin A (67% and 58%), vitamin C (52% and 62%), thiamin (41% and 50%), and riboflavin (29% and 19%). The adjustment for the within-person variation presented lower prevalence of inadequacy due to removal of within-person variability. All adult residents of São Paulo had excess sodium intake, and the rates of nutrient inadequacy were high for certain key micronutrients.
Stochastic modelling of human exposure to food chemicals and nutrients within the "Montecarlo" project: an exploration of the influence of brand loyalty and market share on intake estimates of intense sweeteners from sugar-free soft drinks.
Leclercq, Catherine; Arcella, Davide; Le Donne, Cinzia; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Sette, Stefania; Soggiu, Maria Eleonora
To get a more realistic view of exposure to food chemicals, risk managers are getting more interested in stochastic modelling as an alternative to deterministic approaches based on conservative assumptions. It allows to take into account all the available information in the concentration of the chemical present in foods and in food consumption patterns. Within the EC-funded "Montecarlo" project, a comprehensive set of mathematical algorithms was developed to take into account all the necessary components for stochastic modelling of a variety of food chemicals, nutrients and ingredients. An appropriate computer software is being developed. Since the concentration of food chemicals may vary among different brands of the same product, consumer behaviour with respect to brands may have an impact on exposure assessments. Numeric experiments were carried out on different ways of incorporating indicators of market share and brand loyalty in the mathematical algorithms developed within the stochastic model of exposure to intense sweeteners from sugar-free beverages. The 95th percentiles of intake were shown to vary according to the inclusion/exclusion of these indicators. The market share should be included in the model especially if the market is not equitably distributed between brands. If brand loyalty data are not available, the model may be run under theoretical scenarios.
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...
del Real, Sara; Páez, María Concepción; Solano, Liseti; Fajardo, Zuleida
The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of iron and vitamin A (VA) to corn flour, supplied through a national enrichment program since 1993, allows preschoolers to achieve an adequate intake of these nutrients. Data from the assessment of 196 children (4-6 year old) from Valencia, Venezuela is presented, including socio-demographic, anthropometric, anemia, VA deficiency (by conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and serum retinol), and food intake. 92% of the children lived in poverty. 12% were below the norm for weight-for-height. 13% had anemia, 9% had VA deficiency according to CIC, and 0.5% according to serum retinol (< 0.70 mumol/L), 30% were at risk of VA deficiency (0.70-1.05 mmol/L). 17%, 37%, and 5% of the sample had an insufficient intake (< 80% of RDA) of energy, iron, and VA, respectively. When excluding from the analysis the amount of iron and VA from corn flour enrichment, an additional 38% and 10% of the sample showed deficient intakes of each nutrient, respectively. According to the weight-for-height indicator, iron intake was significantly lower in undernourished children (p < 0.05) than in those normal or above the norm; this was not so for VA. It is concluded that iron enrichment contributes to the improvement of the intake of this nutrient but is not enough to provide an adequate amount of it; and that the addition of VA does not seem to have an important effect on the diet of this age group.
Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Ferreira, Andreza Campos; Pereira, Cristina Novack Amaral; Silva, Roberta Ribeiro
The objective of this article is to evaluate socioeconomic conditions, nutritional status and food intake of preschool children assisted at Municipal Educational Centers (CEMs) of Alfenas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A transverse study involving 186 children was performed. The socioeconomic profile, weight, height, age, sex and food intake by a direct weighting tool were evaluated. It was observed an income family of one to three minimum wages, incomplete fundamental learning, private house with basic sanitation, four to five inhabitants per house of whom two worked at most. The average age was 49.2 +/- 12.9 months. The stunting rates were more prevalent among the children (20.5%). The whole, 72.6% of children have energy intake below Estimated Energy Intake (EER). However, when stratifying for age group, 78.4% of the children from 1 to 3 years old have high energy intake and 74.1% from 4 to 6 years old have inadequate energy intake. All children presented consumption below the Adequate Intake (AI) of calcium and most of them below to Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of iron. Despite some biosocioeconomic factors be favorable to the nutritional status, malnutrition, and inadequate nutrient intake were present, which demanded the implementation of nutritional programs in CEMs.
The nutrient and food group database, created for analyzing the DHQ, is based on national dietary intake data from the 1994-96 US Department of Agriculture's Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII).
Bhattacherjee, Sharmistha; Datta, Saikat; Ray, Kuntala; Mukhopadhyay, Dipta Kanti
Introduction: Nutrient adequacy is the level of intake of an essential nutrient in relation to the nutrient requirement for adequate health, which is expressed as the percentage of recommended dietary allowance. To develop an effective nationwide preventive program to combat malnutrition, it is necessary not only to assess the nature and magnitude of the problem of nutrient inadequacy but to identify factors affecting it especially at the household level. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of nutrient adequacy in a sample of households in a rural area of Darjeeling district and to find out the factors associated with nutrient adequacy. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out from January 2014 to December 2014 in 821 households of Darjeeling district, India. The major dependent variable used in this study was the mean nutrient adequacy ratio of a household and the independent variables were number of family members, number of under-five children in the family, literacy of head of the family, literacy of the wife of the head of the family, income of the family, and percentage expenditure on food. Results: The prevalence of nutrient adequate households was found to be 35.3% among the study households. It was observed that the percentage expenditure on food had the highest contribution toward nutrient adequacy, followed by number of under-five children in the family and literacy of the wife of the head of the family. Undernutrition was found to be prevalent in 56.6% of the households. Conclusion: Majority of the study population had a diet less than the required amount and expectedly, undernutrition was also present in huge proportions. PMID:27843834
Ferrari, Ariana; de Carvalho, Aline Martins; Steluti, Josiane; Teixeira, Juliana; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Aguiar, Samuel
To assess the ingestion of folate and nutrients involved in the 1-carbon cycle in non-treated patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma in a reference center for oncology in southeastern Brazil. In total, 195 new cases with colorectal adenocarcinoma completed a clinical evaluation questionnaire and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Blood samples from 161 patients were drawn for the assessment of serum folate. A moderate correlation was found between serum concentrations of folate, folate intake and the dietary folate equivalent (DFE) of synthetic supplements. Mulatto or black male patients with a primary educational level had a higher intake of dietary folate. Of patients obtaining folate from the diet alone or from dietary supplements, 11.00% and 0.10%, respectively, had intake below the recommended level. Of the patients using dietary supplements, 35% to 50% showed high levels of folic acid intake. There was a prevalence of inadequacy for vitamins B2, B6 and B12, ranging from 12.10% to 20.18%, while 13.76% to 22.55% of patients were likely to have adequate choline intake. The considerable percentage of patients with folate intake above the recommended levels deserves attention because of the harmful effects that this nutrient may have in the presence of established neoplastic lesions.
Ferrari, Ariana; de Carvalho, Aline Martins; Steluti, Josiane; Teixeira, Juliana; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Aguiar, Samuel
To assess the ingestion of folate and nutrients involved in the 1-carbon cycle in non-treated patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma in a reference center for oncology in southeastern Brazil. In total, 195 new cases with colorectal adenocarcinoma completed a clinical evaluation questionnaire and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Blood samples from 161 patients were drawn for the assessment of serum folate. A moderate correlation was found between serum concentrations of folate, folate intake and the dietary folate equivalent (DFE) of synthetic supplements. Mulatto or black male patients with a primary educational level had a higher intake of dietary folate. Of patients obtaining folate from the diet alone or from dietary supplements, 11.00% and 0.10%, respectively, had intake below the recommended level. Of the patients using dietary supplements, 35% to 50% showed high levels of folic acid intake. There was a prevalence of inadequacy for vitamins B2, B6 and B12, ranging from 12.10% to 20.18%, while 13.76% to 22.55% of patients were likely to have adequate choline intake. The considerable percentage of patients with folate intake above the recommended levels deserves attention because of the harmful effects that this nutrient may have in the presence of established neoplastic lesions. PMID:26043032
Wilson, Theresa A.; Adolph, Anne L.; Butte, Nancy F.
Objective The role of diet quality and nutrient adequacy in the etiology of childhood obesity is poorly understood. The specific aims of these analyses were to 1) assess overall diet quality and nutrient adequacy, and 2) test for association between weight status and diet in children from low socioeconomic status (SES) Hispanic families at high risk for obesity. Design A cross-sectional study design was used to assess dietary intake in low-SES non-overweight and overweight Hispanic children enrolled in the VIVA LA FAMILIA Study. Multiple-pass 24-h dietary recalls were recorded on two random, weekday occasions. Diet quality was evaluated according to United States (US) Dietary Guidelines. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using z-scores based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Subjects/Setting The study included 1030 Hispanic children and adolescents, ages 4-19 y, in Houston, Texas who participated between November 2000 and August 2004. Statistical analysis STATA was used for generalized estimating equations and random effects regression. Results Diet quality did not adhere to US dietary guidelines for fat, cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, fiber, added sugar and sodium. Although energy intake was significantly higher in overweight children, food sources, diet quality, macro- and micronutrient composition were similar between non-overweight and overweight children. Relative to EAR or AI, mean nutrient intakes were adequate (70-98% probability) in the non-overweight and overweight children, except for vitamins D and E, pantothenic acid, calcium and potassium for which z-scores cannot be interpreted given the uncertainty of their AI's. Conclusion While the diets of low-SES, non-overweight and overweight Hispanic children were adequate in most essential nutrients, other components of a healthy diet, which promote long-term health, were suboptimal. Knowledge of the diet of high risk Hispanic children will inform nutritional interventions and
O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim
Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake <1.5 g/d, and form the evidentiary basis for current population-wide guidelines recommending low sodium intake. Although low sodium intake (<2.0 g/d) has been achieved in short-term feeding clinical trials, sustained low sodium intake has not been achieved by any of the longer term clinical trials (>6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension.
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate evidence. 919.900 Section 919.900 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.900 Adequate...
Lupton, J R; Blumberg, J B; L'Abbe, M; LeDoux, M; Rice, H B; von Schacky, C; Yaktine, A; Griffiths, J C
Nutrition is complex-and seemingly getting more complicated. Most consumers are familiar with "essential nutrients," e.g., vitamins and minerals, and more recently protein and important amino acids. These essential nutrients have nutrient reference values, referred to as dietary reference intakes (DRIs) developed by consensus committees of scientific experts convened by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and carried out by the Food and Nutrition Board. The DRIs comprise a set of four nutrient-based reverence values, the estimated average requirements, the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs), the adequate intakes and the tolerable upper intake levels for micronutrient intakes and an acceptable macronutrient distribution range for macronutrient intakes. From the RDA, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) derives a labeling value called the daily value (DV), which appears on the nutrition label of all foods for sale in the US. The DRI reports do not make recommendations about whether the DV labeling values can be set only for what have been defined to date as "essential nutrients." For example, the FDA set a labeling value for "dietary fiber" without having the DV. Nutrient reference values-requirements are set by Codex Alimentarius for essential nutrients, and regulatory bodies in many countries use these Codex values in setting national policy for recommended dietary intakes. However, the focus of this conference is not on essential nutrients, but on the "nonessential nutrients," also termed dietary bioactive components. They can be defined as "Constituents in foods or dietary supplements, other than those needed to meet basic human nutritional needs, which are responsible for changes in health status (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of Public Health and Science, Department of Health and Human Services in Fed Regist 69:55821-55822, 2004)." Substantial and often persuasive
Yen, Chin-En; Yen, Chi-Hua; Huang, Men-Chung; Cheng, Chien-Hsiang; Huang, Yi-Chia
The aim of this study was to assess and compare dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents. Fifty-six omnivores (28 children and 28 parents) and 42 vegetarians (21 preschool children with 18 lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 3 ovo-vegetarians; 21 parents with 16 lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 2 ovo-vegetarians, 1 lacto-vegetarian, and 2 vegans) were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were taken; body mass index and weight-for-height index (WHI) were calculated. Nutrient intake was recorded using 3-day dietary records. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained to estimate hematologic and vitamin status parameters. Height, weight, body mass index, WHI, and triceps skinfold thickness value differences between omnivores and vegetarians in both parent and child groups were not found. Both omnivorous parents and their children had significantly higher fat and lower fiber intakes than vegetarian parents and children. Omnivorous children had significantly higher protein and lower vitamin C intakes than vegetarian children, whereas omnivorous parents had significantly lower vitamin A and iron intakes than vegetarian parents. Vegetarians and omnivores in both parent and child groups had mean calcium consumption less than 75% of the Taiwan dietary intakes. All mean hematologic and biochemical nutrient status indices were within the reference range in any groups. However, both vegetarian parents and children had significantly lower mean total cholesterol and serum ferritin concentrations than those of omnivorous parents and children. Our vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children had normal growth and adequate nutritional status. However, both parents and children had inadequate calcium intakes, which may potentially affect bone health, especially for preschool children in the growing stage.
Beaton, G H; Calloway, D H; Murphy, S P
This paper presents a probability assessment of the adequacy of protein intakes of toddlers (aged 18-30 mo) in study communities in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico judged in relation to FAO/WHO/UNU estimates of requirements. Effects of supplementing amino acid intakes, or of assuming lower bioavailability for lysine are also considered. In Egypt and Mexico existing protein intakes of toddlers were adequate. In Kenya existing intakes were marginal. Total protein intake was low and often lysine or tryptophan concentration was low. If Kenyan intakes met estimated energy requirements, protein intakes would be adequate. We conclude that protein intake is unlikely to be a primary limiting factor for toddler growth and development, and the benefit to be expected from increasing the intake of limiting amino acids is marginal. Reported associations of animal-source protein and energy with growth, size, and psychologic function of these toddlers are unlikely to be causally attributable to inadequacy of protein intakes.
Nicklas, Theresa A; Liu, Yan; Islam, Noemi; O'Neil, Carol E
White potatoes are a forgotten source of nutrients. The goal of this study was to identify the nutritional implications of replacing a composite of white potatoes with a composite of vegetables commonly consumed by children aged 2-18 y (n = 3460) in a nationally representative sample. The NHANES 2005-2012 24-h dietary recall data were used to determine nutrient intake. Two replacement models were developed: one for potato consumers and another for those consuming vegetables other than potatoes. Analyses focused on 1) mean nutrient contributions per 1 cup equivalent vegetable composite (VC)/potato composite (PC) consumed by participants, and 2) mean daily nutrient intake when the nutrients per 1 cup equivalent PC replaced the nutrients per 1 cup equivalent VC. Covariate adjusted analysis was tested for statistical significance (P < 0.002). When 1 cup equivalent VC replaced 1 cup equivalent PC, significantly lower mean intakes were found for 20 of the 23 nutrients studied and higher mean intakes of total sugars, folate, and calcium. Differences were found including higher total intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids and potassium and lower total intakes of vitamins A and K. The percentage contribution of the PC to total daily nutrient intake was 6% for total energy, 8% for total fat, 5% for saturated fatty acids, 13% for dietary fiber, 4% for sodium, and 11% for potassium. Both composites contributed a variety of nutrients to the total diet; the consumption of white potatoes may be an important strategy to help meet the potassium recommendation.
Nicklas, Theresa A; Liu, Yan; Islam, Noemi; O'Neil, Carol E
White potatoes are a forgotten source of nutrients. The goal of this study was to identify the nutritional implications of replacing a composite of white potatoes with a composite of vegetables commonly consumed by children aged 2–18 y (n = 3460) in a nationally representative sample. The NHANES 2005–2012 24-h dietary recall data were used to determine nutrient intake. Two replacement models were developed: one for potato consumers and another for those consuming vegetables other than potatoes. Analyses focused on 1) mean nutrient contributions per 1 cup equivalent vegetable composite (VC)/potato composite (PC) consumed by participants, and 2) mean daily nutrient intake when the nutrients per 1 cup equivalent PC replaced the nutrients per 1 cup equivalent VC. Covariate adjusted analysis was tested for statistical significance (P < 0.002). When 1 cup equivalent VC replaced 1 cup equivalent PC, significantly lower mean intakes were found for 20 of the 23 nutrients studied and higher mean intakes of total sugars, folate, and calcium. Differences were found including higher total intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids and potassium and lower total intakes of vitamins A and K. The percentage contribution of the PC to total daily nutrient intake was 6% for total energy, 8% for total fat, 5% for saturated fatty acids, 13% for dietary fiber, 4% for sodium, and 11% for potassium. Both composites contributed a variety of nutrients to the total diet; the consumption of white potatoes may be an important strategy to help meet the potassium recommendation. PMID:26773033
Ngo, Joy; Gurinovic, Mirjana; Frost-Andersen, Lene; Serra-Majem, Lluís
Immigrants comprise a noteworthy segment of the European population whose numbers are increasing. Research on the dietary habits of immigrants is critical for correctly providing diet counselling and implementing effective interventions. The aim of the present study was to identify the presently used methods and adaptations required for measuring dietary intake in European immigrant groups. A comprehensive review strategy included a structured MEDLINE search, related references and key expert consultations. The review targeted adults from non-European union (European union-15 countries) ethnic groups having the largest populations in Europe. As studies evaluating nutrient intake were scarce, papers evaluating intake at the level of foods were included. Forty-six papers were selected. Although Eastern Europe, Turkey, Africa (North, Sub-Saharan and Afro-Caribbean), Asia and Latin America represented the most numerous immigrant groups, papers on dietary intake were not available for all populations. Interview-administered FFQ and repeated 24 hour recalls were the most frequently applied instruments. Inclusion of ethnic foods and quantification of specific portion sizes of traditional foods and dishes in assessment tools as well as food composition databases were commonly identified problems. For FFQ, food list elaboration required particular consideration to reflect key ethnic foods and relative contribution to nutrient intake. Extra efforts were observed to overcome cultural barriers to study participation. Evaluating dietary intake of immigrant populations requires special attention to various methodological aspects (sampling, recruiting, instruments used, method of administration, food composition database, acculturation, etc.) so as to adequately address the range of socio-cultural factors inherent in these nutritionally at risk target groups.
Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.
The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.
de Oliveira, Cristiane Franco; da Silveira, Carla Rosane; Beghetto, Mariur; de Mello, Paula Daniel; de Mello, Elza Daniel
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake. METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg) or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg), parametric and nonparametric tests were used. RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg) and only 25 students (11.7%) had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ≥3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence. PMID:25119753
[Epidemiologic studies on nutrition role in develomeat of osteoarthrosis. Report 1. Analysis of actual intake of nutrients and energy in depend on financial position and in come patients osteoarthrosis].
Khodyrev, V N; Martinchik, A N
The study gives the characteristic of the social situation of patients with osteoarthrosis (OA), among which is dominated by people with disabilities and senior citizens (60%), most of which belongs to the poor. The actual nutrition of patients with OA is characterized by low energy intake and macronutrients. Feeding low-income patients with OA was characterized by inadequate intake of ascorbic acid and calcium, whereas the intake of vitamin A, E and beta-carotene was higher in patients with OA compared with the control group.
This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…
Kannan, Srimathi; Ni, Yu-Ming; Gennings, Chris; Ganguri, Harish B.; Wright, Rosalind J.
Objective(s) To validate the Block98 food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for estimating antioxidant, methyl-nutrient and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intakes in a pregnant sample of ethnic/racial minority women in the United States (US). Methods Participants (n = 42) were from the Programming of Intergenerational Stress Mechanisms study. Total micronutrient intakes from food and supplements was ascertained using the modified Block98 FFQ and two 24-h dietary recalls collected at random on nonconsecutive days subsequent to completion of the FFQ in mid-pregnancy. Correlation coefficients (r) corrected for attenuation from within-person variation in the recalls were calculated for antioxidants (n = 7), methyl-nutrients (n = 8), and PUFAs (n = 2). Result(s) The sample was largely ethnic minorities (38 % Black, 33 % Hispanic) with 21 % being foreign born and 41 % having less than or equal to a high school degree. Significant and adequate deattenuated correlations (r ≥ 0.40) for total dietary intakes of antioxidants were observed for vitamin C, vitamin E, magnesium, and zinc. Reasonable deattenuated correlations were also observed for methyl-nutrient intakes of vitamin B6, betaine, iron, and n:6 PUFAs; however, they did not reach significance. Most women were classified into the same or adjacent quartiles (≥70 %) for total (dietary + supplements) estimates of antioxidants (5 out of 7) and methyl-nutrients (4 out of 5). Conclusions The Block98 FFQ is an appropriate dietary method for evaluating antioxidants in pregnant ethnic/minorities in the US; it may be less efficient in measuring methyl-nutrient and PUFA intakes. PMID:26511128
McCarron, D A; Reusser, M E
Inadequate levels of calcium and potassium intake have long been associated with higher blood pressures. Epidemiologic data have suggested these associations and many clinical trials have indicated causal relationships. However, the intervention data are plagued with inconsistent study designs, populations, and results, and there remain many questions regarding dietary recommendations of these nutrients for cardiovascular health. Until recently, nutrition research focused on single-nutrient interventions, generally with disparate results. Recognizing that nutrients are not consumed individually but as combined constituents of a varied diet, efforts in this area have shifted to the role of the overall diet, or dietary patterns, in blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. The suggestions of epidemiologic surveys nearly two decades ago that the total diet has a greater influence on cardiovascular health than do specific components, are now being borne out by randomized controlled trials demonstrating this effect. From these dietary pattern studies, it has become increasingly clear that it is not merely excesses of single nutrients but also deficiencies of multiple nutrients in combination, such as calcium and potassium, that have the greatest dietary effects on cardiovascular health. Several risk factors for cardiovascular disease have now been shown to be reduced with diets that meet the current recommended dietary guidelines, ie, that provide appropriate levels of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and macronutrients. In addition, new data indicate that regular consumption of these diets is associated with decreased mortality. Adequate intake of minerals such as calcium and potassium-specifically derived from foods, where they coexist with other essential nutrients-contributes to cardiovascular as well as overall health.
Boyd, Philip W.; Hurd, Catriona L.
Nutrients provide the chemical life-support system for phytoplankton in the ocean. Together with the carbon fixed during photosynthesis, nutrients provide the other elements, such as N and P, needed to synthesize macromolecules to build cellular constituents such as ribosomes. The makeup of these various biochemicals, such as proteins, pigments, and nucleic acids, together determine the elemental stoichiometry of an individual phytoplankton cell. The stoichiometry of different phytoplankton species or groups will vary depending on the proportions of distinct cellular machinery, such as for growth or resource acquisition, they require for their life strategies. The uptake of nutrients by phytoplankton helps to set the primary productivity, and drives the biological pump, of the global ocean. In the case of nitrogen, the supply of nutrients is categorized as either new or regenerated. The supply of new nitrogen, such as nitrate upwelled from the ocean' interior or biological nitrogen fixation, is equal to the vertical export of particular organic matter from the upper ocean on a timescale of years. Nutrients such as silica can also play a structural role in some phytoplankton groups, such as diatoms, where they are used to synthesize a siliceous frustule that offers some mechanical protection from grazers. In this chapter, we also explore nutrient uptake kinetics, patterns in nutrient distributions in space and time, the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen, the atmospheric supply of nutrients, departures from the Redfield ratio, and whether nutrient distributions and cycling will be altered in the future
Coad, Jane; Al-Rasasi, Buthaina; Morgan, Jane
Nutrient insults in early pregnancy, such as nutrient deprivation during famines, are often associated with an unfavourable outcome. Suboptimal nutrition in the early stage of gestation has been linked to a number of adverse effects on fetal growth and development. Historically, nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) was an important contributor to pregnancy-related mortality; indeed, Charlotte Bronte died from starvation and dehydration after suffering very severe NVP 4 months into her first pregnancy (Gaskell, 1858). Although NVP seldom now progresses to be life-threatening, it affects the majority of pregnant women, and potentially presents a challenge to nutrient intake in the most vulnerable period of development. Symptoms range from mild (nausea only) to severe (a level of vomiting that restricts nutrient intake and ultimately threatens metabolic and electrolyte balance). Although NVP has been documented for thousands of years, its cause has not yet been satisfactorily elucidated, but seems to be related to endocrinological changes. Pregnant women also frequently report dietary cravings and aversions during pregnancy which can be linked to both the incidence and severity of NVP. Paradoxically, NVP appears to be positively associated with a favourable outcome of pregnancy, including increased birth weight and gestational age. The mechanisms by which NVP favours the outcome of pregnancy are not known. They may be related to women increasing their nutrient intake to alleviate symptoms, improving the quality of their diet or reducing energy expenditure. Alternatively, adaptation to a reduced nutrient intake might stimulate the expression of growth factors and affect placentation or metabolism, thus favouring fetal growth when NVP resolves.
Risonar, Maria Grace D; Rayco-Solon, Pura; Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Cabalda, Aegina B; Tengco, Lorena W; Solon, Florentino S
Background Aging is a process associated with physiological changes such as in body composition, energy expenditure and physical activity. Data on energy and nutrient intake adequacy among elderly is important for disease prevention, health maintenance and program development. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was designed to determine the energy requirements and adequacy of energy and nutrient intakes of older persons living in private households in a rural Filipino community. Study participants were generally-healthy, ambulatory, and community living elderly aged 60–100 y (n = 98), 88 of whom provided dietary information in three nonconsecutive 24-hour food-recall interviews. Results There was a decrease in both physical activity and food intake with increasing years. Based on total energy expenditure and controlling for age, gender and socio-economic status, the average energy requirement for near-old (≥ 60 to < 65 y) males was 2074 kcal/d, with lower requirements, 1919 and 1699 kcal/d for the young-old (≥ 65 to < 75 y) and the old-old (≥ 75 y), respectively. Among females, the average energy requirements for the 3 age categories were 1712, 1662, and 1398 kcal/d, respectively. Actual energy intakes, however, were only ~65% adequate for all subjects as compared to energy expenditure. Protein, fat, and micronutrients (vitamins A and C, thiamin, riboflavin, iron and calcium) intakes were only ~24–51% of the recommended daily intake. Among this population, there was a weight decrease of 100 g (p = 0.012) and a BMI decrease of 0.04 kg/m2 (p = 0.003) for every 1% decrease in total caloric intake as percentage of the total energy expenditure requirements. Conclusion These community living elderly suffer from lack of both macronutrient intake as compared with energy requirements, and micronutrient intake as compared with the standard dietary recommendations. Their energy intakes are ~65% of the amounts required based on their total energy
OBJECTIVE: To recommend appropriate intake of nutrients, food sources and feeding practices for premature infants. OPTIONS: Unfortified milk from the premature infant's own mother, fortified milk from the premature infant's own mother, formula designed for preterm infants and parenteral nutrition. OUTCOMES: From birth to 7 days, the minimum achievable goal is the provision of sufficient nutrients to prevent deficiencies and catabolism of nutrient substrate in premature infants; from 7 days to discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit, growth and nutrient retention at a rate similar to that which would have been achieved had the infant remained in utero; and for 1 year following discharge, nutrient intake to achieve catch-up growth. EVIDENCE: Few randomized clinical trials of feeding infants specific nutrients or of feeding choices have been conducted. On the basis of a MEDLINE search of the literature, committee members prepared reviews of the available information on each nutrient and feeding choice. The reviews were critically appraised by the committee. Recommendations were based on the consensus of the committee. VALUES: Whenever possible, the evidence was weighed in favour of randomized controlled trials. If such trials were unavailable, cohort studies were considered. If trials of either kind were unavailable, published data were reviewed and recommendations were based on consensus opinion. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: The advantages of feeding premature infants unfortified milk from their own mothers are psychologic benefits for the mother as well as anti-infective benefits and possibly improved intellectual development for the infant. However, unfortified milk from the infant's own mother is inadequate as a sole source of nutrients. The use of fortified milk from the mother results in faster growth as well as having the other benefits of mother's milk. When formulas designed for premature infants are given in adequate volumes, they provide an intake of
Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo
The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food
Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo
The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food
Kennedy, Eileen; Meyers, Linda
This paper reviews the process of developing the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) and provides a synopsis of the micronutrient status of women worldwide. At a 1993 symposium held by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the Institute of Medicine (IOM), it was decided that the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) would be replaced by the DRIs, which would address several issues that the RDAs did not, including chronic disease risk reduction, upper levels for nutrients where toxicity data existed, and the possible health benefits of some food components that did not meet the traditional definition of a nutrient. Another important distinction is that because the DRIs are comprised of 4 reference values -the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), RDA, Adequate Intake (AI), and a tolerable Upper Level (UL) -and not a single reference value like the previous RDAs, they could be used to differentiate planning from diagnosis or assessment. The latest DRIs and nutrient intakes are shown for iron, zinc, calcium, Vitamin A and folate status in women in the United States. Data on the micronutrient status of women globally are much more limited. Summary statistics on iron deficiency anemia, night blindness, and risk of zinc deficiency are summarized.
Gao, Xiang; Wang, Yongbo; Randell, Edward; Pedram, Pardis; Yi, Yanqing; Gulliver, Wayne; Sun, Guang
Background Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans. Objective To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study. Design A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics) study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses. Result Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF), percent trunk fat (%TF), percent android fat (%AF), percent gynoid fat (%GF) and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all). Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001). Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes. Conclusion Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are
Nutrient management has been defined as “the science and art directed to link soil, crop, weather and hydrologic factors with cultural, irrigation and soil and water conservation practices to achieve the goals of optimizing nutrient use efficiency, yields, crop quality, and economic returns, while r...
Biochar technology may contribute to the recovery and recycling of plant nutrients and thus add a fertilizer value to the biochar. Total nutrient content in biochars varies greatly and is mainly dependent on feedstock elemental composition and to a lesser extent on pyrolysis conditions. Availability...