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Sample records for adequate nutrient supply

  1. Global Expanded Nutrient Supply (GENuS) Model: A New Method for Estimating the Global Dietary Supply of Nutrients.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew R; Micha, Renata; Golden, Christopher D; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Myers, Samuel S

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient data exist for accurate estimation of global nutrient supplies. Commonly used global datasets contain key weaknesses: 1) data with global coverage, such as the FAO food balance sheets, lack specific information about many individual foods and no information on micronutrient supplies nor heterogeneity among subnational populations, while 2) household surveys provide a closer approximation of consumption, but are often not nationally representative, do not commonly capture many foods consumed outside of the home, and only provide adequate information for a few select populations. Here, we attempt to improve upon these datasets by constructing a new model--the Global Expanded Nutrient Supply (GENuS) model--to estimate nutrient availabilities for 23 individual nutrients across 225 food categories for thirty-four age-sex groups in nearly all countries. Furthermore, the model provides historical trends in dietary nutritional supplies at the national level using data from 1961-2011. We determine supplies of edible food by expanding the food balance sheet data using FAO production and trade data to increase food supply estimates from 98 to 221 food groups, and then estimate the proportion of major cereals being processed to flours to increase to 225. Next, we estimate intake among twenty-six demographic groups (ages 20+, both sexes) in each country by using data taken from the Global Dietary Database, which uses nationally representative surveys to relate national averages of food consumption to individual age and sex-groups; for children and adolescents where GDD data does not yet exist, average calorie-adjusted amounts are assumed. Finally, we match food supplies with nutrient densities from regional food composition tables to estimate nutrient supplies, running Monte Carlo simulations to find the range of potential nutrient supplies provided by the diet. To validate our new method, we compare the GENuS estimates of nutrient supplies against independent

  2. Global Expanded Nutrient Supply (GENuS) Model: A New Method for Estimating the Global Dietary Supply of Nutrients

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Christopher D.; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient data exist for accurate estimation of global nutrient supplies. Commonly used global datasets contain key weaknesses: 1) data with global coverage, such as the FAO food balance sheets, lack specific information about many individual foods and no information on micronutrient supplies nor heterogeneity among subnational populations, while 2) household surveys provide a closer approximation of consumption, but are often not nationally representative, do not commonly capture many foods consumed outside of the home, and only provide adequate information for a few select populations. Here, we attempt to improve upon these datasets by constructing a new model—the Global Expanded Nutrient Supply (GENuS) model—to estimate nutrient availabilities for 23 individual nutrients across 225 food categories for thirty-four age-sex groups in nearly all countries. Furthermore, the model provides historical trends in dietary nutritional supplies at the national level using data from 1961–2011. We determine supplies of edible food by expanding the food balance sheet data using FAO production and trade data to increase food supply estimates from 98 to 221 food groups, and then estimate the proportion of major cereals being processed to flours to increase to 225. Next, we estimate intake among twenty-six demographic groups (ages 20+, both sexes) in each country by using data taken from the Global Dietary Database, which uses nationally representative surveys to relate national averages of food consumption to individual age and sex-groups; for children and adolescents where GDD data does not yet exist, average calorie-adjusted amounts are assumed. Finally, we match food supplies with nutrient densities from regional food composition tables to estimate nutrient supplies, running Monte Carlo simulations to find the range of potential nutrient supplies provided by the diet. To validate our new method, we compare the GENuS estimates of nutrient supplies against independent

  3. Global Expanded Nutrient Supply (GENuS) Model: A New Method for Estimating the Global Dietary Supply of Nutrients.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew R; Micha, Renata; Golden, Christopher D; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Myers, Samuel S

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient data exist for accurate estimation of global nutrient supplies. Commonly used global datasets contain key weaknesses: 1) data with global coverage, such as the FAO food balance sheets, lack specific information about many individual foods and no information on micronutrient supplies nor heterogeneity among subnational populations, while 2) household surveys provide a closer approximation of consumption, but are often not nationally representative, do not commonly capture many foods consumed outside of the home, and only provide adequate information for a few select populations. Here, we attempt to improve upon these datasets by constructing a new model--the Global Expanded Nutrient Supply (GENuS) model--to estimate nutrient availabilities for 23 individual nutrients across 225 food categories for thirty-four age-sex groups in nearly all countries. Furthermore, the model provides historical trends in dietary nutritional supplies at the national level using data from 1961-2011. We determine supplies of edible food by expanding the food balance sheet data using FAO production and trade data to increase food supply estimates from 98 to 221 food groups, and then estimate the proportion of major cereals being processed to flours to increase to 225. Next, we estimate intake among twenty-six demographic groups (ages 20+, both sexes) in each country by using data taken from the Global Dietary Database, which uses nationally representative surveys to relate national averages of food consumption to individual age and sex-groups; for children and adolescents where GDD data does not yet exist, average calorie-adjusted amounts are assumed. Finally, we match food supplies with nutrient densities from regional food composition tables to estimate nutrient supplies, running Monte Carlo simulations to find the range of potential nutrient supplies provided by the diet. To validate our new method, we compare the GENuS estimates of nutrient supplies against independent

  4. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared. PMID:16315443

  5. Dietary intake of nutrients with adequate intake values in the dietary reference intakes for Japanese.

    PubMed

    Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Takizawa, Asuka; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Nakade, Makiko; Imai, Eri; Kondo, Akiko; Yoshida, Kazue; Okuda, Nagako; Nishi, Nobuo; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2013-01-01

    The Adequate Intake (AI) values in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (DRIs-J) 2010 were mainly determined based on the median intakes from 2 y of pooled data (2005-2006) from the National Health and Nutrition Survey-Japan (NHNS-J). However, it remains unclear whether 2 y of pooled data from the NHNS-J are appropriate for evaluating the intake of the population. To clarify the differences in nutrient intakes determined from 2 and 7 y of pooled data, we analyzed selected nutrient intake levels by sex and age groups using NHNS-J data. Intake data were obtained from 64,624 individuals (age: ≥1 y; 47.4% men) who completed a semi-weighed 1-d household dietary record that was part of the NHNS-J conducted annually in Japan from 2003 to 2009. There were no large differences between the median intakes calculated from 2 or 7 y of pooled data for n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin D, pantothenic acid, potassium, or phosphorus. When the AI values and median intakes were compared, there was no large difference in the values for n-6 or n-3 PUFAs, pantothenic acid, or phosphorus. Conversely, the AI values for vitamin D and potassium differed from the median intakes of these nutrients for specific sex and age groups, because values were not based on NHNS-J data. Our results indicate that 2 y of pooled data from the NHNS-J adequately reflect the population's intake, and that the current system for determination of AI values will be applicable for future revisions.

  6. Closed-Cycle Nutrient Supply For Hydroponics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.

    1991-01-01

    Hydroponic system controls composition and feed rate of nutrient solution and recovers and recycles excess solution. Uses air pressure on bladders to transfer aqueous nutrient solution. Measures and adjusts composition of solution before it goes to hydroponic chamber. Eventually returns excess solution to one of tanks. Designed to operate in microgravity, also adaptable to hydroponic plant-growing systems on Earth.

  7. Microalgal and cyanobacterial cultivation: the supply of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Markou, Giorgos; Vandamme, Dries; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2014-11-15

    Microalgae and cyanobacteria are a promising new source of biomass that may complement agricultural crops to meet the increasing global demand for food, feed, biofuels and chemical production. Microalgae and cyanobacteria cultivation does not interfere directly with food production, but care should be taken to avoid indirect competition for nutrient (fertilizer) supply. Microalgae and cyanobacteria production requires high concentrations of essential nutrients (C,N,P,S,K,Fe, etc.). In the present paper the application of nutrients and their uptake by microalgae and cyanobacteria is reviewed. The main focus is on the three most significant nutrients, i.e. carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus; however other nutrients are also reviewed. Nutrients are generally taken up in the inorganic form, but several organic forms of them are also assimilable. Some nutrients do not display any inhibition effect on microalgal or cyanobacterial growth, while others, such as NO2 or NH3 have detrimental effects when present in high concentrations. Nutrients in the gaseous form, such as CO2 and NO face a major limitation which is related mainly to their mass transfer from the gaseous to the liquid state. Since the cultivation of microalgae and cyanobacteria consumes considerable quantities of nutrients, strategies to improve the nutrient application efficiency are needed. Additionally, a promising strategy to improve microalgal and cyanobacterial production sustainability is the utilization of waste streams by recycling of waste nutrients. However, major constraints of using waste streams are the reduction of the range of the biomass applications due to production of contaminated biomass and the possible low bio-availability of some nutrients. PMID:25113948

  8. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained. PMID:16614427

  9. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained.

  10. Deciphering the Interconnections between Nutrient Supply, Demand, and Limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covino, T. P.; Heffernan, J. B.; Bernhardt, E. S.

    2015-12-01

    Studies of stream nutrient dynamics have often focused on the influence of a single potentially limiting nutrient; however, it has become increasingly evident that ecosystems are constrained by the supply of numerous limiting resources. These resources may vary seasonally as a function of temperature, sunlight, and input of carbon and nutrients from upstream or terrestrial sources. We used multiple approaches, including plateau and TASCC nutrient additions, as well as analysis of diel nitrate dynamics as three different and complementary measures of nutrient demand/limitation in New Hope Creek, a third order stream in the Duke Forest of North Carolina over the course of one year. Nitrate-N concentrations were relatively high during the winter, spring, and summer months ranging from 105 - 518 and averaging 383 µg/L between January - August. During this time frame there was low demand for and limited uptake of added nitrate during plateau or TASCC additions (i.e., addition of N did not stimulate increased N uptake) although there was processing of background N evident from diel N and oxygen analyses. During autumn litterfall ecosystem respiration increased strongly and nitrate-N concentrations dropped precipitously, ranging from 9 - 34 and averaging 23 µg/L between September - December. During this period of low in-stream nitrate-N, demand for and uptake of added nitrate was high with maximum uptake rates of 560 µg/m2/min. This highlights the importance of understanding the relationship between nutrient supply and demand and the need to determine multiple resource controls over system processing. We also suggest that nutrient addition experiments need to be interpreted within the context of the supply and demand of multiple potentially limiting resources and the that the temporal dynamics of these relationships should be considered.

  11. Variation in nutrients formulated and nutrients supplied on 5 California dairies.

    PubMed

    Rossow, H A; Aly, S S

    2013-01-01

    Computer models used in ration formulation assume that nutrients supplied by a ration formulation are the same as the nutrients presented in front of the cow in the final ration. Deviations in nutrients due to feed management effects such as dry matter changes (i.e., rain), loading, mixing, and delivery errors are assumed to not affect delivery of nutrients to the cow and her resulting milk production. To estimate how feed management affects nutrients supplied to the cow and milk production, and determine if nutrients can serve as indexes of feed management practices, weekly total mixed ration samples were collected and analyzed for 4 pens (close-up cows, fresh cows, high-milk-producing, and low-milk-producing cows, if available) for 7 to 12 wk on 5 commercial California dairies. Differences among nutrient analyses from these samples and nutrients from the formulated rations were analyzed by PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Milk fat and milk protein percentages did not vary as much [coefficient of variation (CV) = 18 to 33%] as milk yield (kg; CV = 16 to 47 %) across all dairies and pens. Variability in nutrients delivered were highest for macronutrient fat (CV = 22%), lignin (CV = 15%), and ash (CV = 11%) percentages and micronutrients Fe (mg/kg; CV = 48%), Na (%; CV = 42%), and Zn (mg/kg; CV = 38%) for the milking pens across all dairies. Partitioning of the variability in random effects of nutrients delivered and intraclass correlation coefficients showed that variability in lignin percentage of TMR had the highest correlation with variability in milk yield and milk fat percentage, followed by fat and crude protein percentages. But, variability in ash, fat, and lignin percentages of total mixed ration had the highest correlation with variability in milk protein percentage. Therefore, lignin, fat, and ash may be the best indices of feed management to include effects of variability in nutrients on variability in milk yield, milk fat, and milk

  12. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    PubMed

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in non-consumers. The PANDiet index was significantly higher in yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p < 0.001). The adequacy sub-score for 17 nutrients for which usual intake should be above the reference value was significantly higher among yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet. PMID:26906103

  13. Yield Gap, Indigenous Nutrient Supply and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Maize in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xinpeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; He, Ping; Johnston, Adrian M.; Zhao, Shicheng; Qiu, Shaojun; Zhou, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Great achievements have been attained in agricultural production of China, while there are still many difficulties and challenges ahead that call for put more efforts to overcome to guarantee food security and protect environment simultaneously. Analyzing yield gap and nutrient use efficiency will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies to increase grain yield. On-farm datasets from 2001 to 2012 with 1,971 field experiments for maize (Zea mays L.) were collected in four maize agro-ecological regions of China, and the optimal management (OPT), farmers’ practice (FP), a series of nutrient omission treatments were used to analyze yield gap, nutrient use efficiency and indigenous nutrient supply by adopting meta-analysis and ANOVA analysis. Across all sites, the average yield gap between OPT and FP was 0.7 t ha-1, the yield response to nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) were 1.8, 1.0, and 1.2 t ha-1, respectively. The soil indigenous nutrient supply of N, P, and K averaged 139.9, 33.7, and 127.5 kg ha-1, respectively. As compared to FP, the average recovery efficiency (RE) of N, P, and K with OPT increased by percentage point of 12.2, 5.5, and 6.5, respectively. This study indicated that there would be considerable potential to further improve yield and nutrient use efficiency in China, and will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies, while some management measures such as soil, plant and nutrient are necessary and integrate with advanced knowledge and technologies. PMID:26484543

  14. Yield Gap, Indigenous Nutrient Supply and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Maize in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinpeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; He, Ping; Johnston, Adrian M; Zhao, Shicheng; Qiu, Shaojun; Zhou, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Great achievements have been attained in agricultural production of China, while there are still many difficulties and challenges ahead that call for put more efforts to overcome to guarantee food security and protect environment simultaneously. Analyzing yield gap and nutrient use efficiency will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies to increase grain yield. On-farm datasets from 2001 to 2012 with 1,971 field experiments for maize (Zea mays L.) were collected in four maize agro-ecological regions of China, and the optimal management (OPT), farmers' practice (FP), a series of nutrient omission treatments were used to analyze yield gap, nutrient use efficiency and indigenous nutrient supply by adopting meta-analysis and ANOVA analysis. Across all sites, the average yield gap between OPT and FP was 0.7 t ha-1, the yield response to nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) were 1.8, 1.0, and 1.2 t ha-1, respectively. The soil indigenous nutrient supply of N, P, and K averaged 139.9, 33.7, and 127.5 kg ha-1, respectively. As compared to FP, the average recovery efficiency (RE) of N, P, and K with OPT increased by percentage point of 12.2, 5.5, and 6.5, respectively. This study indicated that there would be considerable potential to further improve yield and nutrient use efficiency in China, and will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies, while some management measures such as soil, plant and nutrient are necessary and integrate with advanced knowledge and technologies. PMID:26484543

  15. Yield Gap, Indigenous Nutrient Supply and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Maize in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinpeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; He, Ping; Johnston, Adrian M; Zhao, Shicheng; Qiu, Shaojun; Zhou, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Great achievements have been attained in agricultural production of China, while there are still many difficulties and challenges ahead that call for put more efforts to overcome to guarantee food security and protect environment simultaneously. Analyzing yield gap and nutrient use efficiency will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies to increase grain yield. On-farm datasets from 2001 to 2012 with 1,971 field experiments for maize (Zea mays L.) were collected in four maize agro-ecological regions of China, and the optimal management (OPT), farmers' practice (FP), a series of nutrient omission treatments were used to analyze yield gap, nutrient use efficiency and indigenous nutrient supply by adopting meta-analysis and ANOVA analysis. Across all sites, the average yield gap between OPT and FP was 0.7 t ha-1, the yield response to nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) were 1.8, 1.0, and 1.2 t ha-1, respectively. The soil indigenous nutrient supply of N, P, and K averaged 139.9, 33.7, and 127.5 kg ha-1, respectively. As compared to FP, the average recovery efficiency (RE) of N, P, and K with OPT increased by percentage point of 12.2, 5.5, and 6.5, respectively. This study indicated that there would be considerable potential to further improve yield and nutrient use efficiency in China, and will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies, while some management measures such as soil, plant and nutrient are necessary and integrate with advanced knowledge and technologies.

  16. Managing variations in dairy cow nutrient supply under grazing.

    PubMed

    Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R

    2013-03-01

    Grazed pasture, which is the cheapest source of nutrients for dairy cows, should form the basis of profitable and low-input animal production systems. Management of high-producing dairy cows at pasture is thus a major challenge in most countries. The objective of the present paper is to review the factors that can affect nutrient supply for grazing dairy cows in order to point out areas with scope for improvement on managing variations in nutrient supply to achieve high animal performance while maintaining efficient pasture utilisation per hectare (ha). Reviewing the range in animal requirements, intake capacity and pasture nutritive values shows that high-producing cows cannot satisfy their energy requirements from grazing alone and favourable to unfavourable situations for grazing dairy cows may be classified according to pasture quality and availability. Predictive models also enable calculation of supplementation levels required to meet energy requirements in all situations. Solutions to maintain acceptable level of production per cow and high output per ha are discussed. Strategies of concentrate supplementation and increasing use of legumes in mixed swards are the most promising. It is concluded that although high-producing cow cannot express their potential milk production at grazing, there is scope to improve animal performance at grazing given recent developments in our understanding of factors influencing forage intake and digestion of grazed forages.

  17. Nutrient leaching from sediments according to different oxygen supplying conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Park, J. I.; Choi, S. H.; Kim, K.

    2014-12-01

    To estimate the role of sediments controlling the water quality, many studies have adopted nutrient leaching experiments. However, the experiments were mostly performed under air-open condition, which is different from the actual condition at the bottom of fairly stagnant water body. Therefore, the results may not properly reflect the capability of the sediments supplying the nutrients to the water column. In this study, nutrient leaching experiments were conducted using various sediment samples under two different oxygen supplying conditions: one open and the other closed to the air. For this study, 5 sediment samples were collected from lakes and rivers around Kunsan, Korea. Air-closed leaching experiments were carried out using conventional BOD glass bottles (355 mL) without any head spaces. All the experiments were performed at a solid:solution ratio of 1:7.3. Each reactor was incubated at 25 ℃ for 72 hours or 120 hours. The solution was analyzed for pH, DO, Eh, NO3-N, NH4-N, and PO4-P after the incubation. Silt+clay fraction, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and COD of the sediments showed close correlations with each other. Air-closed condition showed much higher leached concentrations for NH4-N and PO4-P (up to 60 times) than the air-open condition and the concentrations increased with the incubation time. However, the differences were very small in the experiments using sandy sediments (<0.13 mg/L and < 50 ug/L for NH4 and PO4 concentrations, respectively). In general, the leached NH4 and PO4 concentrations from the air-open experiments were not correlated well with the fine fractions due to nitrification and suppression of Fe-oxide reduction in aerobic condition, respectively. Because of this reason, some air-open results showed NO3-N concentrations higher than the concentrations obtained from the air-closed experiments. The experiments closed to air showed NO3-N concentrations substantially decreasing with the incubation time due to

  18. Consistent nutrient storage and supply mediated by diverse fish communities in coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Allgeier, Jacob E; Layman, Craig A; Mumby, Peter J; Rosemond, Amy D

    2014-08-01

    Corals thrive in low nutrient environments and the conservation of these globally imperiled ecosystems is largely dependent on mitigating the effects of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. However, to better understand the implications of anthropogenic nutrients requires a heightened understanding of baseline nutrient dynamics within these ecosystems. Here, we provide a novel perspective on coral reef nutrient dynamics by examining the role of fish communities in the supply and storage of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). We quantified fish-mediated nutrient storage and supply for 144 species and modeled these data onto 172 fish communities (71 729 individual fish), in four types of coral reefs, as well as seagrass and mangrove ecosystems, throughout the Northern Antilles. Fish communities supplied and stored large quantities of nutrients, with rates varying among ecosystem types. The size structure and diversity of the fish communities best predicted N and P supply and storage and N : P supply, suggesting that alterations to fish communities (e.g., overfishing) will have important implications for nutrient dynamics in these systems. The stoichiometric ratio (N : P) for storage in fish mass (~8 : 1) and supply (~20 : 1) was notably consistent across the four coral reef types (but not seagrass or mangrove ecosystems). Published nutrient enrichment studies on corals show that deviations from this N : P supply ratio may be associated with poor coral fitness, providing qualitative support for the hypothesis that corals and their symbionts may be adapted to specific ratios of nutrient supply. Consumer nutrient stoichiometry provides a baseline from which to better understand nutrient dynamics in coral reef and other coastal ecosystems, information that is greatly needed if we are to implement more effective measures to ensure the future health of the world's oceans. PMID:24692262

  19. Consistent nutrient storage and supply mediated by diverse fish communities in coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Allgeier, Jacob E; Layman, Craig A; Mumby, Peter J; Rosemond, Amy D

    2014-08-01

    Corals thrive in low nutrient environments and the conservation of these globally imperiled ecosystems is largely dependent on mitigating the effects of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. However, to better understand the implications of anthropogenic nutrients requires a heightened understanding of baseline nutrient dynamics within these ecosystems. Here, we provide a novel perspective on coral reef nutrient dynamics by examining the role of fish communities in the supply and storage of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). We quantified fish-mediated nutrient storage and supply for 144 species and modeled these data onto 172 fish communities (71 729 individual fish), in four types of coral reefs, as well as seagrass and mangrove ecosystems, throughout the Northern Antilles. Fish communities supplied and stored large quantities of nutrients, with rates varying among ecosystem types. The size structure and diversity of the fish communities best predicted N and P supply and storage and N : P supply, suggesting that alterations to fish communities (e.g., overfishing) will have important implications for nutrient dynamics in these systems. The stoichiometric ratio (N : P) for storage in fish mass (~8 : 1) and supply (~20 : 1) was notably consistent across the four coral reef types (but not seagrass or mangrove ecosystems). Published nutrient enrichment studies on corals show that deviations from this N : P supply ratio may be associated with poor coral fitness, providing qualitative support for the hypothesis that corals and their symbionts may be adapted to specific ratios of nutrient supply. Consumer nutrient stoichiometry provides a baseline from which to better understand nutrient dynamics in coral reef and other coastal ecosystems, information that is greatly needed if we are to implement more effective measures to ensure the future health of the world's oceans.

  20. Global and regional drivers of nutrient supply, primary production and CO2 drawdown in the changing Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Jean-Éric; Anderson, Leif G.; Matrai, Patricia; Coupel, Pierre; Bélanger, Simon; Michel, Christine; Reigstad, Marit

    2015-12-01

    -Arctic scale. While CO2 intake by the Arctic Ocean should respond positively to reduced sea-ice extent, which facilitates air-sea exchange, the negative influence of rising temperatures and runoff on CO2 solubility might counteract the positive effect of modest PP increases in seasonally open waters. Overall, this review shows that local changes in light availability resulting from reduced sea-ice is only one factor in the intricate web of local and remote drivers of PP and CO2 drawdown in the Arctic Ocean. Understanding and predicting change requires an integrated biogeochemical approach that connects the small Arctic Ocean to adjacent ones and adequately resolves vertical nutrient supply processes at regional and local scales.

  1. Chemical evaluation of nutrient supply from fly ash-biosolids mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Schumann, A.W.; Sumner, M.E.

    2000-02-01

    Prediction of plant nutrient supply from fly ash and biosolids (sewage sludge and poultry manure) may enhance their agricultural use as crop fertilizer. Two mild extraction methods (42-d equilibration with ion-exchange resins; 2-d equilibration with pH 4.8 buffered nutrient solution) and analysis of nutrient data by the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) were tested with 29 fly ash samples, four biosolids samples, and their mixtures. The resin method was useful for major nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S) extraction from fly ashes and organic materials, particularly where mineralizable fractions of N and P under aerobic conditions are required. However, resins were inefficient in extracting P from high-Fe sewage sludges because organic waste samples caused premature failure of semipermeable membranes and fouling of resins. Extraction of fly ash with dilute buffered nutrient solution was more successful because micronutrient recovery was improved, major nutrients were correlated to the resin method, both addition and removal of nutrients were recorded. DRIS analysis was possible, and equilibration was rapid (2 d). The overall nutrient supply from these extremely variable fly ashes was: Cu = Fe {approx} B {approx} Mo > Ca > S > Zn >> Mn > N > Mg > P > K (high micronutrient, low major nutrient supply). For biosolids, the major nutrients ranked: P > N {approx} Ca > S > Mg > K (sewage sludges), and N > Ca {approx} K > P > Mg > S (poultry manures). In mixtures of fly ash with 26% sewage sludge the order was: Ca > S > N > Mg > P > K, while in mixtures of fly ash and 13% poultry manure, the nutrients ranked: Ca > K {approx} N {approx} S > Mg > P. Optimal plant nutrition (especially N-P-K balancing) should be possible by mixing these three waste materials.

  2. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and two levels of compost supply on nutrient uptake and flowering of pelargonium plants.

    PubMed

    Perner, Henrike; Schwarz, Dietmar; Bruns, Christian; Mäder, Paul; George, Eckhard

    2007-07-01

    Two challenges frequently encountered in the production of ornamental plants in organic horticulture are: (1) the rate of mineralization of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) from organic fertilizers can be too slow to meet the high nutrient demand of young plants, and (2) the exclusive use of peat as a substrate for pot-based plant culture is discouraged in organic production systems. In this situation, the use of beneficial soil microorganisms in combination with high quality compost substrates can contribute to adequate plant growth and flower development. In this study, we examined possible alternatives to highly soluble fertilizers and pure peat substrates using pelargonium (Pelargonium peltatum L'Her.) as a test plant. Plants were grown on a peat-based substrate with two rates of compost addition and with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Inoculation with three different commercial AM inocula resulted in colonization rates of up to 36% of the total root length, whereas non-inoculated plants remained free of root colonization. Increasing the rate of compost addition increased shoot dry weight and shoot nutrient concentrations, but the supply of compost did not always completely meet plant nutrient demand. Mycorrhizal colonization increased the number of buds and flowers, as well as shoot P and potassium (K) concentrations, but did not significantly affect shoot dry matter or shoot N concentration. We conclude that addition of compost in combination with mycorrhizal inoculation can improve nutrient status and flower development of plants grown on peat-based substrates.

  3. Tissue specific adaptations to nutrient supply: more than just epigenetics?

    PubMed

    Symonds, Michael E; Stephenson, Terence; Gardner, David S; Budge, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the maternal diet either throughout pregnancy, or at defined stages therein, can have pronounced effects on organogenesis in conjunction with endocrine sensitivity. These processes can be brought about by either maternal consumption of an imbalanced diet and/or a global reduction in macro or micro-nutrient intake. The magnitude of adaptation in the fetus or offspring is dependent on which organ is most rapidly growing and developing at that particular stage of the life cycle. For a majority of organs, the period of developmental plasticity extends beyond the fetal period, continuing through lactation and into the juvenile period. During lactation, enhanced growth of the offspring appears to be a primary determinant of the magnitude of adverse cardiovascular outcome. Consequently, a change in organ development during pregnancy may not necessarily equate with compromised function in later life. In the kidney, for example, adaptations in its endocrine sensitivity to maternal nutrient restriction through fetal development can be protective against the adverse consequences of later obesity. Such adaptations do not simply represent epigenetic modifications but a plethora of responses that, taken together, can prevent, or delay, at least in the kidney, the onset of apoptosis and later glomerulosclerosis.

  4. Regulation of supply and demand for maternal nutrients in mammals by imprinted genes

    PubMed Central

    Reik, Wolf; Constância, Miguel; Fowden, Abigail; Anderson, Neil; Dean, Wendy; Ferguson-Smith, Anne; Tycko, Benjamin; Sibley, Colin

    2003-01-01

    The placenta has evolved in eutherian mammals primarily to provide nutrients for the developing fetus. The genetic control of the regulation of supply and demand for maternal nutrients is not understood. In this review we argue that imprinted genes have central roles in controlling both the fetal demand for, and the placental supply of, maternal nutrients. Recent studies on Igf2 (insulin-like growth factor 2) knockout mouse models provide experimental support for this hypothesis. These show effects on placental transport capacity consistent with a role of IGF-II in modulating both the placental supply and fetal demand for nutrients. Imprinting of genes with such functions may have coevolved with the placenta and new evidence suggests that transporter proteins, as well as the regulators themselves, may also be imprinted. These data and hypotheses are important, as deregulation of supply and demand affects fetal growth and has long term consequences for health in mammals both in the neonatal period and, as a result of fetal programming, in adulthood. PMID:12562908

  5. Biological response to millennial variability of dust and nutrient supply in the Subantarctic South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert F; Barker, Stephen; Fleisher, Martin; Gersonde, Rainer; Goldstein, Steven L; Kuhn, Gerhard; Mortyn, P Graham; Pahnke, Katharina; Sachs, Julian P

    2014-07-13

    Fluxes of lithogenic material and fluxes of three palaeo-productivity proxies (organic carbon, biogenic opal and alkenones) over the past 100,000 years were determined using the (230)Th-normalization method in three sediment cores from the Subantarctic South Atlantic Ocean. Features in the lithogenic flux record of each core correspond to similar features in the record of dust deposition in the EPICA Dome C ice core. Biogenic fluxes correlate with lithogenic fluxes in each sediment core. Our preferred interpretation is that South American dust, most probably from Patagonia, constitutes a major source of lithogenic material in Subantarctic South Atlantic sediments, and that past biological productivity in this region responded to variability in the supply of dust, probably due to biologically available iron carried by the dust. Greater nutrient supply as well as greater nutrient utilization (stimulated by dust) contributed to Subantarctic productivity during cold periods, in contrast to the region south of the Antarctic Polar Front (APF), where reduced nutrient supply during cold periods was the principal factor limiting productivity. The anti-phased patterns of productivity on opposite sides of the APF point to shifts in the physical supply of nutrients and to dust as cofactors regulating productivity in the Southern Ocean.

  6. Biological response to millennial variability of dust and nutrient supply in the Subantarctic South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert F; Barker, Stephen; Fleisher, Martin; Gersonde, Rainer; Goldstein, Steven L; Kuhn, Gerhard; Mortyn, P Graham; Pahnke, Katharina; Sachs, Julian P

    2014-07-13

    Fluxes of lithogenic material and fluxes of three palaeo-productivity proxies (organic carbon, biogenic opal and alkenones) over the past 100,000 years were determined using the (230)Th-normalization method in three sediment cores from the Subantarctic South Atlantic Ocean. Features in the lithogenic flux record of each core correspond to similar features in the record of dust deposition in the EPICA Dome C ice core. Biogenic fluxes correlate with lithogenic fluxes in each sediment core. Our preferred interpretation is that South American dust, most probably from Patagonia, constitutes a major source of lithogenic material in Subantarctic South Atlantic sediments, and that past biological productivity in this region responded to variability in the supply of dust, probably due to biologically available iron carried by the dust. Greater nutrient supply as well as greater nutrient utilization (stimulated by dust) contributed to Subantarctic productivity during cold periods, in contrast to the region south of the Antarctic Polar Front (APF), where reduced nutrient supply during cold periods was the principal factor limiting productivity. The anti-phased patterns of productivity on opposite sides of the APF point to shifts in the physical supply of nutrients and to dust as cofactors regulating productivity in the Southern Ocean. PMID:24891398

  7. Nutrient supply and mercury dynamics in marine ecosystems: A conceptual model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Celia Y.; Hammerschmidt, Chad R.; Mason, Robert P.; Gilmour, Cynthia C.; Sunderland, Elsie M.; Greenfield, Ben K.; Buckman, Kate L.; Lamborg, Carl H.

    2013-01-01

    contamination. Additional focused research and monitoring are needed to critically examine the link between nutrient supply and Hg contamination of marine waters. PMID:22749872

  8. Effects of high nutrient supply on the growth of seven bamboo species.

    PubMed

    Piouceau, Julien; Bois, Grégory; Panfili, Fréderic; Anastase, Matthieu; Dufossé, Laurent; Arfi, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, bamboo has emerged as an interesting plant for the treatment of various polluted waters using plant-based wastewater treatment systems. In these systems, nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations in wastewater can exceed plant requirements and potentially limit plant growth. The effects of two nutrient rates on the growth of seven bamboo species were assessed in a one-year experiment: Dendrocalamus strictus, Thyrsostachys siamensis, Bambusa tuldoides, Gigantochloa wrayi, Bambusa oldhamii, Bambusa multiplex and Bambusa vulgaris. Nutrient rates were applied with a 20:20:20 NPK fertilizer as 2.6 and 13.2 t.ha.yr(-1) NPK to three-year-old bamboo planted in 70 L containers. Morphological characters, photosynthetic responses, and NPK content in bamboo tissues were investigated. Under high-nutrient supply rate, the main trend observed was an increase of culm production but the culms' diameters were reduced. For the seven species, the above ground biomass yield tended to increase with high-nutrient rate. Increasing in nutrient rates also improved the photosynthetic activity which is consistent with the increase of nitrogen and phosphorus contents measured in plant tissues. All the bamboo species tested appears suitable for wastewater treatment purposes, but the species Bambusa oldhamii and Gigantochloa wrayi showed the higher biomass yield and nutrient removaL PMID:24933901

  9. Nutrient profile of household food supplies of families with young children.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Abbot, Jaclyn Maurer; Cussler, Ellen

    2009-12-01

    Currently, little is known about the home food environment. This cross-sectional study was designed to describe the food sources of calories and key nutrients in the households of 100 families with at least one child aged 12 years or younger and compare nutrient availability to recommended levels. Participating households were food secure, ate dinner at home at least three times weekly, had parents who were married or living as domestic partners and not employed in a health-related profession, and resided in New Jersey. Researchers visited each household once during 2006/2007 to inventory all foods except alcoholic beverages, commercial baby food, infant formula, pet foods, refrigerated leftovers, foods of minimal nutrient and calorie content, condiments typically consumed in small quantities per eating occasion, and bulk supplies of staples. Inventories were taken using commercial diet analysis software customized to use barcode scanners for foods with standard barcodes and keyword searches for foods lacking barcodes. Protein, carbohydrate, and fat in the households supplied an average of approximately 15%, 57%, and 29% of calories, respectively. Saturated fat and total sugar accounted for an average of approximately 10% and 20%, respectively, of calories. Mean nutrient adequacy ratio for nutrients recommended to be maximized (ie, vitamins A and C, protein, dietary fiber, iron, calcium) was less than optimal, and mean ratio for those recommended to be minimized (ie, total fat, cholesterol, sodium, and sugar) exceeded recommendations. Categorization by food group revealed that the greatest availability of calories, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, total sugar, sodium, and iron was from grains. The greatest availability of total fat, cholesterol, and protein was from meat/protein foods. Dairy products contained the greatest quantities of saturated fat and calcium. This study expands the limited research on the home food supply and provides insights that may have

  10. Use of hydroponics culture to assess nutrient supply by treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Adrover, Maria; Moyà, Gabriel; Vadell, Jaume

    2013-09-30

    The use of treated wastewater for irrigation is increasing, especially in those areas where water resources are limited. Treated wastewaters contain nutrients that are useful for plant growth and help to reduce fertilizers needs. Nutrient content of these waters depends on the treatment system. Nutrient supply by a treated wastewater from a conventional treatment plant (CWW) and a lagooned wastewater from the campus of the University of Balearic Islands (LWW) was tested in an experiment in hydroponics conditions. Half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (HNS) was used as a control. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings were grown in 4 L containers filled with the three types of water. Four weeks after planting, barley was harvested and root and shoot biomass was measured. N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na and Fe contents were determined in both tissues and heavy metal concentrations were analysed in shoots. N, P and K concentrations were lower in LWW than in CWW, while HNS had the highest nutrient concentration. Dry weight barley production was reduced in CWW and LWW treatments to 49% and 17%, respectively, comparing to HNS. However, to a lesser extent, reduction was found in shoot and root N content. Treated wastewater increased Na content in shoots and roots of barley and Ca and Cr content in shoots. However, heavy metals content was lower than toxic levels in all the cases. Although treated wastewater is an interesting water resource, additional fertilization is needed to maintain a high productivity in barley seedlings.

  11. Use of hydroponics culture to assess nutrient supply by treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Adrover, Maria; Moyà, Gabriel; Vadell, Jaume

    2013-09-30

    The use of treated wastewater for irrigation is increasing, especially in those areas where water resources are limited. Treated wastewaters contain nutrients that are useful for plant growth and help to reduce fertilizers needs. Nutrient content of these waters depends on the treatment system. Nutrient supply by a treated wastewater from a conventional treatment plant (CWW) and a lagooned wastewater from the campus of the University of Balearic Islands (LWW) was tested in an experiment in hydroponics conditions. Half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (HNS) was used as a control. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings were grown in 4 L containers filled with the three types of water. Four weeks after planting, barley was harvested and root and shoot biomass was measured. N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na and Fe contents were determined in both tissues and heavy metal concentrations were analysed in shoots. N, P and K concentrations were lower in LWW than in CWW, while HNS had the highest nutrient concentration. Dry weight barley production was reduced in CWW and LWW treatments to 49% and 17%, respectively, comparing to HNS. However, to a lesser extent, reduction was found in shoot and root N content. Treated wastewater increased Na content in shoots and roots of barley and Ca and Cr content in shoots. However, heavy metals content was lower than toxic levels in all the cases. Although treated wastewater is an interesting water resource, additional fertilization is needed to maintain a high productivity in barley seedlings. PMID:23708198

  12. A novel self-adaptive microalgae photobioreactor using anion exchange membranes for continuous supply of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qian; Chang, Hai-Xing; Huang, Yun; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Xia, Ao; Sun, Ya-Hui

    2016-08-01

    A novel self-adaptive microalgae photobioreactor using anion exchange membranes (AEM-PBR) for continuous supply of nutrients was proposed to improve microalgae biomass production. The introduction of anion exchange membranes to the PBR can realize continuous supply of nutrients at desired rates, which is beneficial to the growth of microalgae. The results showed that the maximum biomass concentration obtained in the AEM-PBR under continuous supply of nitrogen at an average rate of 19.0mgN/L/d was 2.98g/L, which was 129.2% higher than that (1.30g/L) in a PBR with all the nitrogen supplied in batch at initial. In addition, the feeding rates of nitrogen and phosphorus were optimized in the AEM-PBR to maximize biomass production. The maximum biomass concentration of 4.38g/L was obtained under synergistic regulation of nitrogen and phosphorus feeding rates at 19.0mgN/L/d and 4.2mgP/L/d. The AEM-PBR demonstrates a promising approach for high-density cultivation of microalgae.

  13. Contribution of Pollinator-Mediated Crops to Nutrients in the Human Food Supply

    PubMed Central

    Eilers, Elisabeth J.; Kremen, Claire; Smith Greenleaf, Sarah; Garber, Andrea K.; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2011-01-01

    The contribution of nutrients from animal pollinated world crops has not previously been evaluated as a biophysical measure for the value of pollination services. This study evaluates the nutritional composition of animal-pollinated world crops. We calculated pollinator dependent and independent proportions of different nutrients of world crops, employing FAO data for crop production, USDA data for nutritional composition, and pollinator dependency data according to Klein et al. (2007). Crop plants that depend fully or partially on animal pollinators contain more than 90% of vitamin C, the whole quantity of Lycopene and almost the full quantity of the antioxidants β-cryptoxanthin and β-tocopherol, the majority of the lipid, vitamin A and related carotenoids, calcium and fluoride, and a large portion of folic acid. Ongoing pollinator decline may thus exacerbate current difficulties of providing a nutritionally adequate diet for the global human population. PMID:21731717

  14. The nutrient supplying capabilities of Uzinura, an endosymbiont of armoured scale insects.

    PubMed

    Sabree, Zakee L; Huang, Charlie Y; Okusu, Akiko; Moran, Nancy A; Normark, Benjamin B

    2013-07-01

    An emerging common physiological feature of plant sap-feeding insects is the presence of bacterial endosymbionts capable of providing essential nutrients to their host. These microbial partners are inviable outside of specialized host tissues, and therefore a cultivation-independent approach, namely high-throughput next-generation genome sequencing, can be used to characterize their gene content and metabolic potential. To this end, we sequenced the first complete genome of the obligate endosymbiont, Candidatus 'Uzinura diaspidicola', of armoured scale insects. At 263 431 bp, Uzinura has an extremely reduced genome that is composed largely of genes encoding enzymes involved in translation and amino acid biosynthesis. The tiny size of the Uzinura genome parallels that observed in some other insect endosymbionts. Despite this extreme genome reduction, the absence of a known obligate partner bacterial symbiont suggests that Uzinura alone can supply sufficient nutrients to its host.

  15. Nutrient supply has greater influence than sink strength on photosynthetic adaptation to CO2 elevation in white birch seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shouren; Dang, Qing-Lai; Cao, Bing

    2013-04-01

    To study the effects of source-sink ratio and nutrient supply on photosynthetic acclimation to CO(2) elevation, we subjected white birch seedlings to two levels of nutrient supply (high vs. low) and CO(2) concentrations (ambient vs. doubled [CO(2)]) for two months and then shaded the lower canopy on half of the seedlings to reduce source/sink ratio for an additional month. The CO(2) elevation significantly increased P(n) and IWUE at both nutrient levels but the increase was greater in the high than low nutrient treatment. The CO(2) elevation resulted in a down-regulation of V(cmax) in the low nutrient treatment but up-regulation of J(max), TPU, [Formula: see text] and J(c) in the high nutrient after 3 months of treatment. Both the CO(2) elevation and high nutrient supply increased the partition of total electron transport to carboxylation at the expense of oxidation. The seedlings responded to the shading of the lower canopy by reducing biomass allocation to roots rather than making physiological adjustments to unshaded leaves in the upper canopy. Our results suggest that the direction of photosynthetic acclimation to CO(2) elevation in white birch was nutrient-dependent and an increase in sink strength could reduce the feedback inhibition of photosynthesis. PMID:23415328

  16. Nutrient supply has greater influence than sink strength on photosynthetic adaptation to CO2 elevation in white birch seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shouren; Dang, Qing-Lai; Cao, Bing

    2013-04-01

    To study the effects of source-sink ratio and nutrient supply on photosynthetic acclimation to CO(2) elevation, we subjected white birch seedlings to two levels of nutrient supply (high vs. low) and CO(2) concentrations (ambient vs. doubled [CO(2)]) for two months and then shaded the lower canopy on half of the seedlings to reduce source/sink ratio for an additional month. The CO(2) elevation significantly increased P(n) and IWUE at both nutrient levels but the increase was greater in the high than low nutrient treatment. The CO(2) elevation resulted in a down-regulation of V(cmax) in the low nutrient treatment but up-regulation of J(max), TPU, [Formula: see text] and J(c) in the high nutrient after 3 months of treatment. Both the CO(2) elevation and high nutrient supply increased the partition of total electron transport to carboxylation at the expense of oxidation. The seedlings responded to the shading of the lower canopy by reducing biomass allocation to roots rather than making physiological adjustments to unshaded leaves in the upper canopy. Our results suggest that the direction of photosynthetic acclimation to CO(2) elevation in white birch was nutrient-dependent and an increase in sink strength could reduce the feedback inhibition of photosynthesis.

  17. Influence of nutrient supply on shade-sun acclimation of Picea abies seedlings: effects on foliar morphology, photosynthetic performance and growth.

    PubMed

    Grassi, G.; Minotta, G.

    2000-05-01

    Norway spruce seedlings (Picea abies Karst.) were grown in low light for one year, under conditions of adequate and limiting nutrition, then transferred to high light. Three months after transfer we measured photosynthesis, leaf nitrogen concentration, leaf chlorophyll concentration and leaf mass per area (LMA) of current-year and 1-year-old shoots; silhouette area ratio (SAR, the ratio of shoot silhouette area to projected needle area) was also measured in current-year shoots. At the foliage level, the effects of light and nutrient treatments differed markedly. Light availability during foliage expansion primarily affected LMA and SAR (morphological acclimation at the needle and shoot level, respectively). By contrast, nutrient supply in high light affected photosynthetic capacity per unit of leaf tissue (physiological acclimation at the cellular level) but did not affect LMA and SAR. The capacity for shade-sun acclimation in foliage formed before transfer to high light differed greatly from that of foliage formed following the transfer. The morphological inflexibility of mature needles (measured by LMA) limited their shade-sun acclimation potential. In contrast, at high nutrient supply, shoots that developed just after the change in photosynthetic photon flux density largely acclimated, both morphologically and physiologically, to the new light environment. The acclimation response of both current- and 1-year-old shoots was prevented by nutrient limitation. Analysis of growth at the whole-plant level largely confirmed the conclusions drawn at the shoot level. We conclude that nutrient shortage subsequent to the opening of a canopy gap may strongly limit the acclimation response of Norway spruce seedlings. Successful acclimation was largely related to the plant's ability to produce sun foliage and adjust whole-plant biomass allocation rapidly. PMID:12651514

  18. Bromeliad growth and stoichiometry: responses to atmospheric nutrient supply in fog-dependent ecosystems of the hyper-arid Atacama Desert, Chile.

    PubMed

    González, Angélica L; Fariña, José Miguel; Pinto, Raquel; Pérez, Cecilia; Weathers, Kathleen C; Armesto, Juan J; Marquet, Pablo A

    2011-11-01

    Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus (C, N, P) stoichiometry influences the growth of plants and nutrient cycling within ecosystems. Indeed, elemental ratios are used as an index for functional differences between plants and their responses to natural or anthropogenic variations in nutrient supply. We investigated the variation in growth and elemental content of the rootless terrestrial bromeliad Tillandsia landbeckii, which obtains its moisture, and likely its nutrients, from coastal fogs in the Atacama Desert. We assessed (1) how fog nutrient supply influences plant growth and stoichiometry and (2) the response of plant growth and stoichiometry to variations in nutrient supply by using reciprocal transplants. We hypothesized that T. landbeckii should exhibit physiological and biochemical plastic responses commensurate with nutrient supply from atmospheric deposition. In the case of the Atacama Desert, nutrient supply from fog is variable over space and time, which suggests a relatively high variation in the growth and elemental content of atmospheric bromeliads. We found that the nutrient content of T. landbeckii showed high spatio-temporal variability, driven partially by fog nutrient deposition but also by plant growth rates. Reciprocal transplant experiments showed that transplanted individuals converged to similar nutrient content, growth rates, and leaf production of resident plants at each site, reflecting local nutrient availability. Although plant nutrient content did not exactly match the relative supply of N and P, our results suggest that atmospheric nutrient supply is a dominant driver of plant growth and stoichiometry. In fact, our results indicate that N uptake by T. landbeckii plants depends more on N supplied by fog, whereas P uptake is mainly regulated by within-plant nutrient demand for growth. Overall, these findings indicate that variation in fog nutrient supply exerts a strong control over growth and nutrient dynamics of atmospheric plants, which

  19. Bromeliad growth and stoichiometry: responses to atmospheric nutrient supply in fog-dependent ecosystems of the hyper-arid Atacama Desert, Chile.

    PubMed

    González, Angélica L; Fariña, José Miguel; Pinto, Raquel; Pérez, Cecilia; Weathers, Kathleen C; Armesto, Juan J; Marquet, Pablo A

    2011-11-01

    Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus (C, N, P) stoichiometry influences the growth of plants and nutrient cycling within ecosystems. Indeed, elemental ratios are used as an index for functional differences between plants and their responses to natural or anthropogenic variations in nutrient supply. We investigated the variation in growth and elemental content of the rootless terrestrial bromeliad Tillandsia landbeckii, which obtains its moisture, and likely its nutrients, from coastal fogs in the Atacama Desert. We assessed (1) how fog nutrient supply influences plant growth and stoichiometry and (2) the response of plant growth and stoichiometry to variations in nutrient supply by using reciprocal transplants. We hypothesized that T. landbeckii should exhibit physiological and biochemical plastic responses commensurate with nutrient supply from atmospheric deposition. In the case of the Atacama Desert, nutrient supply from fog is variable over space and time, which suggests a relatively high variation in the growth and elemental content of atmospheric bromeliads. We found that the nutrient content of T. landbeckii showed high spatio-temporal variability, driven partially by fog nutrient deposition but also by plant growth rates. Reciprocal transplant experiments showed that transplanted individuals converged to similar nutrient content, growth rates, and leaf production of resident plants at each site, reflecting local nutrient availability. Although plant nutrient content did not exactly match the relative supply of N and P, our results suggest that atmospheric nutrient supply is a dominant driver of plant growth and stoichiometry. In fact, our results indicate that N uptake by T. landbeckii plants depends more on N supplied by fog, whereas P uptake is mainly regulated by within-plant nutrient demand for growth. Overall, these findings indicate that variation in fog nutrient supply exerts a strong control over growth and nutrient dynamics of atmospheric plants, which

  20. Moss cushions facilitate water and nutrient supply for plant species on bare limestone pavements.

    PubMed

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Hammer, Kathrine Jul

    2012-10-01

    Dense moss cushions of different size are distributed across the bare limestone pavements on Øland, SE Sweden. Increasing cushion size is predicted to physically protect and improve performance and colonization by vascular plants. Therefore, we tested water balance, phosphorus supply, and species richness, and evaluated duration of plant activity during desiccation as a function of ground area, for a large collection of moss cushions. We found that lower evaporation and higher water storage contributed equally to extending the desiccation period with increasing cushion size. Evaporation rates declined by the -0.36 power of cushion diameter, and were not significantly different from -0.50 for the square root function previously predicted for the increasing thickness of the boundary layer, with greater linear dimensions for smooth flat objects at low wind velocities. Size dependence vanished under stagnant conditions. One moss species was added to the species pool for every nine-fold increase in cushion area. Vascular plants were absent from the smallest cushions, whereas one or two species, on average, appeared in 375- and 8,500-cm(2) cushions with water available for 6 and 10 days during desiccation. Phosphorus concentrations increased stepwise and four-fold from detritus to surface mosses and to vascular plants, and all three pools increased with cushion size. We conclude that cushion mosses and cushion size play a critical role in this resource-limited limestone environment by offering an oasis of improved water and nutrient supply to colonization and growth of plants.

  1. Water residence times and nutrient budgets across an urbanizing gradient (Croton water supply area, NY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitvar, T.; Burns, D. A.; Duncan, J. M.; Hassett, J. M.; Mitchell, M. J.

    2002-05-01

    Water residence times and nutrient budgets in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY, were examined. The watersheds (less than 1km 2) have different level of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on roads and slow flow through subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wet zones, hillslopes) . Measurements of the comprehensive chemical suite incl. components of nitrogen budget in the throughfall, stream water, soil water and groundwater in the saturated zone were performed bi-weekly over a period up to 2 years. Mean water residence times of the stream water were estimated using Oxygen-18 and Helium-3/Tritium isotopes. There are significant differences in the chemical composition and decrease of nitrification intensity and of mean streamwater residence time along the increasing watershed development. Within each watershed, longer water residence times (up to over 2 years) were estimated in the wetland zones without direct communication with streams in comparison to hillslope areas (up to over 1 year). The results can be used in watershed management and planning of the further urbanization of this water supply area.

  2. Moss cushions facilitate water and nutrient supply for plant species on bare limestone pavements.

    PubMed

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Hammer, Kathrine Jul

    2012-10-01

    Dense moss cushions of different size are distributed across the bare limestone pavements on Øland, SE Sweden. Increasing cushion size is predicted to physically protect and improve performance and colonization by vascular plants. Therefore, we tested water balance, phosphorus supply, and species richness, and evaluated duration of plant activity during desiccation as a function of ground area, for a large collection of moss cushions. We found that lower evaporation and higher water storage contributed equally to extending the desiccation period with increasing cushion size. Evaporation rates declined by the -0.36 power of cushion diameter, and were not significantly different from -0.50 for the square root function previously predicted for the increasing thickness of the boundary layer, with greater linear dimensions for smooth flat objects at low wind velocities. Size dependence vanished under stagnant conditions. One moss species was added to the species pool for every nine-fold increase in cushion area. Vascular plants were absent from the smallest cushions, whereas one or two species, on average, appeared in 375- and 8,500-cm(2) cushions with water available for 6 and 10 days during desiccation. Phosphorus concentrations increased stepwise and four-fold from detritus to surface mosses and to vascular plants, and all three pools increased with cushion size. We conclude that cushion mosses and cushion size play a critical role in this resource-limited limestone environment by offering an oasis of improved water and nutrient supply to colonization and growth of plants. PMID:22481304

  3. Effect of nutrient supply on photosynthesis and pigmentation to short-term stress (UV radiation) in Gracilaria conferta (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Figueroa, F L; Israel, A; Neori, A; Martínez, B; Malta, E J; Put, A; Inken, S; Marquardt, R; Abdala, R; Korbee, N

    2010-10-01

    The effects of increased photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), UV radiation (UVR), and nutrient supply on photosynthetic activity, pigment content, C:N ratio and biomass yield were studied in tank cultivated Gracilaria conferta (Rhodophyta). Electron transport rate (ETR) and biliprotein content were higher under high nutrient supply (HNS), obtained from fishpond effluents, compared to low nutrient supply (LNS), in contrast to mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) dynamic. The high MAA content in LNS-algae could be explained by higher UVR penetration in the thallus and by the competition for the use of nutrients with other processes. Effective quantum yield decreased after short-term exposure to high irradiance whereas full recovery in shade was produced only under slightly heat shock. UVA radiation provoked an additional decrease in photosynthesis under high water temperature. UVB radiation reversed UVA's negative effect mainly with HNS. Results support that nutrient-sufficiency help G. conferta to resist environmental changes as short-term temperature increase. PMID:20619863

  4. Calcium isotope fractionation during plant growth under a limited nutrient supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Anne-Désirée; Cobert, Florian; Bourgeade, Pascale; Ertlen, Damien; Labolle, François; Gangloff, Sophie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Chabaux, François; Stille, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Hydroponic experiments were performed on bean plants using a nutrient solution at pH 6 with an initial Ca concentration of 5 ppm to test the effect of Ca deficiency on the Δ44/40Calateral roots/nutritive solution and the δ44/40Ca signatures of the different bean organs. The results of the study suggest that the process of Ca uptake by the roots follows a closed-system equilibrium fractionation with a fractionation factor (αbean plant/nutritive solution) of 0.9988, suggesting that Ca forms exchangeable bonds with the root surfaces and thus confirming 40Ca adsorption onto pectic RCOO- groups in the cell wall structure of the lateral roots. The study further suggests that for a constant pH value (i.e., 6), the average signature of the bean plants depends on the Ca isotope signature of the nutritive medium. Moreover, regardless of the concentration of the nutritive solution, the fractionation mechanism between the roots and shoots remains the same, and only the intensity of fractionation between the different organs is modified. Finally, with a decreasing Ca supply in the solution and the appearance of deficiency effects within the bean plants, the Ca isotopic signature of the leaves ceases to reflect that of free Ca but rather that of Ca oxalate crystals. The study also emphasises that Ca isotopes are important tracers of the Ca nutrient availability in soils and may be used as a tool to identify and quantify Ca recycling in soils.

  5. Importance of Marine-Derived Nutrients Supplied by Planktivorous Seabirds to High Arctic Tundra Plant Communities.

    PubMed

    Zwolicki, Adrian; Zmudczyńska-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Richard, Pierre; Stempniewicz, Lech

    2016-01-01

    We studied the relative importance of several environmental factors for tundra plant communities in five locations across Svalbard (High Arctic) that differed in geographical location, oceanographic and climatic influence, and soil characteristics. The amount of marine-derived nitrogen in the soil supplied by seabirds was locally the most important of the studied environmental factors influencing the tundra plant community. We found a strong positive correlation between δ15N isotopic values and total N content in the soil, confirming the fundamental role of marine-derived matter to the generally nutrient-poor Arctic tundra ecosystem. We also recorded a strong correlation between the δ15N values of soil and of the tissues of vascular plants and mosses, but not of lichens. The relationship between soil δ15N values and vascular plant cover was linear. In the case of mosses, the percentage ground cover reached maximum around a soil δ 15N value of 8‰, as did plant community diversity. This soil δ15N value clearly separated the occurrence of plants with low nitrogen tolerance (e.g. Salix polaris) from those predominating on high N content soils (e.g. Cerastium arcticum, Poa alpina). Large colonies of planktivorous little auks have a great influence on Arctic tundra vegetation, either through enhancing plant abundance or in shaping plant community composition at a local scale. PMID:27149113

  6. Importance of Marine-Derived Nutrients Supplied by Planktivorous Seabirds to High Arctic Tundra Plant Communities.

    PubMed

    Zwolicki, Adrian; Zmudczyńska-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Richard, Pierre; Stempniewicz, Lech

    2016-01-01

    We studied the relative importance of several environmental factors for tundra plant communities in five locations across Svalbard (High Arctic) that differed in geographical location, oceanographic and climatic influence, and soil characteristics. The amount of marine-derived nitrogen in the soil supplied by seabirds was locally the most important of the studied environmental factors influencing the tundra plant community. We found a strong positive correlation between δ15N isotopic values and total N content in the soil, confirming the fundamental role of marine-derived matter to the generally nutrient-poor Arctic tundra ecosystem. We also recorded a strong correlation between the δ15N values of soil and of the tissues of vascular plants and mosses, but not of lichens. The relationship between soil δ15N values and vascular plant cover was linear. In the case of mosses, the percentage ground cover reached maximum around a soil δ 15N value of 8‰, as did plant community diversity. This soil δ15N value clearly separated the occurrence of plants with low nitrogen tolerance (e.g. Salix polaris) from those predominating on high N content soils (e.g. Cerastium arcticum, Poa alpina). Large colonies of planktivorous little auks have a great influence on Arctic tundra vegetation, either through enhancing plant abundance or in shaping plant community composition at a local scale.

  7. Importance of Marine-Derived Nutrients Supplied by Planktivorous Seabirds to High Arctic Tundra Plant Communities

    PubMed Central

    Zwolicki, Adrian; Zmudczyńska-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Richard, Pierre; Stempniewicz, Lech

    2016-01-01

    We studied the relative importance of several environmental factors for tundra plant communities in five locations across Svalbard (High Arctic) that differed in geographical location, oceanographic and climatic influence, and soil characteristics. The amount of marine-derived nitrogen in the soil supplied by seabirds was locally the most important of the studied environmental factors influencing the tundra plant community. We found a strong positive correlation between δ15N isotopic values and total N content in the soil, confirming the fundamental role of marine-derived matter to the generally nutrient-poor Arctic tundra ecosystem. We also recorded a strong correlation between the δ15N values of soil and of the tissues of vascular plants and mosses, but not of lichens. The relationship between soil δ15N values and vascular plant cover was linear. In the case of mosses, the percentage ground cover reached maximum around a soil δ 15N value of 8‰, as did plant community diversity. This soil δ15N value clearly separated the occurrence of plants with low nitrogen tolerance (e.g. Salix polaris) from those predominating on high N content soils (e.g. Cerastium arcticum, Poa alpina). Large colonies of planktivorous little auks have a great influence on Arctic tundra vegetation, either through enhancing plant abundance or in shaping plant community composition at a local scale. PMID:27149113

  8. Effect of Varying the Energy Density of Protein-adequate Diets on Nutrient Metabolism, Clinical Chemistry, Immune Response and Growth of Muzaffarnagari Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Singh, V. K.; Pattanaik, A. K.; Goswami, T. K.; Sharma, K.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of varied dietary energy densities on immune response and performance of Muzzafarnagari lambs were ascertained in a 180-d study. Animals (n = 24), in three groups, were fed diets providing 100% (100E), 80% (80E) or 70% (70E) of their metabolizable energy requirement. Mean nutrient digestibilities varied significantly among treatments. Nitrogen intake was lower (p<0.01) in the 70E. Nitrogen retention, was reduced (p<0.001) in 80E and 70E vs 100E. The average daily gain (p<0.001) was 47.01±4.23, 13.54±1.72 and -16.67±8.24 g for 100E, 80E and 70E, respectively. Hemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, total and differential leukocyte counts were lower (p<0.001) for 80E and 70E than for 100E with a similar trend (p<0.05) for serum glucose and total protein. Serum cortisol was reduced (p<0.001) with decreased energy availability. Antibody titre to Brucella abortus S19 showed an initial reduction in 80E and 70E vs 100E. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response was lower (p<0.001) in 80E and 70E vs 100E, accompanying a lower (p<0.001) nitric oxide production by the peripheral lymphocytes. It is concluded that the reduced dietary energy density significantly affects the growth performance and immune response of lambs. PMID:25049889

  9. Combined consideration for decentralised non-potable water supply from local groundwater and nutrient load reduction in urban drainage.

    PubMed

    Barron, O; Barr, A; Donn, M; Pollock, D

    2011-01-01

    Integrated analysis of land use change and its effect on catchment water balance allows the selection of appropriate water and land management options for new urban developments to minimise the environmental impacts of urbanisation. A process-based coupled surface water-groundwater model was developed for Southern River catchment (Perth, Western Australia) to investigate the effect of urban development on catchment water balance. It was shown that urbanisation of highly permeable flat catchments with shallow groundwater resulted in significant increase in net groundwater recharge. The increased recharge creates the opportunity to use local groundwater resources for non-potable water supply with the added advantage of reducing the total discharge from new urban developments. This minimises the environmental impacts of increased urbanisation, as higher discharge is often associated with greater nutrient loads to receiving environments. Through the used of water balance modelling it was demonstrated that there are both water and nutrient benefits from local groundwater use in terms of reduced nutrient exports to receiving waters and additional water resources for non-potable water supply.

  10. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores), convenience (convenience stores and food marts), and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores) retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant’s residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI) of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R) was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE), based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Results Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated fat. Participation in

  11. Factors influencing the uptake of nutrients in streams within the New York City water-supply source areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newbold, D.; Kaplan, L.; Bott, T.; Jackson, J.; Aufdenkampe, A.; Dow, C.

    2005-05-01

    The uptake of nutrients was measured in each of ten streams within the water supply source areas for New York City, once each year between 2000 and 2002. Uptake lengths were estimated from the conservative-tracer-corrected downstream attenuation of short-term (1-2 h) nutrient releases. Uptake lengths correlated with stream size and were converted to uptake velocities (Vf) for further analysis. Vf of phosphate, with a mean of 0.018 mm/s, fit Michaelis-Menten uptake kinetics with a half-saturation of 7 μg/L background phosphate. Vf of ammonium, with a mean of 0.58 mm/s, did not correlate with background ammonium concentration, but fit an uptake curve that used total dissolved nitrogen as the substrate, with a half-saturation of 1 mg/L. Vf of glucose and arabinose were not related to background concentrations. Vf for all four nutrients correlated with community respiration (CR) from diel oxygen variation. For phosphorus uptake, however, CR was collinear with background phosphorus. Vf for ammonium correlated with the macroinvertebrate-based Water Quality Score and Vf for both ammonium and phosphate correlated with some molecular tracers of anthropogenic sources. These results point to nutrient uptake as a sensitive integrator of water quality, ecosystem metabolism, and community structure.

  12. Growth of epiphytic bromeliads in a changing world: The effects of CO 2, water and nutrient supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotz, Gerhard; Bogusch, Wiebke; Hietz, Peter; Ketteler, Nadine

    2010-11-01

    Vascular epiphytes, which respond to varying water supply more than any other life form, are thought to be particularly vulnerable to climate change because they are de-coupled from the soil and are thus more directly affected by atmospheric conditions. The few available studies addressing the effect of climate change on epiphytes have either studied plant responses to changes in water supply or to elevated CO 2, but none has looked at possible interactions of these abiotic factors. Here, we present a growth chamber study on the response of individuals of 11 species of epiphytic bromeliads from both tropical lowlands and montane areas to varying CO 2, water and nutrient levels. Water availability had by far the strongest and most consistent impact on plant growth, while the effects of elevated CO 2 and increased nutrient supply were much less consistent across species or habitats. A significant mitigation of reduced water availability by increased CO 2 levels could not be detected. While some species from montane areas were very susceptible to low water availability, lowland species were mostly quite drought-tolerant. These results suggest that global change can pose a real threat to vascular epiphytes through changes in the altitude of cloud formation and altered precipitation patterns, acknowledging substantial differences between species and habitats. Other aspects of global change like the increase of atmospheric CO 2 levels as such seem of limited relevance for the functioning of epiphytic plants.

  13. Medicare program; replacement of reasonable charge methodology by fee schedules for parenteral and enteral nutrients, equipment, and supplies. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2001-08-28

    This final rule implements fee schedules for payment of parenteral and enteral nutrition (PEN) items and services furnished under the prosthetic device benefit, defined in section 1861(s)(8) of the Social Security Act. The authority for establishing these fee schedules is provided by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, which amended the Social Security Act at section 1842(s). Section 1842(s) of the Social Security Act specifies that statewide or other area wide fee schedules may be implemented for the following items and services still subject to the reasonable charge payment methodology: medical supplies; home dialysis supplies and equipment; therapeutic shoes; parenteral and enteral nutrients, equipment, and supplies; electromyogram devices; salivation devices; blood products; and transfusion medicine. This final rule describes changes made to the proposed fee schedule payment methodology for these items and services and provides that the fee schedules for PEN items and services are effective for all covered items and services furnished on or after January 1, 2002. Fee schedules will not be implemented for electromyogram devices and salivation devices at this time since these items are not covered by Medicare. In addition, fee schedules will not be implemented for medical supplies, home dialysis supplies and equipment, therapeutic shoes, blood products, and transfusion medicine at this time since the data required to establish these fee schedules are inadequate.

  14. Relative Roles of Soil Moisture, Nutrient Supply, Depth, and Mechanical Impedance in Determining Composition and Structure of Wisconsin Prairies.

    PubMed

    Wernerehl, Robert W; Givnish, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Ecologists have long classified Midwestern prairies based on compositional variation assumed to reflect local gradients in moisture availability. The best known classification is based on Curtis' continuum index (CI), calculated using the presence of indicator species thought centered on different portions of an underlying moisture gradient. Direct evidence of the extent to which CI reflects differences in moisture availability has been lacking, however. Many factors that increase moisture availability (e.g., soil depth, silt content) also increase nutrient supply and decrease soil mechanical impedance; the ecological effects of the last have rarely been considered in any ecosystem. Decreased soil mechanical impedance should increase the availability of soil moisture and nutrients by reducing the root costs of retrieving both. Here we assess the relative importance of soil moisture, nutrient supply, and mechanical impedance in determining prairie composition and structure. We used leaf δ13C of C3 plants as a measure of growing-season moisture availability, cation exchange capacity (CEC) x soil depth as a measure of mineral nutrient availability, and penetrometer data as a measure of soil mechanical impedance. Community composition and structure were assessed in 17 remnant prairies in Wisconsin which vary little in annual precipitation. Ordination and regression analyses showed that δ13C increased with CI toward "drier" sites, and decreased with soil depth and % silt content. Variation in δ13C among remnants was 2.0‰, comparable to that along continental gradients from ca. 500-1500 mm annual rainfall. As predicted, LAI and average leaf height increased significantly toward "wetter" sites. CI accounted for 54% of compositional variance but δ13C accounted for only 6.2%, despite the strong relationships of δ13C to CI and CI to composition. Compositional variation reflects soil fertility and mechanical impedance more than moisture availability. This study is the

  15. Relative Roles of Soil Moisture, Nutrient Supply, Depth, and Mechanical Impedance in Determining Composition and Structure of Wisconsin Prairies

    PubMed Central

    Wernerehl, Robert W.; Givnish, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Ecologists have long classified Midwestern prairies based on compositional variation assumed to reflect local gradients in moisture availability. The best known classification is based on Curtis’ continuum index (CI), calculated using the presence of indicator species thought centered on different portions of an underlying moisture gradient. Direct evidence of the extent to which CI reflects differences in moisture availability has been lacking, however. Many factors that increase moisture availability (e.g., soil depth, silt content) also increase nutrient supply and decrease soil mechanical impedance; the ecological effects of the last have rarely been considered in any ecosystem. Decreased soil mechanical impedance should increase the availability of soil moisture and nutrients by reducing the root costs of retrieving both. Here we assess the relative importance of soil moisture, nutrient supply, and mechanical impedance in determining prairie composition and structure. We used leaf δ13C of C3 plants as a measure of growing-season moisture availability, cation exchange capacity (CEC) x soil depth as a measure of mineral nutrient availability, and penetrometer data as a measure of soil mechanical impedance. Community composition and structure were assessed in 17 remnant prairies in Wisconsin which vary little in annual precipitation. Ordination and regression analyses showed that δ13C increased with CI toward “drier” sites, and decreased with soil depth and % silt content. Variation in δ13C among remnants was 2.0‰, comparable to that along continental gradients from ca. 500–1500 mm annual rainfall. As predicted, LAI and average leaf height increased significantly toward “wetter” sites. CI accounted for 54% of compositional variance but δ13C accounted for only 6.2%, despite the strong relationships of δ13C to CI and CI to composition. Compositional variation reflects soil fertility and mechanical impedance more than moisture availability. This

  16. Responses of estuarine nematodes to an increase in nutrient supply: an in situ continuous addition experiment.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, R C; Nascimento-Junior, A B; Santos, P J P; Botter-Carvalho, M L; Pinto, T K

    2015-01-15

    An experiment was carried out on an estuarine mudflat to assess impacts of inorganic nutrients used to fertilize sugar-cane fields on the surrounding aquatic ecosystem, through changes in the nematode community structure. During 118 days, nine quadrats each 4m(2) were sampled six times after the beginning of fertilizer addition. The fertilizer was introduced weekly in six areas, at two different concentrations (low and high doses), and three areas were used as control. The introduction of nutrients modified key nematode community descriptors. In general, the nematodes were negatively affected over the study period. However, Comesa, Metachromadora, Metalinhomoeus, Spirinia and Terschellingia were considered tolerant, and other genera showed different degrees of sensitivity. Nutrient input also affect the availability and quality of food, changing the nematode trophic structure. The use of inorganic fertilizer should be evaluated with care because of the potential for damage to biological communities of coastal aquatic systems.

  17. Diatom cell size, coloniality and motility: trade-offs between temperature, salinity and nutrient supply with climate change.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Filip; Norberg, Jon; Snoeijs, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Reduction in body size has been proposed as a universal response of organisms, both to warming and to decreased salinity. However, it is still controversial if size reduction is caused by temperature or salinity on their own, or if other factors interfere as well. We used natural benthic diatom communities to explore how "body size" (cells and colonies) and motility change along temperature (2-26°C) and salinity (0.5-7.8) gradients in the brackish Baltic Sea. Fourth-corner analysis confirmed that small cell and colony sizes were associated with high temperature in summer. Average community cell volume decreased linearly with 2.2% per °C. However, cells were larger with artificial warming when nutrient concentrations were high in the cold season. Average community cell volume increased by 5.2% per °C of artificial warming from 0 to 8.5°C and simultaneously there was a selection for motility, which probably helped to optimize growth rates by trade-offs between nutrient supply and irradiation. Along the Baltic Sea salinity gradient cell size decreased with decreasing salinity, apparently mediated by nutrient stoichiometry. Altogether, our results suggest that climate change in this century may polarize seasonality by creating two new niches, with elevated temperature at high nutrient concentrations in the cold season (increasing cell size) and elevated temperature at low nutrient concentrations in the warm season (decreasing cell size). Higher temperature in summer and lower salinity by increased land-runoff are expected to decrease the average cell size of primary producers, which is likely to affect the transfer of energy to higher trophic levels.

  18. Diatom Cell Size, Coloniality and Motility: Trade-Offs between Temperature, Salinity and Nutrient Supply with Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Filip; Norberg, Jon; Snoeijs, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Reduction in body size has been proposed as a universal response of organisms, both to warming and to decreased salinity. However, it is still controversial if size reduction is caused by temperature or salinity on their own, or if other factors interfere as well. We used natural benthic diatom communities to explore how “body size” (cells and colonies) and motility change along temperature (2–26°C) and salinity (0.5–7.8) gradients in the brackish Baltic Sea. Fourth-corner analysis confirmed that small cell and colony sizes were associated with high temperature in summer. Average community cell volume decreased linearly with 2.2% per °C. However, cells were larger with artificial warming when nutrient concentrations were high in the cold season. Average community cell volume increased by 5.2% per °C of artificial warming from 0 to 8.5°C and simultaneously there was a selection for motility, which probably helped to optimize growth rates by trade-offs between nutrient supply and irradiation. Along the Baltic Sea salinity gradient cell size decreased with decreasing salinity, apparently mediated by nutrient stoichiometry. Altogether, our results suggest that climate change in this century may polarize seasonality by creating two new niches, with elevated temperature at high nutrient concentrations in the cold season (increasing cell size) and elevated temperature at low nutrient concentrations in the warm season (decreasing cell size). Higher temperature in summer and lower salinity by increased land-runoff are expected to decrease the average cell size of primary producers, which is likely to affect the transfer of energy to higher trophic levels. PMID:25279720

  19. Effects Of Nutrient Source And Supply On Crude Oil Biodegradation In Continuous-Flow Beach Microcosms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonium and nitrate were used as nitrogen sources to support microbial biodegradation of crude oil in continuous-flow beach microcosms to determine whether either nutrient was more effective in open systems, such as intertidal shorelines. No differences in the rate or the exten...

  20. Effects of fragment traits, burial orientation and nutrient supply on survival and growth in Populus deltoides × P. simonii

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Su, Zhi-Qin; Xu, Lie; Shi, Xue-Ping; Du, Ke-Bing; Zheng, Bo; Wang, Yong-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Clonal propagations of shoot or root fragments play pivotal roles in adaptation of clonal trees to environmental heterogeneity, i.e. soil nutrient heterogeneity and burials after disturbance. However, little is known about whether burial orientation and nutrient supply can alter the effects of fragment traits in Populus. Shoot and root fragments of Populus deltoides × P. simonii were subjected to burials in two different fragment diameters (0.5 and 2.0 cm), two fragment lengths (5 and 15 cm) and three burial orientations (horizontal, upward and downward). For the shoot fragments, survival and growth were significantly higher in the larger pieces (either in length or diameter) and the horizontal/upward burial position. On the contrary, the effect of burial position was reversed for the root fragments. Shoot/root fragments of 15 cm in length in horizontal burial position were then subjected to two different fragment diameters (0.5 and 2.0 cm) and four types of nutrient supplies (without nutrient, low frequency, high frequency and patchy). Growth of shoot fragments of 2.0 cm in diameter significantly increased in high frequency and patchy nutrient supplies than that of without nutrient treatment. These results suggest that burial orientation and nutrient supply could be employed in clonal propagations of cuttings, afforestation or regeneration in Populus. PMID:26875529

  1. Cell surface hydrophobicity of Bacillus spp. as a function of nutrient supply and lipopeptides biosynthesis and its role in adhesion.

    PubMed

    Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Białas, Wojciech; Myszka, Kamila

    2008-01-01

    Cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) is recognised as a important factor in microbial adhesion to solid surfaces. Growth conditions have been found to determine the synthesis of extracellular molecules by microorganisms. It has major consequences in modification of bacterial surface properties and consequently, in bacterial adhesion to solid surfaces. In this paper, CSH properties of Bacillus spp. depending on the nutrient supply and lipopeptide biosynthesis and its role in bacterial adhesion to solid surfaces were investigated. The obtained results indicate that the examined factors (nitrogen and carbon availability) influence the CSH of Bacillus spp. cells. In most variants of the experiments the role of nutrient supply in adhesion process was characteristic for species. The strongest effect was observed for peptone concentration (P < 0.001). A decrease of CSH was noticed in optimal nitrogen availability (10 g/l) and it was connected with maximum yield of surfactin biosynthesis. The highest values of CSH of examined Bacillus spp. strains were observed under nitrogen starvation and in excess of carbon source. In these conditions the adhesion to stainless steel surface was more extensive.

  2. Determination of the adequate dose of garlic diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide for effecting changes in growth performance, total-tract nutrient and energy digestibility, ileal characteristics, and serum immune parameters in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Horn, Nathan L; Ruch, Frank; Miller, Guy; Ajuwon, Kolapo M; Adeola, Olayiwola

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the current experiment was to determine the adequate dose and impact of graded concentrations of garlic diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) on growth performance, total-tract nutrient and energy digestibility, serum immune parameters, and ileal morphology in broiler chickens. At 28-d post-hatch, male broiler chickens were allotted on the basis of initial body weight (1.34 ± 0.106 kg) in a randomized complete block desing ( RCBD: ) to one of six treatments that consisted of an oral gavage of 0, 0.45, 0.90, 1.80, 3.6, or 7.2 mg of DADS + DATS per kg bodyweight (BW) with 8 replicate cages per treatment and 4 birds per cage. The DADS + DATS was administered to birds by daily oral gavage for a period of 6 d. Growth performance was recorded and excreta were collected for analysis of DM, nitrogen ( N: ), and energy ( E: ) digestibility and on the last day of the experiment, the median bird in each cage was euthanized and the mid ileum was excised for morphological and gene expression measurements and blood was collected for serum natural antibody and complement assays. Body weight gain and villus height were linearly increased (P < 0.01) with oral gavage of DADS + DATS. There was a quadratic effect (P < 0.01) of the oral gavage on digestibility of DM, N, and E that corresponded to an average broken-line regression-derived adequate dose of 1.16 mg DADS + DATS per kg BW. Supplementation of DADS + DATS by oral gavage had no impact on gene expression markers although there was a tendency for an increase (P = 0.10) in serum natural antibody activity due to treatment. Results from the current study indicate that supplementation of a gavage containing DADS + DATS improves BW gain, ileal morphology, and digestibility of DM, N, and E and may affect serum immune parameters in broiler chickens. The average broken-line regression-derived adequate dose to optimize BW gain and villus height response was 2.51 mg DADS + DATS per kg BW.

  3. Determination of the adequate dose of garlic diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide for effecting changes in growth performance, total-tract nutrient and energy digestibility, ileal characteristics, and serum immune parameters in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Horn, Nathan L; Ruch, Frank; Miller, Guy; Ajuwon, Kolapo M; Adeola, Olayiwola

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the current experiment was to determine the adequate dose and impact of graded concentrations of garlic diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) on growth performance, total-tract nutrient and energy digestibility, serum immune parameters, and ileal morphology in broiler chickens. At 28-d post-hatch, male broiler chickens were allotted on the basis of initial body weight (1.34 ± 0.106 kg) in a randomized complete block desing ( RCBD: ) to one of six treatments that consisted of an oral gavage of 0, 0.45, 0.90, 1.80, 3.6, or 7.2 mg of DADS + DATS per kg bodyweight (BW) with 8 replicate cages per treatment and 4 birds per cage. The DADS + DATS was administered to birds by daily oral gavage for a period of 6 d. Growth performance was recorded and excreta were collected for analysis of DM, nitrogen ( N: ), and energy ( E: ) digestibility and on the last day of the experiment, the median bird in each cage was euthanized and the mid ileum was excised for morphological and gene expression measurements and blood was collected for serum natural antibody and complement assays. Body weight gain and villus height were linearly increased (P < 0.01) with oral gavage of DADS + DATS. There was a quadratic effect (P < 0.01) of the oral gavage on digestibility of DM, N, and E that corresponded to an average broken-line regression-derived adequate dose of 1.16 mg DADS + DATS per kg BW. Supplementation of DADS + DATS by oral gavage had no impact on gene expression markers although there was a tendency for an increase (P = 0.10) in serum natural antibody activity due to treatment. Results from the current study indicate that supplementation of a gavage containing DADS + DATS improves BW gain, ileal morphology, and digestibility of DM, N, and E and may affect serum immune parameters in broiler chickens. The average broken-line regression-derived adequate dose to optimize BW gain and villus height response was 2.51 mg DADS + DATS per kg BW. PMID

  4. Optimizing nutrient supply in a rotatory-switching biofilter for toluene vapor treatment.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yasutaka; Okunishi, Suguru; Higuchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Jun

    2012-04-01

    The influence of nutrient conditions on the degradation of toluene vapor in a rotatory-switching biofilter (RSB) was investigated. The biofilter consists of four segments connected in series, each with a packing layer made of polyvinyl formal. The influent airstreams including toluene vapors were passed through segments 1-3 as up-flow with a toluene concentration of 0.9-1.2 g m(-3) and with an empty-bed retention time of 26-52 sec. Nutrient solutions were fed to all packed segments once a day by means of immersion. The nutrient solution was used repeatedly and replenished by the addition of (NH4)2SO4. The result at 155 days showed nitrogen depletion was particularly obvious and the lack of nitrogen affected toluene removal. By adding 161 g of nitrogen solution per volumetric cubic meter of reactor, toluene removal efficiency was immediately increased to greater than 99%. With long-term biofilter operation, 21%-32% of ammonium was utilized for nitrification because of the growth of nitrifying bacteria such as Nitrosomonas sp. Based on the carbon-nitrogen balance, the daily nitrogen demand for toluene removal was estimated 2.1 g day(-1) at a toluene load of 70 g m(-3) hr(-1).

  5. Continuous lactation in dairy cows: effect on milk production and mammary nutrient supply and extraction.

    PubMed

    Madsen, T G; Nielsen, M O; Andersen, J B; Ingvartsen, K L

    2008-05-01

    Reports over the past decade have indicated that normal lactational performance can be achieved in genetically superior and high-producing dairy cows, even when the dry period between 2 lactations is omitted. The hypothesis tested in this experiment was that normal lactogenesis I and metabolic function may be achievable in continuously milked high-yielding dairy cows as a result of the genetic selection for lactation performance and hence longevity of mammary epithelial cells. The milk production and mammary nutrient uptake in response to omission of the dry period for cows with an expected peak milk yield higher than 45 kg/d were studied in 28 Holstein dairy cows managed without bovine somatotropin. Performance and metabolic parameters were followed in late gestation and in the following early lactation. Fourteen cows were milked continuously throughout late gestation, and another 14 dairy cows experienced a 7-wk prepartum dry period. Continuous milking during the prepartum period reduced milk production in the following early lactation period by >20%. The reduced milk production could not be readily ascribed to inefficiency of the mechanisms responsible for nutrient uptake by the lactating mammary epithelial cells, nor to systemic endocrine changes. This suggests that lowered mammary nutrient uptake must have been associated with reduced mammary blood flow, metabolic activity, or both, most likely as a result of disturbed lactogenesis I prepartum or lactogenesis II postpartum triggered by as yet unknown local mechanisms. Milk protein content was elevated by 0.4 percentage units in the continuously milked cows. The underlying reason is unknown, but given the current pricing system for milk, it deserves to be further investigated.

  6. Conservation tillage, optimal water and organic nutrient supply enhance soil microbial activities during wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) cultivation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Singh, Geeta; Singh, Rana P

    2011-04-01

    The field experiments were conducted on sandy loam soil at New Delhi, during 2007 and 2008 to investigate the effect of conservation tillage, irrigation regimes (sub-optimal, optimal and supra-optimal water regimes), and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices on soil biological parameters in wheat cultivation. The conservation tillage soils has shown significant (p<0.05) increase in soil respiration (81.1%), soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) (104%) and soil dehydrogenase (DH) (59.2%) compared to the conventional tillage soil. Optimum water supply (3-irrigations) enhanced soil respiration over sub-optimum and supra-optimum irrigations by 13.32% and 79% respectively. Soil dehydrogenase (DH) activity in optimum water regime has also increased by 23.33% and 8.18% respectively over the other two irrigation regimes. Similarly, SMBC has also increased by 12.14% and 27.17% respectively in soil with optimum water supply compared to that of sub-optimum and supra-optimum water regime fields. The maximum increase in soil microbial activities is found when sole organic source (50% Farm Yard Manure+25% biofertilizer+25% Green Manure) has been used in combination with the conservation tillage and the optimum water supply. Study demonstrated that microbial activity could be regulated by tillage, water and nitrogen management in the soil in a sustainable manner.

  7. Analysis of nutrients, selected inorganic constituents, and trace elements in water from Illinois community-supply wells, 1984-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, Kelly L.

    2000-01-01

    The lower Illinois River Basin (LIRB) study unit is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment program that includes studies of most major aquifer systems in the United States. Retrospective water-quality data from community-supply wells in the LIRB and in the rest of Illinois are grouped by aquifer and depth interval. Concentrations of selected chemical constituents in water samples from community-supply wells within the LIRB vary with aquifer and depth of well. Ranked data for 16 selected trace elements and nutrients are compared by aquifer, depth interval, and between the LIRB and the rest of Illinois using nonparametric statistical analyses. For all wells, median concentrations of nitrate and nitrite (as Nitrogen) are highest in water samples from the Quaternary aquifer at well depths less than 100 ft; ammonia concentrations (as Nitrogen), however, are highest in samples from well depths greater than 200 ft. Chloride and sulfate concentrations are higher in samples from the older bedrock aquifers. Arsenic, lead, sulfate, and zinc concentrations are appreciably different between samples from the LIRB and samples from the rest of Illinois for ground water from the Quaternary aquifer. Arsenic concentration is highest in the deep Quaternary aquifer. Chromium, cyanide, lead, and mercury are not frequently detected in water samples from community-supply wells in Illinois.

  8. A novel mathematical model for growth of capillaries and nutrient supply with application to prediction of osteophyte onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarczyk, Ewa; Lekszycki, Tomasz

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a novel evolution equation for capillaries growth is proposed. An essential ingredient is given by the consideration of nutrient supply, for which a novel constitutive equation is also proposed. The biological and mechanical stimuli are assumed to depend in non-local way on relevant kinematical descriptors. The integro-differential equations governing the system evolution are extremely sensitive to parameter variations. However, it was possible to perform some meaningful numerical simulations in which osteophyte onset has been observed. While the choice of these parameters was judiciously driven by biomechanical "a priori" knowledge, the mathematical problems concerning well-posedness, stability and continuous dependence of solutions seem to be very challenging and will be object of future investigations. This effort seems motivated by the fact that proposed equations are, to our knowledge, the first ones allowing for the prediction of osteophytes onset.

  9. A field facility to simulate climate warming and increased nutrient supply in shallow aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hines, Jes; Hammrich, Arne; Steiner, Daniel; Gessner, Mark O

    2013-12-01

    Global warming and excess nitrogen deposition can exert strong impacts on aquatic populations, communities, and ecosystems. However, experimental data to establish clear cause-and-effect relationships in naturally complex field conditions are scarce in aquatic environments. Here, we describe the design and performance of a unique outdoor enclosure facility used to simulate warming, increased nitrogen supply, and both factors combined in a littoral freshwater wetland dominated by common reed, Phragmites australis. The experimental system effectively simulated a 2.8 °C climate warming scenario over an extended period, capturing the natural temperature variations in the wetland at diel and seasonal scales with only small deviations. Excess nitrogen supply enhanced nitrate concentrations especially in winter when it was associated with increased concentration of ammonium and dissolved organic carbon. Nitrogen also reduced dissolved oxygen concentrations, particularly in the summer. Importantly, by stimulating biological activity, warming enhanced the nitrogen uptake capacity of the wetland during the winter, emphasizing the need for multifactorial global change experiments that examine both warming and nitrogen loading in concert. Establishing similar experiments across broad environmental gradients holds great potential to provide robust assessments of the impacts of climate change on shallow aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Combined effects between temporal heterogeneity of water supply, nutrient level, and population density on biomass of four broadly distributed herbaceous species.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Yousuke; Kachi, Naoki; Suzuki, Jun-Ichirou

    2012-01-01

    Temporal heterogeneity of water supply affects grassland community productivity and it can interact with nutrient level and intraspecific competition. To understand community responses, the responses of individual species to water heterogeneity must be evaluated while considering the interactions of this heterogeneity with nutrient levels and population density. We compared responses of four herbaceous species grown in monocultures to various combinations of water heterogeneity, nutrient level, and population density: two grasses (Cynodon dactylon and Lolium perenne), a forb (Artemisia princeps), and a legume (Trifolium repens). Treatment effects on shoot and root biomass were analyzed. In all four species, shoot biomass was larger under homogeneous than under heterogeneous water supply. Shoot responses of L. perenne tended to be greater at high nutrient levels. Although root biomass was also larger under homogeneous water supply, effects of water heterogeneity on root biomass were not significant in the grasses. Trifolium repens showed marked root responses, particularly at high population density. Although greater shoot and root growth under homogeneous water supply appears to be a general trend among herbaceous species, our results suggested differences among species could be found in the degree of response to water heterogeneity and its interactions with nutrient level and intraspecific competition.

  11. Sensitivity of the California Current nutrient supply to wind, heat, and remote ocean forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacox, Michael G.; Bograd, Steven J.; Hazen, Elliott L.; Fiechter, Jerome

    2015-07-01

    A regional ocean model is used to evaluate the roles of wind, surface heat flux, and basin-scale climate variability in regulating the upwelled nitrate supply in the California Current. A strong positive trend in nitrate flux from 1980 to 2010 was driven almost entirely by enhanced equatorward winds, negating a weak negative trend associated with increased surface heat flux. Increased upwelling and nitrate flux are consistent with cooler surface temperatures and higher phytoplankton concentrations observed over the same period. Changes in remote ocean forcing, resulting primarily from basin-scale climate variability (e.g., El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation), drive considerable interannual fluctuations and may dominate the ecosystem response on interannual to decadal time scales. However, comparison with previously published findings suggests that local wind intensification persists through changing basin-scale climate regimes. Understanding the different time scales of variability in forcing mechanisms, and their interactions with each other, is necessary to distinguish transient ecosystem impacts from secular trends.

  12. Leaf lifetime photosynthetic rate and leaf demography in whole plants of Ipomoea pes-caprae growing with a low supply of calcium, a ‘non-mobile’ nutrient

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, N.

    2010-01-01

    The adaptive significance of leaf longevity has been established in relation to restrictive nutrients that can be retranslocated within the plant. However, the effect of deficiencies in ‘non-mobile’ nutrients on leaf lifespan and photosynthetic carbon gain is uncertain. Calcium is frequently given as an example of an essential nutrient with low phloem mobility that may alter the leaf senescence process. This study has been designed to estimate leaf lifespan, leaf production (Lp) and leaf death (Ld) rates, the age structure of leaves, and the decline in maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax) with age in plants of Ipomoea pes-caprae growing with a full supply of nutrients and with a low Ca supply. The Ca deficiency produced reductions in Lp and leaf lifespan compared with control plants. In spite of the differences in the demographic parameters between treatments in control and low-Ca plants, the percentage of leaves of a given leaf age class is maintained in such a way that the number of leaves per plant continues to increase. No relationship was found between Ca supply and Amax. However, the decline in Amax with leaf senescence was rather sudden in control plants compared with plants growing with a low Ca supply. The importance of simultaneously using the total leaf demographic census and the assimilation rate along with leaf lifespan data in order to understand the performance of whole plants under constrained conditions is discussed. PMID:20080828

  13. Legume nodules from nutrient-poor soils exhibit high plasticity of cellular phosphorus recycling and conservation during variable phosphorus supply.

    PubMed

    Vardien, Waafeka; Steenkamp, Emma T; Valentine, Alexander J

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen fixing legumes rely on phosphorus for nodule formation, nodule function and the energy costs of fixation. Phosphorus is however very limited in soils, especially in ancient sandstone-derived soils such as those in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. Plants growing in such areas have evolved the ability to tolerate phosphorus stress by eliciting an array of physiological and biochemical responses. In this study we investigated the effects of phosphorus limitation on N2 fixation and phosphorus recycling in the nodules of Virgilia divaricata (Adamson), a legume native to the Cape Floristic Region. In particular, we focused on nutrient acquisition efficiencies, phosphorus fractions and the exudation and accumulation of phosphatases. Our finding indicate that during low phosphorus supply, V. divaricata internally recycles phosphorus and has a lower uptake rate of phosphorus, as well as lower levels adenylates but greater levels of phosphohydrolase exudation suggesting it engages in recycling internal nodule phosphorus pools and making use of alternate bypass routes in order to conserve phosphorus.

  14. Effects of nutrient supply on intrinsic water-use efficiency of temperate semi-natural grassland under rising atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, I. H.; MacDonald, A.; Poulton, P.; Auerswald, K.; Schnyder, H.

    2010-12-01

    C3 plants generally increase photosynthesis (A) and decrease stomatal conductance (gs) under elevated CO2 [1]. However, nitrogen limitation has been shown to constrain the response of A [2] and could thus limit the increase in intrinsic water-use efficiency Wi. Stable carbon isotope studies on trees have shown that Wi increased in forests during the last century. Recently we showed that Wi has also increased in nutrient limited grassland ecosystems [3, 4]. We have now examined a 50 year-long record of Wi from community-level carbon isotope discrimination (13Δ) derived from archived hay and herbage samples (Park Grass Continuous Hay Experiment, Rothamsted, England [5]). We tested the hypothesis that plant responses to increasing atmospheric CO2 have resulted in a greater increase in Wi where plants received adequate nutrient inputs, because of the expected stronger increase in A with higher nutrient supply. We examined whether the response to rising CO2 was uniform across fertilizer treatments. Archived samples from five plots on Park Grass with different annual fertilizer applications (1. No N or PK; 2. 48 kg N ha-1, No PK; 3. No N +PK; 4. 48 kg N ha-1 +PK; 5. 96 kg N ha-1 +PK), covering the 1960 - 2009 period, were used. During the study period, atmospheric CO2 concentration increased by 22%. 13Δ was calculated from carbon isotope composition δ13C (= [(Rsample/Rstandard) - 1], with R the 13C/12C ratio in the sample or standard). 13Δ is a proxy of the leaf-level coupling of CO2 and transpiration fluxes, and a measure of Wi, with Wi = A/gs = ca (1 - ci / ca) / 1.6 and ci / ca = (13Δ - a) / (b - a), (a=4.4‰, b=27‰). Linear regression showed significant 13Δ increases: 0.1‰ per 10 ppm CO2 increase on the control (P<0.05), the PK treatment (P<0.001) and the low N, PK treatment (P<0.05). On the low N treatment, the increase was only significant at the 10% level. On the high N, PK treatment 13Δ increased by 0.04‰ per 10 ppm, but this was not significant (P

  15. Seasonal and inter-annual variability in nutrient supply in relation to mixing in the Bay of Biscay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Susan E.; Hartman, Mark C.; Hydes, David J.; Jiang, Zong-Pei; Smythe-Wright, Denise; González-Pola, Cesar

    2014-08-01

    A key challenge in oceanography is to capture and quantify processes that happen on short time scales, seasonal changes and inter-annual variations. To address this problem the P&O European Ferries Ltd. Ship MV Pride of Bilbao was fitted with a FerryBox from 2002 to 2010 and data returned to NOC in real time providing near continuous measurements between UK (Portsmouth) and Spain (Bilbao) of temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-fluorescence and oxygen. Additional monthly samples were collected on manned crossings. Over 6000 samples were analysed for nitrate (nitrate and nitrite) concentrations. The timing of nitrate concentration increases (with winter mixing) and decreases (with the spring bloom) are different on and off shelf and in autumn nitrate concentrations remain high on the shelf. Off shelf in the Bay of Biscay, the mixed layer depth assessed using Argo floats, was found to vary from 212 m in relatively mild winters (such as 2007/2008) to 476 m in cold winters (2009/2010). Years with deeper mixing were associated with an increase in nitrate concentrations in the surface waters (~3 μmol l-1) and the increased vertical nutrient supply resulted in higher productivity the following spring. Bloom progression could be seen through the increase in oxygen anomaly and decrease in nitrate concentrations off shelf prior to changes further north on the shelf and phytoplankton growth was initiated as shoaling begins. The full dataset demonstrates that ships of opportunity, particularly ferries with consistently repeated routes, can deliver high quality in situ measurements over large time and space scales that currently cannot be delivered in any other way.

  16. A Numerical Study of the Effect of Periodic Nutrient Supply on Pathways of Carbon in a Coastal Upwelling Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Mary-Elena

    1998-01-01

    A size-based ecosystem model was modified to include periodic upwelling events and used to evaluate the effect of episodic nutrient supply on the standing stock, carbon uptake, and carbon flow into mesozooplankton grazing and sinking flux in a coastal upwelling regime. Two ecosystem configurations were compared: a single food chain made up of net phytoplankton and mesozooplankton (one autotroph and one heterotroph, A1H1), and three interconnected food chains plus bacteria (three autotrophs and four heterotrophs, A3H4). The carbon pathways in the A1H1 simulations were under stronger physical control than those of the A3H4 runs, where the small size classes are not affected by frequent upwelling events. In the more complex food web simulations, the microbial pathway determines the total carbon uptake and grazing rates, and regenerated nitrogen accounts for more than half of the total primary production for periods of 20 days or longer between events. By contrast, new production, export of carbon through sinking and mesozooplankton grazing are more important in the A1H1 simulations. In the A3H4 simulations, the turnover time scale of the autotroph biomass increases as the period between upwelling events increases, because of the larger contribution of slow-growing net phytoplankton. The upwelling period was characterized for three upwelling sites from the alongshore wind speed measured by the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) and the corresponding model output compared with literature data. This validation exercise for three upwelling sites and a downstream embayment suggests that standing stock, carbon uptake and size fractionation were best supported by the A3H4 simulations, while the simulated sinking fluxes are not distinguishable in the two configurations.

  17. Ocean nutrients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Philip W.; Hurd, Catriona L.

    Nutrients provide the chemical life-support system for phytoplankton in the ocean. Together with the carbon fixed during photosynthesis, nutrients provide the other elements, such as N and P, needed to synthesize macromolecules to build cellular constituents such as ribosomes. The makeup of these various biochemicals, such as proteins, pigments, and nucleic acids, together determine the elemental stoichiometry of an individual phytoplankton cell. The stoichiometry of different phytoplankton species or groups will vary depending on the proportions of distinct cellular machinery, such as for growth or resource acquisition, they require for their life strategies. The uptake of nutrients by phytoplankton helps to set the primary productivity, and drives the biological pump, of the global ocean. In the case of nitrogen, the supply of nutrients is categorized as either new or regenerated. The supply of new nitrogen, such as nitrate upwelled from the ocean' interior or biological nitrogen fixation, is equal to the vertical export of particular organic matter from the upper ocean on a timescale of years. Nutrients such as silica can also play a structural role in some phytoplankton groups, such as diatoms, where they are used to synthesize a siliceous frustule that offers some mechanical protection from grazers. In this chapter, we also explore nutrient uptake kinetics, patterns in nutrient distributions in space and time, the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen, the atmospheric supply of nutrients, departures from the Redfield ratio, and whether nutrient distributions and cycling will be altered in the future

  18. Distribution of algae in the San Joaquin River, California, in relation to nutrient supply, salinity and other environmental factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leland, H.V.; Brown, L.R.; Mueller, D.K.

    2001-01-01

    1. The taxonomic composition and biomass of the phytoplankton and the taxonomic composition of the phytobenthos of the San Joaquin River and its major tributaries were examined in relation to water chemistry, habitat and flow regime. Agricultural drainage and subsurface flow contribute to a complex gradient of salinity and nutrients in this eutrophic, 'lowland type' river. 2. Because of light-limiting conditions for growth, maintenance demands of the algae exceed production during summer and autumn in the San Joaquin River where there is no inflow from tributaries. In contrast to substantial gains in concentration of inorganic nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus during the summer of normal-flow years, net losses of algal biomass (2-4 ??g L-1 day-1 chlorophyll a) occurred in a mid-river segment with no significant tributary inflow. However, downstream of a large tributary draining the Sierra Nevada, a substantial net gain in algal biomass (6-11 ??g L-1 day-1) occurred in the summer, but not in the spring (loss of 1-6 ??g L-1 day-1) or autumn (loss of 2-5 ??g L-1 day-1). 3. The phytoplankton was dominated in summer by 'r-selected' centric diatoms (Thalassiosirales), species both tolerant of variable salinity and widely distributed in the San Joaquin River. Pennate diatoms were proportionally more abundant (in biomass) in the winter, spring and autumn. Abundant taxa included the diatoms Cyclotella meneghiniana, Skeletonema cf. potamos, Cyclostephanos invisitatus, Thalassiosira weissflogii, Nitzschia acicularis, N. palea and N. reversa, and the chlorophytes Chlamydomonas sp. and Scenesdesmus quadricauda. Patterns in the abundance of species indicated that assembly of the phytoplankton is limited more by light and flow regime than by nutrient supply. 4. The phytobenthos was dominated by larger, more slowly reproducing pennate diatoms. Few of the abundant species are euryhaline. The diatoms Navicula recens and Nitzschia inconspicua and cyanophytes, Oscillatoria spp

  19. Relationships between Growth, Growth Response to Nutrient Supply, and Ion Content Using a Recombinant Inbred Line Population in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Prinzenberg, Aina E.; Barbier, Hugues; Salt, David E.; Stich, Benjamin; Reymond, Matthieu

    2010-01-01

    Growth is an integrative trait that responds to environmental factors and is crucial for plant fitness. A major environmental factor influencing plant growth is nutrient supply. In order to explore this relationship further, we quantified growth-related traits, ion content, and other biochemical traits (protein, hexose, and chlorophyll contents) of a recombinant inbred line population of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) grown on different levels of potassium and phosphate. Performing an all subsets multiple regression analyses revealed a link between growth-related traits and mineral nutrient content. Based on our results, up to 85% of growth variation can be explained by variation in ion content, highlighting the importance of ionomics for a broader understanding of plant growth. In addition, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for growth-related traits, ion content, further biochemical traits, and their responses to reduced supplies of potassium or phosphate. Colocalization of these QTLs is explored, and candidate genes are discussed. A QTL for rosette weight response to reduced potassium supply was identified on the bottom of chromosome 5, and its effects were validated using selected near isogenic lines. These lines retained over 20% more rosette weight in reduced potassium supply, accompanied by an increase in potassium content in their leaves. PMID:20826703

  20. Growth, allocation and tissue chemistry of Picea abies seedlings affected by nutrient supply during the second growing season.

    PubMed

    Kaakinen, Seija; Jolkkonen, Annika; Iivonen, Sari; Vapaavuori, Elina

    2004-06-01

    One-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber to investigate the effects of low and high nutrient availability (LN; 0.25 mM N and HN; 2.50 mM N) on growth, biomass allocation and chemical composition of needles, stem and roots during the second growing season. Climatic conditions in the growth chamber simulated the mean growing season from May to early October in Flakaliden, northern Sweden. In the latter half of the growing season, biomass allocation changed in response to nutrient availability: increased root growth and decreased shoot growth led to higher root/shoot ratios in LN seedlings than in HN seedlings. At high nutrient availability, total biomass, especially stem biomass, increased, as did total nonstructural carbohydrate and nitrogen contents per seedling. Responses of stem chemistry to nutrient addition differed from those of adult trees of the same provenance. In HN seedlings, concentrations of alpha-cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin decreased in the secondary xylem. Our results illustrate the significance of retranslocation of stored nutrients to support new growth early in the season when root growth and nutrient uptake are still low. We conclude that nutrient availability alters allocation patterns, thereby influencing the success of 2-year-old Norway spruce seedlings at forest planting sites. PMID:15059771

  1. Influence of energy and nutrient supply pre and post partum on performance of multiparous Simmental, Brown Swiss and Holstein cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Gruber, L; Urdl, M; Obritzhauser, W; Schauer, A; Häusler, J; Steiner, B

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pre partum (PRE) and post partum (POST) dietary energy and nutrient supply (E) and their interactions on feed intake, performance and energy status in dairy cows of three breeds. In this experiment, the effects of three energy and nutrient supply levels (low (L), medium (M), high (H)), both pre-calving and post-calving, were investigated, using a 3×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. In both phases (84 days pre- and 105 days post-calving) E levels applied to a total of 81 multiparous cows of breeds Simmental (SI), Brown Swiss (BS) and Holstein-Friesian (HF; n=27 for each breed), were 75%, 100% and 125% of recommendations of the German Society of Nutrition Physiology (GfE). Dry matter intake (DMI) was restricted, if energy intake exceeded target values. Pre partum DMI and energy intake were different as designed, liveweight and body condition score (BCS) of SI cows were higher, but EB was lower, compared to BS and HF cows. Milk yield and composition were influenced by all three main experimental factors (EPRE, EPOST, breed). Energy-corrected milk yield was 25.6, 28.6 and 30.1 kg/day for LPRE, MPRE and HPRE as well as 21.5, 30.1 and 32.6 kg/day for LPOST, MPOST and HPOST, respectively. Numerically, only for milk protein content the interactions EPRE×EPOST and EPRE×breed reached significance. Impact of energy supply pre-calving was more pronounced when cows had lower energy supply post-calving and vice versa. On the other hand, milk yield response of cows to energy supply above requirements was greater for cows that were fed on a low energy level pre partum. Impact of energy level pre partum was higher for HF cows, showing that their milk production relies to a greater extent on mobilization of body reserves. Increasing energy supply pre partum led to a more negative energy balance post partum, mainly by increasing milk yield and content, whereas feed intake was slightly reduced. Increasing energy supply post

  2. Bone nutrients for vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Mangels, Ann Reed

    2014-07-01

    The process of bone mineralization and resorption is complex and is affected by numerous factors, including dietary constituents. Although some dietary factors involved in bone health, such as calcium and vitamin D, are typically associated with dairy products, plant-based sources of these nutrients also supply other key nutrients involved in bone maintenance. Some research suggests that vegetarian diets, especially vegan diets, are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this does not appear to be clinically significant. Vegan diets are not associated with an increased fracture risk if calcium intake is adequate. Dietary factors in plant-based diets that support the development and maintenance of bone mass include calcium, vitamin D, protein, potassium, and soy isoflavones. Other factors present in plant-based diets such as oxalic acid and phytic acid can potentially interfere with absorption and retention of calcium and thereby have a negative effect on BMD. Impaired vitamin B-12 status also negatively affects BMD. The role of protein in calcium balance is multifaceted. Overall, calcium and protein intakes in accord with Dietary Reference Intakes are recommended for vegetarians, including vegans. Fortified foods are often helpful in meeting recommendations for calcium and vitamin D. Plant-based diets can provide adequate amounts of key nutrients for bone health. PMID:24898231

  3. Bone nutrients for vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Mangels, Ann Reed

    2014-07-01

    The process of bone mineralization and resorption is complex and is affected by numerous factors, including dietary constituents. Although some dietary factors involved in bone health, such as calcium and vitamin D, are typically associated with dairy products, plant-based sources of these nutrients also supply other key nutrients involved in bone maintenance. Some research suggests that vegetarian diets, especially vegan diets, are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this does not appear to be clinically significant. Vegan diets are not associated with an increased fracture risk if calcium intake is adequate. Dietary factors in plant-based diets that support the development and maintenance of bone mass include calcium, vitamin D, protein, potassium, and soy isoflavones. Other factors present in plant-based diets such as oxalic acid and phytic acid can potentially interfere with absorption and retention of calcium and thereby have a negative effect on BMD. Impaired vitamin B-12 status also negatively affects BMD. The role of protein in calcium balance is multifaceted. Overall, calcium and protein intakes in accord with Dietary Reference Intakes are recommended for vegetarians, including vegans. Fortified foods are often helpful in meeting recommendations for calcium and vitamin D. Plant-based diets can provide adequate amounts of key nutrients for bone health.

  4. U.S. Geological Survey nutrient preservation experiment; nutrient concentration data for surface-, ground-, and municipal-supply water samples and quality-assurance samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, Charles J.; Truitt, Earl P.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a compilation of analytical results from a study conducted at the U.S. Geological Survey, National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) in 1992 to assess the effectiveness of three field treatment protocols to stabilize nutrient concentra- tions in water samples stored for about 1 month at 4C. Field treatments tested were chilling, adjusting sample pH to less than 2 with sulfuric acid and chilling, and adding 52 milligrams of mercury (II) chloride per liter of sample and chilling. Field treatments of samples collected for determination of ammonium, nitrate plus nitrite, nitrite, dissolved Kjeldahl nitrogen, orthophosphate, and dissolved phosphorus included 0.45-micrometer membrane filtration. Only total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total phosphorus were determined in unfiltered samples. Data reported here pertain to water samples collected in April and May 1992 from 15 sites within the continental United States. Also included in this report are analytical results for nutrient concentrations in synthetic reference samples that were analyzed concurrently with real samples.

  5. The importance of submarine groundwater discharge to the nearshore nutrient supply in the Gulf of Aqaba (Israel)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shellenbarger, G.G.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Genin, A.; Paytan, A.

    2006-01-01

    We used two short-lived radium isotopes (223Ra, 224Ra) and a mass balance approach applied to the radium activities to determine the nutrient contribution of saline submarine groundwater discharge to the coastal waters of the northern Gulf of Aqaba (Israel). Radium isotope activities were measured along transects during two seasons at a site that lacked any obvious surficial water input. An onshore well and an offshore end member were also sampled. For all samples, nutrients and salinity data were collected. Radium isotope activities generally decreased with distance offshore and exhibited significant tidal variability, which is consistent with a shore-derived tidally influenced source. Submarine groundwater contributes only 1-2% of the water along this coast, but this groundwater provides 8-46% of the nutrients. This saline groundwater is derived predominately from tidally pumped seawater percolating through the unconfined coastal aquifer and leaching radium and nutrients. This process represents a significant source of nutrients to the oligotrophic nearshore reef. ?? 2006, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  6. Low soil temperature inhibits the effect of high nutrient supply on photosynthetic response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration in white birch seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ambebe, Titus F; Dang, Qing-Lai; Li, Junlin

    2010-02-01

    nutrient supply on the response of A(n) to elevated [CO(2)]. PMID:20007132

  7. Comparative analysis of food webs based on flow networks: effects of nutrient supply on structure and function of coastal plankton communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Yngvar; Reinertsen, Helge; Vadstein, Olav; Andersen, Tom; Gismervik, Ingrid; Duarte, Carlos; Agusti, Susana; Stibor, Herwig; Sommer, Ulrich; Lignell, Risto; Tamminen, Timo; Lancelot, Christiane; Rousseau, Veronique; Hoell, Espen; Sanderud, Knut Arvid

    2001-12-01

    The objective of COMWEB was to develop efficient analytical, numerical and experimental methods for assessing and predicting the effects of nutrient (N, P, Si) supply on the stability and persistence of pelagic food web structure and function in coastal waters. The experimental comparative work included a geographic gradient covering Baltic, Mediterranean, and NE Atlantic waters and a NE Atlantic gradient in state of eutrophication. COMWEB has been an experimental approach to coastal eutrophication, studying effects of enhanced nutrient supply on components and flows of the entire lower pelagic food web. Flow network representations of pelagic food webs has been a framework of data reduction and flows were established by sophisticated inverse modelling. Fundamental information on physiological properties of functional key species in the pelagic food web was used to constrain flow estimations. A main conclusion derived from the flow networks was that very little energy and materials were transferred from the microbial food web to the main food chain. The lower food web could therefore be described as two parallel food chains with relatively limited interaction between heterotrophic groups. Short-term effects of nutrient perturbations were examined in mesocosms along the geographic gradient. The response was comparable in all systems, with a stronger effect on the activity and biomass of autotrophic groups than those of heterotrophic ones. Mediterranean waters showed much lower autotrophic biomass response than Baltic and NE Atlantic waters, which responded almost equally. The response of primary production was, however, more comparable. High phytoplankton lysis rate explained this low accumulation of biomass in Mediterranean waters. The study of Atlantic coastal waters of different eutrophic states revealed that the ecological response was higher in the closed nutrient perturbed mesocosms than in open systems exposed for >4 summer months (summer/autumn season). The

  8. The effect of nutrient supply ratios on organic matter dynamics, phytoplankton community composition and diazotrophy in the eastern tropical South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J.; Lavik, G.; Riebesell, U.

    2015-12-01

    Upwelling of nutrient loaded water masses with low inorganic nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) ratios is thought to favor non-Redfield primary production by phytoplankton species adapted to exponential growth. Additionally, an excess of P (P*) in OMZ-influenced waters is also supposed to provide a niche for nitrogen fixing organisms. In order to assess the influence of low inorganic nutrient ratios on the stoichiometry and composition of primary producers, biogeochemical measurements were carried out in the eastern tropical South Pacific during R/V Meteor cruise M93. A succession of different functional types of phytoplankton was observed along onshore - offshore transects with diatoms dominating the productive upwelling region, while haptophytes, cryptophytes and crysophytes prevailed in the more oligotrophic open ocean. Simultaneously, particulate organic nitrogen to phosphorus ratios increased with increasing distance from shore. The stoichiometry of organic matter, however, always exceeded ratios of 16:1, although nutrient supply ratios were below Redfield proportions in the whole sampling area. A considerable amount of P* was detected in the surface ocean layer above the shelf, which decreased as water masses were advected beyond the shelf slope. Phytoplankton pigment analyses with HPLC revealed the existence of diazotrophic marker pigments in the study area, hinting towards a local replenishment of the N-deficit via nitrogen fixation.

  9. The activity of SnRK1 is increased in Phaseolus vulgaris seeds in response to a reduced nutrient supply

    PubMed Central

    Coello, Patricia; Martínez-Barajas, Eleazar

    2014-01-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris seeds can grow and develop at the expense of the pod reserves after the fruits have been removed from the plant (Fountain etal., 1989). Because this process involves sensing the reduction of nutrients and the remobilisation of pod reserves, we investigated the effect on sucrose non-fermenting related kinase 1 (SnRK1) activity during this process. Bean fruits removed from the plant at 20 days after flowering (DAF) demonstrated active remobilisation of nutrients from the pod to the seeds. After 5 days, the pod dry weight was reduced by 50%. The process was characterized by a rapid degradation of starch, with the greatest decrease observed on day 1 after the fruits were removed. The pod nutrients were insufficient for the needs of all the seeds, and only some seeds continued their development. Those seeds exhibited a transient reduction in sucrose levels on day 1 after the fruits were removed. However, the normal level of sucrose was recovered, and the rate of starch synthesis was identical to that of a seed developed under normal conditions. Removing the fruits from the plant had no effect on the activity of SnRK1 in the pods, whereas in the seeds, the activity was increased by 35%. Simultaneously, a large reduction in seed sucrose levels was observed. The increase in SnRK1 activity was observed in both the cotyledon and embryo axes, but it was higher in the cotyledon. At 20–25 DAF, cotyledons actively accumulate storage materials. It is possible that the increase in SnRK1 activity observed in seeds developed in fruits that have been removed from the plant is part of the mechanism required for nutrient remobilisation under conditions of stress. PMID:24860586

  10. Composition and flux of groundwater from a California beach aquifer: Implications for nutrient supply to the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Alexandria B.; Paytan, Adina; Shellenbarger, Gregory G.; Davis, Kristen A.

    2006-02-01

    The coastal, unconfined aquifer at Huntington Beach, California contains saline groundwater (33 psu) adjacent to the water line, and a brackish groundwater (BGW) mixing zone (3-9 psu) approximately 50 m from the water line. According to salinity and water isotope analyses, the BGW composition varies spatially in the alongshore direction. Measurements obtained from two BGW wells indicate this water is a mixture of seawater and a freshwater end member (likely infiltrated runoff); results from a third more southerly well suggest the BGW is composed of seawater, freshwater, and water from the confined Talbert Aquifer. Saline groundwater, on the other hand, shares similar salinity and water isotopic composition with seawater. The saline groundwater is enriched with short- and long-lived radium isotopes relative to the surf zone, which in turn is enriched relative to waters further offshore. We derive eddy diffusion coefficients for the nearshore using 223Ra and 224Ra, and in conjunction with 226Ra activities, estimate a submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) rate between 4.2 and 8.9 L min -1m -1 of shoreline, respectively. Using analytical models, we estimate that between 74 and 100% of this discharge represents seawater than has been forced by tides and waves through the beach aquifer. Under one set of model assumptions, results indicate that a portion (up to 56%) of seawater pumped into the beach aquifer by waves and tides is not discharged suggesting salt water intrusion may be occurring. Because saline groundwater is enriched with dissolved inorganic nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphate relative to the coastal ocean, our results suggest that tidally and wave-driven seawater circulated through the beach aquifer represents an important mechanism for nutrient input to the nearshore environment in dry weather. Estimates of nutrient flux to the coastal ocean via SGD along 16-17 km of shoreline are equivalent to nutrient fluxes from two salt water wetlands near the

  11. Enhanced chemical weathering as a geoengineering strategy to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide, supply nutrients, and mitigate ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Jens; West, A. Joshua; Renforth, Phil; KöHler, Peter; de La Rocha, Christina L.; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A.; Dürr, Hans H.; Scheffran, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    weathering is an integral part of both the rock and carbon cycles and is being affected by changes in land use, particularly as a result of agricultural practices such as tilling, mineral fertilization, or liming to adjust soil pH. These human activities have already altered the terrestrial chemical cycles and land-ocean flux of major elements, although the extent remains difficult to quantify. When deployed on a grand scale, Enhanced Weathering (a form of mineral fertilization), the application of finely ground minerals over the land surface, could be used to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. The release of cations during the dissolution of such silicate minerals would convert dissolved CO2 to bicarbonate, increasing the alkalinity and pH of natural waters. Some products of mineral dissolution would precipitate in soils or be taken up by ecosystems, but a significant portion would be transported to the coastal zone and the open ocean, where the increase in alkalinity would partially counteract "ocean acidification" associated with the current marked increase in atmospheric CO2. Other elements released during this mineral dissolution, like Si, P, or K, could stimulate biological productivity, further helping to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. On land, the terrestrial carbon pool would likely increase in response to Enhanced Weathering in areas where ecosystem growth rates are currently limited by one of the nutrients that would be released during mineral dissolution. In the ocean, the biological carbon pumps (which export organic matter and CaCO3 to the deep ocean) may be altered by the resulting influx of nutrients and alkalinity to the ocean. This review merges current interdisciplinary knowledge about Enhanced Weathering, the processes involved, and the applicability as well as some of the consequences and risks of applying the method.

  12. Nutrient supply and biological response to wind-induced mixing, inertial motion, internal waves, and currents in the northern Chukchi Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Shigeto; Kawaguchi, Yusuke; Inoue, Jun; Hirawake, Toru; Fujiwara, Amane; Futsuki, Ryosuke; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Aoyama, Michio

    2015-03-01

    A fixed-point observation station was set up in the northern Chukchi Sea during autumn 2013, and for about 2 weeks conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD)/water samplings (6 h) and microstructure turbulence measurements (2 to 3 times a day) were performed. This enabled us to estimate vertical nutrient fluxes and the impact of different types of turbulent mixing on biological activity. There have been no such fixed-point observations in this region, where incoming low-salinity water from the Pacific Ocean, river water, and sea-ice meltwater promote a strong pycnocline (halocline) that stabilizes the water column. Previous studies have suggested that because of the strong pycnocline, wind-induced ocean mixing could not change the stratification to impact biological activity. However, the present study indicates that a combined effect of an uplifted pycnocline accompanied by wind-induced inertial motion and turbulent mixing caused by intense gale-force winds (>10 m s-1) did result in increases in upward nutrient fluxes, primary productivity, and phytoplankton biomass, particularly large phytoplankton such as diatoms. Convective mixing associated with internal waves around the pycnocline also increased the upward nutrient fluxes and might have an impact on biological activity there. For diatom production at the fixed-point observation station, it was essential that silicate was supplied from a subsurface silicate maximum, a new feature that we identified during autumn in the northern Chukchi Sea. Water mass distributions obtained from wide-area observations suggest that the subsurface silicate maximum water was possibly derived from the ventilated halocline in the Canada Basin.

  13. Genetically Modified Organisms and the Future Global Nutrient Supply: Part of the Solution or a New Problem?

    PubMed

    Phillips, Peter W B

    2016-01-01

    For almost a generation now, scientists and policy makers have enthusiastically advanced genetically modified (GM) crops as a solution to both global food security and, specifically, the micronutrient needs of the hidden hungry. While genetic modification offers the prospect of overcoming technological barriers to food security, the gap between the vision and reality remains large. This chapter examines the impact of GM crops at three levels. Undoubtedly, at the micro level, bio-fortification offers a real opportunity to enhance the availability of micronutrients. However, the inexorable 'research sieve' ruthlessly culls most technical candidates in the agri-food system. GM bio-fortified foods, such as Golden RiceTM, remain only a promise. At the meso level, GM crops have generated benefits for both producers and consumers who have adopted GM crops, but given that the technology has been differentially applied to maize, the average diet for the food insecure has become somewhat less balanced. Finally, while GM crops have increased yields and the global food supply, these have come at the cost of more complex and costly trade and market systems, which impair access and availability. In essence, while biotechnology offers some tantalizing technological prospects, the difficulties of getting the corresponding benefits to the most needy have dampened some of the enthusiasm. PMID:27197734

  14. Genetically Modified Organisms and the Future Global Nutrient Supply: Part of the Solution or a New Problem?

    PubMed

    Phillips, Peter W B

    2016-01-01

    For almost a generation now, scientists and policy makers have enthusiastically advanced genetically modified (GM) crops as a solution to both global food security and, specifically, the micronutrient needs of the hidden hungry. While genetic modification offers the prospect of overcoming technological barriers to food security, the gap between the vision and reality remains large. This chapter examines the impact of GM crops at three levels. Undoubtedly, at the micro level, bio-fortification offers a real opportunity to enhance the availability of micronutrients. However, the inexorable 'research sieve' ruthlessly culls most technical candidates in the agri-food system. GM bio-fortified foods, such as Golden RiceTM, remain only a promise. At the meso level, GM crops have generated benefits for both producers and consumers who have adopted GM crops, but given that the technology has been differentially applied to maize, the average diet for the food insecure has become somewhat less balanced. Finally, while GM crops have increased yields and the global food supply, these have come at the cost of more complex and costly trade and market systems, which impair access and availability. In essence, while biotechnology offers some tantalizing technological prospects, the difficulties of getting the corresponding benefits to the most needy have dampened some of the enthusiasm.

  15. The challenge of long-term tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) therapy in phenylketonuria: Effects on metabolic control, nutritional habits and nutrient supply

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Alena G.; Rohde, Carmen; Mütze, Ulrike; Arelin, Maria; Ceglarek, Uta; Thiery, Joachim; Baerwald, Christoph; Kiess, Wieland; Beblo, Skadi

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims BH4-sensitive phenylketonuria (PKU) patients relax their phenylalanine (Phe) restricted diet due to increased Phe tolerance, while keeping dried blood Phe concentrations with in the therapeutic range. We aimed to investigate metabolic control, eating habits and nutrient supply under long-term BH4-therapy. Patients and methods Retrospective analysis of mean dried blood Phe concentrations and their variability, food and nutrient intake in BH4-sensitive patients (n = 8, 3f, age 6.0–16.6 y) under classical dietary treatment for one year and during the three years after initiation of BH4. Results Phe concentrations of BH4-sensitve PKU patients remained within therapeutic range throughout the observation period, independent of therapeutic regime. Under BH4, Phe tolerance increased significantly (493.2 ± 161.8 mg/d under classical diet vs 2021.93 ± 897.4 mg/d two years under BH4; P = 0.004). Variability of Phe concentrations remained unchanged (mean SD; P = 1.000). Patients adjust their food choice and significantly increased their intake of cereals, potatoes, dairy products and meat (P = 0.019, P = 0.016, P = 0.016 and P = 0.016, respectively). Under diet changes after implementation of BH4 a drop in micronutrient intake (vitamin D, folic acid, iron, calcium, iodine) could be revealed (P = 0.005, P < 0.001, P = 0.004, P = 0.001, P = 0.003, respectively). Conclusions BH4-sensitive PKU patients can achieve good metabolic control under an adjuvant BH4- or a BH4 monotherapy. The liberalized diet under BH4 seems to jeopardize the quality of patients' nutrition, and these patients require close follow-up and special nutrition education to minimize the risk for imbalanced diet and nutrient deficiencies. PMID:26937412

  16. High Resolution Modelling of Climate Change Impacts on Water Supply and Demand, Crop Nutrient Usage and GHG emissions, Similkameen Watershed, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirmasoudi, S.; Byrne, J. M.; Kroebel, R.; MacDonald, R. J.; Johnson, D. L.; McKenzie, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Similkameen watershed in southern British Columbia, Canada is expected to warm substantially in the coming decades. A higher proportion of winter rain to snow and an earlier onset of spring snowmelt are likely to result in lower spring stream flow peaks. The reduction in winter water storage, combined with longer, warmer, and drier summers, poses a challenge for water resources in an irrigation-based agricultural watershed. There are already substantial irrigation developments, and water demands are expected to increase to maintain current agricultural production, further stressing a shrinking summer water supply. Agriculture releases significant amounts of CO2, CH4 and N2O to the atmosphere, accounting for approximately 8% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada, excluding CO2 emissions from fuels. Agricultural GHG fluxes are complex but the active management of agricultural systems offers possibilities for mitigating GHG emissions. Although GHG emissions derived from soil have been researched for several decades, there are still geographic regions and agricultural systems that have not been well characterized. This work will address a series of questions for the Similkameen watershed. For a range of climate scenarios, we will: (i) use the GENESYS (GENerate Earth SYstems Science input) hydrometeorological model to simulate historical and future water supplies; (ii) link GENESYS and AquaCrop models to assess climate driven changes in water requirement and associated crop productivity; and (iii) link GENESYS and HOLOS (whole-farm model and software program that estimates GHG emissions) to estimate farm and regional level GHG emissions and seasonal nutrient balance for the crops in the watershed.

  17. Plant-atmosphere interactions and effects of elevated carbon dioxide on growth and photosynthesis of black cottonwood at ambient and optimal nutrient supply

    SciTech Connect

    Thorgeirsson, H.; Sigurdsson, B.D.

    1995-06-01

    In 1990 a 14 ha stand of black cottonwood was planted on an exposed site in Gunnarsholt in south Iceland to investigate the long-term modification of microclimate as tree canopy develops on an exposed site and the effects of microclimate on tree physiology and growth. The homogenous treeless surroundings of the site provide excellent fetch and meet the most stringent criteria of energy balance models. Site energy balance is partitioned using the Bowen ratio approach based on data from both a reversing temperature difference measurement system and a fixed profile system. Key characteristics of the site energy balance and microclimate will be presented. In the beginning of the 1994 growing season a five-year study of the interaction between nutrient supply and elevated carbon dioxide was initiated using sixteen trees enclosed individually in chambers and given either 350 or 700 ppm carbon dioxide and either ambient or optimum nutrition in a randomized block design. Reference trees are used to determine the effect of the chambers which is significant on exposed sites due to sheltering effects. Growth of the trees was monitored non-destructively. Photosynthetic rates, light response and A/C{sub i} curves were determined on selected leaves. Examples of results from the first growing season will be presented.

  18. Digestive development of the early-weaned pig. 1. Effect of continuous nutrient supply on the development of the digestive tract and on changes in digestive enzyme activity during the first week post-weaning.

    PubMed

    Kelly, D; Smyth, J A; McCracken, K J

    1991-03-01

    Gastric intubation was adopted to examine the effect of continuous nutrient supply on digestive development of the pig during the immediate post-weaning period. The 14 d-weaned animals were slaughtered at 3, 5 and 7 d post-weaning (3W, 5W and 7W respectively) and the suckled animals were slaughtered at 14 and 22 d of age (14SR and 22SR respectively). The weight of the pancreas (g/kg bodyweight) was significantly greater (P less than 0.05) in the 5W and 7W groups, as was the weight of large intestine (g/kg) in all weaned groups (P less than 0.01) compared with sow-reared pigs. The stomach weight (g/kg) tended to be greater in the weaned groups. Weaning, in conjunction with a continuous nutrient supply, did not significantly alter the time-related changes in the weight of the small intestine (SI) or the SI mucosa, although both variables tended to be lowest in the 3W group. However, there was a 20% reduction in the protein content of the mucosa within the first 3 d post-weaning (P less than 0.01) which persisted during the 7 d experimental period. Lactase, (beta-galactosidase; EC 3.2.1.23) activity (mumol/g protein and mol/d) of the 7W group was reduced to approximately 40% of the 22SR value. Hence, continuous nutrient supply may have delayed, but did not prevent, the loss of lactase activity at weaning. The activity of sucrase (sucrose-alpha-glucosidase; EC 3.2.1.48) was significantly higher in 22SR compared with 14SR animals. Sucrase activity in weaned pigs was intermediate to the values for sow-reared pigs whereas maltase (alpha-glucosidase; EC 3.2.1.20) and glucoamylase (glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidase; EC 3.2.1.3) were significantly increased in relation to their sow-reared counterparts. Continuous nutrient supply did not prevent the reduction in villous height and the crypt hypertrophy associated with weaning. The results of the present study suggest that there may be some degree of interaction between nutrient intake and gut development during the immediate post

  19. Impacts of Maternal Nutrition on Vascularity of Nutrient Transferring Tissues during Gestation and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Vonnahme, Kimberly A.; Lemley, Caleb O.; Caton, Joel S.; Meyer, Allison M.

    2015-01-01

    As the demand for food increases with exponential growth in the world population, it is imperative that we understand how to make livestock production as efficient as possible in the face of decreasing available natural resources. Moreover, it is important that livestock are able to meet their metabolic demands and supply adequate nutrition to developing offspring both during pregnancy and lactation. Specific nutrient supplementation programs that are designed to offset deficiencies, enhance efficiency, and improve nutrient supply during pregnancy can alter tissue vascular responses, fetal growth, and postnatal offspring outcomes. This review outlines how vascularity in nutrient transferring tissues, namely the maternal gastrointestinal tract, the utero-placental tissue, and the mammary gland, respond to differing nutritional planes and other specific nutrient supplementation regimes. PMID:25984740

  20. Hotspots of human nutrition: Micronutrient supply, demand, and pollinator dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombeck, E.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Mueller, M.; Mueller, N. D.; Foley, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    While our caloric needs can mostly be met by wind-pollinated crops such as cereals, a recent analysis of USDA data shows that animal-pollinated crops contain the vast majority of many essential nutrients, including vitamins A and C, calcium, fluoride, and folic acid. In this work we combined global crop yield data with data on nutritional content in each crop to map nutrient production around the world, and to illustrate the value of pollination services to human nutrition. Spatially explicit crop yields (at 5 min resolution) were multiplied by crop nutrient content and by crop dependence on pollination to map where reductions in total nutrient production would occur if pollination services were removed. Nutrient demand maps (human nutrient requirements multiplied by population density) were generated to identify regions where local reduction in pollination services could threaten nutritional security. Nutrient deficiency maps (nutrient supply minus nutrient demand) were also created to identify hotspots where local crop production is not adequate to meet local nutritional needs.

  1. A novel coupled system of non-local integro-differential equations modelling Young's modulus evolution, nutrients' supply and consumption during bone fracture healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yanfei; Lekszycki, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    During fracture healing, a series of complex coupled biological and mechanical phenomena occurs. They include: (i) growth and remodelling of bone, whose Young's modulus varies in space and time; (ii) nutrients' diffusion and consumption by living cells. In this paper, we newly propose to model these evolution phenomena. The considered features include: (i) a new constitutive equation for growth simulation involving the number of sensor cells; (ii) an improved equation for nutrient concentration accounting for the switch between Michaelis-Menten kinetics and linear consumption regime; (iii) a new constitutive equation for Young's modulus evolution accounting for its dependence on nutrient concentration and variable number of active cells. The effectiveness of the model and its predictive capability are qualitatively verified by numerical simulations (using COMSOL) describing the healing of bone in the presence of damaged tissue between fractured parts.

  2. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate evidence. 85.900 Section 85.900 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support...

  3. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  4. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  5. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  6. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  7. Nutrient density in complementary feeding of infants and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W; Vossenaar, M

    2013-05-01

    The paradigm of the first 1000 days of life, the period from conception to the second birthday, has been advanced as a critical window of opportunity to save a life and a child's future. Infancy and toddler life, through the first 24 months after birth, is a unique period during which human milk is recommended as either the exclusive source of nutrition (6 months) or a variable component thereof. After the maternal delivery of milk is accounted for, the remainder of the energy and nutrients needs come from complementary foods. There is an intrinsic gap left by the maternal milk supply in volume and micronutrient content in relation to expanding infant and toddler needs. The nutrient density approach provides us with a mathematical framework to manage the closing of the nutrient gap. The intrinsic nutrient content of the unprocessed foods appropriate for young children is limited. The most problematic nutrients are calcium, iron and zinc. Some manner to enhance the nutrient density of the complementary foods is an incontestable necessity. The nutrient density consideration, which identifies for us the nature of the problem, offers a tool for the titrating of the fortification to an adequate--but safe--addition.

  8. Nutrient supply and simulated herbivory differentially influence the content and the potential effectiveness of glucosinolate-based defense system in brassica species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    • Environmental stresses often result in upregulation of defense metabolism in plants. However, the dynamics of nitrogen-containing defense compounds that could be remobilized for maintenance-metabolism is less predictable under stress. Even less known is the impact of nutrient deficiency on the eff...

  9. Organic matter recycling in a beach environment influenced by sunscreen products and increased inorganic nutrient supply (Sturla, Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Misic, Cristina; Covazzi Harriague, Anabella; Trielli, Francesca

    2011-04-01

    The beaches are sites where the human influence may be strong and the beach ecosystems have often shown a high sensibility to environmental alterations. These zones may be affected by a large series of anthropogenic-derived pressures, such as unbalanced inorganic nutrient input, that may cause anomalous development of primary production, altering the structure of the trophic webs. Furthermore, the utilisation of cosmetic sunscreen products is reaching unexpected levels, thus assuming a potentially important as well as unknown role in the contamination of marine environments. The present study was planned to test the response of the beach ecosystem to increases in inorganic nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) and to the input of a widely used cosmetic sunscreen product. A short-term laboratory experiment was carried out on microsystems consisting of sediments and seawater from the swash zone of a Ligurian city beach (Sturla). The processes related to organic matter (OM) recycling and some microbial food web components (bacteria and micro-autotrophic organisms) were analysed. The multivariate statistical analysis of the results showed that the increase in inorganic nutrients and sunscreen caused only a transient alteration in the OM recycling processes in the seawater. The sedimentary processes, instead, were different in the different systems, although starting from the same condition. In the sediment, surprisingly, an increase in inorganic nutrients did not lead to an increase in the primary biomass nor to significantly higher bacterial abundance, while the sunscreen caused increased OM recycling, especially devoted to protein and lipid mobilisation, supporting a growing bacterial and autotrophic community by reducing the bottom-up pressure. Additional toxicity tests performed on protozoa highlighted that, while the inorganic nutrients seemed to show no effects, sunscreen decreased the protozoan viability, thus likely favouring microautotrophic and bacterial

  10. Seed Priming Alters the Production and Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Intermediates in Rice Seedlings Grown under Sub-optimal Temperature and Nutrient Supply

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Cao, Weidong; Wu, Lishu; Geng, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    The production and detoxification of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) play an important role in the plant response to nutrient and environmental stresses. The present study demonstrated the behavior of growth, ROIs-production and their detoxification in primed and non-primed rice seedlings under chilling stress (18°C) and nitrogen-(N), phosphorus-(P), or potassium-(K) deprivation. The results revealed that chilling stress as well as deprivation of any mineral nutrient severely hampered the seedling growth of rice, however, seed priming treatments (particularly selenium- or salicylic acid-priming), were effective in enhancing the rice growth under stress conditions. The N-deprivation caused the maximum reduction in shoot growth, while the root growth was only decreased by P- or K-deprivation. Although, N-deprivation enhanced the root length of rice, the root fresh weight was unaffected. Rate of lipid peroxidation as well as the production of ROIs, was generally increased under stress conditions; the K-deprived seedlings recorded significantly lower production of ROIs than N- or P-deprived seedlings. The responses of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in rice seedlings to chilling stress were variable with nutrient management regime. All the seed priming were found to trigger or at least maintain the antioxidant defense system of rice seedlings. Notably, the levels of ROIs were significantly reduced by seed priming treatments, which were concomitant with the activities of ROIs-producing enzymes (monoamine oxidase and xanthine oxidase), under all studied conditions. Based on these findings, we put forward the hypothesis that along with role of ROIs-scavenging enzymes, the greater tolerance of primed rice seedlings can also be due to the reduced activity of ROIs-producing enzymes. PMID:27092157

  11. Seed Priming Alters the Production and Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Intermediates in Rice Seedlings Grown under Sub-optimal Temperature and Nutrient Supply.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Cao, Weidong; Wu, Lishu; Geng, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    The production and detoxification of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) play an important role in the plant response to nutrient and environmental stresses. The present study demonstrated the behavior of growth, ROIs-production and their detoxification in primed and non-primed rice seedlings under chilling stress (18°C) and nitrogen-(N), phosphorus-(P), or potassium-(K) deprivation. The results revealed that chilling stress as well as deprivation of any mineral nutrient severely hampered the seedling growth of rice, however, seed priming treatments (particularly selenium- or salicylic acid-priming), were effective in enhancing the rice growth under stress conditions. The N-deprivation caused the maximum reduction in shoot growth, while the root growth was only decreased by P- or K-deprivation. Although, N-deprivation enhanced the root length of rice, the root fresh weight was unaffected. Rate of lipid peroxidation as well as the production of ROIs, was generally increased under stress conditions; the K-deprived seedlings recorded significantly lower production of ROIs than N- or P-deprived seedlings. The responses of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in rice seedlings to chilling stress were variable with nutrient management regime. All the seed priming were found to trigger or at least maintain the antioxidant defense system of rice seedlings. Notably, the levels of ROIs were significantly reduced by seed priming treatments, which were concomitant with the activities of ROIs-producing enzymes (monoamine oxidase and xanthine oxidase), under all studied conditions. Based on these findings, we put forward the hypothesis that along with role of ROIs-scavenging enzymes, the greater tolerance of primed rice seedlings can also be due to the reduced activity of ROIs-producing enzymes.

  12. Thermal acclimation of shoot respiration in an Arctic woody plant species subjected to 22 years of warming and altered nutrient supply.

    PubMed

    Heskel, Mary A; Greaves, Heather E; Turnbull, Matthew H; O'Sullivan, Odhran S; Shaver, Gaius R; Griffin, Kevin L; Atkin, Owen K

    2014-08-01

    Despite concern about the status of carbon (C) in the Arctic tundra, there is currently little information on how plant respiration varies in response to environmental change in this region. We quantified the impact of long-term nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) treatments and greenhouse warming on the short-term temperature (T) response and sensitivity of leaf respiration (R), the high-T threshold of R, and associated traits in shoots of the Arctic shrub Betula nana in experimental plots at Toolik Lake, Alaska. Respiration only acclimated to greenhouse warming in plots provided with both N and P (resulting in a ~30% reduction in carbon efflux in shoots measured at 10 and 20 °C), suggesting a nutrient dependence of metabolic adjustment. Neither greenhouse nor N+P treatments impacted on the respiratory sensitivity to T (Q10 ); overall, Q10 values decreased with increasing measuring T, from ~3.0 at 5 °C to ~1.5 at 35 °C. New high-resolution measurements of R across a range of measuring Ts (25-70 °C) yielded insights into the T at which maximal rates of R occurred (Tmax ). Although growth temperature did not affect Tmax , N+P fertilization increased Tmax values ~5 °C, from 53 to 58 °C. N+P fertilized shoots exhibited greater rates of R than nonfertilized shoots, with this effect diminishing under greenhouse warming. Collectively, our results highlight the nutrient dependence of thermal acclimation of leaf R in B. nana, suggesting that the metabolic efficiency allowed via thermal acclimation may be impaired at current levels of soil nutrient availability. This finding has important implications for predicting carbon fluxes in Arctic ecosystems, particularly if soil N and P become more abundant in the future as the tundra warms.

  13. Advances and challenges for nutrient management in china in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Sims, J T; Ma, L; Oenema, O; Dou, Z; Zhang, F S

    2013-07-01

    Managing agricultural nutrients to provide a safe and secure food supply while protecting the environment remains one of the great challenges for the 21st century. The fourth International Nutrient Management Symposium (INMS), held in 2011 at the University of Delaware, addressed these issues via presentations, panel sessions, and field tours focused on latest technologies and policies available to increase nutrient use efficiency. Participants from the United States, Europe, Canada, and China discussed global trends and challenges, balancing food security and the environment in countries with struggling and emerging economics, nutrient management and transport at the catchment scale, new technologies for managing fertilizer and manure nutrients, and adaptive nutrient management practices for farm to watershed scales. A particular area of interest at the fourth INMS was nutrient management progress and challenges in China over the past 40 years. China's food security challenges and rapidly growing economy have led to major advances in agricultural production systems but also created severe nutrient pollution problems. This special collection of papers from the fourth INMS gives an overview of the remarkable progress China has made in nutrient management and highlights major challenges and changes in agri-environmental policies and practices needed today. Lessons learned in China are of value to both developing and developed countries facing the common task of providing adequate food for an expanding world population, while protecting air and water quality and restoring damaged ecosystems. PMID:24216346

  14. Advances and challenges for nutrient management in china in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Sims, J T; Ma, L; Oenema, O; Dou, Z; Zhang, F S

    2013-07-01

    Managing agricultural nutrients to provide a safe and secure food supply while protecting the environment remains one of the great challenges for the 21st century. The fourth International Nutrient Management Symposium (INMS), held in 2011 at the University of Delaware, addressed these issues via presentations, panel sessions, and field tours focused on latest technologies and policies available to increase nutrient use efficiency. Participants from the United States, Europe, Canada, and China discussed global trends and challenges, balancing food security and the environment in countries with struggling and emerging economics, nutrient management and transport at the catchment scale, new technologies for managing fertilizer and manure nutrients, and adaptive nutrient management practices for farm to watershed scales. A particular area of interest at the fourth INMS was nutrient management progress and challenges in China over the past 40 years. China's food security challenges and rapidly growing economy have led to major advances in agricultural production systems but also created severe nutrient pollution problems. This special collection of papers from the fourth INMS gives an overview of the remarkable progress China has made in nutrient management and highlights major challenges and changes in agri-environmental policies and practices needed today. Lessons learned in China are of value to both developing and developed countries facing the common task of providing adequate food for an expanding world population, while protecting air and water quality and restoring damaged ecosystems.

  15. Increased rainfall remarkably freshens estuarine and coastal waters on the Pacific coast of Panama: Magnitude and likely effects on upwelling and nutrient supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiela, Ivan; Camilli, Luis; Stone, Thomas; Giblin, Anne; Crusius, John; Fox, Sophia; Barth-Jensen, Coralie; Monteiro, Rita Oliveira; Tucker, Jane; Martinetto, Paulina; Harris, Carolynn

    2012-07-01

    Increased intensity of rainfall events during late 2010 led to a remarkable freshening of estuarine, near- and off-shore waters in coastal Pacific Panama. The increased rain intensity during the wet season of 2010 lowered salinity of estuarine and coastal waters to levels unprecedented in previous years. Fresher conditions were most marked within estuaries, but even at 6 km from shore, salinities were 8-13‰ lower during the 2010 wet season, compared to a lowering of up to 2‰ during previous wet seasons. Freshwater added to surface waters by rain had major biological, hydrodynamic, and biogeochemical consequences, increasing stream erosion, uprooting stream-edge terrestrial and mangrove trees, increasing mortality of benthic fauna, damping upwelling of denser, nutrient-rich water that was expected given the contemporaneous most intense La Niña in decades, as well as by enriching surface seawater by direct deposition and by horizontal advection of nutrients from land. It appears that wet season rainfall is slowly increasing in the region, and if the level of rainfall reported here is a harbinger of future climate change effects on land-sea couplings in tropical coastal ecosystems, the resulting freshening could significantly shift biogeochemistry and coastal food webs in the region and elsewhere.

  16. [The phosphorus supply of pigs in the body weight category of 11-38 kg. 1. The effect of the phosphorus supply on the performance, nutrient digestibility, protein and fat content in soft tissue and skeleton and protein and fat deposits].

    PubMed

    Lüdke, H; Schöne, F; Gruhn, K

    1989-01-01

    The influence of phosphorus supply on performance and nutrient composition of the empty body was studied in two individual feeding experiments with two and three groups resp. (7 or 8 animals per group). The phosphorus content of the unsupplemented diet was in the experiments I and II 2.97 and 2.41 g/kg, the supplemented phosphorus (as monocalcium phosphate) amounted of 2.5 and 2.33 g/kg diet respectively. The phosphorus supplementation increased live weight gain in both experiments by 84 and 45% and improved feed conversion by 35 and 23% respectively. Phosphorus deficiency did not influence the digestibility of nutrients. The fat content of soft tissue and skeleton of the phosphorus deficient animals was increased. They deposited 0.7 kg more fat (in both experiments) and 1.5 or 0.7 kg less protein in experiment I and II respectively. The utilisation of energy for deposition was not influenced by the different phosphorus supply.

  17. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  18. Nontronite and Montmorillonite as Nutrient Sources for Life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickol, R. L.; Craig, P. I.; Kral, T. A.

    2016-05-01

    Methanogens were grown in media containing bicarbonate buffer, nontronite or montmorillonite clay, and hydrogen gas. No other nutrients were added. These results suggest that martian clays may provide adequate nutrients to support organism growth.

  19. Supervision of Student Teachers: How Adequate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Ken

    This study attempted to ascertain how adequately student teachers are supervised by college supervisors and supervising teachers. Questions to be answered were as follows: a) How do student teachers rate the adequacy of supervision given them by college supervisors and supervising teachers? and b) Are there significant differences between ratings…

  20. Small Rural Schools CAN Have Adequate Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Martha

    The small rural school's foremost and largest problem is providing an adequate curriculum for students in a changing world. Often the small district cannot or is not willing to pay the per-pupil cost of curriculum specialists, specialized courses using expensive equipment no more than one period a day, and remodeled rooms to accommodate new…

  1. Toward More Adequate Quantitative Instructional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1986-01-01

    Sets an agenda for improving instructional research conducted with classical quantitative experimental or quasi-experimental methodology. Includes guidelines regarding the role of a social perspective, adequate conceptual and operational definition, quality instrumentation, control of threats to internal and external validity, and the use of…

  2. An Adequate Education Defined. Fastback 476.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Donald; Davis, E. E. (Gene)

    Court decisions historically have dealt with educational equity; now they are helping to establish "adequacy" as a standard in education. Legislatures, however, have been slow to enact remedies. One debate over education adequacy, though, is settled: Schools are not financed at an adequate level. This fastback is divided into three sections.…

  3. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  4. Nutrient management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient management has been defined as “the science and art directed to link soil, crop, weather and hydrologic factors with cultural, irrigation and soil and water conservation practices to achieve the goals of optimizing nutrient use efficiency, yields, crop quality, and economic returns, while r...

  5. Available nutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar technology may contribute to the recovery and recycling of plant nutrients and thus add a fertilizer value to the biochar. Total nutrient content in biochars varies greatly and is mainly dependent on feedstock elemental composition and to a lesser extent on pyrolysis conditions. Availability...

  6. Occurrence and distribution of organic chemicals and nutrients and comparison of water-quality data from public drinking-water supplies in the Columbia aquifer in Delaware, 2000-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reyes, Betzaida

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control and the Delaware Geological Survey, conducted a groundwater-quality investigation to (a) describe the occurrence and distribution of selected contaminants, and (b) document any changes in groundwater quality in the Columbia aquifer public water-supply wells in the Coastal Plain in Delaware between 2000 and 2008. Thirty public water-supply wells located throughout the Columbia aquifer of the Delaware Coastal Plain were sampled from August through November of 2008. Twenty-two of the wells in the sampling network for this project were previously sampled in 2000. Eight new wells were selected to replace wells no longer in use. Groundwater collected from the wells was analyzed for the occurrence and distribution of selected pesticides, pesticide degradates, volatile organic compounds, nutrients, and major inorganic ions. Nine of the wells were analyzed for radioactive elements (radium-226, radium-228, and radon). Groundwater-quality data were compared for sites sampled in both 2000 and 2008 to document any changes in water quality. One or more pesticides were detected in samples from 29 of the 30 wells. There were no significant differences in pesticide and pesticide degradate concentrations and similar compounds were detected when comparing sampling results from 2000 and 2008. Pesticide and pesticide degradate concentrations were generally less than 1 microgram per liter. Twenty-four compounds, 14 pesticides, and 10 pesticide degradates were detected in at least one sample; the pesticide degradates, metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid, deethylatrazine, and alachlor ethanesulfonic acid were the most frequently detected compounds, each found in more than 50 percent of samples. Almost 80 percent of the detected pesticides were agricultural herbicides, which reflects the prevalence and wide distribution of agriculture in sampled areas, as well the dominance of

  7. Nutrient density: principles and evaluation tools.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2014-05-01

    Nutrient profiling is the technique of rating or classifying foods on the basis of their nutritional value. Foods that supply relatively more nutrients than calories are defined as nutrient dense. Nutrient profile models calculate the content of key nutrients per 100 g, 100 kcal, or per serving size of food. For maximum effectiveness, nutrient profile models need to be transparent, based on publicly accessible nutrient composition data, and validated against independent measures of a healthy diet. These rigorous scientific standards were applied to the development of the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF) family of nutrient profile models. First, the NRF models included nutrients to encourage as well as nutrients to limit. Second, NRF model performance was repeatedly tested against the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), an independent measure of a healthy diet. HEI values were calculated for participants in the 1999-2002 NHANES. Models based on 100 kcal and serving sizes performed better than those based on 100 g. Formulas based on sums and means performed better than those based on ratios. The final NRF9.3 index was based on 9 beneficial nutrients (protein; fiber; vitamins A, C, and E; calcium; iron; potassium; and magnesium) and on 3 nutrients to limit (saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium). Higher NRF9.3 scores were associated with lower energy density and more nutrient-rich diets. The nutrient density of foods, paired with a comprehensive program of consumer education, can become the foundation of dietary recommendations and guidelines.

  8. Nutrient vectors and riparian nutrient processing in African semiarid savanna ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobs, Shayne M.; Bechtold, J.S.; Biggs, Harry C.; Grimm, N. B.; McClain, M.E.; Naiman, R.J.; Perakis, Steven S.; Pinay, G.; Scholes, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    This review article describes vectors for nitrogen and phosphorus delivery to riparian zones in semiarid African savannas, the processing of nutrients in the riparian zone and the effect of disturbance on these processes. Semiarid savannas exhibit sharp seasonality, complex hillslope hydrology and high spatial heterogeneity, all of which ultimately impact nutrient fluxes between riparian, upland and aquatic environments. Our review shows that strong environmental drivers such as fire and herbivory enhance nitrogen, phosphorus and sediment transport to lower slope positions by shaping vegetative patterns. These vectors differ significantly from other arid and semiarid ecosystems, and from mesic ecosystems where the impact of fire and herbivory are less pronounced and less predictable. Also unique is the presence of sodic soils in certain hillslopes, which substantially alters hydrological flowpaths and may act as a trap where nitrogen is immobilized while sediment and phosphorus transport is enhanced. Nutrients and sediments are also deposited in the riparian zone during seasonal, intermittent floods while, during the dry season, subsurface movement of water from the stream into riparian soils and vegetation further enrich riparian zones with nutrients. As is found in mesic ecosystems, nutrients are immobilized in semiarid riparian corridors through microbial and plant uptake, whereas dissimilatory processes such as denitrification may be important where labile nitrogen and carbon are in adequate supply and physical conditions are suitablea??such as in seeps, wallows created by animals, ephemeral wetlands and stream edges. Interaction between temporal hydrologic connectivity and spatial heterogeneity are disrupted by disturbances such as large floods and extended droughts, which may convert certain riparian patches from sinks to sources for nitrogen and phosphorus. In the face of increasing anthropogenic pressure, the scientific challenges are to provide a basic

  9. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise.

  10. Managing manure nutrients through multi-crop forage production.

    PubMed

    Newton, G L; Bernard, J K; Hubbard, R K; Allison, J R; Lowrance, R R; Gascho, G J; Gates, R N; Vellidis, G

    2003-06-01

    Concentrated sources of dairy manure represent significant water pollution potential. The southern United States may be more vulnerable to water quality problems than some other regions because of climate, typical farm size, and cropping practices. Dairy manure can be an effective source of plant nutrients and large quantities of nutrients can be recycled through forage production, especially when multi-cropping systems are utilized. Linking forage production with manure utilization is an environmentally sound approach for addressing both of these problems. Review of two triple-crop systems revealed greater N and P recoveries for a corn silage-bermudagrass hay-rye haylage system, whereas forage yields and quality were greater for a corn silage-corn silage-rye haylage system, when manure was applied at rates to supply N. Nutrient uptake was lower than application during the autumn-winter period, and bermudagrass utilized more of the remaining excess than a second crop of corn silage. Economic comparison of these systems suggests that the added value of the two corn silage crop system was not enough to off-set its increased production cost. Therefore, the system that included bermudagrass demonstrated both environmental and economic advantages. Review of the N and P uptake and calculated crop value of various single, double, and triple crop forage systems indicated that the per hectare economic value as well as the N and P uptakes tended to follow DM yields, and grasses tended to out-perform broadleaf forages. Taken across all systems, systems that included bermudagrass tended to have some of the highest economic values and uptakes of N and P. Manure applied at rates to supply N results in application of excess P, and production will not supply adequate quantities of forage to meet the herd's needs. Systems that lower manure application and supply supplemental N to produce all necessary forage under manure application will likely be less economically attractive due

  11. Quantifying variability within water samples: the need for adequate subsampling.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Ian; Irvine, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and precise determination of the concentration of nutrients and other substances in waterbodies is an essential requirement for supporting effective management and legislation. Owing primarily to logistic and financial constraints, however, national and regional agencies responsible for monitoring surface waters tend to quantify chemical indicators of water quality using a single sample from each waterbody, thus largely ignoring spatial variability. We show here that total sample variability, which comprises both analytical variability and within-sample heterogeneity, of a number of important chemical indicators of water quality (chlorophyll a, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, soluble molybdate-reactive phosphorus and dissolved inorganic nitrogen) varies significantly both over time and among determinands, and can be extremely high. Within-sample heterogeneity, whose mean contribution to total sample variability ranged between 62% and 100%, was significantly higher in samples taken from rivers compared with those from lakes, and was shown to be reduced by filtration. Our results show clearly that neither a single sample, nor even two sub-samples from that sample is adequate for the reliable, and statistically robust, detection of changes in the quality of surface waters. We recommend strongly that, in situations where it is practicable to take only a single sample from a waterbody, a minimum of three sub-samples are analysed from that sample for robust quantification of both the concentrations of determinands and total sample variability. PMID:17706740

  12. Occurrence and distribution of organic chemicals and nutrients and comparison of water-quality data from public drinking-water supplies in the Columbia aquifer in Delaware, 2000-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reyes, Betzaida

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control and the Delaware Geological Survey, conducted a groundwater-quality investigation to (a) describe the occurrence and distribution of selected contaminants, and (b) document any changes in groundwater quality in the Columbia aquifer public water-supply wells in the Coastal Plain in Delaware between 2000 and 2008. Thirty public water-supply wells located throughout the Columbia aquifer of the Delaware Coastal Plain were sampled from August through November of 2008. Twenty-two of the wells in the sampling network for this project were previously sampled in 2000. Eight new wells were selected to replace wells no longer in use. Groundwater collected from the wells was analyzed for the occurrence and distribution of selected pesticides, pesticide degradates, volatile organic compounds, nutrients, and major inorganic ions. Nine of the wells were analyzed for radioactive elements (radium-226, radium-228, and radon). Groundwater-quality data were compared for sites sampled in both 2000 and 2008 to document any changes in water quality. One or more pesticides were detected in samples from 29 of the 30 wells. There were no significant differences in pesticide and pesticide degradate concentrations and similar compounds were detected when comparing sampling results from 2000 and 2008. Pesticide and pesticide degradate concentrations were generally less than 1 microgram per liter. Twenty-four compounds, 14 pesticides, and 10 pesticide degradates were detected in at least one sample; the pesticide degradates, metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid, deethylatrazine, and alachlor ethanesulfonic acid were the most frequently detected compounds, each found in more than 50 percent of samples. Almost 80 percent of the detected pesticides were agricultural herbicides, which reflects the prevalence and wide distribution of agriculture in sampled areas, as well the dominance of

  13. Adequate mathematical modelling of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    In environmental observations and laboratory visualization both large scale flow components like currents, jets, vortices, waves and a fine structure are registered (different examples are given). The conventional mathematical modeling both analytical and numerical is directed mostly on description of energetically important flow components. The role of a fine structures is still remains obscured. A variety of existing models makes it difficult to choose the most adequate and to estimate mutual assessment of their degree of correspondence. The goal of the talk is to give scrutiny analysis of kinematics and dynamics of flows. A difference between the concept of "motion" as transformation of vector space into itself with a distance conservation and the concept of "flow" as displacement and rotation of deformable "fluid particles" is underlined. Basic physical quantities of the flow that are density, momentum, energy (entropy) and admixture concentration are selected as physical parameters defined by the fundamental set which includes differential D'Alembert, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations and closing equation of state. All of them are observable and independent. Calculations of continuous Lie groups shown that only the fundamental set is characterized by the ten-parametric Galilelian groups reflecting based principles of mechanics. Presented analysis demonstrates that conventionally used approximations dramatically change the symmetries of the governing equations sets which leads to their incompatibility or even degeneration. The fundamental set is analyzed taking into account condition of compatibility. A high order of the set indicated on complex structure of complete solutions corresponding to physical structure of real flows. Analytical solutions of a number problems including flows induced by diffusion on topography, generation of the periodic internal waves a compact sources in week-dissipative media as well as numerical solutions of the same

  14. Nutrients in the nexus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidson, Eric A.; Niphong, Rachel; Ferguson, Richard B.; Palm, Cheryl; Osmond, Deanna L.; Baron, Jill S.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has enabled modern agriculture to greatly improve human nutrition during the twentieth century, but it has also created unintended human health and environmental pollution challenges for the twenty-first century. Averaged globally, about half of the fertilizer-N applied to farms is removed with the crops, while the other half remains in the soil or is lost from farmers’ fields, resulting in water and air pollution. As human population continues to grow and food security improves in the developing world, the dual development goals of producing more nutritious food with low pollution will require both technological and socio-economic innovations in agriculture. Two case studies presented here, one in sub-Saharan Africa and the other in Midwestern United States, demonstrate how management of nutrients, water, and energy is inextricably linked in both small-scale and large-scale food production, and that science-based solutions to improve the efficiency of nutrient use can optimize food production while minimizing pollution. To achieve the needed large increases in nutrient use efficiency, however, technological developments must be accompanied by policies that recognize the complex economic and social factors affecting farmer decision-making and national policy priorities. Farmers need access to affordable nutrient supplies and support information, and the costs of improving efficiencies and avoiding pollution may need to be shared by society through innovative policies. Success will require interdisciplinary partnerships across public and private sectors, including farmers, private sector crop advisors, commodity supply chains, government agencies, university research and extension, and consumers.

  15. Programming placental nutrient transport capacity

    PubMed Central

    Fowden, A L; Ward, J W; Wooding, F P B; Forhead, A J; Constancia, M

    2006-01-01

    Many animal studies and human epidemiological findings have shown that impaired growth in utero is associated with physiological abnormalities in later life and have linked this to tissue programming during suboptimal intrauterine conditions at critical periods of development. However, few of these studies have considered the contribution of the placenta to the ensuing adult phenotype. In mammals, the major determinant of intrauterine growth is the placental nutrient supply, which, in turn, depends on the size, morphology, blood supply and transporter abundance of the placenta and on synthesis and metabolism of nutrients and hormones by the uteroplacental tissues. This review examines the regulation of placental nutrient transfer capacity and the potential programming effects of nutrition and glucocorticoid over-exposure on placental phenotype with particular emphasis on the role of the Igf2 gene in these processes. PMID:16439433

  16. Key Nutrients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Lessons written to help trainer agents prepare aides for work with families in the Food and Nutrition Program are presented in this booklet. The key nutrients discussed in the 10 lessons are protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, iron, iodine, and Vitamins A, B, C, and D. the format of each lesson is as follows: Purpose, Presentation, Application…

  17. Nutrient synchrony: sound in theory, elusive in practice.

    PubMed

    Hall, M B; Huntington, G B

    2008-04-01

    The concept of improving animal performance by going beyond simply meeting requirements and synchronizing ruminal availability of protein and energy has been with us for at least 3 decades. Although theoretically appealing, research and field results have not supported this approach to diet formulation. Why? Essential to successful ruminal synchrony is the ability to predict available amounts and fates of diverse substrates. The substrates come from varied sources; their efficiencies of use and yields of products are affected by inherent properties, interactions, transformations, and passage. However, substrate quality and availability in the rumen are affected only in part by diet. For example, NPN, true protein, and peptides are contributed by diet and intraruminal recycling, with additional endogenous NPN contributions by the cow. Changes in factors that alter the rate or extent of substrate fermentation, such as the rate of passage or ruminal pH, can alter nutrient yield from the rumen and must be accounted for in order for synchrony to work. Our ability to estimate ruminally available substrate is also challenged by normal variation in feed composition and imprecision in component and digestibility analyses. Current in vitro assays may not be adequate to accurately describe the digestibility of feed components in vivo in mixed diets. There are some indications that the amount or pattern of supply of fermentable carbohydrate has a greater impact on microbial production and efficiency than does the pattern of protein supply. Animal responses to modifications in the supply of true protein from the rumen may be masked if additional protein is oxidized by tissues or if AA from endogenous sources cover deficiencies. Animal factors, such as response to immune challenge and sustained damage to tissues, will also affect partitioning of nutrients for production and may alter an animal's response to changes in nutrient supply. With the array of factors internal and

  18. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  19. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  20. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  1. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  2. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  3. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  4. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  5. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  6. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  7. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  8. Processes and patterns of oceanic nutrient limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. M.; Mills, M. M.; Arrigo, K. R.; Berman-Frank, I.; Bopp, L.; Boyd, P. W.; Galbraith, E. D.; Geider, R. J.; Guieu, C.; Jaccard, S. L.; Jickells, T. D.; La Roche, J.; Lenton, T. M.; Mahowald, N. M.; Marañón, E.; Marinov, I.; Moore, J. K.; Nakatsuka, T.; Oschlies, A.; Saito, M. A.; Thingstad, T. F.; Tsuda, A.; Ulloa, O.

    2013-09-01

    Microbial activity is a fundamental component of oceanic nutrient cycles. Photosynthetic microbes, collectively termed phytoplankton, are responsible for the vast majority of primary production in marine waters. The availability of nutrients in the upper ocean frequently limits the activity and abundance of these organisms. Experimental data have revealed two broad regimes of phytoplankton nutrient limitation in the modern upper ocean. Nitrogen availability tends to limit productivity throughout much of the surface low-latitude ocean, where the supply of nutrients from the subsurface is relatively slow. In contrast, iron often limits productivity where subsurface nutrient supply is enhanced, including within the main oceanic upwelling regions of the Southern Ocean and the eastern equatorial Pacific. Phosphorus, vitamins and micronutrients other than iron may also (co-)limit marine phytoplankton. The spatial patterns and importance of co-limitation, however, remain unclear. Variability in the stoichiometries of nutrient supply and biological demand are key determinants of oceanic nutrient limitation. Deciphering the mechanisms that underpin this variability, and the consequences for marine microbes, will be a challenge. But such knowledge will be crucial for accurately predicting the consequences of ongoing anthropogenic perturbations to oceanic nutrient biogeochemistry.

  9. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen; Smed, Sinne; Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Mojca; Rayner, Mike; Darmon, Nicole; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Methods Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods. Results The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6). The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8). The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN) to 134 (DGN) foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N) and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN). Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN) tripled it. Conclusion Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable. PMID:27760131

  10. Nutrient limitation in tropical savannas across multiple scales and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Adam F A

    2016-02-01

    Nutrients have been hypothesized to influence the distribution of the savanna biome through two possible mechanisms. Low nutrient availability may restrict growth rates of trees, thereby allowing for intermittent fires to maintain low tree cover; alternatively, nutrient deficiency may even place an absolute constraint on the ability of forests to form, independent of fire. However, we have little understanding of the scales at which nutrient limitation operates, what nutrients are limiting, and the mechanisms that influence how nutrient limitation regulates savanna-forest transitions. Here, I review literature, synthesize existing data, and present a simple calculation of nutrient demand to evaluate how nutrient limitation may regulate the distribution of the savanna biome. The literature primarily supports the hypothesis that nutrients may interact dynamically with fire to restrict the transition of savanna into forest. A compilation of indirect metrics of nutrient limitation suggest that nitrogen and phosphorus are both in short supply and may limit plants. Nutrient demand calculations provided a number of insights. First, trees required high rates of nitrogen and phosphorus supply relative to empirically determined inputs. Second, nutrient demand increased as landscapes approached the transition point between savanna and forest. Third, the potential for fire-driven nutrient losses remained high throughout transitions, which may exaggerate limitation and could be a key feedback stabilizing the savanna biome. Fourth, nutrient limitation varied between functional groups, with fast-growing forest species having substantially greater nutrient demand and a higher susceptibility to fire-driven nutrient losses. Finally, African savanna trees required substantially larger amounts of nutrients supplied at greater rates, although this varied across plant functional groups. In summary, the ability of nutrients to control transitions emerges at individual and landscape

  11. Nutrient limitation in tropical savannas across multiple scales and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Adam F A

    2016-02-01

    Nutrients have been hypothesized to influence the distribution of the savanna biome through two possible mechanisms. Low nutrient availability may restrict growth rates of trees, thereby allowing for intermittent fires to maintain low tree cover; alternatively, nutrient deficiency may even place an absolute constraint on the ability of forests to form, independent of fire. However, we have little understanding of the scales at which nutrient limitation operates, what nutrients are limiting, and the mechanisms that influence how nutrient limitation regulates savanna-forest transitions. Here, I review literature, synthesize existing data, and present a simple calculation of nutrient demand to evaluate how nutrient limitation may regulate the distribution of the savanna biome. The literature primarily supports the hypothesis that nutrients may interact dynamically with fire to restrict the transition of savanna into forest. A compilation of indirect metrics of nutrient limitation suggest that nitrogen and phosphorus are both in short supply and may limit plants. Nutrient demand calculations provided a number of insights. First, trees required high rates of nitrogen and phosphorus supply relative to empirically determined inputs. Second, nutrient demand increased as landscapes approached the transition point between savanna and forest. Third, the potential for fire-driven nutrient losses remained high throughout transitions, which may exaggerate limitation and could be a key feedback stabilizing the savanna biome. Fourth, nutrient limitation varied between functional groups, with fast-growing forest species having substantially greater nutrient demand and a higher susceptibility to fire-driven nutrient losses. Finally, African savanna trees required substantially larger amounts of nutrients supplied at greater rates, although this varied across plant functional groups. In summary, the ability of nutrients to control transitions emerges at individual and landscape

  12. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Feike A; Carrillo, Yolima; Pendall, Elise; Morgan, Jack A

    2013-01-01

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N) through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P) limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilization of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils. PMID:23908649

  13. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Feike A.; Carrillo, Yolima; Pendall, Elise; Morgan, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N) through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P) limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilization of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils. PMID:23908649

  14. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  15. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  16. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  17. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  18. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order to... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for...

  19. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  20. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  1. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  2. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  3. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  4. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  5. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  6. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  7. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  8. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  9. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  10. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  11. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  12. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  13. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  14. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  15. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  16. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  17. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital...

  18. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  19. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  20. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  1. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  2. Hardwood seeding root and nutrient parameters for a model of nutrient uptake.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J M; Scarbrough, J D; Mays, P A

    2001-01-01

    Use of mechanistic models is an increasingly accepted way to evaluate complex processes. The Barber-Cushman model provides a means to simulate nutrient uptake once information on root system characteristics, nutrient uptake, and soil nutrient supply are developed. Objectives of this study were to determine during a growing season: (i) root growth for 1-yr-old black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) seedlings; (ii) net plant increase in N, P, K, Ca, and Mg; (iii) soil solution and solid phase nutrient concentrations; and (iv) the influence of root growth and soil nutrient supply changes on nutrient uptake using the Barber-Cushman model. Seedlings were grown in pots containing A horizon soil from two forest sites. Measurements were made on five occasions during the growing season. Root growth averaged 41.5 cm d-1 for red maple compared with 28.0 and 16.7 cm d-1 for cherry and oak, respectively. Seventy-five percent of root growth occurred at the end of the growing season. Total plant N showed the greatest change (25-58%) due to soil source. Model simulations underestimated observed uptake by 31 to 99%. A clear relationship between soil solution nutrient concentration and plant uptake, an important assumption of the model, was not observed. Results indicate care will need to be exercised in the development and use of root growth and nutrient supply values in mechanistic models. PMID:11285903

  3. Nutrient availability moderates transpiration in Ehrharta calycina.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Michael D; Hoffmann, Vera; Verboom, G Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Transpiration-driven 'mass-flow' of soil-water can increase nutrient flow to the root surface. Here it was investigated whether transpiration could be partially regulated by nutrient status. Seeds of Ehrharta calycina from nine sites across a rainfall gradient were supplied with slow-release fertilizer dibbled into the sand surrounding the roots and directly available through interception, mass-flow and diffusion (dubbed 'interception'), or sequestered behind a 40-microm mesh and not directly accessible by the roots, but from which nutrients could move by diffusion or mass-flow (dubbed 'mass-flow'). Although mass-flow plants were significantly smaller than interception plants as a consequence of nutrient limitation, they transpired 60% faster, had 90% higher photosynthesis relative to transpiration (A/E), and 40% higher tissue P, Ca and Na concentrations than plants allowed to intercept nutrients directly. Tissue N and K concentrations were similar for interception and mass-flow plants. Transpiration was thus higher in the nutrient-constrained 'mass-flow' plants, increasing the transport of nutrients to the roots by mass-flow. Transpiration may have been regulated by N availability, resulting in similar tissue concentration between treatments. It is concluded that, although transpiration is a necessary consequence of photosynthetic CO(2) uptake in C(3) plants, plants can respond to nutrient limitation by varying transpiration-driven mass-flow of nutrients.

  4. Nutrient dynamics and food-web stability

    SciTech Connect

    DeAngelis, D.L.; Mulholland, P.J.; Palumbo, A.V.; Steinman, A.D.; Huston, M.A.; Elwood, J.W. )

    1989-01-01

    The importance of nutrient limitation and recycling in ecosystems is widely recognized. Nutrients, defined in the broad sense as all material elements vital to biological functions, are in such small supply that they limit production in many ecosystems. Such limitation can affect ecosystem properties, including the structure and dynamics of the food webs that link species through their feeding relationships. What are the effects of limiting nutrients on the stability of ecosystem food webs Most of the literature on food web stability centers around the dynamics of population numbers and/or biomasses. Nevertheless, a growing body of theoretical and empirical research considers the role that both nutrient limitation and recycling can play in stability. In this paper, it is the authors objective to summarize the current understanding of several important types of stability. The theoretical and empirical evidence relating these types of stability and nutrient cycling is described. A central generalization is produced in each case.

  5. Sources of Nutrients for Ocean Enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, I. S.

    2008-12-01

    The remarkable doubling of the productivity of the land over the last 50 years raises the question of opportunities to follow suit in the sea. The rapidly rising population makes increasing demands on food supply and the disposal of waste in the atmosphere from fossil fuel burning It is well known that the supply of nutrients to the photic zone of the ocean limits primary production and this limitation can be removed by the addition of nutrients. The surface waters of the ocean are typically in the photic zone for a decade and their initial quota of nutrients are supplemented by cyanobacteria, atmospheric deposition and river inflows. Together with upwelling these nutrients support about 10,000GtC of new primary production per year. Extra nutrients can be sourced from the thermocline, from enhancing the diazotrophs or by chemically transforming elements on the land or in the atmosphere. Using thermocline nutrients to enhance productivity but are first order neutral for carbon sequestration. Diazotrophs seem restricted to temperate and tropical waters and need phosphate and other nutrients. The increased nitrogen they provide is expected to lead to more carbon storage in the ocean. The macronutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus and the micronutrients have all been shown to be beneficial. With increased new primary production we expect increased sustainable fish production but the species composition will depend on the success of recruitment.

  6. Food and water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  7. School Nurse Inspections Improve Handwashing Supplies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Schrader, Ronald; Trujillo, Rebecca; Blea, Mary; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Background: Handwashing in the school setting is important for infectious disease control, yet maintaining adequate handwashing supplies is often made difficult by lack of funds, limited staff time, and student vandalism. This study measured the availability of handwashing supplies for students in New Mexico public schools and determined the…

  8. Nursing Supplies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Nursing Supplies Page Content Article Body Throughout most of ... budget. (Nursing equipment also makes wonderful baby gifts.) Nursing Bras A well-made nursing bra that comfortably ...

  9. Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Maxwell Laboratories capacitor charging power supply is the first commercial spinoff from the NASA CCDS program - a consortia of industries and government establishments to accelerate development of ground and space based commercial applications of NASA technology. The power supply transforms and conditions large voltages to charge capacitors used in x-ray sources, medical accelerators, etc. It is lighter, more reliable, more compact and efficient. Originally developed for space lasers, its commercial potential was soon recognized.

  10. Nutrient recycling affects autotroph and ecosystem stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Ford; Menge, Duncan N L; Ostling, Annette; Hosseini, Parviez

    2008-04-01

    Stoichiometric nutrient ratios are the consequence of myriad interacting processes, both biotic and abiotic. Theoretical explanations for autotroph stoichiometry have focused on species' nutrient requirements but have not addressed the role of nutrient availability in determining autotroph stoichiometry. Remineralization of organic N and P supplies a significant fraction of inorganic N and P to autotrophs, making nutrient recycling a potentially important process influencing autotroph stoichiometry. To quantitatively investigate the relationship between available N and P, autotroph N:P, and nutrient recycling, we analyze a stoichiometrically explicit model of autotroph growth, incorporating Michaelis-Menten-Monod nutrient uptake kinetics, Droop growth, and Liebig's law of the minimum. If autotroph growth is limited by a single nutrient, increased recycling of the limiting nutrient pushes autotrophs toward colimitation and alters both autotroph and environmental stoichiometry. We derive a steady state relationship between input stoichiometry, autotroph N:P, and the stoichiometry of organic losses that allows us to estimate the relative recycling of N to P within an ecosystem. We then estimate relative N and P recycling for a marine, an aquatic, and two terrestrial ecosystems. Preferential P recycling, in conjunction with greater relative P retention at the organismal and ecosystem levels, presents a strong case for the importance of P to biomass production across ecosystems.

  11. Root Nutrient Foraging1

    PubMed Central

    Giehl, Ricardo F.H.; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2014-01-01

    During a plant's lifecycle, the availability of nutrients in the soil is mostly heterogeneous in space and time. Plants are able to adapt to nutrient shortage or localized nutrient availability by altering their root system architecture to efficiently explore soil zones containing the limited nutrient. It has been shown that the deficiency of different nutrients induces root architectural and morphological changes that are, at least to some extent, nutrient specific. Here, we highlight what is known about the importance of individual root system components for nutrient acquisition and how developmental and physiological responses can be coupled to increase nutrient foraging by roots. In addition, we review prominent molecular mechanisms involved in altering the root system in response to local nutrient availability or to the plant's nutritional status. PMID:25082891

  12. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead.

  13. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead. PMID:26664401

  14. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead. PMID:26664401

  15. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation Rates.…

  16. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  17. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  18. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  19. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  20. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  1. Adequate Schools and Inadequate Education: An Anthropological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolcott, Harry F.

    To illustrate his claim that schools generally do a remarkably good job of schooling while the society makes inadequate use of other means to educate young people, the author presents a case history of a young American (identified pseudonymously as "Brad") whose schooling was adequate but whose education was not. Brad, jobless and homeless,…

  2. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  3. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan,...

  4. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  5. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... identifiable personal data and automated systems shall be adequately trained in the security and privacy of... records in which identifiable personal data are processed or maintained, including all reports and output... personal records or data; must minimize, to the extent practicable, the risk that skilled technicians...

  6. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  7. Nutrient reduction induced stringent responses promote bacterial quorum-sensing divergence for population fitness

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kelei; Zhou, Xikun; Li, Wujiao; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria use a cell-cell communication system termed quorum-sensing (QS) to adjust population size by coordinating the costly but beneficial cooperative behaviors. It has long been suggested that bacterial social conflict for expensive extracellular products may drive QS divergence and cause the “tragedy of the commons”. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of social divergence and its evolutionary consequences for the bacterial ecology still remain largely unknown. By using the model bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, here we show that nutrient reduction can promote QS divergence for population fitness during evolution but requiring adequate cell density. Mechanically, decreased nutrient supplies can induce RpoS-directed stringent response and enhance the selection pressure on lasR gene, and lasR mutants are evolved in association with the DNA mismatch repair “switch-off”. The lasR mutants have higher relative fitness than QS-intact individuals due to their energy-saving characteristic under nutrient decreased condition. Furthermore an optimal incorporation of lasR mutants is capable of maximizing the fitness of entire population during in vitro culture and the colonization in mouse lung. Consequently, rather than worsen the population health, QS-coordinated social divergence is an elaborate evolutionary strategy that renders the entire bacterial population more fit in tough times. PMID:27713502

  8. Nutrient Density Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Annette; Thompson, William T.

    1979-01-01

    Announces a nutrient density food scoring system called the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). It expresses the ratio between the percent RDA of a nutrient and the percent daily allowance of calories in a food. (Author/SA)

  9. Power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Hamilton, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  10. Layered Plant-Growth Media for Optimizing Gaseous, Liquid and Nutrient Requirements: Modeling, Design and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinse, R.; Jones, S. B.; Bingham, G.; Bugbee, B.

    2006-12-01

    Rigorous management of restricted root zones utilizing coarse-textured porous media greatly benefits from optimizing the gas-water balance within plant-growth media. Geophysical techniques can help to quantify root- zone parameters like water content, air-filled porosity, temperature and nutrient concentration to better address the root systems performance. The efficiency of plant growth amid high root densities and limited volumes is critically linked to maintaining a favorable water content/air-filled porosity balance while considering adequate fluxes to replenish water at decreasing hydraulic conductivities during uptake. Volumes adjacent to roots also need to be optimized to provide adequate nutrients throughout the plant's life cycle while avoiding excessive salt concentrations. Our objectives were to (1) design and model an optimized root zone system using optimized porous media layers, (2) verify our design by monitoring the water content distribution and tracking nutrient release and transport, and (3) mimic water and nutrient uptake using plants or wicks to draw water from the root system. We developed a unique root-zone system using layered Ottawa sands promoting vertically uniform water contents and air-filled porosities. Watering was achieved by maintaining a shallow saturated layer at the bottom of the column and allowing capillarity to draw water upward, where coarser particle sizes formed the bottom layers with finer particles sizes forming the layers above. The depth of each layer was designed to optimize water content based on measurements and modeling of the wetting water retention curves. Layer boundaries were chosen to retain saturation between 50 and 85 percent. The saturation distribution was verified by dual-probe heat-pulse water-content sensors. The nutrient experiment involved embedding slow release fertilizer in the porous media in order to detect variations in electrical resistivity versus time during the release, diffusion and uptake of

  11. Maternal Diet and Nutrient Requirements in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding. An Italian Consensus Document

    PubMed Central

    Marangoni, Franca; Cetin, Irene; Verduci, Elvira; Canzone, Giuseppe; Giovannini, Marcello; Scollo, Paolo; Corsello, Giovanni; Poli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The importance of lifestyle and dietary habits during pregnancy and breastfeeding, for health of mothers and their offspring, is widely supported by the most recent scientific literature. The consumption of a varied and balanced diet from the preconceptional period is essential to ensure both maternal well-being and pregnancy outcomes. However, the risk of inadequate intakes of specific micronutrients in pregnancy and lactation is high even in the most industrialized countries. This particularly applies to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), iron, iodine, calcium, folic acid, and vitamin D, also in the Italian population. Moreover, the risk of not reaching the adequate nutrient supply is increased for selected groups of women of childbearing age: those following exclusion diets, underweight or overweight/obese, smokers, adolescents, mothers who have had multiple or close pregnancies, and those with previous unfavorable pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27754423

  12. Oxygen supply by photosynthesis to an implantable islet cell device.

    PubMed

    Evron, Y; Zimermann, B; Ludwig, B; Barkai, U; Colton, C K; Weir, G C; Arieli, B; Maimon, S; Shalev, N; Yavriyants, K; Goldman, T; Gendler, Z; Eizen, L; Vardi, P; Bloch, K; Barthel, A; Bornstein, S R; Rotem, A

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of islet cells is an effective treatment for type 1 diabetes with critically labile metabolic control. However, during islet isolation, blood supply is disrupted, and the transport of nutrients/metabolites to and from the islet cells occurs entirely by diffusion. Adequate oxygen supply is essential for function/survival of islet cells and is the limiting factor for graft integrity. Recently, we developed an immunoisolated chamber system for transplantation of human islets without immunosuppression. This system depended on daily oxygen supply. To provide independence from this external source, we incorporated a novel approach based on photosynthetically-generated oxygen. The chamber system was packed sandwich-like with a slab of immobilized photosynthetically active microorganisms (Synechococcus lividus) on top of a flat light source (LEDs, red light at 660 nm, intensity of 8 μE/m(2)/s). Islet cells immobilized in an alginate slab (500-1,000 islet equivalents/cm(2)) were mounted on the photosynthetic slab separated by a gas permeable silicone rubber-Teflon membrane, and the complete module was sealed with a microporous polytetrafluorethylene (Teflon) membrane (pore size: 0.4 μm) to protect the contents from the host immune cells. Upon illumination, oxygen produced by photosynthesis diffused via the silicone Teflon membrane into the islet compartment. Oxygen production from implanted encapsulated microorganisms was stable for 1 month. After implantation of the device into diabetic rats, normoglycemia was achieved for 1 week. Upon retrieval of the device, blood glucose levels returned to the diabetic state. Our results demonstrate that an implanted photosynthetic bioreactor can supply oxygen to transplanted islets and thus maintain islet viability/functionality. PMID:25365509

  13. Oxygen supply by photosynthesis to an implantable islet cell device.

    PubMed

    Evron, Y; Zimermann, B; Ludwig, B; Barkai, U; Colton, C K; Weir, G C; Arieli, B; Maimon, S; Shalev, N; Yavriyants, K; Goldman, T; Gendler, Z; Eizen, L; Vardi, P; Bloch, K; Barthel, A; Bornstein, S R; Rotem, A

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of islet cells is an effective treatment for type 1 diabetes with critically labile metabolic control. However, during islet isolation, blood supply is disrupted, and the transport of nutrients/metabolites to and from the islet cells occurs entirely by diffusion. Adequate oxygen supply is essential for function/survival of islet cells and is the limiting factor for graft integrity. Recently, we developed an immunoisolated chamber system for transplantation of human islets without immunosuppression. This system depended on daily oxygen supply. To provide independence from this external source, we incorporated a novel approach based on photosynthetically-generated oxygen. The chamber system was packed sandwich-like with a slab of immobilized photosynthetically active microorganisms (Synechococcus lividus) on top of a flat light source (LEDs, red light at 660 nm, intensity of 8 μE/m(2)/s). Islet cells immobilized in an alginate slab (500-1,000 islet equivalents/cm(2)) were mounted on the photosynthetic slab separated by a gas permeable silicone rubber-Teflon membrane, and the complete module was sealed with a microporous polytetrafluorethylene (Teflon) membrane (pore size: 0.4 μm) to protect the contents from the host immune cells. Upon illumination, oxygen produced by photosynthesis diffused via the silicone Teflon membrane into the islet compartment. Oxygen production from implanted encapsulated microorganisms was stable for 1 month. After implantation of the device into diabetic rats, normoglycemia was achieved for 1 week. Upon retrieval of the device, blood glucose levels returned to the diabetic state. Our results demonstrate that an implanted photosynthetic bioreactor can supply oxygen to transplanted islets and thus maintain islet viability/functionality.

  14. Nutrient Status of Adults with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    GORDON, CATHERINE M.; ANDERSON, ELLEN J.; HERLYN, KAREN; HUBBARD, JANE L.; PIZZO, ANGELA; GELBARD, RONDI; LAPEY, ALLEN; MERKEL, PETER A.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition is thought to influence disease status in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This cross-sectional study sought to evaluate nutrient intake and anthropometric data from 64 adult outpatients with cystic fibrosis. Nutrient intake from food and supplements was compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes for 16 nutrients and outcomes influenced by nutritional status. Attention was given to vitamin D and calcium given potential skeletal implications due to cystic fibrosis. Measurements included weight, height, body composition, pulmonary function, and serum metabolic parameters. Participants were interviewed about dietary intake, supplement use, pulmonary function, sunlight exposure, and pain. The participants’ mean body mass index (±standard deviation) was 21.8±4.9 and pulmonary function tests were normal. Seventy-eight percent used pancreatic enzyme replacement for malabsorption. Vitamin D deficiency [25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)<37.5 nmol/L] was common: 25 (39%) were deficient despite adequate vitamin D intake. Lipid profiles were normal in the majority, even though total and saturated fat consumption represented 33.0% and 16.8% of energy intake, respectively. Reported protein intake represented 16.9% of total energy intake (range 10%–25%). For several nutrients, including vitamin D and calcium, intake from food and supplements in many participants exceeded recommended Tolerable Upper Intake Levels. Among adults with cystic fibrosis, vitamin D deficiency was common despite reported adequate intake, and lipid profiles were normal despite a relatively high fat intake. Mean protein consumption was adequate, but the range of intake was concerning, as both inadequate or excessive intake may have deleterious skeletal effects. These findings call into question the applicability of established nutrient thresholds for patients with cystic fibrosis. PMID:18060897

  15. [Nutrient supplements - possibilities and limitations].

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Alexander; Hahn, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    The consumption of micronutrient-supplements by the general public has become widespread; between 25 and more than 40% of individuals questioned in western developed nations confirm to regularly consume such products. In principle, there are two product categories for micronutrient-supplements - medicinal products (drugs) and foodstuffs. The latter are marketed as food supplements (FS) and dietary foodstuffs for particular nutritional uses including foods for special medical purposes (FSMP). FS serve the general supplementation of any consumer whilst foodstuffs for particular nutritional uses are directed at consumers with special dietary requirements; FSMP are intended for the dietary management of patients. There are clearly defined legal frameworks for those product categories. Independently of their legal product status, six areas of application can be characterised for micronutrient-supplements: general and special supplementation, primary prevention, compensation of disease-related deficits, therapeutic function and containment of diseases or avoidance of subsequent damages (secondary and tertiary function). Gauged with the mean-intake, micro nutrient supply in Germany is sufficient (exception: folic acid and vitamin D; partially also iodine). However, the intake of vitamins E, C, B1 and B2 as well as the minerals calcium, magnesium, zinc and iodine could be improved in 20-50% of the general public. Micro nutrient preparations in physiological dose could contribute to closing this gap in supply.

  16. Household-level technologies to improve the availability and preparation of adequate and safe complementary foods.

    PubMed

    Mensah, Patience; Tomkins, Andrew

    2003-03-01

    Plant-based complementary foods are the main source of nutrients for many young children in developing countries. They may, however, present problems in providing nutritionally adequate and safe diets for older infants and young children. The high starch content leads to low-nutrient diets that are bulky and dense, with high levels of antinutritive factors such as phytates, tannins, lectins, and enzyme inhibitors. Phytates impair mineral bioavailability, lectins interfere with intestinal structure, and enzyme inhibitors inhibit digestive enzymes. In addition, there is often microbial contamination, which leads to diarrhea, growth-faltering, and impaired development, and the presence of chemical contaminants may lead to neurological disease and goiter. The fact that some fruits containing carotenoids are only available seasonally contributes to the vulnerability of children receiving predominantly plant-based diets. Traditional household food technologies have been used for centuries to improve the quality and safety of complementary foods. These include dehulling, peeling, soaking, germination, fermentation, and drying. While modern communities tend to reject these technologies in favor of more convenient fast-food preparations, there is now a resurgence of interest in older technologies as a possible means of improving the quality and safety of complementary foods when the basic diet cannot be changed for economic reasons. This paper describes the biology, safety, practicability, and acceptability of these traditional processes at the household or community level, as well as the gaps in research, so that more effective policies and programs can be implemented to improve the quality and safety of complementary foods.

  17. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Hart, Edward J.; Leeman, James E.; MacDougall, Hugh R.; Marron, John J.; Smith, Calvin C.

    1976-01-01

    An electric power supply employs a striking means to initiate ferroelectric elements which provide electrical energy output which subsequently initiates an explosive charge which initiates a second ferroelectric current generator to deliver current to the coil of a magnetic field current generator, creating a magnetic field around the coil. Continued detonation effects compression of the magnetic field and subsequent generation and delivery of a large output current to appropriate output loads.

  18. Switching power supply

    DOEpatents

    Mihalka, A.M.

    1984-06-05

    The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

  19. The relationships of nutrients, routes of delivery, and immunocompetence.

    PubMed

    Jayarajan, Senthil; Daly, John M

    2011-08-01

    Malnutrition has marked consequences on surgical outcomes. Adequate nutrition is important for the proper functioning of all organ systems, particularly the immune system. Determination of the type and amount of nutrient supplementation and the appropriate route of nutrient delivery is essential to bolster the immune system and enhance the host's response to stress. Correct administration of immunonutrients could lead to reductions in patient morbidity following major surgery, trauma, and critical illness.

  20. [Abdominal cure procedures. Adequate use of Nobecutan Spray].

    PubMed

    López Soto, Rosa María

    2009-12-01

    Open abdominal wounds, complicated by infection and/or risk of eventration tend to become chronic and usually require frequent prolonged cure. Habitual changing of bandages develop into one of the clearest risk factors leading to the deterioration of perilesional cutaneous integrity. This brings with it new complications which draw out the evolution of the process, provoking an important deterioration in quality of life for the person who suffers this and a considerable increase in health costs. What is needed is a product and a procedure which control the risk of irritation, which protect the skin, which favor a patient's comfort and which shorten treatment requirements while lowering health care expenses. This report invites medical personnel to think seriously about the scientific rationale, and treatment practice, as to why and how to apply Nobecutan adequately, this reports concludes stating the benefits in the adequate use of this product. The objective of this report is to guarantee the adequate use of this product in treatment of complicated abdominal wounds. This product responds to the needs which are present in these clinical cases favoring skin care apt isolation and protection, while at the same time, facilitating the placement and stability of dressings and bandages used to cure wounds. In order for this to happen, the correct use of this product is essential; medical personnel must pay attention to precautions and recommendations for proper application. The author's experiences in habitual handling of this product during various years, included in the procedures for standardized cures for these wounds, corroborates its usefulness; the author considers use of this product to be highly effective while being simple to apply; furthermore, one succeeds in providing quality care and optimizes resources employed.

  1. Duodenal luminal nutrient sensing

    PubMed Central

    Rønnestad, Ivar; Akiba, Yasutada; Kaji, Izumi; Kaunitz, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal mucosa is exposed to numerous chemical substances and microorganisms, including macronutrients, micronutrients, bacteria, endogenous ions, and proteins. The regulation of mucosal protection, digestion, absorption and motility is signaled in part by luminal solutes. Therefore, luminal chemosensing is an important mechanism enabling the mucosa to monitor luminal conditions, such as pH, ion concentrations, nutrient quantity, and microflora. The duodenal mucosa shares luminal nutrient receptors with lingual taste receptors in order to detect the five basic tastes, in addition to essential nutrients, and unwanted chemicals. The recent ‘de-orphanization’ of nutrient sensing G protein-coupled receptors provides an essential component of the mechanism by which the mucosa senses luminal nutrients. In this review, we will update the mechanisms of and underlying physiological and pathological roles in luminal nutrient sensing, with a main focus on the duodenal mucosa. PMID:25113991

  2. Short-Term Effect of Nutrient Availability and Rainfall Distribution on Biomass Production and Leaf Nutrient Content of Savanna Tree Species

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Eduardo R. M.; Tomlinson, Kyle W.; Carvalheiro, Luísa G.; Kirkman, Kevin; de Bie, Steven; Prins, Herbert H. T.; van Langevelde, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Changes in land use may lead to increased soil nutrient levels in many ecosystems (e.g. due to intensification of agricultural fertilizer use). Plant species differ widely in their response to differences in soil nutrients, and for savannas it is uncertain how this nutrient enrichment will affect plant community dynamics. We set up a large controlled short-term experiment in a semi-arid savanna to test how water supply (even water supply vs. natural rainfall) and nutrient availability (no fertilisation vs. fertilisation) affects seedlings’ above-ground biomass production and leaf-nutrient concentrations (N, P and K) of broad-leafed and fine-leafed tree species. Contrary to expectations, neither changes in water supply nor changes in soil nutrient level affected biomass production of the studied species. By contrast, leaf-nutrient concentration did change significantly. Under regular water supply, soil nutrient addition increased the leaf phosphorus concentration of both fine-leafed and broad-leafed species. However, under uneven water supply, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus concentration declined with soil nutrient supply, this effect being more accentuated in broad-leafed species. Leaf potassium concentration of broad-leafed species was lower when growing under constant water supply, especially when no NPK fertilizer was applied. We found that changes in environmental factors can affect leaf quality, indicating a potential interactive effect between land-use changes and environmental changes on savanna vegetation: under more uneven rainfall patterns within the growing season, leaf quality of tree seedlings for a number of species can change as a response to changes in nutrient levels, even if overall plant biomass does not change. Such changes might affect herbivore pressure on trees and thus savanna plant community dynamics. Although longer term experiments would be essential to test such potential effects of eutrophication via changes in leaf nutrient

  3. Short-term effect of nutrient availability and rainfall distribution on biomass production and leaf nutrient content of savanna tree species.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Eduardo R M; Tomlinson, Kyle W; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Kirkman, Kevin; de Bie, Steven; Prins, Herbert H T; van Langevelde, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Changes in land use may lead to increased soil nutrient levels in many ecosystems (e.g. due to intensification of agricultural fertilizer use). Plant species differ widely in their response to differences in soil nutrients, and for savannas it is uncertain how this nutrient enrichment will affect plant community dynamics. We set up a large controlled short-term experiment in a semi-arid savanna to test how water supply (even water supply vs. natural rainfall) and nutrient availability (no fertilisation vs. fertilisation) affects seedlings' above-ground biomass production and leaf-nutrient concentrations (N, P and K) of broad-leafed and fine-leafed tree species. Contrary to expectations, neither changes in water supply nor changes in soil nutrient level affected biomass production of the studied species. By contrast, leaf-nutrient concentration did change significantly. Under regular water supply, soil nutrient addition increased the leaf phosphorus concentration of both fine-leafed and broad-leafed species. However, under uneven water supply, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus concentration declined with soil nutrient supply, this effect being more accentuated in broad-leafed species. Leaf potassium concentration of broad-leafed species was lower when growing under constant water supply, especially when no NPK fertilizer was applied. We found that changes in environmental factors can affect leaf quality, indicating a potential interactive effect between land-use changes and environmental changes on savanna vegetation: under more uneven rainfall patterns within the growing season, leaf quality of tree seedlings for a number of species can change as a response to changes in nutrient levels, even if overall plant biomass does not change. Such changes might affect herbivore pressure on trees and thus savanna plant community dynamics. Although longer term experiments would be essential to test such potential effects of eutrophication via changes in leaf nutrient concentration

  4. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  5. Municipal water reuse for urban agriculture in Namibia: Modeling nutrient and salt flows as impacted by sanitation user behavior.

    PubMed

    Woltersdorf, L; Scheidegger, R; Liehr, S; Döll, P

    2016-03-15

    Adequate sanitation, wastewater treatment and irrigation infrastructure often lacks in urban areas of developing countries. While treated, nutrient-rich reuse water is a precious resource for crop production in dry regions, excessive salinity might harm the crops. The aim of this study was to quantify, from a system perspective, the nutrient and salt flows a new infrastructure connecting water supply, sanitation, wastewater treatment and nutrient-rich water reuse for the irrigation of agriculture, from a system perspective. For this, we developed and applied a quantitative assessment method to understand the benefits and to support the management of the new water infrastructure in an urban area in semi-arid Namibia. The nutrient and salt flows, as affected by sanitation user behavior, were quantified by mathematical material flow analysis that accounts for the low availability of suitable and certain data in developing countries, by including data ranges and by assessing the effects of different assumptions in cases. Also the nutrient and leaching requirements of a crop scheme were calculated. We found that, with ideal sanitation use, 100% of nutrients and salts are reclaimed and the slightly saline reuse water is sufficient to fertigate 10 m(2)/cap/yr (90% uncertainty interval 7-12 m(2)/cap/yr). However, only 50% of the P contained in human excreta could be finally used for crop nutrition. During the pilot phase fewer sanitation users than expected used slightly more water per capita, used the toilets less frequently and practiced open defecation more frequently. Therefore, it was only possible to reclaim about 85% of nutrients from human excreta, the reuse water was non-saline and contained less nutrient so that the P was the limiting factor for crop fertigation. To reclaim all nutrients from human excreta and fertigate a larger agricultural area, sanitation user behavior needs to be improved. The results and the methodology of this study can be generalized and

  6. Municipal water reuse for urban agriculture in Namibia: Modeling nutrient and salt flows as impacted by sanitation user behavior.

    PubMed

    Woltersdorf, L; Scheidegger, R; Liehr, S; Döll, P

    2016-03-15

    Adequate sanitation, wastewater treatment and irrigation infrastructure often lacks in urban areas of developing countries. While treated, nutrient-rich reuse water is a precious resource for crop production in dry regions, excessive salinity might harm the crops. The aim of this study was to quantify, from a system perspective, the nutrient and salt flows a new infrastructure connecting water supply, sanitation, wastewater treatment and nutrient-rich water reuse for the irrigation of agriculture, from a system perspective. For this, we developed and applied a quantitative assessment method to understand the benefits and to support the management of the new water infrastructure in an urban area in semi-arid Namibia. The nutrient and salt flows, as affected by sanitation user behavior, were quantified by mathematical material flow analysis that accounts for the low availability of suitable and certain data in developing countries, by including data ranges and by assessing the effects of different assumptions in cases. Also the nutrient and leaching requirements of a crop scheme were calculated. We found that, with ideal sanitation use, 100% of nutrients and salts are reclaimed and the slightly saline reuse water is sufficient to fertigate 10 m(2)/cap/yr (90% uncertainty interval 7-12 m(2)/cap/yr). However, only 50% of the P contained in human excreta could be finally used for crop nutrition. During the pilot phase fewer sanitation users than expected used slightly more water per capita, used the toilets less frequently and practiced open defecation more frequently. Therefore, it was only possible to reclaim about 85% of nutrients from human excreta, the reuse water was non-saline and contained less nutrient so that the P was the limiting factor for crop fertigation. To reclaim all nutrients from human excreta and fertigate a larger agricultural area, sanitation user behavior needs to be improved. The results and the methodology of this study can be generalized and

  7. Choices for achieving adequate dietary calcium with a vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C M; Proulx, W R; Heaney, R

    1999-09-01

    To achieve adequate dietary calcium intake, several choices are available that accommodate a variety of lifestyles and tastes. Liberal consumption of dairy products in the diet is the approach of most Americans. Some plants provide absorbable calcium, but the quantity of vegetables required to reach sufficient calcium intake make an exclusively plant-based diet impractical for most individuals unless fortified foods or supplements are included. Also, dietary constituents that decrease calcium retention, such as salt, protein, and caffeine, can be high in the vegetarian diet. Although it is possible to obtain calcium balance from a plant-based diet in a Western lifestyle, it may be more convenient to achieve calcium balance by increasing calcium consumption than by limiting other dietary factors.

  8. Genetic Modification of Preimplantation Embryos: Toward Adequate Human Research Policies

    PubMed Central

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects. PMID:15016248

  9. Nutrient Cycling in Piermont Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, N.; Gribbin, S.; Newton, R.; Diaz, K.; Laporte, N.; Trivino, G.; Ortega, J.; McKee, K.; Sambrotto, R.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the cycling of nutrients through a brackish tidal wetland about 40 km north of Manhattan in the Hudson River estuary. As part of a long-term ecological study of Piermont Marsh, a NOAA reference wetland managed by the NY State DEC, we are measuring dissolved inorganic nutrients on the Marsh surface and its drainage channels. The marsh occupies 400 acres along the southwest corner of Haverstraw Bay with approximately 2 km frontage to the estuary. It is supplied with nutrient-rich water and drained primarily along several tidal creeks and the hundreds of rivulets that feed them. During most tidal cycles the silty berm bounding the marsh is not topped. Human influence in the marsh's surrounding area has had profound effects, one of the most fundamental of which has been the shift from native grass species, predominantly Spartina alterniflora, to an invasive genotype of common reed, Phragmites australis. Along with this shift there have been changes in the root bed, the effective marsh interior and berm heights, the hydroperiod and, as a result, the ability of the marsh to be utilized by various types of Hudson estuary fish. The vegetative shift is believed to be anthropogenic, but the connection is not well understood, and it is not known what role biogeochemical perturbations are playing. We present two field seasons of nitrate, phosphate and silicate measurements from Sparkill Creek, a freshwater stream draining the surrounding highlands constitutes the northern boundary, two tidally driven creeks transect the Marsh from West to East: the Crumkill and an unnamed creek we have dubbed the "Tidal", Ludlow Ditch, a no-longer-maintained drainage channel grading gently from the northern part of the marsh to the South terminates in a wide tidal outlet that is its southern boundary. Net tidal cycle fluxes and fluxes resulting from runoff events are presented. Deviations from Redfield ratios and limiting nutrients are analyzed. Piermont Marsh data is compared

  10. Photosynthetic capacity, nutrient status, and growth of maize (Zea mays L.) upon MgSO4 leaf-application

    PubMed Central

    Jezek, Mareike; Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Bayer, Anne; Mühling, Karl-Hermann

    2015-01-01

    The major plant nutrient magnesium (Mg) is involved in numerous physiological processes and its deficiency can severely reduce the yield and quality of crops. Since Mg availability in soil and uptake into the plant is often limited by unfavorable soil or climatic conditions, application of Mg onto leaves, the site with highest physiological Mg demand, might be a reasonable alternative fertilization strategy. This study aimed to investigate, if MgSO4 leaf-application in practically relevant amounts can efficiently alleviate the effects of Mg starvation in maize, namely reduced photosynthesis capacity, disturbed ion homeostasis and growth depression. Results clearly demonstrated that Mg deficiency could be mitigated by MgSO4 leaf-application as efficiently as by resupply of MgSO4 via the roots in vegetative maize plants. Significant increases in SPAD values and net rate of CO2-assimilation as well as enhanced shoot biomass have been achieved. Ion analysis furthermore revealed an improvement of the nutrient status of Mg-deficient plants with regard to [Mg], [K], and [Mn] in distinct organs, thereby reducing the risk of Mn-toxicity at the rootside, which often occurs together with Mg deficiency on acid soils. In conclusion, foliar fertilization with Mg proved to be an efficient strategy to adequately supply maize plants with Mg and might hence be of practical relevance to correct nutrient deficiencies during the growing season. PMID:25620973

  11. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  12. DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.

  13. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  14. Fishing down nutrients on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allgeier, Jacob E.; Valdivia, Abel; Cox, Courtney; Layman, Craig A.

    2016-08-01

    Fishing is widely considered a leading cause of biodiversity loss in marine environments, but the potential effect on ecosystem processes, such as nutrient fluxes, is less explored. Here, we test how fishing on Caribbean coral reefs influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by the fish community, that is, fish-mediated nutrient capacity. Specifically, we modelled five processes of nutrient storage (in biomass) and supply (via excretion) of nutrients, as well as a measure of their multifunctionality, onto 143 species of coral reef fishes across 110 coral reef fish communities. These communities span a gradient from extreme fishing pressure to protected areas with little to no fishing. We find that in fished sites fish-mediated nutrient capacity is reduced almost 50%, despite no substantial changes in the number of species. Instead, changes in community size and trophic structure were the primary cause of shifts in ecosystem function. These findings suggest that a broader perspective that incorporates predictable impacts of fishing pressure on ecosystem function is imperative for effective coral reef conservation and management.

  15. Fishing down nutrients on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Allgeier, Jacob E; Valdivia, Abel; Cox, Courtney; Layman, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Fishing is widely considered a leading cause of biodiversity loss in marine environments, but the potential effect on ecosystem processes, such as nutrient fluxes, is less explored. Here, we test how fishing on Caribbean coral reefs influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by the fish community, that is, fish-mediated nutrient capacity. Specifically, we modelled five processes of nutrient storage (in biomass) and supply (via excretion) of nutrients, as well as a measure of their multifunctionality, onto 143 species of coral reef fishes across 110 coral reef fish communities. These communities span a gradient from extreme fishing pressure to protected areas with little to no fishing. We find that in fished sites fish-mediated nutrient capacity is reduced almost 50%, despite no substantial changes in the number of species. Instead, changes in community size and trophic structure were the primary cause of shifts in ecosystem function. These findings suggest that a broader perspective that incorporates predictable impacts of fishing pressure on ecosystem function is imperative for effective coral reef conservation and management. PMID:27529748

  16. Fishing down nutrients on coral reefs

    PubMed Central

    Allgeier, Jacob E.; Valdivia, Abel; Cox, Courtney; Layman, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Fishing is widely considered a leading cause of biodiversity loss in marine environments, but the potential effect on ecosystem processes, such as nutrient fluxes, is less explored. Here, we test how fishing on Caribbean coral reefs influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by the fish community, that is, fish-mediated nutrient capacity. Specifically, we modelled five processes of nutrient storage (in biomass) and supply (via excretion) of nutrients, as well as a measure of their multifunctionality, onto 143 species of coral reef fishes across 110 coral reef fish communities. These communities span a gradient from extreme fishing pressure to protected areas with little to no fishing. We find that in fished sites fish-mediated nutrient capacity is reduced almost 50%, despite no substantial changes in the number of species. Instead, changes in community size and trophic structure were the primary cause of shifts in ecosystem function. These findings suggest that a broader perspective that incorporates predictable impacts of fishing pressure on ecosystem function is imperative for effective coral reef conservation and management. PMID:27529748

  17. Hot moments in spawning aggregations: implications for ecosystem-scale nutrient cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Stephanie K.; Allgeier, Jacob E.; Semmens, Brice X.; Heppell, Scott A.; Pattengill-Semmens, Christy V.; Rosemond, Amy D.; Bush, Phillippe G.; McCoy, Croy M.; Johnson, Bradley C.; Layman, Craig A.

    2015-03-01

    Biogeochemical hot moments occur when a temporary increase in availability of one or more limiting reactants results in elevated rates of biogeochemical reactions. Many marine fish form transient spawning aggregations, temporarily increasing their local abundance and thus nutrients supplied via excretion at the aggregation site. In this way, nutrients released by aggregating fish could create a biogeochemical hot moment. Using a combination of empirical and modeling approaches, we estimate nitrogen and phosphorus supplied by aggregating Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus). Data suggest aggregating grouper supply up to an order-of-magnitude more nitrogen and phosphorus than daily consumer-derived nutrient supply on coral reefs without aggregating fish. Comparing current and historic aggregation-level excretion estimates shows that overfishing reduced nutrients supplied by aggregating fish by up to 87 %. Our study illustrates a previously unrecognized ecosystem viewpoint regarding fish spawning aggregations and provides an additional perspective on the repercussions of their overexploitation.

  18. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  19. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment.

  20. Are women with psychosis receiving adequate cervical cancer screening?

    PubMed Central

    Tilbrook, Devon; Polsky, Jane; Lofters, Aisha

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the rates of cervical cancer screening among female patients with psychosis compared with similar patients without psychosis, as an indicator of the quality of primary preventive health care. DESIGN A retrospective cohort study using medical records between November 1, 2004, and November 1, 2007. SETTING Two urban family medicine clinics associated with an academic hospital in Toronto, Ont. PARTICIPANTS A random sample of female patients with and without psychosis between the ages of 20 and 69 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Number of Papanicolaou tests in a 3-year period. RESULTS Charts for 51 female patients with psychosis and 118 female patients without psychosis were reviewed. Of those women with psychosis, 62.7% were diagnosed with schizophrenia, 19.6% with bipolar disorder, 17.6% with schizoaffective disorder, and 29.4% with other psychotic disorders. Women in both groups were similar in age, rate of comorbidities, and number of full physical examinations. Women with psychosis were significantly more likely to smoke (P < .0001), to have more primary care appointments (P = .035), and to miss appointments (P = .0002) than women without psychosis. After adjustment for age, other psychiatric illnesses, number of physical examinations, number of missed appointments, and having a gynecologist, women with psychosis were significantly less likely to have had a Pap test in the previous 3 years compared with women without psychosis (47.1% vs 73.7%, respectively; odds ratio 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.58). CONCLUSION Women with psychosis are more than 5 times less likely to receive adequate Pap screening compared with the general population despite their increased rates of smoking and increased number of primary care visits. PMID:20393098

  1. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. PMID:26068436

  2. Determination of the need for selenium by chicks fed practical diets adequate in vitamin E

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Su, Q.; Liu, C.H.; Sinisalo, M.; Combs, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the dietary needs for selenium (Se) by chicks fed either purified (amino acid-based) or practical (corn- and soy-based) diets that were adequate with respect to vitamin E (i.e., contained 100 IU/kg) and all other known nutrients with the single exception of Se (i.e., contained only 0.10 ppm Se). Studies were conducted in Ithaca using Single Comb White Leghorn chicks fed the purified basal diet and in Beijing using chicks of the same breed fed either the same purified basal diet or the practical diet formulated to be similar to that used in poultry production in some parts of China and the US. Results showed that each basal diet produced severe depletion of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) in plasma, liver and pancreas according to the same time-course, but that other consequences of severe uncomplicated Se deficiency were much more severe among chicks fed the purified diet (e.g., growth depression, pancreatic dysfunction as indicated by elevated plasma amylase and abnormal pancreatic histology). Chicks fed the practical Se-deficient diet showed reduced pancreas levels of copper, zinc and molybdenum and elevated plasma levels of iron; they required ca. 0.10 ppm dietary Se to sustain normal SeGSHpx in several tissues and to prevent elevated amylase in plasma. The dietary Se requirement of the chick is, therefore, estimated to be 0.10 ppm.

  3. Nutrient Control Design Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nutrient Control Design Manual will present an extensive state-of-the-technology review of the engineering design and operation of nitrogen and phosphorous control technologies and techniques applied at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This manual will present ...

  4. Nutrient Control Seminars

    EPA Science Inventory

    These Nutrient Control Seminars will present an extensive state-of-the-technology review of the engineering design and operation of nitrogen and phosphorous control technologies and techniques applied at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). These seminars will present ...

  5. [Are legal sanctions for improving traffic safety adequate?].

    PubMed

    Geppert, K

    1990-01-01

    Referring to the field of traffic legislation the author examines the different possibilities to improve the safety on the road, within the corresponding range of summary offence and criminal law; (1) As far as the rules of conduct are concerned he demands a uniform threshold value of at least 0.8% for blood alcohol within the limits of the German penal code Sections 315 c I, 316. He rejects the plan to introduce a criminal offence of considerable speeding if imminent danger is provoked. (2) On the level of sanctions the traditional measures of traffic legislation are to be supplied sensibly by supplementary training courses concerning alcohol abuse. The legal instruments of (temporary) suspension of a person's driving license on the part of criminal jurisdiction or public authorities ought to be utilized on a larger scale. The (Flensburg) repeated perpetration point system is to be improved with regard to special preventive measures. (3) To increase the risk of being caught the control of the traffic by the police is to be intensified--especially through a larger application of technical means. (4) The extension of the instruments of traffic legislation to immediate measures by the police--preliminary or "mini" suspension of a person's driving license by resort to preventive rights by the police?--meets with constitutional or legal scruples.

  6. Plant response to nutrient availability across variable bedrock geologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castle, S.C.; Neff, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the role of rock-derived mineral nutrient availability on the nutrient dynamics of overlying forest communities (Populus tremuloides and Picea engelmanni-Abies lasiocarpa v. arizonica) across three parent materials (andesite, limestone, and sandstone) in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Broad geochemical differences were observed between bedrock materials; however, bulk soil chemistries were remarkably similar between the three different sites. In contrast, soil nutrient pools were considerably different, particularly for P, Ca, and Mg concentrations. Despite variations in nutrient stocks and nutrient availability in soils, we observed relatively inflexible foliar concentrations and foliar stoichiometries for both deciduous and coniferous species. Foliar nutrient resorption (P and K) in the deciduous species followed patterns of nutrient content across substrate types, with higher resorption corresponding to lower bedrock concentrations. Work presented here indicates a complex plant response to available soil nutrients, wherein plant nutrient use compensates for variations in supply gradients and results in the maintenance of a narrow range in foliar stoichiometry. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  7. Petroleum engineering manpower supply

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfman, M.

    1982-09-01

    The supply of Petroleum Engineers within the U.S. has shown an exponential growth during the last decade due to increases in the price of petroleum and concommitant demand for engineers in the petroleum industry at all levels of activity. Schools currently have very large enrollments; many lack sufficient faculty and facilities to adequately handle the large loads. Recent uncertainty in long range forecasting of petroleum demand, coupled with uncertainty in the price of oil due to turmoil in the Middle East and the discovery of additional large reserves of petroleum as a result of increased drilling, has led to a decline of approximately 25% in the price of crude oil on the spot market and subsequent reductions in drilling in 1982 from a high of 4,500 rigs in the U.S. to 2528 rigs by August 31, 1982; a reduction of 44% this year. This reduction in activity will be reflected in reduced job opportunities for many new graduates in December 1982 and in 1983, and the ''pipelines'' within the schools are filled with students in expectation of good jobs in the private sector of the economy. Since Petroleum Engineering departments maintain a close tie with industry, it is essential that some balance be maintained between supply and demand, so as to try to prevent a glut of engineers descending upon the market. Steps are underway at many schools. to reduce enrollments by a variety of methods at the present time. An upturn in demand in petroleum prices may serve to mitigate the problem within the next two years, but a long-range interchange between industrial hiring forecasts and universities is essential in planning for the future.

  8. 14 CFR 29.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... from one source, or a fault in any part of the power distribution system does not interfere with the... adequate when the voltage is within the approved limits; and (b) The installation and power supply system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instruments using a power supply....

  9. 14 CFR 29.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... from one source, or a fault in any part of the power distribution system does not interfere with the... adequate when the voltage is within the approved limits; and (b) The installation and power supply system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Instruments using a power supply....

  10. 14 CFR 29.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... from one source, or a fault in any part of the power distribution system does not interfere with the... adequate when the voltage is within the approved limits; and (b) The installation and power supply system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Instruments using a power supply....

  11. 14 CFR 29.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... from one source, or a fault in any part of the power distribution system does not interfere with the... adequate when the voltage is within the approved limits; and (b) The installation and power supply system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Instruments using a power supply....

  12. 14 CFR 29.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... from one source, or a fault in any part of the power distribution system does not interfere with the... adequate when the voltage is within the approved limits; and (b) The installation and power supply system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Instruments using a power supply....

  13. Assessment of Nutrient Stability in Space Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, S. R.; Perchonok, M.; Braby, L. A.; Kloeris, V. A.; Smith, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining an intact nutrient supply in the food system flown on spacecraft is a critical issue for mission success and crew health and safety. Early polar expeditions and exploration expeditions by sailing vessels have taught us that a deficiency, or excess, of even a single vitamin in the food supply can be catastrophic. Evidence from ground-based research indicates that some vitamins are destroyed and fatty acids are oxidized (and therefore rendered dangerous or useless) by different types of radiation and by conditions of long-term storage. We hypothesize that radiation and long-term storage in the space-flight environment will affect the stability of vitamins, amino acids, and fatty acids in the space food system. The research objectives of our ongoing stability studies are to determine the stability of water- and fat-soluble vitamins, fatty acids, and amino acids in the space food supply before and after space flight on the International Space Station (ISS). Foods were analyzed after 2 weeks (a flight control), 11, 19, and 28 months of flight. Along with the space-flown foods, ground-based controls matched for time, light, and temperature are analyzed. The flight studies complement planned ground-based studies of the effects of radiation on vitamins, amino acids, and fatty acids. Flight studies are needed because a model based on ground-based data cannot predict all of the effects of the space-flight environment. Flight studies provide a more accurate test system to determine the effects on these nutrients of the temperature, and radiation conditions in the space-flight environment. Ground studies are required to evaluate longer missions and higher radiation levels expected outside low-Earth orbit. In addition to providing information about nutrient stability in space, the results of these studies will help NASA determine if a need exists to develop special packaging that can ensure stability of foods and nutrients in space, or if further studies of nutrient

  14. Adequate iron stores and the 'Nil nocere' principle.

    PubMed

    Hollán, S; Johansen, K S

    1993-01-01

    There is a need to change the policy of unselective iron supplementation during periods of life with physiologically increased cell proliferation. Levels of iron stores to be regarded as adequate during infancy and pregnancy are still not well established. Recent data support the view that it is not justified to interfere with physiological adaptations developed through millions of years by sophisticated and precisely coordinated regulation of iron absorption, utilization and storage. Recent data suggest that the chelatable intracellular iron pool regulates the expression of proteins with central importance in cellular iron metabolism (TfR, ferritin, and erythroid 5-aminolevulinic synthetase) in a coordinately controlled way through an iron dependent cytosolic mRNA binding protein, the iron regulating factor (IRF). This factor is simultaneously a sensor and a regulator of iron levels. The reduction of ferritin levels during highly increased cell proliferation is a mirror of the increased density of TfRs. An abundance of data support the vigorous competition for growth-essential iron between microbial pathogens and their vertebrate hosts. The highly coordinated regulation of iron metabolism is probably crucial in achieving a balance between the blockade of readily accessible iron to invading organisms and yet providing sufficient iron for the immune system of the host. The most evident adverse clinical effects of excess iron have been observed in immunodeficient patients in tropical countries and in AIDS patients. Excess iron also increases the risk of initiation and promotion of malignant processes by iron binding to DNA and by the iron-catalysed release of free radicals. Oxygen radicals were shown to damage critical biomolecules leading, apart from cancer, to a variety of human disease states, including inflammation and atherosclerosis. They are also involved in processes of aging and thrombosis. Recent clinical trials have suggested that the use of iron

  15. Integrated Urban Nutrient Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhapi, I.; Veenstra, S.; Siebel, M. A.; Gijzen, H. J.

    Most cities, especially from the developing countries, are facing serious problems with the management of nutrients, necessitating an urgent review of current waste management systems. Whilst highly efficient technologies are available, the inclusion of these in a well-thought out and systematic approach is necessary to contain the nutrient influxes and outfluxes from towns. Five intervention measures are proposed in this paper. The first is to manage the use and generation of nutrients by drastically minimising water consumption and employing other cleaner production approaches. The second deals with the optimal reuse of nutrients and water at the smallest possible level, like at the household and on-plot level. The second option is to covert the waste into something useful for reuse, and, where not possible, to something which is envi- ronmentally neutral. This involves treatment, but applying technologies that makes the best use of side products via reuse. Where the first three options will have failed, two least preferred options could be used. Waste can be dispersed or diluted to enhance self-purification capacities of downstream water bodies. The last option is to store the wastewater for some parts of the year when there is water shortage to allow for polishing during the standing period. The success of urban nutrient planning requires an integrated approach, proving specific solutions to specific situations. This, in turn, requires appropriate institutional responses.

  16. Lateral Diffusion of Nutrients by Mammalian Herbivores in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Adam; Doughty, Christopher E.; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2013-01-01

    Animals translocate nutrients by consuming nutrients at one point and excreting them or dying at another location. Such lateral fluxes may be an important mechanism of nutrient supply in many ecosystems, but lack quantification and a systematic theoretical framework for their evaluation. This paper presents a mathematical framework for quantifying such fluxes in the context of mammalian herbivores. We develop an expression for lateral diffusion of a nutrient, where the diffusivity is a biologically determined parameter depending on the characteristics of mammals occupying the domain, including size-dependent phenomena such as day range, metabolic demand, food passage time, and population size. Three findings stand out: (a) Scaling law-derived estimates of diffusion parameters are comparable to estimates calculated from estimates of each coefficient gathered from primary literature. (b) The diffusion term due to transport of nutrients in dung is orders of magnitude large than the coefficient representing nutrients in bodymass. (c) The scaling coefficients show that large herbivores make a disproportionate contribution to lateral nutrient transfer. We apply the diffusion equation to a case study of Kruger National Park to estimate the conditions under which mammal-driven nutrient transport is comparable in magnitude to other (abiotic) nutrient fluxes (inputs and losses). Finally, a global analysis of mammalian herbivore transport is presented, using a comprehensive database of contemporary animal distributions. We show that continents vary greatly in terms of the importance of animal-driven nutrient fluxes, and also that perturbations to nutrient cycles are potentially quite large if threatened large herbivores are driven to extinction. PMID:23951141

  17. Stable isotope-labelled feed nutrients to assess nutrient-specific feed passage kinetics in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Warner, Daniel; Dijkstra, Jan; Hendriks, Wouter H; Pellikaan, Wilbert F

    2014-03-30

    Knowledge of digesta passage kinetics in ruminants is essential to predict nutrient supply to the animal in relation to optimal animal performance, environmental pollution and animal health. Fractional passage rates (FPR) of feed are widely used in modern feed evaluation systems and mechanistic rumen models, but data on nutrient-specific FPR are scarce. Such models generally rely on conventional external marker techniques, which do not always describe digesta passage kinetics in a satisfactory manner. Here the use of stable isotope-labelled dietary nutrients as a promising novel tool to assess nutrient-specific passage kinetics is discussed. Some major limitations of this technique include a potential marker migration, a poor isotope distribution in the labelled feed and a differential disappearance rate of isotopes upon microbial fermentation in non-steady state conditions. Such limitations can often be circumvented by using intrinsically stable isotope-labelled plant material. Data are limited but indicate that external particulate markers overestimate rumen FPR of plant fibre compared with the internal stable isotope markers. Stable isotopes undergo the same digestive mechanism as the labelled feed components and are thus of particular interest to specifically measure passage kinetics of digestible dietary nutrients.

  18. Exploring the Sulfur Nutrient Cycle Using the Winogradsky Column

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogan, Brian; Lemke, Michael; Levandowsky, Michael; Gorrell, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The Winogradsky column demonstrates how the metabolic diversity of prokaryotes transforms sulfur to different forms with varying redox states and hence, supplies nutrients and/or energy to the organism. The Winogardsky column is an excellent way to show that not all bacteria are pathogens and they have an important role in the geochemical cycling…

  19. [The global and national context regarding the challenges involved in ensuring adequate access to water for human consumption].

    PubMed

    Augusto, Lia Giraldo da Silva; Gurgel, Idê Gomes Dantas; Câmara Neto, Henrique Fernandes; de Melo, Carlos Henrique; Costa, André Monteiro

    2012-06-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the challenges involved in ensuring access to water for human consumption taking the international and national context into consideration. Based on the UN declaration that access to safe and clean drinking water is a fundamental human right, vulnerabilities are identified that can consist in restrictions to access to adequate supplies. The distribution of water and the population across the planet, pollution, inadequate policies and management lead to environmental injustice. The iniquity of access to water constitutes the contemporary water crisis. From the 1980s onwards, the transnational water market emerged for private control that occurs at three main levels: surface and underground water sources; bottled water; and public water supply services. The conflicts of the multiple uses of water resources, the market and environmental problems have contributed to rendering the health of the population and ecosystems vulnerable. Adequate public policies are essential to ensure the basic human right to access to safe and clean drinking water.

  20. Supply Security in Future Nuclear Fuel Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Seward, Amy M.; Wood, Thomas W.; Gitau, Ernest T.; Ford, Benjamin E.

    2013-11-18

    Previous PNNL work has shown the existing nuclear fuel markets to provide a high degree of supply security, including the ability to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical and non-technical reasons. It is in the context of new reactor designs – that is, reactors likely to be licensed and market ready over the next several decades – that fuel supply security is most relevant. Whereas the fuel design and fabrication technology for existing reactors are well known, the construction of a new set of reactors could stress the ability of the existing market to provide adequate supply redundancy. This study shows this is unlikely to occur for at least thirty years, as most reactors likely to be built in the next three decades will be evolutions of current designs, with similar fuel designs to existing reactors.

  1. Nutrient uptake dynamics across a gradient of nutrient concentrations and ratios at the landscape scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Catherine A.; O'Reilly, Catherine M.; Conine, Andrea L.; Lipshutz, Sondra M.

    2015-02-01

    Understanding interactions between nutrient cycles is essential for recognizing and remediating human impacts on water quality, yet multielemental approaches to studying nutrient cycling in streams are currently rare. Here we utilized a relatively new approach (tracer additions for spiraling curve characterization) to examine uptake dynamics for three essential nutrients across a landscape that varied in absolute and relative nutrient availability. We measured nutrient uptake for soluble reactive phosphorous, ammonium-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen in 16 headwater streams in the Catskill Mountains, New York. Across the landscape, ammonium-nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus had shorter uptake lengths and higher uptake velocities than nitrate-nitrogen. Ammonium-nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus uptake velocities were tightly correlated, and the slope of the relationship did not differ from one, suggesting strong demand for both nutrients despite the high ambient water column dissolved inorganic nitrogen: soluble reactive phosphorus ratios. Ammonium-nitrogen appeared to be the preferred form of nitrogen despite much higher nitrate-nitrogen concentrations. The uptake rate of nitrate-nitrogen was positively correlated with ambient soluble reactive phosphorus concentration and soluble reactive phosphorus areal uptake rate, suggesting that higher soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations alleviate phosphorus limitation and facilitate nitrate-nitrogen uptake. In addition, these streams retained a large proportion of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen supplied by the watershed, demonstrating that these streams are important landscape filters for nutrients. Together, these results (1) indicated phosphorus limitation across the landscape but similarly high demand for ammonium-nitrogen and (2) suggested that nitrate-nitrogen uptake was influenced by variability in soluble reactive phosphorus availability and preference for

  2. Shedding light onto nutrient responses of arbuscular mycorrhizal plants: nutrient interactions may lead to unpredicted outcomes of the symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Ana; Cruz, Cristina; Pérez-Tienda, Jacob; Ferrol, Nuria

    2014-05-01

    The role and importance of arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) in plant nitrogen (N) nutrition is uncertain. We propose that this be clarified by using more integrative experimental designs, with the use of a gradient of N supply and the quantification of an extensive array of plant nutrient contents. Using such an experimental design, we investigated AM effects on plant N nutrition, whether the mycorrhizal N response (MNR) determines the mycorrhizal growth response (MGR), and how MNR influences plants' C economy. Oryza sativa plants were inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis or Funneliformis mossae. AM effects were studied along a gradient of N supplies. Biomass, photosynthesis, nutrient and starch contents, mycorrhizal colonization and OsPT11 gene expression were measured. C investment in fungal growth was estimated. Results showed that, in rice, MGR was dependent on AM nutrient uptake effects, namely on the synergy between N and Zn, and not on C expenditure. The supply of C to the fungus was dependent on the plant's nutrient demand, indicated by high shoot C/N or low %N. We conclude that one of the real reasons for the negative MGR of rice, Zn deficiency of AMF plants, would have remained hidden without an experimental design allowing the observation of plants' response to AM along gradients of nutrient concentrations. Adopting more integrative and comprehensive experimental approaches in mycorrhizal studies seems therefore essential if we are to achieve a true understanding of AM function, namely of the mechanisms of C/N exchange regulation in AM. PMID:24656333

  3. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease ... Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q- ...

  4. Nutrient Requirements in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKigney, John I,; Munro, Hamish N.

    It is important to understand the nutrient requirements and the significance of nutrition both in pubescence and adolescence. The pubescent growth spurt is characterized by an increase in body size and a change in proportion of different tissues. Both of these factors are of great nutritional importance, since there is reason to believe that the…

  5. Estimation of stream nutrient uptake from nutrient addition experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Payn, Robert

    2005-09-01

    Nutrient uptake in streams is often quantified by determining nutrient uptake length. However, current methods for measuring nutrient uptake length are often impractical, expensive, or demonstrably incorrect. We have developed a new method to estimate ambient nutrient uptake lengths using field experiments involving several levels of nutrient addition. Data analysis involves plotting nutrient addition uptake lengths versus added concentration and extrapolating to the negative ambient concentration. This method is relatively easy, inexpensive, and based on sound theoretical development. It is more accurate than the commonly used method involving a single nutrient addition. The utility of the method is supported by field studies directly comparing our new method with isotopic tracer methods for determining uptake lengths of phosphorus, ammonium, and nitrate. Our method also provides parameters for comparing potential nutrient limitation among streams.

  6. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to... donor safety and blood availability, and potential measures to maintain adequate iron stores in...

  7. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  8. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  9. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  10. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  11. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  12. Harmonization of nutrient intake values.

    PubMed

    King, Janet C; Garza, Cutberto

    2007-03-01

    The conceptual framework for the various NIVs is depicted in figure 1 along with the methodological approaches and applications. The NIVs consist of two values derived from a statistical evaluation of data on nutrient requirements, the average nutrient requirement (ANR), or nutrient toxicities, the upper nutrient level (UNL). The individual nutrient levelx (INLx) is derived from the distribution of average nutrient requirements. The percentile chosen is often 98%, which is equivalent to 2 SD above the mean requirement. Concepts underlying the NIVs include criteria for establishing a nutrient requirement, e.g., ferritin stores, nitrogen balance, or serum vitamin C. Once the requirement for the absorbed nutrient is determined, it may be necessary to adjust the value for food sources, i.e., bioavailability, or host factors, such as the effect of infection on nutrient utilization. Other concepts that committees may want to consider when establishing NIVs include the effects of genetic variation on nutrient requirements and the role of the nutrient in preventing long-term disease. Two fundamental uses of NIVs are for assessing the adequacy of nutrient intakes and for planning diets for individuals and populations. Establishing the NIV using the statistical framework proposed in this report improves the efficacy of the values for identifying risks of nutrient deficiency or excess among individuals and populations. NIVs also are applied to a number of aspects of food and nutrition policy. Some examples include regulatory issues and trade, labeling, planning programs for alleviating public health nutrition problems, food fortification, and dietary guidance.

  13. 49 CFR 195.62 - Supplies of accident report DOT Form 7000-1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplies of accident report DOT Form 7000-1. 195... Reporting § 195.62 Supplies of accident report DOT Form 7000-1. Each operator shall maintain an adequate supply of forms that are a facsimile of DOT Form 7000-1 to enable it to promptly report accidents....

  14. Nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatites: synthesis and characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.

    1999-01-01

    Incorporation of Mg, S, and plant-essential micronutrients into the structure of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) may be advantageous for closed-loop systems, such as will be required on Lunar and Martian outposts, because these apatites can be used as slow-release fertilizers. Our objective was to synthesize HA with Ca, P, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo, B, and Cl incorporated into the structure, i.e., nutrient-substituted apatites. Hydroxyapatite, carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHA), nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatite (NHA), and nutrient-substituted carbonate hydroxyapatite (NCHA) were synthesized by precipitating from solution. Chemical and mineralogical analysis of precipitated samples indicated a considerable fraction of the added cations were incorporated into HA, without mineral impurities. Particle size of the HA was in the 1 to 40 nm range, and decreased with increased substitution of nutrient elements. The particle shape of HA was elongated in the c-direction in unsubstituted HA and NHA but more spherical in CHA and NCHA. The substitution of cations and anions in the HA structure was confirmed by the decrease of the d[002] spacing of HA with substitution of ions with an ionic radius less than that of Ca or P. The DTPA-extractable Cu ranged from 8 to 8429 mg kg-1, Zn ranged from 57 to 1279 mg kg-1, Fe from 211 to 2573 mg kg-1, and Mn from 190 to 1719 mg kg-1, depending on the substitution level of each element in HA. Nutrient-substituted HA has the potential to be used as a slow-release fertilizer to supply micronutrients, S, and Mg in addition to Ca and P.

  15. Nutrient enrichment of the subarctic Pacific Ocean pycnocline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Frank A.; Bograd, Steven J.; Ono, Tsuneo

    2013-05-01

    At the end of the global thermohaline circulation, the subarctic Pacific is the richest nutrient repository in the world oceans. Trends towards lower oxygen and higher nutrients in waters below the surface layer (the pycnocline) have been observed in recent decades. We assess these trends using data from four programs and suggest the enrichment of pycnocline nitrate (200 Gmol y-1) is essential in keeping supply to the surface ocean constant, despite increasing upper ocean stratification. A nitrate budget helps identify possible vertical processes that could account for nutrient redistribution. We hypothesize that warming and oxygen loss in the deeper pycnocline, arising from ice loss in the Okhotsk Sea, have initiated a largely vertical redistribution of nutrients due to compression of vertical migrator habitat and/or changes in dissolution of sinking particulates. Coupled climate-ecosystem models will need to incorporate these processes to more fully understand projected changes in the subarctic Pacific.

  16. Implications of premature needle abscission to the elemental nutrient status and nutrient retranslocation patterns of ozone injured Jeffrey pine

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, M.T.; Rundel, P.W. )

    1993-06-01

    The foliar nutrient relations of ozone stressed Jeffrey pine growing in the southern Sierra Nevada of California was compared in trees retaining different numbers of needle cohorts. A 20% reduction in foliar nitrogen occurred in the oldest needles of both sensitive trees (retaining two years of needles) and resistant trees (retaining five years of needles) which coincided with the flush of new needles in late June. Nitrogen content of recently expanded needles on sensitive trees was 15% lower than needles of similar age on resistant trees immediately after becoming fully expanded, but was not significantly different two months after expansion. Resistant trees retranslocated higher fractions of all phloem-mobile nutrients measured (N, K, P and Mg) although the differences were small (between 3 and 9%). The smaller foliar pool of nutrients resulting from premature abscission may result in ozone sensitive trees relying more heavily on soil supplies for both short and long term nutrient requirements.

  17. Water and nutrient acquisition by roots and canopies

    SciTech Connect

    Oren, R.; Sheriff, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    Water and nutrient supply rates, as well as internal (plant) and external (soil) deficits, can have major effects on physiological activity and growth. Effects of water or nutrient deficits on growth can be demonstrated separately, but they often interact, as shown for several Pinus species, and by Turner (1982) for Pinus radiata. Moist soil and wet canopy surfaces facilitate nutrient uptake through roots and foliage, respectively. Water uptake is affected by the number and distribution of roots in relation to the distribution of soil moisture, and by the wetness and hydraulic permeability of foliage. Nutrient uptake is similarly affected by tissue characteristics and nutrient concentration, but also depends on the moisture regime in the bulk soil and in the vicinity of absorbing surfaces. In this chapter, we discuss generalities based on results from observational studies of unmanipulated plants and of stands. We also consider information from experimental manipulation of nutrient and water availability. A more thorough treatment of the effects of mycorrhizae and anthropogenic pollution on water and nutrient acquisition is given, respectively.

  18. Transient dynamics of pelagic producer-grazer systems in a gradient of nutrients and mixing depths.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Christoph G; Diehl, Sebastian; Matauschek, Christian; Klausmeier, Christopher A; Stibor, Herwig

    2008-05-01

    Phytoplankton-grazer dynamics are often characterized by long transients relative to the length of the growing season. Using a phytoplankton-grazer model parameterized for Daphnia pulex with either flexible or fixed algal carbon:nutrient stoichiometry, we explored how nutrient and light supply (the latter by varying depth of the mixed water column) affect the transient dynamics of the system starting from low densities. The system goes through an initial oscillation across nearly the entire light-nutrient supply space. With flexible (but not with fixed) algal stoichiometry, duration of the initial algal peak, timing and duration of the subsequent grazer peak, and timing of the algal minimum are consistently accelerated by nutrient enrichment but decelerated by light enrichment (decreasing mixing depth) over the range of intermediate to shallow mixing depths. These contrasting effects of nutrient vs. light enrichment are consequences of their opposing influences on food quality (algal nutrient content): algal productivity and food quality are positively related along a nutrient gradient but inversely related along a light gradient. Light enrichment therefore slows down grazer growth relative to algal growth, decelerating oscillatory dynamics; nutrient enrichment has opposite effects. We manipulated nutrient supply and mixing depth in a field enclosure experiment. The experimental results were qualitatively much more consistent with the flexible than with the fixed stoichiometry model. Nutrient enrichment increased Daphnia peak biomass, decreased algal minimum biomass, decreased the seston C:P ratio, and accelerated transient oscillatory dynamics. Light enrichment (decreasing mixing depth) produced the opposite patterns, except that Daphnia peak biomass increased monotonously with light enrichment, too. Thus, while the model predicts the possibility of the "paradox of energy enrichment" (a decrease in grazer biomass with light enrichment) at high light and low

  19. Stoichiometrically explicit competition between grazers: species replacement, coexistence, and priority effects along resource supply gradients.

    PubMed

    Hall, Spencer R

    2004-08-01

    Assuming key trade-offs among interactors, several models (resource ratio, keystone predation, intraguild predation) predict changes in species composition over resource supply gradients. Ecological stoichiometry could also predict compositional shifts of grazers over gradients of nutrient and light supply through a mechanism involving (mis)matches between elemental body composition of grazers and plants. This hypothesis is explored here using a suite of two-grazer, one-plant models that incorporate three key components: plant production depends on light and nutrients, nutrient content of plants can vary, and homeostatic grazers can be carbon or nutrient limited. The results from this suite closely resemble the classical resource ratio model describing plant competition for two resources. Here, the models predict shifts of grazer composition along resource supply gradients if species trade off competitive abilities for plant carbon and nutrients. Given this trade-off, superior nutrient competitors should dominate low nutrient environments, and superior carbon competitors should dominate high nutrient environments. At intermediate nutrient supply, species can coexist at a stable equilibrium, or alternative stable states emerge, depending on how grazers impact their resources. These results depend on food web architecture, however. For instance, predators can alter or reduce possibilities for stoichiometry-mediated coexistence of grazers.

  20. Trends in nutrients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heathwaite, A.L.; Johnes, P.J.; Peters, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    The roles of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) as key nutrients determining the trophic status of water bodies are examined, and evidence reviewed for trends in concentrations of N and P species which occur in freshwaters, primarily in northern temperate environments. Data are reported for water bodies undergoing eutrophication and acidification, especially water bodies receiving increased nitrogen inputs through the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Nutrient loading on groundwaters and surface freshwaters is assessed with respect to causes and rates of (change, relative rates of change for N and P, and implications of change for the future management of lakes, rivers and groundwaters. In particular, the nature and emphasis of studies for N species and P fractions in lakes versus rivers and groundwaters are contrasted. This review paper primarily focuses on results from North America and Europe, particularly for the UK where a wide range of data sets exists. Few nutrient loading data have been published on water bodies in less developed countries; however, some of the available data are presented to provide a global perspective. In general, N and P concentrations have increased dramatically (>20 times background concentrations) in many areas and causes vary considerably, ranging from urbanization to changes in agricultural practices.

  1. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference - Find Nutrient Value of Common Foods by Nutrient

    MedlinePlus

    ... Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28 NDL Home Food ... Sort by: Measure by: * required field ​ National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28 slightly revised May, ...

  2. Body composition and nutrient intakes of college men and women basketball players.

    PubMed

    Nowak, R K; Knudsen, K S; Schulz, L O

    1988-05-01

    Computer analysis of diet records was used to compare adequacy of nutrient intake for 16 male and 10 female intercollegiate basketball players. Significant differences (p less than .05) between men and women were observed for the provision of nutrients from food alone; mean percent RDAs of all nutrients except vitamins A and D was greater for men. This was due primarily to caloric intakes by the men, which averaged twice those of the women. Nutrient supplements had a significant effect on the women's total intake. With the exceptions of energy, protein, and vitamin C, differences between men and women in percent RDAs were eliminated when the contribution of nutrient supplements was included. The data made apparent the need for dietitians familiar with sports nutrition to counsel female athletes on means of obtaining nutrients via an adequate diet.

  3. The dynamics of methionine supply and demand during early development.

    PubMed

    McBreairty, Laura E; Bertolo, Robert F

    2016-06-01

    Methionine is an indispensable amino acid that, when not incorporated into protein, is converted into the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine as entry into the methionine cycle. Following transmethylation, homocysteine is either remethylated to reform methionine or irreversibly trans-sulfurated to form cysteine. Methionine flux to transmethylation and to protein synthesis are both high in the neonate and this review focuses on the dynamics of methionine supply and demand during early development, when growth requires expansion of pools of protein and transmethylation products such as creatine and phosphatidylcholine (PC). The nutrients folate and betaine (derived from choline) donate a methyl group during remethylation, providing an endogenous supply of methionine to meet the methionine demand. During early development, variability in the dietary supply of these methionine cycle-related nutrients can affect both the supply and the demand of methionine. For example, a greater need for creatine synthesis can limit methionine availability for protein and PC synthesis, whereas increased availability of remethylation nutrients can increase protein synthesis if dietary methionine is limiting. Moreover, changes to methyl group availability early in life can lead to permanent changes in epigenetic patterns of DNA methylation, which have been implicated in the early origins of adult disease phenomena. This review aims to summarize how changes in methyl supply and demand can affect the availability of methionine for various functions and highlights the importance of variability in methionine-related nutrients in the infant diet. PMID:27177124

  4. Biotechnology: a solution for improving nutrient bioavailability.

    PubMed

    King, Janet C

    2002-01-01

    Biotechnology strategies are now available to improve the amount and availability of nutrients in plant crops. Those strategies include simple plant selection for varieties with high nutrient density in the seeds, cross-breeding for incorporating a desired trait within a plant, and genetic engineering to manipulate the nutrient content of the plant. In plant cross-breeding, all genes of the parent plants are combined and the progeny have both desirable and undesirable traits. To eliminate undesirable traits, plant breeders "back-cross" the new plant varieties with other plants over several generations. This technique, called hybridization, has been used to create varieties of low-phytate corn, barley, and rice. Using the techniques of genetic engineering, the gene(s) encoding for a desired trait(s) in a plant are introduced in a precise and controlled manner within a relatively short period of time. Golden rice, containing carotenoids, and rice with higher amounts of iron, are two examples of genetically engineered plants for improved nutrition. Genetic engineering has tremendous potential for revolutionizing nutrition. However, public concerns regarding safety, appearance, and ethics must be overcome before these products can be effectively introduced into the food supply.

  5. Feedstock Supply System Logistics

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    Feedstock supply is a significant cost component in the production of biobased fuels, products, and power. The uncertainty of the biomass feedstock supply chain and associated risks are major barriers to procuring capital funding for start-up biorefineries.

  6. Nutrients in the Changjiang River.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhi-Liang; Liu, Qun

    2009-06-01

    N, P and SiO3-Si in the Changjiang mainstream and its major tributaries and lakes were investigated in the dry season from November to December, 1997, and in the flood season in August and October, 1998. An even distribution of SiO3-Si was found along the Changjiang River. However, the concentrations of total nitrogen, total dissolved nitrogen, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, nitrate and total phosphorus, total particulate phosphorus increased notably in the upper reaches, which reflected an increasing impact from human activities. Those concentrations in the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River were relatively constant. Dissolved N was the major form of N and the particulate P was the major form of P in the Changjiang River. The molar ratio of dissolved N to dissolved P was extremely high (192.5-317.5), while that of the particulate form was low (5.6-37.7). High N/P ratio reflected a significant input of anthropogenic N such as N from precipitation and N lost from water and soil etc. Dissolved N and P was in a quasi-equilibrium state in the process from precipitate to the river. In the turbid river water, light limitation, rather than P limitation, seemed more likely to be a controlling factor for the growth of phytoplankton. A positive linear correlationship between the concentration of dissolved N and the river's runoff was found, mainly in the upper reaches, which was related to the non-point sources of N. Over the past decades, N concentration has greatly increased, but the change of P concentration was not as significant as N. The nutrient fluxes of the Changjiang mainstream and tributaries were estimated, and the result showed that the nutrient fluxes were mainly controlled by the runoff, of which more than a half came from the tributaries. These investigations carried out before water storage of the Three Gorges Dam will supply a scientific base for studying the influences of the Three Gorges Dam on the ecology and environment of the Changjiang

  7. Nutrient dynamics in Amazon shelf waters: results from AMASSEDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demaster, David J.; Pope, Robert H.

    1996-03-01

    sustained by regeneration to a large extent (up to 83%, 69% and 59% for N, P and Si, respectively) as well as by riverine and upwelled sources. Nutrient budget calculations have been used to establish the dominant external source of nutrients to the algal blooms occurring on the outer shelf. Based on flux core measurements, diffusive nutrient fluxes from Amazon shelf sediments are very low relative to riverine supply rates (silicate flux out = 1.3% of riverine flux, the nitrate plus ammonium flux is essentially zero, and the phosphate seabed flux shows removal of ˜2% of the riverine flux). Inventories of naturally occurring 210Pb were used to estimate the onshore flow of subsurface water onto the Amazon shelf. The radiochemical data indicate that the flux of water onto the shelf may be as much as five to ten times greater than the annual flow of the Amazon River. The nutrient flux from this shoreward movement of ocean water (originating at a depth of 60-100 m water depth) accounts for about 80% of the externally supplied ammonium, 52% of the externally supplied phosphate, 38% of the externally supplied nitrate, and 17% of the externally supplied silicate reaching the outer shelf, with the remainder of the nutrient fluxes coming from the river. Therefore, the outershelf algal blooms are supported to a significant extent by the shoreward flux of nutrients from offshore, subsurface waters.

  8. Modelling macrofaunal biomass in relation to hypoxia and nutrient loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermann, Karen; Norkko, Joanna; Janas, Urszula; Norkko, Alf; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Bonsdorff, Erik

    2012-12-01

    Nutrient loading of aquatic ecosystems results in more food for benthic macrofaunal communities but also increases the risk of hypoxia, resulting in a reduction or complete loss of benthic biomass. This study investigates the interaction between eutrophication, hypoxia and benthic biomass with emphasis on the balance between gains and loss of benthic biomass due to changes in nutrient loadings. A physiological fauna model with 5 functional groups was linked to a 3D coupled hydrodynamic-ecological Baltic Sea model. Model results revealed that benthic biomass increased between 0 and 700% after re-oxygenating bottom waters. Nutrient reduction scenarios indicated improved oxygen concentrations in bottom waters and decreased sedimentation of organic matter up to 40% after a nutrient load reduction following the Baltic Sea Action Plan. The lower food supply to benthos reduced the macrofaunal biomass up to 35% especially in areas not currently affected by hypoxia, whereas benthic biomass increased up to 200% in areas affected by eutrophication-induced hypoxia. The expected changes in benthic biomass resulting from nutrient load reductions and subsequent reduced hypoxia may not only increase the food supply for benthivorous fish, but also significantly affect the biogeochemical functioning of the ecosystem.

  9. Siletz River nutrients: Effects of biosolids application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stream water nutrients were measured in the Siletz River, Oregon, with the goal of comparing dissolved nutrient concentrations, primarily the nitrogenous nutrients nitrate and ammonium, with previously collected data for the Yaquina and Alsea Rivers for the nutrient criteria prog...

  10. Natural selection for costly nutrient recycling in simulated microbial metacommunities.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Richard A; Williams, Hywel T P; Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-11-01

    Recycling of essential nutrients occurs at scales from microbial communities to global biogeochemical cycles, often in association with ecological interactions in which two or more species utilise each others' metabolic by-products. However, recycling loops may be unstable; sequences of reactions leading to net recycling may be parasitised by side-reactions causing nutrient loss, while some reactions in any closed recycling loop are likely to be costly to participants. Here we examine the stability of nutrient recycling loops in an individual-based ecosystem model based on microbial functional types that differ in their metabolism. A supplied nutrient is utilised by a "source" functional type, generating a secondary nutrient that is subsequently used by two other types-a "mutualist" that regenerates the initial nutrient at a growth rate cost, and a "parasite" that produces a refractory waste product but does not incur any additional cost. The three functional types are distributed across a metacommunity in which separate patches are linked by a stochastic diffusive migration process. Regions of high mutualist abundance feature high levels of nutrient recycling and increased local population density leading to greater export of individuals, allowing the source-mutualist recycling loop to spread across the system. Individual-level selection favouring parasites is balanced by patch-level selection for high productivity, indirectly favouring mutualists due to the synergistic productivity benefits of the recycling loop they support. This suggests that multi-level selection may promote nutrient cycling and thereby help to explain the apparent ubiquity and stability of nutrient recycling in nature.

  11. Nutrient dynamics: Chapter 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Likens, Gene E.; LaBaugh, James W.; Buso, Donald C.; Bade, Darren; Winter, Thomas C.; Likens, Gene E.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the variability and trends in chemical concentrations and fluxes at Mirror Lake during the period 1981–2000. It examines the water and chemical budgets of Mirror Lake to identify and understand better long-term trends in the chemical characteristics of the lake. It also identifies the causes of changes in nutrient concentrations and examines the contribution of hydrologic pathways to the contamination of Mirror Lake by road salt. The role of groundwater and precipitation on water and chemical budgets of the lake are also examined.

  12. Nutrient management effects on sweetpotato genotypes under controlled environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, P. P.; Bonsi, C. K.; Trotman, A. A.; Douglas, D. Z.

    1996-01-01

    Sweetpotato is one of several crops recommended by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for bioregenerative life support studies. One of the objectives of the Tuskegee University NASA Center is to optimize growth conditions for adaptability of sweetpotatoes for closed bioregenerative systems. The role of nutrient solution management as it impacts yield has been one of the major thrusts in these studies. Nutrient solution management protocol currently used consists of a modified half Hoagland solution that is changed at 14-day intervals. Reservoirs are refilled with deionized water if the volume of the nutrient solution was reduced to 8 liters or less before the time of solution change. There is the need to recycle and replenish nutrient solution during crop growth, rather than discard at 14 day intervals as previously done, in order to reduce waste. Experiments were conducted in an environmental growth room to examine the effects of container size on the growth of several sweetpotato genotypes grown under a nutrient replenishment protocol. Plants were grown from vine cuttings of 15cm length and were planted in 0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2m growth channels using a closed nutrient film technique system. Nutrient was supplied in a modified half strength Hoagland's solution with a 1:2.4 N:K ratio. Nutrient replenishment protocol consisted of daily water replenishment to a constant volume of 30.4 liters in the small containers and 273.6 liters in the large container. Nutrients were replenished as needed when the EC of the nutrient solution fell below 1200 mhos/cm. The experimental design used was a split-plot with the main plot being container size and genotypes as the subplot. Nine sweetpotato genotypes were evaluated. Results showed no effect of nutrient solution container size on storage root yield, foliage fresh and dry mass, leaf area or vine length. However, plants grown using the large nutrient solution container accumulated more storage root dry mass than

  13. Neuroelectric assessment of nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, L D; Friedmann, A; Saltman, P; Polich, J

    1999-05-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity and auditory event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were assessed in two groups (n = 12 each) of subjects. The 'food-nutrient' group had fasted from the night before and consumed a 500 cal nutrient drink; the 'control' group consumed breakfast but did not consume any nutrients during the recordings. All subjects were assessed every 15 min for six trial blocks at the same time of day, with the fast/nutrient group measured initially before and after consuming the nutrient drink. No effects of the nutrient drink were obtained on the post-stimulus EEG spectral power or mean frequency measures. However, the fast/nutrient group demonstrated less delta, theta, and alpha-1 power than the no-fast/control group. Increases in spectral power were generally observed across trial blocks especially for the alpha and beta bands, and are consistent with increases in arousal level. P300 amplitude was unaffected by the nutrient consumption, but target stimulus N100 amplitude was smaller for the food-nutrient compared to the control group. Taken together, the results suggest that nutrient consumption does not directly affect EEG or cognitive ERP measures.

  14. Nutrient Intake in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; O’Brien, Marian C.; Clark, Patricia C.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Research Objective Approximately 50% of heart failure (HF) patients are thought to be malnourished, and macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies may potentially aggravate HF symptoms. Thus, concerns have been raised about the overall nutrient composition of diets in HF populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the macronutrient and micronutrient intake by caloric adequacy among community-dwelling adults with HF. Participants and Methods A secondary analysis of baseline data of participants in an HF lifestyle intervention study was conducted. Participants (n = 45) were predominantly male (55.6%), white, and non-Hispanic (64.4%); had a mean age of 61 years (SD, 11 years) and mean body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2 (SD, 7.3 kg/m2); were of New York Heart Association functional classes II and III (77.8%); and had a mean ejection fraction of 31.9% (SD,13.2%); and 69% had a college or higher level of education. The Block Food Habits Questionnaire was used to assess the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and Conclusions Individuals reporting inadequate daily caloric intake reported a lower intake of macronutrients and micronutrients as well as other differences in dietary patterns compared with individuals reporting adequate daily caloric intake. More than half of the individuals reporting adequate caloric intake did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and vitamin E. Interventions aimed at increasing overall intake and nutrient density are suggested. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between dietary factors and outcomes in HF. PMID:18596500

  15. WERF Nutrient Challenge investigates limits of nutrient removal technologies.

    PubMed

    Neethling, J B; Clark, D; Pramanik, A; Stensel, H D; Sandino, J; Tsuchihashi, R

    2010-01-01

    The WERF Nutrient Challenge is a multi-year collaborative research initiative established in 2007 to develop and provide current information about wastewater treatment nutrients (specifically nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater), their characteristics, and bioavailability in aquatic environments to help regulators make informed decisions. The Nutrient Challenge will also provide data on nutrient removal so that treatment facilities can select sustainable, cost-effective methods and technologies to meet permit limits. To meet these goals, the Nutrient Challenge has teamed with a wide array of utilities, agencies, consultants, universities and other researchers and practitioners to collaborate on projects that advance these goals. The Nutrient Challenge is focusing on a different approach to collaborating and leveraging resources (financial and intellectual) on research projects by targeting existing projects and research that correspond with its goals and funding those aspects that the Nutrient Challenge identified as a priority. Because the Nutrient Challenge is focused on collaboration, outreach is an absolutely necessary component of its effectiveness. Through workshops, webinars, a web portal and online compendium, published papers, and conference lectures, the Nutrient Challenge is both presenting important new information, and soliciting new partnerships.

  16. Survey of the market, supply and availability of gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Rosi, F.D.

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the present consumption and supply of gallium, its potential availability in the satellite power system (SPS) implementation time frame, and commercial and new processing methods for increasing the production of gallium. Findings are reported in detail. The findings strongly suggest that with proper long range planning adequate gallium would be available from free-enterprise world supplies of bauxite for SPS implementation.

  17. Can a melting Greenland ice sheet act as a nutrient source that compensates projected nutrient deficits in Atlantic surface water masses?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodehacke, Christian; Gröger, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown that under severe climate warming the northern Atlantic Ocean is more stratified, because an enhanced hydrological cycle and warming of upper ocean layers hampers water mass exchange with deeper layers. Therefore the supply of nutrient-rich deep water masses, which replenish the nutrients in the photic zone, is weakened in many climate warming scenarios. Consequently biological activities in the photic zone are stronger limited by the availability of nutrients. On the other side several studies, addressing in particular the release of organic material from melting glaciers or outlet glaciers of Greenland, suggest that intensified melting of glaciers and ice sheet might impact the nutrient supply to the ocean. This leads to the question: Does a strongly melting Greenland ice sheet can compensate the restrained nutrient supply from deep water masses? We've performed simulations with the MPI-ESM under different scenarios to address the question. A run under pre-industrial conditions serves as a base line experiment, while simulations under the strong warming scenario RCP8.5 shall represent the conditions in a warming world. To mimic the influence of a melting Greenland ice sheet, we discharge homogenously 0.1 Sv (105 m3/s) of fresh water along the coast of Greenland for 40 years. The continuous discharge of 0.1 Sv comes from common hosing experiments, while the setup with the uniformly release along the coast follows two comprehensive studies about the melting water influence on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) under historical and future warming conditions (RCP8.5). Proportional to the melting strength, nutrients (NO3, PO4, SiO2, and Iron) have been released, whereby the proportionalities have been compiled from a range of published values. In terms of release concentration a high end and a conservative setup have been analyzed. The simulations highlight, that the additionally released nutrients, have indeed a

  18. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky's State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional--"all of its parts and parcels". The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including:…

  19. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  20. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  1. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  2. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  3. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  4. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  5. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The pesticides... has determined, in accordance with FIFRA sec. 25(b)(1), that they are adequately regulated by...

  6. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The pesticides... has determined, in accordance with FIFRA sec. 25(b)(1), that they are adequately regulated by...

  7. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The pesticides... has determined, in accordance with FIFRA sec. 25(b)(1), that they are adequately regulated by...

  8. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  9. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  10. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  11. Academic food-supply veterinarians: future demand and likely shortages.

    PubMed

    Bruce Prince, J; Andrus, David M; Gwinner, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The future demand for and potential shortages of food-supply veterinarians have been the subject of much concern. Using the Delphi forecasting method in a three-phase Web-based survey process, a panel of experts identified the trends and issues shaping the demand for and supply of academic food-animal veterinarians, then forecasted the likely future demand and shortages of food-supply veterinarians employed in academic institutions in the United States and Canada through 2016. The results indicate that there will be increasing future demand and persistent shortages of academic food-supply veterinarians unless current trends are countered with targeted, strategic action. The Delphi panel also evaluated the effectiveness of several strategies for reversing current trends and increasing the number of food-supply veterinarians entering into academic careers. Academic food-supply veterinarians are a key link in the system that produces food-supply veterinarians for all sectors (private practice, government service, etc.); shortages in the academic sector will amplify shortages wherever food-supply veterinarians are needed. Even fairly small shortages have significant public-health, food-safety, animal-welfare, and bio-security implications. Recent events demonstrate that in an increasingly interconnected global economic food supply system, national economies and public health are at risk unless an adequate supply of appropriately trained food-supply veterinarians is available to counter a wide variety of threats ranging from animal and zoonotic diseases to bioterrorism. PMID:17220489

  12. Academic food-supply veterinarians: future demand and likely shortages.

    PubMed

    Bruce Prince, J; Andrus, David M; Gwinner, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The future demand for and potential shortages of food-supply veterinarians have been the subject of much concern. Using the Delphi forecasting method in a three-phase Web-based survey process, a panel of experts identified the trends and issues shaping the demand for and supply of academic food-animal veterinarians, then forecasted the likely future demand and shortages of food-supply veterinarians employed in academic institutions in the United States and Canada through 2016. The results indicate that there will be increasing future demand and persistent shortages of academic food-supply veterinarians unless current trends are countered with targeted, strategic action. The Delphi panel also evaluated the effectiveness of several strategies for reversing current trends and increasing the number of food-supply veterinarians entering into academic careers. Academic food-supply veterinarians are a key link in the system that produces food-supply veterinarians for all sectors (private practice, government service, etc.); shortages in the academic sector will amplify shortages wherever food-supply veterinarians are needed. Even fairly small shortages have significant public-health, food-safety, animal-welfare, and bio-security implications. Recent events demonstrate that in an increasingly interconnected global economic food supply system, national economies and public health are at risk unless an adequate supply of appropriately trained food-supply veterinarians is available to counter a wide variety of threats ranging from animal and zoonotic diseases to bioterrorism.

  13. Nutrient availability and phytoplankton nutrient limitation across a gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elser, J.J.; Kyle, M.; Steuer, L.; Nydick, K.R.; Baron, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to lakes and watersheds has been increasing steadily due to various anthropogenic activities. Because such anthropogenic N is widely distributed, even lakes relatively removed from direct human disturbance are potentially impacted. However, the effects of increased atmospheric N deposition on lakes are not well documented, We examined phytoplankton biomass, the absolute and relative abundance of limiting nutrients (N and phosphorus [P]), and phytoplankton nutrient limitation in alpine lakes of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado (USA) receiving elevated (>6 kg N??ha-1??yr-1) or low (<2 kg N??ha-1??yr-1) levels of atmospheric N deposition. Highdeposition lakes had higher NO3-N and total N concentrations and higher total N : total P ratios. Concentrations of chlorophyll and seston carbon (C) were 2-2.5 times higher in highdeposition relative to low-deposition lakes, while high-deposition lakes also had higher seston C:N and C:P (but not N:P) ratios. Short-term enrichment bioassays indicated a qualitative shift in the nature of phytoplankton nutrient limitation due to N deposition, as highdeposition lakes had an increased frequency of primary P limitation and a decreased frequency and magnitude of response to N and to combined N and P enrichment. Thus elevated atmospheric N deposition appears to have shifted nutrient supply from a relatively balanced but predominantly N-deficient regime to a more consistently P-limited regime in Colorado alpine lakes. This adds to accumulating evidence that sustained N deposition may have important effects on lake phytoplankton communities and plankton-based food webs by shifting the quantitative and qualitative nature of nutrient limitation. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Nutrient Sensing Mechanisms and Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Efeyan, Alejo; Comb, William C.; Sabatini, David M.

    2015-01-01

    PREFACE The ability to sense and respond to fluctuations in environmental nutrient levels is a requisite for life. Nutrient scarcity is a selective pressure that has shaped the evolution of most cellular processes. Different pathways that detect intracellular and extracellular levels of sugars, amino acids and lipids, and surrogate metabolites, are then integrated and coordinated at the organismal level via hormonal signals. During food abundance, nutrient sensing pathways engage anabolism and storage, and scarcity triggers homeostatic mechanisms, like the mobilization of internal stores through mechanisms such as autophagy. Nutrient sensing pathways are commonly deregulated in human metabolic diseases. PMID:25592535

  15. River nutrient loads and catchment size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, S.V.; Swaney, D.P.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Scarsbrook, M.R.; Weatherhead, M.A.; Humborg, Christoph; Eriksson, H.; Hannerz, F.

    2005-01-01

    We have used a total of 496 sample sites to calibrate a simple regression model for calculating dissolved inorganic nutrient fluxes via runoff to the ocean. The regression uses the logarithms of runoff and human population as the independent variables and estimates the logarithms of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus loading with R 2 values near 0.8. This predictive capability is about the same as has been derived for total nutrient loading with process-based models requiring more detailed information on independent variables. We conclude that population and runoff are robust proxies for the more detailed application, landscape modification, and in-stream processing estimated by more process-based models. The regression model has then been applied to a demonstration data set of 1353 river catchments draining to the sea from the North American continent south of the Canadian border. The geographic extents of these basins were extracted from a 1-km digital elevation model for North America, and both runoff and population were estimated for each basin. Most of the basins (72% of the total) are smaller than 103 km2, and both runoff and population density are higher and more variable among small basins than among larger ones.While total load to the ocean can probably be adequately estimated from large systems only, analysis of the geographic distribution of nutrient loading requires consideration of the small basins, which can exhibit significant hydrologic and demographic heterogeneity between systems over their range even within the same geographic region. High-resolution regional and local analysis is necessary for environmental assessment and management. ?? Springer 2005.

  16. Cultivation of Scenedesmus obliquus in liquid hydrolysate from flash hydrolysis for nutrient recycling.

    PubMed

    Barbera, Elena; Sforza, Eleonora; Kumar, Sandeep; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bertucco, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    The production of biofuels from microalgae is associated with high demands of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) required for growth. Recycling nutrients from the residual biomass is essential to obtain a sustainable production. In this work, the aqueous phase obtained from flash hydrolysis of Scenedesmus sp. was used as cultivation medium for a microalga of the same genus, to assess the feasibility of this technique for nutrient recycling purposes. Batch and continuous cultivations were carried out, to determine growth performances in this substrate compared to standard media, and verify if a stable biomass production could be obtained. In continuous experiments, the effect of hydrolysate inlet concentration and of residence time were assessed to optimize nutrient supply in relation to productivity. Results obtained show that nutrient recycling is feasible by treating biomass with flash hydrolysis, and Scenedesmus is capable of recycling large amounts of recovered nutrients.

  17. Global Uranium And Thorium Resources: Are They Adequate To Satisfy Demand Over The Next Half Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will consider the adequacy of global uranium and thorium resources to meet realistic nuclear power demand scenarios over the next half century. It is presented on behalf of, and based on evaluations by, the Uranium Group - a joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, of which the author is a Vice Chair. The Uranium Group produces a biennial report on Uranium Resources, Production and Demand based on information from some 40 countries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, which also briefly reviews thorium resources. Uranium: In 2008, world production of uranium amounted to almost 44,000 tonnes (tU). This supplied approximately three-quarters of world reactor requirements (approx. 59,000 tU), the remainder being met by previously mined uranium (so-called secondary sources). Information on availability of secondary sources - which include uranium from excess inventories, dismantling nuclear warheads, tails and spent fuel reprocessing - is incomplete, but such sources are expected to decrease in market importance after 2013. In 2008, the total world Reasonably Assured plus Inferred Resources of uranium (recoverable at less than 130/kgU) amounted to 5.4 million tonnes. In addition, it is clear that there are vast amounts of uranium recoverable at higher costs in known deposits, plus many as yet undiscovered deposits. The Uranium Group has concluded that the uranium resource base is more than adequate to meet projected high-case requirements for nuclear power for at least half a century. This conclusion does not assume increasing replacement of uranium by fuels from reprocessing current reactor wastes, or by thorium, nor greater reactor efficiencies, which are likely to ameliorate future uranium demand. However, progressively increasing quantities of uranium will need to be mined, against a backdrop of the relatively small number of producing facilities around the world, geopolitical uncertainties and

  18. Intestinal sensing of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Tolhurst, Gwen; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M

    2012-01-01

    Ingestion of a meal triggers a range of physiological responses both within and outside the gut, and results in the remote modulation of appetite and glucose homeostasis. Luminal contents are sensed by specialised chemosensitive cells scattered throughout the intestinal epithelium. These enteroendocrine and tuft cells make direct contact with the gut lumen and release a range of chemical mediators, which can either act in a paracrine fashion interacting with neighbouring cells and nerve endings or as classical circulating hormones. At the molecular level, the chemosensory machinery involves multiple and complex signalling pathways including activation of G-protein-coupled receptors and solute carrier transporters. This chapter will discuss our current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying intestinal chemosensation with a particular focus on the relatively well-characterised nutrient-triggered secretion from the enteroendocrine system. PMID:22249821

  19. Nutrient Cycling Study

    SciTech Connect

    Peter A. Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The particular goal of this study is to develop measurement techniques for understanding how consortia of organisms from geothermal facilities utilize sulfur and iron for metabolic activity; and in turn, what role that activity plays in initiating or promoting the development of a biofilm on plant substrates. Sulfur cycling is of interest because sulfur is produced in the resource. Iron is found in some of the steel formulations used in plant components and is also added as chemical treatment for reducing sulfide emissions from the plants. This report describes the set-up and operation of a bioreactor for evaluating the response of colonies of geothermal organisms to changes in nutrient and environmental conditions. Data from initial experiments are presented and plans for future testing is discussed.

  20. Nutrients and neurodevelopment: lipids.

    PubMed

    González, Horacio F; Visentin, Silvana

    2016-10-01

    Nutrients, lipids in particular, make up the central nervous system structure and play major functional roles: they stimulate development, migration, and nerve cell differentiation. They are part of gray matter, white matter, nerve nuclei, and synaptogenesis. Breast milk contains lipids which are crucial for infant brain development. The lipid profile of breast milk was used as a guideline for the development of breast milk substitutes. However, to date, no substitute has matched it. Complementary feeding should include docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, other polyunsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, and complex lipids found in milk fat. The lipid composition of breast milk depends on maternal intake and nutritional status during pregnancy and breast-feeding. It has a great impact on development. Our goal is to review scientific literature regarding the role of lipids on infant brain development and the importance of breast milk lipid composition, maternal diet, and complementary feeding. PMID:27606648

  1. Nutrients and neurodevelopment: lipids.

    PubMed

    González, Horacio F; Visentin, Silvana

    2016-10-01

    Nutrients, lipids in particular, make up the central nervous system structure and play major functional roles: they stimulate development, migration, and nerve cell differentiation. They are part of gray matter, white matter, nerve nuclei, and synaptogenesis. Breast milk contains lipids which are crucial for infant brain development. The lipid profile of breast milk was used as a guideline for the development of breast milk substitutes. However, to date, no substitute has matched it. Complementary feeding should include docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, other polyunsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, and complex lipids found in milk fat. The lipid composition of breast milk depends on maternal intake and nutritional status during pregnancy and breast-feeding. It has a great impact on development. Our goal is to review scientific literature regarding the role of lipids on infant brain development and the importance of breast milk lipid composition, maternal diet, and complementary feeding.

  2. New vessel formation in the context of cardiomyocyte regeneration--the role and importance of an adequate perfusing vasculature.

    PubMed

    Michelis, Katherine C; Boehm, Manfred; Kovacic, Jason C

    2014-11-01

    The history of revascularization for cardiac ischemia dates back to the early 1960's when the first coronary artery bypass graft procedures were performed in humans. With this 50 year history of providing a new vasculature to ischemic and hibernating myocardium, a profound depth of experience has been amassed in clinical cardiovascular medicine as to what does, and does not work in the context of cardiac revascularization, alleviating ischemia and adequacy of myocardial perfusion. These issues are of central relevance to contemporary cell-based cardiac regenerative approaches. While the cardiovascular cell therapy field is surging forward on many exciting fronts, several well accepted clinical axioms related to the cardiac arterial supply appear to be almost overlooked by some of our current basic conceptual and experimental cell therapy paradigms. We present here information drawn from five decades of the clinical revascularization experience, review relevant new data on vascular formation via cell therapy, and put forward the case that for optimal cell-based cardiac regeneration due attention must be paid to providing an adequate vascular supply.

  3. Evaluation for the effect of non-stationary nutrient transport on the coastal seaweed cultivation in western Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, M.; Onodera, S.; Hidaka, G.; Tokumasu, M.

    2015-06-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of non-stationary nutrient transport on the coastal seaweed cultivation, variations of the seaweed yield, nutrient condition of seawater, rainfall and nutrient transport from the river, observed over the last 40 years were examined to characterize the long-term trends and the influencing factors on the variation of seaweed yield. The results show that seaweed yield increased until 1973, then decreased in recent years. The recent condition of nutrients in seawater is relatively severe for seaweed farming. The results suggest that river-derived nutrient supply to coastal area will decrease further by the decrease of river discharge. For the future prospect, it is important to evaluate the variation of other nutrient supply such as from groundwater, offshore or bottom sediment as well as river discharge.

  4. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  5. Nutrient loading alters the performance of key nutrient exchange mutualisms.

    PubMed

    Shantz, Andrew A; Lemoine, Nathan P; Burkepile, Deron E

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient exchange mutualisms between phototrophs and heterotrophs, such as plants and mycorrhizal fungi or symbiotic algae and corals, underpin the functioning of many ecosystems. These relationships structure communities, promote biodiversity and help maintain food security. Nutrient loading may destabilise these mutualisms by altering the costs and benefits each partner incurs from interacting. Using meta-analyses, we show a near ubiquitous decoupling in mutualism performance across terrestrial and marine environments in which phototrophs benefit from enrichment at the expense of their heterotrophic partners. Importantly, heterotroph identity, their dependence on phototroph-derived C and the type of nutrient enrichment (e.g. nitrogen vs. phosphorus) mediated the responses of different mutualisms to enrichment. Nutrient-driven changes in mutualism performance may alter community organisation and ecosystem processes and increase costs of food production. Consequently, the decoupling of nutrient exchange mutualisms via alterations of the world's nitrogen and phosphorus cycles may represent an emerging threat of global change. PMID:26549314

  6. Penumatic-power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Portable compressed air supply has two or more outputs at pressures from 20 to 100 psi. Applications include operating production equipment, spraying paint and lubricants, and pressurizing refrigeration systems. Supply filters air from standard high-pressure line, reduces it to working pressure, and adds lubricant when required. Regulator supplies low-pressure air to output channels. On channel lines, vernier-control valves select output pressures.

  7. Microbial community composition in sediments resists perturbation by nutrient enrichment.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Jennifer L; Ward, Bess B; Morrison, Hilary G; Hobbie, John E; Valiela, Ivan; Deegan, Linda A; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2011-09-01

    Functional redundancy in bacterial communities is expected to allow microbial assemblages to survive perturbation by allowing continuity in function despite compositional changes in communities. Recent evidence suggests, however, that microbial communities change both composition and function as a result of disturbance. We present evidence for a third response: resistance. We examined microbial community response to perturbation caused by nutrient enrichment in salt marsh sediments using deep pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and functional gene microarrays targeting the nirS gene. Composition of the microbial community, as demonstrated by both genes, was unaffected by significant variations in external nutrient supply in our sampling locations, despite demonstrable and diverse nutrient-induced changes in many aspects of marsh ecology. The lack of response to external forcing demonstrates a remarkable uncoupling between microbial composition and ecosystem-level biogeochemical processes and suggests that sediment microbial communities are able to resist some forms of perturbation. PMID:21412346

  8. Microbial community composition in sediments resists perturbation by nutrient enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Jennifer L; Ward, Bess B; Morrison, Hilary G; Hobbie, John E; Valiela, Ivan; Deegan, Linda A; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2011-01-01

    Functional redundancy in bacterial communities is expected to allow microbial assemblages to survive perturbation by allowing continuity in function despite compositional changes in communities. Recent evidence suggests, however, that microbial communities change both composition and function as a result of disturbance. We present evidence for a third response: resistance. We examined microbial community response to perturbation caused by nutrient enrichment in salt marsh sediments using deep pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and functional gene microarrays targeting the nirS gene. Composition of the microbial community, as demonstrated by both genes, was unaffected by significant variations in external nutrient supply in our sampling locations, despite demonstrable and diverse nutrient-induced changes in many aspects of marsh ecology. The lack of response to external forcing demonstrates a remarkable uncoupling between microbial composition and ecosystem-level biogeochemical processes and suggests that sediment microbial communities are able to resist some forms of perturbation. PMID:21412346

  9. Stoichiometry, Metabolism and Nutrient Limitation Across the Periodic Table in Natural Flowing-Water Chemostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, M. J.; Nifong, R. L.; Kurz, M. J.; Cropper, W. P.; Martin, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Relative supplies of macro and micronutrients (C,N,P, various metals), along with light and water, controls ecosystem metabolism, trophic energy transfer and community structure. Here we test the hypothesis, using measurements from 41 spring-fed rivers in Florida, that tissue stoichiometry indicates autotroph nutrient limitation status. Low variation in discharge, temperature and chemical composition within springs, but large variation across springs creates an ideal setting to assess the relationship between limitation and resource supply. Molar N:P ranges from 0.4 to 90, subjecting autotrophs to dramatically different nutrient supply. Over this gradient, species-specific autotroph tissue C:N:P ratios are strictly homeostatic, and with no evidence that nutrient supply affects species composition. Expanding to include 19 metals and micronutrients revealed autotrophs are more plastic in response to micronutrient variation, particularly for iron and manganese whose supply fluxes are small compared to biotic demand. Using a Droop model modified to reflect springs conditions (benthic production, light limitation, high hydraulic turnover), we show that tissue stoichiometry transitions from homeostatic to plastic with the onset of nutrient limitation, providing a potentially powerful new tool for predicting nutrient limitation and thus eutrophication in flowing waters.

  10. Soil nutrient assessment for urban ecosystems in Hubei, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Guo-Shi; Liu, Yi; Wan, Kai-Yuan; Zhang, Run-Hua; Chen, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Recent urban landscape vegetation surveys conducted in many cities in China identified numerous plant nutrient deficiencies, especially in newly developed cities. Soil nutrients and soil nutrient management in the cities of Hubei province have not received adequate attention to date. The aims of this study were to characterize the available nutrients of urban soils from nine cities in Hubei province, China, and to assess how soil nutrient status is related to land use type and topography. Soil nutrients were measured in 405 sites from 1,215 soil samples collected from four land use types (park, institutional [including government building grounds, municipal party grounds, university grounds, and garden city institutes], residential, and roadside verges) and three topographies (mountainous [142-425 m a.s.l], hilly [66-112 m a.s.l], and plain [26-30 m a.s.l]). Chemical analyses showed that urban soils in Hubei had high pH and lower soil organic matter, available nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P), and available boron (B) concentrations than natural soils. Nutrient concentrations were significantly different among land use types, with the roadside and residential areas having greater concentrations of calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) that were not deficient against the recommended ranges. Topographic comparisons showed statistically significant effects for 8 of the 11 chemical variables (p < 0.05). Concentrations of N, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Mn in plain cities were greater than those in mountainous cities and show a negative correlation with city elevation. These results provide data on urban soils characteristics in land use types and topography, and deliver significant information for city planners and policy makers. PMID:24086647

  11. Soil Nutrient Assessment for Urban Ecosystems in Hubei, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-guo; Zhang, Guo-shi; Liu, Yi; Wan, Kai-yuan; Zhang, Run-hua; Chen, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Recent urban landscape vegetation surveys conducted in many cities in China identified numerous plant nutrient deficiencies, especially in newly developed cities. Soil nutrients and soil nutrient management in the cities of Hubei province have not received adequate attention to date. The aims of this study were to characterize the available nutrients of urban soils from nine cities in Hubei province, China, and to assess how soil nutrient status is related to land use type and topography. Soil nutrients were measured in 405 sites from 1,215 soil samples collected from four land use types (park, institutional [including government building grounds, municipal party grounds, university grounds, and garden city institutes], residential, and roadside verges) and three topographies (mountainous [142–425 m a.s.l], hilly [66–112 m a.s.l], and plain [26–30 m a.s.l]). Chemical analyses showed that urban soils in Hubei had high pH and lower soil organic matter, available nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P), and available boron (B) concentrations than natural soils. Nutrient concentrations were significantly different among land use types, with the roadside and residential areas having greater concentrations of calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) that were not deficient against the recommended ranges. Topographic comparisons showed statistically significant effects for 8 of the 11 chemical variables (p < 0.05). Concentrations of N, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Mn in plain cities were greater than those in mountainous cities and show a negative correlation with city elevation. These results provide data on urban soils characteristics in land use types and topography, and deliver significant information for city planners and policy makers. PMID:24086647

  12. Analyzing nonrenewable resource supply. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bohi, D.R.; Toman, M.A.

    1986-02-01

    Confusion about the determinants of nonrenewable resource supply is one of the vexing problems at the intersection of economics and public policy. Specifically, questions of oil and natural gas supply response have been at the core of arguments over price controls, taxes, and other policy measures. Supply responses also figure prominently in concern about future availability and cost of petroleum and minerals. What is needed to clear up the confusion is an approach that brings together a theory of resource supply, data to make that theory operational, and a methodology to bring the two together - all set within an institutional framework sufficiently rich to illuminate behavioral consequences. Without this amalgam, economists will not be able to answer questions of the sort suggested above with sufficient precision and certainty to provide specific and persuasive policy guidance. In a broader sense, their conclusions on resource supply trends over the longer term will remain conjectural. In market economies such as the US, approaches grounded in abstract social decision rules have limited relevance. An adequate theory must start with the behavior of individual actors and the interaction of incentives, expectations, and decisions over time. Moreover, the process of bringing resources to the market integrates across production stages and cannot be successfully modeled otherwise. Another issue that deserves special attention is the aggregation of individual behavior at the industry level.

  13. Nutrient availability in rangeland soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil nutrient availability is a major factor influencing plant community composition and susceptibility to invasion by exotic plants. We used resin capsules to integrate, over time, soil nutrient availability at sagebrush-grassland elevation transects in the east Tintic range of Utah and in the Shos...

  14. Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Kanti L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

  15. Nutrient Needs of Young Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willenberg, Barbara; Hemmelgarn, Melinda

    1991-01-01

    Explains the nutritional requirements of children and adolescents, and the physiological roles of the major nutrients. Details the nutrient needs of young athletes, including pre- and postgame meals and fluid replacement. Discusses eating disorders and obesity. Advocates a diet rich in complex carbohydrates. (BC)

  16. Nutrient analysis of varying socioeconomic status home food environments in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Schefske, Scott D; Bellows, Anne C; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Cuite, Cara L; Rapport, Holly; Vivar, Teresa; Hallman, William K

    2010-04-01

    Home food inventories of Oaxacan Mexican-American and African-American families of low-socioeconomic status living in an urban area in New Jersey with at least one child under the age of 12 were conducted using Universal Product Code scanning. The African-American and Oaxacan household food supplies were compared with a sample of White households, also with at least one child under the age of 12, not of low-socioeconomic status. Nutrient Adequacy Ratios for total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate, sugar, dietary fiber, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron were used to quantify the adequacy of household food supplies per 2000 cal. The food supplies of the White households had significantly more calcium, vitamin A, and sugar and less total fat than the other two samples. The home food supplies of African-American households contained significantly less vitamin C than White and Oaxacan households. Compared to both other samples, Oaxacan household food supplies were lower in protein, sodium, and iron. Per 2000 cal, African-American households had the lowest supply of nutrients recommended to be maximized (i.e., vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, iron, protein, and dietary fiber) and highest supply of nutrients to be minimized (i.e., total fat, cholesterol, sodium, and sugar). Overall household food quality scores were lowest for the African-American sample with no differences between Oaxacan and White household food supply quality scores. PMID:20079787

  17. Less is more: Nutrient limitation induces cross-talk of nutrient sensing pathways with NAD+ homeostasis and contributes to longevity

    PubMed Central

    TSANG, Felicia; LIN, Su-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient sensing pathways and their regulation grant cells control over their metabolism and growth in response to changing nutrients. Factors that regulate nutrient sensing can also modulate longevity. Reduced activity of nutrient sensing pathways such as glucose-sensing PKA, nitrogen-sensing TOR and S6 kinase homolog Sch9 have been linked to increased life span in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and higher eukaryotes. Recently, reduced activity of amino acid sensing SPS pathway was also shown to increase yeast life span. Life span extension by reduced SPS activity requires enhanced NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, oxidized form) and nicotinamide riboside (NR, a NAD+ precursor) homeostasis. Maintaining adequate NAD+ pools has been shown to play key roles in life span extension, but factors regulating NAD+ metabolism and homeostasis are not completely understood. Recently, NAD+ metabolism was also linked to the phosphate (Pi)-sensing PHO pathway in yeast. Canonical PHO activation requires Pi-starvation. Interestingly, NAD+ depletion without Pi-starvation was sufficient to induce PHO activation, increasing NR production and mobilization. Moreover, SPS signaling appears to function in parallel with PHO signaling components to regulate NR/NAD+ homeostasis. These studies suggest that NAD+ metabolism is likely controlled by and/or coordinated with multiple nutrient sensing pathways. Indeed, cross-regulation of PHO, PKA, TOR and Sch9 pathways was reported to potentially affect NAD+ metabolism; though detailed mechanisms remain unclear. This review discusses yeast longevity-related nutrient sensing pathways and possible mechanisms of life span extension, regulation of NAD+ homeostasis, and cross-talk among nutrient sensing pathways and NAD+ homeostasis.

  18. Less is more: Nutrient limitation induces cross-talk of nutrient sensing pathways with NAD+ homeostasis and contributes to longevity

    PubMed Central

    TSANG, Felicia; LIN, Su-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient sensing pathways and their regulation grant cells control over their metabolism and growth in response to changing nutrients. Factors that regulate nutrient sensing can also modulate longevity. Reduced activity of nutrient sensing pathways such as glucose-sensing PKA, nitrogen-sensing TOR and S6 kinase homolog Sch9 have been linked to increased life span in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and higher eukaryotes. Recently, reduced activity of amino acid sensing SPS pathway was also shown to increase yeast life span. Life span extension by reduced SPS activity requires enhanced NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, oxidized form) and nicotinamide riboside (NR, a NAD+ precursor) homeostasis. Maintaining adequate NAD+ pools has been shown to play key roles in life span extension, but factors regulating NAD+ metabolism and homeostasis are not completely understood. Recently, NAD+ metabolism was also linked to the phosphate (Pi)-sensing PHO pathway in yeast. Canonical PHO activation requires Pi-starvation. Interestingly, NAD+ depletion without Pi-starvation was sufficient to induce PHO activation, increasing NR production and mobilization. Moreover, SPS signaling appears to function in parallel with PHO signaling components to regulate NR/NAD+ homeostasis. These studies suggest that NAD+ metabolism is likely controlled by and/or coordinated with multiple nutrient sensing pathways. Indeed, cross-regulation of PHO, PKA, TOR and Sch9 pathways was reported to potentially affect NAD+ metabolism; though detailed mechanisms remain unclear. This review discusses yeast longevity-related nutrient sensing pathways and possible mechanisms of life span extension, regulation of NAD+ homeostasis, and cross-talk among nutrient sensing pathways and NAD+ homeostasis. PMID:27683589

  19. Maintaining adequate nutrition, not probiotic administration, prevents growth stunting and maintains skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates in a piglet model of colitis.

    PubMed

    Harding, Scott V; Adegoke, Olasunkanmi A J; Fraser, Keely G; Marliss, Errol B; Chevalier, Stéphanie; Kimball, Scot R; Jefferson, Leonard S; Wykes, Linda J

    2010-03-01

    Malnutrition and cytokine-induced catabolism are pervasive in children with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), however, the benefits of aggressive nutrition support or of probiotics on nutrient and functional deficiencies and growth remain unclear. Piglets with dextran sulfate (DS)-induced colitis consuming a 50% macronutrient restricted diet (C-MR) were compared with those receiving probiotics (C-MRP) or adequate nutrition (C-WN) and with healthy well-nourished controls (REF). C-WN versus REF had reduced growth (-34% chest circumference and -22% snout-to-rump length gain) and a tendency toward lesser weight gain, but no differences in skeletal muscle protein fractional synthesis rates (FSR) or initiation of translation via the mTOR pathway were observed. Compared with C-WN, the C-MR and C-MRP piglets had lower weight gain, growth, and skeletal muscle FSR, and lower phosphorylated p70S6K1 with higher eIF4E*4E-BP1, indicative of reduced initiation of protein translation. Finally, plasma leucine concentrations were positively correlated with weight and phosphorylated p70S6K1, whereas negatively correlated with eIF4E*4E-BP1. In conclusion, reductions in weight gain, growth, protein turnover, skeletal muscle FSR, and initiation of protein translation with moderate macronutrient restriction in colitis are not ameliorated by probiotic supplementation. However, maintaining adequate nutrient intake during colitis preserves whole body protein metabolism, but growth remains compromised.

  20. [Nutrient management strategy of paddy rice-upland crop rotation system].

    PubMed

    Fan, Ming-Sheng; Jiang, Rong-Feng; Zhang, Fu-Suo; Lü, Shi-Hua; Liu, Xue-Jun

    2008-02-01

    Paddy rice-upland crop rotation system is a major cropping system in China, and practiced widely along the Yangtze River basin. A unique feature of this system is the annual conversion of soil from aerobic to anaerobic and then back to aerobic condition, which can result in the changes of soil physical, chemical, and biological prosperities among seasons, making a special agroecosystem. The major challenges faced by this system include declining or stagnating productivity, increasing shortage of irrigation water, improper management of nutrients, low efficiency of resource utilization, and environmental pollution. Based on an overview of the characteristics and problems of paddy rice-upland crop rotation system, this paper put forward a strategy of practicing integrated nutrient management to solve the contradictions between nutrient input, crop production and environmental risk. The key points of this strategy included nutrient management from the whole rotation system perspective, integrated use of nutrients from various sources (chemical fertilizers, organic fertilizers, and nutrients from the environment), synchronization of nutrient supply and crop nutrient demand, application of different management technologies based on the characteristics of different nutrient resources, and integration of nutrient management with other cropping system technologies like water saving and high-yielding cultivation, etc.

  1. Evaluating livestock system environmental performance with whole-farm nutrient balance.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Rick

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the USEPA's concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) final rule, all CAFOs are required to develop and implement a nutrient management plan (NMP). The USEPA's emphasis on better management of nutrients appropriately targets a critical environmental issue associated with animal production. The concentration of animals in livestock feeding operations, often separate from feed grain production, requires importing of substantial quantities of feed nutrients. Due to the inefficiencies of nutrient utilization in livestock production, quantities of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in manure greater than can be utilized in local crop production often result. With the focus of the USEPA's NMP rules on internal farm manure management planning, nutrient concentrations resulting from animal concentration may not be adequately addressed by compliance with the USEPA rules alone. A review of two mandatory and two voluntary nutrient management strategies is made by comparing whole-farm nutrient balance for a case-study beef cattle feedlot. The results suggest that voluntary BMPs, such as modification to animal feeding program and exporting of manure, can have greater environmental benefits (30-60% reduction in P accumulation for case-study farm) than mandatory NMPs and buffers (5-7% reduction in P accumulation for case-study farm) for a typical beef cattle feedlot. Whole-farm nutrient balance procedures can also be valuable for reviewing the nutrient performance of livestock systems. PMID:15647544

  2. Use of Select Nutrients to Foster Wellness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses how to be healthy through one's diet. Lists 20 nutrients necessary for one's well being and explains role of each nutrient. Describes how nutrients complement one another and asserts that the right combination of nutrients can sometimes substitute for medication. Also lists 20 diagnostic categories of problems and suggests nutrients to…

  3. Competing for supply.

    PubMed

    Stolle, B

    2001-02-01

    The Internet was supposed to make it possible for anybody anywhere to get anything anytime. Instead, it's magnified suppliers' miscalculations into global shortages. But if the Net caused these supply chain woes, it's also the solution, says the CEO of a supply-chain software manufacturer. PMID:11213695

  4. Power supply conditioning circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, L. E.; Loveland, R.

    1987-01-01

    A power supply conditioning circuit that can reduce Periodic and Random Deviations (PARD) on the output voltages of dc power supplies to -150 dBV from dc to several KHz with no measurable periodic deviations is described. The PARD for a typical commercial low noise power supply is -74 dBV for frequencies above 20 Hz and is often much worse at frequencies below 20 Hz. The power supply conditioning circuit described here relies on the large differences in the dynamic impedances of a constant current diode and a zener diode to establish a dc voltage with low PARD. Power supplies with low PARD are especially important in circuitry involving ultrastable frequencies for the Deep Space Network.

  5. Spatial Data Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadharajulu, P.; Azeem Saqiq, M.; Yu, F.; McMeekin, D. A.; West, G.; Arnold, L.; Moncrieff, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes current research into the supply of spatial data to the end user in as close to real time as possible via the World Wide Web. The Spatial Data Infrastructure paradigm has been discussed since the early 1990s. The concept has evolved significantly since then but has almost always examined data from the perspective of the supplier. It has been a supplier driven focus rather than a user driven focus. The current research being conducted is making a paradigm shift and looking at the supply of spatial data as a supply chain, similar to a manufacturing supply chain in which users play a significant part. A comprehensive consultation process took place within Australia and New Zealand incorporating a large number of stakeholders. Three research projects that have arisen from this consultation process are examining Spatial Data Supply Chains within Australia and New Zealand and are discussed within this paper.

  6. Generating Resources Supply Curves.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Division of Power Resources Planning.

    1985-07-01

    This report documents Pacific Northwest supply curve information for both renewable and other generating resources. Resources are characterized as ''Renewable'' and ''Other'' as defined in section 3 or the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act. The following resources are described: renewable: (cogeneration; geothermal; hydroelectric (new); hydroelectric (efficiency improvement); solar; and wind); other (nonrenewable generation resources: coal; combustion turbines; and nuclear. Each resource has the following information documented in tabular format: (1) Technical Characteristics; (2) Costs (capital and O and M); (3) Energy Distribution by Month; and (4) Supply Forecast (energy). Combustion turbine (CT) energy supply is not forecasted because of CT's typical peaking application. Their supply is therefore unconstrained in order to facilitate analysis of their operation in the regional electrical supply system. The generic nuclear resource is considered unavailable to the region over the planning horizon.

  7. Analyzing nonrenewable resource supply

    SciTech Connect

    Bohi, D.R.; Toman, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Starting with their vision of a useful model of supply behavior as dynamic and market oriented, the authors examine the literature to see what it offers, to fill in some of the missing elements, and to direct attention to the research that is required. Following an introduction, separate chapters deal with the basic theory of supply behavior; joint products, externalities, and technical change; uncertainty, expectations, and supply behavior; aggregate supply and market behavior; and empirical methods and problems. The authors argue that practical understanding of nonrenewable resource supply is hampered by gaps among theory, methodology, and data, and offer a standard designed to achieve consistency among theory, data, and estimation methods. Their recommendations for additional research focus on general specification issues, uncertainty and expectations, market-level analysis, and strategic behavioral issues. 151 references, 9 figures.

  8. The Need for Domestic Violence Laws with Adequate Legal and Social Support Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmons, Willa M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the need for comprehensive domestic violence programs that include medical, legal, economic, psychological, and child care services. Although most states have family violence legislation, more work is needed to adequately implement these programs. (Author/JAC)

  9. Nutrient cycling in bedform induced hyporheic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardini, L.; Boano, F.; Cardenas, M. B.; Revelli, R.; Ridolfi, L.

    2012-05-01

    The hyporheic zone is an ecotone connecting the stream and groundwater ecosystem that plays a significant role for stream biogeochemistry. Water exchange across the stream-sediment interface and biogeochemical reactions in the streambed concur to affect subsurface solute concentrations and eventually nutrient cycling in the fluvial corridor. In this paper we investigate the interplay of hydrological and biogeochemical processes in a duned streambed and their effect on spatial distribution of solutes. We employ a numerical model to simulate the turbulent water flow and the pressure distribution over the dunes, and then to evaluate the flow field and the biogeochemical reactions in the hyporheic sediments. Sensitivity analyses are performed to analyze the influence of hydrological and chemical properties of the system on solute reaction rates. The results demonstrate the effect of stream velocity and sediment permeability on the chemical zonation. Changing sediment permeability as well as stream velocity directly affects the nutrient supply and the residence times in the streambed, thus controlling the reaction rates under the dune. Stream-water quality is also shown to influence the reactive behavior of the sediments. In particular, the availability of dissolved organic carbon determines whether the streambed acts as a net sink or source of nitrate. This study represents a step towards a better understanding of the complex interactions between hydrodynamical and biogeochemical processes in the hyporheic zone.

  10. Plant Available Nutrients, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sloan, Victoria; Liebig, Jenny; Curtis, Bryan; Hahn, Melanie; Iversen, Colleen; Siegrist, Julie

    2014-02-19

    This dataset consists of measurements of plant available nutrients made using Plant Root Simulator probes (Western Ag Innovations Inc.) during 2012 and 2013. In 2012, Ca, Mg, K, P, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B, S, Pb, Al, Cd, NO3-N and NH4-N were measured during spring, summer and winter in the centers, edges and troughs of four polygons in each of four areas of contrasting moisture regime and polygon type. In 2013, probes were installed in centers, edges and troughs of four polygons in each of two areas (high-centered and low-centered polygons) at two-week intervals and at 3 soil depths to capture fine-scale season dynamics of NO3-N and NH4-N. PRS probes are ion exchange resin membranes held in plastic supports that are inserted into soil to measure ion supply in situ. The anion and cation exchange with the membrane is intended to mimic plant uptake and thus provide a relevant measure of soil nutrient bioavailability. Measurements are made per area of probe membrane and cannot be converted to concentrations or related to soil volume.

  11. Comparative nutrient composition of selected wild edible mushrooms from two agro-ecological zones, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nakalembe, Immaculate; Kabasa, John David; Olila, Deogratias

    2015-01-01

    In Uganda, wild mushrooms are mainly collected during the rainy season and valued as a traditionally nutritious food by the rural poor. However, their nutritional attributes have not been adequately studied and documented. Comparative nutrient composition of five wild edible mushroom species was determined, namely: P. tenucuilus, T. tyleranus, T. clypeatus, V. speciosa and T. microcarpus of sub-humid and humid agro-ecological zones. Standard analytical techniques following the AOAC were used for proximate and mineral contents determinations. Vitamins determination followed the established standard protocols of the laboratories where the analyses were conducted. Combined use of nutrient concentration and scores were used to compare the level of the contents in the mushroom species. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in nutrient values were demonstrated between and among the mushroom species obtained from the two agro-ecological zones. On dry weight basis, all proximate compositions were high in mushroom species obtained from the humid zone with exception of the total carbohydrates and energy values. Irrespective of the source of the mushrooms, significant amounts were demonstrated in protein, dry matter, ash and total carbohydrates ranging between 11.56-27.42%, 82.34-99.76%, 10.79-16.87%, and 37.12-61.05%, respectively. In comparison with recommended dietary daily intakes, the K, P, Se, Mn, Cu and Fe contents were relatively high with low Ca, Mg, Zn and Na. Thiamin, folic acid, vitamin C, and niacin levels were high but below the recommended FAO references. Considering mushrooms from different agro-ecological zones, significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in all mushroom species in P except in T. clypeatus, T. tyleranus, T. microcarpus and T. clypeatus in potassium, T. clypeatus and T. microcarpus in Mg. Mushrooms from humid agro-ecological zones had relatively high overall mineral and vitamin supply potential. In conclusion, consumption of these

  12. Ovine maternal nutrient restriction from mid to late gestation decreases heptic progesterone inactivating enzyme activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we have shown increased concentrations of progesterone and decreased liver weight in mid to late pregnant ewes provided a nutrient restricted vs. adequate diet. This alteration in peripheral progesterone could be due to increased synthesis and/or decreased clearance of progesterone. There...

  13. Characterization of Mineral Nutrients in National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) Tomato Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit quality and yield are highly dependent on adequate uptake of nutrients. Potassium, magnesium and calcium are essential elements that influence fruit quality traits such as color, uniformity of ripening, hollow fruit, fruit shape, firmness, and acidity. Sodium is...

  14. Solution culture method for studying nutrient uptake and stress

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, L.E.; Gutschick, V.P.

    1984-01-01

    In order to study the uptake of two (or more) different mineral nutrients at very low concentrations, a solution culture system with new capabilities was developed. It allows tight control of nutrient concentrations of very low levels, accurate uptake rate measurements, and frequent non-destructive measurements of plant mass and dimensions. The hydroponic system includes (1) a water-deionizing system, (2) an automated mixing system that can provide up to 3000 liters/day of the base solution containing the non-varied nutrients; (3) seven separate reciprocating syringe pumps, each of which mixes base solution and concentrates of the two varied nutrients and supplies an entire set of plants for one nutritional treatment; (4) growth pots, consisting of 2-liter plastic beakers divided internally into three separate compartments, each provided with a separate nutrient inflow, drain, and aerator/mixer. This once-through (non-recirculating) flow system is constructed entirely of plastics and lesser amounts of other materials in order to minimize chemical contamination. Numerous other advantages are discussed. 3 references, 1 table.

  15. Parallel Exploitation of Diverse Host Nutrients Enhances Salmonella Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Steeb, Benjamin; Claudi, Beatrice; Burton, Neil A.; Tienz, Petra; Schmidt, Alexander; Farhan, Hesso; Mazé, Alain; Bumann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Pathogen access to host nutrients in infected tissues is fundamental for pathogen growth and virulence, disease progression, and infection control. However, our understanding of this crucial process is still rather limited because of experimental and conceptual challenges. Here, we used proteomics, microbial genetics, competitive infections, and computational approaches to obtain a comprehensive overview of Salmonella nutrition and growth in a mouse typhoid fever model. The data revealed that Salmonella accessed an unexpectedly diverse set of at least 31 different host nutrients in infected tissues but the individual nutrients were available in only scarce amounts. Salmonella adapted to this situation by expressing versatile catabolic pathways to simultaneously exploit multiple host nutrients. A genome-scale computational model of Salmonella in vivo metabolism based on these data was fully consistent with independent large-scale experimental data on Salmonella enzyme quantities, and correctly predicted 92% of 738 reported experimental mutant virulence phenotypes, suggesting that our analysis provided a comprehensive overview of host nutrient supply, Salmonella metabolism, and Salmonella growth during infection. Comparison of metabolic networks of other pathogens suggested that complex host/pathogen nutritional interfaces are a common feature underlying many infectious diseases. PMID:23633950

  16. Effect of nitrogen rate and irrigation frequency on plant growth and nutrient uptake of container-grown Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Merritt’s Supreme’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of high quality container-grown nursery plants requires adequate but not excessive nutrients and water during production. Given the knowledge that N is the most important nutrient element for plant growth and that it is often the limiting factor, nursery growers tend to apply high lev...

  17. Inferring time-variable effects of nutrient enrichment on marine ecosystems using inverse modelling and ecological network analysis.

    PubMed

    Luong, Anh D; De Laender, Frederik; Olsen, Yngvar; Vadstein, Olav; Dewulf, Jo; Janssen, Colin R

    2014-09-15

    We combined data from an outdoor mesocosm experiment with carbon budget modelling and an ecological network analysis to assess the effects of continuous nutrient additions on the structural and functional dynamics of a marine planktonic ecosystem. The food web receiving no nutrient additions was fuelled by detritus, as zooplankton consumed 7.2 times more detritus than they consumed algae. Nutrient supply instantly promoted herbivory so that it was comparable to detritivory at the highest nutrient addition rate. Nutrient-induced food web restructuring reduced carbon cycling and decreased the average number of compartments a unit flow of carbon crosses before dissipation. Also, the efficiency of copepod production, the link to higher trophic levels harvestable by man, was lowered up to 35 times by nutrient addition, but showed signs of recovery after 9 to 11 days. The dependency of the food web on exogenous input was not changed by the nutrient additions.

  18. Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

  19. Urbanization and water supplies for northeastern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.R.

    1981-03-01

    Increasing populations in northeastern Colorado have resulted in reductions in irrigated acreage and the proportionate quantities of water available to support that segment of the agricultural industry. The growth has caused increased demands for municipal-domestic and industrial water supplies from the South Platte and Colorado River Basins. These impacts have been determined by comparing hydrologic data in conjunction with water use for agricultural, municipal-domestic, and industrial purposes between the period 1975 to 1979. Pricing and water rights ownership were also compared for the same period, as were land conversion data, population data, and crop production valuation. Proper administration of nonconsumptive return flows coupled with the importation of water from the Colorado River Basin will provide adequate, industrial, and irrigation water supplies for this growth intense area and downstream farm lands. 8 figures.

  20. Lifting BLS Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Sarychev, Michael

    2007-08-01

    This note describes BLS power supplies lifting techniques and provides stress calculations for lifting plate and handles bolts. BLS power supply weight is about 120 Lbs, with the center of gravity shifted toward the right front side. A lifting plate is used to attach a power supply to a crane or a hoist. Stress calculations show that safety factors for lifting plate are 12.9 (vs. 5 required) for ultimate stress and 5.7 (vs. 3 required) for yield stress. Safety factor for shackle bolt thread shear load is 37, and safety factor for bolts that attach handles is 12.8.

  1. Nutrient Partitioning and Stoichiometry in Unburnt Sugarcane Ratoon at Varying Yield Levels.

    PubMed

    Leite, José M; Ciampitti, Ignacio A; Mariano, Eduardo; Vieira-Megda, Michele X; Trivelin, Paulo C O

    2016-01-01

    Unraveling nutrient imbalances in contemporary agriculture is a research priority to improve whenever possible yield and nutrient use efficiency in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) systems while minimizing the costs of cultivation (e.g., use of fertilizers) and environmental concerns. The main goal of this study was therefore to investigate biomass and nutrient [nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K)] content, partitioning, stoichiometry and internal efficiencies in sugarcane ratoon at varying yield levels. Three sites were established on highly weathered tropical soils located in the Southeast region of Brazil. At all sites, seasonal biomass and nutrient uptake patterns were synthesized from four sampling times taken throughout the sugarcane ratoon season. In-season nutrient partitioning (in diverse plant components), internal efficiencies (yield to nutrient content ratio) and nutrient ratios (N:P and N:K) were determined at harvesting. Sugarcane exhibited three distinct phases of plant growth, as follows: lag, exponential-linear, and stationary. Across sites, nutrient requirement per unit of yield was 1.4 kg N, 0.24 kg P, and 2.7 kg K per Mg of stalk produced, but nutrient removal varied with soil nutrient status (based on soil plus fertilizer nutrient supply) and crop demand (potential yield). Dry leaves had lower nutrient content (N, P, and K) and broader N:P and N:K ratios when compared with tops and stalks plant fractions. Greater sugarcane yield and narrowed N:P ratio (6:1) were verified for tops of sugarcane when increasing both N and P content. High-yielding sugarcane systems were related to higher nutrient content and more balanced N:P (6:1) and N:K (0.5:1) ratios. PMID:27148297

  2. Nutrient Partitioning and Stoichiometry in Unburnt Sugarcane Ratoon at Varying Yield Levels

    PubMed Central

    Leite, José M.; Ciampitti, Ignacio A.; Mariano, Eduardo; Vieira-Megda, Michele X.; Trivelin, Paulo C. O.

    2016-01-01

    Unraveling nutrient imbalances in contemporary agriculture is a research priority to improve whenever possible yield and nutrient use efficiency in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) systems while minimizing the costs of cultivation (e.g., use of fertilizers) and environmental concerns. The main goal of this study was therefore to investigate biomass and nutrient [nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K)] content, partitioning, stoichiometry and internal efficiencies in sugarcane ratoon at varying yield levels. Three sites were established on highly weathered tropical soils located in the Southeast region of Brazil. At all sites, seasonal biomass and nutrient uptake patterns were synthesized from four sampling times taken throughout the sugarcane ratoon season. In-season nutrient partitioning (in diverse plant components), internal efficiencies (yield to nutrient content ratio) and nutrient ratios (N:P and N:K) were determined at harvesting. Sugarcane exhibited three distinct phases of plant growth, as follows: lag, exponential–linear, and stationary. Across sites, nutrient requirement per unit of yield was 1.4 kg N, 0.24 kg P, and 2.7 kg K per Mg of stalk produced, but nutrient removal varied with soil nutrient status (based on soil plus fertilizer nutrient supply) and crop demand (potential yield). Dry leaves had lower nutrient content (N, P, and K) and broader N:P and N:K ratios when compared with tops and stalks plant fractions. Greater sugarcane yield and narrowed N:P ratio (6:1) were verified for tops of sugarcane when increasing both N and P content. High-yielding sugarcane systems were related to higher nutrient content and more balanced N:P (6:1) and N:K (0.5:1) ratios. PMID:27148297

  3. Patient acceptance of adequately filled breast implants using the tilt test.

    PubMed

    Tebbetts, J B

    2000-07-01

    Adequate fill of any breast implant, regardless of shell characteristics, shape, or filler material, is important to prevent implant shell wrinkling, folding, or collapse that could potentially decrease the life of the implant. Implant shell life is a major factor that affects reoperation rates. The greater the necessity of reoperations, regardless of implant type, the greater the rate of local complications, necessitating additional surgery with additional risks and costs to patients. Palpable shell folding, visible wrinkling or rippling, palpable shifts of filler material, sloshing, and compromised aesthetic results can result from an under-filled implant. Any of these complications can necessitate reoperations with increased risks and costs to patients. This is a study of 609 consecutive patients from January of 1993 to December of 1998 who were given detailed preoperative informed consent and a choice of implant shape and type and who chose the increased firmness associated with an implant that is adequately filled to pass the tilt test. This study addresses two questions: (1) Will patients accept the increased firmness of an implant that is filled to pass the tilt test? and (2) Is adequate fill by the tilt test useful clinically to help reduce the incidence of postoperative rippling, wrinkling, and spontaneous deflation in saline implants? Patients were followed by postoperative examinations and questionnaires. No patient requested implant replacement to a softer implant postoperatively, and no reoperations were performed for visible rippling or wrinkling. The spontaneous deflation rate over this 6-year period was 9 of 1218 implants, or 0.739 percent. If patients will accept more firmness with an adequately filled implant, regardless of the filler material, surgeons might worry less about recommending an adequately filled implant to patients, and manufacturers might feel more comfortable producing adequately filled implants and redefining fill volumes for

  4. The fate of riverine nutrients on Arctic shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Fouest, V.; Babin, M.; Tremblay, J.-É.

    2012-10-01

    Present and future levels of primary production (PP) in the Arctic Ocean (AO) depend on nutrient inputs to the photic zone via vertical mixing, upwelling and external sources. In this regard, the importance of horizontal river supply relative to oceanic processes is poorly constrained at the panarctic scale. We compiled extensive historical (1954-2012) data on discharge and nutrient concentrations to estimate fluxes of nitrate, soluble reactive phosphate (SRP), silicate, DOC, DON, PON and POC from 9 large Arctic rivers and assess their potential impact on the biogeochemistry of shelf waters. Several key points can be emphasized from this analysis. The contribution of riverine nitrate to new PP (PPnew) is very small at the regional scale (< 1% to ca. 6.2%) and negligible at the panarctic scale (ca. 0.73%), in agreement with recent studies. By consuming all this nitrate, oceanic phytoplankton would be able to use only ca. 13.5% and 6.6-17.5% of the river supply of silicate at the panarctic and regional scales, respectively. Corresponding figures for SRP are ca. 27.8% and 18.4-44.4%. On the Beaufort and Bering shelves, riverine SRP cannot fulfil phytoplankton requirements. On a seasonal basis, the removal of riverine nitrate, silicate and SRP would be the highest in spring and not in summer when AO shelf waters are nitrogen-limited. Riverine DON is potentially an important nitrogen source for the planktonic ecosystem in summer, when ammonium supplied through the photoammonification of refractory DON (ca. 3.9×109 mol N) may exceed the combined riverine supply of nitrate and ammonium (ca. 2.9×109 mol N). Nevertheless, overall nitrogen limitation of AO phytoplankton is expected to persist even when projected increases of riverine DON and nitrate supply are taken into account. This analysis underscores the need to better contrast oceanic nutrient supply processes with the composition and fate of changing riverine nutrient deliveries in future scenarios of plankton

  5. The fate of riverine nutrients on Arctic shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Fouest, V.; Babin, M.; Tremblay, J.-É.

    2013-06-01

    Present and future levels of primary production (PP) in the Arctic Ocean (AO) depend on nutrient inputs to the photic zone via vertical mixing, upwelling and external sources. In this regard, the importance of horizontal river supply relative to oceanic processes is poorly constrained at the pan-Arctic scale. We compiled extensive historical (1954-2012) data on discharge and nutrient concentrations to estimate fluxes of nitrate, soluble reactive phosphate (SRP), silicate, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), particulate organic nitrogen (PON) and particulate organic carbon (POC) from 9 large Arctic rivers and assess their potential impact on the biogeochemistry of shelf waters. Several key points can be emphasized from this analysis. The contribution of riverine nitrate to new PP (PPnew) is very small at the regional scale (< 1% to 6.7%) and negligible at the pan-Arctic scale (< 0.83%), in agreement with recent studies. By consuming all this nitrate, oceanic phytoplankton would be able to use only 14.3% and 8.7-24.5% of the river supply of silicate at the pan-Arctic and regional scales, respectively. Corresponding figures for SRP are 28.9% and 18.6-46%. On the Beaufort and Bering shelves, riverine SRP cannot fulfil phytoplankton requirements. On a seasonal basis, the removal of riverine nitrate, silicate and SRP would be the highest in spring and not in summer when AO shelf waters are nitrogen-limited. Riverine DON is potentially an important nitrogen source for the planktonic ecosystem in summer, when ammonium supplied through the photoammonification of refractory DON (3.9 × 109 mol N) may exceed the combined riverine supply of nitrate and ammonium (3.4 × 109 mol N). Nevertheless, overall nitrogen limitation of AO phytoplankton is expected to persist even when projected increases of riverine DON and nitrate supply are taken into account. This analysis underscores the need to better contrast oceanic nutrient supply processes with the

  6. Implications of land disturbance on drinking water treatability in a changing climate: demonstrating the need for "source water supply and protection" strategies.

    PubMed

    Emelko, Monica B; Silins, Uldis; Bladon, Kevin D; Stone, Micheal

    2011-01-01

    Forests form the critical source water areas for downstream drinking water supplies in many parts of the world, including the Rocky Mountain regions of North America. Large scale natural disturbances from wildfire and severe insect infestation are more likely because of warming climate and can significantly impact water quality downstream of forested headwaters regions. To investigate potential implications of changing climate and wildfire on drinking water treatment, the 2003 Lost Creek Wildfire in Alberta, Canada was studied. Four years of comprehensive hydrology and water quality data from seven watersheds were evaluated and synthesized to assess the implications of wildfire and post-fire intervention (salvage-logging) on downstream drinking water treatment. The 95th percentile turbidity and DOC remained low in streams draining unburned watersheds (5.1 NTU, 3.8 mg/L), even during periods of potential treatment challenge (e.g., stormflows, spring freshet); in contrast, they were elevated in streams draining burned (15.3 NTU, 4.6 mg/L) and salvage-logged (18.8 NTU, 9.9 mg/L) watersheds. Persistent increases in these parameters and observed increases in other contaminants such as nutrients, heavy metals, and chlorophyll-a in discharge from burned and salvage-logged watersheds present important economic and operational challenges for water treatment; most notably, a potential increased dependence on solids and DOC removal processes. Many traditional source water protection strategies would fail to adequately identify and evaluate many of the significant wildfire- and post-fire management-associated implications to drinking water "treatability"; accordingly, it is proposed that "source water supply and protection strategies" should be developed to consider a suppliers' ability to provide adequate quantities of potable water to meet demand by addressing all aspects of drinking water "supply" (i.e., quantity, timing of availability, and quality) and their relationship

  7. Supply and Demand

    MedlinePlus

    ... a good breastfeeding rhythm with your baby. In reality, the efficient supply-and-demand rhythm of normal ... is one reason it’s a good idea to alternate which breast you use to begin nursing. A ...

  8. Tuning magnet power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.M.; Karady, G.G.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    The particles in a Rapid Cycling Accelerator are accelerated by rf cavities, which are tuned by dc biased ferrite cores. The tuning is achieved by the regulation of bias current, which is produced by a power supply. The tuning magnet power supply utilizes a bridge circuit, supplied by a three phase rectifier. During the rise of the current, when the particles are accelerated, the current is controlled with precision by the bridge which operates a power amplifier. During the fall of the current, the bridge operates in a switching mode and recovers the energy stored in the ferrites. The recovered energy is stored in a capacitor bank. The bridge circuit is built with 150 power transistors. The drive, protection and control circuit were designed and built from commercial component. The system will be used for a rf cavity experiment in Los Alamos and will serve as a prototype tuning power supply for future accelerators. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  9. Nutrient status: a missing factor in phenological and pollen research?

    PubMed Central

    Jochner, Susanne; Höfler, Josef; Beck, Isabelle; Göttlein, Axel; Ankerst, Donna Pauler; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Menzel, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Phenology ranks among the best ecosystem processes for fingerprinting climate change since temperature explains a high percentage of the interannual or spatial variation in phenological onset dates. However, roles of other environmental variables, such as foliar nutrient concentrations, are far from adequately understood. This observational study examined the effects of air temperature and 11 nutrients on spring phenology of Betula pendula Roth (birch) along an urban–rural gradient in Munich, Germany, during the years 2010/2011. Moreover, the influence of temperature, nutrients, and air pollutants (NO2 and O3) on the amounts of pollen and catkin biomass in 2010 was evaluated. In addition to the influence of higher temperatures advancing phenological onset dates, higher foliar concentrations of potassium, boron, zinc, and calcium were statistically significantly linked to earlier onset dates. Since flushing of leaves is a turgor-driven process and all the influential nutrients are involved in cell extension, membrane function, and stability, there might be a reasonable physiological interpretation of the observed association. The amounts of pollen were negatively correlated with temperature, atmospheric NO2, and foliar iron concentration, suggesting that these variables restrict pollen production. The results of this study suggested an influence of nutritional status on both phenology and pollen production. The interaction of urbanization and climate change should be considered in the assessment of the impact of global warming on ecosystems and human health. PMID:23630329

  10. Grazers, producer stoichiometry, and the light : nutrient hypothesis revisited.

    PubMed

    Hall, Spencer R; Leibold, Mathew A; Lytle, David A; Smith, Val H

    2007-05-01

    The stoichiometric light:nutrient hypothesis (LNH) links the relative supplies of key resources with the nutrient content of tissues of producers. This resource-driven variation in producer stoichiometry, in turn, can mediate the efficiency of grazing. Typically, discussions of the LNH attribute this resource-stoichiometry link to bottom-up effects of light and phosphorus, which are mediated through producer physiology. Emphasis on bottom-up effects implies that grazers must consume food of quality solely determined by resource supply to ecosystems (i.e., they eat what they are served). Here, we expand upon this largely bottom-up interpretation with evidence from pond surveys, a mesocosm experiment, and a model. Data from shallow ponds showed the "LNH pattern" (positive correlation of an index of light : phosphorus supply with algal carbon : phosphorus content). However, algal carbon : phosphorus content also declined as zooplankton biomass increased in the ponds. The experiment and model confirmed that this latter correlation was partially caused by the various bottom-up and top-down roles of grazers: the LNH pattern emerged only in treatments with crustacean grazers, not those without them. Furthermore, model and experiment clarified that another bottom-up factor, natural covariation of nitrogen : phosphorus ratios with light : phosphorus supply (as seen in ponds), does not likely contribute to the LNH pattern. Finally, the experiment produced correlations between shifts in species composition of algae, partially driven by grazing effects of crustaceans, and algal stoichiometry. These shifts in species composition might shape stoichiometric response of producer assemblages to resource supply and grazing, but their consequences remain largely unexplored. Thus, this study accentuated the importance of grazing for the LNH; de-emphasized a potentially confounding, bottom-up factor (covarying nitrogen : phosphorus supply); and highlighted an avenue for future research

  11. Plants cause ecosystem nutrient depletion via the interruption of bird-derived spatial subsidies.

    PubMed

    Young, Hillary S; McCauley, Douglas J; Dunbar, Robert B; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2010-02-01

    Plant introductions and subsequent community shifts are known to affect nutrient cycling, but most such studies have focused on nutrient enrichment effects. The nature of plant-driven nutrient depletions and the mechanisms by which these might occur are relatively poorly understood. In this study we demonstrate that the proliferation of the commonly introduced coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, interrupts the flow of allochthonous marine subsidies to terrestrial ecosystems via an indirect effect: impact on birds. Birds avoid nesting or roosting in C. nucifera, thus reducing the critical nutrient inputs they bring from the marine environment. These decreases in marine subsidies then lead to reductions in available soil nutrients, decreases in leaf nutrient quality, diminished leaf palatability, and reduced herbivory. This nutrient depletion pathway contrasts the more typical patterns of nutrient enrichment that follow plant species introductions. Research on the effects of spatial subsidy disruptions on ecosystems has not yet examined interruptions driven by changes within the recipient community, such as plant community shifts. The ubiquity of coconut palm introductions across the tropics and subtropics makes these observations particularly noteworthy. Equally important, the case of C. nucifera provides a strong demonstration of how plant community changes can dramatically impact the supply of allochthonous nutrients and thereby reshape energy flow in ecosystems. PMID:20133852

  12. Materials flow modeling of nutrient recycling in biodiesel production from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Rösch, Christine; Skarka, Johannes; Wegerer, Nadja

    2012-03-01

    Biodiesel production based on microalgae as feedstock is associated with a high demand of nutrients, respectively nitrogen and phosphorus. The production of 1l biodiesel requires between 0.23 and 1.55 kg nitrogen and 29-145 g of phosphorus depending of the cultivation conditions for microalgae. The supply of nutrients can be expected to severely limit the extent to which the production of biofuels from microalgae can be sustainably expanded. The nutrient demand can be reduced if the nutrients in the residual algae biomass after oil extraction are reused for algae cultivation. This modeling work illustrates that for the investigated process chains and scenarios the nutrient recycling rates are in the range from 30% to 90% for nitrogen and from 48% to 93% for phosphorus. The highest recycling values can be achieved by hydrothermal gasification of the oil-free residues.

  13. The feasibility of producing adequate feedstock for year–round cellulosic ethanol production in an intensive agricultural fuelshed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uden, Daniel R.; Mitchell, Rob B.; Allen, Craig R.; Guan, Qingfeng; McCoy, Tim D.

    2013-01-01

    To date, cellulosic ethanol production has not been commercialized in the United States. However, government mandates aimed at increasing second-generation biofuel production could spur exploratory development in the cellulosic ethanol industry. We conducted an in-depth analysis of the fuelshed surrounding a starch-based ethanol plant near York, Nebraska that has the potential for cellulosic ethanol production. To assess the feasibility of supplying adequate biomass for year-round cellulosic ethanol production from residual maize (Zea mays) stover and bioenergy switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) within a 40-km road network service area of the existing ethanol plant, we identified ∼14,000 ha of marginally productive cropland within the service area suitable for conversion from annual rowcrops to switchgrass and ∼132,000 ha of maize-enrolled cropland from which maize stover could be collected. Annual maize stover and switchgrass biomass supplies within the 40-km service area could range between 429,000 and 752,000 metric tons (mT). Approximately 140–250 million liters (l) of cellulosic ethanol could be produced, rivaling the current 208 million l annual starch-based ethanol production capacity of the plant. We conclude that sufficient quantities of biomass could be produced from maize stover and switchgrass near the plant to support year-round cellulosic ethanol production at current feedstock yields, sustainable removal rates and bioconversion efficiencies. Modifying existing starch-based ethanol plants in intensive agricultural fuelsheds could increase ethanol output, return marginally productive cropland to perennial vegetation, and remove maize stover from productive cropland to meet feedstock demand.

  14. Medical Hydrogeology of Asian Deltas: Status of Groundwater Toxicants and Nutrients, and Implications for Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Hoque, Mohammad A.; Butler, Adrian P.

    2015-01-01

    Drinking water, a fluid primarily for human hydration, is also a source of mineral nutrients. Groundwater, a drinking water source for more than 70% of inhabitants living in Asian deltas, has received much attention because of its naturally occurring arsenic, but the linkage of arsenic toxicity with other water constituents has not been studied. In addition, although nutrients are generally provided by food, in under developed rural settings, where people subsist on low nutrient diets, drinking-water-nutrients may supply quantities vital to human health thereby preventing diseases. Here, we show, using augmented datasets from three Asian deltas (Bengal, Mekong, and Red River), that the chemical content of groundwater is such that in some areas individuals obtain up to 50% or more of the recommended daily intake (RDI) of some nutrients (e.g., calcium, magnesium, iron) from just two litres of drinking water. We also show some indications of a spatial association of groundwater nutrients and health outcome using demographic health data from Bangladesh. We therefore suggest that an understanding of the association of non-communicable disease and poor nutrition cannot be developed, particularly in areas with high levels of dissolved solids in water sources, without considering the contribution of drinking water to nutrient and mineral supply. PMID:26712780

  15. Medical Hydrogeology of Asian Deltas: Status of Groundwater Toxicants and Nutrients, and Implications for Human Health.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Mohammad A; Butler, Adrian P

    2015-12-26

    Drinking water, a fluid primarily for human hydration, is also a source of mineral nutrients. Groundwater, a drinking water source for more than 70% of inhabitants living in Asian deltas, has received much attention because of its naturally occurring arsenic, but the linkage of arsenic toxicity with other water constituents has not been studied. In addition, although nutrients are generally provided by food, in under developed rural settings, where people subsist on low nutrient diets, drinking-water-nutrients may supply quantities critical to human health thereby preventing diseases. Here, we show, using augmented datasets from three Asian deltas (Bengal, Mekong, and Red River), that the chemical content of groundwater is so substantial that in some areas individuals obtain up to 50% or more of the recommended daily intake (RDI) of some nutrients (e.g., calcium, magnesium, iron) from just two litres of drinking water. We also show some indications of a spatial association of groundwater nutrients and health outcome using demographic health data from Bangladesh. We therefore suggest that an understanding of the association of non-communicable disease and poor nutrition cannot be developed, particularly in areas with high levels of dissolved solids in water sources, without considering the contribution of drinking water to nutrient and mineral supply.

  16. Fish oil supplementation maintains adequate plasma arachidonate in cats, but similar amounts of vegetable oils lead to dietary arachidonate deficiency from nutrient dilution.

    PubMed

    Angell, Rebecca J; McClure, Melena K; Bigley, Karen E; Bauer, John E

    2012-05-01

    Because fatty acid (FA) metabolism of cats is unique, effects of dietary fish and vegetable oil supplementation on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities, and plasma phospholipid and esterified cholesterol (EC) FAs were investigated. Cats were fed a commercial diet supplemented with 8 g oil/100 g diet for 4 weeks using either high-oleic-acid sunflower oil (diet H), Menhaden fish oil (diet M), or safflower oil (diet S). When supplemented, diet M contained sufficient arachidonate (AA), but diets H and S were deficient. We hypothesized that diet M would modify plasma lipid metabolism, increase FA long-chain n-3 (LCn-3) FA content but not deplete AA levels. Also, diet S would show linoleic acid (LA) accumulation without conversion to AA, and both vegetable oil supplements would dilute dietary AA content when fed to meet cats' energy needs. Plasma samples on weeks 0, 2, and 4 showed no alterations in total cholesterol or nonesterified FA concentrations. Unesterified cholesterol decreased and EC increased in all groups, whereas lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities were unchanged. Diet M showed significant triacylglycerol lowering and decreased pre-β-lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma phospholipid FA profiles revealed significant enrichment of 18:1n-9 with diet H, LA and 20:2n-6 with diet S, and FA LCn-3FA with diet M. Depletion of AA was observed with diets H and S but not with diet M. Diet M EC FA profiles revealed specificities for LA and 20:5n-3 but not 22:5n-3 or 22:6n-3. Oversupplementation of some commercial diets with vegetable oils causes AA depletion in young cats due to dietary dilution. Findings are consistent with the current recommendations for at least 0.2 g AA/kg diet and that fish oil supplements provide both preformed LCn-3 polyunsaturated FA and AA.

  17. Broadband inversion of 1J(CC) responses in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra.

    PubMed

    Reibarkh, Mikhail; Williamson, R Thomas; Martin, Gary E; Bermel, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Establishing the carbon skeleton of a molecule greatly facilitates the process of structure elucidation, both manual and computer-assisted. Recent advances in the family of ADEQUATE experiments demonstrated their potential in this regard. 1,1-ADEQUATE, which provides direct (13)C-(13)C correlation via (1)J(CC), and 1,n-ADEQUATE, which typically yields (3)J(CC) and (1)J(CC) correlations, are more sensitive and more widely applicable experiments than INADEQUATE and PANACEA. A recently reported modified pulse sequence that semi-selectively inverts (1)J(CC) correlations in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra provided a significant improvement, allowing (1)J(CC) and (n)J(CC) correlations to be discerned in the same spectrum. However, the reported experiment requires a careful matching of the amplitude transfer function with (1)J(CC) coupling constants in order to achieve the inversion, and even then some (1)J(CC) correlations could still have positive intensity due to the oscillatory nature of the transfer function. Both shortcomings limit the practicality of the method. We now report a new, dual-optimized inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment, which provides more uniform inversion of (1)J(CC) correlations across the range of 29-82 Hz. Unlike the original method, the dual optimization experiment does not require fine-tuning for the molecule's (1)J(CC) coupling constant values. Even more usefully, the dual-optimized version provides up to two-fold improvement in signal-to-noise for some long-range correlations. Using modern, cryogenically-cooled probes, the experiment can be successfully applied to samples of ~1 mg under favorable circumstances. The improvements afforded by dual optimization inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment make it a useful and practical tool for NMR structure elucidation and should facilitate the implementation and utilization of the experiment.

  18. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Melody S; Gaskin, Darrell J; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2012-09-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent's race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth.

  19. AnnAGNPS model as a potential tool for seeking adequate agriculture land management in Navarre (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahor, Y.; Giménez, R.; Casalí, J.

    2012-04-01

    Nowadays agricultural activities face two important challenges. They must be efficient from an economic point of view but with low environment impacts (soil erosion risk, nutrient/pesticide contamination, greenhouse gases emissions, etc.). In this context, hydrological and erosion models appear as remarkable tools when looking for the best management practices. AnnAGNPS (Annualized Agricultural Non Point Source Pollution) is a continuous simulation watershed-scale model that estimates yield and transit of surface water, sediment, nutrients, and pesticides through a watershed. This model has been successfully evaluated -in terms of annual runoff and sediment yield- in a small (around 200 ha) agricultural watershed located in central eastern part of Navarre (Spain), named Latxaga. The watershed is under a humid Sub-Mediterranean climate. It is cultivated almost entirely with winter cereals (wheat and barley) following conventional soil and tillage management practices. The remaining 15% of the watershed is covered by urban and shrub areas. The aim of this work is to evaluate in Latxga watershed the effect of potential and realistic changes in land use and management on surface runoff and sediment yield by using AnnAGNPS. Six years (2003 - 2008) of daily climate data were considered in the simulation. This dataset is the same used in the model evaluation previously made. Six different scenarios regarding soil use and management were considered: i) 60% cereals25% sunflower; ii) 60% cereals, 25% rapeseed; iii) 60% cereals, 25% legumes; iv) 60% cereals, 25% sunflower + rapeseed+ legumes, in equal parts; v) cereals, and alternatively different amount of shrubs (from 20% to 100% ); vi) only cereal but under different combinations of conventional tillage and no-tillage management. Overall, no significant differences in runoff generation were observed with the exception of scenario iii (in which legume is the main alternative crops), whit a slight increase in predicted

  20. Technetium-99m -- new production and processing strategies to provide adequate levels for SPECT imaging.

    PubMed

    Osso, J A; Catanoso, M F; Barrio, G; Brambilla, T P; Teodoro, R; Dias, C R B R; Suzuki, K N

    2012-07-01

    The most important radioisotope for use in Nuclear Medicine is (99m)Tc, supplied in the form of a (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator. After the supply crisis of (99)Mo starting in 2008 the availability of (99)Mo became a worldwide concern. The purpose of this work is to do a brief story of the availability of (99)Mo in the world followed by an overview of the production routes of (99)Mo and the generators technology.

  1. The role of nutrient loading and eutrophication in estuarine ecology.

    PubMed Central

    Pinckney, J L; Paerl, H W; Tester, P; Richardson, T L

    2001-01-01

    Eutrophication is a process that can be defined as an increase in the rate of supply of organic matter (OM) to an ecosystem. We provide a general overview of the major features driving estuarine eutrophication and outline some of the consequences of that process. The main chemical constituent of OM is carbon (C), and therefore rates of eutrophication are expressed in units of C per area per unit time. OM occurs in both particulate and dissolved forms. Allochthonous OM originates outside the estuary, whereas autochthonous OM is generated within the system, mostly by primary producers or by benthic regeneration of OM. The supply rates of limiting nutrients regulate phytoplankton productivity that contributes to inputs of autochthonous OM. The trophic status of an estuary is often based on eutrophication rates and can be categorized as oligotrophic (<100 g C m(-2) y(-1), mesotrophic (100-300 g C m(-2) y(-1), eutrophic (300-500 g C m(-2) y(-1), or hypertrophic (>500 g C m(-2) y(-1). Ecosystem responses to eutrophication depend on both export rates (flushing, microbially mediated losses through respiration, and denitrification) and recycling/regeneration rates within the estuary. The mitigation of the effects of eutrophication involves the regulation of inorganic nutrient (primarily N and P) inputs into receiving waters. Appropriately scaled and parameterized nutrient and hydrologic controls are the only realistic options for controlling phytoplankton blooms, algal toxicity, and other symptoms of eutrophication in estuarine ecosystems. PMID:11677178

  2. Octopamine connects nutrient cues to lipid metabolism upon nutrient deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jun; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Yang, Zhong-Shan; Zou, Cheng-Gang; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Starvation is probably the most common stressful situation in nature. In vertebrates, elevation of the biogenic amine norepinephrine levels is common during starvation. However, the precise role of norepinephrine in nutrient deprivation remains largely unknown. We report that in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, up-regulation of the biosynthesis of octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart of norepinephrine, serves as a mechanism to adapt to starvation. During nutrient deprivation, the nuclear receptor DAF-12, known to sense nutritional cues, up-regulates the expression of tbh-1 that encodes tyramine β-hydroxylase, a key enzyme for octopamine biosynthesis, in the RIC neurons. Octopamine induces the expression of the lipase gene lips-6 via its receptor SER-3 in the intestine. LIPS-6, in turn, elicits lipid mobilization. Our findings reveal that octopamine acts as an endocrine regulator linking nutrient cues to lipolysis to maintain energy homeostasis, and suggest that such a mechanism may be evolutionally conserved in diverse organisms. PMID:27386520

  3. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  4. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  5. Cation Uptake and Allocation by Red Pine Seedlings under Cation-Nutrient Stress in a Column Growth Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhenqing; Balogh-Brunstad, Zsuzsanna; Grant, Michael R.; Harsh, James B.; Gill, Richard; Thomashow, Linda; Dohnalkova, Alice; Stacks, Daryl; Letourneau, Melissa; Keller, Chester K.

    2014-01-10

    Background and Aims Plant nutrient uptake is affected by environmental stress, but how plants respond to cation-nutrient stress is poorly understood. We assessed the impact of varying degrees of cation-nutrient limitation on cation uptake in an experimental plant-mineral system. Methods Column experiments, with red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) seedlings growing in sand/mineral mixtures, were conducted for up to nine months under a range of Ca- and K-limited conditions. The Ca and K were supplied from both minerals and nutrient solutions with varying Ca and K concentrations. Results Cation nutrient stress had little impact on carbon allocation after nine months of plant growth and K was the limiting nutrient for biomass production. The Ca/Sr and K/Rb ratio results allowed independent estimation of dissolution incongruency and discrimination against Sr and Rb during cation uptake processes. The fraction of K in biomass from biotite increased with decreasing K supply from nutrient solutions. The mineral anorthite was consistently the major source of Ca, regardless of nutrient treatment. Conclusions Red pine seedlings exploited more mineral K in response to more severe K deficiency. This did not occur for Ca. Plant discrimination factors must be carefully considered to accurately identify nutrient sources using cation tracers.

  6. 75 FR 5893 - Suspension of Community Eligibility for Failure To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no policies that have ] federalism....C. 4001 et seq., Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management Regulations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management...

  7. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... interest (the stated rate of interest) on deferred or prepaid fixed rent at a single fixed rate (as defined in § 1.1273-1(c)(1)(iii)); (B) The stated rate of interest on fixed rent is no lower than 110 percent... provide for a variable rate of interest. For purposes of the adequate interest test under paragraph...

  8. Towards Defining Adequate Lithium Trials for Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Use of lithium with mentally retarded individuals with psychiatric conditions and/or behavior disturbances is discussed. The paper describes components of an adequate clinical trial and reviews case studies and double-blind cases. The paper concludes that aggression is the best indicator for lithium use, and reviews treatment parameters and…

  9. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  10. Evaluating the Reliability of Selected School-Based Indices of Adequate Reading Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Courtney E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the stability (i.e., 4-month and 12-month test-retest reliability) of six selected school-based indices of adequate reading progress. The total sampling frame included between 3970 and 5655 schools depending on the index and research question. Each school had at least 40 second-grade students that had complete Oral…

  11. Understanding the pelvic pain mechanism is key to find an adequate therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Van Kerrebroeck, Philip

    2016-06-25

    Pain is a natural mechanism to actual or potential tissue damage and involves both a sensory and an emotional experience. In chronic pelvic pain, localisation of pain can be widespread and can cause considerable distress. A multidisciplinary approach is needed in order to fully understand the pelvic pain mechanism and to identify an adequate therapeutic approach.

  12. 33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate. 155.4050 Section 155.4050 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  13. Performance Effects of Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemelt, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    As the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) law moves through the reauthorization process, it is important to understand the basic performance impacts of its central structure of accountability. In this paper, I examine the effects of failure to make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) under NCLB on subsequent student math and reading performance at the school…

  14. Determining Adequate Yearly Progress in a State Performance or Proficiency Index Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erpenbach, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview regarding how several states use a performance or proficiency index in their determination of adequate yearly progress (AYP) under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Typically, indexes are based on one of two weighting schemes: (1) either they weight academic performance levels--also…

  15. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Adequate Yearly Progress among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…

  16. Effect of tranquilizers on animal resistance to the adequate stimuli of the vestibular apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maksimovich, Y. B.; Khinchikashvili, N. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of tranquilizers on vestibulospinal reflexes and motor activity was studied in 900 centrifuged albino mice. Actometric studies have shown that the tranquilizers have a group capacity for increasing animal resistance to the action of adequate stimuli to the vestibular apparatus.

  17. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The ...

  18. [Factors associated with adequate fruit and vegetable intake by schoolchildren in Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Larissa da Cunha Feio; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de; Corso, Arlete Catarina Tittoni

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to estimate fruit and vegetable intake and identify associated factors among schoolchildren in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 4,964 students from public and private schools in eight districts in the State, analyzing socioeconomic and anthropometric data and dietary intake. Adequate fruit and vegetable intake was defined as five or more servings per day. Poisson regression was performed to test associations between fruit and vegetable intake and independent variables (p < 0.05). Adequate intake was found in 2.7% of children, while 26.6% of the sample did not consume any fruits and vegetables. In the analysis of the association between independent variables and adequate fruit and vegetable intake in the total sample, only geographic region (residents in western Santa Catarina) and consumption of candy were significantly associated. In the stratified analysis by sex, for boys, only geographic region was associated, while among girls, region and candy consumption were significantly associated with adequate fruit and vegetable intake. The findings indicate the need for specific strategies in the school community to improve fruit and vegetable intake by schoolchildren.

  19. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  20. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  1. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  2. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  3. Percentage of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels Are Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels are Adequately Controlled High cholesterol can double a ... with High Cholesterol that is Controlled by Education Level 8k4c-k22f Download these data » Click on legends ...

  4. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to failure to…

  5. The Unequal Effect of Adequate Yearly Progress: Evidence from School Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abigail B.; Clift, Jack W.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report insights, based on annual site visits to elementary and middle schools in three states from 2004 to 2006, into the incentive effect of the No Child Left Behind Act's requirement that increasing percentages of students make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in every public school. They develop a framework, drawing on the physics…

  6. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  7. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6-12 (n = 1,203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in…

  8. What Is the Cost of an Adequate Vermont High School Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, Frank D.

    2010-01-01

    Access to an adequate education has been widely considered an undeniable right since Chief Justice Warren stated in his landmark decision that "Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments...it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an…

  9. Calculating and Reducing Errors Associated with the Evaluation of Adequate Yearly Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Richard

    In the Spring, 1996, issue of "CRESST Line," E. Baker and R. Linn commented that, in efforts to measure the progress of schools, "the fluctuations due to differences in the students themselves could conceal differences in instructional effects." This is particularly true in the context of the evaluation of adequate yearly progress required by…

  10. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provide for a variable rate of interest. For purposes of the adequate interest test under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, if a section 467 rental agreement provides for variable interest, the rental... date as the issue date) for the variable rates called for by the rental agreement. For purposes of...

  11. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provide for a variable rate of interest. For purposes of the adequate interest test under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, if a section 467 rental agreement provides for variable interest, the rental... date as the issue date) for the variable rates called for by the rental agreement. For purposes of...

  12. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  13. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  14. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  15. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  16. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  17. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  18. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  19. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  20. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  1. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  2. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  3. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  4. TOR Signaling and Nutrient Sensing.

    PubMed

    Dobrenel, Thomas; Caldana, Camila; Hanson, Johannes; Robaglia, Christophe; Vincentz, Michel; Veit, Bruce; Meyer, Christian

    2016-04-29

    All living organisms rely on nutrients to sustain cell metabolism and energy production, which in turn need to be adjusted based on available resources. The evolutionarily conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase is a central regulatory hub that connects environmental information about the quantity and quality of nutrients to developmental and metabolic processes in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. TOR is activated by both nitrogen and carbon metabolites and promotes energy-consuming processes such as cell division, mRNA translation, and anabolism in times of abundance while repressing nutrient remobilization through autophagy. In animals and yeasts, TOR acts antagonistically to the starvation-induced AMP-activated kinase (AMPK)/sucrose nonfermenting 1 (Snf1) kinase, called Snf1-related kinase 1 (SnRK1) in plants. This review summarizes the immense knowledge on the relationship between TOR signaling and nutrients in nonphotosynthetic organisms and presents recent findings in plants that illuminate the crucial role of this pathway in conveying nutrient-derived signals and regulating many aspects of metabolism and growth. PMID:26905651

  5. TOR Signaling and Nutrient Sensing.

    PubMed

    Dobrenel, Thomas; Caldana, Camila; Hanson, Johannes; Robaglia, Christophe; Vincentz, Michel; Veit, Bruce; Meyer, Christian

    2016-04-29

    All living organisms rely on nutrients to sustain cell metabolism and energy production, which in turn need to be adjusted based on available resources. The evolutionarily conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase is a central regulatory hub that connects environmental information about the quantity and quality of nutrients to developmental and metabolic processes in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. TOR is activated by both nitrogen and carbon metabolites and promotes energy-consuming processes such as cell division, mRNA translation, and anabolism in times of abundance while repressing nutrient remobilization through autophagy. In animals and yeasts, TOR acts antagonistically to the starvation-induced AMP-activated kinase (AMPK)/sucrose nonfermenting 1 (Snf1) kinase, called Snf1-related kinase 1 (SnRK1) in plants. This review summarizes the immense knowledge on the relationship between TOR signaling and nutrients in nonphotosynthetic organisms and presents recent findings in plants that illuminate the crucial role of this pathway in conveying nutrient-derived signals and regulating many aspects of metabolism and growth.

  6. Effect of mineral nutritional status on shoot-root partitioning of photoassimilates and cycling of mineral nutrients.

    PubMed

    Marschner, H; Kirkby, E A; Cakmak, I

    1996-08-01

    Mineral nutrients taken up by the roots are, as a rule, transported in the xylem to the shoot, and photoassimilates transported in the phloem to the roots. According to the Thornley model of photosynthate partitioning, nutrient deficiencies should favour photosynthate partitioning to the roots. Examples are cited to show that this preferential partitioning is dependent on phloem mobility and hence on nutrient cycling from shoot to roots. Thus, root growth is enhanced under nitrogen and phosphorus deficiencies, but not under deficiencies of nutrients of low mobility in the phloem, such as calcium and boron. Enhanced root growth under nutrient deficiency relies on the import of both photosynthates and mineral nutrients. Cycling of mineral nutrients serves a number of other functions. These include the root supply of nutrients assimilated in the shoot (nitrate and sulphate reduction), maintenance of cation-anion balance in the shoot, providing an additional driving force for solute volume flow in the phloem and xylem, and acting as a shoot signal to convey nutrient demand to the root. Cycling of certain mineral nutrients through source leaves has a considerable impact on photosynthate export as demonstrated in impaired export under magnesium, potassium, or zinc deficiencies. Mineral nutrient deficiency can, therefore, affect photosynthate partitioning either directly via phloem loading and transport or indirectly by depressing sink demand. PMID:21245257

  7. Healthfulness of the U.S. Food Supply

    PubMed Central

    Krebs-Smith, Susan M.; Reedy, Jill; Bosire, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Background Every 5 years for the past several decades, the USDHHS and the U.S. Department of Agriculture have issued and updated the Dietary Guidelines for Americans which form the basis of Federal nutrition policy and have shown remarkable consistency across various editions among the major themes. Purpose This paper examines whether the U.S. food supply is sufficiently balanced to provide the recommended proportions of various foods and nutrients per the amount of energy, whether this balance has shifted over time, and which areas of the food supply may have changed more than others. Methods The Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) was used to measure the dietary quality of the U.S. food supply, from 1970 to 2007. Sources of data were the USDA's Food Availability Data, Loss-Adjusted Food Availability Data, and Nutrient Availability Data, and the U.S. Salt Institute's data on salt sold for human consumption. Results Total HEI-2005 scores improved by about 10 points between 1970 and 2007, but they never achieved even 60 points on a scale from 0 to 100. Although meats and total grains were supplied generally in recommended proportions, total vegetables, total fruit, whole fruit, and milk were supplied in sub-optimal proportions that changed very little over time. Saturated fat, sodium, and calories from solid fat, alcoholic beverages and added sugars were supplied in varying degrees of unhealthy abundance over the years. Supplies of dark-green/orange vegetables and legumes and whole grains were entirely insufficient relative to recommendations, with virtually no change over time. Conclusions Deliberate efforts on the part of policymakers, agriculture and the food industry are necessary to provide a supply of foods consistent with nutrition recommendations and make healthy choices available to all. PMID:20153133

  8. Perioperative supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Feistritzer, N R; Keck, B R

    2000-09-01

    Faced with declining revenues and increasing operating expenses, hospitals are evaluating numerous mechanisms designed to reduce costs while simultaneously maintaining quality care. Many facilities have targeted initial cost reduction efforts in the reduction of labor expenses. Once labor expenses have been "right sized," facilities have continued to focus on service delivery improvements by the optimization of the "supply chain" process. This report presents a case study of the efforts of Vanderbilt University Medical Center in the redesign of its supply chain management process in the department of Perioperative Services. Utilizing a multidisciplinary project management structure, 3 work teams were established to complete the redesign process. To date, the project has reduced costs by $2.3 million and enhanced quality patient care by enhancing the delivery of appropriate clinical supplies during the perioperative experience.

  9. Coal supply for California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yancik, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The potential sources and qualities of coals available for major utility and industrial consumers in California are examined and analyzed with respect to those factors that would affect the reliability of supplies. Other considerations, such as the requirements and assurances needed by the coal producers to enter into long-term contracts and dedicate large reserves of coal to these contracts are also discussed. Present and potential future mining contraints on coal mine operators are identified and analyzed with respect to their effect on availability of supply.

  10. [World population growth and the food supply].

    PubMed

    Huang, Y

    1982-07-29

    The general trend in the last several hundred years has been that the speed of growth in the food supply exceeds the speed of the population growth. For the time being, 2 major problems still exist. The 1st problem is that food production is still influenced by natural conditions. For example, abnormal weather conditions may cause regional food shortages. The 2nd problem is the imbalance of food consumption by the world population. This phenomenon exists between different social classes as well as between developed and developing countries. According to statistics released by the World Bank, 1 billion suffer from malnutrition today and most of them are in developing countries. In developed countries, about half of their increase in the food supply is for feed grains, and those countries follow the policy of reducing farm land for the purpose of maintaing stabl e grain prices. Up to the present time, grain prices have been unstable, and this has become a rather heavy economic burden for numerous developing countries. Many developing countries are trying to increase grain production by increasing their arable land and promoting their cultivating techniques. However, these countries are facing the problems of finding and adequate water supply, fertilizer, and pesticides. In addition, a rapid population growth in these countries has offset their endeavors in agriculture. In recent years, these counties have realized the necessity of birth control. The world population growth rate has decreased from 2% to about 1.7% in 1981. Birth control and an increase in the food supply will bring new hope to the world's problems of overpopulation and food supply.

  11. Water-quality assessment of the Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames river basins study unit; analysis of available data on nutrients, suspended sediments, and pesticides, 1972-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Marc James; Grady, S.J.; Trench, E.C.; Flanagan, S.M.; Nielsen, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    This retrospective report examines available nutrient, suspended sediment, and pesticide data in surface and ground water in the Connecticut, Housatonic and Thames Rivers Study Unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The purpose of this study is to improve the under- standing of natural and anthropogenic factors affecting water quality in the study unit. Water-quality data were acquired from various sources, primarily, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The report examines data for water years 1972-92, focusing on 1980-92, although it also includes additional data from as early as 1905. The study unit lies within the New England Physiographic Province and altitudes range from sea level in coastal Connecticut to 6,288 feet above sea level at Mount Washington, New Hampshire. Two major aquifer types underlie the study unit--unconsolidated glacial deposits and fractured bedrock. The climate generally is temperate and humid, with four distinct seasons. Average annual precipitation ranges from 34 to 65 inches. The study unit has a population of about 4.5 million, which is most highly concentrated in southwestern Connecticut and along the south-central region of the Connecticut River Valley. Surface-water-quality data were screened to provide information about sites with adequate numbers of analyses (50) over sufficiently long periods (1980-90) to enable valid statistical analyses. In order to compare effects of different types of land use on surface-water quality, examination of data required application of several statistical and graphical techniques, including mapping, histograms, boxplots, concentration-discharge plots, trend analysis, and load estimation. Spatial and temporal analysis of surface-water-quality data indicated that, with a single exception, only/stations in the Connecticut water-quality network had sufficient data collected over adequately long time periods to use in detailed analyses. Ground

  12. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  13. Long term adequate n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet protects from depressive-like behavior but not from working memory disruption and brain cytokine expression in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Moranis, Aurélie; Delpech, Jean-Christophe; De Smedt-Peyrusse, Véronique; Aubert, Agnès; Guesnet, Philippe; Lavialle, Monique; Joffre, Corinne; Layé, Sophie

    2012-07-01

    Converging epidemiological studies suggest that dietary essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of mood and cognitive disorders linked to aging. The question arises as to whether the decreased prevalence of these symptoms in the elderly with high n-3 PUFA consumption is also associated with improved central inflammation, i.e. cytokine activation, in the brain. To answer this, we measured memory performance and emotional behavior as well as cytokine synthesis and PUFA level in the spleen and the cortex of adult and aged mice submitted to a diet with an adequate supply of n-3 PUFA in form of α-linolenic acid (α-LNA) or a n-3 deficient diet. Our results show that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the main n-3 PUFA in the brain, was higher in the spleen and cortex of n-3 adequate mice relative to n-3 deficient mice and this difference was maintained throughout life. Interestingly, high level of brain DHA was associated with a decrease in depressive-like symptoms throughout aging. On the opposite, spatial memory was maintained in adult but not in aged n-3 adequate mice relative to n-3 deficient mice. Furthermore, increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) and decreased IL-10 expression were found in the cortex of aged mice independently of the diets. All together, our results suggest that n-3 PUFA dietary supply in the form of α-LNA is sufficient to protect from deficits in emotional behavior but not from memory disruption and brain proinflammatory cytokine expression linked to age.

  14. Hungry for Nutrient Data? Navigating the USDA Nutrient Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) is the major source of food composition data in the United States, providing the foundation for most food composition databases in the public and private sectors. Most nutrition professionals are familiar with the basics of the SR onlin...

  15. Nutrient loading and consumers: Agents of change in open-coast macrophyte assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Karina J.

    2003-01-01

    Human activities are significantly altering nutrient regimes and the abundance of consumers in coastal ecosystems. A field experiment in an open-coast, upwelling ecosystem showed that small increases in nutrients increased the biomass and evenness of tide pool macrophytes where consumer abundance and nutrient loading rates were low. Consumers, when abundant, had negative effects on the diversity and biomass of macrophytes. Nutrient loading increases and consumers are less abundant and efficient as wave exposure increases along open coastlines. Experimentally reversing the natural state of nutrient supply and consumer pressure at a wave-protected site to match wave-exposed sites caused the structure of the macrophyte assemblage to converge on that found naturally in wave-exposed pools. The increases in evenness and abundance were driven by increases in structurally complex functional groups. In contrast, increased nutrient loading in semienclosed marine or estuarine ecosystems is typically associated with declines in macrophyte diversity because of increases in structurally simple and opportunistic functional groups. If nutrient concentration of upwelled waters changes with climatic warming or increasing frequency of El Niños, as predicted by some climate models, these results suggest that macrophyte abundance and evenness along wave-swept open-coasts will also change. Macrophytes represent a significant fraction of continental shelf production and provide important habitat for many marine species. The combined effects of shifting nutrient regimes and overexploitation of consumers may have unexpected consequences for the structure and functioning of open-coast communities. PMID:12796509

  16. Power Supplies for Precooler Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Fuja, Raymond; Praeg, Walter

    1980-12-12

    Eight power supplies will energize the antiproton Precooler ring. there will be two series connected supplies per quadrant. These supplies will power 32 dipole and 19 quadrupole magnets. The resistance and inductance per quadrant is R = 1.4045 Ohms and L = 0.466. Each powr supply will have 12-phase series bridge rectifiers and will be energized from the 480 V 3-phase grid. The total of eight power supplies are numbered IA, IIA, IIIA, IVA, and IB, IIB, IIIB, and IVB. Each quadrant will contain one A and one B supply. A block diagram of the Precooler ring with its power supplies is shown in Figure 1.

  17. Supply chain quality.

    PubMed

    Feary, Simon

    2009-01-01

    As the development of complex manufacturing models and virtual companies become more prevalent in today's growing global markets, it is increasingly important to support the relationships between manufacturer and supplier. Utilising these relationships will ensure that supply chains operate more effectively and reduce costs, risks and time-to-market time frames, whilst maintaining product quality. PMID:20058652

  18. APS power supply controls

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, C.W.; Despe, O.D.

    1994-03-31

    The purpose of this document is to provide comprehensive coverage of the APS power supply control design. This includes application software, embedded controller software, networks, and hardware. The basic components will be introduced first, followed by the requirements driving the overall design. Subsequent sections will address each component of the design one by one. Latter sections will address specific applications.

  19. Supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Palevich, R F

    1999-02-01

    This article describes how Do It Best Corp. has used technology to improve its supply chain management. Among other topics it discusses the company's use of electronic data interchange, the Internet, electronic forecasting, and warehouse management systems to gain substantial savings and increase its competitiveness. PMID:10345634

  20. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  1. Lightweight Regulated Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Power-supply circuit regulates output voltage by adjusting frequency of chopper circuit according to variations. Currently installed in battery charger for electric wheelchair, circuit is well suited to other uses in which light weight is important - for example, in portable computers, radios, and test instruments.

  2. Maintenance and supply options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The object of the Maintenance and Supply Option was to develop a high level operational philosophy related to maintenance and supply operations and incorporate these concepts into the Lunar Base Study. Specific products to be generated during this task were three trade studies and a conceptual design of the Logistic Supply Module. The crew size study was performed to evaluate crew sizes from the baseline size of four to a crew size of eight and determine the preferred crew size. The second trade study was to determine the impact of extending surface stay times and recommend a preferred duration of stay time as a function of crew, consumables, and equipment support capabilities. The third trade study was an evaluation of packaging and storage methods to determine the preferred logistics approach to support the lunar base. A modified scenario was developed and served as the basis of the individual trade studies. Assumptions and guidelines were also developed from experience with Apollo programs, Space Shuttle operations, and Space Station studies. With this information, the trade studies were performed and a conceptual design for the Logistic Supply Module was developed.

  3. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren d’Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008–2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  4. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  5. Bioengineering Aspects of Inorganic Carbon Supply to Mass Algal Cultures: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, J. C.

    1981-04-01

    Regardless of the application, the basic biotechnology of large-scale outdoor cultures involves many common features, particularly in the requirement for adequate nutrients such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus to ensure that light is the sole limiting yield determinant. Whereas the required quantities of nitrogen and phosphorus are fairly simple, to estimate, those for inorganic carbon are far more complex.

  6. Proton driver power supply system

    SciTech Connect

    C. Jach and D. Wolff

    2002-06-03

    This paper describes magnet power supply system for a proposed Proton Driver at Fermilab. The magnet power supply system consists of resonant dipole/quadrupole power supply system, quadrupole tracking, dipole correction (horizontal and vertical) and sextupole power supply systems. This paper also describes preliminary design of the power distribution system supplying 13.8 kV power to all proton Driver electrical systems.

  7. Future supply and demand: Cloudy crystal balls

    SciTech Connect

    Fechter, A.

    1995-12-31

    Alan Fechter reviews and evaluates selected studies that examine whether the future supply of Ph.D. scientists will be adequate to meet the United State`s future workplace needs. He assesses two widely cited projection models, emphasizing the uncertainty associated with forecasts of supply and demand. He concludes that these models tend to overstate potential shortages. He discusses mechanisms that can bring supply and demand into balance and examines the resource implications associated with their use, claiming that some mechanisms associated with their use, claiming that some mechanisms may produce socially undesirable side effects - particularly for underrepresented minorities. Fechter also addresses decision making in the face of the uncertainties associated with such models. He states his preference for a strategy that tilts toward anticipating shortages, arguing that the costs of being wrong in this case would be preferable to the cost of tilting toward an erroneous assumption that markets will eventually be in balance. He advocates close monitoring of and comparison between actual experiences and projections. He argues that such efforts will enable policy analysts to make midcourse corrections in projections and in policy implications, if such corrections are deemed necessary.

  8. Managing Water supply in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, P. P.

    2001-05-01

    If the estimates are correct that, in the large urban areas of the developing world 30 percent of the population lack access to safe water supply and 50 percent lack access to adequate sanitation, then we are currently faced with 510 million urban residents without access to domestic water and 850 million without access to sanitation. Looking to the year 2020, we will face an additional 1,900 million in need of water and sanitation services. The provision of water services to these billions of people over the next two decades is one of the greatest challenges facing the nations of the world. In addition to future supplies, major problems exist with the management of existing systems where water losses can account for a significant fraction of the water supplied. The entire governance of the water sector and the management of particular systems raise serious questions about the application of the best technologies and the appropriate economic incentive systems. The paper outlines a few feasible technical and economic solutions.

  9. Climate modifies response of non-native and native species richness to nutrient enrichment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecosystem eutrophication often increases domination by non-natives and causes displacement of native taxa. However, variation in environmental conditions may affect the outcome of interactions between native and non-native taxa in environments where nutrient supply is elevated. We examined the int...

  10. THE MICROGARDENING COOKBOOK, DIRECTIONS FOR PREPARING DISHES AND TUBES OF STERILE NUTRIENT AGAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANDLER, MARION N.

    THIS BOOKLET WAS PREPARED FOR TEACHER USE IN ASSOCIATION WITH THE ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT "MICROGARDENING." IT CONTAINS DIRECTIONS FOR PREPARING CULTURE DISHES AND TUBES OF NUTRIENT STERILE AGAR FOR FUNGAL AND/OR BACTERIAL GROWTH. IT INCLUDES (1) LISTS OF NEEDED SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT, (2) DIRECTIONS FOR THE PREPARATION AND STERILIZATION OF…

  11. Evaluating topsoil depth effects on phosphorus and potassium nutrient dynamics of grain and switchgrass production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the effects of fertilizer addition and crop removal on long-term change in soil test phosphorus (STP) and soil test potassium (STK) is crucial for maximizing the use of grower inputs on claypan soils. Due to variable nutrient supply from subsoils and variable crop removal across fields...

  12. Corn stover nutrient removal estimates for Central Iowa, U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the most frequently asked questions to those striving to secure sustainable corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock supplies for Iowa’s new bioenergy conversion facilities is “what quantity of nutrients will be removed if I harvest my stover?”. Our objective is to summarize six years of field res...

  13. Recovery from disturbance requires resynchronization of ecosystem nutrient cycles.

    PubMed

    Rastetter, E B; Yanai, R D; Thomas, R Q; Vadeboncoeur, M A; Fahey, T J; Fisk, M C; Kwiatkowski, B L; Hamburg, S P

    2013-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are tightly cycled in most terrestrial ecosystems, with plant uptake more than 10 times higher than the rate of supply from deposition and weathering. This near-total dependence on recycled nutrients and the stoichiometric constraints on resource use by plants and microbes mean that the two cycles have to be synchronized such that the ratio of N:P in plant uptake, litterfall, and net mineralization are nearly the same. Disturbance can disrupt this synchronization if there is a disproportionate loss of one nutrient relative to the other. We model the resynchronization of N and P cycles following harvest of a northern hardwood forest. In our simulations, nutrient loss in the harvest is small relative to postharvest losses. The low N:P ratio of harvest residue results in a preferential release of P and retention of N. The P release is in excess of plant requirements and P is lost from the active ecosystem cycle through secondary mineral formation and leaching early in succession. Because external P inputs are small, the resynchronization of the N and P cycles later in succession is achieved by a commensurate loss of N. Through succession, the ecosystem undergoes alternating periods of N limitation, then P limitation, and eventually co-limitation as the two cycles resynchronize. However, our simulations indicate that the overall rate and extent of recovery is limited by P unless a mechanism exists either to prevent the P loss early in succession (e.g., P sequestration not stoichiometrically constrained by N) or to increase the P supply to the ecosystem later in succession (e.g., biologically enhanced weathering). Our model provides a heuristic perspective from which to assess the resynchronization among tightly cycled nutrients and the effect of that resynchronization on recovery of ecosystems from disturbance.

  14. Ensuring smokers are adequately informed: reflections on consumer rights, manufacturer responsibilities, and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, S; Liberman, J

    2005-01-01

    The right to information is a fundamental consumer value. Following the advent of health warnings, the tobacco industry has repeatedly asserted that smokers are fully informed of the risks they take, while evidence demonstrates widespread superficial levels of awareness and understanding. There remains much that tobacco companies could do to fulfil their responsibilities to inform smokers. We explore issues involved in the meaning of "adequately informed" smoking and discuss some of the key policy and regulatory implications. We use the idea of a smoker licensing scheme—under which it would be illegal to sell to smokers who had not demonstrated an adequate level of awareness—as a device to explore some of these issues. We also explore some of the difficulties that addiction poses for the notion that smokers might ever voluntarily assume the risks of smoking. PMID:16046703

  15. The concept of adequate causation and Max Weber's comparative sociology of religion.

    PubMed

    Buss, A

    1999-06-01

    Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, studied in isolation, shows mainly an elective affinity or an adequacy on the level of meaning between the Protestant ethic and the 'spirit' of capitalism. Here it is suggested that Weber's subsequent essays on 'The Economic Ethics of World Religions' are the result of his opinion that adequacy on the level of meaning needs and can be verified by causal adequacy. After some introductory remarks, particularly on elective affinity, the paper tries to develop the concept of adequate causation and the related concept of objective possibility on the basis of the work of v. Kries on whom Weber heavily relied. In the second part, this concept is used to show how the study of the economic ethics of India, China, Rome and orthodox Russia can support the thesis that the 'spirit' of capitalism, although it may not have been caused by the Protestant ethic, was perhaps adequately caused by it. PMID:15260028

  16. Ensuring smokers are adequately informed: reflections on consumer rights, manufacturer responsibilities, and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Chapman, S; Liberman, J

    2005-08-01

    The right to information is a fundamental consumer value. Following the advent of health warnings, the tobacco industry has repeatedly asserted that smokers are fully informed of the risks they take, while evidence demonstrates widespread superficial levels of awareness and understanding. There remains much that tobacco companies could do to fulfil their responsibilities to inform smokers. We explore issues involved in the meaning of "adequately informed" smoking and discuss some of the key policy and regulatory implications. We use the idea of a smoker licensing scheme-under which it would be illegal to sell to smokers who had not demonstrated an adequate level of awareness-as a device to explore some of these issues. We also explore some of the difficulties that addiction poses for the notion that smokers might ever voluntarily assume the risks of smoking. PMID:16046703

  17. Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, W. J.

    2014-05-01

    Wim J. de Lange, Geert F. Prinsen, Jacco H. Hoogewoud, Ab A Veldhuizen, Joachim Hunink, Erik F.W. Ruijgh, Timo Kroon Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses

  18. Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, Wim; Prinsen, Geert.; Hoogewoud, Jacco; Veldhuizen, Ab; Ruijgh, Erik; Kroon, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with? by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses. Regional expertise is welcomed in the calibration phase of NHI. It aims to reduce uncertainties by improving the

  19. Myth 19: Is Advanced Placement an Adequate Program for Gifted Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Shelagh A.

    2009-01-01

    Is it a myth that Advanced Placement (AP) is an adequate program for gifted students? AP is so covered with myths and assumptions that it is hard to get a clear view of the issues. In this article, the author finds the answer about AP by looking at current realties. First, AP is hard for gifted students to avoid. Second, AP never was a program…

  20. Enhanced nutrient fluxes at the shelf sea seasonal thermocline caused by stratified flow over a bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tweddle, Jacqueline F.; Sharples, Jonathan; Palmer, Matthew R.; Davidson, Keith; McNeill, Sharon

    2013-10-01

    Patches of enhanced chlorophyll a (Chl) concentrations within the thermocline were observed over the slopes of several banks in the Celtic Sea. The turbulent mixing of nutrients from the bottom water into the thermocline was found to be greatly enhanced over the slope of a bank (up to 52 mmol nitrate m-2 day-1), compared to over nearby flat seafloor (˜2 mmol nitrate m-2 day-1). This increased nutrient supply, forced by locally generated lee waves and internal mixing, is greater than nitrate supplies to the productive tidal mixing fronts or to the shelf edge. We hypothesize this nutrient flux promotes an increase in phytoplankton growth in the thermocline over and downstream of shelf sea banks, contributing to the horizontal patchiness in the thermocline Chl signal. The persistence of the strong biological response to mixing at the bank, combined with the ubiquity of shelf sea banks, suggests these bathymetric features have wide importance for "new" primary production in shelf seas.

  1. Stillage processing for nutrient recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeten, J.M.; Coble, C.G.; Egg, R.P.; Lawhon, J.T.; McBee, G.G.; Schelling, G.T.

    1983-06-01

    Stillage from fermentation of grain sorghum and sweet potatoes was processed for dry matter and nutrient recovery by combinations of screw press, vibrating screen, centrifugation, ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis, yielding up to 98% dry matter removal. For most processes, protein removal equaled or exceeded dry matter removal.

  2. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  3. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizospher...

  4. Bioelement effects on thyroid gland in children living in iodine-adequate territory.

    PubMed

    Gorbachev, Anatoly L; Skalny, Anatoly V; Koubassov, Roman V

    2007-01-01

    Endemic goitre is a primary pathology of thyroid gland and critical medico social problem in many countries. A dominant cause of endemic goitre is iodine deficiency. However, besides primary iodine deficiency, the goitre may probably develop due to effects of other bioelement imbalances, essential to thyroid function maintenance. Here we studied 44 cases of endemic goitre in prepubertal children (7-10 y.o.) living in iodine-adequate territory. Thyroid volume was estimated by ultrasonometry. Main bioelements (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, Mg, Mn, Pb, Se, Si, Zn) were determined in hair samples by ICP-OES/ICP-MS method. Relationships between hair content of bioelements and thyroid gland size were estimated by multiple regressions. The regression model revealed significant positive relations between thyroid volume and Cr, Si, Mn contents. However, the actual factor of thyroid gland increase was only Si excess in organism. Significant negative relations of thyroid volume were revealed with I, Mg, Zn, Se, Co and Cd. In spite of this, the actual factors of thyroid gland volume increasing were I, Co, Mg and Se deficiency. Total bioelement contribution in thyroid impairment was estimated as 24%. Thus, it was suggested that endemic goitre in iodine-adequate territory can be formed by bioelement imbalances, namely Si excess and Co, Mg, Se shortage as well as endogenous I deficiency in spite of iodine-adequate environment.

  5. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  6. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America.

  7. An adequate Fe nutritional status of maize suppresses infection and biotrophic growth of Colletotrichum graminicola.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fanghua; Albarouki, Emad; Lingam, Brahmasivasenkar; Deising, Holger B; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2014-07-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plant pathogens as well as for their host plants. As Fe plays a central role in pathogen virulence, most plants have evolved Fe-withholding strategies to reduce Fe availability to pathogens. On the other hand, plants need Fe for an oxidative burst in their basal defense response against pathogens. To investigate how the plant Fe nutritional status affects plant tolerance to a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, we employed the maize-Colletotrichum graminicola pathosystem. Fungal infection progressed rapidly via biotrophic to necrotrophic growth in Fe-deficient leaves, while an adequate Fe nutritional status suppressed the formation of infection structures of C. graminicola already during the early biotrophic growth phase. As indicated by Prussian blue and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining, the retarding effect of an adequate Fe nutritional status on fungal development coincided temporally and spatially with the recruitment of Fe to infection sites and a local production of H2 O2 . A similar coincidence between local Fe and H2 O2 accumulation was found in a parallel approach employing C. graminicola mutants affected in Fe acquisition and differing in virulence. These results indicate that an adequate Fe nutritional status delays and partially suppresses the fungal infection process and the biotrophic growth phase of C. graminicola, most likely via the recruitment of free Fe to the fungal infection site for a timely oxidative burst.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Salt Marshes Exposed to Chronic Nutrient Enrichment.

    PubMed

    Chmura, Gail L; Kellman, Lisa; van Ardenne, Lee; Guntenspergen, Glenn R

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the impact of nutrient additions on greenhouse gas fluxes using dark static chambers in a microtidal and a macrotidal marsh along the coast of New Brunswick, Canada approximately monthly over a year. Both were experimentally fertilized for six years with varying levels of N and P. For unfertilized, N and NPK treatments, average yearly CO2 emissions (which represent only respiration) at the microtidal marsh (13, 19, and 28 mmoles CO2 m(-2) hr(-1), respectively) were higher than at the macrotidal marsh (12, 15, and 19 mmoles m(-2) hr(-1), respectively, with a flux under the additional high N/low P treatment of 21 mmoles m(-2) hr(-1)). Response of CH4 to fertilization was more variable. At the macrotidal marsh average yearly fluxes were 1.29, 1.26, and 0.77 μmol CH4 m(-2) hr(-1) with control, N, and NPK treatments, respectively and 1.21 μmol m(-2) hr(-1) under high N/low P treatment. At the microtidal marsh CH4 fluxes were 0.23, 0.16, and -0.24 μmol CH4 m(-2) hr(-1) in control, N, and NPK and treatments, respectively. Fertilization changed soils from sinks to sources of N2O. Average yearly N2O fluxes at the macrotidal marsh were -0.07, 0.08, and 1.70, μmol N2O m(-2) hr(-1) in control, N, NPK and treatments, respectively and 0.35 μmol m(-2) hr(-1) under high N/low P treatment. For the control, N, and NPK treatments at the microtidal marsh N2O fluxes were -0.05, 0.30, and 0.52 μmol N2O m(-2) hr(-1), respectively. Our results indicate that N2O fluxes are likely to vary with the source of pollutant nutrients but emissions will be lower if N is not accompanied by an adequate supply of P (e.g., atmospheric deposition vs sewage or agricultural runoff). With chronic fertilization the global warming potential of the increased N2O emissions may be enough to offset the global cooling potential of the C sequestered by salt marshes.

  9. Greenhouse gas fluxes from salt marshes exposed to chronic nutrient enrichment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chmura, Gail L.; Kellman, Lisa; van Ardenne, Lee; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the impact of nutrient additions on greenhouse gas fluxes using dark static chambers in a microtidal and a macrotidal marsh along the coast of New Brunswick, Canada approximately monthly over a year. Both were experimentally fertilized for six years with varying levels of N and P. For unfertilized, N and NPK treatments, average yearly CO2 emissions (which represent only respiration) at the microtidal marsh (13, 19, and 28 mmoles CO2 m-2 hr-1, respectively) were higher than at the macrotidal marsh (12, 15, and 19 mmoles m-2 hr-1, respectively, with a flux under the additional high N/low P treatment of 21 mmoles m-2 hr-1). Response of CH4 to fertilization was more variable. At the macrotidal marsh average yearly fluxes were 1.29, 1.26, and 0.77 μmol CH4 m-2 hr-1 with control, N, and NPK treatments, respectively and 1.21 μmol m-2 hr-1 under high N/low P treatment. At the microtidal marsh CH4fluxes were 0.23, 0.16, and -0.24 μmol CH4 m-2 hr-1 in control, N, and NPK and treatments, respectively. Fertilization changed soils from sinks to sources of N2O. Average yearly N2O fluxes at the macrotidal marsh were -0.07, 0.08, and 1.70, μmol N2O m-2 hr-1 in control, N, NPK and treatments, respectively and 0.35 μmol m-2 hr-1 under high N/low P treatment. For the control, N, and NPK treatments at the microtidal marsh N2O fluxes were -0.05, 0.30, and 0.52 μmol N2O m-2 hr-1, respectively. Our results indicate that N2O fluxes are likely to vary with the source of pollutant nutrients but emissions will be lower if N is not accompanied by an adequate supply of P (e.g., atmospheric deposition vs sewage or agricultural runoff). With chronic fertilization the global warming potential of the increased N2O emissions may be enough to offset the global cooling potential of the C sequestered by salt marshes.

  10. Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Salt Marshes Exposed to Chronic Nutrient Enrichment.

    PubMed

    Chmura, Gail L; Kellman, Lisa; van Ardenne, Lee; Guntenspergen, Glenn R

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the impact of nutrient additions on greenhouse gas fluxes using dark static chambers in a microtidal and a macrotidal marsh along the coast of New Brunswick, Canada approximately monthly over a year. Both were experimentally fertilized for six years with varying levels of N and P. For unfertilized, N and NPK treatments, average yearly CO2 emissions (which represent only respiration) at the microtidal marsh (13, 19, and 28 mmoles CO2 m(-2) hr(-1), respectively) were higher than at the macrotidal marsh (12, 15, and 19 mmoles m(-2) hr(-1), respectively, with a flux under the additional high N/low P treatment of 21 mmoles m(-2) hr(-1)). Response of CH4 to fertilization was more variable. At the macrotidal marsh average yearly fluxes were 1.29, 1.26, and 0.77 μmol CH4 m(-2) hr(-1) with control, N, and NPK treatments, respectively and 1.21 μmol m(-2) hr(-1) under high N/low P treatment. At the microtidal marsh CH4 fluxes were 0.23, 0.16, and -0.24 μmol CH4 m(-2) hr(-1) in control, N, and NPK and treatments, respectively. Fertilization changed soils from sinks to sources of N2O. Average yearly N2O fluxes at the macrotidal marsh were -0.07, 0.08, and 1.70, μmol N2O m(-2) hr(-1) in control, N, NPK and treatments, respectively and 0.35 μmol m(-2) hr(-1) under high N/low P treatment. For the control, N, and NPK treatments at the microtidal marsh N2O fluxes were -0.05, 0.30, and 0.52 μmol N2O m(-2) hr(-1), respectively. Our results indicate that N2O fluxes are likely to vary with the source of pollutant nutrients but emissions will be lower if N is not accompanied by an adequate supply of P (e.g., atmospheric deposition vs sewage or agricultural runoff). With chronic fertilization the global warming potential of the increased N2O emissions may be enough to offset the global cooling potential of the C sequestered by salt marshes. PMID:26914333

  11. Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Salt Marshes Exposed to Chronic Nutrient Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Chmura, Gail L.; Kellman, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the impact of nutrient additions on greenhouse gas fluxes using dark static chambers in a microtidal and a macrotidal marsh along the coast of New Brunswick, Canada approximately monthly over a year. Both were experimentally fertilized for six years with varying levels of N and P. For unfertilized, N and NPK treatments, average yearly CO2 emissions (which represent only respiration) at the microtidal marsh (13, 19, and 28 mmoles CO2 m-2 hr-1, respectively) were higher than at the macrotidal marsh (12, 15, and 19 mmoles m-2 hr-1, respectively, with a flux under the additional high N/low P treatment of 21 mmoles m-2 hr-1). Response of CH4 to fertilization was more variable. At the macrotidal marsh average yearly fluxes were 1.29, 1.26, and 0.77 μmol CH4 m-2 hr-1 with control, N, and NPK treatments, respectively and 1.21 μmol m-2 hr-1 under high N/low P treatment. At the microtidal marsh CH4 fluxes were 0.23, 0.16, and -0.24 μmol CH4 m-2 hr-1 in control, N, and NPK and treatments, respectively. Fertilization changed soils from sinks to sources of N2O. Average yearly N2O fluxes at the macrotidal marsh were -0.07, 0.08, and 1.70, μmol N2O m-2 hr-1 in control, N, NPK and treatments, respectively and 0.35 μmol m-2 hr-1 under high N/low P treatment. For the control, N, and NPK treatments at the microtidal marsh N2O fluxes were -0.05, 0.30, and 0.52 μmol N2O m-2 hr-1, respectively. Our results indicate that N2O fluxes are likely to vary with the source of pollutant nutrients but emissions will be lower if N is not accompanied by an adequate supply of P (e.g., atmospheric deposition vs sewage or agricultural runoff). With chronic fertilization the global warming potential of the increased N2O emissions may be enough to offset the global cooling potential of the C sequestered by salt marshes. PMID:26914333

  12. Development of water quality standards criteria. [for consumables (spacecrew supplies)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Qualitative and semiquantitative analyses were made of volatile organic compounds in water supplies collected at various stages of processing in the space station prototype vacuum compression distillation unit to evaluate the process and the product water. Additional evaluation was made of specific ingredients required to adequately enhance the taste of the reclaimed water. A concept for the in-flight addition of these ingredients was developed. Revisions to previously recommended potable water criteria and specifications are included.

  13. Do low standing biomass and leaf area index of sub-tropical coastal dunes ensure that plants have an adequate supply of water?

    PubMed

    Ripley, Brad S; Pammenter, Norman W

    2004-05-01

    Water status in relation to standing biomass and leaf area indices (LAI) of the subtropical foredune species Arctotheca populifolia, Ipomoea pes-caprae and Scaevola plumieri were studied in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The plants showed little evidence of water stress, never developing leaf water potentials more negative than -1.55 MPa, a value which is typical of mesophytes rather than xerophytes. The plants showed no seasonal changes in osmotic potential, an indication that they did not need to osmoregulate, nor were there significant alterations in tissue elasticity. Turgor potential for the most part remained positive throughout the day or recovered positive values at night, a condition suitable for the maintenance of growth that may be essential to cope with sand accretion. All three species show relatively high transpiration rates and only I. pes-caprae showed any evidence of strong limitations of transpiration rate through reductions in midday stomatal conductance. All three species had relatively high instantaneous water use efficiencies as a result of high assimilation rates rather than low transpiration rates. Simple water budgets, accounting for losses by transpiration and inputs from rainfall, suggest that the water stored in the dune sands is sufficient to meet the requirements of the plants, although water budgets calculated for I. pes-caprae suggest that this species may on occasion be water limited. The results suggest that it is the low biomass and LAI that lead to these favourable water relations. PMID:15042456

  14. DC uninterrupted power supply having instantaneous switching followed by low impedance switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Russell E.; Northup, Robert L.; Shimp, Alan G.

    1991-10-01

    An uninterruptible power supply is provided that incorporates switching circuitry permitting a path for instantaneous DC backup power to be supplied to a voltage-declining primary power supply bus. Once the instantaneous transition is made, battery power is switched to a low impedance path to provide long-term battery power delivery to the bus. At a point where the backup batteries no longer supply useful power to a load, disabling circuitry disconnects the batteries from the load so that excessive draining of the batteries does not result in irreversible battery damage. The uninterruptible power supply of the invention further includes an automatic battery charging circuitry that seeks to maintain the power supply batteries at optimal charge level. To enable an operator to adequately assess battery charge condition, the invention provides battery test circuitry that causes a simulated load to appear at the power supply batteries. Visual representations are then made as to battery status.

  15. High voltage power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruitberg, A. P.; Young, K. M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage power supply is formed by three discrete circuits energized by a battery to provide a plurality of concurrent output signals floating at a high output voltage on the order of several tens of kilovolts. In the first two circuits, the regulator stages are pulse width modulated and include adjustable ressistances for varying the duty cycles of pulse trains provided to corresponding oscillator stages while the third regulator stage includes an adjustable resistance for varying the amplitude of a steady signal provided to a third oscillator stage. In the first circuit, the oscillator, formed by a constant current drive network and a tuned resonant network included a step up transformer, is coupled to a second step up transformer which, in turn, supplies an amplified sinusoidal signal to a parallel pair of complementary poled rectifying, voltage multiplier stages to generate the high output voltage.

  16. Discontinuous Mode Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagadinos, John; Poulos, Ethel

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses the changes made to a standard push-pull inverter circuit to avoid saturation effects in the main inverter power supply. Typically, in a standard push-pull arrangement, the unsymmetrical primary excitation causes variations in the volt second integral of each half of the excitation cycle that could lead to the establishment of DC flux density in the magnetic core, which could eventually cause saturation of the main inverter transformer. The relocation of the filter reactor normally placed across the output of the power supply solves this problem. The filter reactor was placed in series with the primary circuit of the main inverter transformer, and is presented as impedance against the sudden changes on the input current. The reactor averaged the input current in the primary circuit, avoiding saturation of the main inverter transformer. Since the implementation of the described change, the above problem has not reoccurred, and failures in the main power transistors have been avoided.

  17. Streamlining the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Lydon

    2003-07-01

    Effective management of the supply chain requires attention to: Product management--formulary development and maintenance, compliance, clinical involvement, standardization, and demand-matching. Sourcing and contracting--vendor consolidation, GPO portfolio management, price leveling, content management, and direct contracting Purchasing and payment-cycle--automatic placement, web enablement, centralization, evaluated receipts settlement, and invoice matching Inventory and distribution management--"unofficial" and "official" locations, vendor-managed inventory, automatic replenishment, and freight management.

  18. Streamlining the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Lydon

    2003-07-01

    Effective management of the supply chain requires attention to: Product management--formulary development and maintenance, compliance, clinical involvement, standardization, and demand-matching. Sourcing and contracting--vendor consolidation, GPO portfolio management, price leveling, content management, and direct contracting Purchasing and payment-cycle--automatic placement, web enablement, centralization, evaluated receipts settlement, and invoice matching Inventory and distribution management--"unofficial" and "official" locations, vendor-managed inventory, automatic replenishment, and freight management. PMID:12866156

  19. Mitochondria in response to nutrients and nutrient-sensitive pathways.

    PubMed

    Baltzer, Claudia; Tiefenböck, Stefanie K; Frei, Christian

    2010-11-01

    Mitochondria are abundant cellular organelles, and are required for the generation of energy through oxidative catabolism. Equally important, mitochondria also provide substrates for de novo synthesis of fatty acids and multiple amino acids. Mitochondrial functions must therefore be tightly linked to cellular nutrient availability. This review focuses on the current knowledge of how nutrients affect mitochondria. In particular, we describe how the transcriptional profile of the nucleus is altered to mediate this control, and the transcription factors that are involved. In addition, we summarize recent progress in our understanding of how transcription-independent mechanisms, most notably through the cellular energy sensor mTOR, are used to adapt mitochondrial functions in respect to cellular metabolic needs.

  20. Anaerobic digestion of lipid-extracted Auxenochlorella protothecoides biomass for methane generation and nutrient recovery.

    PubMed

    Bohutskyi, Pavlo; Ketter, Ben; Chow, Steven; Adams, Kameron J; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Allnutt, F C Thomas; Bouwer, Edward J

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated methane production and nutrient recovery from industrially produced, lipid extracted algal biomass (LEA) of Auxenochlorella protothecoides using semi-continuous anaerobic digestion (AD) at different organic loading rates (OLRs) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs). It was shown, that AD can improve biofuel production efficiency and sustainability, especially for scaled processes, through up to 30% increase in energy generation (up to 0.25 L of methane per g of LEA volatile solids) and partial nutrient recovery and recycling. The nutrient recycling with the AD effluent may reduce the cost of the supplied fertilizers by up to 45%. However, methane production was limited to nearly 50% of theoretical maxima potentially due to biomass recalcitrance and inhibition effects from the residual solvent in the LEA. Therefore, further AD optimization is required to maximize methane yield and nutrient recovery as well as investigation and elimination of inhibition from solvent residues.

  1. Indonesian throughflow nutrient fluxes and their potential impact on Indian Ocean productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers, Jennifer M.; Strutton, Peter G.; Coles, Victoria J.; Hood, Raleigh R.; Matear, Richard J.

    2014-07-01

    The Indonesian throughflow (ITF) is a chokepoint in the upper ocean thermohaline circulation, carrying Pacific waters through the strongly mixed Indonesian Seas and into the Indian Ocean. Yet the influence of the ITF on biogeochemical fluxes into the Indian Ocean is largely unknown. This study determines the first depth- and time-resolved nitrate, phosphate, and silicate fluxes at the three main exit passages of the ITF: Lombok Strait, Ombai Strait, and Timor Passage. Nutrient flux as well as its variability with depth and time differs greatly between the passages. We estimate the effective flux of nutrients into the Indian Ocean by accounting for existing nutrients in the basin and find it largest in the upper 300-400 m. This suggests that the majority of ITF nutrient supply to the Indian Ocean is to thermocline waters, where it is likely to support new production and significantly impact Indian Ocean biogeochemical cycling.

  2. Modulatory role of mineral nutrients on cadmium accumulation and stress tolerance in Oryza sativa L. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Abin; Prasad, M N V

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd)-contaminated rice is a serious health concern. In the present study, Cd accumulation and stress responses in Oryza sativa L. cv MTU 7029 seedlings were characterized under varying concentrations of plant nutrients in Hoagland media. It has been found that nutrient supplement modulates Cd accumulation and related stress tolerance while efficacy of each nutrient varies. Supplementation of Fe, Mn, N, Ca, and S were found to reduce Cd accumulation in leaf whereas Mn and Fe supply effect was also observed in roots. Analysis of maximum quantum efficiency of photosynthesis indicated that Fe and S supplements confer highest Cd stress tolerance. The present study highlighted the potential of plant nutrients for minimizing Cd accumulation and its toxicity in rice seedlings.

  3. Effect of soil carbohydrates on nutrient availability in natural forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnayake, R. R.; Seneviratne, G.; Kulasooriya, S. A.

    2013-05-01

    Carbohydrates supply carbon sources for microbial activities that contribute to mineral nutrient production in soil. Their role on soil nutrient availability has not yet been properly elucidated. This was studied in forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka. Soil organic matter (SOM) fractions affecting carbohydrate availability were also determined. Soil litter contributed to sugars of plant origin (SPO) in croplands. The negative relationship found between clay bound organic matter (CBO) and glucose indicates higher SOM fixation in clay that lower its availability in cultivated lands. In forests, negative relationships between litter and sugars of microbial origin (SMO) showed that litter fuelled microbes to produce sugars. Fucose and glucose increased the availability of Cu, Zn and Mn in forests. Xylose increased Ca availability in cultivated lands. Arabinose, the main carbon source of soil respiration reduced the P availability. This study showed soil carbohydrates and their relationships with mineral nutrients could provide vital information on the availability of limiting nutrients in tropical ecosystems.

  4. Dairy in Adulthood: From Foods to Nutrient Interactions on Bone and Skeletal Muscle Health

    PubMed Central

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; Kraenzlin, Marius; Levasseur, Régis; Warren, Michelle; Whiting, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The risk of fragility fractures exponentially increases with aging. Reduced mass and strength of both bone in osteoporosis and skeletal muscle in sarcopenia play a key role in the age-related incidence of fragility fractures. Undernutrition is often observed in the elderly, particularly in those subjects experiencing osteoporotic fractures, more likely as a cause than a consequence. Calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphate (Pi), vitamin D, and protein are nutrients that impact bone and skeletal muscle integrity. Deficiency in the supply of these nutrients increases with aging. Dairy foods are rich in Ca, Pi, and proteins and in many countries are fortified with vitamin D. Dairy foods are important souces of these nutrients and go a long way to meeting the recommendations, which increase with aging. This review emphaszes the interactions between these 4 nutrients, which, along with physical activity, act through cellular and physiological pathways favoring the maintenance of both bone and skeletal muscle structure and function. PMID:24024770

  5. Anaerobic digestion of lipid-extracted Auxenochlorella protothecoides biomass for methane generation and nutrient recovery.

    PubMed

    Bohutskyi, Pavlo; Ketter, Ben; Chow, Steven; Adams, Kameron J; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Allnutt, F C Thomas; Bouwer, Edward J

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated methane production and nutrient recovery from industrially produced, lipid extracted algal biomass (LEA) of Auxenochlorella protothecoides using semi-continuous anaerobic digestion (AD) at different organic loading rates (OLRs) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs). It was shown, that AD can improve biofuel production efficiency and sustainability, especially for scaled processes, through up to 30% increase in energy generation (up to 0.25 L of methane per g of LEA volatile solids) and partial nutrient recovery and recycling. The nutrient recycling with the AD effluent may reduce the cost of the supplied fertilizers by up to 45%. However, methane production was limited to nearly 50% of theoretical maxima potentially due to biomass recalcitrance and inhibition effects from the residual solvent in the LEA. Therefore, further AD optimization is required to maximize methane yield and nutrient recovery as well as investigation and elimination of inhibition from solvent residues. PMID:25746299

  6. Nutrient enrichment and nutrient regeneration stimulate bacterioplankton growth.

    PubMed

    Chrzanowski, T H; Sterner, R W; Elser, J J

    1995-05-01

    Bacterial abundance results from predatory losses of individuals and replacement of losses through growth. Growth depends on sustained input of organic substrates and mineral nutrients. In this work we tested the hypothesis that bacterial growth in two oligotrophic Canadian shield lakes was limited by nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P). We also determined whether consumer-regenerated resources contributed substantially to net bacterial growth. Two types of dilution assays were conducted to determine the response of bacteria to nutrient enrichment: diluted whole water (DWW, 1:9 whole/filtered with 0.2 μm of filtered lake water) and diluted fractionated water (DFW, 1.0 μm prefiltered then diluted as above). Replicate bottles in each dilution assay received either N (50 μM), P (10 μM), or both N and P enrichments. Controls received no nutrients. Resource-saturated growth rates and grazing rates were estimated from a standard dilution-growth approach. Bacterial growth was stimulated by addition of P alone and in combination with N. Consumers regenerated sufficient resources to support up to half the bacterial growth rate, but the benefit derived from consumers was minor when compared to mortality. PMID:24185342

  7. Nutrient enrichment and nutrient regeneration stimulate bacterioplankton growth.

    PubMed

    Chrzanowski, T H; Sterner, R W; Elser, J J

    1995-05-01

    Bacterial abundance results from predatory losses of individuals and replacement of losses through growth. Growth depends on sustained input of organic substrates and mineral nutrients. In this work we tested the hypothesis that bacterial growth in two oligotrophic Canadian shield lakes was limited by nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P). We also determined whether consumer-regenerated resources contributed substantially to net bacterial growth. Two types of dilution assays were conducted to determine the response of bacteria to nutrient enrichment: diluted whole water (DWW, 1:9 whole/filtered with 0.2 μm of filtered lake water) and diluted fractionated water (DFW, 1.0 μm prefiltered then diluted as above). Replicate bottles in each dilution assay received either N (50 μM), P (10 μM), or both N and P enrichments. Controls received no nutrients. Resource-saturated growth rates and grazing rates were estimated from a standard dilution-growth approach. Bacterial growth was stimulated by addition of P alone and in combination with N. Consumers regenerated sufficient resources to support up to half the bacterial growth rate, but the benefit derived from consumers was minor when compared to mortality.

  8. Water supplies in western Kentucky during 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sholar, C.J.; Wood, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    An inventory was conducted between April and October 1985 of 101 major public supply systems and of self-supplied commercial and industrial water systems in a 27-county area in western Kentucky. These systems, because they withdraw at least 10,000 gal/day (gpd), are regulated by the Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Projection Cabinet (Division of Water) through a permitting program. The major purpose of the inventory was to evaluate the adequacy of these water systems to meet demands during times of drought. The inventory indicated that these systems withdrew 116.3 million gpd in 1984. The study showed that public facilities supplied 33.1 mil gpd to 471,500 people. Bowling Green Municipal Utilities in the Green River basin was the largest single public supplier. It supplied 5.05 million gpd to 48,000 people, and also sold over 1.7 million gpd to about 30 ,000 people through the Warren County Water System. Comparisons of ground- and surface-water use indicated the Lower Ohio River basin had the highest percentage of surface-water use at 97%, and the Mississippi River basin had the highest percentage of groundwater use at 41%. Sources of water were generally adequate throughout the study area. Sources for two industries, also in the Green River basin, are inadequate. Six systems may have potential problems with their treatment plant capacities because they are operating at > 80% of design capacity. Three of these systems are in the Green River basin, two are in the Lower Cumberland River basin, and one is in the Tennessee River basin. (Author 's abstract)

  9. Anoxic monimolimnia: Nutrients devious feeders or bombs ready to explode?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianni, Areti; Zacharias, Ierotheos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal regions are under strong human influence and its environmental impact is reflected into their water quality. Oligotrophic estuaries and coastal systems have changed in mesotrophic and/or eutrophic, shown an increase in toxic algal blooms, hypoxic/anoxic events, and massive mortalities of many aquatic and benthic organisms. In strongly stratified and productive water basins, bottom water dissolved oxygen is depleted due to the excessive organic matter decomposition in these depths. Distribution and recycling of nutrients in their water column is inextricably dependent on oxygenation and redox conditions. Bottom water anoxia accelerates PO43-, NH4+ and H2S recycling and accumulation from organic matter decomposition. The anoxic, H2S, PO43- and NH4+ rich bottom water constitutes a toxic layer, threatening the balance of the entire ecosystem. In permanently stratified water basins, storm events could result in stratification destruction and water column total mixing. The turnover brings large amounts of H2S to the surface resulting in low levels of oxygen and massive fish kills. PO43- and NH4+ are released to the interface and surface waters promoting algal blooms. Μore organic matter is produced fueling anoxia. The arising question is, whether the balance of an anoxic water ecosystem is under the threat of its hypolimnetic nutrient and sulfide load, only in the case of storm events and water column total mixing. In polymictic water basins it is clear that the accumulated, in the bottom layer, nutrients will supply surface waters, after the pycnocline overturn. Besides this mechanism of basins' water quality degradation is nowadays recognized as one of the biggest obstacles in eutrophic environments management and restoration efforts. The role of internal load, in permanently stratified water basins, is not so clear. In the present study the impact of storm events on water column stability and bottom water anoxia of meromictic coastal basins, is investigated

  10. ERD Research on Nutrient and Pathogen Dynamics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Slide presentation giving an overview on the ERD research on nutrient and pathogen dynamics. Focus is on characterizing the dynamics of pathogen and nutrient stressors in the environment to support water quality objectives.

  11. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... made to obtain an adequate and reliable supply of an alternate fuel for use as a primary energy source... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW...

  12. Dissolved Nutrient Retention Dynamics in River Networks: A Modeling Investigation of Transient Flow and Scale Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Sheng; Covino, Timothy P.; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Basu, Nandita; Li, Hongyi; Wang, Shaowen

    2012-06-30

    In this paper, we use a dynamic network flow model, coupled with a transient storage zone biogeochemical model, to simulate dissolved nutrient removal processes at the channel network scale. We have explored several scenarios in respect of the combination of rainfall variability, and the biological and geomorphic characteristics of the catchment, to understand the dominant controls on removal and delivery of dissolved nutrients (e.g., nitrate). These model-based theoretical analyses suggested that while nutrient removal efficiency is lower during flood events compared to during baseflow periods, flood events contribute significantly to bulk nutrient removal, whereas bulk removal during baseflow periods is less. This is due to the fact that nutrient supply is larger during flood events; this trend is even stronger in large rivers. However, the efficiency of removal during both periods decreases in larger rivers, however, due to (i) increasing flow velocities and thus decreasing residence time, and (ii) increasing flow depth, and thus decreasing nutrient uptake rates. Besides nutrient removal processes can be divided into two parts: in the main channel and in the hyporheic transient storage zone. When assessing their relative contributions the size of the transient storage zone is a dominant control, followed by uptake rates in the main channel and in the transient storage zone. Increasing size of the transient storage zone with downstream distance affects the relative contributions to nutrient removal of the water column and the transient storage zone, which also impacts the way nutrient removal rates scale with increasing size of rivers. Intra-annual hydrologic variability has a significant impact on removal rates at all scales: the more variable the streamflow is, compared to mean discharge, the less nutrient is removed in the channel network. A scale-independent first order uptake coefficient, ke, estimated from model simulations, is highly dependent on the

  13. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8-10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100-199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  14. Are the current Australian sun exposure guidelines effective in maintaining adequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D?

    PubMed

    Kimlin, Michael; Sun, Jiandong; Sinclair, Craig; Heward, Sue; Hill, Jane; Dunstone, Kimberley; Brodie, Alison

    2016-01-01

    An adequate vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, is important in humans for maintenance of healthy bones and muscle function. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed in participants from Melbourne, Australia (37.81S, 144.96E), who were provided with the current Australian guidelines on sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy (25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L). Participants were interviewed in February (summer, n=104) and August (winter, n=99) of 2013. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was examined as a function of measures of sun exposure and sun protection habits with control of key characteristics such as dietary intake of vitamin D, body mass index (BMI) and skin colour, that may modify this relationship. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in participants who complied with the current sun exposure guidelines was 67.3 nmol/L in summer and 41.9 nmol/L in winter. At the end of the study, 69.3% of participants who complied with the summer sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate, while only 27.6% of participants who complied with the winter sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate at the end of the study. The results suggest that the current Australian guidelines for sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy are effective for most in summer and ineffective for most in winter. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  15. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  16. Thrombography reveals thrombin generation potential continues to deteriorate following cardiopulmonary bypass surgery despite adequate hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Raymond K; Sleep, Joseph R; Visner, Allison J; Raasch, David J; Lanza, Louis A; DeValeria, Patrick A; Torloni, Antonio S; Arabia, Francisco A

    2011-03-01

    The intrinsic and extrinsic activation pathways of the hemostatic system converge when prothrombin is converted to thrombin. The ability to generate an adequate thrombin burst is the most central aspect of the coagulation cascade. The thrombin-generating potential in patients following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may be indicative of their hemostatic status. In this report, thrombography, a unique technique for directly measuring the potential of patients' blood samples to generate adequate thrombin bursts, is used to characterize the coagulopathic profile in post-CPB patients. Post-CPB hemostasis is typically achieved with protamine reversal of heparin anticoagulation and occasionally supplemented with blood product component transfusions. In this pilot study, platelet poor plasma samples were derived from 11 primary cardiac surgery patients at five time points: prior to CPB, immediately post-protamine, upon arrival to the intensive care unit (ICU), 3 hours post-ICU admission, and 24 hours after ICU arrival. Thrombography revealed that the Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) was not different between [Baseline] and [PostProtamine] but proceeded to deteriorate in the immediate postoperative period. At the [3HourPostICU] time point, the ETP was significantly lower than the [Baseline] values, 1233 +/- 591 versus 595 +/- 379 nM.min (mean +/- SD; n=9, p < .005), despite continued adequacy of hemostasis. ETPs returned to baseline values the day after surgery. Transfusions received, conventional blood coagulation testing results, and blood loss volumes are also presented. Despite adequate hemostasis, thrombography reveals an underlying coagulopathic process that could put some cardiac surgical patients at risk for postoperative bleeding. Thrombography is a novel technique that could be developed into a useful tool for perfusionists and physicians to identify coagulopathies and optimize blood management following CPB. PMID:21449230

  17. Linking nutrient loading and oxygen in the coastal ocean: A new global scale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Daniel C.; Harrison, John A.

    2016-03-01

    Recent decades have witnessed an exponential spread of low-oxygen regions in the coastal ocean due at least in-part to enhanced terrestrial nutrient inputs. As oxygen deprivation is a major stressor on marine ecosystems, there is a great need to quantitatively link shifts in nutrient loading with changes in oxygen concentrations. To this end, we have developed and here describe, evaluate, and apply the Coastal Ocean Oxygen Linked to Benthic Exchange And Nutrient Supply (COOLBEANS) model, a first-of-its-kind, spatially explicit (with 152 coastal segments) model, global model of coastal oxygen and nutrient dynamics. In COOLBEANS, benthic oxygen demand (BOD) is calculated using empirical models for aerobic respiration, iron reduction, and sulfate reduction, while oxygen supply is represented by a simple parameterization of exchange between surface and bottom waters. A nutrient cycling component translates shifts in riverine nutrient inputs into changes in organic matter delivery to sediments and, ultimately, oxygen uptake. Modeled BOD reproduces observations reasonably well (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency = 0.71), and estimates of exchange between surface and bottom waters correlate with stratification. The model examines sensitivity of bottom water oxygen to changes in nutrient inputs and vertical exchange between surface and bottom waters, highlighting the importance of this vertical exchange in defining the susceptibility of a system to oxygen depletion. These sensitivities along with estimated maximum hypoxic areas that are supported by present day nutrient loads are consistent with existing hypoxic regions. Sensitivities are put into context by applying historic changes in nitrogen loading observed in the Gulf of Mexico to the global coastal ocean, demonstrating that such loads would drive many systems anoxic or even sulfidic.

  18. Chronic leg ulcer: does a patient always get a correct diagnosis and adequate treatment?

    PubMed

    Mooij, Michael C; Huisman, Laurens C

    2016-03-01

    Patients with chronic leg ulcers have severely impaired quality of life and account for a high percentage of annual healthcare costs. To establish the cause of a chronic leg ulcer, referral to a center with a multidisciplinary team of professionals is often necessary. Treating the underlying cause diminishes healing time and reduces costs. In venous leg ulcers adequate compression therapy is still a problem. It can be improved by training the professionals with pressure measuring devices. A perfect fitting of elastic stockings is important to prevent venous leg ulcer recurrence. In most cases, custom-made stockings are the best choice for this purpose. PMID:26916772

  19. Determining Adequate Margins in Head and Neck Cancers: Practice and Continued Challenges.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle D

    2016-09-01

    Margin assessment remains a critical component of oncologic care for head and neck cancer patients. As an integrated team, both surgeons and pathologists work together to assess margins in these complex patients. Differences in method of margin sampling can impact obtainable information and effect outcomes. Additionally, what distance is an "adequate or clear" margin for patient care continues to be debated. Ultimately, future studies and potentially secondary modalities to augment pathologic assessment of margin assessment (i.e., in situ imaging or molecular assessment) may enhance local control in head and neck cancer patients. PMID:27469263

  20. Nebulized antibiotics. An adequate option for treating ventilator-associated respiratory infection?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Barcenilla, F

    2015-03-01

    Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) is a frequent complication in critical patients. The 90% of those who develop it receive broad-spectrum antibiotic (ATB) treatment, without any strong evidence of its favorable impact. The use of nebulized ATB could be a valid treatment option, to reduce the use of systemic ATB and the pressure of selection on the local flora. Several studies suggest that an adequate nebulization technique can ensure high levels of ATB even in areas of lung consolidation, and to obtain clinical and microbiological cure. New studies are needed to properly assess the impact of treatment with nebulized ATB on the emergence of resistance.