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Sample records for adequate nutrient supply

  1. Global Expanded Nutrient Supply (GENuS) Model: A New Method for Estimating the Global Dietary Supply of Nutrients.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew R; Micha, Renata; Golden, Christopher D; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Myers, Samuel S

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient data exist for accurate estimation of global nutrient supplies. Commonly used global datasets contain key weaknesses: 1) data with global coverage, such as the FAO food balance sheets, lack specific information about many individual foods and no information on micronutrient supplies nor heterogeneity among subnational populations, while 2) household surveys provide a closer approximation of consumption, but are often not nationally representative, do not commonly capture many foods consumed outside of the home, and only provide adequate information for a few select populations. Here, we attempt to improve upon these datasets by constructing a new model--the Global Expanded Nutrient Supply (GENuS) model--to estimate nutrient availabilities for 23 individual nutrients across 225 food categories for thirty-four age-sex groups in nearly all countries. Furthermore, the model provides historical trends in dietary nutritional supplies at the national level using data from 1961-2011. We determine supplies of edible food by expanding the food balance sheet data using FAO production and trade data to increase food supply estimates from 98 to 221 food groups, and then estimate the proportion of major cereals being processed to flours to increase to 225. Next, we estimate intake among twenty-six demographic groups (ages 20+, both sexes) in each country by using data taken from the Global Dietary Database, which uses nationally representative surveys to relate national averages of food consumption to individual age and sex-groups; for children and adolescents where GDD data does not yet exist, average calorie-adjusted amounts are assumed. Finally, we match food supplies with nutrient densities from regional food composition tables to estimate nutrient supplies, running Monte Carlo simulations to find the range of potential nutrient supplies provided by the diet. To validate our new method, we compare the GENuS estimates of nutrient supplies against independent

  2. Global Expanded Nutrient Supply (GENuS) Model: A New Method for Estimating the Global Dietary Supply of Nutrients

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Christopher D.; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient data exist for accurate estimation of global nutrient supplies. Commonly used global datasets contain key weaknesses: 1) data with global coverage, such as the FAO food balance sheets, lack specific information about many individual foods and no information on micronutrient supplies nor heterogeneity among subnational populations, while 2) household surveys provide a closer approximation of consumption, but are often not nationally representative, do not commonly capture many foods consumed outside of the home, and only provide adequate information for a few select populations. Here, we attempt to improve upon these datasets by constructing a new model—the Global Expanded Nutrient Supply (GENuS) model—to estimate nutrient availabilities for 23 individual nutrients across 225 food categories for thirty-four age-sex groups in nearly all countries. Furthermore, the model provides historical trends in dietary nutritional supplies at the national level using data from 1961–2011. We determine supplies of edible food by expanding the food balance sheet data using FAO production and trade data to increase food supply estimates from 98 to 221 food groups, and then estimate the proportion of major cereals being processed to flours to increase to 225. Next, we estimate intake among twenty-six demographic groups (ages 20+, both sexes) in each country by using data taken from the Global Dietary Database, which uses nationally representative surveys to relate national averages of food consumption to individual age and sex-groups; for children and adolescents where GDD data does not yet exist, average calorie-adjusted amounts are assumed. Finally, we match food supplies with nutrient densities from regional food composition tables to estimate nutrient supplies, running Monte Carlo simulations to find the range of potential nutrient supplies provided by the diet. To validate our new method, we compare the GENuS estimates of nutrient supplies against independent

  3. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared.

  4. Oil & gas in the 1990`s and beyond: Adequate supplies, growing demand, flat prices

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.L.

    1995-06-01

    Long term petroleum market fundamentals are clear: supplies are adequate and world demand will continue to grow steadily. Adequate supplies insure that prices will not increase significantly, on average, till the end of the 1990`s, probably much beyond. Despite plentiful supply and modest price increases, there will be peaks and valleys in the price graph as productive capacity is used up, then expanded. Tens of billions of dollars will be needed over the next decade to expand producing capacity. World oil consumption will increase at about 1.5% per year, at least for the next decade. Demand in Asia and Latin America will grow several times faster than this average world rate. World natural gas demand will grow at more then 2% per year well past 2000. Oil and gas companies around the world have changed the way they operate to survive the market realities of the 1990`s. restructuring, outsourcing, and partnering will continue as increasing costs and flat prices squeeze profits. Energy use patterns will change. Fuel and other product specifications will change. Market shares of oil and gas will shift. But opportunities abound in this new market environment. Growing markets always provide opportunities. Technology has helped operators dramatically lower finding, developing, and producing costs. The petroleum age is far from being over. Growing markets, adequate supply, affordable products, and a 60% market share. Those are the signs of an industry with a bright future.

  5. Adequate nutrient intake can reduce cardiovascular disease risk in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Reusser, Molly E; DiRienzo, Douglas B; Miller, Gregory D; McCarron, David A

    2003-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease kills nearly as many Americans each year as the next seven leading causes of death combined. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease and most of its associated risk factors is markedly higher and increasing more rapidly among African Americans than in any other racial or ethnic group. Improving these statistics may be simply a matter of improving diet quality. In recent years, a substantial and growing body of evidence has revealed that dietary patterns complete in all food groups, including nutrient-rich dairy products, are essential for preventing and reducing cardiovascular disease and the conditions that contribute to it. Several cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, insulin resistance syndrome, and obesity, have been shown to be positively influenced by dietary patterns that include adequate intake of dairy products. The benefits of nutrient-rich dietary patterns have been specifically tested in randomized, controlled trials emphasizing African American populations. These studies demonstrated proportionally greater benefits for African Americans without evidence of adverse effects such as symptoms of lactose intolerance. As currently promoted for the prevention of certain cancers and osteoporosis, regular consumption of diets that meet recommended nutrient intake levels might also be the most effective approach for reducing cardiovascular disease risk in African Americans.

  6. Closed-Cycle Nutrient Supply For Hydroponics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.

    1991-01-01

    Hydroponic system controls composition and feed rate of nutrient solution and recovers and recycles excess solution. Uses air pressure on bladders to transfer aqueous nutrient solution. Measures and adjusts composition of solution before it goes to hydroponic chamber. Eventually returns excess solution to one of tanks. Designed to operate in microgravity, also adaptable to hydroponic plant-growing systems on Earth.

  7. A Comparison of the Role of Episode Nutrient Supply on Pathways of Carbon in Upwelling Regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. E.

    1997-01-01

    Nutrient supply is episode in the ocean even in regions of fairly high and continuous nutrient supply, such as coastal upwelling regimes. The structure of the ecosystem depends on nutrient availability and the different requirements of phytoplankton cells.

  8. Microalgal and cyanobacterial cultivation: the supply of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Markou, Giorgos; Vandamme, Dries; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2014-11-15

    Microalgae and cyanobacteria are a promising new source of biomass that may complement agricultural crops to meet the increasing global demand for food, feed, biofuels and chemical production. Microalgae and cyanobacteria cultivation does not interfere directly with food production, but care should be taken to avoid indirect competition for nutrient (fertilizer) supply. Microalgae and cyanobacteria production requires high concentrations of essential nutrients (C,N,P,S,K,Fe, etc.). In the present paper the application of nutrients and their uptake by microalgae and cyanobacteria is reviewed. The main focus is on the three most significant nutrients, i.e. carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus; however other nutrients are also reviewed. Nutrients are generally taken up in the inorganic form, but several organic forms of them are also assimilable. Some nutrients do not display any inhibition effect on microalgal or cyanobacterial growth, while others, such as NO2 or NH3 have detrimental effects when present in high concentrations. Nutrients in the gaseous form, such as CO2 and NO face a major limitation which is related mainly to their mass transfer from the gaseous to the liquid state. Since the cultivation of microalgae and cyanobacteria consumes considerable quantities of nutrients, strategies to improve the nutrient application efficiency are needed. Additionally, a promising strategy to improve microalgal and cyanobacterial production sustainability is the utilization of waste streams by recycling of waste nutrients. However, major constraints of using waste streams are the reduction of the range of the biomass applications due to production of contaminated biomass and the possible low bio-availability of some nutrients.

  9. Swift recovery of Sphagnum nutrient concentrations after excess supply.

    PubMed

    Limpens, Juul; Heijmans, Monique M P D

    2008-08-01

    Although numerous studies have addressed the effects of increased N deposition on nutrient-poor environments such as raised bogs, few studies have dealt with to what extent, and on what time-scale, reductions in atmospheric N supply would lead to recovery of the ecosystems in question. Since a considerable part of the negative effects of elevated N deposition on raised bogs can be related to an imbalance in tissue nutrient concentrations of the dominant peat-former Sphagnum, changes in Sphagnum nutrient concentration after excess N supply may be used as an early indicator of ecosystem response. This study focuses on the N and P concentrations of Sphagnum magellanicum and Sphagnum fallax before, during and after a factorial fertilization experiment with N and P in two small peatlands subject to a background bulk deposition of 2 g N m(-2) year(-1). Three years of adding N (4.0 g N m(-2) year(-1)) increased the N concentration, and adding P (0.3 g P m(-2) year(-1)) increased the P concentration in Sphagnum relative to the control treatment at both sites. Fifteen months after the nutrient additions had ceased, N concentrations were similar to the control whereas P concentrations, although strongly reduced, were still slightly elevated. The changes in the N and P concentrations were accompanied by changes in the distribution of nutrients over the capitulum and the stem and were congruent with changes in translocation. Adding N reduced the stem P concentration, whereas adding P reduced the stem N concentration in favor of the capitulum. Sphagnum nutrient concentrations quickly respond to reductions in excess nutrient supply, indicating that a management policy aimed at reducing atmospheric nutrient input to bogs can yield results within a few years.

  10. Variation in nutrients formulated and nutrients supplied on 5 California dairies.

    PubMed

    Rossow, H A; Aly, S S

    2013-01-01

    Computer models used in ration formulation assume that nutrients supplied by a ration formulation are the same as the nutrients presented in front of the cow in the final ration. Deviations in nutrients due to feed management effects such as dry matter changes (i.e., rain), loading, mixing, and delivery errors are assumed to not affect delivery of nutrients to the cow and her resulting milk production. To estimate how feed management affects nutrients supplied to the cow and milk production, and determine if nutrients can serve as indexes of feed management practices, weekly total mixed ration samples were collected and analyzed for 4 pens (close-up cows, fresh cows, high-milk-producing, and low-milk-producing cows, if available) for 7 to 12 wk on 5 commercial California dairies. Differences among nutrient analyses from these samples and nutrients from the formulated rations were analyzed by PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Milk fat and milk protein percentages did not vary as much [coefficient of variation (CV) = 18 to 33%] as milk yield (kg; CV = 16 to 47 %) across all dairies and pens. Variability in nutrients delivered were highest for macronutrient fat (CV = 22%), lignin (CV = 15%), and ash (CV = 11%) percentages and micronutrients Fe (mg/kg; CV = 48%), Na (%; CV = 42%), and Zn (mg/kg; CV = 38%) for the milking pens across all dairies. Partitioning of the variability in random effects of nutrients delivered and intraclass correlation coefficients showed that variability in lignin percentage of TMR had the highest correlation with variability in milk yield and milk fat percentage, followed by fat and crude protein percentages. But, variability in ash, fat, and lignin percentages of total mixed ration had the highest correlation with variability in milk protein percentage. Therefore, lignin, fat, and ash may be the best indices of feed management to include effects of variability in nutrients on variability in milk yield, milk fat, and milk

  11. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained.

  12. Yield Gap, Indigenous Nutrient Supply and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Maize in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xinpeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; He, Ping; Johnston, Adrian M.; Zhao, Shicheng; Qiu, Shaojun; Zhou, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Great achievements have been attained in agricultural production of China, while there are still many difficulties and challenges ahead that call for put more efforts to overcome to guarantee food security and protect environment simultaneously. Analyzing yield gap and nutrient use efficiency will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies to increase grain yield. On-farm datasets from 2001 to 2012 with 1,971 field experiments for maize (Zea mays L.) were collected in four maize agro-ecological regions of China, and the optimal management (OPT), farmers’ practice (FP), a series of nutrient omission treatments were used to analyze yield gap, nutrient use efficiency and indigenous nutrient supply by adopting meta-analysis and ANOVA analysis. Across all sites, the average yield gap between OPT and FP was 0.7 t ha-1, the yield response to nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) were 1.8, 1.0, and 1.2 t ha-1, respectively. The soil indigenous nutrient supply of N, P, and K averaged 139.9, 33.7, and 127.5 kg ha-1, respectively. As compared to FP, the average recovery efficiency (RE) of N, P, and K with OPT increased by percentage point of 12.2, 5.5, and 6.5, respectively. This study indicated that there would be considerable potential to further improve yield and nutrient use efficiency in China, and will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies, while some management measures such as soil, plant and nutrient are necessary and integrate with advanced knowledge and technologies. PMID:26484543

  13. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    PubMed

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in non-consumers. The PANDiet index was significantly higher in yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p < 0.001). The adequacy sub-score for 17 nutrients for which usual intake should be above the reference value was significantly higher among yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet.

  14. [Energy and nutrient supply during childhood. VII. Vitamins. (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Droese, W; Stolley, H; Kersting, M

    1980-06-01

    Vitamin intake (retinol, carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid) of 2--14 year old children living at home is reported. The vitamin supply corresponds with the recommendations of the committees for nutrition of the Federal Republic of Germany, of the German Democratic Republic, of the United Kingdom and of USA. The vitamin intake of the children is in the same range with the vitamin intake of children in similar European countries. Children in USA get more vitamins with their diet. There are more foodstuffs with added vitamins in USA than in Europe. The children observed by us received with their warm midday meals 40--60% of their daily vitamin intake. Determinations of the mean vitamin intake for an individual child need longer observation periods (6--8 weeks) than determinations for other nutrients. With a mixed well-composed diet children have a good supply with vitamins.

  15. MRS evidence of adequate O2 supply in human skeletal muscle at the onset of exercise

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Russell S.; Wary, Claire; Wray, D. Walter; Hoff, Jan; Rossiter, Harry; Layec, Gwenael; Carlier, Pierre G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose At exercise onset, intramuscular oxidative energy production responds relatively slowly in comparison to the change in ATP demand. To determine if the slow kinetics of oxidative ATP production is due to inadequate O2 supply or metabolic inertia we studied the kinetics of intramyocellular deoxygenation (deoxy-myoglobin, Mb) and metabolism (phosphocreatine, PCr), using proton (1H) and phosphorus (31P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in 6 healthy subjects (33 ± 5 yrs). Methods Specifically, utilizing dynamic plantar flexion exercise, rest to exercise and recovery was assessed at both 60% of maximum work rate (WRmax) (moderate intensity) and 80% of WRmax (heavy intensity). Results At exercise onset [PCr] fell without delay and with a similar time constant (τ) at both exercise intensities (~33 s). In contrast, the increase in deoxy-Mb was delayed at exercise onset by 5–7 s, after which it increased with kinetics (moderate τ = 37 ± 9 s, and heavy τ = 29 ± 6 s) that were not different from τPCr (p > 0.05). At cessation, deoxy-Mb recovered without a time delay and more rapidly (τ ~20 s) than PCr (τ ~33 s) (p < 0.05). Conclusion using a unique combination of in vivo MRS techniques with high time-resolution, this study revealed a delay in intramuscular de-oxygenation at the onset of exercise, and rapid re-oxygenation kinetics upon cessation. Together these data imply that intramuscular substrate-enzyme interactions, and not O2 availability, determine the exercise onset kinetics of oxidative metabolism in healthy human skeletal muscle. PMID:25830362

  16. Monitoring the levels of important nutrients in the food supply.

    PubMed

    Neal, B; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Dunford, E; Snowdon, W; Webster, J; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; L'Abbé, M; Lee, A; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Rayner, M; Sanders, D; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    A food supply that delivers energy-dense products with high levels of salt, saturated fats and trans fats, in large portion sizes, is a major cause of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The highly processed foods produced by large food corporations are primary drivers of increases in consumption of these adverse nutrients. The objective of this paper is to present an approach to monitoring food composition that can both document the extent of the problem and underpin novel actions to address it. The monitoring approach seeks to systematically collect information on high-level contextual factors influencing food composition and assess the energy density, salt, saturated fat, trans fats and portion sizes of highly processed foods for sale in retail outlets (with a focus on supermarkets and quick-service restaurants). Regular surveys of food composition are proposed across geographies and over time using a pragmatic, standardized methodology. Surveys have already been undertaken in several high- and middle-income countries, and the trends have been valuable in informing policy approaches. The purpose of collecting data is not to exhaustively document the composition of all foods in the food supply in each country, but rather to provide information to support governments, industry and communities to develop and enact strategies to curb food-related NCDs.

  17. Adequate nutrient intakes are associated with traditional food consumption in nunavut inuit children aged 3-5 years.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Down, Louise; Egeland, Grace M

    2010-07-01

    Dietary habits among Arctic preschoolers are unknown. A cross-sectional health survey of 388 Inuit, aged 3-5 y, was conducted in 16 communities in Canada's Nunavut Territory. Twenty-four-hour recall and FFQ with parents and primary caregivers quantified diet from market and traditional foods (TF). The Institute of Medicine's Dietary Reference Intakes estimated adequacy comparing intakes with Estimated Average Requirement or Adequate Intakes (AI). High-sugar and high-fat food and sugar beverage consumption and the extent to which dietary habits followed the Canadian Food Guide were evaluated. The children's mean age was 4.4 +/- 0.9 y and the mean BMI percentile was 90.2%. Consumption of nutrient-poor and energy-dense food and beverages contributed to 35% of energy. Most children met the requirements for many nutrients despite not eating the recommended servings from Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide First Nations, Inuit and Métis. Higher intake of TF resulted in higher intakes of cholesterol, vitamins A and D, iron, magnesium, and zinc. The percent above the AI for vitamin D was 43.1, 56.8, and 83.2% among no, low, and high TF consumers, respectively (chi2 test; P-trend < 0.0001). Dietary habits indicate a population at risk for overweight, obesity, and tooth decay. Interventions should encourage TF, including plant-based TF; healthy market food choices, including fruit and vegetables; and milk or alternative sources of vitamin D and calcium and discourage unhealthy market food choices.

  18. Shifts in biomass and resource allocation patterns following defoliation in Eucalyptus globulus growing with varying water and nutrient supplies.

    PubMed

    Eyles, Alieta; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Mohammed, Caroline

    2009-06-01

    In woody species, potential mechanisms to compensate for tissue loss to herbivory and diseases have been related to post-event shifts in growth, biomass and internal resource allocation patterns, as modulated by external resource limitations. We examined the interactive effects of belowground resource limitations by varying nutrient and water availability, and aboveground carbon limitation imposed by a single defoliation event (40% leaf removal) on stem growth, whole-tree and within-tree resource allocation patterns (total non-structural carbohydrate and nitrogen) and below- and aboveground biomass allocation patterns in 8-month-old, field-grown Eucalyptus globulus Labill. saplings. Two months after treatments were imposed, the direction of the stem growth response to defoliation depended on the abiotic treatment. Five months after defoliation, however, we found little evidence that resource availability constrained the expression of tolerance to defoliation. With the exception of the combined low-nutrient and low-water supply treatment, saplings grown with (1) adequate water and nutrient supplies and even with (2) low-water supply or (3) low-nutrient supply were able to compensate for the 40% foliage loss. The observed compensatory responses were attributed to the activation of several short- and longer-term physiological mechanisms including reduced biomass allocation to coarse roots, mobilization of carbohydrate reserves, robust internal N dynamics and increased ratio of foliage to wood dry mass.

  19. Consistent nutrient storage and supply mediated by diverse fish communities in coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Allgeier, Jacob E; Layman, Craig A; Mumby, Peter J; Rosemond, Amy D

    2014-08-01

    Corals thrive in low nutrient environments and the conservation of these globally imperiled ecosystems is largely dependent on mitigating the effects of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. However, to better understand the implications of anthropogenic nutrients requires a heightened understanding of baseline nutrient dynamics within these ecosystems. Here, we provide a novel perspective on coral reef nutrient dynamics by examining the role of fish communities in the supply and storage of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). We quantified fish-mediated nutrient storage and supply for 144 species and modeled these data onto 172 fish communities (71 729 individual fish), in four types of coral reefs, as well as seagrass and mangrove ecosystems, throughout the Northern Antilles. Fish communities supplied and stored large quantities of nutrients, with rates varying among ecosystem types. The size structure and diversity of the fish communities best predicted N and P supply and storage and N : P supply, suggesting that alterations to fish communities (e.g., overfishing) will have important implications for nutrient dynamics in these systems. The stoichiometric ratio (N : P) for storage in fish mass (~8 : 1) and supply (~20 : 1) was notably consistent across the four coral reef types (but not seagrass or mangrove ecosystems). Published nutrient enrichment studies on corals show that deviations from this N : P supply ratio may be associated with poor coral fitness, providing qualitative support for the hypothesis that corals and their symbionts may be adapted to specific ratios of nutrient supply. Consumer nutrient stoichiometry provides a baseline from which to better understand nutrient dynamics in coral reef and other coastal ecosystems, information that is greatly needed if we are to implement more effective measures to ensure the future health of the world's oceans.

  20. Global and regional drivers of nutrient supply, primary production and CO2 drawdown in the changing Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Jean-Éric; Anderson, Leif G.; Matrai, Patricia; Coupel, Pierre; Bélanger, Simon; Michel, Christine; Reigstad, Marit

    2015-12-01

    -Arctic scale. While CO2 intake by the Arctic Ocean should respond positively to reduced sea-ice extent, which facilitates air-sea exchange, the negative influence of rising temperatures and runoff on CO2 solubility might counteract the positive effect of modest PP increases in seasonally open waters. Overall, this review shows that local changes in light availability resulting from reduced sea-ice is only one factor in the intricate web of local and remote drivers of PP and CO2 drawdown in the Arctic Ocean. Understanding and predicting change requires an integrated biogeochemical approach that connects the small Arctic Ocean to adjacent ones and adequately resolves vertical nutrient supply processes at regional and local scales.

  1. Dust outpaces bedrock in nutrient supply to montane forest ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Aciego, S. M.; Riebe, C. S.; Hart, S. C.; Blakowski, M. A.; Carey, C. J.; Aarons, S. M.; Dove, N. C.; Botthoff, J. K.; Sims, K. W. W.; Aronson, E. L.

    2017-01-01

    Dust provides ecosystem-sustaining nutrients to landscapes underlain by intensively weathered soils. Here we show that dust may also be crucial in montane forest ecosystems, dominating nutrient budgets despite continuous replacement of depleted soils with fresh bedrock via erosion. Strontium and neodymium isotopes in modern dust show that Asian sources contribute 18–45% of dust deposition across our Sierra Nevada, California study sites. The remaining dust originates regionally from the nearby Central Valley. Measured dust fluxes are greater than or equal to modern erosional outputs from hillslopes to channels, and account for 10–20% of estimated millennial-average inputs of bedrock P. Our results demonstrate that exogenic dust can drive the evolution of nutrient budgets in montane ecosystems, with implications for predicting forest response to changes in climate and land use. PMID:28348371

  2. Nutrient supply from fishes facilitates macroalgae and suppresses corals in a Caribbean coral reef ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Burkepile, Deron E; Allgeier, Jacob E; Shantz, Andrew A; Pritchard, Catharine E; Lemoine, Nathan P; Bhatti, Laura H; Layman, Craig A

    2013-01-01

    On coral reefs, fishes can facilitate coral growth via nutrient excretion; however, as coral abundance declines, these nutrients may help facilitate increases in macroalgae. By combining surveys of reef communities with bioenergetics modeling, we showed that fish excretion supplied 25 times more nitrogen to forereefs in the Florida Keys, USA, than all other biotic and abiotic sources combined. One apparent result was a positive relationship between fish excretion and macroalgal cover on these reefs. Herbivore biomass also showed a negative relationship with macroalgal cover, suggesting strong interactions of top-down and bottom-up forcing. Nutrient supply by fishes also showed a negative correlation with juvenile coral density, likely mediated by competition between macroalgae and corals, suggesting that fish excretion may hinder coral recovery following large-scale coral loss. Thus, the impact of nutrient supply by fishes may be context-dependent and reinforce either coral-dominant or coral-depauperate reef communities depending on initial community states.

  3. Optimization of nutrient supply in a downflow gas-phase biofilter packed with an inert carrier.

    PubMed

    Prado, O J; Mendoza, J A; Veiga, M C; Kennes, C

    2002-08-01

    Several methodologies were tested to supply nutrients to a downflow biofilter packed with perlite and used to treat toluene-polluted air. Despite the presence of an inorganic carrier, elimination capacities of up to around 60 g/m(3) per hour could be maintained when a basal medium, containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, was supplied once every fortnight or even once a month rather than once a week. Experimental results also indicated that the addition of vitamins or trace minerals to the basal aqueous medium hardly improved biofilter performance. Furthermore, the nutrient supply could be combined with a biomass control strategy, using air sparging, without any adverse effect on biofilter performance compared to supplying nutrients alone, and limiting the accumulation of excess biomass on the packing material. The performance of the biofilter was not significantly affected by temperature fluctuations between 25 and 33 degrees C.

  4. Chemical evaluation of nutrient supply from fly ash-biosolids mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Schumann, A.W.; Sumner, M.E.

    2000-02-01

    Prediction of plant nutrient supply from fly ash and biosolids (sewage sludge and poultry manure) may enhance their agricultural use as crop fertilizer. Two mild extraction methods (42-d equilibration with ion-exchange resins; 2-d equilibration with pH 4.8 buffered nutrient solution) and analysis of nutrient data by the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) were tested with 29 fly ash samples, four biosolids samples, and their mixtures. The resin method was useful for major nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S) extraction from fly ashes and organic materials, particularly where mineralizable fractions of N and P under aerobic conditions are required. However, resins were inefficient in extracting P from high-Fe sewage sludges because organic waste samples caused premature failure of semipermeable membranes and fouling of resins. Extraction of fly ash with dilute buffered nutrient solution was more successful because micronutrient recovery was improved, major nutrients were correlated to the resin method, both addition and removal of nutrients were recorded. DRIS analysis was possible, and equilibration was rapid (2 d). The overall nutrient supply from these extremely variable fly ashes was: Cu = Fe {approx} B {approx} Mo > Ca > S > Zn >> Mn > N > Mg > P > K (high micronutrient, low major nutrient supply). For biosolids, the major nutrients ranked: P > N {approx} Ca > S > Mg > K (sewage sludges), and N > Ca {approx} K > P > Mg > S (poultry manures). In mixtures of fly ash with 26% sewage sludge the order was: Ca > S > N > Mg > P > K, while in mixtures of fly ash and 13% poultry manure, the nutrients ranked: Ca > K {approx} N {approx} S > Mg > P. Optimal plant nutrition (especially N-P-K balancing) should be possible by mixing these three waste materials.

  5. Developing of discrimination experiment to find most adequate model of plant’s multi-nutrient functional response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltykov, M. Yu; Bartsev, S. I.

    2017-02-01

    To create reliable Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) it is necessary to have models which can predict CELSS dynamic with good accuracy. However it was shown that conventional ecological models cannot describe CELSS correctly if it is closed by more than one element. This problem can be solved by means more complex models than conventional ones - so called flexible metabolism models. However it is possible that CELSS also can be described correctly in “semi-conventional” framework – when only one trophic level is described by flexible metabolism model. Another problem in CELSS modeling is existence of different and incompatible hypotheses about relationships between plants growth rate and amounts of nutrients (functional responses). Difficulty of testing these hypotheses is associated with multi-nutrient dependency of growth rate and comprehensive experimental studies are expensive and time-consuming. This work is devoted to testing the hypothesis that “semi-conventional” approach is enough to describe CELSS, and to planning the discrimination experiment on selecting correct type of the plant’s functional response. To do that three different models of plants (one flexible and two conventional) were investigated both in the scope of CELSS model, and in hemostat model. Numerical simulations show that each of the models has typical patterns which can be determined in experiment with real plants.

  6. Cacti supply limited nutrients to a desert rodent community.

    PubMed

    Orr, Teri J; Newsome, Seth D; Wolf, Blair O

    2015-08-01

    In the Sonoran Desert, cacti represent a potentially important source of nutrients and water for consumers. Columnar cacti, in particular, produce a large pulse of flowers and succulent fruit during hot summer months. The importance of cactus stems, flowers and fruit to the small mammal community has not been quantified. We exploited natural variation in the carbon isotope (δ(13)C) values of cacti (CAM) versus C3 plants to quantify the relative use of these resources by a diverse desert small mammal community. We also estimated trophic level by measuring nitrogen isotope (δ(15)N) values. We hypothesized that (H1) granivorous heteromyids (kangaroo rats, pocket mice) would exploit the summer pulse of seeds and pulp; (H2) folivorous and omnivorous cactus mice, wood rats, and ground squirrels would exploit cacti stems year-round and seeds when available; and (H3) kangaroo rats and pocket mice would shift from seeds to insects during hot dry months. We found that heteromyids made minimal use of seeds during the period of heavy seed rain. Of the cricetids, only the folivore Neotoma albigula made continuous but highly variable use of cacti resources (annual mean = 32%, range 0-81%), whereas the omnivore Peromyscus eremicus ignored cacti except during the summer, when it exploited seeds and/or fruit pulp (June-July mean = 39%, range 20-64%). We also found little evidence for a shift to greater consumption of insects by heteromyids during the hot dry months. Overall, use of cactus resources by the small mammal community is very limited and highly variable among species.

  7. The interaction of diurnal grazing pattern, ruminal metabolism, nutrient supply and management in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Daily herbage intake depends on several factors that govern the initiation and cessation of successive grazing bouts. Ruminal fill, which regulates grazing bout-eating behavior, is one such factor. Under grazing conditions, nutrient supply varies among grazing bouts, not only in amount, but also in ...

  8. Divergent alfalfa root system architecture is maintained across environment and nutrient supply

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant root system architecture can alter and be altered by soil fertility and other environmental conditions. In soils with suboptimal fertility, plant root length often is correlated with P and K uptake because these nutrients are supplied by diffusion. We developed alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) pop...

  9. Biological response to millennial variability of dust and nutrient supply in the Subantarctic South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert F; Barker, Stephen; Fleisher, Martin; Gersonde, Rainer; Goldstein, Steven L; Kuhn, Gerhard; Mortyn, P Graham; Pahnke, Katharina; Sachs, Julian P

    2014-07-13

    Fluxes of lithogenic material and fluxes of three palaeo-productivity proxies (organic carbon, biogenic opal and alkenones) over the past 100,000 years were determined using the (230)Th-normalization method in three sediment cores from the Subantarctic South Atlantic Ocean. Features in the lithogenic flux record of each core correspond to similar features in the record of dust deposition in the EPICA Dome C ice core. Biogenic fluxes correlate with lithogenic fluxes in each sediment core. Our preferred interpretation is that South American dust, most probably from Patagonia, constitutes a major source of lithogenic material in Subantarctic South Atlantic sediments, and that past biological productivity in this region responded to variability in the supply of dust, probably due to biologically available iron carried by the dust. Greater nutrient supply as well as greater nutrient utilization (stimulated by dust) contributed to Subantarctic productivity during cold periods, in contrast to the region south of the Antarctic Polar Front (APF), where reduced nutrient supply during cold periods was the principal factor limiting productivity. The anti-phased patterns of productivity on opposite sides of the APF point to shifts in the physical supply of nutrients and to dust as cofactors regulating productivity in the Southern Ocean.

  10. Hypoxia inducible factor-2α regulates the development of retinal astrocytic network by maintaining adequate supply of astrocyte progenitors.

    PubMed

    Duan, Li-Juan; Takeda, Kotaro; Fong, Guo-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Here we investigate the role of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-2α in coordinating the development of retinal astrocytic and vascular networks. Three Cre mouse lines were used to disrupt floxed Hif-2α, including Rosa26(CreERT2), Tie2(Cre), and GFAP(Cre). Global Hif-2α disruption by Rosa26(CreERT2) led to reduced astrocytic and vascular development in neonatal retinas, whereas endothelial disruption by Tie2(Cre) had no apparent effects. Hif-2α deletion in astrocyte progenitors by GFAP(Cre) significantly interfered with the development of astrocytic networks, which failed to reach the retinal periphery and were incapable of supporting vascular development. Perplexingly, the abundance of strongly GFAP(+) mature astrocytes transiently increased at P0 before they began to lag behind the normal controls by P3. Pax2(+) and PDGFRα(+) astrocytic progenitors and immature astrocytes were dramatically diminished at all stages examined. Despite decreased number of astrocyte progenitors, their proliferation index or apoptosis was not altered. The above data can be reconciled by proposing that HIF-2α is required for maintaining the supply of astrocyte progenitors by slowing down their differentiation into non-proliferative mature astrocytes. HIF-2α deficiency in astrocyte progenitors may accelerate their differentiation into astrocytes, a change which greatly interferes with the replenishment of astrocyte progenitors due to insufficient time for proliferation. Rapidly declining progenitor supply may lead to premature cessation of astrocyte development. Given that HIF-2α protein undergoes oxygen dependent degradation, an interesting possibility is that retinal blood vessels may regulate astrocyte differentiation through their oxygen delivery function. While our findings support the consensus that retinal astrocytic template guides vascular development, they also raise the possibility that astrocytic and vascular networks may mutually regulate each other's development

  11. Nutrient supply and mercury dynamics in marine ecosystems: A conceptual model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Celia Y.; Hammerschmidt, Chad R.; Mason, Robert P.; Gilmour, Cynthia C.; Sunderland, Elsie M.; Greenfield, Ben K.; Buckman, Kate L.; Lamborg, Carl H.

    2013-01-01

    contamination. Additional focused research and monitoring are needed to critically examine the link between nutrient supply and Hg contamination of marine waters. PMID:22749872

  12. Effects of high nutrient supply on the growth of seven bamboo species.

    PubMed

    Piouceau, Julien; Bois, Grégory; Panfili, Fréderic; Anastase, Matthieu; Dufossé, Laurent; Arfi, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, bamboo has emerged as an interesting plant for the treatment of various polluted waters using plant-based wastewater treatment systems. In these systems, nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations in wastewater can exceed plant requirements and potentially limit plant growth. The effects of two nutrient rates on the growth of seven bamboo species were assessed in a one-year experiment: Dendrocalamus strictus, Thyrsostachys siamensis, Bambusa tuldoides, Gigantochloa wrayi, Bambusa oldhamii, Bambusa multiplex and Bambusa vulgaris. Nutrient rates were applied with a 20:20:20 NPK fertilizer as 2.6 and 13.2 t.ha.yr(-1) NPK to three-year-old bamboo planted in 70 L containers. Morphological characters, photosynthetic responses, and NPK content in bamboo tissues were investigated. Under high-nutrient supply rate, the main trend observed was an increase of culm production but the culms' diameters were reduced. For the seven species, the above ground biomass yield tended to increase with high-nutrient rate. Increasing in nutrient rates also improved the photosynthetic activity which is consistent with the increase of nitrogen and phosphorus contents measured in plant tissues. All the bamboo species tested appears suitable for wastewater treatment purposes, but the species Bambusa oldhamii and Gigantochloa wrayi showed the higher biomass yield and nutrient removaL

  13. Addressing the challenges for sustainable production of algal biofuels: I. Algal strains and nutrient supply.

    PubMed

    Abdelaziz, Ahmed E M; Leite, Gustavo B; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae hold promise for the production of sustainable replacement of fossil fuels due to their high growth rates, ability to grow on non-arable land and their high content, under the proper conditions, of high energy compounds that can be relatively easily chemically converted to fuels using existing technology. However, projected large-scale algal production raises a number of sustainability concerns concerning land use, net energy return, water use and nutrient supply. The state-of-the-art of algal production of biofuels is presented with emphasis on some possible avenues to provide answers to the sustainability questions that have been raised. Here, issues concerning algal strains and supply of nutrients for large-scale production are discussed. Since sustainability concerns necessitate the use of wastewaters for supply of bulk nutrients, emphasis is placed on the composition and suitability of different wastewater streams. At the same time, algal cultivation has proven useful in waste treatment processes, and thus this aspect is also treated in some detail.

  14. Use of hydroponics culture to assess nutrient supply by treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Adrover, Maria; Moyà, Gabriel; Vadell, Jaume

    2013-09-30

    The use of treated wastewater for irrigation is increasing, especially in those areas where water resources are limited. Treated wastewaters contain nutrients that are useful for plant growth and help to reduce fertilizers needs. Nutrient content of these waters depends on the treatment system. Nutrient supply by a treated wastewater from a conventional treatment plant (CWW) and a lagooned wastewater from the campus of the University of Balearic Islands (LWW) was tested in an experiment in hydroponics conditions. Half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (HNS) was used as a control. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings were grown in 4 L containers filled with the three types of water. Four weeks after planting, barley was harvested and root and shoot biomass was measured. N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na and Fe contents were determined in both tissues and heavy metal concentrations were analysed in shoots. N, P and K concentrations were lower in LWW than in CWW, while HNS had the highest nutrient concentration. Dry weight barley production was reduced in CWW and LWW treatments to 49% and 17%, respectively, comparing to HNS. However, to a lesser extent, reduction was found in shoot and root N content. Treated wastewater increased Na content in shoots and roots of barley and Ca and Cr content in shoots. However, heavy metals content was lower than toxic levels in all the cases. Although treated wastewater is an interesting water resource, additional fertilization is needed to maintain a high productivity in barley seedlings.

  15. A novel self-adaptive microalgae photobioreactor using anion exchange membranes for continuous supply of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qian; Chang, Hai-Xing; Huang, Yun; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Xia, Ao; Sun, Ya-Hui

    2016-08-01

    A novel self-adaptive microalgae photobioreactor using anion exchange membranes (AEM-PBR) for continuous supply of nutrients was proposed to improve microalgae biomass production. The introduction of anion exchange membranes to the PBR can realize continuous supply of nutrients at desired rates, which is beneficial to the growth of microalgae. The results showed that the maximum biomass concentration obtained in the AEM-PBR under continuous supply of nitrogen at an average rate of 19.0mgN/L/d was 2.98g/L, which was 129.2% higher than that (1.30g/L) in a PBR with all the nitrogen supplied in batch at initial. In addition, the feeding rates of nitrogen and phosphorus were optimized in the AEM-PBR to maximize biomass production. The maximum biomass concentration of 4.38g/L was obtained under synergistic regulation of nitrogen and phosphorus feeding rates at 19.0mgN/L/d and 4.2mgP/L/d. The AEM-PBR demonstrates a promising approach for high-density cultivation of microalgae.

  16. Contribution of pollinator-mediated crops to nutrients in the human food supply.

    PubMed

    Eilers, Elisabeth J; Kremen, Claire; Smith Greenleaf, Sarah; Garber, Andrea K; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2011-01-01

    The contribution of nutrients from animal pollinated world crops has not previously been evaluated as a biophysical measure for the value of pollination services. This study evaluates the nutritional composition of animal-pollinated world crops. We calculated pollinator dependent and independent proportions of different nutrients of world crops, employing FAO data for crop production, USDA data for nutritional composition, and pollinator dependency data according to Klein et al. (2007). Crop plants that depend fully or partially on animal pollinators contain more than 90% of vitamin C, the whole quantity of Lycopene and almost the full quantity of the antioxidants β-cryptoxanthin and β-tocopherol, the majority of the lipid, vitamin A and related carotenoids, calcium and fluoride, and a large portion of folic acid. Ongoing pollinator decline may thus exacerbate current difficulties of providing a nutritionally adequate diet for the global human population.

  17. Contribution of Pollinator-Mediated Crops to Nutrients in the Human Food Supply

    PubMed Central

    Eilers, Elisabeth J.; Kremen, Claire; Smith Greenleaf, Sarah; Garber, Andrea K.; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2011-01-01

    The contribution of nutrients from animal pollinated world crops has not previously been evaluated as a biophysical measure for the value of pollination services. This study evaluates the nutritional composition of animal-pollinated world crops. We calculated pollinator dependent and independent proportions of different nutrients of world crops, employing FAO data for crop production, USDA data for nutritional composition, and pollinator dependency data according to Klein et al. (2007). Crop plants that depend fully or partially on animal pollinators contain more than 90% of vitamin C, the whole quantity of Lycopene and almost the full quantity of the antioxidants β-cryptoxanthin and β-tocopherol, the majority of the lipid, vitamin A and related carotenoids, calcium and fluoride, and a large portion of folic acid. Ongoing pollinator decline may thus exacerbate current difficulties of providing a nutritionally adequate diet for the global human population. PMID:21731717

  18. Phytochelatin Synthesis Promotes Leaf Zn Accumulation of Arabidopsis thaliana Plants Grown in Soil with Adequate Zn Supply and is Essential for Survival on Zn-Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Kühnlenz, Tanja; Hofmann, Christian; Uraguchi, Shimpei; Schmidt, Holger; Schempp, Stefanie; Weber, Michael; Lahner, Brett; Salt, David E; Clemens, Stephan

    2016-11-01

    Phytochelatin (PC) synthesis is essential for the detoxification of non-essential metals such as cadmium (Cd). In vitro experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings had indicated a contribution to zinc (Zn) tolerance as well. We addressed the physiological role of PC synthesis in Zn homeostasis of plants under more natural conditions. Growth responses, PC accumulation and leaf ionomes of wild-type and AtPCS1 mutant plants cultivated in different soils representing adequate Zn supply, Zn deficiency and Zn excess were analyzed. Growth on Zn-contaminated soil triggers PC synthesis and is strongly impaired in PC-deficient mutants. In fact, the contribution of AtPCS1 to tolerating Zn excess is comparable with that of the major Zn tolerance factor MTP1. For plants supplied with a normal level of Zn, a significant reduction in leaf Zn accumulation of AtPCS1 mutants was detected. In contrast, AtPCS1 mutants grown under Zn-limited conditions showed wild-type levels of Zn accumulation, suggesting the operation of distinct Zn translocation pathways. Contrasting phenotypes of the tested AtPCS1 mutant alleles upon growth in Zn- or Cd-contaminated soil indicated differential activation of PC synthesis by these metals. Experiments with truncated versions identified a part of the AtPCS1 protein required for the activation by Zn but not by Cd.

  19. The nutrient supplying capabilities of Uzinura, an endosymbiont of armoured scale insects.

    PubMed

    Sabree, Zakee L; Huang, Charlie Y; Okusu, Akiko; Moran, Nancy A; Normark, Benjamin B

    2013-07-01

    An emerging common physiological feature of plant sap-feeding insects is the presence of bacterial endosymbionts capable of providing essential nutrients to their host. These microbial partners are inviable outside of specialized host tissues, and therefore a cultivation-independent approach, namely high-throughput next-generation genome sequencing, can be used to characterize their gene content and metabolic potential. To this end, we sequenced the first complete genome of the obligate endosymbiont, Candidatus 'Uzinura diaspidicola', of armoured scale insects. At 263 431 bp, Uzinura has an extremely reduced genome that is composed largely of genes encoding enzymes involved in translation and amino acid biosynthesis. The tiny size of the Uzinura genome parallels that observed in some other insect endosymbionts. Despite this extreme genome reduction, the absence of a known obligate partner bacterial symbiont suggests that Uzinura alone can supply sufficient nutrients to its host.

  20. Effects of fragment traits, burial orientation and nutrient supply on survival and growth in Populus deltoides × P. simonii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Su, Zhi-Qin; Xu, Lie; Shi, Xue-Ping; Du, Ke-Bing; Zheng, Bo; Wang, Yong-Jian

    2016-02-15

    Clonal propagations of shoot or root fragments play pivotal roles in adaptation of clonal trees to environmental heterogeneity, i.e. soil nutrient heterogeneity and burials after disturbance. However, little is known about whether burial orientation and nutrient supply can alter the effects of fragment traits in Populus. Shoot and root fragments of Populus deltoides × P. simonii were subjected to burials in two different fragment diameters (0.5 and 2.0 cm), two fragment lengths (5 and 15 cm) and three burial orientations (horizontal, upward and downward). For the shoot fragments, survival and growth were significantly higher in the larger pieces (either in length or diameter) and the horizontal/upward burial position. On the contrary, the effect of burial position was reversed for the root fragments. Shoot/root fragments of 15 cm in length in horizontal burial position were then subjected to two different fragment diameters (0.5 and 2.0 cm) and four types of nutrient supplies (without nutrient, low frequency, high frequency and patchy). Growth of shoot fragments of 2.0 cm in diameter significantly increased in high frequency and patchy nutrient supplies than that of without nutrient treatment. These results suggest that burial orientation and nutrient supply could be employed in clonal propagations of cuttings, afforestation or regeneration in Populus.

  1. Nutrient supply has greater influence than sink strength on photosynthetic adaptation to CO2 elevation in white birch seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shouren; Dang, Qing-Lai; Cao, Bing

    2013-04-01

    To study the effects of source-sink ratio and nutrient supply on photosynthetic acclimation to CO(2) elevation, we subjected white birch seedlings to two levels of nutrient supply (high vs. low) and CO(2) concentrations (ambient vs. doubled [CO(2)]) for two months and then shaded the lower canopy on half of the seedlings to reduce source/sink ratio for an additional month. The CO(2) elevation significantly increased P(n) and IWUE at both nutrient levels but the increase was greater in the high than low nutrient treatment. The CO(2) elevation resulted in a down-regulation of V(cmax) in the low nutrient treatment but up-regulation of J(max), TPU, [Formula: see text] and J(c) in the high nutrient after 3 months of treatment. Both the CO(2) elevation and high nutrient supply increased the partition of total electron transport to carboxylation at the expense of oxidation. The seedlings responded to the shading of the lower canopy by reducing biomass allocation to roots rather than making physiological adjustments to unshaded leaves in the upper canopy. Our results suggest that the direction of photosynthetic acclimation to CO(2) elevation in white birch was nutrient-dependent and an increase in sink strength could reduce the feedback inhibition of photosynthesis.

  2. Integration of hollow fiber membranes improves nutrient supply in three-dimensional tissue constructs.

    PubMed

    Bettahalli, N M S; Vicente, J; Moroni, L; Higuera, G A; van Blitterswijk, C A; Wessling, M; Stamatialis, D F

    2011-09-01

    Sufficient nutrient and oxygen transport is a potent modulator of cell proliferation in in vitro tissue-engineered constructs. The lack of oxygen and culture medium can create a potentially lethal environment and limit cellular metabolic activity and growth. Diffusion through scaffold and multi-cellular tissue typically limits transport in vitro, leading to potential hypoxic regions and reduction in the viable tissue thickness. For the in vitro generation of clinically relevant tissue-engineered grafts, current nutrient diffusion limitations should be addressed. Major approaches to overcoming these include culture with bioreactors, scaffolds with artificial microvasculature, oxygen carriers and pre-vascularization of the engineered tissues. This study focuses on the development and utilization of a new perfusion culture system to provide adequate nutrient delivery to cells within large three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds. Perfusion of oxygenated culture medium through porous hollow fiber (HF) integrated within 3D free form fabricated (FFF) scaffolds is proposed. Mouse pre-myoblast (C2C12) cells cultured on scaffolds of poly(ethylene-oxide-terephthalate)-poly(butylene-terephthalate) block copolymer (300PEOT55PBT45) integrated with porous HF membranes of modified poly(ether-sulfone) (mPES, Gambro GmbH) is used as a model system. Various parameters such as fiber transport properties, fiber spacing within a scaffold and medium flow conditions are optimized. The results show that four HF membranes integrated with the scaffold significantly improve the cell density and cell distribution. This study provides a basis for the development of a new HF perfusion culture methodology to overcome the limitations of nutrient diffusion in the culture of large 3D tissue constructs.

  3. Bromeliad growth and stoichiometry: responses to atmospheric nutrient supply in fog-dependent ecosystems of the hyper-arid Atacama Desert, Chile.

    PubMed

    González, Angélica L; Fariña, José Miguel; Pinto, Raquel; Pérez, Cecilia; Weathers, Kathleen C; Armesto, Juan J; Marquet, Pablo A

    2011-11-01

    Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus (C, N, P) stoichiometry influences the growth of plants and nutrient cycling within ecosystems. Indeed, elemental ratios are used as an index for functional differences between plants and their responses to natural or anthropogenic variations in nutrient supply. We investigated the variation in growth and elemental content of the rootless terrestrial bromeliad Tillandsia landbeckii, which obtains its moisture, and likely its nutrients, from coastal fogs in the Atacama Desert. We assessed (1) how fog nutrient supply influences plant growth and stoichiometry and (2) the response of plant growth and stoichiometry to variations in nutrient supply by using reciprocal transplants. We hypothesized that T. landbeckii should exhibit physiological and biochemical plastic responses commensurate with nutrient supply from atmospheric deposition. In the case of the Atacama Desert, nutrient supply from fog is variable over space and time, which suggests a relatively high variation in the growth and elemental content of atmospheric bromeliads. We found that the nutrient content of T. landbeckii showed high spatio-temporal variability, driven partially by fog nutrient deposition but also by plant growth rates. Reciprocal transplant experiments showed that transplanted individuals converged to similar nutrient content, growth rates, and leaf production of resident plants at each site, reflecting local nutrient availability. Although plant nutrient content did not exactly match the relative supply of N and P, our results suggest that atmospheric nutrient supply is a dominant driver of plant growth and stoichiometry. In fact, our results indicate that N uptake by T. landbeckii plants depends more on N supplied by fog, whereas P uptake is mainly regulated by within-plant nutrient demand for growth. Overall, these findings indicate that variation in fog nutrient supply exerts a strong control over growth and nutrient dynamics of atmospheric plants, which

  4. Variations in Nutrient and Energy Supplies as Foundations for Hydrothermal Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shock, E. L.

    2008-12-01

    Our field work at Yellowstone National Park, and associated analytical and theoretical work, is guided by the hypothesis that the enormous phylogenetic diversity of hot spring microbial communities reflects the metabolic diversity that is allowed by the geochemical diversity of nutrient and energy supplies. Wide-ranging fluid compositions result from differences in fluid sources, host rock compositions, the extent of water-rock reaction progress, phase separation, subsurface mixing with groundwater or soil water, atmospheric exchange, aeolian deposition, and biological activity. In the systems we have studied pH varies from 0.8 to 9.3, and serves as a reference frame for other variations in composition. Major nutrients show several order of magnitude variations (phosphate from 0.0005 to 0.05 millimolal, nitrate from micro to millimolal, ammonia from micro to 0.1 molal). Micronutrients also have highly variable concentrations (Mo and V over 3; Zn, W and Mn over 5; and Fe over 6 orders of magnitude). As a consequence, the combined multi-component compositional diversity presents an enormous array of possible geochemical habitats. Likewise, the supply of chemical energy in hot spring ecosystems varies with composition, with some reactions universally providing similar amounts of energy (oxidation of CO, formate, hydrogen, ammonia, magnetite or methane), while others change dramatically depending on subtleties of fluid composition (ferrous ion oxidation coupled to reduction of oxygen, nitrate, or nitrite; sulfur disproportionation to pyrite and sulfate). Increasing pH amplifies the energy yield from reactions in which sulfur is reduced to pyrite, or in which ferrous ions are oxidized, while at strongly acidic pH, magnetite rivals oxygen in energy yield for oxidation reactions. Chemical affinities for many reactions change sign from one spring to the next, exemplified by the coupling of ferrous ion oxidation to magnetite, hematite or goethite with sulfur reduction to

  5. Phospholipase D1-regulated autophagy supplies free fatty acids to counter nutrient stress in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Ming; He, Jingquan; Xiong, Jian; Tay, Li Wei Rachel; Wang, Ziqing; Rog, Colin; Wang, Jingshu; Xie, Yizhao; Wang, Guobin; Banno, Yoshiko; Li, Feng; Zhu, Michael; Du, Guangwei

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells utilize flexible metabolic programs to maintain viability and proliferation under stress conditions including nutrient deprivation. Here we report that phospholipase D1 (PLD1) participates in the regulation of metabolic plasticity in cancer cells. PLD1 activity is required for cancer cell survival during prolonged glucose deprivation. Blocking PLD1 sensitizes cancer cells to glycolysis inhibition by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) and results in decreased autophagic flux, enlarged lysosomes, and increased lysosomal pH. Mechanistically, PLD1-regulated autophagy hydrolyzes bulk membrane phospholipids to supply fatty acids (FAs) for oxidation in mitochondria. In low glucose cultures, the blockade of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) by PLD1 inhibition suppresses adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and increases reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to cancer cell death. In summary, our findings reveal a novel role of PLD1 in sustaining cancer cell survival during metabolic stress, and suggest PLD1 as a potential target for anticancer metabolism therapy. PMID:27809301

  6. Interaction effects of CO2 and nutrient supplies on water use in a pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, H. R.; Oren, R.

    2001-12-01

    After three years in which a loblolly pine stand at the Duke Forest Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) facility responded with a greatly enhanced growth to 200 ppm higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the response decreased to marginal over the following four years. A fertilization experiment was imposed on half of the area under elevated CO2 (CE) and on plots under ambient CO2 (CA), and sap flux was monitored on all four treatment combinations using Granier-type sensors. Increased nutrient supply (N) increased sap flux density (i.e., water flux per unit of hydroactive xylem area) ~ 15 % (P < 0.003) relative to unfertilized plots (N0), but atmospheric CO2 concentration had no effect on the flux (P > 0.05). The amount of hydroactive xylem area per unit of ground area was affected by increased availability of both CO2 and nutrients, especially nitrogen, ranking as: CEN > CAN > CEN0 > CAN0 with ~ 6, 3, and 2 % difference between consecutive ranks (P < 0.05). Thus, forests similar to the one investigated here growing on infertile sites under the elevated atmospheric CO2 predicted in the future will use a similar amount of water as forests today, and forest on fertile sites will use only slightly more water than they do today.

  7. Moss cushions facilitate water and nutrient supply for plant species on bare limestone pavements.

    PubMed

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Hammer, Kathrine Jul

    2012-10-01

    Dense moss cushions of different size are distributed across the bare limestone pavements on Øland, SE Sweden. Increasing cushion size is predicted to physically protect and improve performance and colonization by vascular plants. Therefore, we tested water balance, phosphorus supply, and species richness, and evaluated duration of plant activity during desiccation as a function of ground area, for a large collection of moss cushions. We found that lower evaporation and higher water storage contributed equally to extending the desiccation period with increasing cushion size. Evaporation rates declined by the -0.36 power of cushion diameter, and were not significantly different from -0.50 for the square root function previously predicted for the increasing thickness of the boundary layer, with greater linear dimensions for smooth flat objects at low wind velocities. Size dependence vanished under stagnant conditions. One moss species was added to the species pool for every nine-fold increase in cushion area. Vascular plants were absent from the smallest cushions, whereas one or two species, on average, appeared in 375- and 8,500-cm(2) cushions with water available for 6 and 10 days during desiccation. Phosphorus concentrations increased stepwise and four-fold from detritus to surface mosses and to vascular plants, and all three pools increased with cushion size. We conclude that cushion mosses and cushion size play a critical role in this resource-limited limestone environment by offering an oasis of improved water and nutrient supply to colonization and growth of plants.

  8. Water residence times and nutrient budgets across an urbanizing gradient (Croton water supply area, NY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitvar, T.; Burns, D. A.; Duncan, J. M.; Hassett, J. M.; Mitchell, M. J.

    2002-05-01

    Water residence times and nutrient budgets in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY, were examined. The watersheds (less than 1km 2) have different level of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on roads and slow flow through subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wet zones, hillslopes) . Measurements of the comprehensive chemical suite incl. components of nitrogen budget in the throughfall, stream water, soil water and groundwater in the saturated zone were performed bi-weekly over a period up to 2 years. Mean water residence times of the stream water were estimated using Oxygen-18 and Helium-3/Tritium isotopes. There are significant differences in the chemical composition and decrease of nitrification intensity and of mean streamwater residence time along the increasing watershed development. Within each watershed, longer water residence times (up to over 2 years) were estimated in the wetland zones without direct communication with streams in comparison to hillslope areas (up to over 1 year). The results can be used in watershed management and planning of the further urbanization of this water supply area.

  9. Taxonomic and functional composition of the algal benthos exhibits similar successional trends in response to nutrient supply and current velocity.

    PubMed

    Larson, Chad A; Passy, Sophia I; Laanbroek, Riks

    2012-05-01

    In an effort to identify the causes and patterns of temporal change in periphytic communities, we examined biomass accumulation, taxonomic and functional composition, rate of species turnover, and pairwise species correlations in response to variability in current velocity and nutrient supply in artificial stream flumes. Divergent patterns in community growth and succession were observed between nutrient treatments and, to a lesser extent, between flow treatments best described by shifts in taxonomic and functional composition. Specifically, understory low profile species, tolerant to low resource supply, became dominant under low nutrients, while overstory high profile and motile species with higher nutrient demands dominated the high nutrient treatments. Increased resource supply or current velocity did not influence the species turnover rate, measured by a time-lag analysis. Interspecific interactions, especially competition, did not appear to be driving community dynamics, as the number of positive and negative pairwise species correlations ranged between low and extremely low, respectively. The overwhelming majority of correlations were not significant, indicating that species within the biofilm matrix were not perceptibly influencing one another. Thus, temporal trends in taxonomic and functional composition were largely environmentally driven, signifying that coexistence in biofilms is defined by the same mechanism along the hierarchy from species to functional groups.

  10. Nutritional plane and selenium supply during gestation impact yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in primiparous ewes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives were to investigate effects of nutritional plane and Se supply during gestation on yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in first parity ewes. Rambouillet ewe lambs (n = 84, age = 240 +/- 17 d, BW = 52.1 +/- 6.2 kg), were allocated to 6 treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial array...

  11. Calcium isotope fractionation during plant growth under a limited nutrient supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Anne-Désirée; Cobert, Florian; Bourgeade, Pascale; Ertlen, Damien; Labolle, François; Gangloff, Sophie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Chabaux, François; Stille, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Hydroponic experiments were performed on bean plants using a nutrient solution at pH 6 with an initial Ca concentration of 5 ppm to test the effect of Ca deficiency on the Δ44/40Calateral roots/nutritive solution and the δ44/40Ca signatures of the different bean organs. The results of the study suggest that the process of Ca uptake by the roots follows a closed-system equilibrium fractionation with a fractionation factor (αbean plant/nutritive solution) of 0.9988, suggesting that Ca forms exchangeable bonds with the root surfaces and thus confirming 40Ca adsorption onto pectic RCOO- groups in the cell wall structure of the lateral roots. The study further suggests that for a constant pH value (i.e., 6), the average signature of the bean plants depends on the Ca isotope signature of the nutritive medium. Moreover, regardless of the concentration of the nutritive solution, the fractionation mechanism between the roots and shoots remains the same, and only the intensity of fractionation between the different organs is modified. Finally, with a decreasing Ca supply in the solution and the appearance of deficiency effects within the bean plants, the Ca isotopic signature of the leaves ceases to reflect that of free Ca but rather that of Ca oxalate crystals. The study also emphasises that Ca isotopes are important tracers of the Ca nutrient availability in soils and may be used as a tool to identify and quantify Ca recycling in soils.

  12. Importance of Marine-Derived Nutrients Supplied by Planktivorous Seabirds to High Arctic Tundra Plant Communities

    PubMed Central

    Zwolicki, Adrian; Zmudczyńska-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Richard, Pierre; Stempniewicz, Lech

    2016-01-01

    We studied the relative importance of several environmental factors for tundra plant communities in five locations across Svalbard (High Arctic) that differed in geographical location, oceanographic and climatic influence, and soil characteristics. The amount of marine-derived nitrogen in the soil supplied by seabirds was locally the most important of the studied environmental factors influencing the tundra plant community. We found a strong positive correlation between δ15N isotopic values and total N content in the soil, confirming the fundamental role of marine-derived matter to the generally nutrient-poor Arctic tundra ecosystem. We also recorded a strong correlation between the δ15N values of soil and of the tissues of vascular plants and mosses, but not of lichens. The relationship between soil δ15N values and vascular plant cover was linear. In the case of mosses, the percentage ground cover reached maximum around a soil δ 15N value of 8‰, as did plant community diversity. This soil δ15N value clearly separated the occurrence of plants with low nitrogen tolerance (e.g. Salix polaris) from those predominating on high N content soils (e.g. Cerastium arcticum, Poa alpina). Large colonies of planktivorous little auks have a great influence on Arctic tundra vegetation, either through enhancing plant abundance or in shaping plant community composition at a local scale. PMID:27149113

  13. Importance of Marine-Derived Nutrients Supplied by Planktivorous Seabirds to High Arctic Tundra Plant Communities.

    PubMed

    Zwolicki, Adrian; Zmudczyńska-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Richard, Pierre; Stempniewicz, Lech

    2016-01-01

    We studied the relative importance of several environmental factors for tundra plant communities in five locations across Svalbard (High Arctic) that differed in geographical location, oceanographic and climatic influence, and soil characteristics. The amount of marine-derived nitrogen in the soil supplied by seabirds was locally the most important of the studied environmental factors influencing the tundra plant community. We found a strong positive correlation between δ15N isotopic values and total N content in the soil, confirming the fundamental role of marine-derived matter to the generally nutrient-poor Arctic tundra ecosystem. We also recorded a strong correlation between the δ15N values of soil and of the tissues of vascular plants and mosses, but not of lichens. The relationship between soil δ15N values and vascular plant cover was linear. In the case of mosses, the percentage ground cover reached maximum around a soil δ 15N value of 8‰, as did plant community diversity. This soil δ15N value clearly separated the occurrence of plants with low nitrogen tolerance (e.g. Salix polaris) from those predominating on high N content soils (e.g. Cerastium arcticum, Poa alpina). Large colonies of planktivorous little auks have a great influence on Arctic tundra vegetation, either through enhancing plant abundance or in shaping plant community composition at a local scale.

  14. Nutritional plane and selenium supply during gestation affect yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in primiparous ewes.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A M; Reed, J J; Neville, T L; Thorson, J F; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Taylor, J B; Reynolds, L P; Redmer, D A; Luther, J S; Hammer, C J; Vonnahme, K A; Caton, J S

    2011-05-01

    The objectives were to investigate effects of nutritional plane and Se supply during gestation on yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in first parity ewes. Rambouillet ewe lambs (n = 84, age = 240 ± 17 d, BW = 52.1 ± 6.2 kg) were allocated to 6 treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial array. Factors included Se [adequate Se (ASe, 11.5 µg/kg of BW) or high Se (HSe, 77.0 µg/kg of BW)] initiated at breeding, and nutritional plane [60 (RES), 100 (CON), or 140% (HIH) of requirements] initiated at d 40 of gestation. Ewes were fed individually from d 40, and lambs were removed at parturition. Colostrum was milked from all ewes at 3 h postpartum, and one-half of the ewes (n = 42) were transitioned to a common diet meeting lactation requirements and mechanically milked for 20 d. Colostrum yield was greater (P = 0.02) for HSe ewes than ASe, whereas CON had greater (P < 0.05) colostrum yield than RES and HIH. Colostrum Se (%) was greater (P < 0.01) for HSe than ASe. Colostrum from ewes fed HSe had less (P = 0.03) butterfat (%), but greater (P ≤ 0.05) total butterfat, solids-not-fat, lactose, protein, milk urea N, and Se than ASe. Colostrum from HIH ewes had greater (P ≤ 0.02) solids-not-fat (%) than RES, whereas RES had greater (P ≤ 0.04) butterfat (%) than CON and HIH. Colostrum from ewes fed the CON diet had greater (P = 0.01) total butterfat than HIH. Total solids-not-fat, lactose, and protein were greater (P < 0.05) in colostrum from CON than RES and HIH. Ewes fed HSe had greater (P < 0.01) milk yield (g/d and mL/d) than ASe, and CON and HIH had greater (P < 0.01) yield than RES. Milk protein (%) was greater (P ≤ 0.01) in RES compared with CON or HIH. Ewes fed HSe had greater (P < 0.01) milk Se (µg/g and mg/d) than ASe on each sampling day. Milk from CON and HIH ewes had greater (P < 0.01) total solids-not-fat, lactose, protein, and milk urea N than RES. Total Se was greater (P = 0.02) in milk from ewes fed the CON diet compared with RES. Somatic

  15. Good oral health, adequate nutrient consumption and family support are associated with a reduced risk of being underweight amongst older Malaysian residents of publicly funded shelter homes.

    PubMed

    Visvanathan, Renuka; Ahmad, Zaiton

    2006-01-01

    A low body mass index in older people has been associated with increased mortality. The main objective of this study was to identify factors associated with low body mass indices [ BMIs] (< 18.5 kg/m2) in older residents of shelter care facilities in Peninsular Malaysia. 1081 elderly people (59% M) over the age of 60 years were surveyed using questionnaires determining baseline demographics, nutritional and cognitive status, physical function and psychological well being. Body mass index was also determined. Subjects were recruited from publicly funded shelter homes in Peninsular Malaysia. 14.3% of residents had BMIs < 18.5 kg/m2. Multivariate analyses (adjusted for age and sex) revealed that having no family (RR 1.98[95%CI 1.40-2.82], p<0.001) and negative responses to statement 3 [I eat few fruits or vegetables or milk products] (RR 0.62 [95% CI 0.42-0.90]; P= 0.013) and statement 5 [I have tooth or mouth problems that make it hard for me to eat] (RR 0.69 [95%CI 0.50-0.96]; P= 0.023) of the ' Determine Your Nutritional Health Checklist' were independently associated with low BMIs (<18.5 kg/m2). Older people with no family support were at risk of becoming underweight. Older people who consumed fruits, vegetables or milk or had good oral health were less likely to be underweight. Nutrient intake, oral health and social support were important in ensuring healthy body weight in older Malaysians.

  16. Deglacial variability in Okhotsk Sea Intermediate Water ventilation and biogeochemistry: Implications for North Pacific nutrient supply and productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembke-Jene, Lester; Tiedemann, Ralf; Nürnberg, Dirk; Kokfelt, Ulla; Kozdon, Reinhard; Max, Lars; Röhl, Ursula; Gorbarenko, Sergey A.

    2017-03-01

    The modern North Pacific plays a critical role in marine biogeochemical cycles, as an oceanic sink of CO2 and by bearing some of the most productive and least oxygenated waters of the World Ocean. The capacity to sequester CO2 is limited by efficient nutrient supply to the mixed layer, particularly from deeper water masses in the Pacific's subarctic and marginal seas. The region is in addition only weakly ventilated by North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW), which receives its characteristics from Okhotsk Sea Intermediate Water (OSIW). Here, we present reconstructions of intermediate water ventilation and productivity variations in the Okhotsk Sea that cover the last glacial termination between eight and 18 ka, based on a set of high-resolution sediment cores from sites directly downstream of OSIW formation. In a multi-proxy approach, we use total organic carbon (TOC), chlorin, biogenic opal, and CaCO3 concentrations as indicators for biological productivity. C/N ratios and XRF scanning-derived elemental ratios (Si/K and Fe/K), as well as chlorophycean algae counts document changes in Amur freshwater and sediment discharge that condition the OSIW. Stable carbon isotopes of epi- and shallow endobenthic foraminifera, in combination with 14C analyses of benthic and planktic foraminifera imply decreases in OSIW oxygenation during deglacial warm phases from c. 14.7 to 13 ka (Bølling-Allerød) and c. 11.4 to 9 ka (Preboreal). No concomitant decreases in Okhotsk Sea benthic-planktic ventilation ages are observed, in contrast to nearby, but southerly locations on the Japan continental margin. We attribute Okhotsk Sea mid-depth oxygenation decreases in times of enhanced organic matter supply to maxima in remineralization within OSIW, in line with multi-proxy evidence for maxima in primary productivity and supply of organic matter. Sedimentary C/N and Fe/K ratios indicate more effective entrainment of nutrients into OSIW and thus an increased nutrient load of OSIW during

  17. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores), convenience (convenience stores and food marts), and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores) retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant’s residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI) of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R) was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE), based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Results Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated fat. Participation in

  18. Growth of epiphytic bromeliads in a changing world: The effects of CO 2, water and nutrient supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotz, Gerhard; Bogusch, Wiebke; Hietz, Peter; Ketteler, Nadine

    2010-11-01

    Vascular epiphytes, which respond to varying water supply more than any other life form, are thought to be particularly vulnerable to climate change because they are de-coupled from the soil and are thus more directly affected by atmospheric conditions. The few available studies addressing the effect of climate change on epiphytes have either studied plant responses to changes in water supply or to elevated CO 2, but none has looked at possible interactions of these abiotic factors. Here, we present a growth chamber study on the response of individuals of 11 species of epiphytic bromeliads from both tropical lowlands and montane areas to varying CO 2, water and nutrient levels. Water availability had by far the strongest and most consistent impact on plant growth, while the effects of elevated CO 2 and increased nutrient supply were much less consistent across species or habitats. A significant mitigation of reduced water availability by increased CO 2 levels could not be detected. While some species from montane areas were very susceptible to low water availability, lowland species were mostly quite drought-tolerant. These results suggest that global change can pose a real threat to vascular epiphytes through changes in the altitude of cloud formation and altered precipitation patterns, acknowledging substantial differences between species and habitats. Other aspects of global change like the increase of atmospheric CO 2 levels as such seem of limited relevance for the functioning of epiphytic plants.

  19. Medicare program; replacement of reasonable charge methodology by fee schedules for parenteral and enteral nutrients, equipment, and supplies. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2001-08-28

    This final rule implements fee schedules for payment of parenteral and enteral nutrition (PEN) items and services furnished under the prosthetic device benefit, defined in section 1861(s)(8) of the Social Security Act. The authority for establishing these fee schedules is provided by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, which amended the Social Security Act at section 1842(s). Section 1842(s) of the Social Security Act specifies that statewide or other area wide fee schedules may be implemented for the following items and services still subject to the reasonable charge payment methodology: medical supplies; home dialysis supplies and equipment; therapeutic shoes; parenteral and enteral nutrients, equipment, and supplies; electromyogram devices; salivation devices; blood products; and transfusion medicine. This final rule describes changes made to the proposed fee schedule payment methodology for these items and services and provides that the fee schedules for PEN items and services are effective for all covered items and services furnished on or after January 1, 2002. Fee schedules will not be implemented for electromyogram devices and salivation devices at this time since these items are not covered by Medicare. In addition, fee schedules will not be implemented for medical supplies, home dialysis supplies and equipment, therapeutic shoes, blood products, and transfusion medicine at this time since the data required to establish these fee schedules are inadequate.

  20. Factors influencing the uptake of nutrients in streams within the New York City water-supply source areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newbold, D.; Kaplan, L.; Bott, T.; Jackson, J.; Aufdenkampe, A.; Dow, C.

    2005-05-01

    The uptake of nutrients was measured in each of ten streams within the water supply source areas for New York City, once each year between 2000 and 2002. Uptake lengths were estimated from the conservative-tracer-corrected downstream attenuation of short-term (1-2 h) nutrient releases. Uptake lengths correlated with stream size and were converted to uptake velocities (Vf) for further analysis. Vf of phosphate, with a mean of 0.018 mm/s, fit Michaelis-Menten uptake kinetics with a half-saturation of 7 μg/L background phosphate. Vf of ammonium, with a mean of 0.58 mm/s, did not correlate with background ammonium concentration, but fit an uptake curve that used total dissolved nitrogen as the substrate, with a half-saturation of 1 mg/L. Vf of glucose and arabinose were not related to background concentrations. Vf for all four nutrients correlated with community respiration (CR) from diel oxygen variation. For phosphorus uptake, however, CR was collinear with background phosphorus. Vf for ammonium correlated with the macroinvertebrate-based Water Quality Score and Vf for both ammonium and phosphate correlated with some molecular tracers of anthropogenic sources. These results point to nutrient uptake as a sensitive integrator of water quality, ecosystem metabolism, and community structure.

  1. Relative Roles of Soil Moisture, Nutrient Supply, Depth, and Mechanical Impedance in Determining Composition and Structure of Wisconsin Prairies

    PubMed Central

    Wernerehl, Robert W.; Givnish, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Ecologists have long classified Midwestern prairies based on compositional variation assumed to reflect local gradients in moisture availability. The best known classification is based on Curtis’ continuum index (CI), calculated using the presence of indicator species thought centered on different portions of an underlying moisture gradient. Direct evidence of the extent to which CI reflects differences in moisture availability has been lacking, however. Many factors that increase moisture availability (e.g., soil depth, silt content) also increase nutrient supply and decrease soil mechanical impedance; the ecological effects of the last have rarely been considered in any ecosystem. Decreased soil mechanical impedance should increase the availability of soil moisture and nutrients by reducing the root costs of retrieving both. Here we assess the relative importance of soil moisture, nutrient supply, and mechanical impedance in determining prairie composition and structure. We used leaf δ13C of C3 plants as a measure of growing-season moisture availability, cation exchange capacity (CEC) x soil depth as a measure of mineral nutrient availability, and penetrometer data as a measure of soil mechanical impedance. Community composition and structure were assessed in 17 remnant prairies in Wisconsin which vary little in annual precipitation. Ordination and regression analyses showed that δ13C increased with CI toward “drier” sites, and decreased with soil depth and % silt content. Variation in δ13C among remnants was 2.0‰, comparable to that along continental gradients from ca. 500–1500 mm annual rainfall. As predicted, LAI and average leaf height increased significantly toward “wetter” sites. CI accounted for 54% of compositional variance but δ13C accounted for only 6.2%, despite the strong relationships of δ13C to CI and CI to composition. Compositional variation reflects soil fertility and mechanical impedance more than moisture availability. This

  2. Relative Roles of Soil Moisture, Nutrient Supply, Depth, and Mechanical Impedance in Determining Composition and Structure of Wisconsin Prairies.

    PubMed

    Wernerehl, Robert W; Givnish, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Ecologists have long classified Midwestern prairies based on compositional variation assumed to reflect local gradients in moisture availability. The best known classification is based on Curtis' continuum index (CI), calculated using the presence of indicator species thought centered on different portions of an underlying moisture gradient. Direct evidence of the extent to which CI reflects differences in moisture availability has been lacking, however. Many factors that increase moisture availability (e.g., soil depth, silt content) also increase nutrient supply and decrease soil mechanical impedance; the ecological effects of the last have rarely been considered in any ecosystem. Decreased soil mechanical impedance should increase the availability of soil moisture and nutrients by reducing the root costs of retrieving both. Here we assess the relative importance of soil moisture, nutrient supply, and mechanical impedance in determining prairie composition and structure. We used leaf δ13C of C3 plants as a measure of growing-season moisture availability, cation exchange capacity (CEC) x soil depth as a measure of mineral nutrient availability, and penetrometer data as a measure of soil mechanical impedance. Community composition and structure were assessed in 17 remnant prairies in Wisconsin which vary little in annual precipitation. Ordination and regression analyses showed that δ13C increased with CI toward "drier" sites, and decreased with soil depth and % silt content. Variation in δ13C among remnants was 2.0‰, comparable to that along continental gradients from ca. 500-1500 mm annual rainfall. As predicted, LAI and average leaf height increased significantly toward "wetter" sites. CI accounted for 54% of compositional variance but δ13C accounted for only 6.2%, despite the strong relationships of δ13C to CI and CI to composition. Compositional variation reflects soil fertility and mechanical impedance more than moisture availability. This study is the

  3. Diatom Cell Size, Coloniality and Motility: Trade-Offs between Temperature, Salinity and Nutrient Supply with Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Filip; Norberg, Jon; Snoeijs, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Reduction in body size has been proposed as a universal response of organisms, both to warming and to decreased salinity. However, it is still controversial if size reduction is caused by temperature or salinity on their own, or if other factors interfere as well. We used natural benthic diatom communities to explore how “body size” (cells and colonies) and motility change along temperature (2–26°C) and salinity (0.5–7.8) gradients in the brackish Baltic Sea. Fourth-corner analysis confirmed that small cell and colony sizes were associated with high temperature in summer. Average community cell volume decreased linearly with 2.2% per °C. However, cells were larger with artificial warming when nutrient concentrations were high in the cold season. Average community cell volume increased by 5.2% per °C of artificial warming from 0 to 8.5°C and simultaneously there was a selection for motility, which probably helped to optimize growth rates by trade-offs between nutrient supply and irradiation. Along the Baltic Sea salinity gradient cell size decreased with decreasing salinity, apparently mediated by nutrient stoichiometry. Altogether, our results suggest that climate change in this century may polarize seasonality by creating two new niches, with elevated temperature at high nutrient concentrations in the cold season (increasing cell size) and elevated temperature at low nutrient concentrations in the warm season (decreasing cell size). Higher temperature in summer and lower salinity by increased land-runoff are expected to decrease the average cell size of primary producers, which is likely to affect the transfer of energy to higher trophic levels. PMID:25279720

  4. Rates of Species Accumulation and Taxonomic Diversification during Phototrophic Biofilm Development Are Controlled by both Nutrient Supply and Current Velocity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of new and taxonomically diverse species is a marked feature of community development, but the role of the environment in this process is not well understood. To address this problem, we subjected periphyton in laboratory streams to low (10-cm · s−1), high (30-cm · s−1), and variable (9- to 32-cm · s−1) current velocity and low- versus high-nutrient inputs. We examined how current velocity and resource supply constrained (i) the rates of species accumulation, a measure of temporal beta-diversity, and (ii) the rates of diversification of higher taxonomic categories, defined here as the rate of higher taxon richness increase with the increase of species richness. Temporal biofilm dynamics were controlled by a strong nutrient-current interaction. Nutrients accelerated the rates of accumulation of new species, when flow velocity was not too stressful. Species were more taxonomically diverse under variable than under low-flow conditions, indicating that flow heterogeneity increased the niche diversity in the high-nutrient treatments. Conversely, the lower diversification rates under high- than under low-nutrient conditions at low velocity are explained with finer resource partitioning among species, belonging to a limited number of related genera. The overall low rates of diversification in high-current treatments suggest that the ability to withstand current stress was conserved within closely related species. Temporal heterogeneity of disturbance has been shown to promote species richness, but here we further demonstrate that it also affects two other components of biodiversity, i.e., temporal beta-diversity and diversification rate. Therefore, management efforts for preserving the inherent temporal heterogeneity of natural ecosystems will have detectable positive effects on biodiversity. PMID:23335757

  5. Effects Of Nutrient Source And Supply On Crude Oil Biodegradation In Continuous-Flow Beach Microcosms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonium and nitrate were used as nitrogen sources to support microbial biodegradation of crude oil in continuous-flow beach microcosms to determine whether either nutrient was more effective in open systems, such as intertidal shorelines. No differences in the rate or the exten...

  6. Variations in Amazon forest productivity correlated with foliar nutrients and modelled rates of photosynthetic carbon supply.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Lina M; Patiño, Sandra; Domingues, Tomas F; Fyllas, Nikolaos M; Weedon, Graham P; Sitch, Stephen; Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Phillips, Oliver L; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Malhi, Yadvinder; Dolman, A J; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Saleska, Scott R; Baker, Timothy R; Almeida, Samuel; Higuchi, Niro; Lloyd, Jon

    2011-11-27

    The rate of above-ground woody biomass production, W(P), in some western Amazon forests exceeds those in the east by a factor of 2 or more. Underlying causes may include climate, soil nutrient limitations and species composition. In this modelling paper, we explore the implications of allowing key nutrients such as N and P to constrain the photosynthesis of Amazon forests, and also we examine the relationship between modelled rates of photosynthesis and the observed gradients in W(P). We use a model with current understanding of the underpinning biochemical processes as affected by nutrient availability to assess: (i) the degree to which observed spatial variations in foliar [N] and [P] across Amazonia affect stand-level photosynthesis; and (ii) how these variations in forest photosynthetic carbon acquisition relate to the observed geographical patterns of stem growth across the Amazon Basin. We find nutrient availability to exert a strong effect on photosynthetic carbon gain across the Basin and to be a likely important contributor to the observed gradient in W(P). Phosphorus emerges as more important than nitrogen in accounting for the observed variations in productivity. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of future tropical forests under a changing climate.

  7. Conservation tillage, optimal water and organic nutrient supply enhance soil microbial activities during wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pankaj; Singh, Geeta; Singh, Rana P.

    2011-01-01

    The field experiments were conducted on sandy loam soil at New Delhi, during 2007 and 2008 to investigate the effect of conservation tillage, irrigation regimes (sub-optimal, optimal and supra-optimal water regimes), and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices on soil biological parameters in wheat cultivation. The conservation tillage soils has shown significant (p<0.05) increase in soil respiration (81.1%), soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) (104%) and soil dehydrogenase (DH) (59.2%) compared to the conventional tillage soil. Optimum water supply (3-irrigations) enhanced soil respiration over sub-optimum and supra-optimum irrigations by 13.32% and 79% respectively. Soil dehydrogenase (DH) activity in optimum water regime has also increased by 23.33% and 8.18% respectively over the other two irrigation regimes. Similarly, SMBC has also increased by 12.14% and 27.17% respectively in soil with optimum water supply compared to that of sub-optimum and supra-optimum water regime fields. The maximum increase in soil microbial activities is found when sole organic source (50% Farm Yard Manure+25% biofertilizer+25% Green Manure) has been used in combination with the conservation tillage and the optimum water supply. Study demonstrated that microbial activity could be regulated by tillage, water and nitrogen management in the soil in a sustainable manner. PMID:24031665

  8. Analysis of nutrients, selected inorganic constituents, and trace elements in water from Illinois community-supply wells, 1984-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, Kelly L.

    2000-01-01

    The lower Illinois River Basin (LIRB) study unit is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment program that includes studies of most major aquifer systems in the United States. Retrospective water-quality data from community-supply wells in the LIRB and in the rest of Illinois are grouped by aquifer and depth interval. Concentrations of selected chemical constituents in water samples from community-supply wells within the LIRB vary with aquifer and depth of well. Ranked data for 16 selected trace elements and nutrients are compared by aquifer, depth interval, and between the LIRB and the rest of Illinois using nonparametric statistical analyses. For all wells, median concentrations of nitrate and nitrite (as Nitrogen) are highest in water samples from the Quaternary aquifer at well depths less than 100 ft; ammonia concentrations (as Nitrogen), however, are highest in samples from well depths greater than 200 ft. Chloride and sulfate concentrations are higher in samples from the older bedrock aquifers. Arsenic, lead, sulfate, and zinc concentrations are appreciably different between samples from the LIRB and samples from the rest of Illinois for ground water from the Quaternary aquifer. Arsenic concentration is highest in the deep Quaternary aquifer. Chromium, cyanide, lead, and mercury are not frequently detected in water samples from community-supply wells in Illinois.

  9. Response of a Stoichiometrically Imbalanced Ecosystem to Manipulation of Nutrient Supplies and Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Zarraz M.; Steger, Laura; Corman, Jessica R.; Neveu, Marc; Poret-Peterson, Amisha T.; Souza, Valeria; Elser, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) is a desert ecosystem that hosts a large diversity of water bodies. Many surface waters in this basin have imbalanced nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) stoichiometry (total N:P > 100 by atoms), where P is likely to be a limiting nutrient. To investigate the effects of nutrient stoichiometry on planktonic and sediment ecosystem components and processes, we conducted a replicated in situ mesocosm experiment in Lagunita, a shallow pond located in the southwest region of the basin. Inorganic N and P were periodically added to mesocosms under three different N:P regimes (P only, N:P = 16 and N:P = 75) while the control mesocosms were left unamended. After three weeks of fertilization, more than two thirds of the applied P was immobilized into seston or sediment. The rapid uptake of P significantly decreased biomass C:P and N:P ratios, supporting the hypothesis that Lagunita is P-limited. Meanwhile, simultaneous N and P enrichment significantly enhanced planktonic growth, increasing total planktonic biomass by more than 2-fold compared to the unenriched control. With up to 76% of added N sequestered into the seston, it is suspected that the Lagunita microbial community also experienced strong N-limitation. However, when N and P were applied at N:P = 75, the microbes remained in a P-limitation state as in the untreated control. Two weeks after the last fertilizer application, seston C:P and N:P ratios returned to initial levels but chlorophyll a and seston C concentrations remained elevated. Additionally, no P release from the sediment was observed in the fertilized mesocosms. Overall, this study provides evidence that Lagunita is highly sensitive to nutrient perturbation because the biota is primarily P-limited and experiences a secondary N-limitation despite its high TN:TP ratio. This study serves as a strong basis to justify the need for protection of CCB ecosystems and other low-nutrient microbe-dominated systems from anthropogenic inputs of

  10. Muscle Contraction and Force: the Importance of an Ancillary Network, Nutrient Supply and Waste Removal

    PubMed Central

    Brüggemann, Dagmar A.; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.; Harrison, Adrian P.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms of nutrient delivery and waste product removal, but are also tethered to surrounding fibres by collagen ”wires”. This paper therefore addresses aspects of the ancillary network of skeletal muscle at both a microscopic and functional level in order to better understand its role holistically as a considerable contributor to force transfer within muscular tissue. PMID:19325816

  11. A novel mathematical model for growth of capillaries and nutrient supply with application to prediction of osteophyte onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarczyk, Ewa; Lekszycki, Tomasz

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a novel evolution equation for capillaries growth is proposed. An essential ingredient is given by the consideration of nutrient supply, for which a novel constitutive equation is also proposed. The biological and mechanical stimuli are assumed to depend in non-local way on relevant kinematical descriptors. The integro-differential equations governing the system evolution are extremely sensitive to parameter variations. However, it was possible to perform some meaningful numerical simulations in which osteophyte onset has been observed. While the choice of these parameters was judiciously driven by biomechanical "a priori" knowledge, the mathematical problems concerning well-posedness, stability and continuous dependence of solutions seem to be very challenging and will be object of future investigations. This effort seems motivated by the fact that proposed equations are, to our knowledge, the first ones allowing for the prediction of osteophytes onset.

  12. The effect of vertical advection and diffusion on nutrient supply to the euphotic zone: a model study of the Iceland-Faeroes Front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E.; Srokosz, M.

    2006-12-01

    This paper examines the effect of vertical advection and vertical diffusion on the supply of nutrients to the euphotic zone. This is done using a high resolution coupled biological-physical model, that has previously been used to reproduce in situ and satellite observations of physical and biological variability at the Iceland Faeroes Front (IFF). Oligotrophic conditions are imposed in the model in order to examine the vertical flux of nutrients.The results show that, while instantaneous vertical advective fluxes of nutrients can be much larger than vertical diffusive ones, over a period of days the latter act consistently to supply nutrients to the euphotic zone. In contrast, the spatially and temporally varying nature of the vertical velocity field means that there is no consistent vertical advective flux of nutrients. This suggests that for real "messy" complex flows, such as the one modelled here, ageostrophic vertical velocities induced by eddies and frontal meanders may not play as important a role in supplying nutrient to the euphotic zone, and in enhancing biological production there, as has previously been thought.

  13. A field facility to simulate climate warming and increased nutrient supply in shallow aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hines, Jes; Hammrich, Arne; Steiner, Daniel; Gessner, Mark O

    2013-12-01

    Global warming and excess nitrogen deposition can exert strong impacts on aquatic populations, communities, and ecosystems. However, experimental data to establish clear cause-and-effect relationships in naturally complex field conditions are scarce in aquatic environments. Here, we describe the design and performance of a unique outdoor enclosure facility used to simulate warming, increased nitrogen supply, and both factors combined in a littoral freshwater wetland dominated by common reed, Phragmites australis. The experimental system effectively simulated a 2.8 °C climate warming scenario over an extended period, capturing the natural temperature variations in the wetland at diel and seasonal scales with only small deviations. Excess nitrogen supply enhanced nitrate concentrations especially in winter when it was associated with increased concentration of ammonium and dissolved organic carbon. Nitrogen also reduced dissolved oxygen concentrations, particularly in the summer. Importantly, by stimulating biological activity, warming enhanced the nitrogen uptake capacity of the wetland during the winter, emphasizing the need for multifactorial global change experiments that examine both warming and nitrogen loading in concert. Establishing similar experiments across broad environmental gradients holds great potential to provide robust assessments of the impacts of climate change on shallow aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Varying protein and starch in the diet of dairy cows. I. Effects on ruminal fermentation and intestinal supply of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Ipharraguerre, I R; Clark, J H; Freeman, D E

    2005-07-01

    The main objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of the percentage and source of crude protein (CP) and the amount of starch in the diet of dairy cows on ruminal fermentation, nutrient passage to the small intestine, and nutrient digestibility. For this purpose, 6 multiparous Holstein cows fistulated in the rumen and duodenum that averaged 73 d in milk were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Two sources of CP [solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) and a mixture of SBM and a blend of animal-marine protein supplements plus ruminally protected Met (AMB)] and 3 levels of dietary protein (about 14, 16, and 18%) were combined into 6 treatments. On a dry matter (DM) basis, diets contained 25% corn silage, 20% alfalfa silage, 10% cottonseed, 26.7 to 37% corn grain, and 4 to 13.5% protein supplement. Intakes and digestibilities in the rumen and total tract of DM, organic matter, acid and neutral detergent fiber were unaffected by treatments. Increasing dietary CP from 14 to 18% decreased the intake and apparent ruminal and total tract digestion of starch, but increased the proportion of starch consumed by the cows that was apparently digested in the small intestine. At 14% CP, starch intake and total tract digestion were higher for the AMB diet than for the SBM diet, but the opposite occurred at 16% CP. Across CP sources, increasing CP in the diet from 14 to 18% increased the intakes of N and amino acids (AA), and ruminal outflows of nonammonia N, nonammonia nonmicrobial N, each individual AA except Met, total essential AA, and total AA. Across CP percentages, replacing a portion of SBM with AMB increased the intake of Met and Val and decreased the concentration of ammonia N in the rumen, but did not affect the intake of other essential AA or the intestinal supply of any essential AA and starch. The ruminal outflow of microbial N, the proportional contribution of Lys and Met to total AA delivered to the

  15. Matching plant and animal processes to alter nutrient supply in strip-grazed cattle: timing of herbage and fasting allocation.

    PubMed

    Gregorini, P; Gunter, S A; Beck, P A

    2008-04-01

    demonstrate the strong link between ingestion and digestion patterns, and its impact on nutrient supply. At the same amount of resource allocation, nutrient supply to grazing cattle can be modified through strategic grazing management.

  16. Facet morphology response to nonuniformities in nutrient and impurity supply. II. Numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hong; Vekilov, Peter G.; Rosenberger, Franz

    1996-02-01

    A model for the evolution of facet morphologies in growth from solutions is presented. The numerical model links, for the first time, bulk transport of solute and impurities in a solution growth cell with microscopic interfacial kinetics processes. The macroscopic transport is dealt with as in the 2D model [H. Lin, F. Rosenberger, J.I.D. Alexander and A. Nadarajah, J. Crystal Growth 151 (1995) 153] of a crystallization cell used for lysozyme in our laboratory. The microscopic kinetics is incorporated through a meso-scale continuum model of growth step motion in response to the interfacial concentration distributions. Local growth step velocities are linearly interpolated from the values obtained at the grid points of the bulk transport simulation. Experimentally determined kinetics and transport coefficients are employed. We find that the facets remain macroscopically flat, in spite of the lower nutrient and impurity concentrations in the facet center regions. This stabilization is achieved through the formation of a microscopic depression in the facet, with nonuniform vicinal slope (step density). If the step density in the facet center exceeds a certain value, no further stabilization results on further steepening, and the facet loses its macroscopic morphological stability. This loss of morphological stability depends sensitively on the value of the steps' kinetic coefficient. For pure lysozyme-precipitant solutions, we obtain microscopic depressions with a higher slope at the facet center than at the edge. However, with an impurity that impedes step kinetics and is preferentially incorporated into the crystal, the simulations produce microscopic facet depressions with higher slope at the edge. Impurity depletion at the interface, due to low initial concentration and/or slow diffusion leads to mixed shapes, and eventually to shapes typical of growth from pure solution. Quantitative agreement with facet morphologies observed on lysozyme crystals [P.G. Vekilov and

  17. Effects of dairy cow diet forage proportion on duodenal nutrient supply and urinary purine derivative excretion.

    PubMed

    Moorby, J M; Dewhurst, R J; Evans, R T; Danelón, J L

    2006-09-01

    Four mature Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square change-over design experiment made up of four 4-wk periods to investigate the relationship between microbial protein flow to the duodenum and excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in the urine. Four dietary treatments based on ad libitum access to ryegrass silage were offered, with a standard dairy concentrate included at different forage:concentrate (F:C) ratios, calculated on a dry matter basis: 80:20, 65:35, 50:50, and 35:65. Feed intakes increased as the proportion of concentrate in the diet increased, despite a concurrent decrease in silage intake. Increased feed intake led to increased nutrient flow to the duodenum. Milk yields increased as the diet F:C ratio decreased, with cows offered the 35:65 diet yielding nearly 8 kg/d more milk than cows offered the 80:20 diet; the concentrations of milk fat decreased and milk protein increased with a decreasing F:C ratio. Purine derivative excretion in the urine increased with an increasing proportion of concentrate in the diet, and there was a strong linear relationship between total PD excretion (allantoin and uric acid) and microbial N flow to the duodenum: microbial N (g/d) = 19.9 + 0.689 x total PD (mmol/d); R = 0.887. This strengthens the case for using PD excretion as a noninvasive marker of microbial protein flow from the rumen in dairy cows.

  18. Sensitivity of the California Current nutrient supply to wind, heat, and remote ocean forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacox, Michael G.; Bograd, Steven J.; Hazen, Elliott L.; Fiechter, Jerome

    2015-07-01

    A regional ocean model is used to evaluate the roles of wind, surface heat flux, and basin-scale climate variability in regulating the upwelled nitrate supply in the California Current. A strong positive trend in nitrate flux from 1980 to 2010 was driven almost entirely by enhanced equatorward winds, negating a weak negative trend associated with increased surface heat flux. Increased upwelling and nitrate flux are consistent with cooler surface temperatures and higher phytoplankton concentrations observed over the same period. Changes in remote ocean forcing, resulting primarily from basin-scale climate variability (e.g., El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation), drive considerable interannual fluctuations and may dominate the ecosystem response on interannual to decadal time scales. However, comparison with previously published findings suggests that local wind intensification persists through changing basin-scale climate regimes. Understanding the different time scales of variability in forcing mechanisms, and their interactions with each other, is necessary to distinguish transient ecosystem impacts from secular trends.

  19. The effect of harvesting strategy of grass silage on digestion and nutrient supply in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kuoppala, K; Rinne, M; Ahvenjärvi, S; Nousiainen, J; Huhtanen, P

    2010-07-01

    silages compared with primary growth silages could be attributed to the lower silage DM intake potential. Chemical composition of the silages, rumen fill, digestion and passage kinetics of NDF, or the ratio of protein to energy in absorbed nutrients could not explain the differences in DM intake between silages made from primary and regrowth grass.

  20. Food supply versus household survey data: nutrient consumption trends for Spain, 1958-1988.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Artalejo, F; Banegas, J R; Graciani, A; Hernández-Vecino, R; del Rey-Calero, J

    1996-08-01

    Various methods of estimating food consumption, such as food balance sheets (FBS) and household surveys (HS), have been developed over the years and have been used to inform, monitor and evaluate nutrition policies. Because these methods vary in their objectives and data collection procedures, the objective of this study has been to elaborate FBS data for Spain and to study the consistency of fat, carbohydrate and protein intake trends, as measured by FBS and HS, for the period 1958 to 1988. Food balance sheets were elaborated by the authors according to the methodology of FAO using all available data sources for the 1958-1988 period. This data considered every major food item contributing to the total energy intake of the spanish population. Household survey data were taken from three similar national household budget surveys carried out on a representative sample of the Spanish population in 1958, 1964-1965, and 1980-1981. Estimates of food consumption were transformed into macronutrient intake by applying standard food tables. When macronutrient intake were expressed in absolute amounts, an unexpected finding was the tendency of the household surveys to overestimate food balance sheet data for fat, and to a lesser extent protein and carbohydrate, intake during the first years in the series. Also, the slopes of the trends of macronutrient intake were significantly (p < 0.05) greater for food balance sheets than for household survey data, specially for fat. When macronutrient intake were expressed as percent of total energy, differences between the two types of data tended to diminish and heterogeneity of slopes disappeared. We conclude that household survey and food supply data provide partially different information on macronutrient intake trends in the Spanish population for the period 1958-1988. The discrepancy is particularly noticeable for fat intake and when data are expressed in absolute amounts.

  1. Leaf lifetime photosynthetic rate and leaf demography in whole plants of Ipomoea pes-caprae growing with a low supply of calcium, a 'non-mobile' nutrient.

    PubMed

    Suárez, N

    2010-03-01

    The adaptive significance of leaf longevity has been established in relation to restrictive nutrients that can be retranslocated within the plant. However, the effect of deficiencies in 'non-mobile' nutrients on leaf lifespan and photosynthetic carbon gain is uncertain. Calcium is frequently given as an example of an essential nutrient with low phloem mobility that may alter the leaf senescence process. This study has been designed to estimate leaf lifespan, leaf production (L(p)) and leaf death (L(d)) rates, the age structure of leaves, and the decline in maximum photosynthetic rate (A(max)) with age in plants of Ipomoea pes-caprae growing with a full supply of nutrients and with a low Ca supply. The Ca deficiency produced reductions in L(p) and leaf lifespan compared with control plants. In spite of the differences in the demographic parameters between treatments in control and low-Ca plants, the percentage of leaves of a given leaf age class is maintained in such a way that the number of leaves per plant continues to increase. No relationship was found between Ca supply and A(max). However, the decline in A(max) with leaf senescence was rather sudden in control plants compared with plants growing with a low Ca supply. The importance of simultaneously using the total leaf demographic census and the assimilation rate along with leaf lifespan data in order to understand the performance of whole plants under constrained conditions is discussed.

  2. Numerical exploration of the combined effect of nutrient supply, tissue condition and deformation in the intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Malandrino, Andrea; Noailly, Jérôme; Lacroix, Damien

    2014-04-11

    Novel strategies to heal discogenic low back pain could highly benefit from comprehensive biophysical studies that consider both mechanical and biological factors involved in intervertebral disc degeneration. A decrease in nutrient availability at the bone-disc interface has been indicated as a relevant risk factor and as a possible initiator of cell death processes. Mechanical behaviour of both healthy and degenerated discs could highly interact with cell death in these compromised situations. In the present study, a mechano-transport finite element model was used to investigate the nature of mechanical effects on cell death processes via load-induced metabolic transport variations. Cycles of static sustained compression were chosen to simulate daily human activity. Healthy and degenerated cases were simulated as well as a reduced supply of solutes and an increase in solute exchange area at the bone-disc interface. Results showed that a reduction in metabolite concentrations at the bone-disc boundaries induced cell death, even when the increased exchange area was simulated. Slight local mechanical enhancements of glucose in the disc centre were capable of decelerating cell death but occurred only with healthy mechanical properties. However, mechanical deformations were responsible for a worsening in terms of cell death in the inner annulus, a disadvantaged zone far from the boundary supply with both an increased cell demand and a strain-dependent decrease of diffusivity. Such adverse mechanical effects were more accentuated when degenerative properties were simulated. Overall, this study paves the way for the use of biophysical models for a more integrated understanding of intervertebral disc pathophysiology.

  3. Legume nodules from nutrient-poor soils exhibit high plasticity of cellular phosphorus recycling and conservation during variable phosphorus supply.

    PubMed

    Vardien, Waafeka; Steenkamp, Emma T; Valentine, Alexander J

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen fixing legumes rely on phosphorus for nodule formation, nodule function and the energy costs of fixation. Phosphorus is however very limited in soils, especially in ancient sandstone-derived soils such as those in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. Plants growing in such areas have evolved the ability to tolerate phosphorus stress by eliciting an array of physiological and biochemical responses. In this study we investigated the effects of phosphorus limitation on N2 fixation and phosphorus recycling in the nodules of Virgilia divaricata (Adamson), a legume native to the Cape Floristic Region. In particular, we focused on nutrient acquisition efficiencies, phosphorus fractions and the exudation and accumulation of phosphatases. Our finding indicate that during low phosphorus supply, V. divaricata internally recycles phosphorus and has a lower uptake rate of phosphorus, as well as lower levels adenylates but greater levels of phosphohydrolase exudation suggesting it engages in recycling internal nodule phosphorus pools and making use of alternate bypass routes in order to conserve phosphorus.

  4. Effects of nutrient supply on intrinsic water-use efficiency of temperate semi-natural grassland under rising atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, I. H.; MacDonald, A.; Poulton, P.; Auerswald, K.; Schnyder, H.

    2010-12-01

    C3 plants generally increase photosynthesis (A) and decrease stomatal conductance (gs) under elevated CO2 [1]. However, nitrogen limitation has been shown to constrain the response of A [2] and could thus limit the increase in intrinsic water-use efficiency Wi. Stable carbon isotope studies on trees have shown that Wi increased in forests during the last century. Recently we showed that Wi has also increased in nutrient limited grassland ecosystems [3, 4]. We have now examined a 50 year-long record of Wi from community-level carbon isotope discrimination (13Δ) derived from archived hay and herbage samples (Park Grass Continuous Hay Experiment, Rothamsted, England [5]). We tested the hypothesis that plant responses to increasing atmospheric CO2 have resulted in a greater increase in Wi where plants received adequate nutrient inputs, because of the expected stronger increase in A with higher nutrient supply. We examined whether the response to rising CO2 was uniform across fertilizer treatments. Archived samples from five plots on Park Grass with different annual fertilizer applications (1. No N or PK; 2. 48 kg N ha-1, No PK; 3. No N +PK; 4. 48 kg N ha-1 +PK; 5. 96 kg N ha-1 +PK), covering the 1960 - 2009 period, were used. During the study period, atmospheric CO2 concentration increased by 22%. 13Δ was calculated from carbon isotope composition δ13C (= [(Rsample/Rstandard) - 1], with R the 13C/12C ratio in the sample or standard). 13Δ is a proxy of the leaf-level coupling of CO2 and transpiration fluxes, and a measure of Wi, with Wi = A/gs = ca (1 - ci / ca) / 1.6 and ci / ca = (13Δ - a) / (b - a), (a=4.4‰, b=27‰). Linear regression showed significant 13Δ increases: 0.1‰ per 10 ppm CO2 increase on the control (P<0.05), the PK treatment (P<0.001) and the low N, PK treatment (P<0.05). On the low N treatment, the increase was only significant at the 10% level. On the high N, PK treatment 13Δ increased by 0.04‰ per 10 ppm, but this was not significant (P

  5. A Numerical Study of the Effect of Periodic Nutrient Supply on Pathways of Carbon in a Coastal Upwelling Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Mary-Elena

    1998-01-01

    A size-based ecosystem model was modified to include periodic upwelling events and used to evaluate the effect of episodic nutrient supply on the standing stock, carbon uptake, and carbon flow into mesozooplankton grazing and sinking flux in a coastal upwelling regime. Two ecosystem configurations were compared: a single food chain made up of net phytoplankton and mesozooplankton (one autotroph and one heterotroph, A1H1), and three interconnected food chains plus bacteria (three autotrophs and four heterotrophs, A3H4). The carbon pathways in the A1H1 simulations were under stronger physical control than those of the A3H4 runs, where the small size classes are not affected by frequent upwelling events. In the more complex food web simulations, the microbial pathway determines the total carbon uptake and grazing rates, and regenerated nitrogen accounts for more than half of the total primary production for periods of 20 days or longer between events. By contrast, new production, export of carbon through sinking and mesozooplankton grazing are more important in the A1H1 simulations. In the A3H4 simulations, the turnover time scale of the autotroph biomass increases as the period between upwelling events increases, because of the larger contribution of slow-growing net phytoplankton. The upwelling period was characterized for three upwelling sites from the alongshore wind speed measured by the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) and the corresponding model output compared with literature data. This validation exercise for three upwelling sites and a downstream embayment suggests that standing stock, carbon uptake and size fractionation were best supported by the A3H4 simulations, while the simulated sinking fluxes are not distinguishable in the two configurations.

  6. Adaptation of nutrient supply to fetal demand in the mouse involves interaction between the Igf2 gene and placental transporter systems

    PubMed Central

    Constância, Miguel; Angiolini, Emily; Sandovici, Ionel; Smith, Paul; Smith, Rachel; Kelsey, Gavin; Dean, Wendy; Ferguson-Smith, Anne; Sibley, Colin P.; Reik, Wolf; Fowden, Abigail

    2005-01-01

    The mammalian fetus is unique in its dependence during gestation on the supply of maternal nutrients through the placenta. Maternal supply and fetal demand for nutrients need to be fine tuned for healthy growth and development of the fetus along its genetic trajectory. An altered balance between supply and demand can lead to deviations from this trajectory with long-term consequences for health. We have previously shown that in a knockout lacking the imprinted placental-specific Igf2 transcript (P0), growth of the placenta is compromised from early gestation but fetal growth is normal until late gestation, suggesting functional adaptation of the placenta to meet the fetal demands. Here, we show that placental transport of glucose and amino acids are increased in the Igf2 P0+/- null and that this up-regulation of transport occurs, at least in part, through increased expression of the transporter genes Slc2a3 and Slc38a4, the imprinted member of the System A amino acid transporter gene family. Decreasing fetal demand genetically by removal of fetal Igf2 abolished up-regulation of both transport systems and reduced placental System A amino acid transport activity and expression of Slc38a2 in late gestation. Our results provide direct evidence that the placenta can respond to fetal demand signals through regulation of expression of specific placental transport systems. Thus, crosstalk between an imprinted growth demand gene (Igf2) and placental supply transporter genes (Slc38a4, Slc38a2, and Slc2a3) may be a component of the genetic control of nutrient supply and demand during mammalian development. PMID:16365304

  7. Ocean nutrients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Philip W.; Hurd, Catriona L.

    Nutrients provide the chemical life-support system for phytoplankton in the ocean. Together with the carbon fixed during photosynthesis, nutrients provide the other elements, such as N and P, needed to synthesize macromolecules to build cellular constituents such as ribosomes. The makeup of these various biochemicals, such as proteins, pigments, and nucleic acids, together determine the elemental stoichiometry of an individual phytoplankton cell. The stoichiometry of different phytoplankton species or groups will vary depending on the proportions of distinct cellular machinery, such as for growth or resource acquisition, they require for their life strategies. The uptake of nutrients by phytoplankton helps to set the primary productivity, and drives the biological pump, of the global ocean. In the case of nitrogen, the supply of nutrients is categorized as either new or regenerated. The supply of new nitrogen, such as nitrate upwelled from the ocean' interior or biological nitrogen fixation, is equal to the vertical export of particular organic matter from the upper ocean on a timescale of years. Nutrients such as silica can also play a structural role in some phytoplankton groups, such as diatoms, where they are used to synthesize a siliceous frustule that offers some mechanical protection from grazers. In this chapter, we also explore nutrient uptake kinetics, patterns in nutrient distributions in space and time, the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen, the atmospheric supply of nutrients, departures from the Redfield ratio, and whether nutrient distributions and cycling will be altered in the future

  8. Distribution of algae in the San Joaquin River, California, in relation to nutrient supply, salinity and other environmental factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leland, H.V.; Brown, L.R.; Mueller, D.K.

    2001-01-01

    1. The taxonomic composition and biomass of the phytoplankton and the taxonomic composition of the phytobenthos of the San Joaquin River and its major tributaries were examined in relation to water chemistry, habitat and flow regime. Agricultural drainage and subsurface flow contribute to a complex gradient of salinity and nutrients in this eutrophic, 'lowland type' river.2. Because of light-limiting conditions for growth, maintenance demands of the algae exceed production during summer and autumn in the San Joaquin River where there is no inflow from tributaries. In contrast to substantial gains in concentration of inorganic nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus during the summer of normal-flow years, net losses of algal biomass (2-4 ??g L-1 day-1 chlorophyll a) occurred in a mid-river segment with no significant tributary inflow. However, downstream of a large tributary draining the Sierra Nevada, a substantial net gain in algal biomass (6-11 μg L-1 day-1) occurred in the summer, but not in the spring (loss of 1-6 μg L-1 day-1) or autumn (loss of 2-5 ??g L-1 day-1).3. The phytoplankton was dominated in summer by 'r-selected' centric diatoms (Thalassiosirales), species both tolerant of variable salinity and widely distributed in the San Joaquin River. Pennate diatoms were proportionally more abundant (in biomass) in the winter, spring and autumn. Abundant taxa included the diatoms Cyclotella meneghiniana, Skeletonema cf. potamos, Cyclostephanos invisitatus, Thalassiosira weissflogii, Nitzschia acicularis, N. palea and N. reversa, and the chlorophytes Chlamydomonas sp. and Scenesdesmus quadricauda. Patterns in the abundance of species indicated that assembly of the phytoplankton is limited more by light and flow regime than by nutrient supply.4. The phytobenthos was dominated by larger, more slowly reproducing pennate diatoms. Few of the abundant species are euryhaline. The diatoms Navicula recens and Nitzschia inconspicua and cyanophytes, Oscillatoria spp

  9. Biogeochemical iron budgets of the Southern Ocean south of Australia: Decoupling of iron and nutrient cycles in the subantarctic zone by the summertime supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowie, Andrew R.; Lannuzel, Delphine; Remenyi, Tomas A.; Wagener, Thibaut; Lam, Phoebe J.; Boyd, Philip W.; Guieu, CéCile; Townsend, Ashley T.; Trull, Thomas W.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change is projected to significantly alter the delivery (stratification, boundary currents, aridification of landmasses, glacial melt) of iron to the Southern Ocean. We report the most comprehensive suite of biogeochemical iron budgets to date for three contrasting sites in subantarctic and polar frontal waters south of Australia. Distinct regional environments were responsible for differences in the mode and strength of iron supply mechanisms, with higher iron stocks and fluxes observed in surface northern subantarctic waters, where atmospheric iron fluxes were greater. Subsurface waters southeast of Tasmania were also enriched with particulate iron, manganese and aluminum, indicative of a strong advective source from shelf sediments. Subantarctic phytoplankton blooms are thus driven by both seasonal iron supply from southward advection of subtropical waters and by wind-blown dust deposition, resulting in a strong decoupling of iron and nutrient cycles. We discuss the broader global significance our iron budgets for other ocean regions sensitive to climate-driven changes in iron supply.

  10. Growth, allocation and tissue chemistry of Picea abies seedlings affected by nutrient supply during the second growing season.

    PubMed

    Kaakinen, Seija; Jolkkonen, Annika; Iivonen, Sari; Vapaavuori, Elina

    2004-06-01

    One-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber to investigate the effects of low and high nutrient availability (LN; 0.25 mM N and HN; 2.50 mM N) on growth, biomass allocation and chemical composition of needles, stem and roots during the second growing season. Climatic conditions in the growth chamber simulated the mean growing season from May to early October in Flakaliden, northern Sweden. In the latter half of the growing season, biomass allocation changed in response to nutrient availability: increased root growth and decreased shoot growth led to higher root/shoot ratios in LN seedlings than in HN seedlings. At high nutrient availability, total biomass, especially stem biomass, increased, as did total nonstructural carbohydrate and nitrogen contents per seedling. Responses of stem chemistry to nutrient addition differed from those of adult trees of the same provenance. In HN seedlings, concentrations of alpha-cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin decreased in the secondary xylem. Our results illustrate the significance of retranslocation of stored nutrients to support new growth early in the season when root growth and nutrient uptake are still low. We conclude that nutrient availability alters allocation patterns, thereby influencing the success of 2-year-old Norway spruce seedlings at forest planting sites.

  11. U.S. Geological Survey nutrient preservation experiment; nutrient concentration data for surface-, ground-, and municipal-supply water samples and quality-assurance samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, Charles J.; Truitt, Earl P.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a compilation of analytical results from a study conducted at the U.S. Geological Survey, National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) in 1992 to assess the effectiveness of three field treatment protocols to stabilize nutrient concentra- tions in water samples stored for about 1 month at 4C. Field treatments tested were chilling, adjusting sample pH to less than 2 with sulfuric acid and chilling, and adding 52 milligrams of mercury (II) chloride per liter of sample and chilling. Field treatments of samples collected for determination of ammonium, nitrate plus nitrite, nitrite, dissolved Kjeldahl nitrogen, orthophosphate, and dissolved phosphorus included 0.45-micrometer membrane filtration. Only total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total phosphorus were determined in unfiltered samples. Data reported here pertain to water samples collected in April and May 1992 from 15 sites within the continental United States. Also included in this report are analytical results for nutrient concentrations in synthetic reference samples that were analyzed concurrently with real samples.

  12. Interactions between growth-dependent changes in cell size, nutrient supply and cellular elemental stoichiometry of marine Synechococcus.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Nathan S; Bonachela, Juan A; Martiny, Adam C

    2016-11-01

    The factors that control elemental ratios within phytoplankton, like carbon:nitrogen:phosphorus (C:N:P), are key to biogeochemical cycles. Previous studies have identified relationships between nutrient-limited growth and elemental ratios in large eukaryotes, but little is known about these interactions in small marine phytoplankton like the globally important Cyanobacteria. To improve our understanding of these interactions in picophytoplankton, we asked how cellular elemental stoichiometry varies as a function of steady-state, N- and P-limited growth in laboratory chemostat cultures of Synechococcus WH8102. By combining empirical data and theoretical modeling, we identified a previously unrecognized factor (growth-dependent variability in cell size) that controls the relationship between nutrient-limited growth and cellular elemental stoichiometry. To predict the cellular elemental stoichiometry of phytoplankton, previous theoretical models rely on the traditional Droop model, which purports that the acquisition of a single limiting nutrient suffices to explain the relationship between a cellular nutrient quota and growth rate. Our study, however, indicates that growth-dependent changes in cell size have an important role in regulating cell nutrient quotas. This key ingredient, along with nutrient-uptake protein regulation, enables our model to predict the cellular elemental stoichiometry of Synechococcus across a range of nutrient-limited conditions. Our analysis also adds to the growth rate hypothesis, suggesting that P-rich biomolecules other than nucleic acids are important drivers of stoichiometric variability in Synechococcus. Lastly, by comparing our data with field observations, our study has important ecological relevance as it provides a framework for understanding and predicting elemental ratios in ocean regions where small phytoplankton like Synechococcus dominates.

  13. Bone nutrients for vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Mangels, Ann Reed

    2014-07-01

    The process of bone mineralization and resorption is complex and is affected by numerous factors, including dietary constituents. Although some dietary factors involved in bone health, such as calcium and vitamin D, are typically associated with dairy products, plant-based sources of these nutrients also supply other key nutrients involved in bone maintenance. Some research suggests that vegetarian diets, especially vegan diets, are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this does not appear to be clinically significant. Vegan diets are not associated with an increased fracture risk if calcium intake is adequate. Dietary factors in plant-based diets that support the development and maintenance of bone mass include calcium, vitamin D, protein, potassium, and soy isoflavones. Other factors present in plant-based diets such as oxalic acid and phytic acid can potentially interfere with absorption and retention of calcium and thereby have a negative effect on BMD. Impaired vitamin B-12 status also negatively affects BMD. The role of protein in calcium balance is multifaceted. Overall, calcium and protein intakes in accord with Dietary Reference Intakes are recommended for vegetarians, including vegans. Fortified foods are often helpful in meeting recommendations for calcium and vitamin D. Plant-based diets can provide adequate amounts of key nutrients for bone health.

  14. The importance of submarine groundwater discharge to the nearshore nutrient supply in the Gulf of Aqaba (Israel)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shellenbarger, G.G.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Genin, A.; Paytan, A.

    2006-01-01

    We used two short-lived radium isotopes (223Ra, 224Ra) and a mass balance approach applied to the radium activities to determine the nutrient contribution of saline submarine groundwater discharge to the coastal waters of the northern Gulf of Aqaba (Israel). Radium isotope activities were measured along transects during two seasons at a site that lacked any obvious surficial water input. An onshore well and an offshore end member were also sampled. For all samples, nutrients and salinity data were collected. Radium isotope activities generally decreased with distance offshore and exhibited significant tidal variability, which is consistent with a shore-derived tidally influenced source. Submarine groundwater contributes only 1-2% of the water along this coast, but this groundwater provides 8-46% of the nutrients. This saline groundwater is derived predominately from tidally pumped seawater percolating through the unconfined coastal aquifer and leaching radium and nutrients. This process represents a significant source of nutrients to the oligotrophic nearshore reef. ?? 2006, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  15. Low soil temperature inhibits the effect of high nutrient supply on photosynthetic response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration in white birch seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ambebe, Titus F; Dang, Qing-Lai; Li, Junlin

    2010-02-01

    nutrient supply on the response of A(n) to elevated [CO(2)].

  16. The effect of nutrient supply ratios on organic matter dynamics, phytoplankton community composition and diazotrophy in the eastern tropical South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J.; Lavik, G.; Riebesell, U.

    2015-12-01

    Upwelling of nutrient loaded water masses with low inorganic nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) ratios is thought to favor non-Redfield primary production by phytoplankton species adapted to exponential growth. Additionally, an excess of P (P*) in OMZ-influenced waters is also supposed to provide a niche for nitrogen fixing organisms. In order to assess the influence of low inorganic nutrient ratios on the stoichiometry and composition of primary producers, biogeochemical measurements were carried out in the eastern tropical South Pacific during R/V Meteor cruise M93. A succession of different functional types of phytoplankton was observed along onshore - offshore transects with diatoms dominating the productive upwelling region, while haptophytes, cryptophytes and crysophytes prevailed in the more oligotrophic open ocean. Simultaneously, particulate organic nitrogen to phosphorus ratios increased with increasing distance from shore. The stoichiometry of organic matter, however, always exceeded ratios of 16:1, although nutrient supply ratios were below Redfield proportions in the whole sampling area. A considerable amount of P* was detected in the surface ocean layer above the shelf, which decreased as water masses were advected beyond the shelf slope. Phytoplankton pigment analyses with HPLC revealed the existence of diazotrophic marker pigments in the study area, hinting towards a local replenishment of the N-deficit via nitrogen fixation.

  17. Interaction effects of CO2 and nutrient supplies on carbon cycling and sequestration in a pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oren, R.; Johnsen, K.; McCarthy, H.; Butnor, J.; Palmroth, S.; Maier, C.; Sanchez, F.; Ellsworth, D.; Edwards, I.; Katul, G.

    2001-12-01

    Under elevated CO2, the enhancement in the amount of carbon (C) sequestered in woody biomass of forests is controlled by availability of other resources that influence growth, such as nutrients and water. At the Duke Forest FACE site, a large growth response of woody tissue in a loblolly pine forest was transient, settling after three years at a marginal gain. Yet photosynthesis continued at a higher rate under elevated CO2. Greater availability of carbohydrates supports a large increase in forest floor CO2 flux. Forest floor CO2 flux decreases under both ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 when nutrients are added to the soil. Most of the reduction in forest floor flux can be accounted for by the increased in wood production once nitrogen limitation is alleviated. Thus, nitrogen acts to switch the forest from a large carbon sponge to a strong carbon pump that quickly cycles CO2 from the atmosphere to the soil and forest floor, and back to the atmosphere.

  18. Enhanced chemical weathering as a geoengineering strategy to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide, supply nutrients, and mitigate ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Jens; West, A. Joshua; Renforth, Phil; KöHler, Peter; de La Rocha, Christina L.; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A.; Dürr, Hans H.; Scheffran, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    weathering is an integral part of both the rock and carbon cycles and is being affected by changes in land use, particularly as a result of agricultural practices such as tilling, mineral fertilization, or liming to adjust soil pH. These human activities have already altered the terrestrial chemical cycles and land-ocean flux of major elements, although the extent remains difficult to quantify. When deployed on a grand scale, Enhanced Weathering (a form of mineral fertilization), the application of finely ground minerals over the land surface, could be used to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. The release of cations during the dissolution of such silicate minerals would convert dissolved CO2 to bicarbonate, increasing the alkalinity and pH of natural waters. Some products of mineral dissolution would precipitate in soils or be taken up by ecosystems, but a significant portion would be transported to the coastal zone and the open ocean, where the increase in alkalinity would partially counteract "ocean acidification" associated with the current marked increase in atmospheric CO2. Other elements released during this mineral dissolution, like Si, P, or K, could stimulate biological productivity, further helping to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. On land, the terrestrial carbon pool would likely increase in response to Enhanced Weathering in areas where ecosystem growth rates are currently limited by one of the nutrients that would be released during mineral dissolution. In the ocean, the biological carbon pumps (which export organic matter and CaCO3 to the deep ocean) may be altered by the resulting influx of nutrients and alkalinity to the ocean. This review merges current interdisciplinary knowledge about Enhanced Weathering, the processes involved, and the applicability as well as some of the consequences and risks of applying the method.

  19. Genetically Modified Organisms and the Future Global Nutrient Supply: Part of the Solution or a New Problem?

    PubMed

    Phillips, Peter W B

    2016-01-01

    For almost a generation now, scientists and policy makers have enthusiastically advanced genetically modified (GM) crops as a solution to both global food security and, specifically, the micronutrient needs of the hidden hungry. While genetic modification offers the prospect of overcoming technological barriers to food security, the gap between the vision and reality remains large. This chapter examines the impact of GM crops at three levels. Undoubtedly, at the micro level, bio-fortification offers a real opportunity to enhance the availability of micronutrients. However, the inexorable 'research sieve' ruthlessly culls most technical candidates in the agri-food system. GM bio-fortified foods, such as Golden RiceTM, remain only a promise. At the meso level, GM crops have generated benefits for both producers and consumers who have adopted GM crops, but given that the technology has been differentially applied to maize, the average diet for the food insecure has become somewhat less balanced. Finally, while GM crops have increased yields and the global food supply, these have come at the cost of more complex and costly trade and market systems, which impair access and availability. In essence, while biotechnology offers some tantalizing technological prospects, the difficulties of getting the corresponding benefits to the most needy have dampened some of the enthusiasm.

  20. High Resolution Modelling of Climate Change Impacts on Water Supply and Demand, Crop Nutrient Usage and GHG emissions, Similkameen Watershed, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirmasoudi, S.; Byrne, J. M.; Kroebel, R.; MacDonald, R. J.; Johnson, D. L.; McKenzie, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Similkameen watershed in southern British Columbia, Canada is expected to warm substantially in the coming decades. A higher proportion of winter rain to snow and an earlier onset of spring snowmelt are likely to result in lower spring stream flow peaks. The reduction in winter water storage, combined with longer, warmer, and drier summers, poses a challenge for water resources in an irrigation-based agricultural watershed. There are already substantial irrigation developments, and water demands are expected to increase to maintain current agricultural production, further stressing a shrinking summer water supply. Agriculture releases significant amounts of CO2, CH4 and N2O to the atmosphere, accounting for approximately 8% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada, excluding CO2 emissions from fuels. Agricultural GHG fluxes are complex but the active management of agricultural systems offers possibilities for mitigating GHG emissions. Although GHG emissions derived from soil have been researched for several decades, there are still geographic regions and agricultural systems that have not been well characterized. This work will address a series of questions for the Similkameen watershed. For a range of climate scenarios, we will: (i) use the GENESYS (GENerate Earth SYstems Science input) hydrometeorological model to simulate historical and future water supplies; (ii) link GENESYS and AquaCrop models to assess climate driven changes in water requirement and associated crop productivity; and (iii) link GENESYS and HOLOS (whole-farm model and software program that estimates GHG emissions) to estimate farm and regional level GHG emissions and seasonal nutrient balance for the crops in the watershed.

  1. Effect of protein source on amino acid supply, milk production, and metabolism of plasma nutrients in dairy cows fed grass silage.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, M; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P

    2002-12-01

    This study conducted according to a 4 x 4 Latin square with 28 d periods and four ruminally cannulated Finnish Ayrshire cows investigated the effect of protein supplements differing in amino acid (AA) profile and rumen undegradable protein content on postruminal AA supply and milk production. Mammary metabolism of plasma AA and other nutrients were also studied. The basal diet (Control; 13.4% crude protein) consisted of grass silage and barley in a ratio of 55:45 on a dry matter basis. The other three isonitrogenous diets (17.0% crude protein) were control + fishmeal (FM), control + soybean meal (SBM), and control + corn gluten meal (CGM). The protein supplements replaced portions of dry matter of the control diet maintaining the silage to barley ratio constant for all diets. Dry matter intake was limited to 95% of the preexperimental ad libitum intake and was similar (mean 19.8 kg/d dry matter) across the diets. Protein supplements increased milk, lactose, and protein yields but did not affect yields of energy-corrected milk or milk fat. Milk protein yield response was numerically lowest for diet SBM. Protein supplements increased milk protein concentration but decreased milk fat and lactose concentrations. Microbial protein synthesis and rumen fermentation parameters were similar across the diets, except for an increased rumen ammonia concentration for diets supplemented with protein feeds. Protein supplements increased N intake, ruminal organic matter and N, and total tract organic matter, N, and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities. Protein supplements also increased N and AA flows into the omasum, with SBM giving the lowest and CGM the highest flows. This was associated with an unchanged microbial N flow and a higher undegraded dietary N flow. The omasal flows of individual AA reflected differences in total N flow and AA profile of the experimental diets. Differences in AA flows did not always reflect plasma AA concentrations. The results indicated that AA

  2. Options for Procuring Adequate Supplies of Petroleum Products.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    focuses on the procurement of bulk refined products within the United States in a peacetime environment. The number of potentially remedial actions...shortfalls (lack of coverage of requirements). We focus on the procurement of bulk refined product within the United States where shortfalls have been...products for the Department of Defense worldwide and for federal civilian agencies within the United States . Table 1 lists the quantities of various

  3. Effect of roughage to concentrate ratio of sweet sorghum (Sorghum biclor L. Moench) bagasse-based complete diet on nutrient utilization and microbial N supply in lambs.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Nagireddy Nalini; Reddy, Yerradoddi Ramana; Blummel, Michel; Nagalakshmi, Devanaboyina; Sudhakar, Khaja; Reddy, Vangur Ravinder; Monika, Thamatam; Pavani, Mitta; Reddy, Marrivada Sudhakara; Reddy, Belum Venkata Subba; Reddy, Chintalapani Ravinder

    2012-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of roughage to the concentrate ratio of complete diets containing sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB), an agro-industrial by product, as sole roughage source on nutrient utilization in ram lambs. Twenty-four Nellore × Deccani cross ram lambs aged about 3 months (average body wt. 10.62 ± 0.03 kg) were randomly allotted into four groups fed with CR-I (60R:40C), CR-II (50R:50C), CR-III (40R:60C), and CR-IV (30R:70C) complete diets. The roughage to concentrate ratio did not affect the dry matter intake (in grams/day or grams/kilogram weight(0.75)). The crude protein (P < 0.01) and ether extract (P < 0.05) digestibility of ration CR-IV was higher than CR-I and CR-II rations, whereas, the digestibility of nitrogen-free extract and fiber fractions was similar among all the rations. Experimental diets were different (P < 0.01) in digestible crude protein (DCP) content, in which the CR-I ration contained lower DCP value whereas CR-IV ration contained higher DCP value. The total digestible nutrients (TDN) and metabolizable energy (ME) values were comparable among all the experimental rations. The daily DCP intake (in grams/day) was lower (P < 0.05) in lambs fed with CR-I ration compared to CR-III and CR-IV rations and it was comparable with CR-II ration. The TDN intake (in grams/day), digestible energy, and ME intakes (in megajoules/day) were similar among the lambs fed experimental rations with different SSB to concentrate ratios. The average daily DCP intake of lambs fed with CR-II, CR-III, and CR-IV rations met the requirements whereas, the daily TDN and ME intake was met by all the lambs. The lambs on all the diets were in positive nitrogen retention. The nitrogen balance expressed as grams/day was higher (P < 0.05) in lambs fed with CR-III and CR-IV ration than those fed with CR-I ration. The daily calcium and phosphorus intake and balance were comparable on all the experimental rations. The total purine derivatives (in

  4. Hotspots of human nutrition: Micronutrient supply, demand, and pollinator dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombeck, E.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Mueller, M.; Mueller, N. D.; Foley, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    While our caloric needs can mostly be met by wind-pollinated crops such as cereals, a recent analysis of USDA data shows that animal-pollinated crops contain the vast majority of many essential nutrients, including vitamins A and C, calcium, fluoride, and folic acid. In this work we combined global crop yield data with data on nutritional content in each crop to map nutrient production around the world, and to illustrate the value of pollination services to human nutrition. Spatially explicit crop yields (at 5 min resolution) were multiplied by crop nutrient content and by crop dependence on pollination to map where reductions in total nutrient production would occur if pollination services were removed. Nutrient demand maps (human nutrient requirements multiplied by population density) were generated to identify regions where local reduction in pollination services could threaten nutritional security. Nutrient deficiency maps (nutrient supply minus nutrient demand) were also created to identify hotspots where local crop production is not adequate to meet local nutritional needs.

  5. Impacts of Maternal Nutrition on Vascularity of Nutrient Transferring Tissues during Gestation and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Vonnahme, Kimberly A.; Lemley, Caleb O.; Caton, Joel S.; Meyer, Allison M.

    2015-01-01

    As the demand for food increases with exponential growth in the world population, it is imperative that we understand how to make livestock production as efficient as possible in the face of decreasing available natural resources. Moreover, it is important that livestock are able to meet their metabolic demands and supply adequate nutrition to developing offspring both during pregnancy and lactation. Specific nutrient supplementation programs that are designed to offset deficiencies, enhance efficiency, and improve nutrient supply during pregnancy can alter tissue vascular responses, fetal growth, and postnatal offspring outcomes. This review outlines how vascularity in nutrient transferring tissues, namely the maternal gastrointestinal tract, the utero-placental tissue, and the mammary gland, respond to differing nutritional planes and other specific nutrient supplementation regimes. PMID:25984740

  6. A novel coupled system of non-local integro-differential equations modelling Young's modulus evolution, nutrients' supply and consumption during bone fracture healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yanfei; Lekszycki, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    During fracture healing, a series of complex coupled biological and mechanical phenomena occurs. They include: (i) growth and remodelling of bone, whose Young's modulus varies in space and time; (ii) nutrients' diffusion and consumption by living cells. In this paper, we newly propose to model these evolution phenomena. The considered features include: (i) a new constitutive equation for growth simulation involving the number of sensor cells; (ii) an improved equation for nutrient concentration accounting for the switch between Michaelis-Menten kinetics and linear consumption regime; (iii) a new constitutive equation for Young's modulus evolution accounting for its dependence on nutrient concentration and variable number of active cells. The effectiveness of the model and its predictive capability are qualitatively verified by numerical simulations (using COMSOL) describing the healing of bone in the presence of damaged tissue between fractured parts.

  7. Nutrient supply and simulated herbivory differentially alter the metabolite pools and the efficacy of the glucosinolate-based defense system in Brassica species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    • Environmental stresses often result in upregulation of defense metabolism in plants. However, the dynamics of nitrogen-containing defense compounds that could be remobilized for maintenance-metabolism is less predictable under stress. Even less known is the impact of nutrient deficiency on the eff...

  8. Organic matter recycling in a beach environment influenced by sunscreen products and increased inorganic nutrient supply (Sturla, Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Misic, Cristina; Covazzi Harriague, Anabella; Trielli, Francesca

    2011-04-01

    The beaches are sites where the human influence may be strong and the beach ecosystems have often shown a high sensibility to environmental alterations. These zones may be affected by a large series of anthropogenic-derived pressures, such as unbalanced inorganic nutrient input, that may cause anomalous development of primary production, altering the structure of the trophic webs. Furthermore, the utilisation of cosmetic sunscreen products is reaching unexpected levels, thus assuming a potentially important as well as unknown role in the contamination of marine environments. The present study was planned to test the response of the beach ecosystem to increases in inorganic nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) and to the input of a widely used cosmetic sunscreen product. A short-term laboratory experiment was carried out on microsystems consisting of sediments and seawater from the swash zone of a Ligurian city beach (Sturla). The processes related to organic matter (OM) recycling and some microbial food web components (bacteria and micro-autotrophic organisms) were analysed. The multivariate statistical analysis of the results showed that the increase in inorganic nutrients and sunscreen caused only a transient alteration in the OM recycling processes in the seawater. The sedimentary processes, instead, were different in the different systems, although starting from the same condition. In the sediment, surprisingly, an increase in inorganic nutrients did not lead to an increase in the primary biomass nor to significantly higher bacterial abundance, while the sunscreen caused increased OM recycling, especially devoted to protein and lipid mobilisation, supporting a growing bacterial and autotrophic community by reducing the bottom-up pressure. Additional toxicity tests performed on protozoa highlighted that, while the inorganic nutrients seemed to show no effects, sunscreen decreased the protozoan viability, thus likely favouring microautotrophic and bacterial

  9. The Goal of Adequate Nutrition: Can It Be Made Affordable, Sustainable, and Universal?

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Ian

    2016-11-30

    Until about 1900, large proportions of the world population endured hunger and poverty. The 20th century saw world population increase from 1.6 to 6.1 billion, accompanied and to some extent made possible by rapid improvements in health standards and food supply, with associated advances in agricultural and nutrition sciences. In this paper, I use the application of linear programming (LP) in preparation of rations for farm animals to illustrate a method of calculating the lowest cost of a human diet selected from locally available food items, constrained to provide recommended levels of food energy and nutrients; then, to find a realistic minimum cost, I apply the further constraint that the main sources of food energy in the costed diet are weighted in proportion to the actual reported consumption of food items in that area. Worldwide variations in dietary preferences raise the issue as to the sustainability of popular dietary regimes, and the paper reviews the factors associated with satisfying requirements for adequate nutrition within those regimes. The ultimate physical constraints on food supply are described, together with the ways in which climate change may affect those constraints. During the 20th century, food supply increased sufficiently in most areas to keep pace with the rapid increase in world population. Many challenges will need to be overcome if food supply is to continue to meet demand, and those challenges are made more severe by rising expectations of quality of life in the developing world, as well as by the impacts of climate change on agriculture and aquaculture.

  10. The Goal of Adequate Nutrition: Can It Be Made Affordable, Sustainable, and Universal?

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Until about 1900, large proportions of the world population endured hunger and poverty. The 20th century saw world population increase from 1.6 to 6.1 billion, accompanied and to some extent made possible by rapid improvements in health standards and food supply, with associated advances in agricultural and nutrition sciences. In this paper, I use the application of linear programming (LP) in preparation of rations for farm animals to illustrate a method of calculating the lowest cost of a human diet selected from locally available food items, constrained to provide recommended levels of food energy and nutrients; then, to find a realistic minimum cost, I apply the further constraint that the main sources of food energy in the costed diet are weighted in proportion to the actual reported consumption of food items in that area. Worldwide variations in dietary preferences raise the issue as to the sustainability of popular dietary regimes, and the paper reviews the factors associated with satisfying requirements for adequate nutrition within those regimes. The ultimate physical constraints on food supply are described, together with the ways in which climate change may affect those constraints. During the 20th century, food supply increased sufficiently in most areas to keep pace with the rapid increase in world population. Many challenges will need to be overcome if food supply is to continue to meet demand, and those challenges are made more severe by rising expectations of quality of life in the developing world, as well as by the impacts of climate change on agriculture and aquaculture. PMID:28231177

  11. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  12. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  13. Seed Priming Alters the Production and Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Intermediates in Rice Seedlings Grown under Sub-optimal Temperature and Nutrient Supply.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Cao, Weidong; Wu, Lishu; Geng, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    The production and detoxification of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) play an important role in the plant response to nutrient and environmental stresses. The present study demonstrated the behavior of growth, ROIs-production and their detoxification in primed and non-primed rice seedlings under chilling stress (18°C) and nitrogen-(N), phosphorus-(P), or potassium-(K) deprivation. The results revealed that chilling stress as well as deprivation of any mineral nutrient severely hampered the seedling growth of rice, however, seed priming treatments (particularly selenium- or salicylic acid-priming), were effective in enhancing the rice growth under stress conditions. The N-deprivation caused the maximum reduction in shoot growth, while the root growth was only decreased by P- or K-deprivation. Although, N-deprivation enhanced the root length of rice, the root fresh weight was unaffected. Rate of lipid peroxidation as well as the production of ROIs, was generally increased under stress conditions; the K-deprived seedlings recorded significantly lower production of ROIs than N- or P-deprived seedlings. The responses of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in rice seedlings to chilling stress were variable with nutrient management regime. All the seed priming were found to trigger or at least maintain the antioxidant defense system of rice seedlings. Notably, the levels of ROIs were significantly reduced by seed priming treatments, which were concomitant with the activities of ROIs-producing enzymes (monoamine oxidase and xanthine oxidase), under all studied conditions. Based on these findings, we put forward the hypothesis that along with role of ROIs-scavenging enzymes, the greater tolerance of primed rice seedlings can also be due to the reduced activity of ROIs-producing enzymes.

  14. Thermal acclimation of shoot respiration in an Arctic woody plant species subjected to 22 years of warming and altered nutrient supply.

    PubMed

    Heskel, Mary A; Greaves, Heather E; Turnbull, Matthew H; O'Sullivan, Odhran S; Shaver, Gaius R; Griffin, Kevin L; Atkin, Owen K

    2014-08-01

    Despite concern about the status of carbon (C) in the Arctic tundra, there is currently little information on how plant respiration varies in response to environmental change in this region. We quantified the impact of long-term nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) treatments and greenhouse warming on the short-term temperature (T) response and sensitivity of leaf respiration (R), the high-T threshold of R, and associated traits in shoots of the Arctic shrub Betula nana in experimental plots at Toolik Lake, Alaska. Respiration only acclimated to greenhouse warming in plots provided with both N and P (resulting in a ~30% reduction in carbon efflux in shoots measured at 10 and 20 °C), suggesting a nutrient dependence of metabolic adjustment. Neither greenhouse nor N+P treatments impacted on the respiratory sensitivity to T (Q10 ); overall, Q10 values decreased with increasing measuring T, from ~3.0 at 5 °C to ~1.5 at 35 °C. New high-resolution measurements of R across a range of measuring Ts (25-70 °C) yielded insights into the T at which maximal rates of R occurred (Tmax ). Although growth temperature did not affect Tmax , N+P fertilization increased Tmax values ~5 °C, from 53 to 58 °C. N+P fertilized shoots exhibited greater rates of R than nonfertilized shoots, with this effect diminishing under greenhouse warming. Collectively, our results highlight the nutrient dependence of thermal acclimation of leaf R in B. nana, suggesting that the metabolic efficiency allowed via thermal acclimation may be impaired at current levels of soil nutrient availability. This finding has important implications for predicting carbon fluxes in Arctic ecosystems, particularly if soil N and P become more abundant in the future as the tundra warms.

  15. Seed Priming Alters the Production and Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Intermediates in Rice Seedlings Grown under Sub-optimal Temperature and Nutrient Supply

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Cao, Weidong; Wu, Lishu; Geng, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    The production and detoxification of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) play an important role in the plant response to nutrient and environmental stresses. The present study demonstrated the behavior of growth, ROIs-production and their detoxification in primed and non-primed rice seedlings under chilling stress (18°C) and nitrogen-(N), phosphorus-(P), or potassium-(K) deprivation. The results revealed that chilling stress as well as deprivation of any mineral nutrient severely hampered the seedling growth of rice, however, seed priming treatments (particularly selenium- or salicylic acid-priming), were effective in enhancing the rice growth under stress conditions. The N-deprivation caused the maximum reduction in shoot growth, while the root growth was only decreased by P- or K-deprivation. Although, N-deprivation enhanced the root length of rice, the root fresh weight was unaffected. Rate of lipid peroxidation as well as the production of ROIs, was generally increased under stress conditions; the K-deprived seedlings recorded significantly lower production of ROIs than N- or P-deprived seedlings. The responses of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in rice seedlings to chilling stress were variable with nutrient management regime. All the seed priming were found to trigger or at least maintain the antioxidant defense system of rice seedlings. Notably, the levels of ROIs were significantly reduced by seed priming treatments, which were concomitant with the activities of ROIs-producing enzymes (monoamine oxidase and xanthine oxidase), under all studied conditions. Based on these findings, we put forward the hypothesis that along with role of ROIs-scavenging enzymes, the greater tolerance of primed rice seedlings can also be due to the reduced activity of ROIs-producing enzymes. PMID:27092157

  16. Diagnosing oceanic nutrient deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. Mark

    2016-11-01

    The supply of a range of nutrient elements to surface waters is an important driver of oceanic production and the subsequent linked cycling of the nutrients and carbon. Relative deficiencies of different nutrients with respect to biological requirements, within both surface and internal water masses, can be both a key indicator and driver of the potential for these nutrients to become limiting for the production of new organic material in the upper ocean. The availability of high-quality, full-depth and global-scale datasets on the concentrations of a wide range of both macro- and micro-nutrients produced through the international GEOTRACES programme provides the potential for estimation of multi-element deficiencies at unprecedented scales. Resultant coherent large-scale patterns in diagnosed deficiency can be linked to the interacting physical-chemical-biological processes which drive upper ocean nutrient biogeochemistry. Calculations of ranked deficiencies across multiple elements further highlight important remaining uncertainties in the stoichiometric plasticity of nutrient ratios within oceanic microbial systems and caveats with regards to linkages to upper ocean nutrient limitation. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.

  17. 5 CFR 919.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate evidence. 919.900 Section 919.900 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.900 Adequate...

  18. Metabolic characteristics of the proteins in yellow-seeded and brown-seeded canola meal and presscake in dairy cattle: comparison of three systems (PDI, DVE, and NRC) in nutrient supply and feed milk value (FMV).

    PubMed

    Theodoridou, Katerina; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-03-20

    To the authors' knowledge, there is little research on metabolic characteristics of the protein in newly developed yellow and brown types of canola meal and canola presscake. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify differences in the metabolic characteristics of the protein among yellow-seeded ( Brassica juncea ) and brown-seeded ( Brassica napus ) canola meal and brown-seeded (B. napus) canola presscake modeled for dairy cattle, (2) determine the extent of ruminal and intestinal digestion and absorption of the protein, (3) determine feed milk value, and (4) compare three evaluation systems in modeling nutrient supply to dairy cattle, namely, the DVE/OEB system (DVE, truly absorbed protein in the small intestine; OEB, degraded protein balance), the National Research Council (NRC) 2001 model, and the PDI system (protein truly digestible in the small intestine). Comparison was made in terms of (1) ruminally synthesized microbial protein, (2) truly absorbed protein in the small intestine, (3) endogenous protein, (4) total metabolizable protein, and (5) degraded protein balance. The results showed that there were significant differences in the truly absorbed protein supply, protein degraded balance, and feed milk value (P < 0.05) among the different types of canola meal. Yellow-seeded canola meal had significantly higher (P < 0.05) intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded crude protein (%dRUP) than brown-seeded canola meal and presscake (%dRUP, 90 vs 75 and 60%, respectively). Yellow-seeded canola meal also had higher (P < 0.05) total metabolizable protein predicted by all three models (DVE, 312 vs 192 and 128 g/kg DM; MP, 287 vs 193 and 168 g/kg DM; PDIA, 264 vs 168 and 137 g/kg DM, respectively), lower (P < 0.05) degraded protein balance (OEB, 84 vs 104 and 102 g/kg DM; DPB, 49 vs 60 and 57 g/kg DM, respectively), and higher (P < 0.05) feed milk value (6.3 vs 3.9 and 2.6 kg milk/kg feed, respectively) than the brown-seeded canola meal and presscake. In

  19. Nutrient Supply and Simulated Herbivory Differentially Alter the Metabolite Pools and the Efficacy of the Glucosinolate-Based Defense System in Brassica Species.

    PubMed

    Almuziny, Makhdora; Decker, Charlotte; Wang, Dong; Gerard, Patrick; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2017-02-01

    Environmental stress hinders growth of plants and commonly results in the accumulation of carbon-based defense compounds. However, the dynamics of nitrogen (N)-containing defense compounds are less predictable under environmental stress. The impact of nutrient deficiency on plant defenses that require the metabolic conversion of a less toxic compound to a more potent toxin is even more poorly understood. We evaluated the effects of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) deficiency and simulated herbivory on the concentration of metabolites including glucosinolates (GSLs), on the conversion of GSLs to more toxic isothiocyanates (ITCs), and on the activity of myrosinase (MYR) in leaves of Brassica juncea and Brassica nigra. Both species contained GSLs, predominantly sinigrin, but also derivatives of glucobrassicin. Compared to the control, N deficiency increased the sinigrin concentration in both species. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) application increased sinigrin production in B. junceae, whereas in B. nigra MeJA increased sinigrin only under K-deficiency. Compared to the aliphatic-glucosinolates, MeJA application produced a greater compositional change in the profiles of indolic-glucosinolates. In both species the increase in sinigrin content of the tissue was associated with a decrease in its overall nutritive value as assessed by the content of sugars and amino acids. In B. juncea, application of MeJA decreased the conversion of sinigrin to allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) under both N and K deficiency. The potential activity of MYR decreased in both species under N deficiency. The reduced conversion of sinigrin to AITC and the lower activity of MYR suggest that the GSL-ITC defense system might have a limited efficiency in deterring generalist herbivores under environmental stress.

  20. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  1. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  2. Supply and Demand

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast to continue producing an adequate supply of milk. In fact, the protein contained in the residual milk remaining in the ... or fluid) content, and the composition of your milk will change. Over the next week or so, the protein content will decline and the fat and lactose ...

  3. Nutrient management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient management has been defined as “the science and art directed to link soil, crop, weather and hydrologic factors with cultural, irrigation and soil and water conservation practices to achieve the goals of optimizing nutrient use efficiency, yields, crop quality, and economic returns, while r...

  4. Available nutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar technology may contribute to the recovery and recycling of plant nutrients and thus add a fertilizer value to the biochar. Total nutrient content in biochars varies greatly and is mainly dependent on feedstock elemental composition and to a lesser extent on pyrolysis conditions. Availability...

  5. Nutrient vectors and riparian nutrient processing in African semiarid savanna ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobs, Shayne M.; Bechtold, J.S.; Biggs, Harry C.; Grimm, N. B.; McClain, M.E.; Naiman, R.J.; Perakis, Steven S.; Pinay, G.; Scholes, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    This review article describes vectors for nitrogen and phosphorus delivery to riparian zones in semiarid African savannas, the processing of nutrients in the riparian zone and the effect of disturbance on these processes. Semiarid savannas exhibit sharp seasonality, complex hillslope hydrology and high spatial heterogeneity, all of which ultimately impact nutrient fluxes between riparian, upland and aquatic environments. Our review shows that strong environmental drivers such as fire and herbivory enhance nitrogen, phosphorus and sediment transport to lower slope positions by shaping vegetative patterns. These vectors differ significantly from other arid and semiarid ecosystems, and from mesic ecosystems where the impact of fire and herbivory are less pronounced and less predictable. Also unique is the presence of sodic soils in certain hillslopes, which substantially alters hydrological flowpaths and may act as a trap where nitrogen is immobilized while sediment and phosphorus transport is enhanced. Nutrients and sediments are also deposited in the riparian zone during seasonal, intermittent floods while, during the dry season, subsurface movement of water from the stream into riparian soils and vegetation further enrich riparian zones with nutrients. As is found in mesic ecosystems, nutrients are immobilized in semiarid riparian corridors through microbial and plant uptake, whereas dissimilatory processes such as denitrification may be important where labile nitrogen and carbon are in adequate supply and physical conditions are suitablea??such as in seeps, wallows created by animals, ephemeral wetlands and stream edges. Interaction between temporal hydrologic connectivity and spatial heterogeneity are disrupted by disturbances such as large floods and extended droughts, which may convert certain riparian patches from sinks to sources for nitrogen and phosphorus. In the face of increasing anthropogenic pressure, the scientific challenges are to provide a basic

  6. Occurrence and distribution of organic chemicals and nutrients and comparison of water-quality data from public drinking-water supplies in the Columbia aquifer in Delaware, 2000-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reyes, Betzaida

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control and the Delaware Geological Survey, conducted a groundwater-quality investigation to (a) describe the occurrence and distribution of selected contaminants, and (b) document any changes in groundwater quality in the Columbia aquifer public water-supply wells in the Coastal Plain in Delaware between 2000 and 2008. Thirty public water-supply wells located throughout the Columbia aquifer of the Delaware Coastal Plain were sampled from August through November of 2008. Twenty-two of the wells in the sampling network for this project were previously sampled in 2000. Eight new wells were selected to replace wells no longer in use. Groundwater collected from the wells was analyzed for the occurrence and distribution of selected pesticides, pesticide degradates, volatile organic compounds, nutrients, and major inorganic ions. Nine of the wells were analyzed for radioactive elements (radium-226, radium-228, and radon). Groundwater-quality data were compared for sites sampled in both 2000 and 2008 to document any changes in water quality. One or more pesticides were detected in samples from 29 of the 30 wells. There were no significant differences in pesticide and pesticide degradate concentrations and similar compounds were detected when comparing sampling results from 2000 and 2008. Pesticide and pesticide degradate concentrations were generally less than 1 microgram per liter. Twenty-four compounds, 14 pesticides, and 10 pesticide degradates were detected in at least one sample; the pesticide degradates, metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid, deethylatrazine, and alachlor ethanesulfonic acid were the most frequently detected compounds, each found in more than 50 percent of samples. Almost 80 percent of the detected pesticides were agricultural herbicides, which reflects the prevalence and wide distribution of agriculture in sampled areas, as well the dominance of

  7. 40 CFR 792.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... facilities. (a) There shall be storage areas, as needed, for feed, nutrients, soils, bedding, supplies, and equipment. Storage areas for feed, nutrients, soils, and bedding shall be separated from areas where the... supplies shall be preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall...

  8. 40 CFR 792.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... facilities. (a) There shall be storage areas, as needed, for feed, nutrients, soils, bedding, supplies, and equipment. Storage areas for feed, nutrients, soils, and bedding shall be separated from areas where the... supplies shall be preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall...

  9. 40 CFR 792.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... facilities. (a) There shall be storage areas, as needed, for feed, nutrients, soils, bedding, supplies, and equipment. Storage areas for feed, nutrients, soils, and bedding shall be separated from areas where the... supplies shall be preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall...

  10. 40 CFR 792.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... facilities. (a) There shall be storage areas, as needed, for feed, nutrients, soils, bedding, supplies, and equipment. Storage areas for feed, nutrients, soils, and bedding shall be separated from areas where the... supplies shall be preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall...

  11. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors.A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L.The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg.In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L.

  12. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors. A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L. The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg. In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L. PMID:27902589

  13. Programming placental nutrient transport capacity

    PubMed Central

    Fowden, A L; Ward, J W; Wooding, F P B; Forhead, A J; Constancia, M

    2006-01-01

    Many animal studies and human epidemiological findings have shown that impaired growth in utero is associated with physiological abnormalities in later life and have linked this to tissue programming during suboptimal intrauterine conditions at critical periods of development. However, few of these studies have considered the contribution of the placenta to the ensuing adult phenotype. In mammals, the major determinant of intrauterine growth is the placental nutrient supply, which, in turn, depends on the size, morphology, blood supply and transporter abundance of the placenta and on synthesis and metabolism of nutrients and hormones by the uteroplacental tissues. This review examines the regulation of placental nutrient transfer capacity and the potential programming effects of nutrition and glucocorticoid over-exposure on placental phenotype with particular emphasis on the role of the Igf2 gene in these processes. PMID:16439433

  14. Nutrients in the nexus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidson, Eric A.; Niphong, Rachel; Ferguson, Richard B.; Palm, Cheryl; Osmond, Deanna L.; Baron, Jill S.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has enabled modern agriculture to greatly improve human nutrition during the twentieth century, but it has also created unintended human health and environmental pollution challenges for the twenty-first century. Averaged globally, about half of the fertilizer-N applied to farms is removed with the crops, while the other half remains in the soil or is lost from farmers’ fields, resulting in water and air pollution. As human population continues to grow and food security improves in the developing world, the dual development goals of producing more nutritious food with low pollution will require both technological and socio-economic innovations in agriculture. Two case studies presented here, one in sub-Saharan Africa and the other in Midwestern United States, demonstrate how management of nutrients, water, and energy is inextricably linked in both small-scale and large-scale food production, and that science-based solutions to improve the efficiency of nutrient use can optimize food production while minimizing pollution. To achieve the needed large increases in nutrient use efficiency, however, technological developments must be accompanied by policies that recognize the complex economic and social factors affecting farmer decision-making and national policy priorities. Farmers need access to affordable nutrient supplies and support information, and the costs of improving efficiencies and avoiding pollution may need to be shared by society through innovative policies. Success will require interdisciplinary partnerships across public and private sectors, including farmers, private sector crop advisors, commodity supply chains, government agencies, university research and extension, and consumers.

  15. Strategic Supply

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    the potential to capitalize on more efficient and effective management of their respective supply chains . Supply Chain Management (SCM) is the...transformation efforts have the potential to create a more agile, flexible and resilient supply chain that is responsive to Commanders and sensitive to...optimizing their supply chain to remain viable and create competitive advantage. Supply Chain Management (SCM) is grounded in the field of logistics

  16. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  17. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  18. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  19. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  20. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  1. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  2. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  3. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  4. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  5. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  6. Key Nutrients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Lessons written to help trainer agents prepare aides for work with families in the Food and Nutrition Program are presented in this booklet. The key nutrients discussed in the 10 lessons are protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, iron, iodine, and Vitamins A, B, C, and D. the format of each lesson is as follows: Purpose, Presentation, Application…

  7. Adequate mathematical modelling of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    In environmental observations and laboratory visualization both large scale flow components like currents, jets, vortices, waves and a fine structure are registered (different examples are given). The conventional mathematical modeling both analytical and numerical is directed mostly on description of energetically important flow components. The role of a fine structures is still remains obscured. A variety of existing models makes it difficult to choose the most adequate and to estimate mutual assessment of their degree of correspondence. The goal of the talk is to give scrutiny analysis of kinematics and dynamics of flows. A difference between the concept of "motion" as transformation of vector space into itself with a distance conservation and the concept of "flow" as displacement and rotation of deformable "fluid particles" is underlined. Basic physical quantities of the flow that are density, momentum, energy (entropy) and admixture concentration are selected as physical parameters defined by the fundamental set which includes differential D'Alembert, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations and closing equation of state. All of them are observable and independent. Calculations of continuous Lie groups shown that only the fundamental set is characterized by the ten-parametric Galilelian groups reflecting based principles of mechanics. Presented analysis demonstrates that conventionally used approximations dramatically change the symmetries of the governing equations sets which leads to their incompatibility or even degeneration. The fundamental set is analyzed taking into account condition of compatibility. A high order of the set indicated on complex structure of complete solutions corresponding to physical structure of real flows. Analytical solutions of a number problems including flows induced by diffusion on topography, generation of the periodic internal waves a compact sources in week-dissipative media as well as numerical solutions of the same

  8. Strategic Supply

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    context of Supply Chain Management ( SCM ), it is quite apparent that Strategic Supply cannot be classified as a particular industry; but rather, as an...Management ( SCM ), it is quite apparent that Strategic Supply cannot be classified as a particular industry; but rather, as an enabler across all...advantage in the global marketplace. The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) has defined SCM as, “…encompassing the planning

  9. Processes and patterns of oceanic nutrient limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. M.; Mills, M. M.; Arrigo, K. R.; Berman-Frank, I.; Bopp, L.; Boyd, P. W.; Galbraith, E. D.; Geider, R. J.; Guieu, C.; Jaccard, S. L.; Jickells, T. D.; La Roche, J.; Lenton, T. M.; Mahowald, N. M.; Marañón, E.; Marinov, I.; Moore, J. K.; Nakatsuka, T.; Oschlies, A.; Saito, M. A.; Thingstad, T. F.; Tsuda, A.; Ulloa, O.

    2013-09-01

    Microbial activity is a fundamental component of oceanic nutrient cycles. Photosynthetic microbes, collectively termed phytoplankton, are responsible for the vast majority of primary production in marine waters. The availability of nutrients in the upper ocean frequently limits the activity and abundance of these organisms. Experimental data have revealed two broad regimes of phytoplankton nutrient limitation in the modern upper ocean. Nitrogen availability tends to limit productivity throughout much of the surface low-latitude ocean, where the supply of nutrients from the subsurface is relatively slow. In contrast, iron often limits productivity where subsurface nutrient supply is enhanced, including within the main oceanic upwelling regions of the Southern Ocean and the eastern equatorial Pacific. Phosphorus, vitamins and micronutrients other than iron may also (co-)limit marine phytoplankton. The spatial patterns and importance of co-limitation, however, remain unclear. Variability in the stoichiometries of nutrient supply and biological demand are key determinants of oceanic nutrient limitation. Deciphering the mechanisms that underpin this variability, and the consequences for marine microbes, will be a challenge. But such knowledge will be crucial for accurately predicting the consequences of ongoing anthropogenic perturbations to oceanic nutrient biogeochemistry.

  10. Stoichiometry, herbivory and competition for nutrients: simple models based on planktonic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Grover, James P

    2002-02-21

    Models are examined in which two prey species compete for two nutrient resources, and are preyed upon by a predator that recycles both nutrients. Two factors determine the effective relative supply of the nutrients, hence competitive outcomes: the external nutrient supply ratio, and the relative recycling of the two nutrients within the system. This second factor is governed by predator stoichiometry--its relative requirements for nutrients in its own biomass. A model with nutrient resources that are essential for the competing prey is detailed. Criteria are given to identify the limiting nutrient for a food chain of one competitor with the predator. Increased supply of this limiting nutrient increases predator density and concentration of this nutrient at equilibrium, while decreasing the concentration of a non-limiting nutrient. Changes in supply or recycling of a non-limiting nutrient affect only the concentration of that nutrient. Criteria for the invasion of a second prey competitor are presented. When different nutrients limit growth of the resident prey and the invader, increased supply or recycling of the invader's limiting nutrient assists invasion, while increased supply or recycling of the resident's limiting nutrient hinders invasion. If the same nutrient limits both resident and invader, then changes in supply and recycling have complex effects on invasion, depending on species properties. In a parameterized model of a planktonic ecosystem, green algae and cyanobacteria coexist over a wide range of nitrogen:phosphorus supply ratios, without predators. When the herbivore Daphnia is added, coexistence is eliminated or greatly restricted, and green algae dominate over a wide range of supply conditions, because the effective supply of P is greatly reduced as Daphnia rapidly recycles N.

  11. Nutrient limitation in tropical savannas across multiple scales and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Adam F A

    2016-02-01

    Nutrients have been hypothesized to influence the distribution of the savanna biome through two possible mechanisms. Low nutrient availability may restrict growth rates of trees, thereby allowing for intermittent fires to maintain low tree cover; alternatively, nutrient deficiency may even place an absolute constraint on the ability of forests to form, independent of fire. However, we have little understanding of the scales at which nutrient limitation operates, what nutrients are limiting, and the mechanisms that influence how nutrient limitation regulates savanna-forest transitions. Here, I review literature, synthesize existing data, and present a simple calculation of nutrient demand to evaluate how nutrient limitation may regulate the distribution of the savanna biome. The literature primarily supports the hypothesis that nutrients may interact dynamically with fire to restrict the transition of savanna into forest. A compilation of indirect metrics of nutrient limitation suggest that nitrogen and phosphorus are both in short supply and may limit plants. Nutrient demand calculations provided a number of insights. First, trees required high rates of nitrogen and phosphorus supply relative to empirically determined inputs. Second, nutrient demand increased as landscapes approached the transition point between savanna and forest. Third, the potential for fire-driven nutrient losses remained high throughout transitions, which may exaggerate limitation and could be a key feedback stabilizing the savanna biome. Fourth, nutrient limitation varied between functional groups, with fast-growing forest species having substantially greater nutrient demand and a higher susceptibility to fire-driven nutrient losses. Finally, African savanna trees required substantially larger amounts of nutrients supplied at greater rates, although this varied across plant functional groups. In summary, the ability of nutrients to control transitions emerges at individual and landscape

  12. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen; Smed, Sinne; Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Mojca; Rayner, Mike; Darmon, Nicole; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Methods Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods. Results The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6). The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8). The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN) to 134 (DGN) foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N) and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN). Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN) tripled it. Conclusion Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable. PMID:27760131

  13. Do nutrient-competition models predict nutrient availabilities in limnetic ecosystems?

    PubMed

    Leibold, Mathew A

    1997-03-01

    Recent theory on resource competition, predicated on the importance of hypothesized trade-offs between minimum requirements for nutrient resources, predicts that there should be negative correlations between the supply rate of major limiting nutrients and the availability of at least some secondary nutrients and/or among the availabilities of different limiting nutrients. However, an analysis of four data sets from large-scale surveys of lakes shows mostly positive correlations among the availabilities and supplies of nutrients. In contrast, a fifth data set, obtained in an area of high acidification, does show several important negative correlations that are consistent with the nutrient competition models. Further analyses suggest two possible explanations for the preponderance of positive correlation. Negative correlations between nutrients and light indicate that an important trade-off among species regulating phytoplankton may involve low light requirements versus low nutrient requirements. The existence of negative correlations in nutrient availabilities in acidic lakes (where herbivory appears less important than in buffered lakes) also suggests that another important trade-off may involve an ability to minimize loss rates (especially due to grazing) versus an overall ability to exploit nutrient resources.

  14. 40 CFR 160.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be storage areas, as needed, for feed, nutrients, soils, bedding, supplies, and equipment. Storage areas for feed nutrients, soils, and bedding shall be separated from areas where the test systems are... preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall be provided....

  15. 40 CFR 160.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be storage areas, as needed, for feed, nutrients, soils, bedding, supplies, and equipment. Storage areas for feed nutrients, soils, and bedding shall be separated from areas where the test systems are... preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall be provided....

  16. 40 CFR 160.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be storage areas, as needed, for feed, nutrients, soils, bedding, supplies, and equipment. Storage areas for feed nutrients, soils, and bedding shall be separated from areas where the test systems are... preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall be provided....

  17. 40 CFR 160.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be storage areas, as needed, for feed, nutrients, soils, bedding, supplies, and equipment. Storage areas for feed nutrients, soils, and bedding shall be separated from areas where the test systems are... preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall be provided....

  18. Food and water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  19. Effects of harvesting schedules on nutrient depletion in forests

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of harvesting on nutrient removal from a given site is relatively easy to evaluate. The amount of nutrient removed varies with amount of biomass harvested, species, and age. However, broad generalization about any of these factors must be viewed with caution, because exceptions as well as unknowns may be significant. The importance of nutrient removal by harvesting to nutrient status and productivity of the ecosystem is difficult to assess, because the availability of nutrients to trees will be determined by a number of unpredictable factors, including atmospheric inputs, soil weathering, leaching, and microbial mineralization-immobilization (the latter being especially important for N). Thus, while many investigators have, through a nutrient evaluation, forecast problems with Ca supplies and few researchers forecast problems with N supplies due to intensive harvesting, the effects of harvesting on the availability of nutrients to the regenerating forest remains unknown and constitutes a significant research need.

  20. School Nurse Inspections Improve Handwashing Supplies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Schrader, Ronald; Trujillo, Rebecca; Blea, Mary; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Background: Handwashing in the school setting is important for infectious disease control, yet maintaining adequate handwashing supplies is often made difficult by lack of funds, limited staff time, and student vandalism. This study measured the availability of handwashing supplies for students in New Mexico public schools and determined the…

  1. Nutrient absorption.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Deborah C

    2004-03-01

    Our understanding of nutrient absorption continues to grow, from the development of unique animal models and from studies in which cutting-edge molecular and cellular biologic approaches have been used to analyze the structure and function of relevant molecules. Studies of the molecular genetics of inherited disorders have also provided many new insights into these processes. A major advance in lipid absorption has been the cloning and characterization of several intestinal acyl CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferases; these may provide new targets for antiobesity drug therapy. Studies of intestinal cholesterol absorption and reverse cholesterol transport have encouraged the development of novel potential treatments for hyperlipidemia. Observations in genetically modified mice and in humans with mutations in glucose transporter 2 suggest the importance of a separate microsomal membrane transport pathway for glucose transport. The study of iron metabolism has advanced greatly with the identification of the hemochromatosis gene and the continued examination of the genetic regulation of iron absorptive pathways. Several human thiamine transporters have been identified, and their specific roles in different tissues are being explored.

  2. Nursing Supplies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Nursing Supplies Page Content Article Body Throughout most of ... budget. (Nursing equipment also makes wonderful baby gifts.) Nursing Bras A well-made nursing bra that comfortably ...

  3. Applying Value Stream Mapping to reduce food losses and wastes in supply chains: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    De Steur, Hans; Wesana, Joshua; Dora, Manoj K; Pearce, Darian; Gellynck, Xavier

    2016-12-01

    The interest to reduce food losses and wastes has grown considerably in order to guarantee adequate food for the fast growing population. A systematic review was used to show the potential of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) not only to identify and reduce food losses and wastes, but also as a way to establish links with nutrient retention in supply chains. The review compiled literature from 24 studies that applied VSM in the agri-food industry. Primary production, processing, storage, food service and/or consumption were identified as susceptible hotspots for losses and wastes. Results further revealed discarding and nutrient loss, most especially at the processing level, as the main forms of loss/waste in food, which were adapted to four out of seven lean manufacturing wastes (i.e. defect, unnecessary inventory, overproduction and inappropriate processing). This paper presents the state of the art of applying lean manufacturing practices in the agri-food industry by identifying lead time as the most applicable performance indicator. VSM was also found to be compatible with other lean tools such as Just-In-Time and 5S which are continuous improvement strategies, as well as simulation modelling that enhances adoption. In order to ensure successful application of lean practices aimed at minimizing food or nutrient losses and wastes, multi-stakeholder collaboration along the entire food supply chain is indispensable.

  4. Nutrient availability moderates transpiration in Ehrharta calycina.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Michael D; Hoffmann, Vera; Verboom, G Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Transpiration-driven 'mass-flow' of soil-water can increase nutrient flow to the root surface. Here it was investigated whether transpiration could be partially regulated by nutrient status. Seeds of Ehrharta calycina from nine sites across a rainfall gradient were supplied with slow-release fertilizer dibbled into the sand surrounding the roots and directly available through interception, mass-flow and diffusion (dubbed 'interception'), or sequestered behind a 40-microm mesh and not directly accessible by the roots, but from which nutrients could move by diffusion or mass-flow (dubbed 'mass-flow'). Although mass-flow plants were significantly smaller than interception plants as a consequence of nutrient limitation, they transpired 60% faster, had 90% higher photosynthesis relative to transpiration (A/E), and 40% higher tissue P, Ca and Na concentrations than plants allowed to intercept nutrients directly. Tissue N and K concentrations were similar for interception and mass-flow plants. Transpiration was thus higher in the nutrient-constrained 'mass-flow' plants, increasing the transport of nutrients to the roots by mass-flow. Transpiration may have been regulated by N availability, resulting in similar tissue concentration between treatments. It is concluded that, although transpiration is a necessary consequence of photosynthetic CO(2) uptake in C(3) plants, plants can respond to nutrient limitation by varying transpiration-driven mass-flow of nutrients.

  5. Nutrient dynamics and food-web stability

    SciTech Connect

    DeAngelis, D.L.; Mulholland, P.J.; Palumbo, A.V.; Steinman, A.D.; Huston, M.A.; Elwood, J.W. )

    1989-01-01

    The importance of nutrient limitation and recycling in ecosystems is widely recognized. Nutrients, defined in the broad sense as all material elements vital to biological functions, are in such small supply that they limit production in many ecosystems. Such limitation can affect ecosystem properties, including the structure and dynamics of the food webs that link species through their feeding relationships. What are the effects of limiting nutrients on the stability of ecosystem food webs Most of the literature on food web stability centers around the dynamics of population numbers and/or biomasses. Nevertheless, a growing body of theoretical and empirical research considers the role that both nutrient limitation and recycling can play in stability. In this paper, it is the authors objective to summarize the current understanding of several important types of stability. The theoretical and empirical evidence relating these types of stability and nutrient cycling is described. A central generalization is produced in each case.

  6. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  7. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  8. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo Ndebele's…

  9. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  10. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  11. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  12. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  13. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  14. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  15. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  16. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  17. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  18. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  19. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  20. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  1. Sources of Nutrients for Ocean Enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, I. S.

    2008-12-01

    The remarkable doubling of the productivity of the land over the last 50 years raises the question of opportunities to follow suit in the sea. The rapidly rising population makes increasing demands on food supply and the disposal of waste in the atmosphere from fossil fuel burning It is well known that the supply of nutrients to the photic zone of the ocean limits primary production and this limitation can be removed by the addition of nutrients. The surface waters of the ocean are typically in the photic zone for a decade and their initial quota of nutrients are supplemented by cyanobacteria, atmospheric deposition and river inflows. Together with upwelling these nutrients support about 10,000GtC of new primary production per year. Extra nutrients can be sourced from the thermocline, from enhancing the diazotrophs or by chemically transforming elements on the land or in the atmosphere. Using thermocline nutrients to enhance productivity but are first order neutral for carbon sequestration. Diazotrophs seem restricted to temperate and tropical waters and need phosphate and other nutrients. The increased nitrogen they provide is expected to lead to more carbon storage in the ocean. The macronutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus and the micronutrients have all been shown to be beneficial. With increased new primary production we expect increased sustainable fish production but the species composition will depend on the success of recruitment.

  2. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead.

  3. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead. PMID:26664401

  4. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    PubMed

    Godrich, Stephanie L; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-01-03

    Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD) (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions) and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA). Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256) living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23). A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20) for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007), promotion (p = 0.017), location of food outlets (p = 0.027), and price (p = 0.043). Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned) are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing.

  5. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Hamilton, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  6. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (10/14/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadben,. Director, to Nancy Wrona and Dennis Smith informing them that Maricopa County's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2003 MAGCO Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  7. Region 6: Texas Adequate Letter (4/16/2010)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Texas Commission on Environmental Quality determined 2021 motor vehicle emission budgets for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for Beaumont/Port Arthur area adequate for transportation conformity purposes

  8. Region 2: New Jersey Adequate Letter (5/23/2002)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This April 22, 2002 letter from EPA to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection determined 2007 and 2014 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Mobile Source Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal

  9. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (10/29/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Denvers' particulate matter (PM10) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  10. Region 1: New Hampshire Adequate Letter (8/12/2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This July 9, 2008 letter from EPA to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, determined the 2009 Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets (MVEBs) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal Register (FR).

  11. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (1/20/2004)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Greeleys' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the FR.

  12. Region 8: Utah Adequate Letter (6/10/2005)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Utah Department of Environmental Quality determined Salt Lake Citys' and Ogdens' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  13. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  14. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  15. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  16. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  17. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  18. Region 6: New Mexico Adequate Letter (8/21/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Carl Edlund, Director, to Alfredo Santistevan regarding MVEB's contained in the latest revision to the Albuquerque Carbon Monoxide State Implementation Plan (SIP) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  19. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  20. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  1. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  2. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  3. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  4. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  5. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  6. Region 9: Nevada Adequate Letter (3/30/2006)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Deborah Jordan, Director, to Leo M. Drozdoff regarding Nevada's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2005 Truckee Meadows CO Redesignation Request and Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity decisions.

  7. Biomass production and nutrient removal by switchgrass under irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass has been identified to supply a major portion of U.S. energy needs when used as a fuel. Assessments of the export of essential plant nutrients are needed to determine impacts on soil fertility that will influence fertilizer recommendations since the nutrients contained in the above groun...

  8. Applied kinesiology unreliable for assessing nutrient status.

    PubMed

    Kenney, J J; Clemens, R; Forsythe, K D

    1988-06-01

    Applied kinesiology is a technique used to assess nutritional status on the basis of the response of muscles to mechanical stress. In this study, 11 subjects were evaluated independently by three experienced applied kinesiologists for four nutrients (thiamin, zinc, vitamin A, and ascorbic acid). The results obtained by those applied kinesiologists were compared with (a) one another, (b) standard laboratory tests for nutrient status, and (c) computerized isometric muscle testing. Statistical analysis yielded no significant interjudge reliability, no significant correlation between the testers and standard biochemical tests for nutrient status, and no significant correlation between mechanical and manual determinations of relative muscle strength. In addition, the subjects were exposed in a double-blind fashion to supplements of thiamin, zinc, vitamin A, and ascorbic acid and two placebos (pectin and sucrose) and then re-tested. According to applied kinesiology theory, "weak" (indicating deficiency) muscles are strengthened when the subject is exposed to an appropriate nutritional supplement. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences in the response to placebo, nutrients previously determined (by muscle testing) to be deficient, and nutrients previously determined (by muscle testing) to be adequate. Even though the number of subjects (11) and nutrients (4) tested was limited, the results of this study indicated that the use of applied kinesiology to evaluate nutrient status is no more useful than random guessing.

  9. Plasticity of the Arabidopsis root system under nutrient deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Benjamin D; Giehl, Ricardo F H; Friedel, Swetlana; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2013-09-01

    Plant roots show a particularly high variation in their morphological response to different nutrient deficiencies. Although such changes often determine the nutrient efficiency or stress tolerance of plants, it is surprising that a comprehensive and comparative analysis of root morphological responses to different nutrient deficiencies has not yet been conducted. Since one reason for this is an inherent difficulty in obtaining nutrient-deficient conditions in agar culture, we first identified conditions appropriate for producing nutrient-deficient plants on agar plates. Based on a careful selection of agar specifically for each nutrient being considered, we grew Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants at four levels of deficiency for 12 nutrients and quantified seven root traits. In combination with measurements of biomass and elemental concentrations, we observed that the nutritional status and type of nutrient determined the extent and type of changes in root system architecture (RSA). The independent regulation of individual root traits further pointed to a differential sensitivity of root tissues to nutrient limitations. To capture the variation in RSA under different nutrient supplies, we used principal component analysis and developed a root plasticity chart representing the overall modulations in RSA under a given treatment. This systematic comparison of RSA responses to nutrient deficiencies provides a comprehensive view of the overall changes in root plasticity induced by the deficiency of single nutrients and provides a solid basis for the identification of nutrient-sensitive steps in the root developmental program.

  10. Root Nutrient Foraging1

    PubMed Central

    Giehl, Ricardo F.H.; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2014-01-01

    During a plant's lifecycle, the availability of nutrients in the soil is mostly heterogeneous in space and time. Plants are able to adapt to nutrient shortage or localized nutrient availability by altering their root system architecture to efficiently explore soil zones containing the limited nutrient. It has been shown that the deficiency of different nutrients induces root architectural and morphological changes that are, at least to some extent, nutrient specific. Here, we highlight what is known about the importance of individual root system components for nutrient acquisition and how developmental and physiological responses can be coupled to increase nutrient foraging by roots. In addition, we review prominent molecular mechanisms involved in altering the root system in response to local nutrient availability or to the plant's nutritional status. PMID:25082891

  11. Root nutrient foraging.

    PubMed

    Giehl, Ricardo F H; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2014-10-01

    During a plant's lifecycle, the availability of nutrients in the soil is mostly heterogeneous in space and time. Plants are able to adapt to nutrient shortage or localized nutrient availability by altering their root system architecture to efficiently explore soil zones containing the limited nutrient. It has been shown that the deficiency of different nutrients induces root architectural and morphological changes that are, at least to some extent, nutrient specific. Here, we highlight what is known about the importance of individual root system components for nutrient acquisition and how developmental and physiological responses can be coupled to increase nutrient foraging by roots. In addition, we review prominent molecular mechanisms involved in altering the root system in response to local nutrient availability or to the plant's nutritional status.

  12. Nutrient reduction induced stringent responses promote bacterial quorum-sensing divergence for population fitness

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kelei; Zhou, Xikun; Li, Wujiao; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria use a cell-cell communication system termed quorum-sensing (QS) to adjust population size by coordinating the costly but beneficial cooperative behaviors. It has long been suggested that bacterial social conflict for expensive extracellular products may drive QS divergence and cause the “tragedy of the commons”. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of social divergence and its evolutionary consequences for the bacterial ecology still remain largely unknown. By using the model bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, here we show that nutrient reduction can promote QS divergence for population fitness during evolution but requiring adequate cell density. Mechanically, decreased nutrient supplies can induce RpoS-directed stringent response and enhance the selection pressure on lasR gene, and lasR mutants are evolved in association with the DNA mismatch repair “switch-off”. The lasR mutants have higher relative fitness than QS-intact individuals due to their energy-saving characteristic under nutrient decreased condition. Furthermore an optimal incorporation of lasR mutants is capable of maximizing the fitness of entire population during in vitro culture and the colonization in mouse lung. Consequently, rather than worsen the population health, QS-coordinated social divergence is an elaborate evolutionary strategy that renders the entire bacterial population more fit in tough times. PMID:27713502

  13. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Hart, Edward J.; Leeman, James E.; MacDougall, Hugh R.; Marron, John J.; Smith, Calvin C.

    1976-01-01

    An electric power supply employs a striking means to initiate ferroelectric elements which provide electrical energy output which subsequently initiates an explosive charge which initiates a second ferroelectric current generator to deliver current to the coil of a magnetic field current generator, creating a magnetic field around the coil. Continued detonation effects compression of the magnetic field and subsequent generation and delivery of a large output current to appropriate output loads.

  14. Maternal Diet and Nutrient Requirements in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding. An Italian Consensus Document

    PubMed Central

    Marangoni, Franca; Cetin, Irene; Verduci, Elvira; Canzone, Giuseppe; Giovannini, Marcello; Scollo, Paolo; Corsello, Giovanni; Poli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The importance of lifestyle and dietary habits during pregnancy and breastfeeding, for health of mothers and their offspring, is widely supported by the most recent scientific literature. The consumption of a varied and balanced diet from the preconceptional period is essential to ensure both maternal well-being and pregnancy outcomes. However, the risk of inadequate intakes of specific micronutrients in pregnancy and lactation is high even in the most industrialized countries. This particularly applies to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), iron, iodine, calcium, folic acid, and vitamin D, also in the Italian population. Moreover, the risk of not reaching the adequate nutrient supply is increased for selected groups of women of childbearing age: those following exclusion diets, underweight or overweight/obese, smokers, adolescents, mothers who have had multiple or close pregnancies, and those with previous unfavorable pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27754423

  15. Layered Plant-Growth Media for Optimizing Gaseous, Liquid and Nutrient Requirements: Modeling, Design and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinse, R.; Jones, S. B.; Bingham, G.; Bugbee, B.

    2006-12-01

    Rigorous management of restricted root zones utilizing coarse-textured porous media greatly benefits from optimizing the gas-water balance within plant-growth media. Geophysical techniques can help to quantify root- zone parameters like water content, air-filled porosity, temperature and nutrient concentration to better address the root systems performance. The efficiency of plant growth amid high root densities and limited volumes is critically linked to maintaining a favorable water content/air-filled porosity balance while considering adequate fluxes to replenish water at decreasing hydraulic conductivities during uptake. Volumes adjacent to roots also need to be optimized to provide adequate nutrients throughout the plant's life cycle while avoiding excessive salt concentrations. Our objectives were to (1) design and model an optimized root zone system using optimized porous media layers, (2) verify our design by monitoring the water content distribution and tracking nutrient release and transport, and (3) mimic water and nutrient uptake using plants or wicks to draw water from the root system. We developed a unique root-zone system using layered Ottawa sands promoting vertically uniform water contents and air-filled porosities. Watering was achieved by maintaining a shallow saturated layer at the bottom of the column and allowing capillarity to draw water upward, where coarser particle sizes formed the bottom layers with finer particles sizes forming the layers above. The depth of each layer was designed to optimize water content based on measurements and modeling of the wetting water retention curves. Layer boundaries were chosen to retain saturation between 50 and 85 percent. The saturation distribution was verified by dual-probe heat-pulse water-content sensors. The nutrient experiment involved embedding slow release fertilizer in the porous media in order to detect variations in electrical resistivity versus time during the release, diffusion and uptake of

  16. Switching power supply

    DOEpatents

    Mihalka, A.M.

    1984-06-05

    The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

  17. Consumers regulate nutrient limitation regimes and primary production in seagrass ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Allgeier, Jacob E; Yeager, Lauren A; Layman, Craig A

    2013-02-01

    Consumer-mediated nutrient supply is increasingly recognized as an important functional process in many ecosystems. Yet, experimentation at relevant spatial and temporal scales is needed to fully integrate this bottom-up pathway into ecosystem models. Artificial reefs provide a unique approach to explore the importance of consumer nutrient supply for ecosystem function in coastal marine environments. We used bioenergetics models to estimate community-level nutrient supply by fishes, and relevant measures of primary production, to test the hypothesis that consumers, via excretion of nutrients, can enhance primary production and alter nutrient limitation regimes for two dominant primary producer groups (seagrass and benthic microalgae) around artificial reefs. Both producer groups demonstrated marked increases in production, as well as shifts in nutrient limitation regimes, with increased fish-derived nutrient supply. Individuals from the two dominant functional feeding groups (herbivores and mesopredators) supplied nutrients at divergent rates and ratios from one another, underscoring the importance of community structure for nutrient supply to primary producers. Our findings demonstrate that consumers, through an underappreciated bottom-up mechanism in marine environments, can alter nutrient limitation regimes and primary production, thereby fundamentally affecting the way these ecosystems function.

  18. Regulatory requirements for providing adequate veterinary care to research animals.

    PubMed

    Pinson, David M

    2013-09-01

    Provision of adequate veterinary care is a required component of animal care and use programs in the United States. Program participants other than veterinarians, including non-medically trained research personnel and technicians, also provide veterinary care to animals, and administrators are responsible for assuring compliance with federal mandates regarding adequate veterinary care. All program participants therefore should understand the regulatory requirements for providing such care. The author provides a training primer on the US regulatory requirements for the provision of veterinary care to research animals. Understanding the legal basis and conditions of a program of veterinary care will help program participants to meet the requirements advanced in the laws and policies.

  19. Optimizing nutrient management for farm systems.

    PubMed

    Goulding, Keith; Jarvis, Steve; Whitmore, Andy

    2008-02-12

    Increasing the inputs of nutrients has played a major role in increasing the supply of food to a continually growing world population. However, focusing attention on the most important nutrients, such as nitrogen (N), has in some cases led to nutrient imbalances, some excess applications especially of N, inefficient use and large losses to the environment with impacts on air and water quality, biodiversity and human health. In contrast, food exports from the developing to the developed world are depleting soils of nutrients in some countries. Better management of all essential nutrients is required that delivers sustainable agriculture and maintains the necessary increases in food production while minimizing waste, economic loss and environmental impacts. More extensive production systems typified by 'organic farming' may prove to be sustainable. However, for most of the developed world, and in the developing world where an ever-growing population demands more food, it will be essential to increase the efficiency of nutrient use in conventional systems. Nutrient management on farms is under the control of the land manger, the most effective of whom will already use various decision supports for calculating rates of application to achieve various production targets. Increasingly, land managers will need to conform to good practice to achieve production targets and to conform to environmental targets as well.

  20. Nutrient Density Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Annette; Thompson, William T.

    1979-01-01

    Announces a nutrient density food scoring system called the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). It expresses the ratio between the percent RDA of a nutrient and the percent daily allowance of calories in a food. (Author/SA)

  1. The interaction of fiber, supplied by distillers dried grains with solubles, with an antimicrobial and a nutrient partitioning agent on nitrogen balance, water utilization, and energy digestibility in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, C M; Arentson, R; Patience, J F

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a higher-fiber diet alters the response of finishing pigs to an antimicrobial (tylosin phosphate [TP]) and a nutrient partitioning agent (ractopamine HCl [RAC]) in terms of N and water utilization and energy digestibility. Seventy-two gilts (initial BW = 107.4 ± 4.2 kg) were blocked by weight and allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial: distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 0 vs. 30%), RAC (0 mg of RAC/kg and 0.70% standardized ileal digestible [SID] Lys vs. 5 mg of RAC/kg and 0.95% SID Lys) and TP (0 vs. 44 mg of TP/kg). Pig was the experimental unit, with 9 replications per treatment. Pigs were housed in individual metabolism crates and fed treatment diets for 17 d. Feed was provided twice daily, as much as the pigs could consume within 1 h per meal, and water was provided to the pigs between feeding periods, ad libitum. Fecal and urine collection occurred on d 7 and 8 and on d 15 and 16, for sampling periods 1 and 2, respectively. Pigs fed the DDGS diets had reduced ADG ( < 0.001) and ADFI ( < 0.0001). The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of N and GE were lower for the 30% DDGS diets than the 0% DDGS diets ( < 0.0001). Ractopamine improved ADG ( < 0.0001), G:F ( < 0.0001), and N retention ( < 0.001) and tended to increase daily water intake ( < 0.10). Pigs fed RAC had higher N intake and urinary excretion and lower N retention in Period 2 than in Period 1 ( < 0.05), indicating a decline in the response to RAC over time. Tylosin phosphate did not affect ADFI or G:F but did improve ATTD of N ( < 0.05). There was a tendency for a TP × DDGS interaction ( < 0.10) for ADG, where TP tended to increase ADG in pigs fed 0% DDGS diets ( < 0.10) but not in pigs fed 30% DDGS diets ( > 0.10). Pigs fed DDGS diets had higher N intake ( < 0.01) and higher fecal ( < 0.0001) and urinary ( < 0.01) N excretion with no difference in N retention (g/d). Overall, RAC

  2. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  3. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  4. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  5. Is the Stock of VET Skills Adequate? Assessment Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandy, Richard; Freeland, Brett

    In Australia and elsewhere, four approaches have been used to determine whether stocks of vocational education and training (VET) skills are adequate to meet industry needs. The four methods are as follows: (1) the manpower requirements approach; (2) the international, national, and industry comparisons approach; (3) the labor market analysis…

  6. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  7. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  8. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  9. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  10. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  11. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  12. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation…

  13. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  14. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  15. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (11/1/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadbent, Director, Air Division to Nancy Wrona and James Bourney informing them of the adequacy of Revised MAG 1999 Serious Area Carbon Monoxide Plan and that the MAG CO Plan is adequate for Maricopa County.

  16. Nutrient adequacy of a very low-fat vegan diet.

    PubMed

    Dunn-Emke, Stacey R; Weidner, Gerdi; Pettengill, Elaine B; Marlin, Ruth O; Chi, Christine; Ornish, Dean M

    2005-09-01

    This study assessed the nutrient adequacy of a very low-fat vegan diet. Thirty-nine men (mean age=65 years) with early stage prostate cancer who chose the "watchful waiting" approach to disease management, were instructed by a registered dietitian and a chef on following a very low-fat (10%) vegan diet with the addition of a fortified soy protein powdered beverage. Three-day food diaries, excluding vitamin and mineral supplements, were analyzed and nutrient values were compared against Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Mean dietary intake met the recommended DRIs. On the basis of the Adequate Intake standard, a less than adequate intake was observed for vitamin D. This demonstrates that a very low-fat vegan diet with comprehensive nutrition education emphasizing nutrient-fortified plant foods is nutritionally adequate, with the exception of vitamin D. Vitamin D supplementation, especially for those with limited sun exposure, can help assure nutritional adequacy.

  17. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    PubMed Central

    Godrich, Stephanie L.; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R.; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD) (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions) and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA). Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256) living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23). A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20) for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007), promotion (p = 0.017), location of food outlets (p = 0.027), and price (p = 0.043). Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned) are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing. PMID:28054955

  18. Short-term effect of nutrient availability and rainfall distribution on biomass production and leaf nutrient content of savanna tree species.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Eduardo R M; Tomlinson, Kyle W; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Kirkman, Kevin; de Bie, Steven; Prins, Herbert H T; van Langevelde, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Changes in land use may lead to increased soil nutrient levels in many ecosystems (e.g. due to intensification of agricultural fertilizer use). Plant species differ widely in their response to differences in soil nutrients, and for savannas it is uncertain how this nutrient enrichment will affect plant community dynamics. We set up a large controlled short-term experiment in a semi-arid savanna to test how water supply (even water supply vs. natural rainfall) and nutrient availability (no fertilisation vs. fertilisation) affects seedlings' above-ground biomass production and leaf-nutrient concentrations (N, P and K) of broad-leafed and fine-leafed tree species. Contrary to expectations, neither changes in water supply nor changes in soil nutrient level affected biomass production of the studied species. By contrast, leaf-nutrient concentration did change significantly. Under regular water supply, soil nutrient addition increased the leaf phosphorus concentration of both fine-leafed and broad-leafed species. However, under uneven water supply, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus concentration declined with soil nutrient supply, this effect being more accentuated in broad-leafed species. Leaf potassium concentration of broad-leafed species was lower when growing under constant water supply, especially when no NPK fertilizer was applied. We found that changes in environmental factors can affect leaf quality, indicating a potential interactive effect between land-use changes and environmental changes on savanna vegetation: under more uneven rainfall patterns within the growing season, leaf quality of tree seedlings for a number of species can change as a response to changes in nutrient levels, even if overall plant biomass does not change. Such changes might affect herbivore pressure on trees and thus savanna plant community dynamics. Although longer term experiments would be essential to test such potential effects of eutrophication via changes in leaf nutrient concentration

  19. Short-Term Effect of Nutrient Availability and Rainfall Distribution on Biomass Production and Leaf Nutrient Content of Savanna Tree Species

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Eduardo R. M.; Tomlinson, Kyle W.; Carvalheiro, Luísa G.; Kirkman, Kevin; de Bie, Steven; Prins, Herbert H. T.; van Langevelde, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Changes in land use may lead to increased soil nutrient levels in many ecosystems (e.g. due to intensification of agricultural fertilizer use). Plant species differ widely in their response to differences in soil nutrients, and for savannas it is uncertain how this nutrient enrichment will affect plant community dynamics. We set up a large controlled short-term experiment in a semi-arid savanna to test how water supply (even water supply vs. natural rainfall) and nutrient availability (no fertilisation vs. fertilisation) affects seedlings’ above-ground biomass production and leaf-nutrient concentrations (N, P and K) of broad-leafed and fine-leafed tree species. Contrary to expectations, neither changes in water supply nor changes in soil nutrient level affected biomass production of the studied species. By contrast, leaf-nutrient concentration did change significantly. Under regular water supply, soil nutrient addition increased the leaf phosphorus concentration of both fine-leafed and broad-leafed species. However, under uneven water supply, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus concentration declined with soil nutrient supply, this effect being more accentuated in broad-leafed species. Leaf potassium concentration of broad-leafed species was lower when growing under constant water supply, especially when no NPK fertilizer was applied. We found that changes in environmental factors can affect leaf quality, indicating a potential interactive effect between land-use changes and environmental changes on savanna vegetation: under more uneven rainfall patterns within the growing season, leaf quality of tree seedlings for a number of species can change as a response to changes in nutrient levels, even if overall plant biomass does not change. Such changes might affect herbivore pressure on trees and thus savanna plant community dynamics. Although longer term experiments would be essential to test such potential effects of eutrophication via changes in leaf nutrient

  20. Army General Fund Adjustments Not Adequately Documented or Supported

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-26

    statements were unreliable and lacked an adequate audit trail. Furthermore, DoD and Army managers could not rely on the data in their accounting...risk that AGF financial statements will be materially misstated and the Army will not achieve audit readiness by the congressionally mandated...and $6.5 trillion in yearend adjustments made to Army General Fund data during FY 2015 financial statement compilation. We conducted this audit in

  1. Municipal water reuse for urban agriculture in Namibia: Modeling nutrient and salt flows as impacted by sanitation user behavior.

    PubMed

    Woltersdorf, L; Scheidegger, R; Liehr, S; Döll, P

    2016-03-15

    Adequate sanitation, wastewater treatment and irrigation infrastructure often lacks in urban areas of developing countries. While treated, nutrient-rich reuse water is a precious resource for crop production in dry regions, excessive salinity might harm the crops. The aim of this study was to quantify, from a system perspective, the nutrient and salt flows a new infrastructure connecting water supply, sanitation, wastewater treatment and nutrient-rich water reuse for the irrigation of agriculture, from a system perspective. For this, we developed and applied a quantitative assessment method to understand the benefits and to support the management of the new water infrastructure in an urban area in semi-arid Namibia. The nutrient and salt flows, as affected by sanitation user behavior, were quantified by mathematical material flow analysis that accounts for the low availability of suitable and certain data in developing countries, by including data ranges and by assessing the effects of different assumptions in cases. Also the nutrient and leaching requirements of a crop scheme were calculated. We found that, with ideal sanitation use, 100% of nutrients and salts are reclaimed and the slightly saline reuse water is sufficient to fertigate 10 m(2)/cap/yr (90% uncertainty interval 7-12 m(2)/cap/yr). However, only 50% of the P contained in human excreta could be finally used for crop nutrition. During the pilot phase fewer sanitation users than expected used slightly more water per capita, used the toilets less frequently and practiced open defecation more frequently. Therefore, it was only possible to reclaim about 85% of nutrients from human excreta, the reuse water was non-saline and contained less nutrient so that the P was the limiting factor for crop fertigation. To reclaim all nutrients from human excreta and fertigate a larger agricultural area, sanitation user behavior needs to be improved. The results and the methodology of this study can be generalized and

  2. Duodenal luminal nutrient sensing

    PubMed Central

    Rønnestad, Ivar; Akiba, Yasutada; Kaji, Izumi; Kaunitz, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal mucosa is exposed to numerous chemical substances and microorganisms, including macronutrients, micronutrients, bacteria, endogenous ions, and proteins. The regulation of mucosal protection, digestion, absorption and motility is signaled in part by luminal solutes. Therefore, luminal chemosensing is an important mechanism enabling the mucosa to monitor luminal conditions, such as pH, ion concentrations, nutrient quantity, and microflora. The duodenal mucosa shares luminal nutrient receptors with lingual taste receptors in order to detect the five basic tastes, in addition to essential nutrients, and unwanted chemicals. The recent ‘de-orphanization’ of nutrient sensing G protein-coupled receptors provides an essential component of the mechanism by which the mucosa senses luminal nutrients. In this review, we will update the mechanisms of and underlying physiological and pathological roles in luminal nutrient sensing, with a main focus on the duodenal mucosa. PMID:25113991

  3. Drug-nutrient interactions.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lingtak-Neander

    2013-07-01

    Drug-nutrient interactions are defined as physical, chemical, physiologic, or pathophysiologic relationships between a drug and a nutrient. The causes of most clinically significant drug-nutrient interactions are usually multifactorial. Failure to identify and properly manage drug-nutrient interactions can lead to very serious consequences and have a negative impact on patient outcomes. Nevertheless, with thorough review and assessment of the patient's history and treatment regimens and a carefully executed management strategy, adverse events associated with drug-nutrient interactions can be prevented. Based on the physiologic sequence of events after a drug or a nutrient has entered the body and the mechanism of interactions, drug-nutrient interactions can be categorized into 4 main types. Each type of interaction can be managed using similar strategies. The existing data that guide the clinical management of most drug-nutrient interactions are mostly anecdotal experience, uncontrolled observations, and opinions, whereas the science in understanding the mechanism of drug-nutrient interactions remains limited. The challenge for researchers and clinicians is to increase both basic and higher level clinical research in this field to bridge the gap between the science and practice. The research should aim to establish a better understanding of the function, regulation, and substrate specificity of the nutrient-related enzymes and transport proteins present in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as assess how the incidence and management of drug-nutrient interactions can be affected by sex, ethnicity, environmental factors, and genetic polymorphisms. This knowledge can help us develop a true personalized medicine approach in the prevention and management of drug-nutrient interactions.

  4. Genetic modification of preimplantation embryos: toward adequate human research policies.

    PubMed

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects.

  5. Elements for adequate informed consent in the surgical context.

    PubMed

    Abaunza, Hernando; Romero, Klaus

    2014-07-01

    Given a history of atrocities and violations of ethical principles, several documents and regulations have been issued by a wide variety of organizations. They aim at ensuring that health care and clinical research adhere to defined ethical principles. A fundamental component was devised to ensure that the individual has been provided the necessary information to make an informed decision regarding health care or participation in clinical research. This article summarizes the history and regulations for informed consent and discusses suggested components for adequate consent forms for daily clinical practice in surgery as well as clinical research.

  6. Switching off angiogenic signalling: creating channelled constructs for adequate oxygen delivery in tissue engineered constructs.

    PubMed

    Cheema, U; Alekseeva, T; Abou-Neel, E A; Brown, R A

    2010-10-06

    A major question in biomimetic tissue engineering is how much of the structure/function of native vasculature needs to be reproduced for effective tissue perfusion. O2 supplied to cells in 3D scaffolds in vitro is initially dependent upon diffusion through the scaffold and cell consumption. Low O2 (3%) enhances specific cell behaviours, but where O2 is critically low (pathological hypoxia) cell survival becomes compromised. We measured real-time O2 in 3D scaffolds and introduced micro-channelled architecture to controllably increase delivery of O2 to cells and switch off the hypoxic response. Simple static micro-channelling gives adequate perfusion and can be used to control cell generated hypoxia-induced signalling.

  7. Photosynthetic capacity, nutrient status, and growth of maize (Zea mays L.) upon MgSO4 leaf-application.

    PubMed

    Jezek, Mareike; Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Bayer, Anne; Mühling, Karl-Hermann

    2014-01-01

    The major plant nutrient magnesium (Mg) is involved in numerous physiological processes and its deficiency can severely reduce the yield and quality of crops. Since Mg availability in soil and uptake into the plant is often limited by unfavorable soil or climatic conditions, application of Mg onto leaves, the site with highest physiological Mg demand, might be a reasonable alternative fertilization strategy. This study aimed to investigate, if MgSO4 leaf-application in practically relevant amounts can efficiently alleviate the effects of Mg starvation in maize, namely reduced photosynthesis capacity, disturbed ion homeostasis and growth depression. Results clearly demonstrated that Mg deficiency could be mitigated by MgSO4 leaf-application as efficiently as by resupply of MgSO4 via the roots in vegetative maize plants. Significant increases in SPAD values and net rate of CO2-assimilation as well as enhanced shoot biomass have been achieved. Ion analysis furthermore revealed an improvement of the nutrient status of Mg-deficient plants with regard to [Mg], [K], and [Mn] in distinct organs, thereby reducing the risk of Mn-toxicity at the rootside, which often occurs together with Mg deficiency on acid soils. In conclusion, foliar fertilization with Mg proved to be an efficient strategy to adequately supply maize plants with Mg and might hence be of practical relevance to correct nutrient deficiencies during the growing season.

  8. Photosynthetic capacity, nutrient status, and growth of maize (Zea mays L.) upon MgSO4 leaf-application

    PubMed Central

    Jezek, Mareike; Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Bayer, Anne; Mühling, Karl-Hermann

    2015-01-01

    The major plant nutrient magnesium (Mg) is involved in numerous physiological processes and its deficiency can severely reduce the yield and quality of crops. Since Mg availability in soil and uptake into the plant is often limited by unfavorable soil or climatic conditions, application of Mg onto leaves, the site with highest physiological Mg demand, might be a reasonable alternative fertilization strategy. This study aimed to investigate, if MgSO4 leaf-application in practically relevant amounts can efficiently alleviate the effects of Mg starvation in maize, namely reduced photosynthesis capacity, disturbed ion homeostasis and growth depression. Results clearly demonstrated that Mg deficiency could be mitigated by MgSO4 leaf-application as efficiently as by resupply of MgSO4 via the roots in vegetative maize plants. Significant increases in SPAD values and net rate of CO2-assimilation as well as enhanced shoot biomass have been achieved. Ion analysis furthermore revealed an improvement of the nutrient status of Mg-deficient plants with regard to [Mg], [K], and [Mn] in distinct organs, thereby reducing the risk of Mn-toxicity at the rootside, which often occurs together with Mg deficiency on acid soils. In conclusion, foliar fertilization with Mg proved to be an efficient strategy to adequately supply maize plants with Mg and might hence be of practical relevance to correct nutrient deficiencies during the growing season. PMID:25620973

  9. Nutrient Cycling in Piermont Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, K.; Reyes, N.; Gribbin, S.; Newton, R.; Laporte, N.; Trivino, G.; Ortega, J.; McKee, K.; Sambrotto, R.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the cycling of nutrients through a brackish tidal wetland about 40 km north of Manhattan in the Hudson River estuary. As part of a long-term ecological study of Piermont Marsh, a NOAA reference wetland managed by the NY State DEC, we are measuring dissolved inorganic nutrients on the Marsh surface and its drainage channels. The marsh occupies 400 acres along the southwest corner of Haverstraw Bay with approximately 2 km frontage to the estuary. It is supplied with nutrient-rich water and drained primarily along several tidal creeks and the hundreds of rivulets that feed them. During most tidal cycles the silty berm bounding the marsh is not topped. Human influence in the marsh's surrounding area has had profound effects, one of the most fundamental of which has been the shift from native grass species, predominantly Spartina alterniflora, to an invasive genotype of common reed, Phragmites australis. Along with this shift there have been changes in the root bed, the effective marsh interior and berm heights, the hydroperiod and, as a result, the ability of the marsh to be utilized by various types of Hudson estuary fish. The vegetative shift is believed to be anthropogenic, but the connection is not well understood, and it is not known what role biogeochemical perturbations are playing. We present two field seasons of nitrate, phosphate and silicate measurements from Sparkill Creek, a freshwater stream draining the surrounding highlands constitutes the northern boundary, two tidally driven creeks transect the Marsh from West to East: the Crumkill and an unnamed creek we have dubbed the "Tidal", Ludlow Ditch, a no-longer-maintained drainage channel grading gently from the northern part of the marsh to the South terminates in a wide tidal outlet that is its southern boundary. Net tidal cycle fluxes and fluxes resulting from runoff events are presented. Deviations from Redfield ratios and limiting nutrients are analyzed. Piermont Marsh data is compared

  10. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  11. Mechanisms of nutrient sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The term nutrient sensing has emerged to describe the molecular mechanisms by which nutrients and their metabolites interact with various cell surface receptors, intracellular signaling proteins, and nuclear receptors and modulate the activity of a complex network of signaling pathways that regulate...

  12. Hot moments in spawning aggregations: implications for ecosystem-scale nutrient cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Stephanie K.; Allgeier, Jacob E.; Semmens, Brice X.; Heppell, Scott A.; Pattengill-Semmens, Christy V.; Rosemond, Amy D.; Bush, Phillippe G.; McCoy, Croy M.; Johnson, Bradley C.; Layman, Craig A.

    2015-03-01

    Biogeochemical hot moments occur when a temporary increase in availability of one or more limiting reactants results in elevated rates of biogeochemical reactions. Many marine fish form transient spawning aggregations, temporarily increasing their local abundance and thus nutrients supplied via excretion at the aggregation site. In this way, nutrients released by aggregating fish could create a biogeochemical hot moment. Using a combination of empirical and modeling approaches, we estimate nitrogen and phosphorus supplied by aggregating Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus). Data suggest aggregating grouper supply up to an order-of-magnitude more nitrogen and phosphorus than daily consumer-derived nutrient supply on coral reefs without aggregating fish. Comparing current and historic aggregation-level excretion estimates shows that overfishing reduced nutrients supplied by aggregating fish by up to 87 %. Our study illustrates a previously unrecognized ecosystem viewpoint regarding fish spawning aggregations and provides an additional perspective on the repercussions of their overexploitation.

  13. Fishing down nutrients on coral reefs

    PubMed Central

    Allgeier, Jacob E.; Valdivia, Abel; Cox, Courtney; Layman, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Fishing is widely considered a leading cause of biodiversity loss in marine environments, but the potential effect on ecosystem processes, such as nutrient fluxes, is less explored. Here, we test how fishing on Caribbean coral reefs influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by the fish community, that is, fish-mediated nutrient capacity. Specifically, we modelled five processes of nutrient storage (in biomass) and supply (via excretion) of nutrients, as well as a measure of their multifunctionality, onto 143 species of coral reef fishes across 110 coral reef fish communities. These communities span a gradient from extreme fishing pressure to protected areas with little to no fishing. We find that in fished sites fish-mediated nutrient capacity is reduced almost 50%, despite no substantial changes in the number of species. Instead, changes in community size and trophic structure were the primary cause of shifts in ecosystem function. These findings suggest that a broader perspective that incorporates predictable impacts of fishing pressure on ecosystem function is imperative for effective coral reef conservation and management. PMID:27529748

  14. Fishing down nutrients on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Allgeier, Jacob E; Valdivia, Abel; Cox, Courtney; Layman, Craig A

    2016-08-16

    Fishing is widely considered a leading cause of biodiversity loss in marine environments, but the potential effect on ecosystem processes, such as nutrient fluxes, is less explored. Here, we test how fishing on Caribbean coral reefs influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by the fish community, that is, fish-mediated nutrient capacity. Specifically, we modelled five processes of nutrient storage (in biomass) and supply (via excretion) of nutrients, as well as a measure of their multifunctionality, onto 143 species of coral reef fishes across 110 coral reef fish communities. These communities span a gradient from extreme fishing pressure to protected areas with little to no fishing. We find that in fished sites fish-mediated nutrient capacity is reduced almost 50%, despite no substantial changes in the number of species. Instead, changes in community size and trophic structure were the primary cause of shifts in ecosystem function. These findings suggest that a broader perspective that incorporates predictable impacts of fishing pressure on ecosystem function is imperative for effective coral reef conservation and management.

  15. Fishing down nutrients on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allgeier, Jacob E.; Valdivia, Abel; Cox, Courtney; Layman, Craig A.

    2016-08-01

    Fishing is widely considered a leading cause of biodiversity loss in marine environments, but the potential effect on ecosystem processes, such as nutrient fluxes, is less explored. Here, we test how fishing on Caribbean coral reefs influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by the fish community, that is, fish-mediated nutrient capacity. Specifically, we modelled five processes of nutrient storage (in biomass) and supply (via excretion) of nutrients, as well as a measure of their multifunctionality, onto 143 species of coral reef fishes across 110 coral reef fish communities. These communities span a gradient from extreme fishing pressure to protected areas with little to no fishing. We find that in fished sites fish-mediated nutrient capacity is reduced almost 50%, despite no substantial changes in the number of species. Instead, changes in community size and trophic structure were the primary cause of shifts in ecosystem function. These findings suggest that a broader perspective that incorporates predictable impacts of fishing pressure on ecosystem function is imperative for effective coral reef conservation and management.

  16. Prostate cancer between prognosis and adequate/proper therapy

    PubMed Central

    Grozescu, T; Popa, F

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the indolent, non-invasive nature of most types of prostate cancer, as well as the simple fact that the disease seems more likely to be associated with age rather than with other factors (50% of men at the age of 50 and 80% at the age of 80 have it [1], with or without presenting any symptom), the big challenge of this clinical entity was to determine severity indicators (so far insufficient) to guide the physician towards an adequate attitude in the clinical setting. The risk of over-diagnosing and over-treating many prostate cancer cases (indicated by all the major European and American studies) is real and poses many question marks. The present paper was meant to deliver new research data and to reset the clinical approach in prostate cancer cases. PMID:28255369

  17. The cerebellopontine angle: does the translabyrinthine approach give adequate access?

    PubMed

    Fagan, P A; Sheehy, J P; Chang, P; Doust, B D; Coakley, D; Atlas, M D

    1998-05-01

    A long-standing but unfounded criticism of the translabyrinthine approach is the misperception that this approach does not give adequate access to the cerebellopontine angle. Because of what is perceived as limited visualization and operating space within the cerebellopontine angle, some surgeons still believe that the translabyrinthine approach is inappropriate for large acoustic tumors. In this study, the surgical access to the cerebellopontine angle by virtue of the translabyrinthine approach is measured and analyzed. The parameters are compared with those measured for the retrosigmoid approach. This series objectively confirms that the translabyrinthine approach offers the neurotologic surgeon a shorter operative depth to the tumor, via a similar-sized craniotomy. This permits superior visualization by virtue of a wider angle of surgical access. Such access is achieved with the merit of minimal cerebellar retraction.

  18. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; P<0.01) and improved adequacy of received services (95.04% versus 83.8%; P=0.02). Conclusion The poor prenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  19. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000443.htm Cleaning supplies and equipment To use the sharing features on this page, ... to clean supplies and equipment. Disinfecting Supplies and Equipment Start by wearing the right personal protective equipment ( ...

  20. The convergence of senescence and nutrient sensing during lymphocyte ageing

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary Immunosurveillance requires the migration of lymphocytes and their activation to induce proliferation and effector function. Effective immunity requires an optimal supply of nutrients to lymphocytes. Cells contain nutrient sensing apparatus such as adenosine 5′‐monophosphate‐activated protein kinase (AMPK) that surveys intracellular ATP levels. Immunity declines during ageing and one possibility is that the energy balance may be altered in old lymphocytes. This paper summarizes recent data identifying a convergence of senescence and nutrient signalling pathways in lymphocytes that inhibit both T cell and natural killer (NK) cell function during ageing. Significantly, these pathways can be inhibited to enhance the activity of these cells. PMID:27690328

  1. Plant response to nutrient availability across variable bedrock geologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castle, S.C.; Neff, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the role of rock-derived mineral nutrient availability on the nutrient dynamics of overlying forest communities (Populus tremuloides and Picea engelmanni-Abies lasiocarpa v. arizonica) across three parent materials (andesite, limestone, and sandstone) in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Broad geochemical differences were observed between bedrock materials; however, bulk soil chemistries were remarkably similar between the three different sites. In contrast, soil nutrient pools were considerably different, particularly for P, Ca, and Mg concentrations. Despite variations in nutrient stocks and nutrient availability in soils, we observed relatively inflexible foliar concentrations and foliar stoichiometries for both deciduous and coniferous species. Foliar nutrient resorption (P and K) in the deciduous species followed patterns of nutrient content across substrate types, with higher resorption corresponding to lower bedrock concentrations. Work presented here indicates a complex plant response to available soil nutrients, wherein plant nutrient use compensates for variations in supply gradients and results in the maintenance of a narrow range in foliar stoichiometry. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  2. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference - Find Nutrient Value of Common Foods by Nutrient

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrient: Second Nutrient: Third Nutrient: Food Subset: Food Groups: Select food groups (10 maximum) Sort by: Measure by: * required field ​ USDA Food Composition Databases Software developed by the National Agricultural ...

  3. Nutrient Control Seminars

    EPA Science Inventory

    These Nutrient Control Seminars will present an extensive state-of-the-technology review of the engineering design and operation of nitrogen and phosphorous control technologies and techniques applied at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). These seminars will present ...

  4. Nutrient Control Design Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nutrient Control Design Manual will present an extensive state-of-the-technology review of the engineering design and operation of nitrogen and phosphorous control technologies and techniques applied at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This manual will present ...

  5. Opportunities to enhance performance and efficiency through nutrient synchrony in forage-fed ruminants.

    PubMed

    Hersom, M J

    2008-04-01

    Increasingly, the need for optimized nutrient utilization to address increasing production costs and environmental considerations will necessitate opportunities to improve nutrient synchrony. Historically, attempts at synchronizing nutrient supply in ruminants, particularly in cattle consuming high-forage diets, have met with variable results. The success of nutrient synchrony has been measured primarily in ruminants by increases in microbial yield, microbial efficiency, nutrient utilization, and to a lesser extent, animal performance. Successful synchrony of nutrient supply to cattle consuming forage-based diets faces several challenges. From a feed supply aspect, the challenges to nutrient synchrony include accurately measuring forage intake and consumed forage chemical composition. The issue of forage intake and chemical composition is perhaps the most daunting for producers grazing cattle. Indeed, for forage-fed cattle, the availability of forage protein and carbohydrate can be the most asynchronous aspect of the diet. In most grazed forages, digestion rates of the carbohydrate fractions are much slower than that of the corresponding protein fractions. Additionally, the forage-supplement interaction exerts a large impact on the synchrony of nutrients. The supplemental feedstuffs compose the component of the nutrient synchrony scenario that is most often manipulated to influence synchrony. The supplement type (e.g., starch vs. fiber, dry vs. liquid), nutrient profile, and degradation rates are often prime considerations associated with nutrient synchrony on high forage diets. Other considerations that warrant attention include temporal intake patterns of the forage and supplement, increased use and types of coproduct supplements, and an assessment of the success of nutrient synchrony. Synchronization of nutrient utilization by forage-fed ruminants has and will continue to encounter challenges for successful outcomes. Ultimately it is the improvement in animal

  6. Interactions between temperature and nutrients across levels of ecological organization.

    PubMed

    Cross, Wyatt F; Hood, James M; Benstead, Jonathan P; Huryn, Alexander D; Nelson, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Temperature and nutrient availability play key roles in controlling the pathways and rates at which energy and materials move through ecosystems. These factors have also changed dramatically on Earth over the past century as human activities have intensified. Although significant effort has been devoted to understanding the role of temperature and nutrients in isolation, less is known about how these two factors interact to influence ecological processes. Recent advances in ecological stoichiometry and metabolic ecology provide a useful framework for making progress in this area, but conceptual synthesis and review are needed to help catalyze additional research. Here, we examine known and potential interactions between temperature and nutrients from a variety of physiological, community, and ecosystem perspectives. We first review patterns at the level of the individual, focusing on four traits--growth, respiration, body size, and elemental content--that should theoretically govern how temperature and nutrients interact to influence higher levels of biological organization. We next explore the interactive effects of temperature and nutrients on populations, communities, and food webs by synthesizing information related to community size spectra, biomass distributions, and elemental composition. We use metabolic theory to make predictions about how population-level secondary production should respond to interactions between temperature and resource supply, setting up qualitative predictions about the flows of energy and materials through metazoan food webs. Last, we examine how temperature-nutrient interactions influence processes at the whole-ecosystem level, focusing on apparent vs. intrinsic activation energies of ecosystem processes, how to represent temperature-nutrient interactions in ecosystem models, and patterns with respect to nutrient uptake and organic matter decomposition. We conclude that a better understanding of interactions between temperature and

  7. Systemic Crisis of Civilization: In Search for Adequate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khozin, Grigori

    In December 1972 a jumbo jet crashed in the Florida Everglades with the loss of 101 lives. The pilot, distracted by a minor malfunction, failed to note until too late the warning signal that - correctly - indicated an impending disaster. His sudden, astonished cry of Hey, what happening here? were his last words 1. Three decades after this tragic episode, as the Humankind approaches the threshold of the third Millennium, the problem of adequate reaction to warning signals of different nature and of distinguishing minor malfunctions in everyday life of society, in economy and technology as well as in evolution of biosphere from grave threats to the world community and the phenomenon of life on our planet remains crucial to human survival and the future of Civilization. Rational use of knowledge and technology available to the world community remains in this context the corner stone of discussions on the destiny of the intelligent life both on the planet Earth and in the Universe (the fact of intelligent life in the Universe is to be detected by the Humankind)…

  8. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  9. DARHT -- an adequate EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    In April 1996 the US District Court in Albuquerque ruled that the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), prepared by the Los Alamos Area Office, US Department of Energy (DOE), was adequate. The DARHT EIS had been prepared in the face of a lawsuit in only 10 months, a third of the time usually allotted for a DOE EIS, and for only a small fraction of the cost of a typical DOE EIS, and for only a small fraction of the cost of a typical DOE EIS. It subject was the first major facility to be built in decades for the DOE nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. It was the first EIS to be prepared for a proposal at DOE`s Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1979, and the first ever prepared by the Los Alamos Area Office. Much of the subject matter was classified. The facility had been specially designed to minimize impacts to a nearby prehistoric Native American ruin, and extensive consultation with American Indian Pueblos was required. The week that the draft EIS was published Laboratory biologists identified a previously unknown pair of Mexican spotted owls in the immediate vicinity of the project, bringing into play the consultation requirements of the Endangered Species Act. In spite of these obstacles, the resultant DARHT EIS was reviewed by the court and found to meet all statutory and regulatory requirements; the court praised the treatment of the classified material which served as a basis for the environmental analysis.

  10. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  11. Supply Security in Future Nuclear Fuel Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Seward, Amy M.; Wood, Thomas W.; Gitau, Ernest T.; Ford, Benjamin E.

    2013-11-18

    Previous PNNL work has shown the existing nuclear fuel markets to provide a high degree of supply security, including the ability to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical and non-technical reasons. It is in the context of new reactor designs – that is, reactors likely to be licensed and market ready over the next several decades – that fuel supply security is most relevant. Whereas the fuel design and fabrication technology for existing reactors are well known, the construction of a new set of reactors could stress the ability of the existing market to provide adequate supply redundancy. This study shows this is unlikely to occur for at least thirty years, as most reactors likely to be built in the next three decades will be evolutions of current designs, with similar fuel designs to existing reactors.

  12. Determination of the need for selenium by chicks fed practical diets adequate in vitamin E

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Su, Q.; Liu, C.H.; Sinisalo, M.; Combs, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the dietary needs for selenium (Se) by chicks fed either purified (amino acid-based) or practical (corn- and soy-based) diets that were adequate with respect to vitamin E (i.e., contained 100 IU/kg) and all other known nutrients with the single exception of Se (i.e., contained only 0.10 ppm Se). Studies were conducted in Ithaca using Single Comb White Leghorn chicks fed the purified basal diet and in Beijing using chicks of the same breed fed either the same purified basal diet or the practical diet formulated to be similar to that used in poultry production in some parts of China and the US. Results showed that each basal diet produced severe depletion of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) in plasma, liver and pancreas according to the same time-course, but that other consequences of severe uncomplicated Se deficiency were much more severe among chicks fed the purified diet (e.g., growth depression, pancreatic dysfunction as indicated by elevated plasma amylase and abnormal pancreatic histology). Chicks fed the practical Se-deficient diet showed reduced pancreas levels of copper, zinc and molybdenum and elevated plasma levels of iron; they required ca. 0.10 ppm dietary Se to sustain normal SeGSHpx in several tissues and to prevent elevated amylase in plasma. The dietary Se requirement of the chick is, therefore, estimated to be 0.10 ppm.

  13. Assessment of Nutrient Stability in Space Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, S. R.; Perchonok, M.; Braby, L. A.; Kloeris, V. A.; Smith, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining an intact nutrient supply in the food system flown on spacecraft is a critical issue for mission success and crew health and safety. Early polar expeditions and exploration expeditions by sailing vessels have taught us that a deficiency, or excess, of even a single vitamin in the food supply can be catastrophic. Evidence from ground-based research indicates that some vitamins are destroyed and fatty acids are oxidized (and therefore rendered dangerous or useless) by different types of radiation and by conditions of long-term storage. We hypothesize that radiation and long-term storage in the space-flight environment will affect the stability of vitamins, amino acids, and fatty acids in the space food system. The research objectives of our ongoing stability studies are to determine the stability of water- and fat-soluble vitamins, fatty acids, and amino acids in the space food supply before and after space flight on the International Space Station (ISS). Foods were analyzed after 2 weeks (a flight control), 11, 19, and 28 months of flight. Along with the space-flown foods, ground-based controls matched for time, light, and temperature are analyzed. The flight studies complement planned ground-based studies of the effects of radiation on vitamins, amino acids, and fatty acids. Flight studies are needed because a model based on ground-based data cannot predict all of the effects of the space-flight environment. Flight studies provide a more accurate test system to determine the effects on these nutrients of the temperature, and radiation conditions in the space-flight environment. Ground studies are required to evaluate longer missions and higher radiation levels expected outside low-Earth orbit. In addition to providing information about nutrient stability in space, the results of these studies will help NASA determine if a need exists to develop special packaging that can ensure stability of foods and nutrients in space, or if further studies of nutrient

  14. Health supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors.

  15. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  16. Are Vancomycin Trough Concentrations Adequate for Optimal Dosing?

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Gilmer; Jones, Brenda; Jelliffe, Roger W.; Drusano, George L.; Rodvold, Keith A.; Lodise, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The current vancomycin therapeutic guidelines recommend the use of only trough concentrations to manage the dosing of adults with Staphylococcus aureus infections. Both vancomycin efficacy and toxicity are likely to be related to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). We assembled richly sampled vancomycin pharmacokinetic data from three studies comprising 47 adults with various levels of renal function. With Pmetrics, the nonparametric population modeling package for R, we compared AUCs estimated from models derived from trough-only and peak-trough depleted versions of the full data set and characterized the relationship between the vancomycin trough concentration and AUC. The trough-only and peak-trough depleted data sets underestimated the true AUCs compared to the full model by a mean (95% confidence interval) of 23% (11 to 33%; P = 0.0001) and 14% (7 to 19%; P < 0.0001), respectively. In contrast, using the full model as a Bayesian prior with trough-only data allowed 97% (93 to 102%; P = 0.23) accurate AUC estimation. On the basis of 5,000 profiles simulated from the full model, among adults with normal renal function and a therapeutic AUC of ≥400 mg · h/liter for an organism for which the vancomycin MIC is 1 mg/liter, approximately 60% are expected to have a trough concentration below the suggested minimum target of 15 mg/liter for serious infections, which could result in needlessly increased doses and a risk of toxicity. Our data indicate that adjustment of vancomycin doses on the basis of trough concentrations without a Bayesian tool results in poor achievement of maximally safe and effective drug exposures in plasma and that many adults can have an adequate vancomycin AUC with a trough concentration of <15 mg/liter. PMID:24165176

  17. Is clinical measurement of anatomic axis of the femur adequate?

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Chuan

    2017-03-23

    Background and purpose - The accuracy of using clinical measurement from the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) to the center of the knee to determine an anatomic axis of the femur has rarely been studied. A radiographic technique with a full-length standing scanogram (FLSS) was used to assess the adequacy of the clinical measurement. Patients and methods - 100 consecutive young adult patients (mean age 34 (20-40) years) with chronic unilateral lower extremity injuries were studied. The pelvis and intact contralateral lower extremity images in the FLSS were selected for study. The angles between the tibial axis and the femoral shaft anatomic axis (S-AA), the piriformis anatomic axis (P-AA), the clinical anatomic axis (C-AA), and the mechanical axis (MA) were compared between sexes. Results - Only the S-AA and C-AA angles were statistically significantly different in the 100 patients (3.6° vs. 2.8°; p = 0.03). There was a strong correlation between S-AA, P-AA, and C-AA angles (r > 0.9). The average intersecting angle between MA and S-AA in the femur in the 100 patients was 5.5°, and it was 4.8° between MA and C-AA. Interpretation - Clinical measurement of an anatomic axis from the ASIS to the center of the knee may be an adequate and acceptable method to determine lower extremity alignment. The optimal inlet for antegrade femoral intramedullary nailing may be the lateral edge of the piriformis fossa.

  18. Paradoxical nutritional deficiency in overweight and obesity: the importance of nutrient density.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Tania P; Natoli, Sharon J

    2009-02-02

    Overweight and obese patients may develop paradoxical nutritional deficiency from eating high-energy foods with a poor nutrient content. In such patients, this condition is probably under-recognised, and thus untreated. The nutrient density of foods has recently been defined by a score--the naturally nutrient-rich (NNR) score--which assesses the contribution a food makes to the nutrient intake of a 2000 calorie (8360 kJ) daily diet and includes 14 key macronutrients. NNR foods are whole foods that provide the highest nutrient-to-kilojoule ratio. An awareness of the importance of the nutrient density of foods can assist health practitioners to recognise and effectively manage paradoxical nutritional deficiency. Knowledge of the nutrient density of foods helps people wanting to reduce their kilojoule intake to maintain a nutritionally sound diet, providing adequate vitamins, minerals and macronutrients.

  19. Evaluation of nutrient specifications for broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, H R; Harms, R H

    1984-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if previously suggested nutrient requirements of broiler breeders (23 g protein, 850 mg sulfur amino acids, 4.5 g calcium, and 750 mg phosphorus/bird/day) are in excess and could be reduced during the laying period. In Experiment 1, Cobb color-sex broiler breeders were fed daily nutrient allowances that were 100.0, 96.3, 92.5, 89.4, and 86.6% of the suggested requirements. In Experiment 2, Cobb feather-sex breeders were fed daily allowances that were 92.5, 89.4, 86.6, 83.4, and 80.9% of the suggested requirements. Birds on all diets were fed the same energy level; however, energy varied with season to maintain body weight. Egg production, fertility, hatchability, egg weight, and shell quality were not significantly affected by the reductions in nutrient intake in either experiment. The diet with the lowest nutrient level (80.9% of the suggested requirement) was adequate, indicating a considerable margin of safety for the stated requirements. Body weight was quite variable but tended to decrease with nutrient restriction. Weights of broilers hatched from treated breeders were not significantly affected at 49 days of age by the breeder dietary treatments. These results indicate that broiler breeder diets formulated to meet presently suggested requirements have a large margin of safety and a reduction of specifications by approximately 10% is suggested. The revised daily intakes recommended are: 20.6 g protein, 754 mg sulfur amino acids, 400 mg methionine, 938 mg lysine, 1379 mg arginine, 256 mg tryptophan, 4.07 g calcium, 683 mg total phosphorus, and 170 mg sodium.

  20. Exploring the Sulfur Nutrient Cycle Using the Winogradsky Column

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogan, Brian; Lemke, Michael; Levandowsky, Michael; Gorrell, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The Winogradsky column demonstrates how the metabolic diversity of prokaryotes transforms sulfur to different forms with varying redox states and hence, supplies nutrients and/or energy to the organism. The Winogardsky column is an excellent way to show that not all bacteria are pathogens and they have an important role in the geochemical cycling…

  1. Improving fruit quality and phytochemical content through better nutrient management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumer preference quality traits (e.g. taste, texture) of muskmelons (Cucumis melo L.) and many other fruits are strongly influenced by cultivar as well as soil properties, such as soil type and nutrient supply capacity. Among nutrients, potassium (K) has the strongest influence on quality parame...

  2. Biomass Production and Nutrient Removal by Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) under Irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial herbaceous bioenergy crops have the potential to improve soil quality, sequester soil C, enhance nutrient cycling improve wildlife habitat, and supply a portion of U.S. energy needs when used as a fuel. Assessments of the export of essential plant nutrients are needed to determine impacts ...

  3. Lateral Diffusion of Nutrients by Mammalian Herbivores in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Adam; Doughty, Christopher E.; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2013-01-01

    Animals translocate nutrients by consuming nutrients at one point and excreting them or dying at another location. Such lateral fluxes may be an important mechanism of nutrient supply in many ecosystems, but lack quantification and a systematic theoretical framework for their evaluation. This paper presents a mathematical framework for quantifying such fluxes in the context of mammalian herbivores. We develop an expression for lateral diffusion of a nutrient, where the diffusivity is a biologically determined parameter depending on the characteristics of mammals occupying the domain, including size-dependent phenomena such as day range, metabolic demand, food passage time, and population size. Three findings stand out: (a) Scaling law-derived estimates of diffusion parameters are comparable to estimates calculated from estimates of each coefficient gathered from primary literature. (b) The diffusion term due to transport of nutrients in dung is orders of magnitude large than the coefficient representing nutrients in bodymass. (c) The scaling coefficients show that large herbivores make a disproportionate contribution to lateral nutrient transfer. We apply the diffusion equation to a case study of Kruger National Park to estimate the conditions under which mammal-driven nutrient transport is comparable in magnitude to other (abiotic) nutrient fluxes (inputs and losses). Finally, a global analysis of mammalian herbivore transport is presented, using a comprehensive database of contemporary animal distributions. We show that continents vary greatly in terms of the importance of animal-driven nutrient fluxes, and also that perturbations to nutrient cycles are potentially quite large if threatened large herbivores are driven to extinction. PMID:23951141

  4. Shedding light onto nutrient responses of arbuscular mycorrhizal plants: nutrient interactions may lead to unpredicted outcomes of the symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Ana; Cruz, Cristina; Pérez-Tienda, Jacob; Ferrol, Nuria

    2014-05-01

    The role and importance of arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) in plant nitrogen (N) nutrition is uncertain. We propose that this be clarified by using more integrative experimental designs, with the use of a gradient of N supply and the quantification of an extensive array of plant nutrient contents. Using such an experimental design, we investigated AM effects on plant N nutrition, whether the mycorrhizal N response (MNR) determines the mycorrhizal growth response (MGR), and how MNR influences plants' C economy. Oryza sativa plants were inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis or Funneliformis mossae. AM effects were studied along a gradient of N supplies. Biomass, photosynthesis, nutrient and starch contents, mycorrhizal colonization and OsPT11 gene expression were measured. C investment in fungal growth was estimated. Results showed that, in rice, MGR was dependent on AM nutrient uptake effects, namely on the synergy between N and Zn, and not on C expenditure. The supply of C to the fungus was dependent on the plant's nutrient demand, indicated by high shoot C/N or low %N. We conclude that one of the real reasons for the negative MGR of rice, Zn deficiency of AMF plants, would have remained hidden without an experimental design allowing the observation of plants' response to AM along gradients of nutrient concentrations. Adopting more integrative and comprehensive experimental approaches in mycorrhizal studies seems therefore essential if we are to achieve a true understanding of AM function, namely of the mechanisms of C/N exchange regulation in AM.

  5. A new compensated root water and nutrient uptake model implemented in HYDRUS programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simunek, Jiri; Hopmans, Jan W.; Lazarovitch, Naftali

    2010-05-01

    Plant root water and nutrient uptake is one of the most important processes in subsurface unsaturated flow and transport modeling, as root uptake controls actual plant evapotranspiration, water recharge and nutrient leaching to the groundwater. Root water uptake in unsaturated flow models is usually uncompensated and nutrient uptake is simulated assuming that all uptake is passive. We present a new compensated root water and nutrient uptake model, implemented in HYDRUS programs. The so-called root adaptability factor (Jarvis, 1989) is used to represent a threshold value above which reduced root water or nutrient uptake in water- or nutrient-stressed parts of the root zone is fully compensated for by increased uptake in other soil regions that are less stressed. Using a critical value of the water stress index, water uptake compensation is proportional to the water stress response function. Total root nutrient uptake is determined from the total of active and passive nutrient uptake. The partitioning between passive and active uptake is controlled by the a priori defined concentration value c_max. Passive nutrient uptake is simulated by multiplying root water uptake with the dissolved nutrient concentration, for soil solution concentration values below c_max. Passive nutrient uptake is thus zero when c_max is equal to zero. As the active nutrient uptake is obtained from the difference between plant nutrient demand and passive nutrient uptake (using Michaelis-Menten kinetics), the presented model thus implies that reduced passive nutrient uptake is compensated for by active nutrient uptake. In addition, the proposed root uptake model includes compensation for active nutrient uptake, in a similar way as used for root water uptake. The proposed root water and nutrient uptake model is demonstrated by several hypothetical and real examples, for plants supplied by water due to capillary rise from groundwater and surface drip irrigation.

  6. Feedstock Supply System Logistics

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    Feedstock supply is a significant cost component in the production of biobased fuels, products, and power. The uncertainty of the biomass feedstock supply chain and associated risks are major barriers to procuring capital funding for start-up biorefineries.

  7. [The global and national context regarding the challenges involved in ensuring adequate access to water for human consumption].

    PubMed

    Augusto, Lia Giraldo da Silva; Gurgel, Idê Gomes Dantas; Câmara Neto, Henrique Fernandes; de Melo, Carlos Henrique; Costa, André Monteiro

    2012-06-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the challenges involved in ensuring access to water for human consumption taking the international and national context into consideration. Based on the UN declaration that access to safe and clean drinking water is a fundamental human right, vulnerabilities are identified that can consist in restrictions to access to adequate supplies. The distribution of water and the population across the planet, pollution, inadequate policies and management lead to environmental injustice. The iniquity of access to water constitutes the contemporary water crisis. From the 1980s onwards, the transnational water market emerged for private control that occurs at three main levels: surface and underground water sources; bottled water; and public water supply services. The conflicts of the multiple uses of water resources, the market and environmental problems have contributed to rendering the health of the population and ecosystems vulnerable. Adequate public policies are essential to ensure the basic human right to access to safe and clean drinking water.

  8. Nutrient Requirements in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKigney, John I,; Munro, Hamish N.

    It is important to understand the nutrient requirements and the significance of nutrition both in pubescence and adolescence. The pubescent growth spurt is characterized by an increase in body size and a change in proportion of different tissues. Both of these factors are of great nutritional importance, since there is reason to believe that the…

  9. Pursuing supply chain gains.

    PubMed

    Long, Gene

    2005-09-01

    Five hallmarks of an effective supply chain are: A strong relationship is developed with a single GPO. Physicians are involved in supply standardization. Supply contracts are routinely reviewed at time of renewal. Freight costs are understood and negotiated effectively. Products are distributed through an in-house distribution center.

  10. Nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatites: synthesis and characterization.

    PubMed

    Golden, D C; Ming, D W

    1999-01-01

    Incorporation of Mg, S, and plant-essential micronutrients into the structure of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) may be advantageous for closed-loop systems, such as will be required on Lunar and Martian outposts, because these apatites can be used as slow-release fertilizers. Our objective was to synthesize HA with Ca, P, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo, B, and Cl incorporated into the structure, i.e., nutrient-substituted apatites. Hydroxyapatite, carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHA), nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatite (NHA), and nutrient-substituted carbonate hydroxyapatite (NCHA) were synthesized by precipitating from solution. Chemical and mineralogical analysis of precipitated samples indicated a considerable fraction of the added cations were incorporated into HA, without mineral impurities. Particle size of the HA was in the 1 to 40 nm range, and decreased with increased substitution of nutrient elements. The particle shape of HA was elongated in the c-direction in unsubstituted HA and NHA but more spherical in CHA and NCHA. The substitution of cations and anions in the HA structure was confirmed by the decrease of the d[002] spacing of HA with substitution of ions with an ionic radius less than that of Ca or P. The DTPA-extractable Cu ranged from 8 to 8429 mg kg-1, Zn ranged from 57 to 1279 mg kg-1, Fe from 211 to 2573 mg kg-1, and Mn from 190 to 1719 mg kg-1, depending on the substitution level of each element in HA. Nutrient-substituted HA has the potential to be used as a slow-release fertilizer to supply micronutrients, S, and Mg in addition to Ca and P.

  11. Nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatites: synthesis and characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.

    1999-01-01

    Incorporation of Mg, S, and plant-essential micronutrients into the structure of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) may be advantageous for closed-loop systems, such as will be required on Lunar and Martian outposts, because these apatites can be used as slow-release fertilizers. Our objective was to synthesize HA with Ca, P, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo, B, and Cl incorporated into the structure, i.e., nutrient-substituted apatites. Hydroxyapatite, carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHA), nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatite (NHA), and nutrient-substituted carbonate hydroxyapatite (NCHA) were synthesized by precipitating from solution. Chemical and mineralogical analysis of precipitated samples indicated a considerable fraction of the added cations were incorporated into HA, without mineral impurities. Particle size of the HA was in the 1 to 40 nm range, and decreased with increased substitution of nutrient elements. The particle shape of HA was elongated in the c-direction in unsubstituted HA and NHA but more spherical in CHA and NCHA. The substitution of cations and anions in the HA structure was confirmed by the decrease of the d[002] spacing of HA with substitution of ions with an ionic radius less than that of Ca or P. The DTPA-extractable Cu ranged from 8 to 8429 mg kg-1, Zn ranged from 57 to 1279 mg kg-1, Fe from 211 to 2573 mg kg-1, and Mn from 190 to 1719 mg kg-1, depending on the substitution level of each element in HA. Nutrient-substituted HA has the potential to be used as a slow-release fertilizer to supply micronutrients, S, and Mg in addition to Ca and P.

  12. Controlling supply expenses through capitated supply contracting.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, J C

    1997-07-01

    Some providers dealing with the financial challenges of managed care are attempting to control supply expenses through capitated supply contracting and similar risk/reward sharing arrangements. Under such arrangements, a supplier sells products and services to a provider for a fixed, prospective price in exchange for the provider's exclusive business. If expenses exceed the prospectively established amount, the supplier and provider share the loss. Conversely, if expenses are less than the fixed amount, they share the savings. For a capitated supply arrangement to be successful, providers must be able to identify and track supply expense drivers, such as clinical pathways, technology utilization, and product selection and utilization. Sophisticated information systems are needed to capture data, such as total and per-transaction product usage/volume; unit price per item; average and cost per item; average and total cost per transaction; and total cost per outcome. Providers also will need to establish mutually cooperative relationships with the suppliers with whom they contract.

  13. Harmonization of nutrient intake values.

    PubMed

    King, Janet C; Garza, Cutberto

    2007-03-01

    The conceptual framework for the various NIVs is depicted in figure 1 along with the methodological approaches and applications. The NIVs consist of two values derived from a statistical evaluation of data on nutrient requirements, the average nutrient requirement (ANR), or nutrient toxicities, the upper nutrient level (UNL). The individual nutrient levelx (INLx) is derived from the distribution of average nutrient requirements. The percentile chosen is often 98%, which is equivalent to 2 SD above the mean requirement. Concepts underlying the NIVs include criteria for establishing a nutrient requirement, e.g., ferritin stores, nitrogen balance, or serum vitamin C. Once the requirement for the absorbed nutrient is determined, it may be necessary to adjust the value for food sources, i.e., bioavailability, or host factors, such as the effect of infection on nutrient utilization. Other concepts that committees may want to consider when establishing NIVs include the effects of genetic variation on nutrient requirements and the role of the nutrient in preventing long-term disease. Two fundamental uses of NIVs are for assessing the adequacy of nutrient intakes and for planning diets for individuals and populations. Establishing the NIV using the statistical framework proposed in this report improves the efficacy of the values for identifying risks of nutrient deficiency or excess among individuals and populations. NIVs also are applied to a number of aspects of food and nutrition policy. Some examples include regulatory issues and trade, labeling, planning programs for alleviating public health nutrition problems, food fortification, and dietary guidance.

  14. The effect of advection on the nutrient reservoir in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre.

    PubMed

    Palter, Jaime B; Lozier, M Susan; Barber, Richard T

    2005-09-29

    Though critically important in sustaining the ocean's biological pump, the cycling of nutrients in the subtropical gyres is poorly understood. The supply of nutrients to the sunlit surface layer of the ocean has traditionally been attributed solely to vertical processes. However, horizontal advection may also be important in establishing the availability of nutrients. Here we show that the production and advection of North Atlantic Subtropical Mode Water introduces spatial and temporal variability in the subsurface nutrient reservoir beneath the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. As the mode water is formed, its nutrients are depleted by biological utilization. When the depleted water mass is exported to the gyre, it injects a wedge of low-nutrient water into the upper layers of the ocean. Contrary to intuition, cold winters that promote deep convective mixing and vigorous mode water formation may diminish downstream primary productivity by altering the subsurface delivery of nutrients.

  15. Implications of premature needle abscission to the elemental nutrient status and nutrient retranslocation patterns of ozone injured Jeffrey pine

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, M.T.; Rundel, P.W. )

    1993-06-01

    The foliar nutrient relations of ozone stressed Jeffrey pine growing in the southern Sierra Nevada of California was compared in trees retaining different numbers of needle cohorts. A 20% reduction in foliar nitrogen occurred in the oldest needles of both sensitive trees (retaining two years of needles) and resistant trees (retaining five years of needles) which coincided with the flush of new needles in late June. Nitrogen content of recently expanded needles on sensitive trees was 15% lower than needles of similar age on resistant trees immediately after becoming fully expanded, but was not significantly different two months after expansion. Resistant trees retranslocated higher fractions of all phloem-mobile nutrients measured (N, K, P and Mg) although the differences were small (between 3 and 9%). The smaller foliar pool of nutrients resulting from premature abscission may result in ozone sensitive trees relying more heavily on soil supplies for both short and long term nutrient requirements.

  16. Contribution of complementary food nutrients to estimated total nutrient intakes for urban Guatemalan infants in the second semester of life.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Liza; Campos, Raquel; Enneman, Anke; Soto-Méndez, Maria José; Vossenaar, Marieke; Solomons, Noel W

    2011-01-01

    Complementary foods (CF) are introduced earlier or later than appropriate in developing societies. They often contribute poorly to overall adequate micronutrient intake during the critical period for growth and development, which constitutes the period from 6 to 12 months of life. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of the CF nutrients to the total estimated nutrient intake in infants in the second semester of life. Three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls interviews were conducted with mothers of 64 infants, aged 6-12 months on enrolment, from a convenience sample in a marginal urban settlement in Guatemala City. Retrospective recording of early introduction of pre- and post-lacteal feeding and introduction of first foods and beverages was included. Human milk intakes were estimated by a model based on assumptions that human milk plus CF exactly satisfied the infant's daily energy needs. The WHO/FAO Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI) were the standards for adequate nutrient consumption. Instances of exclusive breast feeding to 6 months were rare, with the introduction of CF earlier than recommended. Baby food in jars was mentioned most frequently as the first food offered. The contribution of CF increased with age through the second semester of life. CF contributed more of a nutrient than human milk in all instances. However,CF nutrient density for Ca, Fe, and Zn fell below international standard. Fortified sugar contributed excessive amounts of Vitamin A to the diets. We conclude that for most nutrients, intakes reached or exceeded recommendation levels, unusual within the CF experience in scientific literature.

  17. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  18. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  19. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  20. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  1. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  2. Survey of the market, supply and availability of gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Rosi, F.D.

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the present consumption and supply of gallium, its potential availability in the satellite power system (SPS) implementation time frame, and commercial and new processing methods for increasing the production of gallium. Findings are reported in detail. The findings strongly suggest that with proper long range planning adequate gallium would be available from free-enterprise world supplies of bauxite for SPS implementation.

  3. Nutrient profiling: the new environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommends that individuals choose nutrient-dense foods to help meet nutrient needs without consuming excess calories, a concept that is supported by health professionals and nutrition organizations. With an increased emphasis on nutrient density, the ...

  4. Trends in nutrients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heathwaite, A.L.; Johnes, P.J.; Peters, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    The roles of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) as key nutrients determining the trophic status of water bodies are examined, and evidence reviewed for trends in concentrations of N and P species which occur in freshwaters, primarily in northern temperate environments. Data are reported for water bodies undergoing eutrophication and acidification, especially water bodies receiving increased nitrogen inputs through the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Nutrient loading on groundwaters and surface freshwaters is assessed with respect to causes and rates of (change, relative rates of change for N and P, and implications of change for the future management of lakes, rivers and groundwaters. In particular, the nature and emphasis of studies for N species and P fractions in lakes versus rivers and groundwaters are contrasted. This review paper primarily focuses on results from North America and Europe, particularly for the UK where a wide range of data sets exists. Few nutrient loading data have been published on water bodies in less developed countries; however, some of the available data are presented to provide a global perspective. In general, N and P concentrations have increased dramatically (>20 times background concentrations) in many areas and causes vary considerably, ranging from urbanization to changes in agricultural practices.

  5. Enabling nutrient security and sustainability through systems research.

    PubMed

    Kaput, Jim; Kussmann, Martin; Mendoza, Yery; Le Coutre, Ronit; Cooper, Karen; Roulin, Anne

    2015-05-01

    Human and companion animal health depends upon nutritional quality of foods. Seed varieties, seasonal and local growing conditions, transportation, food processing, and storage, and local food customs can influence the nutrient content of food. A new and intensive area of investigation is emerging that recognizes many factors in these agri-food systems that influence the maintenance of nutrient quality which is fundamental to ensure nutrient security for world populations. Modeling how these systems function requires data from different sectors including agricultural, environmental, social, and economic, but also must incorporate basic nutrition and other biomedical sciences. Improving the agri-food system through advances in pre- and post-harvest processing methods, biofortification, or fortifying processed foods will aid in targeting nutrition for populations and individuals. The challenge to maintain and improve nutrient quality is magnified by the need to produce food locally and globally in a sustainable and consumer-acceptable manner for current and future populations. An unmet requirement for assessing how to improve nutrient quality, however, is the basic knowledge of how to define health. That is, health cannot be maintained or improved by altering nutrient quality without an adequate definition of what health means for individuals and populations. Defining and measuring health therefore becomes a critical objective for basic nutritional and other biomedical sciences.

  6. Nutrient balances as indicators for sustainability of broiler production systems.

    PubMed

    Kratz, S; Halle, I; Rogasik, J; Schnug, E

    2004-04-01

    1. Flock balances of nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc and copper (N, P, Zn, Cu) were calculated in order to evaluate environmental effects of three different broiler production systems (intensive indoor, free range and organic). 2. Nutrient gain in birds per unit nutrient intake (retention) in intensive indoor production was higher than in free range and organic production. 3. Nutrient surplus relative to nutrient retention was higher in organic production than in free range and intensive indoor production. 4. The main reasons for differences in nutrient efficiency between intensive indoor, free range and organic production were duration of growth period, strain of broilers and feeding strategy. 5. The calculation of whole farm indicators (livestock density, N and P excretions per hectare of farmland) demonstrates how defining system boundaries affects the outcome of an evaluation: organic farms had the smallest livestock densities and the lowest N and P excretions per hectare of farmland. 6. In the efforts to reach a more holistic evaluation of agricultural production systems, the definition of adequate system boundaries must be discussed. In addition to nutrient balances, further indicators of sustainability, such as human and ecological toxicity, should be considered.

  7. Academic food-supply veterinarians: future demand and likely shortages.

    PubMed

    Bruce Prince, J; Andrus, David M; Gwinner, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The future demand for and potential shortages of food-supply veterinarians have been the subject of much concern. Using the Delphi forecasting method in a three-phase Web-based survey process, a panel of experts identified the trends and issues shaping the demand for and supply of academic food-animal veterinarians, then forecasted the likely future demand and shortages of food-supply veterinarians employed in academic institutions in the United States and Canada through 2016. The results indicate that there will be increasing future demand and persistent shortages of academic food-supply veterinarians unless current trends are countered with targeted, strategic action. The Delphi panel also evaluated the effectiveness of several strategies for reversing current trends and increasing the number of food-supply veterinarians entering into academic careers. Academic food-supply veterinarians are a key link in the system that produces food-supply veterinarians for all sectors (private practice, government service, etc.); shortages in the academic sector will amplify shortages wherever food-supply veterinarians are needed. Even fairly small shortages have significant public-health, food-safety, animal-welfare, and bio-security implications. Recent events demonstrate that in an increasingly interconnected global economic food supply system, national economies and public health are at risk unless an adequate supply of appropriately trained food-supply veterinarians is available to counter a wide variety of threats ranging from animal and zoonotic diseases to bioterrorism.

  8. Light, nutrients and the growth of herbaceous forest species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elemans, Marjet

    2004-12-01

    The herb layer of forests planted on former agricultural land often differs from that of old-growth forest. This study investigates if the expected increased nutrient availability in the shaded conditions of newly planted forests and the plasticity of the species to adjust their biomass allocation to different levels of light and nutrients help to explain these differences in the herb layers of the two forest types. In a greenhouse experiment biomass distribution and production of two species characteristic for the highly shaded forest floor, Circaea lutetiana and Mercurialis perennis, and two species more common in the forest-edge, Aegopodium podagraria and Impatiens parviflora were studied at different levels of light (2%, 8% and 66% of the full light level) and nutrients (30 and 300 kg N ha -1 per year). The main factor affecting allocation and biomass production was light availability. Nutrient supply only had a significant effect at the higher light levels. Species were mainly plastic to changes in light and the two species from the forest floor showed to be more rigid in allocation pattern than the species from the forest-edge. So, although the species from the forest-edge were more plastic, they did not profit from the increased nutrient supply because the main factor affecting biomass distribution and production was light availability.

  9. Effect of groundwater discharge and river topography on nutrient component of rivers in Southern Korea and Western Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onodera, S.; Shimizu, Y.; Kato, Y.; Saito, M.; Jige, M.; Hwang, J.

    2010-12-01

    Nutrient condition in water environment controls the ecosystem. Groundwater discharge to the oceans is significant as nutrient supply (Slomp et al, 2004 etc). This situation is similar to the nutrient condition in rivers. Most of river line generally is discharge area of groundwater, but a part of river line is recharge area of groundwater. In addition, nutrient concentration changes by the trap in dammed lake in the way of flowing to downstream. On the other hand, recent human activity has caused the intensive and excessive supply of nutrient. To clarify the nutrient condition in river environment, it is necessary to confirm the groundwater discharge to river as well as estimate the nutrient load by human activity. However, these types of researches have not been conducted enough. In this research, we aimed to confirm effects of groundwater on nutrient supply to rivers of various properties. Our research areas are around Hiroshima of western Japan and around Busan of southern Korea. We collected river water samples from upstream to downstream. All water samples were analyzed in the laboratory for the 222Rn, nutrient and inorganic element concentration, respectively. In addition, water samples of groundwater around there, bottom sea water, and river water at some points around the station were collected. Spatial variations from upstream to downstream in 222Rn and nutrient concentrations indicated decreasing trends. These suggest that head water is source area of nutrient. But some areas in midstream had high values, and it indicated heterogeneous groundwater supply. Phosphorus concentration increased in downstream. It was higher at groundwater of discharge area and downstream. This also suggests phosphorus supply by groundwater to rivers. Especially, the phosphorus concentration was high in the tidal river. This would be supplied by the diffusion from river bed sediment as well as by groundwater discharge.

  10. Nutrient Availability and Atmospheric CO2 Partial Pressure Modulate the Effects of Nutrient Heterogeneity on the Size Structure of Populations in Grassland Species

    PubMed Central

    MAESTRE, FERNANDO T.; REYNOLDS, JAMES F.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Size-asymmetric competition occurs when larger plants have a disproportionate advantage in competition with smaller plants. It has been hypothesized that nutrient heterogeneity may promote it. Experiments testing this hypothesis are inconclusive, and in most cases have evaluated the effects of nutrient heterogeneity separately from other environmental factors. The aim of this study was to test, using populations of Lolium perenne, Plantago lanceolata and Holcus lanatus, two hypotheses: (a) nutrient heterogeneity promotes size-asymmetric competition; and (b) nutrient heterogeneity interacts with both atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (PCO2) and nutrient availability to determine the magnitude of this response. • Methods Microcosms consisting of monocultures of the three species were grown for 90 d in a factorial experiment with the following treatments: PCO2 (37·5 and 70 Pa) and nutrient availability (NA; 40 and 120  mg of N added as organic material) combined with different spatial distribution of the organic material (NH; homogeneous and heterogeneous). Differences in the size of individual plants within populations (size inequality) were quantified using the coefficient of variation of individual above-ground biomass and the combined biomass of the two largest individuals in each microcosm. Increases in size inequality were associated with size-asymmetric competition. • Key Results Size inequality increased when the nutrients were heterogeneously supplied in the three species. The effects of NH on this response were more pronounced under high nutrient supply in both Plantago and Holcus (significant NA × NH interactions) and under elevated PCO2 in Plantago (significant PCO2 × NA × NH interaction). No significant two- and three-way interactions were found for Lolium. • Conclusions Our first hypothesis was supported by our results, as nutrient heterogeneity promoted size-asymmetric competition in the three species evaluated

  11. Effects of variations in dietary calcium and phosphorus supply on plasma and bone osteocalcin concentrations and bone mineralization in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Nicodemo, M L; Scott, D; Buchan, W; Duncan, A; Robins, S P

    1998-09-01

    Growing pigs were fed diets supplying 45% (low), 70% (intermediate) and 100% (high) recommended dietary allowances of calcium (the Ca:P ratio was kept constant), but otherwise adequate in nutrients. The effects of varying calcium and phosphorus intakes on bone and plasma osteocalcin were monitored. Mineral content of the diet did not affect feed conversion and live weight gain. Plasma phosphorus concentrations decreased significantly in pigs fed a low mineral diet compared with those fed the high mineral diet, but there were no changes in plasma calcium and osteocalcin concentrations. Bones from the low mineral group had marked reductions in dry matter, calcium and phosphorus contents, as well as increased collagen, pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline concentrations: osteocalcin concentrations in bone were unaffected by treatment. The results showed no direct link between osteocalcin and the degree of bone mineralization.

  12. Siletz River nutrients: Effects of biosolids application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stream water nutrients were measured in the Siletz River, Oregon, with the goal of comparing dissolved nutrient concentrations, primarily the nitrogenous nutrients nitrate and ammonium, with previously collected data for the Yaquina and Alsea Rivers for the nutrient criteria prog...

  13. Natural selection for costly nutrient recycling in simulated microbial metacommunities.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Richard A; Williams, Hywel T P; Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-11-07

    Recycling of essential nutrients occurs at scales from microbial communities to global biogeochemical cycles, often in association with ecological interactions in which two or more species utilise each others' metabolic by-products. However, recycling loops may be unstable; sequences of reactions leading to net recycling may be parasitised by side-reactions causing nutrient loss, while some reactions in any closed recycling loop are likely to be costly to participants. Here we examine the stability of nutrient recycling loops in an individual-based ecosystem model based on microbial functional types that differ in their metabolism. A supplied nutrient is utilised by a "source" functional type, generating a secondary nutrient that is subsequently used by two other types-a "mutualist" that regenerates the initial nutrient at a growth rate cost, and a "parasite" that produces a refractory waste product but does not incur any additional cost. The three functional types are distributed across a metacommunity in which separate patches are linked by a stochastic diffusive migration process. Regions of high mutualist abundance feature high levels of nutrient recycling and increased local population density leading to greater export of individuals, allowing the source-mutualist recycling loop to spread across the system. Individual-level selection favouring parasites is balanced by patch-level selection for high productivity, indirectly favouring mutualists due to the synergistic productivity benefits of the recycling loop they support. This suggests that multi-level selection may promote nutrient cycling and thereby help to explain the apparent ubiquity and stability of nutrient recycling in nature.

  14. Nutrient management effects on sweetpotato genotypes under controlled environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, P. P.; Bonsi, C. K.; Trotman, A. A.; Douglas, D. Z.

    1996-01-01

    Sweetpotato is one of several crops recommended by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for bioregenerative life support studies. One of the objectives of the Tuskegee University NASA Center is to optimize growth conditions for adaptability of sweetpotatoes for closed bioregenerative systems. The role of nutrient solution management as it impacts yield has been one of the major thrusts in these studies. Nutrient solution management protocol currently used consists of a modified half Hoagland solution that is changed at 14-day intervals. Reservoirs are refilled with deionized water if the volume of the nutrient solution was reduced to 8 liters or less before the time of solution change. There is the need to recycle and replenish nutrient solution during crop growth, rather than discard at 14 day intervals as previously done, in order to reduce waste. Experiments were conducted in an environmental growth room to examine the effects of container size on the growth of several sweetpotato genotypes grown under a nutrient replenishment protocol. Plants were grown from vine cuttings of 15cm length and were planted in 0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2m growth channels using a closed nutrient film technique system. Nutrient was supplied in a modified half strength Hoagland's solution with a 1:2.4 N:K ratio. Nutrient replenishment protocol consisted of daily water replenishment to a constant volume of 30.4 liters in the small containers and 273.6 liters in the large container. Nutrients were replenished as needed when the EC of the nutrient solution fell below 1200 mhos/cm. The experimental design used was a split-plot with the main plot being container size and genotypes as the subplot. Nine sweetpotato genotypes were evaluated. Results showed no effect of nutrient solution container size on storage root yield, foliage fresh and dry mass, leaf area or vine length. However, plants grown using the large nutrient solution container accumulated more storage root dry mass than

  15. Nutrient management effects on sweetpotato genotypes under controlled environment.

    PubMed

    David, P P; Bonsi, C K; Trotman, A A; Douglas, D Z

    1996-12-01

    Sweetpotato is one of several crops recommended by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for bioregenerative life support studies. One of the objectives of the Tuskegee University NASA Center is to optimize growth conditions for adaptability of sweetpotatoes for closed bioregenerative systems. The role of nutrient solution management as it impacts yield has been one of the major thrusts in these studies. Nutrient solution management protocol currently used consists of a modified half Hoagland solution that is changed at 14-day intervals. Reservoirs are refilled with deionized water if the volume of the nutrient solution was reduced to 8 liters or less before the time of solution change. There is the need to recycle and replenish nutrient solution during crop growth, rather than discard at 14 day intervals as previously done, in order to reduce waste. Experiments were conducted in an environmental growth room to examine the effects of container size on the growth of several sweetpotato genotypes grown under a nutrient replenishment protocol. Plants were grown from vine cuttings of 15cm length and were planted in 0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2m growth channels using a closed nutrient film technique system. Nutrient was supplied in a modified half strength Hoagland's solution with a 1:2.4 N:K ratio. Nutrient replenishment protocol consisted of daily water replenishment to a constant volume of 30.4 liters in the small containers and 273.6 liters in the large container. Nutrients were replenished as needed when the EC of the nutrient solution fell below 1200 mhos/cm. The experimental design used was a split-plot with the main plot being container size and genotypes as the subplot. Nine sweetpotato genotypes were evaluated. Results showed no effect of nutrient solution container size on storage root yield, foliage fresh and dry mass, leaf area or vine length. However, plants grown using the large nutrient solution container accumulated more storage root dry mass than

  16. Nutrient dynamics: Chapter 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Likens, Gene E.; LaBaugh, James W.; Buso, Donald C.; Bade, Darren; Winter, Thomas C.; Likens, Gene E.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the variability and trends in chemical concentrations and fluxes at Mirror Lake during the period 1981–2000. It examines the water and chemical budgets of Mirror Lake to identify and understand better long-term trends in the chemical characteristics of the lake. It also identifies the causes of changes in nutrient concentrations and examines the contribution of hydrologic pathways to the contamination of Mirror Lake by road salt. The role of groundwater and precipitation on water and chemical budgets of the lake are also examined.

  17. Coupled Effects of Hyporheic Flow Structure and Metabolic Pattern on Reach-scale Nutrient Uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, A.; Aubeneau, A. F.; Bolster, D.; Tank, J. L.; Packman, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    Co-injections of conservative tracers and nutrients are commonly used to assess net reach-scale nutrient transformation rates and benthic/hyporheic uptake parameters. However, little information is available on spatial metabolic patterns in the benthic and hyporheic regions. Based on observations from real systems, we used particle tracking simulations to explore the effects of localized metabolism on estimates of reach-scale nutrient uptake rates. Metabolism locally depletes nutrient concentrations relative to conservative tracers, causing their concentration profiles of injected nutrients and conservative tracers to diverge. At slow rates of hyporheic exchange relative to rates of metabolism, overall hyporheic nutrient uptake is limited by delivery from the stream, and effective reach-scale nutrient uptake parameters will be controlled by the hyporheic exchange rate. At high rates of hyporheic exchange relative to rates of metabolism, the injected tracer can propagate beyond regions of high microbial activity, which commonly occur near the streambed surface. In this case, the injected tracer may not adequately capture timescales of nutrient replenishment in the most bioactive regions. Reach-scale nutrients uptake rate increases with increasing heterogeneity in local metabolic patterns, altering the shape of breakthrough curves downstream. More observations of hyporheic rates and metabolic patterns are needed to understand how flow heterogeneity and reaction heterogeneity interact to control nutrient dynamics at reach-scale.

  18. Competing for supply.

    PubMed

    Stolle, B

    2001-02-01

    The Internet was supposed to make it possible for anybody anywhere to get anything anytime. Instead, it's magnified suppliers' miscalculations into global shortages. But if the Net caused these supply chain woes, it's also the solution, says the CEO of a supply-chain software manufacturer.

  19. Power supply conditioning circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, L. E.; Loveland, R.

    1987-01-01

    A power supply conditioning circuit that can reduce Periodic and Random Deviations (PARD) on the output voltages of dc power supplies to -150 dBV from dc to several KHz with no measurable periodic deviations is described. The PARD for a typical commercial low noise power supply is -74 dBV for frequencies above 20 Hz and is often much worse at frequencies below 20 Hz. The power supply conditioning circuit described here relies on the large differences in the dynamic impedances of a constant current diode and a zener diode to establish a dc voltage with low PARD. Power supplies with low PARD are especially important in circuitry involving ultrastable frequencies for the Deep Space Network.

  20. Spatial Data Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadharajulu, P.; Azeem Saqiq, M.; Yu, F.; McMeekin, D. A.; West, G.; Arnold, L.; Moncrieff, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes current research into the supply of spatial data to the end user in as close to real time as possible via the World Wide Web. The Spatial Data Infrastructure paradigm has been discussed since the early 1990s. The concept has evolved significantly since then but has almost always examined data from the perspective of the supplier. It has been a supplier driven focus rather than a user driven focus. The current research being conducted is making a paradigm shift and looking at the supply of spatial data as a supply chain, similar to a manufacturing supply chain in which users play a significant part. A comprehensive consultation process took place within Australia and New Zealand incorporating a large number of stakeholders. Three research projects that have arisen from this consultation process are examining Spatial Data Supply Chains within Australia and New Zealand and are discussed within this paper.

  1. Evaluation for the effect of non-stationary nutrient transport on the coastal seaweed cultivation in western Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, M.; Onodera, S.; Hidaka, G.; Tokumasu, M.

    2015-06-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of non-stationary nutrient transport on the coastal seaweed cultivation, variations of the seaweed yield, nutrient condition of seawater, rainfall and nutrient transport from the river, observed over the last 40 years were examined to characterize the long-term trends and the influencing factors on the variation of seaweed yield. The results show that seaweed yield increased until 1973, then decreased in recent years. The recent condition of nutrients in seawater is relatively severe for seaweed farming. The results suggest that river-derived nutrient supply to coastal area will decrease further by the decrease of river discharge. For the future prospect, it is important to evaluate the variation of other nutrient supply such as from groundwater, offshore or bottom sediment as well as river discharge.

  2. Cultivation of Scenedesmus obliquus in liquid hydrolysate from flash hydrolysis for nutrient recycling

    PubMed Central

    Barbera, Elena; Sforza, Eleonora; Kumar, Sandeep; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bertucco, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The production of biofuels from microalgae is associated with high demands of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) required for growth. Recycling nutrients from the residual biomass is essential to obtain a sustainable production. In this work, the aqueous phase obtained from flash hydrolysis of Scenedesmus sp. was used as cultivation medium for a microalga of the same genus, to assess the feasibility of this technique for nutrient recycling purposes. Batch and continuous cultivations were carried out, to determine growth performances in this substrate compared to standard media, and verify if a stable biomass production could be obtained. In continuous experiments, the effect of hydrolysate inlet concentration and of residence time were assessed to optimize nutrient supply in relation to productivity. Results obtained show that nutrient recycling is feasible by treating biomass with flash hydrolysis, and Scenedesmus is capable of recycling large amounts of recovered nutrients. PMID:26868157

  3. Cultivation of Scenedesmus obliquus in liquid hydrolysate from flash hydrolysis for nutrient recycling.

    PubMed

    Barbera, Elena; Sforza, Eleonora; Kumar, Sandeep; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bertucco, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    The production of biofuels from microalgae is associated with high demands of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) required for growth. Recycling nutrients from the residual biomass is essential to obtain a sustainable production. In this work, the aqueous phase obtained from flash hydrolysis of Scenedesmus sp. was used as cultivation medium for a microalga of the same genus, to assess the feasibility of this technique for nutrient recycling purposes. Batch and continuous cultivations were carried out, to determine growth performances in this substrate compared to standard media, and verify if a stable biomass production could be obtained. In continuous experiments, the effect of hydrolysate inlet concentration and of residence time were assessed to optimize nutrient supply in relation to productivity. Results obtained show that nutrient recycling is feasible by treating biomass with flash hydrolysis, and Scenedesmus is capable of recycling large amounts of recovered nutrients.

  4. The Human Right to Adequate Housing: A Tool for Promoting and Protecting Individual and Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Bret

    2002-01-01

    The human right to adequate housing is enshrined in international law. The right to adequate housing can be traced to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was unanimously adopted by the world community in 1948. Since that time, the right to adequate housing has been reaffirmed on numerous occasions and further defined and elaborated. A key component of this right is habitability of housing, which should comply with health and safety standards. Therefore, the right to adequate housing provides an additional tool for advocates and others interested in promoting healthful housing and living conditions and thereby protecting individual and community health. PMID:11988432

  5. Nutrient availability and phytoplankton nutrient limitation across a gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elser, J.J.; Kyle, M.; Steuer, L.; Nydick, K.R.; Baron, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to lakes and watersheds has been increasing steadily due to various anthropogenic activities. Because such anthropogenic N is widely distributed, even lakes relatively removed from direct human disturbance are potentially impacted. However, the effects of increased atmospheric N deposition on lakes are not well documented, We examined phytoplankton biomass, the absolute and relative abundance of limiting nutrients (N and phosphorus [P]), and phytoplankton nutrient limitation in alpine lakes of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado (USA) receiving elevated (>6 kg N??ha-1??yr-1) or low (<2 kg N??ha-1??yr-1) levels of atmospheric N deposition. Highdeposition lakes had higher NO3-N and total N concentrations and higher total N : total P ratios. Concentrations of chlorophyll and seston carbon (C) were 2-2.5 times higher in highdeposition relative to low-deposition lakes, while high-deposition lakes also had higher seston C:N and C:P (but not N:P) ratios. Short-term enrichment bioassays indicated a qualitative shift in the nature of phytoplankton nutrient limitation due to N deposition, as highdeposition lakes had an increased frequency of primary P limitation and a decreased frequency and magnitude of response to N and to combined N and P enrichment. Thus elevated atmospheric N deposition appears to have shifted nutrient supply from a relatively balanced but predominantly N-deficient regime to a more consistently P-limited regime in Colorado alpine lakes. This adds to accumulating evidence that sustained N deposition may have important effects on lake phytoplankton communities and plankton-based food webs by shifting the quantitative and qualitative nature of nutrient limitation. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. High nitrogen : phosphorus ratios reduce nutrient retention and second-year growth of wetland sedges.

    PubMed

    Güsewell, Sabine

    2005-05-01

    Shifts from nitrogen (N)- to phosphorus (P)-limited growth due to high N deposition may alter the functioning of wetland vegetation. This experiment tested how N vs P deficiency affects the growth and nutrient use of wetland sedges. Five wetland Carex species were grown at nine N : P supply ratios (0.6-405) with two absolute levels of N and P. Biomass and nutrient concentrations were determined after one and two growing seasons. Shoot biomass was maximal at N : P supply ratios of 15-26 after one season but 5-15 after two seasons. Photosynthesis after the first season, second-year growth, leaf longevity, and the fraction of nutrient supply retained by plants over two seasons were all negatively related to N : P supply ratios, with small effects of absolute supply. The five Carex species responded similarly to N : P ratios but differed in nutrient resorption efficiency and biomass allocation. Plants treated with high N : P ratios appeared to lose nutrients below ground. Such losses may reduce plant performance in P-limited wetlands affected by high N deposition.

  7. Stoichiometry, Metabolism and Nutrient Limitation Across the Periodic Table in Natural Flowing-Water Chemostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, M. J.; Nifong, R. L.; Kurz, M. J.; Cropper, W. P.; Martin, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Relative supplies of macro and micronutrients (C,N,P, various metals), along with light and water, controls ecosystem metabolism, trophic energy transfer and community structure. Here we test the hypothesis, using measurements from 41 spring-fed rivers in Florida, that tissue stoichiometry indicates autotroph nutrient limitation status. Low variation in discharge, temperature and chemical composition within springs, but large variation across springs creates an ideal setting to assess the relationship between limitation and resource supply. Molar N:P ranges from 0.4 to 90, subjecting autotrophs to dramatically different nutrient supply. Over this gradient, species-specific autotroph tissue C:N:P ratios are strictly homeostatic, and with no evidence that nutrient supply affects species composition. Expanding to include 19 metals and micronutrients revealed autotrophs are more plastic in response to micronutrient variation, particularly for iron and manganese whose supply fluxes are small compared to biotic demand. Using a Droop model modified to reflect springs conditions (benthic production, light limitation, high hydraulic turnover), we show that tissue stoichiometry transitions from homeostatic to plastic with the onset of nutrient limitation, providing a potentially powerful new tool for predicting nutrient limitation and thus eutrophication in flowing waters.

  8. Non-native fish stocking alters stream ecosystem nutrient dynamics.

    PubMed

    Alexiades, Alexander V; Flecker, Alexander S; Kraft, Clifford E

    2017-01-05

    Each year, millions of hatchery raised fish are stocked annually into streams and rivers worldwide, yet the effects of hatchery raised fish on stream nutrient cycles has seldom been examined. We quantified the influence of supplemental non-native fish stocking, a widespread recreational fishery management practice, on in-stream nutrient storage and cycling. We predicted that supplemental, hatchery-raised brown trout (Salmo trutta) stocking would result in increased N and P supply relative to in-stream biotic demand for those nutrients and that stocked fishes would remineralize and store a significantly greater amount of N and P than the native fish community, due to higher areal biomass. To test these predictions, we measured the biomass, nutrient (NH4(+) -N and soluble reactive phosphorus) remineralization rates, and body carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus content of the native fish community and trout stocked into four study streams. We then estimated fish growth rates to determine species-specific nutrient sequestration rates in body tissues for both stocked and native fish and measured ammonium and phosphorus uptake rates to determine the relative influence of net fish nutrient remineralization on stream nutrient cycles. When brown trout were stocked in these systems at density levels that were orders of magnitude higher than ambient native fish density, they provided a sizeable source of NH4(+) -N that could account for up to 85% of demand for that nutrient. Stocked trout had minimal effects on in-stream soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) cycles even at high release densities, likely due to low per capita SRP excretion rates. A unique feature of our study was that we evaluated the temporal component of the stocked trout nutrient subsidy by estimating the number of fish removed from the system through natural mortality and angler harvest which indicated that the stocked trout subsidy lasted approximately 6-8 weeks after stocking. By combining population models

  9. River nutrient loads and catchment size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, S.V.; Swaney, D.P.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Scarsbrook, M.R.; Weatherhead, M.A.; Humborg, Christoph; Eriksson, H.; Hannerz, F.

    2005-01-01

    We have used a total of 496 sample sites to calibrate a simple regression model for calculating dissolved inorganic nutrient fluxes via runoff to the ocean. The regression uses the logarithms of runoff and human population as the independent variables and estimates the logarithms of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus loading with R 2 values near 0.8. This predictive capability is about the same as has been derived for total nutrient loading with process-based models requiring more detailed information on independent variables. We conclude that population and runoff are robust proxies for the more detailed application, landscape modification, and in-stream processing estimated by more process-based models. The regression model has then been applied to a demonstration data set of 1353 river catchments draining to the sea from the North American continent south of the Canadian border. The geographic extents of these basins were extracted from a 1-km digital elevation model for North America, and both runoff and population were estimated for each basin. Most of the basins (72% of the total) are smaller than 103 km2, and both runoff and population density are higher and more variable among small basins than among larger ones.While total load to the ocean can probably be adequately estimated from large systems only, analysis of the geographic distribution of nutrient loading requires consideration of the small basins, which can exhibit significant hydrologic and demographic heterogeneity between systems over their range even within the same geographic region. High-resolution regional and local analysis is necessary for environmental assessment and management. ?? Springer 2005.

  10. Nutrient analysis of varying socioeconomic status home food environments in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Schefske, Scott D; Bellows, Anne C; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Cuite, Cara L; Rapport, Holly; Vivar, Teresa; Hallman, William K

    2010-04-01

    Home food inventories of Oaxacan Mexican-American and African-American families of low-socioeconomic status living in an urban area in New Jersey with at least one child under the age of 12 were conducted using Universal Product Code scanning. The African-American and Oaxacan household food supplies were compared with a sample of White households, also with at least one child under the age of 12, not of low-socioeconomic status. Nutrient Adequacy Ratios for total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate, sugar, dietary fiber, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron were used to quantify the adequacy of household food supplies per 2000 cal. The food supplies of the White households had significantly more calcium, vitamin A, and sugar and less total fat than the other two samples. The home food supplies of African-American households contained significantly less vitamin C than White and Oaxacan households. Compared to both other samples, Oaxacan household food supplies were lower in protein, sodium, and iron. Per 2000 cal, African-American households had the lowest supply of nutrients recommended to be maximized (i.e., vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, iron, protein, and dietary fiber) and highest supply of nutrients to be minimized (i.e., total fat, cholesterol, sodium, and sugar). Overall household food quality scores were lowest for the African-American sample with no differences between Oaxacan and White household food supply quality scores.

  11. Nutrient Sensing Mechanisms and Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Efeyan, Alejo; Comb, William C.; Sabatini, David M.

    2015-01-01

    PREFACE The ability to sense and respond to fluctuations in environmental nutrient levels is a requisite for life. Nutrient scarcity is a selective pressure that has shaped the evolution of most cellular processes. Different pathways that detect intracellular and extracellular levels of sugars, amino acids and lipids, and surrogate metabolites, are then integrated and coordinated at the organismal level via hormonal signals. During food abundance, nutrient sensing pathways engage anabolism and storage, and scarcity triggers homeostatic mechanisms, like the mobilization of internal stores through mechanisms such as autophagy. Nutrient sensing pathways are commonly deregulated in human metabolic diseases. PMID:25592535

  12. Influence of nutrient delivery on gut structure and function.

    PubMed

    Bragg, L E; Thompson, J S; Rikkers, L F

    1991-01-01

    Food is an important stimulus for the growth of gastrointestinal mucosa. Gut structure is influenced by the route of nutrient administration, dietary composition and the availability of specific nutrients. The alterations in intestinal structure and function that occur when enteral nutrition is withheld suggests that the ingestion of food results in physiologic responses that are responsible for the maintenance of gut mass during the fed state. The mechanism of mucosal suppression that occurs during starvation, stress, and total parenteral nutrition is not completely understood but may involve the absence of luminal substrates, decreased pancreaticobiliary secretions and alterations in the endocrine or paracrine events that normally accompany eating, digestion, and absorption. Enterocytes prefer glutamine and ketone bodies as oxidative fuels, whereas colonocytes utilize short chain fatty acids. Although enteral delivery of nutrients is the preferred route for maintenance of intestinal mass, provision of specific nutrients and hormonal stimulation during parenteral alimentation has been shown to be important in maintaining mucosal structure and function. If not adequately maintained, the intestine becomes susceptible to a variety of injuries which may result in impaired ability to digest and absorb nutrients and loss of mucosal barrier function.

  13. Recovery of dairy manure nutrients by benthic freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, Ann C; Mulbry, Walter W

    2002-08-01

    Harnessing solar energy to grow algal biomass on wastewater nutrients could provide a holistic solution to nutrient management problems on dairy farms. The production of algae from a portion of manure nutrients to replace high-protein feed supplements which are often imported (along with considerable nutrients) onto the farm could potentially link consumption and supply of on-farm nutrients. The objective of this research was to assess the ability of benthic freshwater algae to recover nutrients from dairy manure and to evaluate nutrient uptake rates and dry matter/crude protein yields in comparison to a conventional cropping system. Benthic algae growth chambers were operated in semi-batch mode by continuously recycling wastewater and adding manure inputs daily. Using total nitrogen (TN) loading rates of 0.64-1.03 g m(-2) d(-1), the dried algal yields were 5.3-5.5 g m(-2) d(-1). The dried algae contained 1.5-2.1% P and 4.9-7.1% N. At a TN loading rate of 1.03 g m(-2) d(-1), algal biomass contained 7.1% N compared to only 4.9% N at a TN loading rate of 0.64 g m(-2) d(-1). In the best case, algal biomass had a crude protein content of 44%, compared to a typical corn silage protein content of 7%. At a dry matter yield of 5.5 g m(-2) d(-1), this is equivalent to an annual N uptake rate of 1,430 kg ha(-1) yr(-1). Compared to a conventional corn/rye rotation, such benthic algae production rates would require 26% of the land area requirements for equivalent N uptake rates and 23% of the land area requirements on a P uptake basis. Combining conventional cropping systems with an algal treatment system could facilitate more efficient crop production and farm nutrient management, allowing dairy operations to be environmentally sustainable on fewer acres.

  14. Hydrogen supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Teitel, R.J.

    1981-11-24

    A system for supplying hydrogen to an apparatus which utilizes hydrogen contains a metal hydride hydrogen supply component and a microcavity hydrogen storage hydrogen supply component which in tandem supply hydrogen for the apparatus. The metal hydride hydrogen supply component includes a first storage tank filled with a composition which is capable of forming a metal hydride of such a nature that the hydride will release hydrogen when heated but will absorb hydrogen when cooled. This first storage tank is equipped with a heat exchanger for both adding heat to and extracting heat from the composition to regulate the absorption/deabsorption of hydrogen from the composition. The microcavity hydrogen storage hydrogen supply component includes a second tank containing the microcavity hydrogen supply. The microcavity hydrogen storage contains hydrogen held under high pressure within individual microcavities. The hydrogen is released from the microcavities by heating the cavities. This heating is accomplished by including within the tank for the microcavity hydrogen storage a heating element.

  15. Automating power supply checkout

    SciTech Connect

    Laster, J.; Bruno, D.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drozd, J.; Marr, G.; Mi, C.

    2011-03-28

    Power Supply checkout is a necessary, pre-beam, time-critical function. At odds are the desire to decrease the amount of time to perform the checkout while at the same time maximizing the number and types of checks that can be performed and analyzing the results quickly (in case any problems exist that must be addressed). Controls and Power Supply Group personnel have worked together to develop tools to accomplish these goals. Power Supply checkouts are now accomplished in a time-frame of hours rather than days, reducing the number of person-hours needed to accomplish the checkout and making the system available more quickly for beam development. The goal of the Collider-Accelerator Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is to provide experimenters with collisions of heavy-ions and polarized protons. The Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) magnets are controlled by 100's of varying types of power supplies. There is a concentrated effort to perform routine maintenance on the supplies during shutdown periods. There is an effort at RHIC to streamline the time needed for system checkout in order to quickly arrive at a period of beam operations for RHIC. This time-critical period is when the checkout of the power supplies is performed as the RHIC ring becomes cold and the supplies are connected to their physical magnets. The checkout process is used to identify problems in voltage and current regulation by examining data signals related to each for problems in settling and regulation (ripple).

  16. Supply chain planning classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Trienekens, Jacques; Bonde, Hans

    2001-10-01

    Industry experience a need to shift in focus from internal production planning towards planning in the supply network. In this respect customer oriented thinking becomes almost a common good amongst companies in the supply network. An increase in the use of information technology is needed to enable companies to better tune their production planning with customers and suppliers. Information technology opportunities and supply chain planning systems facilitate companies to monitor and control their supplier network. In spite if these developments, most links in today's supply chains make individual plans, because the real demand information is not available throughout the chain. The current systems and processes of the supply chains are not designed to meet the requirements now placed upon them. For long term relationships with suppliers and customers, an integrated decision-making process is needed in order to obtain a satisfactory result for all parties. Especially when customized production and short lead-time is in focus. An effective value chain makes inventory available and visible among the value chain members, minimizes response time and optimizes total inventory value held throughout the chain. In this paper a supply chain planning classification grid is presented based current manufacturing classifications and supply chain planning initiatives.

  17. Microbial community composition in sediments resists perturbation by nutrient enrichment.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Jennifer L; Ward, Bess B; Morrison, Hilary G; Hobbie, John E; Valiela, Ivan; Deegan, Linda A; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2011-09-01

    Functional redundancy in bacterial communities is expected to allow microbial assemblages to survive perturbation by allowing continuity in function despite compositional changes in communities. Recent evidence suggests, however, that microbial communities change both composition and function as a result of disturbance. We present evidence for a third response: resistance. We examined microbial community response to perturbation caused by nutrient enrichment in salt marsh sediments using deep pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and functional gene microarrays targeting the nirS gene. Composition of the microbial community, as demonstrated by both genes, was unaffected by significant variations in external nutrient supply in our sampling locations, despite demonstrable and diverse nutrient-induced changes in many aspects of marsh ecology. The lack of response to external forcing demonstrates a remarkable uncoupling between microbial composition and ecosystem-level biogeochemical processes and suggests that sediment microbial communities are able to resist some forms of perturbation.

  18. Stability in chemostat equations with delayed nutrient recycling.

    PubMed

    Beretta, E; Bischi, G I; Solimano, F

    1990-01-01

    The growth of a species feeding on a limiting nutrient supplied at a constant rate is modelled by chemostat-type equations with a general nutrient uptake function and delayed nutrient recycling. Conditions for boundedness of the solutions and the existence of non-negative equilibria are given for the integrodifferential equations with distributed time lags. When the time lags are neglected conditions for the global stability of the positive equilibrium and for the extinction of the species are provided. The positive equilibrium continues to be locally stable when the time lag in recycling is considered and this is proved for a wide class of memory functions. Computer simulations suggest that even in this case the region of stability is very large, but the solutions tend to the equilibrium through oscillations.

  19. Microbial community composition in sediments resists perturbation by nutrient enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Jennifer L; Ward, Bess B; Morrison, Hilary G; Hobbie, John E; Valiela, Ivan; Deegan, Linda A; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2011-01-01

    Functional redundancy in bacterial communities is expected to allow microbial assemblages to survive perturbation by allowing continuity in function despite compositional changes in communities. Recent evidence suggests, however, that microbial communities change both composition and function as a result of disturbance. We present evidence for a third response: resistance. We examined microbial community response to perturbation caused by nutrient enrichment in salt marsh sediments using deep pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and functional gene microarrays targeting the nirS gene. Composition of the microbial community, as demonstrated by both genes, was unaffected by significant variations in external nutrient supply in our sampling locations, despite demonstrable and diverse nutrient-induced changes in many aspects of marsh ecology. The lack of response to external forcing demonstrates a remarkable uncoupling between microbial composition and ecosystem-level biogeochemical processes and suggests that sediment microbial communities are able to resist some forms of perturbation. PMID:21412346

  20. Water supply changes N and P conservation in a perennial grass Leymus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ju-Ying; Yu, Hai-Long; Li, Ling-Hao; Yuan, Zhi-You; Bartels, Samuel

    2009-11-01

    Changes in precipitation can influence soil water and nutrient availability, and thus affect plant nutrient conservation strategies. Better understanding of how nutrient conservation changes with variations in water availability is crucial for predicting the potential influence of global climate change on plant nutrient-use strategy. Here, green-leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations, N- and P-resorption proficiency (the terminal N and P concentration in senescent leaves, NRP and PRP, respectively), and N- and P-resorption efficiency (the proportional N and P withdrawn from senescent leaves prior to abscission, NRE and PRE, respectively) of Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel., a typical perennial grass species in northern China, were examined along a water supply gradient to explore how plant nutrient conservation responds to water change. Increasing water supply at low levels (< 9000 mL/year) increased NRP, PRP and PRE, but decreased green-leaf N concentration. It did not significantly affect green-leaf P concentration or NRE. By contrast, all N and P conservation indicators were not significantly influenced at high water supply levels (> 9000 mL/year). These results indicated that changes in water availability at low levels could affect leaf-level nutrient characteristics, especially for the species in semiarid ecosystems. Therefore, global changes in precipitation may pose effects on plant nutrient economy, and thus on nutrient cycling in the plant-soil systems.

  1. Supply chain assessment methodology.

    PubMed

    Topor, E

    2000-08-01

    This article describes an assessment methodology based on the supply chain proficiency model that can be used to set realistic supply chain objectives. The assessment centers on a business model that identifies the logical stages of supply chain proficiency as measured against a comprehensive set of business characteristics. For each characteristic, an enterprise evolves from one stage to the next. The magnitude of change inherent in moving forward usually prohibits skipping stages. Although it is possible to be at different stages for each characteristic, it is usually desirable to maintain balance.

  2. Nutrients and neurodevelopment: lipids.

    PubMed

    González, Horacio F; Visentin, Silvana

    2016-10-01

    Nutrients, lipids in particular, make up the central nervous system structure and play major functional roles: they stimulate development, migration, and nerve cell differentiation. They are part of gray matter, white matter, nerve nuclei, and synaptogenesis. Breast milk contains lipids which are crucial for infant brain development. The lipid profile of breast milk was used as a guideline for the development of breast milk substitutes. However, to date, no substitute has matched it. Complementary feeding should include docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, other polyunsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, and complex lipids found in milk fat. The lipid composition of breast milk depends on maternal intake and nutritional status during pregnancy and breast-feeding. It has a great impact on development. Our goal is to review scientific literature regarding the role of lipids on infant brain development and the importance of breast milk lipid composition, maternal diet, and complementary feeding.

  3. Nutrients, neurodevelopment, and mood.

    PubMed

    Casper, Regina C

    2004-12-01

    Human neurodevelopment is the result of genetic and environmental interactions. This paper examines the role of prenatal nutrition relative to psychiatric disorders and explores the relationship among nutrients, mood changes, and mood disorders. Epidemiologic studies have found that adults who were born with a normal, yet low birth weight have an increased susceptibility to diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, and stroke in adulthood. Prenatal caloric malnutrition, low birth weight, and prematurity also increase the risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, schizophrenia, affective disorders, and schizoid and antisocial personality disorders. Placebo-controlled studies in medicated patients suggest that add-on treatment with omega-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid, may ameliorate symptoms of major depressive disorder. Additional studies are necessary to confirm any benefits for bipolar disorders.

  4. Nutrient Cycling Study

    SciTech Connect

    Peter A. Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The particular goal of this study is to develop measurement techniques for understanding how consortia of organisms from geothermal facilities utilize sulfur and iron for metabolic activity; and in turn, what role that activity plays in initiating or promoting the development of a biofilm on plant substrates. Sulfur cycling is of interest because sulfur is produced in the resource. Iron is found in some of the steel formulations used in plant components and is also added as chemical treatment for reducing sulfide emissions from the plants. This report describes the set-up and operation of a bioreactor for evaluating the response of colonies of geothermal organisms to changes in nutrient and environmental conditions. Data from initial experiments are presented and plans for future testing is discussed.

  5. New vessel formation in the context of cardiomyocyte regeneration--the role and importance of an adequate perfusing vasculature.

    PubMed

    Michelis, Katherine C; Boehm, Manfred; Kovacic, Jason C

    2014-11-01

    The history of revascularization for cardiac ischemia dates back to the early 1960's when the first coronary artery bypass graft procedures were performed in humans. With this 50 year history of providing a new vasculature to ischemic and hibernating myocardium, a profound depth of experience has been amassed in clinical cardiovascular medicine as to what does, and does not work in the context of cardiac revascularization, alleviating ischemia and adequacy of myocardial perfusion. These issues are of central relevance to contemporary cell-based cardiac regenerative approaches. While the cardiovascular cell therapy field is surging forward on many exciting fronts, several well accepted clinical axioms related to the cardiac arterial supply appear to be almost overlooked by some of our current basic conceptual and experimental cell therapy paradigms. We present here information drawn from five decades of the clinical revascularization experience, review relevant new data on vascular formation via cell therapy, and put forward the case that for optimal cell-based cardiac regeneration due attention must be paid to providing an adequate vascular supply.

  6. New vessel formation in the context of cardiomyocyte regeneration – the role and importance of an adequate perfusing vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Michelis, Katherine C.; Boehm, Manfred; Kovacic, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    The history of revascularization for cardiac ischemia dates back to the early 1960's when the first coronary artery bypass graft procedures were performed in humans. With this 50 year history of providing a new vasculature to ischemic and hibernating myocardium, a profound depth of experience has been amassed in clinical cardiovascular medicine as to what does, and does not work in the context of cardiac revascularization, alleviating ischemia and adequacy of myocardial perfusion. These issues are of central relevance to contemporary cell-based cardiac regenerative approaches. While the cardiovascular cell therapy field is surging forward on many exciting fronts, several well accepted clinical axioms related to the cardiac arterial supply appear to be almost overlooked by some of our current basic conceptual and experimental cell therapy paradigms. We present here information drawn from five decades of the clinical revascularization experience, review relevant new data on vascular formation via cell therapy, and put forward the case that for optimal cell-based cardiac regeneration due attention must be paid to providing an adequate vascular supply. PMID:24841067

  7. Soil Nutrient Assessment for Urban Ecosystems in Hubei, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-guo; Zhang, Guo-shi; Liu, Yi; Wan, Kai-yuan; Zhang, Run-hua; Chen, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Recent urban landscape vegetation surveys conducted in many cities in China identified numerous plant nutrient deficiencies, especially in newly developed cities. Soil nutrients and soil nutrient management in the cities of Hubei province have not received adequate attention to date. The aims of this study were to characterize the available nutrients of urban soils from nine cities in Hubei province, China, and to assess how soil nutrient status is related to land use type and topography. Soil nutrients were measured in 405 sites from 1,215 soil samples collected from four land use types (park, institutional [including government building grounds, municipal party grounds, university grounds, and garden city institutes], residential, and roadside verges) and three topographies (mountainous [142–425 m a.s.l], hilly [66–112 m a.s.l], and plain [26–30 m a.s.l]). Chemical analyses showed that urban soils in Hubei had high pH and lower soil organic matter, available nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P), and available boron (B) concentrations than natural soils. Nutrient concentrations were significantly different among land use types, with the roadside and residential areas having greater concentrations of calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) that were not deficient against the recommended ranges. Topographic comparisons showed statistically significant effects for 8 of the 11 chemical variables (p < 0.05). Concentrations of N, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Mn in plain cities were greater than those in mountainous cities and show a negative correlation with city elevation. These results provide data on urban soils characteristics in land use types and topography, and deliver significant information for city planners and policy makers. PMID:24086647

  8. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... and Adequate Veterinary Care § 2.40 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and... veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section. (1) Each dealer and exhibitor shall employ...

  9. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  10. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  11. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  12. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  13. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  14. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  15. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  16. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  17. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  18. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  19. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  20. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  1. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  2. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  3. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  4. [Nutrient management strategy of paddy rice-upland crop rotation system].

    PubMed

    Fan, Ming-Sheng; Jiang, Rong-Feng; Zhang, Fu-Suo; Lü, Shi-Hua; Liu, Xue-Jun

    2008-02-01

    Paddy rice-upland crop rotation system is a major cropping system in China, and practiced widely along the Yangtze River basin. A unique feature of this system is the annual conversion of soil from aerobic to anaerobic and then back to aerobic condition, which can result in the changes of soil physical, chemical, and biological prosperities among seasons, making a special agroecosystem. The major challenges faced by this system include declining or stagnating productivity, increasing shortage of irrigation water, improper management of nutrients, low efficiency of resource utilization, and environmental pollution. Based on an overview of the characteristics and problems of paddy rice-upland crop rotation system, this paper put forward a strategy of practicing integrated nutrient management to solve the contradictions between nutrient input, crop production and environmental risk. The key points of this strategy included nutrient management from the whole rotation system perspective, integrated use of nutrients from various sources (chemical fertilizers, organic fertilizers, and nutrients from the environment), synchronization of nutrient supply and crop nutrient demand, application of different management technologies based on the characteristics of different nutrient resources, and integration of nutrient management with other cropping system technologies like water saving and high-yielding cultivation, etc.

  5. Global Uranium And Thorium Resources: Are They Adequate To Satisfy Demand Over The Next Half Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will consider the adequacy of global uranium and thorium resources to meet realistic nuclear power demand scenarios over the next half century. It is presented on behalf of, and based on evaluations by, the Uranium Group - a joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, of which the author is a Vice Chair. The Uranium Group produces a biennial report on Uranium Resources, Production and Demand based on information from some 40 countries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, which also briefly reviews thorium resources. Uranium: In 2008, world production of uranium amounted to almost 44,000 tonnes (tU). This supplied approximately three-quarters of world reactor requirements (approx. 59,000 tU), the remainder being met by previously mined uranium (so-called secondary sources). Information on availability of secondary sources - which include uranium from excess inventories, dismantling nuclear warheads, tails and spent fuel reprocessing - is incomplete, but such sources are expected to decrease in market importance after 2013. In 2008, the total world Reasonably Assured plus Inferred Resources of uranium (recoverable at less than 130/kgU) amounted to 5.4 million tonnes. In addition, it is clear that there are vast amounts of uranium recoverable at higher costs in known deposits, plus many as yet undiscovered deposits. The Uranium Group has concluded that the uranium resource base is more than adequate to meet projected high-case requirements for nuclear power for at least half a century. This conclusion does not assume increasing replacement of uranium by fuels from reprocessing current reactor wastes, or by thorium, nor greater reactor efficiencies, which are likely to ameliorate future uranium demand. However, progressively increasing quantities of uranium will need to be mined, against a backdrop of the relatively small number of producing facilities around the world, geopolitical uncertainties and

  6. Dietary protein: an essential nutrient for bone health.

    PubMed

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe

    2005-12-01

    Nutrition plays a major role in the development and maintenance of bone structures resistant to usual mechanical loadings. In addition to calcium in the presence of an adequate vitamin D supply, proteins represent a key nutrient for bone health, and thereby in the prevention of osteoporosis. In sharp opposition to experimental and clinical evidence, it has been alleged that proteins, particularly those from animal sources, might be deleterious for bone health by inducing chronic metabolic acidosis which in turn would be responsible for increased calciuria and accelerated mineral dissolution. This claim is based on an hypothesis that artificially assembles various notions, including in vitro observations on the physical-chemical property of apatite crystal, short term human studies on the calciuric response to increased protein intakes, as well as retrospective inter-ethnic comparisons on the prevalence of hip fractures. The main purpose of this review is to analyze the evidence that refutes a relation of causality between the elements of this putative patho-physiological "cascade" that purports that animal proteins are causally associated with an increased incidence of osteoporotic fractures. In contrast, many experimental and clinical published data concur to indicate that low protein intake negatively affects bone health. Thus, selective deficiency in dietary proteins causes marked deterioration in bone mass, micro architecture and strength, the hallmark of osteoporosis. In the elderly, low protein intakes are often observed in patients with hip fracture. In these patients intervention study after orthopedic management demonstrates that protein supplementation as given in the form of casein, attenuates post-fracture bone loss, increases muscles strength, reduces medical complications and hospital stay. In agreement with both experimental and clinical intervention studies, large prospective epidemiologic observations indicate that relatively high protein intakes

  7. Managing Supply Chain Disruptions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-09

    functions within and across organizations (CSCMP, 2005). Mentzer et al. (2001) characterize SCM as a philosophy that includes a systems approach with...150 vi LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1. Prominent Supply Chain Related System Theory...process. It is not a matter of a supply chain system encountering a problem, but rather a matter of when a problematic event will occur and how severe

  8. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  9. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  10. Less is more: Nutrient limitation induces cross-talk of nutrient sensing pathways with NAD+ homeostasis and contributes to longevity

    PubMed Central

    TSANG, Felicia; LIN, Su-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient sensing pathways and their regulation grant cells control over their metabolism and growth in response to changing nutrients. Factors that regulate nutrient sensing can also modulate longevity. Reduced activity of nutrient sensing pathways such as glucose-sensing PKA, nitrogen-sensing TOR and S6 kinase homolog Sch9 have been linked to increased life span in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and higher eukaryotes. Recently, reduced activity of amino acid sensing SPS pathway was also shown to increase yeast life span. Life span extension by reduced SPS activity requires enhanced NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, oxidized form) and nicotinamide riboside (NR, a NAD+ precursor) homeostasis. Maintaining adequate NAD+ pools has been shown to play key roles in life span extension, but factors regulating NAD+ metabolism and homeostasis are not completely understood. Recently, NAD+ metabolism was also linked to the phosphate (Pi)-sensing PHO pathway in yeast. Canonical PHO activation requires Pi-starvation. Interestingly, NAD+ depletion without Pi-starvation was sufficient to induce PHO activation, increasing NR production and mobilization. Moreover, SPS signaling appears to function in parallel with PHO signaling components to regulate NR/NAD+ homeostasis. These studies suggest that NAD+ metabolism is likely controlled by and/or coordinated with multiple nutrient sensing pathways. Indeed, cross-regulation of PHO, PKA, TOR and Sch9 pathways was reported to potentially affect NAD+ metabolism; though detailed mechanisms remain unclear. This review discusses yeast longevity-related nutrient sensing pathways and possible mechanisms of life span extension, regulation of NAD+ homeostasis, and cross-talk among nutrient sensing pathways and NAD+ homeostasis. PMID:27683589

  11. Nutrient Needs of Young Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willenberg, Barbara; Hemmelgarn, Melinda

    1991-01-01

    Explains the nutritional requirements of children and adolescents, and the physiological roles of the major nutrients. Details the nutrient needs of young athletes, including pre- and postgame meals and fluid replacement. Discusses eating disorders and obesity. Advocates a diet rich in complex carbohydrates. (BC)

  12. Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Kanti L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

  13. Comparative nutrient composition of selected wild edible mushrooms from two agro-ecological zones, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nakalembe, Immaculate; Kabasa, John David; Olila, Deogratias

    2015-01-01

    In Uganda, wild mushrooms are mainly collected during the rainy season and valued as a traditionally nutritious food by the rural poor. However, their nutritional attributes have not been adequately studied and documented. Comparative nutrient composition of five wild edible mushroom species was determined, namely: P. tenucuilus, T. tyleranus, T. clypeatus, V. speciosa and T. microcarpus of sub-humid and humid agro-ecological zones. Standard analytical techniques following the AOAC were used for proximate and mineral contents determinations. Vitamins determination followed the established standard protocols of the laboratories where the analyses were conducted. Combined use of nutrient concentration and scores were used to compare the level of the contents in the mushroom species. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in nutrient values were demonstrated between and among the mushroom species obtained from the two agro-ecological zones. On dry weight basis, all proximate compositions were high in mushroom species obtained from the humid zone with exception of the total carbohydrates and energy values. Irrespective of the source of the mushrooms, significant amounts were demonstrated in protein, dry matter, ash and total carbohydrates ranging between 11.56-27.42%, 82.34-99.76%, 10.79-16.87%, and 37.12-61.05%, respectively. In comparison with recommended dietary daily intakes, the K, P, Se, Mn, Cu and Fe contents were relatively high with low Ca, Mg, Zn and Na. Thiamin, folic acid, vitamin C, and niacin levels were high but below the recommended FAO references. Considering mushrooms from different agro-ecological zones, significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in all mushroom species in P except in T. clypeatus, T. tyleranus, T. microcarpus and T. clypeatus in potassium, T. clypeatus and T. microcarpus in Mg. Mushrooms from humid agro-ecological zones had relatively high overall mineral and vitamin supply potential. In conclusion, consumption of these

  14. Implications of land disturbance on drinking water treatability in a changing climate: demonstrating the need for "source water supply and protection" strategies.

    PubMed

    Emelko, Monica B; Silins, Uldis; Bladon, Kevin D; Stone, Micheal

    2011-01-01

    Forests form the critical source water areas for downstream drinking water supplies in many parts of the world, including the Rocky Mountain regions of North America. Large scale natural disturbances from wildfire and severe insect infestation are more likely because of warming climate and can significantly impact water quality downstream of forested headwaters regions. To investigate potential implications of changing climate and wildfire on drinking water treatment, the 2003 Lost Creek Wildfire in Alberta, Canada was studied. Four years of comprehensive hydrology and water quality data from seven watersheds were evaluated and synthesized to assess the implications of wildfire and post-fire intervention (salvage-logging) on downstream drinking water treatment. The 95th percentile turbidity and DOC remained low in streams draining unburned watersheds (5.1 NTU, 3.8 mg/L), even during periods of potential treatment challenge (e.g., stormflows, spring freshet); in contrast, they were elevated in streams draining burned (15.3 NTU, 4.6 mg/L) and salvage-logged (18.8 NTU, 9.9 mg/L) watersheds. Persistent increases in these parameters and observed increases in other contaminants such as nutrients, heavy metals, and chlorophyll-a in discharge from burned and salvage-logged watersheds present important economic and operational challenges for water treatment; most notably, a potential increased dependence on solids and DOC removal processes. Many traditional source water protection strategies would fail to adequately identify and evaluate many of the significant wildfire- and post-fire management-associated implications to drinking water "treatability"; accordingly, it is proposed that "source water supply and protection strategies" should be developed to consider a suppliers' ability to provide adequate quantities of potable water to meet demand by addressing all aspects of drinking water "supply" (i.e., quantity, timing of availability, and quality) and their relationship

  15. Plant Available Nutrients, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sloan, Victoria; Liebig, Jenny; Curtis, Bryan; Hahn, Melanie; Iversen, Colleen; Siegrist, Julie

    2014-02-19

    This dataset consists of measurements of plant available nutrients made using Plant Root Simulator probes (Western Ag Innovations Inc.) during 2012 and 2013. In 2012, Ca, Mg, K, P, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B, S, Pb, Al, Cd, NO3-N and NH4-N were measured during spring, summer and winter in the centers, edges and troughs of four polygons in each of four areas of contrasting moisture regime and polygon type. In 2013, probes were installed in centers, edges and troughs of four polygons in each of two areas (high-centered and low-centered polygons) at two-week intervals and at 3 soil depths to capture fine-scale season dynamics of NO3-N and NH4-N. PRS probes are ion exchange resin membranes held in plastic supports that are inserted into soil to measure ion supply in situ. The anion and cation exchange with the membrane is intended to mimic plant uptake and thus provide a relevant measure of soil nutrient bioavailability. Measurements are made per area of probe membrane and cannot be converted to concentrations or related to soil volume.

  16. Ovine maternal nutrient restriction from mid to late gestation decreases heptic progesterone inactivating enzyme activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we have shown increased concentrations of progesterone and decreased liver weight in mid to late pregnant ewes provided a nutrient restricted vs. adequate diet. This alteration in peripheral progesterone could be due to increased synthesis and/or decreased clearance of progesterone. There...

  17. Characterization of Mineral Nutrients in National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) Tomato Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit quality and yield are highly dependent on adequate uptake of nutrients. Potassium, magnesium and calcium are essential elements that influence fruit quality traits such as color, uniformity of ripening, hollow fruit, fruit shape, firmness, and acidity. Sodium is...

  18. Competition for one nutrient with internal storage and toxin mortality.

    PubMed

    Grover, James P; Wang, Feng-Bin

    2013-08-01

    This study presents a mathematical model of two species competing in a chemostat for one resource that is stored internally, and who also compete through allelopathy. Each species produces a toxin to that increases mortality rate of its competitor. The two species system and its single species subsystem follow mass conservation constraints characteristic of chemostat models. Persistence of a single species occurs if the nutrient supply of an empty habitat allows it to acquire a threshold of stored nutrient quota, sufficient to overcome loss to outflow after accounting for the cost of toxin production. For the two-species system, a semitrivial equilibrium with one species resident is unstable to invasion by the missing species according to a similar threshold condition. The invader increases if acquires a stored nutrient quota sufficient to overcome loss to outflow and toxin-induced mortality, after accounting for the cost of the invader's own toxin production. If both semitrivial equilibria for the two-species system are invasible then there is at least one coexistence equilibrium. Numerical analyses indicate another possibility: bistability in which both semitrivial equilibria are stable against invasion. In such a case there is competitive exclusion of one species, whose identity depends on initial conditions. When there is a tradeoff between abilities to compete for the nutrient and to compete through toxicity, the more toxic species can dominate only under nutrient-rich conditions. Bistability under such conditions could contribute to the unpredictability of toxic algal blooms.

  19. Parallel Exploitation of Diverse Host Nutrients Enhances Salmonella Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Steeb, Benjamin; Claudi, Beatrice; Burton, Neil A.; Tienz, Petra; Schmidt, Alexander; Farhan, Hesso; Mazé, Alain; Bumann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Pathogen access to host nutrients in infected tissues is fundamental for pathogen growth and virulence, disease progression, and infection control. However, our understanding of this crucial process is still rather limited because of experimental and conceptual challenges. Here, we used proteomics, microbial genetics, competitive infections, and computational approaches to obtain a comprehensive overview of Salmonella nutrition and growth in a mouse typhoid fever model. The data revealed that Salmonella accessed an unexpectedly diverse set of at least 31 different host nutrients in infected tissues but the individual nutrients were available in only scarce amounts. Salmonella adapted to this situation by expressing versatile catabolic pathways to simultaneously exploit multiple host nutrients. A genome-scale computational model of Salmonella in vivo metabolism based on these data was fully consistent with independent large-scale experimental data on Salmonella enzyme quantities, and correctly predicted 92% of 738 reported experimental mutant virulence phenotypes, suggesting that our analysis provided a comprehensive overview of host nutrient supply, Salmonella metabolism, and Salmonella growth during infection. Comparison of metabolic networks of other pathogens suggested that complex host/pathogen nutritional interfaces are a common feature underlying many infectious diseases. PMID:23633950

  20. Future productivity and carbon storage limited by terrestrial nutrient availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieder, William R.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Smith, W. Kolby; Todd-Brown, Katherine

    2015-06-01

    The size of the terrestrial sink remains uncertain. This uncertainty presents a challenge for projecting future climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. Terrestrial carbon storage is dependent on the availability of nitrogen for plant growth, and nitrogen limitation is increasingly included in global models. Widespread phosphorus limitation in terrestrial ecosystems may also strongly regulate the global carbon cycle, but explicit considerations of phosphorus limitation in global models are uncommon. Here we use global state-of-the-art coupled carbon-climate model projections of terrestrial net primary productivity and carbon storage from 1860-2100 estimates of annual new nutrient inputs from deposition, nitrogen fixation, and weathering; and estimates of carbon allocation and stoichiometry to evaluate how simulated CO2 fertilization effects could be constrained by nutrient availability. We find that the nutrients required for the projected increases in net primary productivity greatly exceed estimated nutrient supply rates, suggesting that projected productivity increases may be unrealistically high. Accounting for nitrogen and nitrogen-phosphorus limitation lowers projected end-of-century estimates of net primary productivity by 19% and 25%, respectively, and turns the land surface into a net source of CO2 by 2100. We conclude that potential effects of nutrient limitation must be considered in estimates of the terrestrial carbon sink strength through the twenty-first century.

  1. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David J.; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6–12 (n = 1203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in comprehension. Results suggest that there is considerable growth across the middle and high school years, particularly for adequate comprehenders in those text integration processes that maintain local coherence. Accuracy in text consistency judgments accounted for significant unique variance for passage-level, but not sentence-level comprehension, particularly for adequate comprehenders. PMID:26166946

  2. Using Multitheory Model of Health Behavior Change to Predict Adequate Sleep Behavior.

    PubMed

    Knowlden, Adam P; Sharma, Manoj; Nahar, Vinayak K

    The purpose of this article was to use the multitheory model of health behavior change in predicting adequate sleep behavior in college students. A valid and reliable survey was administered in a cross-sectional design (n = 151). For initiation of adequate sleep behavior, the construct of behavioral confidence (P < .001) was found to be significant and accounted for 24.4% of the variance. For sustenance of adequate sleep behavior, changes in social environment (P < .02), emotional transformation (P < .001), and practice for change (P < .001) were significant and accounted for 34.2% of the variance.

  3. Nutrient Partitioning and Stoichiometry in Unburnt Sugarcane Ratoon at Varying Yield Levels

    PubMed Central

    Leite, José M.; Ciampitti, Ignacio A.; Mariano, Eduardo; Vieira-Megda, Michele X.; Trivelin, Paulo C. O.

    2016-01-01

    Unraveling nutrient imbalances in contemporary agriculture is a research priority to improve whenever possible yield and nutrient use efficiency in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) systems while minimizing the costs of cultivation (e.g., use of fertilizers) and environmental concerns. The main goal of this study was therefore to investigate biomass and nutrient [nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K)] content, partitioning, stoichiometry and internal efficiencies in sugarcane ratoon at varying yield levels. Three sites were established on highly weathered tropical soils located in the Southeast region of Brazil. At all sites, seasonal biomass and nutrient uptake patterns were synthesized from four sampling times taken throughout the sugarcane ratoon season. In-season nutrient partitioning (in diverse plant components), internal efficiencies (yield to nutrient content ratio) and nutrient ratios (N:P and N:K) were determined at harvesting. Sugarcane exhibited three distinct phases of plant growth, as follows: lag, exponential–linear, and stationary. Across sites, nutrient requirement per unit of yield was 1.4 kg N, 0.24 kg P, and 2.7 kg K per Mg of stalk produced, but nutrient removal varied with soil nutrient status (based on soil plus fertilizer nutrient supply) and crop demand (potential yield). Dry leaves had lower nutrient content (N, P, and K) and broader N:P and N:K ratios when compared with tops and stalks plant fractions. Greater sugarcane yield and narrowed N:P ratio (6:1) were verified for tops of sugarcane when increasing both N and P content. High-yielding sugarcane systems were related to higher nutrient content and more balanced N:P (6:1) and N:K (0.5:1) ratios. PMID:27148297

  4. Assessing nutrient limitation in complex forested ecosystems: alternatives to large-scale fertilization experiments.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Benjamin W; Alvarez-Clare, Silvia; Castle, Sarah C; Porder, Stephen; Reed, Sasha C; Schreeg, Laura; Townsend, Alan R; Cleveland, Cory C

    2014-03-01

    Quantifying nutrient limitation of primary productivity is a fundamental task of terrestrial ecosystem ecology, but in a high carbon dioxide environment it is even more critical that we understand potential nutrient constraints on plant growth. Ecologists often manipulate nutrients with fertilizer to assess nutrient limitation, yet for a variety of reasons, nutrient fertilization experiments are either impractical or incapable of resolving ecosystem responses to some global changes. The challenges of conducting large, in situ fertilization experiments are magnified in forests, especially the high-diversity forests common throughout the lowland tropics. A number of methods, including fertilization experiments, could be seen as tools in a toolbox that ecologists may use to attempt to assess nutrient limitation, but there has been no compilation or synthetic discussion of those methods in the literature. Here, we group these methods into one of three categories (indicators of soil nutrient supply, organismal indicators of nutrient limitation, and lab-based experiments and nutrient depletions), and discuss some of the strengths and limitations of each. Next, using a case study, we compare nutrient limitation assessed using these methods to results obtained using large-scale fertilizations across the Hawaiian Archipelago. We then explore the application of these methods in high-diversity tropical forests. In the end, we suggest that, although no single method is likely to predict nutrient limitation in all ecosystems and at all scales, by simultaneously utilizing a number of the methods we describe, investigators may begin to understand nutrient limitation in complex and diverse ecosystems such as tropical forests. In combination, these methods represent our best hope for understanding nutrient constraints on the global carbon cycle, especially in tropical forest ecosystems.

  5. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  7. Meals served in Danish nursing homes and to Meals-on-Wheels clients may not offer nutritionally adequate choices.

    PubMed

    Beck, Anne Marie; Hansen, Kirsten S

    2010-01-01

    Underweight is a significant problem among older Danish nursing home residents and home-care clients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional composition of the meals prepared for older adults in nursing homes and receiving Meals-on-Wheels deliveries, focusing on the menus most commonly served, including the standard menu (most commonly prepared), the energy and protein dense menu, and two types of texture modified menus (chopped and blended). Also, one portion of a homemade energy and protein dense drink was collected and analyzed. For each of the participating kitchens (N = 10), extra portions of different menus were made (3 days in a row). The meal samples (total n = 389) were analyzed for content of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate. The findings were compared with recommendations regarding the foods to be served in Danish institutions. The nutrient content of the meals-on-wheels and nursing home meals, as well as that of the homemade energy and protein dense drink, varied considerably. The nursing home menus seldom or never fulfilled the recommendations. Our findings support the conclusion that meals served in Danish nursing homes and to meals-on-wheels clients do not consistently offer adequate nutritional intakes.

  8. Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

  9. Nutrient biofortification of food crops.

    PubMed

    Hirschi, Kendal D

    2009-01-01

    Plant-based foods offer an array of nutrients that are essential for human nutrition and promote good health. However, the major staple crops of the world are often deficient in some of these nutrients. Traditional agricultural approaches can marginally enhance the nutritional value of some foods, but the advances in molecular biology are rapidly being exploited to engineer crops with enhanced key nutrients. Nutritional targets include elevated mineral content, improved fatty acid composition, increased amino acid levels, and heightened antioxidant levels. Unfortunately, in many cases the benefits of these "biofortified" crops to human nutrition have not been demonstrated.

  10. Perioperative supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Feistritzer, N R; Keck, B R

    2000-09-01

    Faced with declining revenues and increasing operating expenses, hospitals are evaluating numerous mechanisms designed to reduce costs while simultaneously maintaining quality care. Many facilities have targeted initial cost reduction efforts in the reduction of labor expenses. Once labor expenses have been "right sized," facilities have continued to focus on service delivery improvements by the optimization of the "supply chain" process. This report presents a case study of the efforts of Vanderbilt University Medical Center in the redesign of its supply chain management process in the department of Perioperative Services. Utilizing a multidisciplinary project management structure, 3 work teams were established to complete the redesign process. To date, the project has reduced costs by $2.3 million and enhanced quality patient care by enhancing the delivery of appropriate clinical supplies during the perioperative experience.

  11. Region 8: Colorado Lamar and Steamboat Springs Adequate Letter (11/12/2002)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Lamar and Steamboat Springs particulate matter (PM10) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes

  12. 75 FR 5893 - Suspension of Community Eligibility for Failure To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management Regulations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency... floodplain management regulations meeting minimum requirements under the National Flood Insurance Program... they have brought their floodplain management regulations into compliance with the NFIP...

  13. Region 9: California Adequate / Inadequate Letter Attachment (5/30/2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a document that states that it has been found adequate for transportation conformitypurposes certain 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 motor vehicleemissions budgets in the 2007 South Coast StateImplementation Plan.

  14. Coal supply for California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yancik, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The potential sources and qualities of coals available for major utility and industrial consumers in California are examined and analyzed with respect to those factors that would affect the reliability of supplies. Other considerations, such as the requirements and assurances needed by the coal producers to enter into long-term contracts and dedicate large reserves of coal to these contracts are also discussed. Present and potential future mining contraints on coal mine operators are identified and analyzed with respect to their effect on availability of supply.

  15. It's time to make changes: modulation of root system architecture by nutrient signals.

    PubMed

    Giehl, Ricardo F H; Gruber, Benjamin D; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2014-03-01

    Root growth and development are of outstanding importance for the plant's ability to acquire water and nutrients from different soil horizons. To cope with fluctuating nutrient availabilities, plants integrate systemic signals pertaining to their nutritional status into developmental pathways that regulate the spatial arrangement of roots. Changes in the plant nutritional status and external nutrient supply modulate root system architecture (RSA) over time and determine the degree of root plasticity which is based on variations in the number, extension, placement, and growth direction of individual components of the root system. Roots also sense the local availability of some nutrients, thereby leading to nutrient-specific modifications in RSA, that result from the integration of systemic and local signals into the root developmental programme at specific steps. An in silico analysis of nutrient-responsive genes involved in root development showed that the majority of these specifically responded to the deficiency of individual nutrients while a minority responded to more than one nutrient deficiency. Such an analysis provides an interesting starting point for the identification of the molecular players underlying the sensing and transduction of the nutrient signals that mediate changes in the development and architecture of root systems.

  16. Materials flow modeling of nutrient recycling in biodiesel production from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Rösch, Christine; Skarka, Johannes; Wegerer, Nadja

    2012-03-01

    Biodiesel production based on microalgae as feedstock is associated with a high demand of nutrients, respectively nitrogen and phosphorus. The production of 1l biodiesel requires between 0.23 and 1.55 kg nitrogen and 29-145 g of phosphorus depending of the cultivation conditions for microalgae. The supply of nutrients can be expected to severely limit the extent to which the production of biofuels from microalgae can be sustainably expanded. The nutrient demand can be reduced if the nutrients in the residual algae biomass after oil extraction are reused for algae cultivation. This modeling work illustrates that for the investigated process chains and scenarios the nutrient recycling rates are in the range from 30% to 90% for nitrogen and from 48% to 93% for phosphorus. The highest recycling values can be achieved by hydrothermal gasification of the oil-free residues.

  17. Individual and contextual determinants of adequate maternal health care services in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Achia, Thomas N O; Mageto, Lillian E

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine individual and community level factors associated with adequate use of maternal antenatal health services in Kenya. Individual and community level factors associated with adequate use of maternal health care (MHC) services were obtained from the 2008-09 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey data set. Multilevel partial-proportional odds logit models were fitted using STATA 13.0 to quantify the relations of the selected covariates to adequate MHC use, defined as a three-category ordinal variable. The sample consisted of 3,621 women who had at least one live birth in the five-year period preceding this survey. Only 18 percent of the women had adequate use of MHC services. Greater educational attainment by the woman or her partner, higher socioeconomic status, access to medical insurance coverage, and greater media exposure were the individual-level factors associated with adequate use of MHC services. Greater community ethnic diversity, higher community-level socioeconomic status, and greater community-level health facility deliveries were the contextual-level factors associated with adequate use of MHC. To improve the use of MHC services in Kenya, the government needs to design and implement programs that target underlying individual and community level factors, providing focused and sustained health education to promote the use of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care.

  18. Nutrient adequacy and its correlation in a sub-Himalayan region of West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacherjee, Sharmistha; Datta, Saikat; Ray, Kuntala; Mukhopadhyay, Dipta Kanti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nutrient adequacy is the level of intake of an essential nutrient in relation to the nutrient requirement for adequate health, which is expressed as the percentage of recommended dietary allowance. To develop an effective nationwide preventive program to combat malnutrition, it is necessary not only to assess the nature and magnitude of the problem of nutrient inadequacy but to identify factors affecting it especially at the household level. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of nutrient adequacy in a sample of households in a rural area of Darjeeling district and to find out the factors associated with nutrient adequacy. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out from January 2014 to December 2014 in 821 households of Darjeeling district, India. The major dependent variable used in this study was the mean nutrient adequacy ratio of a household and the independent variables were number of family members, number of under-five children in the family, literacy of head of the family, literacy of the wife of the head of the family, income of the family, and percentage expenditure on food. Results: The prevalence of nutrient adequate households was found to be 35.3% among the study households. It was observed that the percentage expenditure on food had the highest contribution toward nutrient adequacy, followed by number of under-five children in the family and literacy of the wife of the head of the family. Undernutrition was found to be prevalent in 56.6% of the households. Conclusion: Majority of the study population had a diet less than the required amount and expectedly, undernutrition was also present in huge proportions. PMID:27843834

  19. Nutrient status: a missing factor in phenological and pollen research?

    PubMed Central

    Jochner, Susanne; Höfler, Josef; Beck, Isabelle; Göttlein, Axel; Ankerst, Donna Pauler; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Menzel, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Phenology ranks among the best ecosystem processes for fingerprinting climate change since temperature explains a high percentage of the interannual or spatial variation in phenological onset dates. However, roles of other environmental variables, such as foliar nutrient concentrations, are far from adequately understood. This observational study examined the effects of air temperature and 11 nutrients on spring phenology of Betula pendula Roth (birch) along an urban–rural gradient in Munich, Germany, during the years 2010/2011. Moreover, the influence of temperature, nutrients, and air pollutants (NO2 and O3) on the amounts of pollen and catkin biomass in 2010 was evaluated. In addition to the influence of higher temperatures advancing phenological onset dates, higher foliar concentrations of potassium, boron, zinc, and calcium were statistically significantly linked to earlier onset dates. Since flushing of leaves is a turgor-driven process and all the influential nutrients are involved in cell extension, membrane function, and stability, there might be a reasonable physiological interpretation of the observed association. The amounts of pollen were negatively correlated with temperature, atmospheric NO2, and foliar iron concentration, suggesting that these variables restrict pollen production. The results of this study suggested an influence of nutritional status on both phenology and pollen production. The interaction of urbanization and climate change should be considered in the assessment of the impact of global warming on ecosystems and human health. PMID:23630329

  20. Examination of relation between nutrient components and fruits: biplot approach.

    PubMed

    Atakan, Cemal; Alkan, Baris; Sahin, Afsin

    2009-01-01

    Adequate intake of fruits and vegetables as part of the daily diet may help prevent major diseases. Low fruit intake is a major risk factor for cancer, coronary heart disease and stroke. The World Health Organization recommends eating at least five portions of a variety of fruit, which is nearly 400 g/day. Essential nutrients, water, carbohydrates, oils and vitamins are needed in appropriate quantities in order to have a well-functioning body. In this study we try to carry out a food composition study to identify and determine the chemical nature of the organic and inorganic macro-nutrient and micro-nutrient properties of the main fruit types that affect human nature, by a biplot graphical approach. The biplot can be considered as multivariate equivalents of scatter plots that have been used for graphically analyzing bivariate data. Biplot approaches show a simultaneous display of fruits and nutrient components in low dimensions. In the present study, the theory of biplot and different types of biplot will be given and than an application of the biplot approach will be applied to the real data.

  1. Nutrient enrichment and fish nutrient tolerance: Assessing biologically relevant nutrient criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between nutrient concentrations and fish nutrient tolerance were assessed relative to established nutrient criteria. Fish community, nitrate plus nitrite (nitrate), and total phosphorus (TP) data were collected during summer low-flow periods in 2003 and 2004 at stream sites along a nutrient-enrichment gradient in an agricultural basin in Indiana and Ohio and an urban basin in the Atlanta, Georgia, area. Tolerance indicator values for nitrate and TP were assigned for each species and averaged separately for fish communities at each site (TIVo). Models were used to predict fish species expected to occur at a site under minimally disturbed conditions and average tolerance indicator values were determined for nitrate and TP separately for expected communities (TIVe). In both areas, tolerance scores (TIVo/TIVe) for nitrate increased significantly with increased nitrate concentrations whereas no significant relationships were detected between TP tolerance scores and TP concentrations. A 0% increase in the tolerance score (TIVo/TIVe = 1) for nitrate corresponded to a nitrate concentration of 0.19 mg/l (compared with a USEPA summer nitrate criterion of 0.17 mg/l) in the urban area and 0.31 mg/l (compared with a USEPA summer nitrate criterion of 0.86 mg/l) in the agricultural area. Fish nutrient tolerance values offer the ability to evaluate nutrient enrichment based on a quantitative approach that can provide insights into biologically relevant nutrient criteria.

  2. Nutrient budgets in the subtropical ocean gyres dominated by lateral transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letscher, Robert T.; Primeau, François; Moore, J. Keith

    2016-11-01

    Ocean circulation replenishes surface nutrients depleted by biological production and export. Vertical processes are thought to dominate, but estimated vertical nutrient fluxes are insufficient to explain observed net productivity in the subtropical ocean gyres. Lateral inputs help balance the North Atlantic nutrient budget, but their importance for other gyres has not been demonstrated. Here we use an ocean model that couples circulation and ecosystem dynamics to show that lateral transport and biological uptake of inorganic and organic forms of nitrogen and phosphorus from the gyre margins exceeds the vertical delivery of nutrients, supplying 24-36% of the nitrogen and 44-67% of the phosphorus required to close gyre nutrient budgets. At the Bermuda and Hawaii time-series sites, nearly half of the annual lateral supply by lateral transport occurs during the summer-to-fall stratified period, helping explain seasonal patterns of inorganic carbon drawdown and nitrogen fixation. Our study confirms the importance of upper-ocean lateral nutrient transport for understanding the biological cycles of carbon and nutrients in the ocean's largest biome.

  3. Nutrient dynamics throughout the rotation of Eucalyptus clonal stands in Congo.

    PubMed

    Laclau, Jean-Paul; Deleporte, Philippe; Ranger, Jacques; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Kazotti, Guy

    2003-06-01

    The dynamics of the main nutrient fluxes of the biological cycle were quantified in a clonal Eucalyptus plantation throughout the whole planted crop rotation: current annual requirements of nutrients, uptake from the soil, internal translocations within trees, return to soil (litterfall and crown leaching) and decomposition in the forest floor. As reported for other species, two growth periods were identified in these short-rotation plantations: (1) a juvenile phase up to canopy closure, during which the uptake of nutrients from the soil reserves supplied most of the current requirements; and (2) a second phase up to harvest, characterized by intense nutrient recycling processes. Internal translocation within trees supplied about 30 % of the annual requirements of N and P from 2 years of age onwards, and about 50 % of the K requirement. The mineralization of large amounts of organic matter returned to the soil with litterfall during stand development represented a key process providing nutrients to the stand at the end of the rotation. The importance of the recycling processes was clearly shown by the small amounts of nutrients permanently immobilized in the ligneous components of trees, compared with the total requirements accumulated over the stand rotation which were two to four times higher. Small pools of nutrients circulating quickly in the ecosystem made it possible to produce high amounts of biomass in poor soils. The sustainability of these plantations will require fertilizer inputs that match the changes in soil fertility over successive rotations, mainly linked to the dynamics of organic matter in this tropical soil.

  4. Animal pee in the sea: consumer-mediated nutrient dynamics in the world's changing oceans.

    PubMed

    Allgeier, Jacob E; Burkepile, Deron E; Layman, Craig A

    2017-02-20

    Humans have drastically altered the abundance of animals in marine ecosystems via exploitation. Reduced abundance can destabilize food webs, leading to cascading indirect effects that dramatically reorganize community structure and shift ecosystem function. However, the additional implications of these top-down changes for biogeochemical cycles via consumer-mediated nutrient dynamics (CND) are often overlooked in marine systems, particularly in coastal areas. Here, we review research that underscores the importance of this bottom-up control at local, regional, and global scales in coastal marine ecosystems, and the potential implications of anthropogenic change to fundamentally alter these processes. We focus attention on the two primary ways consumers affect nutrient dynamics, with emphasis on implications for the nutrient capacity of ecosystems: (1) the storage and retention of nutrients in biomass, and (2) the supply of nutrients via excretion and egestion. Nutrient storage in consumer biomass may be especially important in many marine ecosystems because consumers, as opposed to producers, often dominate organismal biomass. As for nutrient supply, we emphasize how consumers enhance primary production through both press and pulse dynamics. Looking forward, we explore the importance of CDN for improving theory (e.g., ecological stoichiometry, metabolic theory, and biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships), all in the context of global environmental change. Increasing research focus on CND will likely transform our perspectives on how consumers affect the functioning of marine ecosystems.

  5. Medical Hydrogeology of Asian Deltas: Status of Groundwater Toxicants and Nutrients, and Implications for Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Hoque, Mohammad A.; Butler, Adrian P.

    2015-01-01

    Drinking water, a fluid primarily for human hydration, is also a source of mineral nutrients. Groundwater, a drinking water source for more than 70% of inhabitants living in Asian deltas, has received much attention because of its naturally occurring arsenic, but the linkage of arsenic toxicity with other water constituents has not been studied. In addition, although nutrients are generally provided by food, in under developed rural settings, where people subsist on low nutrient diets, drinking-water-nutrients may supply quantities vital to human health thereby preventing diseases. Here, we show, using augmented datasets from three Asian deltas (Bengal, Mekong, and Red River), that the chemical content of groundwater is such that in some areas individuals obtain up to 50% or more of the recommended daily intake (RDI) of some nutrients (e.g., calcium, magnesium, iron) from just two litres of drinking water. We also show some indications of a spatial association of groundwater nutrients and health outcome using demographic health data from Bangladesh. We therefore suggest that an understanding of the association of non-communicable disease and poor nutrition cannot be developed, particularly in areas with high levels of dissolved solids in water sources, without considering the contribution of drinking water to nutrient and mineral supply. PMID:26712780

  6. Medical Hydrogeology of Asian Deltas: Status of Groundwater Toxicants and Nutrients, and Implications for Human Health.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Mohammad A; Butler, Adrian P

    2015-12-26

    Drinking water, a fluid primarily for human hydration, is also a source of mineral nutrients. Groundwater, a drinking water source for more than 70% of inhabitants living in Asian deltas, has received much attention because of its naturally occurring arsenic, but the linkage of arsenic toxicity with other water constituents has not been studied. In addition, although nutrients are generally provided by food, in under developed rural settings, where people subsist on low nutrient diets, drinking-water-nutrients may supply quantities critical to human health thereby preventing diseases. Here, we show, using augmented datasets from three Asian deltas (Bengal, Mekong, and Red River), that the chemical content of groundwater is so substantial that in some areas individuals obtain up to 50% or more of the recommended daily intake (RDI) of some nutrients (e.g., calcium, magnesium, iron) from just two litres of drinking water. We also show some indications of a spatial association of groundwater nutrients and health outcome using demographic health data from Bangladesh. We therefore suggest that an understanding of the association of non-communicable disease and poor nutrition cannot be developed, particularly in areas with high levels of dissolved solids in water sources, without considering the contribution of drinking water to nutrient and mineral supply.

  7. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  8. A critical test of the two prevailing theories of plant response to nutrient availability.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Gerardo; Zhu, Jinming; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2003-01-01

    Whereas the "law of the minimum" (LM) states that plant growth is limited by a single resource at any one time, the "multiple limitation hypothesis" (MLH) proposes that optimum plant behavior results from balancing resource costs and benefits so that all resources limit plant growth simultaneously. We tested the hypothesis that neither the LM nor the MLH account for plant responses to all mineral nutrients. Fronds of the aquatic plant Lemna minor were grown in nutrient solutions with increasing levels of four nutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium. Neither LM or MLH adequately predicted plant responses to all of these nutrients: 23 of the 60 responses analyzed were classified as belonging to the LM; 20 cases were classified as undefined; and 17 cases as MLH. The type of response strongly depended on the specific pair of nutrients considered. The validity of the MLH model would depend on the accompanying resource limiting plant growth and on the severity of the stress. We propose that a "nutrient-specific" analysis, considering the biology of each mineral nutrient rather than grouping plant resources as a whole, is more appropriate than general models in understanding plant responses to nutrient availability.

  9. Impact of climate change on crop nutrient and water use efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Brouder, Sylvie M; Volenec, Jeffrey J

    2008-08-01

    Implicit in discussions of plant nutrition and climate change is the assumption that we know what to do relative to nutrient management here and now but that these strategies might not apply in a changed climate. We review existing knowledge on interactive influences of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, temperature and soil moisture on plant growth, development and yield as well as on plant water use efficiency (WUE) and physiological and uptake efficiencies of soil-immobile nutrients. Elevated atmospheric CO(2) will increase leaf and canopy photosynthesis, especially in C3 plants, with minor changes in dark respiration. Additional CO(2) will increase biomass without marked alteration in dry matter partitioning, reduce transpiration of most plants and improve WUE. However, spatiotemporal variation in these attributes will impact agronomic performance and crop water use in a site-specific manner. Nutrient acquisition is closely associated with overall biomass and strongly influenced by root surface area. When climate change alters soil factors to restrict root growth, nutrient stress will occur. Plant size may also change but nutrient concentration will remain relatively unchanged; therefore, nutrient removal will scale with growth. Changes in regional nutrient requirements will be most remarkable where we alter cropping systems to accommodate shifts in ecozones or alter farming systems to capture new uses from existing systems. For regions and systems where we currently do an adequate job managing nutrients, we stand a good chance of continued optimization under a changed climate. If we can and should do better, climate change will not help us.

  10. Lightweight Regulated Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Power-supply circuit regulates output voltage by adjusting frequency of chopper circuit according to variations. Currently installed in battery charger for electric wheelchair, circuit is well suited to other uses in which light weight is important - for example, in portable computers, radios, and test instruments.

  11. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  12. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  13. Supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Palevich, R F

    1999-02-01

    This article describes how Do It Best Corp. has used technology to improve its supply chain management. Among other topics it discusses the company's use of electronic data interchange, the Internet, electronic forecasting, and warehouse management systems to gain substantial savings and increase its competitiveness.

  14. Maintenance and supply options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The object of the Maintenance and Supply Option was to develop a high level operational philosophy related to maintenance and supply operations and incorporate these concepts into the Lunar Base Study. Specific products to be generated during this task were three trade studies and a conceptual design of the Logistic Supply Module. The crew size study was performed to evaluate crew sizes from the baseline size of four to a crew size of eight and determine the preferred crew size. The second trade study was to determine the impact of extending surface stay times and recommend a preferred duration of stay time as a function of crew, consumables, and equipment support capabilities. The third trade study was an evaluation of packaging and storage methods to determine the preferred logistics approach to support the lunar base. A modified scenario was developed and served as the basis of the individual trade studies. Assumptions and guidelines were also developed from experience with Apollo programs, Space Shuttle operations, and Space Station studies. With this information, the trade studies were performed and a conceptual design for the Logistic Supply Module was developed.

  15. Baby supplies you need

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newborn care - baby supplies References Carlo WA. The newborn infant. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW, ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Infant and Newborn Care Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...

  16. Supply chain quality.

    PubMed

    Feary, Simon

    2009-01-01

    As the development of complex manufacturing models and virtual companies become more prevalent in today's growing global markets, it is increasingly important to support the relationships between manufacturer and supplier. Utilising these relationships will ensure that supply chains operate more effectively and reduce costs, risks and time-to-market time frames, whilst maintaining product quality.

  17. Responses to mineral nutrient availability and heterogeneity in physiologically integrated sedges from contrasting habitats.

    PubMed

    D'Hertefeldt, T; Falkengren-Grerup, U; Jónsdóttir, I S

    2011-05-01

    Clonal plants from poor habitats benefit less from morphologically plastic responses to heterogeneity than plants from more productive sites. In addition, physiological integration has been suggested to either increase or decrease the foraging efficiency of clonal plants. We tested the capacity for biomass production and morphological response in two closely related, rhizomatous species from habitats that differ in resource availability, Carex arenaria (from poor sand dunes) and C. disticha (from nutrient-richer, moister habitats). We expected lower total biomass production and reduced morphological plasticity in C. arenaria, and that both species would produce more ramets in high nutrient patches, either in response to signals transported through physiological integration, or by locally determined responses to nutrient availability. To investigate mineral nutrient heterogeneity, plants were grown in boxes divided into two compartments with homogeneous or heterogeneous supply of high (H) or low (L) nutrient levels, resulting in four treatments, H-H, H-L, L-H and L-L. Both C. arenaria and C. disticha produced similar biomass in high nutrient treatments. C. disticha responded to high nutrients by increased biomass production and branching of the young parts and by altering root:shoot ratio and rhizome lengths, while C. arenaria showed localised responses to high nutrients in terms of local biomass and branch production in high nutrient patches. The results demonstrated that although it has a conservative morphology, C. arenaria responded to nutrient heterogeneity through morphological plasticity. An analysis of costs and benefits of integration on biomass production showed that young ramets of both species benefited significantly from physiological integration, but no corresponding costs were found. This suggests that plants from resource-poor but dynamic habitats like sand dunes respond morphologically to high nutrient patches. The two species responded to nutrient

  18. Geomorphic controls on availability of weathering-derived nutrients across an erosional gradient in the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, A.; Torres, M. A.; Kleinsasser, E.; Clark, K.; Asner, G. P.; Malhi, Y.; Quesada, C.

    2013-12-01

    Rock-derived nutrients are thought to play important roles in determining ecosystem productivity and function, particularly in tropical forests. Variation in the availability of key nutrients such as P and Ca has been attributed to changes in the supply from chemical weathering of bedrock minerals, with a general conceptual model that younger soils with higher weathering rates are capable of supplying more nutrients compared to older soils with lower weathering rates (e.g. Vitousek et al., 2003). In this study we present data from an elevational gradient in the eastern Andes of Peru, illustrating how the relationship between weathering and nutrient availability is manifest in an active erosional system. Our data suggest that weathering, driven by erosional supply of primary minerals, is important in supplying nutrients. However, there is complexity in this relationship that may be associated with the geomorphic controls on weathering geochemistry and hydrochemistry, including weathering that takes place at greater depths when erosion rates are higher (e.g. West, 2012). We compare measured weathering rates with nutrient status of soils and vegetation across a transect from high elevations in the Andes to low elevations in the foreland floodplain. Weathering rates determined from the dissolved chemistry of river samples are highest at high elevation sites in the Andes. Mineral weathering rates are significant in the floodplain, which we attribute to chemical reworking of material eroded from the Andes, but rates of mineral weathering are not as high in the floodplain as in the montane sites. Although Ca supply is highest in the mountains, the foliar Ca and Ca available in soils is lower than in the floodplain. We will explore hydrochemical reasons for this difference, which may be due to where Ca release takes place relative to the vegetation root zone. We will also explore the supply of P from weathering in relation to observed nutrient availability, based on

  19. Managing Water supply in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, P. P.

    2001-05-01

    If the estimates are correct that, in the large urban areas of the developing world 30 percent of the population lack access to safe water supply and 50 percent lack access to adequate sanitation, then we are currently faced with 510 million urban residents without access to domestic water and 850 million without access to sanitation. Looking to the year 2020, we will face an additional 1,900 million in need of water and sanitation services. The provision of water services to these billions of people over the next two decades is one of the greatest challenges facing the nations of the world. In addition to future supplies, major problems exist with the management of existing systems where water losses can account for a significant fraction of the water supplied. The entire governance of the water sector and the management of particular systems raise serious questions about the application of the best technologies and the appropriate economic incentive systems. The paper outlines a few feasible technical and economic solutions.

  20. Interactions between pH and nutrients on benthic algae in streams and consequences for ecological status assessment and species richness patterns.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Susanne C; Kahlert, Maria; Kelly, Martyn G

    2013-02-01

    Eutrophication and acidification are among the major stressors on freshwater ecosystems in northern Europe and North America, but possible consequences of interactions between pH and nutrients on ecological status assessment and species richness patterns have not previously been assessed. Using data from 52 river sites throughout Norway, we investigated the combined effects of pH and nutrients on benthic algae assemblages, specifically 1) taxa-specific couplings between nutrient and acidity traits, 2) the degree of consistency between different biotic indices, separately for nutrients and acid conditions, 3) the impact of pH on nutrient indices and phosphorus on indices of acid conditions, and 4) the impact of pH and phosphorus supply on diatom and non-diatom taxon richness. We found that 1) acid-tolerant taxa are generally associated with nutrient-poor conditions, with only a few exceptions; this is probably more a consequence of habitat availability than reflecting true ecological niches; 2) correlation coefficients between nutrient indices and TP, as well as acid conditions indices and pH were barely affected when the confounding factor was removed; 3) the association of acid-tolerant taxa with nutrient-poor conditions means that the lowest possible nutrient index at a site, as indicated by benthic algae, is lower at acid than at circumneutral sites. Although this may be an artifact of the datasets from which taxa-specific indicator values were derived, it could lead to a drift in nutrient indices with recovery from acidification; 4) the response of non-diatom taxon richness follows a complex pattern with a synergistic interaction between nutrient supply and pH. In contrast, diatom richness follows a simple additive pattern; this suggests structural differences between diatoms and non-diatom benthic algae in their response to nutrient supply and pH; diatom taxon richness tended to increase with nutrient supply, while non-diatom richness decreased.

  1. The feasibility of producing adequate feedstock for year–round cellulosic ethanol production in an intensive agricultural fuelshed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uden, Daniel R.; Mitchell, Rob B.; Allen, Craig R.; Guan, Qingfeng; McCoy, Tim D.

    2013-01-01

    To date, cellulosic ethanol production has not been commercialized in the United States. However, government mandates aimed at increasing second-generation biofuel production could spur exploratory development in the cellulosic ethanol industry. We conducted an in-depth analysis of the fuelshed surrounding a starch-based ethanol plant near York, Nebraska that has the potential for cellulosic ethanol production. To assess the feasibility of supplying adequate biomass for year-round cellulosic ethanol production from residual maize (Zea mays) stover and bioenergy switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) within a 40-km road network service area of the existing ethanol plant, we identified ∼14,000 ha of marginally productive cropland within the service area suitable for conversion from annual rowcrops to switchgrass and ∼132,000 ha of maize-enrolled cropland from which maize stover could be collected. Annual maize stover and switchgrass biomass supplies within the 40-km service area could range between 429,000 and 752,000 metric tons (mT). Approximately 140–250 million liters (l) of cellulosic ethanol could be produced, rivaling the current 208 million l annual starch-based ethanol production capacity of the plant. We conclude that sufficient quantities of biomass could be produced from maize stover and switchgrass near the plant to support year-round cellulosic ethanol production at current feedstock yields, sustainable removal rates and bioconversion efficiencies. Modifying existing starch-based ethanol plants in intensive agricultural fuelsheds could increase ethanol output, return marginally productive cropland to perennial vegetation, and remove maize stover from productive cropland to meet feedstock demand.

  2. Cation Uptake and Allocation by Red Pine Seedlings under Cation-Nutrient Stress in a Column Growth Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhenqing; Balogh-Brunstad, Zsuzsanna; Grant, Michael R.; Harsh, James B.; Gill, Richard; Thomashow, Linda; Dohnalkova, Alice; Stacks, Daryl; Letourneau, Melissa; Keller, Chester K.

    2014-01-10

    Background and Aims Plant nutrient uptake is affected by environmental stress, but how plants respond to cation-nutrient stress is poorly understood. We assessed the impact of varying degrees of cation-nutrient limitation on cation uptake in an experimental plant-mineral system. Methods Column experiments, with red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) seedlings growing in sand/mineral mixtures, were conducted for up to nine months under a range of Ca- and K-limited conditions. The Ca and K were supplied from both minerals and nutrient solutions with varying Ca and K concentrations. Results Cation nutrient stress had little impact on carbon allocation after nine months of plant growth and K was the limiting nutrient for biomass production. The Ca/Sr and K/Rb ratio results allowed independent estimation of dissolution incongruency and discrimination against Sr and Rb during cation uptake processes. The fraction of K in biomass from biotite increased with decreasing K supply from nutrient solutions. The mineral anorthite was consistently the major source of Ca, regardless of nutrient treatment. Conclusions Red pine seedlings exploited more mineral K in response to more severe K deficiency. This did not occur for Ca. Plant discrimination factors must be carefully considered to accurately identify nutrient sources using cation tracers.

  3. The effects of phytase on growth performance and intestinal transit time of broilers fed nutritionally adequate diets and diets deficient in calcium and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Watson, B C; Matthews, J O; Southern, L L; Shelton, J L

    2006-03-01

    Five experiments (Exp.) were conducted to determine the effects of phytase on growth performance and intestinal transit time in chicks fed nutritionally adequate diets and diets deficient in Ca and nonphytate P (nPP). In Exp. 1 and 2, chicks were fed a nutritionally adequate diet from 0 to 6 d or from 0 to 4 d posthatching; assay periods were 8 or 10 d; average initial BW were 98 or 79 g; and average final BW were 371 or 369 g, respectively. Treatments were replicated with 12 pens of 5 chicks each. Corn-soybean meal (C-SBM) diets were adequate in all nutrients except Ca and nPP where appropriate. The treatments were 1) C-SBM, 1.0% Ca, and 0.45% nPP; 2) C-SBM, 0.80% Ca, and 0.25% nPP; 3) Diet 1 + 600 phytase units/kg of diet; 4) Diet 2 + 600 phytase units/kg of diet. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 were conducted to determine the effects of phytase on intestinal transit time in broilers. Broilers were fed the same nutritionally adequate diet from 0 to 18, 27, or 23 d posthatching, and the assay periods were 7 d. Treatments were replicated with 18 individually penned broilers. Average initial BW were 768, 1,108, or 838 g, and average final BW were 1,299, 1,704, or 1,392 g in Exp. 3 to 5, respectively. Transit time data were collected on d 1 and 7 of the Exp. Diets were 1) C-SBM, 0.9% Ca, and 0.35% nPP; 2) C-SBM, 0.80% Ca, and 0.25% nPP + 600 phytase units/kg of diet. Transit time was calculated as the difference between the time feed was first ingested and the time of first appearance of solid feces. In Exp. 1 and 2, the reduction in dietary Ca and nPP reduced (P < 0.01) average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain:feed. Phytase addition increased (P < 0.02) ADG and ADFI in diets deficient in Ca and nPP and in the nutritionally adequate diets. In Exp. 2, the reduction in Ca and nPP reduced (P < 0.01) toe and tibia ash percentage, but phytase addition increased (P < 0.01) toe and tibia ash percentage. The increase in toe ash percentage was greater in

  4. Bioengineering Aspects of Inorganic Carbon Supply to Mass Algal Cultures: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, J. C.

    1981-04-01

    Regardless of the application, the basic biotechnology of large-scale outdoor cultures involves many common features, particularly in the requirement for adequate nutrients such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus to ensure that light is the sole limiting yield determinant. Whereas the required quantities of nitrogen and phosphorus are fairly simple, to estimate, those for inorganic carbon are far more complex.

  5. Water reuse for irrigation in Jordan: plant beneficial nutrients, farmers' awareness and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Carr, G; Nortcliff, S; Potter, R B

    2011-01-01

    The reuse of treated wastewater (reclaimed water) is particularly well suited for irrigated agriculture as it often contains significant quantities of plant essential nutrients. This work has shown that reclaimed water in Jordan can have adequate concentrations of potassium, phosphate, sulphate and magnesium to meet all or part of the crop's requirements. To fully benefit from these inputs farmers must have an awareness of the water quality and reduce the application of inorganic fertilisers accordingly. Interviews with farmers have shown that 75 per cent of farmers indirectly using reclaimed water are aware of the nutrients. Farmers' decision making as to the application of inorganic fertilisers appears to be influenced by a range of factors which include the type of crops being cultivated, the provision of training on nutrient management and the availability of information on the nutrient content of the reclaimed water.

  6. Development of water quality standards criteria. [for consumables (spacecrew supplies)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Qualitative and semiquantitative analyses were made of volatile organic compounds in water supplies collected at various stages of processing in the space station prototype vacuum compression distillation unit to evaluate the process and the product water. Additional evaluation was made of specific ingredients required to adequately enhance the taste of the reclaimed water. A concept for the in-flight addition of these ingredients was developed. Revisions to previously recommended potable water criteria and specifications are included.

  7. High voltage power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruitberg, A. P.; Young, K. M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage power supply is formed by three discrete circuits energized by a battery to provide a plurality of concurrent output signals floating at a high output voltage on the order of several tens of kilovolts. In the first two circuits, the regulator stages are pulse width modulated and include adjustable ressistances for varying the duty cycles of pulse trains provided to corresponding oscillator stages while the third regulator stage includes an adjustable resistance for varying the amplitude of a steady signal provided to a third oscillator stage. In the first circuit, the oscillator, formed by a constant current drive network and a tuned resonant network included a step up transformer, is coupled to a second step up transformer which, in turn, supplies an amplified sinusoidal signal to a parallel pair of complementary poled rectifying, voltage multiplier stages to generate the high output voltage.

  8. Discontinuous Mode Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagadinos, John; Poulos, Ethel

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses the changes made to a standard push-pull inverter circuit to avoid saturation effects in the main inverter power supply. Typically, in a standard push-pull arrangement, the unsymmetrical primary excitation causes variations in the volt second integral of each half of the excitation cycle that could lead to the establishment of DC flux density in the magnetic core, which could eventually cause saturation of the main inverter transformer. The relocation of the filter reactor normally placed across the output of the power supply solves this problem. The filter reactor was placed in series with the primary circuit of the main inverter transformer, and is presented as impedance against the sudden changes on the input current. The reactor averaged the input current in the primary circuit, avoiding saturation of the main inverter transformer. Since the implementation of the described change, the above problem has not reoccurred, and failures in the main power transistors have been avoided.

  9. Importance of adequate exercise in the detection of coronary heart disease by radionuclide ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.H.; Lo, K.; Pitt, B.

    1980-12-01

    Rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculograms were obtained on 77 symptomatic patients without prior documented coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary artery disease was present by angiograms in 48. Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) was abnormal in 41 patients (overall sensitivity 85%). In 29 patients with normal coronary arteries, RNV was normal in 24 (specificity 83%). To determine if the exercise level affects sensitivity, the studies were graded for adequacy of exercise. It was considered adequate if patients developed (a) chest pain, or (b) ST segment depression of at least 1 mm, or (c) if they achieved a pressure rate product greater than 250. Among the 48 patients with coronary artery disease, 35 achieved adequate exercise. Thirty-three had an abnormal RNV (sensitivity 94%). In 13 patients who failed to achieve adequate exercise, RNV was abnormal in eight (sensitivity of only 62%). Some patients with coronary artery disease may have a normal ventricular response at inadequate levels of stress.

  10. [Prevention of ocular complications of herpes zoster ophthalmicus by adequate treatment with acyclovir].

    PubMed

    Borruat, F X; Buechi, E R; Piguet, B; Fitting, P; Zografos, L; Herbort, C P

    1991-05-01

    We compared the frequency of severe ocular complications secondary to Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus (HZO) in 232 patients. They were divided into three groups: 1) patients without treatment (n = 164); 2) patients treated adequately (n = 48) with acyclovir (ACV; 5 x 800 mg/d orally and ophthalmic ointment 5 x /d for a minimum of 7 days, given within three days after skin eruption); and, 3) patients treated inadequately (n = 20) with ACV (only topical treatment, insufficient doses, interrupted treatment, delayed treatment). Patients with no treatment or with inadequate treatments showed the same frequency of severe ocular complications (21% (34/164) and 25% (5/20), respectively). In contrast, when adequate treatment of ACV was given complications occurred in only 4% (2/48) of cases. This study emphasizes the need for prompt (within three days after skin eruption) and adequate (5 x 800 mg/d for at least 7 days) treatment of ACV to prevent the severe complications of HZO.

  11. Fish oil supplementation maintains adequate plasma arachidonate in cats, but similar amounts of vegetable oils lead to dietary arachidonate deficiency from nutrient dilution.

    PubMed

    Angell, Rebecca J; McClure, Melena K; Bigley, Karen E; Bauer, John E

    2012-05-01

    Because fatty acid (FA) metabolism of cats is unique, effects of dietary fish and vegetable oil supplementation on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities, and plasma phospholipid and esterified cholesterol (EC) FAs were investigated. Cats were fed a commercial diet supplemented with 8 g oil/100 g diet for 4 weeks using either high-oleic-acid sunflower oil (diet H), Menhaden fish oil (diet M), or safflower oil (diet S). When supplemented, diet M contained sufficient arachidonate (AA), but diets H and S were deficient. We hypothesized that diet M would modify plasma lipid metabolism, increase FA long-chain n-3 (LCn-3) FA content but not deplete AA levels. Also, diet S would show linoleic acid (LA) accumulation without conversion to AA, and both vegetable oil supplements would dilute dietary AA content when fed to meet cats' energy needs. Plasma samples on weeks 0, 2, and 4 showed no alterations in total cholesterol or nonesterified FA concentrations. Unesterified cholesterol decreased and EC increased in all groups, whereas lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities were unchanged. Diet M showed significant triacylglycerol lowering and decreased pre-β-lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma phospholipid FA profiles revealed significant enrichment of 18:1n-9 with diet H, LA and 20:2n-6 with diet S, and FA LCn-3FA with diet M. Depletion of AA was observed with diets H and S but not with diet M. Diet M EC FA profiles revealed specificities for LA and 20:5n-3 but not 22:5n-3 or 22:6n-3. Oversupplementation of some commercial diets with vegetable oils causes AA depletion in young cats due to dietary dilution. Findings are consistent with the current recommendations for at least 0.2 g AA/kg diet and that fish oil supplements provide both preformed LCn-3 polyunsaturated FA and AA.

  12. Water-quality assessment of the Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames river basins study unit; analysis of available data on nutrients, suspended sediments, and pesticides, 1972-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Marc James; Grady, S.J.; Trench, E.C.; Flanagan, S.M.; Nielsen, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    This retrospective report examines available nutrient, suspended sediment, and pesticide data in surface and ground water in the Connecticut, Housatonic and Thames Rivers Study Unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The purpose of this study is to improve the under- standing of natural and anthropogenic factors affecting water quality in the study unit. Water-quality data were acquired from various sources, primarily, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The report examines data for water years 1972-92, focusing on 1980-92, although it also includes additional data from as early as 1905. The study unit lies within the New England Physiographic Province and altitudes range from sea level in coastal Connecticut to 6,288 feet above sea level at Mount Washington, New Hampshire. Two major aquifer types underlie the study unit--unconsolidated glacial deposits and fractured bedrock. The climate generally is temperate and humid, with four distinct seasons. Average annual precipitation ranges from 34 to 65 inches. The study unit has a population of about 4.5 million, which is most highly concentrated in southwestern Connecticut and along the south-central region of the Connecticut River Valley. Surface-water-quality data were screened to provide information about sites with adequate numbers of analyses (50) over sufficiently long periods (1980-90) to enable valid statistical analyses. In order to compare effects of different types of land use on surface-water quality, examination of data required application of several statistical and graphical techniques, including mapping, histograms, boxplots, concentration-discharge plots, trend analysis, and load estimation. Spatial and temporal analysis of surface-water-quality data indicated that, with a single exception, only/stations in the Connecticut water-quality network had sufficient data collected over adequately long time periods to use in detailed analyses. Ground

  13. Supply Chain Interoperability Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-19

    Supply Chain Interoperability Measurement DISSERTATION June 2015 Christos E. Chalyvidis, Major, Hellenic Air ...Force AFIT-ENS-DS-15-J-001 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force...are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United

  14. Streamlining the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Lydon

    2003-07-01

    Effective management of the supply chain requires attention to: Product management--formulary development and maintenance, compliance, clinical involvement, standardization, and demand-matching. Sourcing and contracting--vendor consolidation, GPO portfolio management, price leveling, content management, and direct contracting Purchasing and payment-cycle--automatic placement, web enablement, centralization, evaluated receipts settlement, and invoice matching Inventory and distribution management--"unofficial" and "official" locations, vendor-managed inventory, automatic replenishment, and freight management.

  15. Broadband inversion of 1J(CC) responses in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra.

    PubMed

    Reibarkh, Mikhail; Williamson, R Thomas; Martin, Gary E; Bermel, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Establishing the carbon skeleton of a molecule greatly facilitates the process of structure elucidation, both manual and computer-assisted. Recent advances in the family of ADEQUATE experiments demonstrated their potential in this regard. 1,1-ADEQUATE, which provides direct (13)C-(13)C correlation via (1)J(CC), and 1,n-ADEQUATE, which typically yields (3)J(CC) and (1)J(CC) correlations, are more sensitive and more widely applicable experiments than INADEQUATE and PANACEA. A recently reported modified pulse sequence that semi-selectively inverts (1)J(CC) correlations in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra provided a significant improvement, allowing (1)J(CC) and (n)J(CC) correlations to be discerned in the same spectrum. However, the reported experiment requires a careful matching of the amplitude transfer function with (1)J(CC) coupling constants in order to achieve the inversion, and even then some (1)J(CC) correlations could still have positive intensity due to the oscillatory nature of the transfer function. Both shortcomings limit the practicality of the method. We now report a new, dual-optimized inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment, which provides more uniform inversion of (1)J(CC) correlations across the range of 29-82 Hz. Unlike the original method, the dual optimization experiment does not require fine-tuning for the molecule's (1)J(CC) coupling constant values. Even more usefully, the dual-optimized version provides up to two-fold improvement in signal-to-noise for some long-range correlations. Using modern, cryogenically-cooled probes, the experiment can be successfully applied to samples of ~1 mg under favorable circumstances. The improvements afforded by dual optimization inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment make it a useful and practical tool for NMR structure elucidation and should facilitate the implementation and utilization of the experiment.

  16. AnnAGNPS model as a potential tool for seeking adequate agriculture land management in Navarre (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahor, Y.; Giménez, R.; Casalí, J.

    2012-04-01

    Nowadays agricultural activities face two important challenges. They must be efficient from an economic point of view but with low environment impacts (soil erosion risk, nutrient/pesticide contamination, greenhouse gases emissions, etc.). In this context, hydrological and erosion models appear as remarkable tools when looking for the best management practices. AnnAGNPS (Annualized Agricultural Non Point Source Pollution) is a continuous simulation watershed-scale model that estimates yield and transit of surface water, sediment, nutrients, and pesticides through a watershed. This model has been successfully evaluated -in terms of annual runoff and sediment yield- in a small (around 200 ha) agricultural watershed located in central eastern part of Navarre (Spain), named Latxaga. The watershed is under a humid Sub-Mediterranean climate. It is cultivated almost entirely with winter cereals (wheat and barley) following conventional soil and tillage management practices. The remaining 15% of the watershed is covered by urban and shrub areas. The aim of this work is to evaluate in Latxga watershed the effect of potential and realistic changes in land use and management on surface runoff and sediment yield by using AnnAGNPS. Six years (2003 - 2008) of daily climate data were considered in the simulation. This dataset is the same used in the model evaluation previously made. Six different scenarios regarding soil use and management were considered: i) 60% cereals25% sunflower; ii) 60% cereals, 25% rapeseed; iii) 60% cereals, 25% legumes; iv) 60% cereals, 25% sunflower + rapeseed+ legumes, in equal parts; v) cereals, and alternatively different amount of shrubs (from 20% to 100% ); vi) only cereal but under different combinations of conventional tillage and no-tillage management. Overall, no significant differences in runoff generation were observed with the exception of scenario iii (in which legume is the main alternative crops), whit a slight increase in predicted

  17. Nutrient influences on leaf photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Longstreth, D.J.; Nobel, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    The net rate of CO/sub 2/ uptake for leaves of Gossypium hirsutum L. was reduced when the plants were grown at low concentrations of NO/sub 3//sup -/, PO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, or K/sup +/. The water vapor conductance was relatively constant for all nutrient levels, indicating little effect on stomatal response. Although leaves under nutrient stress tended to be lower in chlorophyll and thinner, the ratio of mesophyll surface area to leaf area did not change appreciably. Thus, the reduction in CO/sub 2/ uptake rate at low nutrient levels was due to a decrease in the CO/sub 2/ conductance expressed per unit mesophyll cell wall area (g/sub CO/sup cell//sub 2/). The use of g/sub CO//sup cell//sub 2/ and nutrient levels expressed per unit of mesophyll cell wall provides a new means of assessing nutrient effects on CO/sub 2/ uptake of leaves. 14 figures, 1 table.

  18. TOR Signaling and Nutrient Sensing.

    PubMed

    Dobrenel, Thomas; Caldana, Camila; Hanson, Johannes; Robaglia, Christophe; Vincentz, Michel; Veit, Bruce; Meyer, Christian

    2016-04-29

    All living organisms rely on nutrients to sustain cell metabolism and energy production, which in turn need to be adjusted based on available resources. The evolutionarily conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase is a central regulatory hub that connects environmental information about the quantity and quality of nutrients to developmental and metabolic processes in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. TOR is activated by both nitrogen and carbon metabolites and promotes energy-consuming processes such as cell division, mRNA translation, and anabolism in times of abundance while repressing nutrient remobilization through autophagy. In animals and yeasts, TOR acts antagonistically to the starvation-induced AMP-activated kinase (AMPK)/sucrose nonfermenting 1 (Snf1) kinase, called Snf1-related kinase 1 (SnRK1) in plants. This review summarizes the immense knowledge on the relationship between TOR signaling and nutrients in nonphotosynthetic organisms and presents recent findings in plants that illuminate the crucial role of this pathway in conveying nutrient-derived signals and regulating many aspects of metabolism and growth.

  19. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Melody S; Gaskin, Darrell J; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2012-09-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent's race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth.

  20. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy

    PubMed Central

    Gaskin, Darrell J.; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D.; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent’s race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth. PMID:22658579

  1. Medical Care for Echelons Above Divisions - Is Medical Force 2000 Adequate to Need?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-08

    exercised during Operation Just Cause in Panama proved to be such a workable concept that it was also exercised during the Gulf conflict. Similar...Medical Battalion becomes a multifunctional organization encompassing preventive medicine, optometry , mental health, and medical supply in the medical...Provides Preventive Medicine, Combat Stress, Optometry , and Emergency Surgery to the Division. Provides Class VIII supply/resupply for Division from

  2. Ground-based and remotely sensed nutrient availability across a tropical landscape

    PubMed Central

    Porder, Stephen; Asner, Gregory P.; Vitousek, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    Tropical soils often are assumed to be highly weathered and thus nutrient-depleted, but this prediction applies primarily to geomorphically stable surfaces. Topography complicates the assumption of nutrient depletion, because erosion can enhance the supply of nutrients to tropical ecosystems. Consequently, understanding nutrient availability across landscapes requires a spatially explicit assessment of the relative strength of depletion and enhancement. We document the relationship between foliar nutrients and topographic position across a 20-km2, 4- to 5-million-year-old eroded landscape in Kaua'i, Hawai'i, and use this relationship to build a bottom-up map of predicted nutrient availability across this landscape. Only ≈17% of the landscape is nutrient-poor, mostly on stable uplands; nutrient availability on slopes and valley bottoms is much higher, in some cases similar to the most fertile montane forests in the Hawaiian Islands. This pattern was corroborated by top-down remote sensing of area-integrated canopy phosphorus concentrations. PMID:16040798

  3. Ground-based and remotely sensed nutrient availability across a tropical landscape.

    PubMed

    Porder, Stephen; Asner, Gregory P; Vitousek, Peter M

    2005-08-02

    Tropical soils often are assumed to be highly weathered and thus nutrient-depleted, but this prediction applies primarily to geomorphically stable surfaces. Topography complicates the assumption of nutrient depletion, because erosion can enhance the supply of nutrients to tropical ecosystems. Consequently, understanding nutrient availability across landscapes requires a spatially explicit assessment of the relative strength of depletion and enhancement. We document the relationship between foliar nutrients and topographic position across a 20-km(2), 4- to 5-million-year-old eroded landscape in Kaua'i, Hawai'i, and use this relationship to build a bottom-up map of predicted nutrient availability across this landscape. Only approximately 17% of the landscape is nutrient-poor, mostly on stable uplands; nutrient availability on slopes and valley bottoms is much higher, in some cases similar to the most fertile montane forests in the Hawaiian Islands. This pattern was corroborated by top-down remote sensing of area-integrated canopy phosphorus concentrations.

  4. Nutrient loading and consumers: agents of change in open-coast macrophyte assemblages.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Karina J

    2003-06-24

    Human activities are significantly altering nutrient regimes and the abundance of consumers in coastal ecosystems. A field experiment in an open-coast, upwelling ecosystem showed that small increases in nutrients increased the biomass and evenness of tide pool macrophytes where consumer abundance and nutrient loading rates were low. Consumers, when abundant, had negative effects on the diversity and biomass of macrophytes. Nutrient loading increases and consumers are less abundant and efficient as wave exposure increases along open coastlines. Experimentally reversing the natural state of nutrient supply and consumer pressure at a wave-protected site to match wave-exposed sites caused the structure of the macrophyte assemblage to converge on that found naturally in wave-exposed pools. The increases in evenness and abundance were driven by increases in structurally complex functional groups. In contrast, increased nutrient loading in semienclosed marine or estuarine ecosystems is typically associated with declines in macrophyte diversity because of increases in structurally simple and opportunistic functional groups. If nutrient concentration of upwelled waters changes with climatic warming or increasing frequency of El Niños, as predicted by some climate models, these results suggest that macrophyte abundance and evenness along wave-swept open-coasts will also change. Macrophytes represent a significant fraction of continental shelf production and provide important habitat for many marine species. The combined effects of shifting nutrient regimes and overexploitation of consumers may have unexpected consequences for the structure and functioning of open-coast communities.

  5. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Nutrients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Introduction to the nutrients module, when to list nutrients as a candidate cause, ways to measure nutrients, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for nutrients, nutrients module references and literature reviews.

  6. Consumer species richness and nutrients interact in determining producer diversity

    PubMed Central

    Groendahl, Sophie; Fink, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    While it is crucial to understand the factors that determine the biodiversity of primary producer communities, the relative importance of bottom-up and top-down control factors is still poorly understood. Using freshwater benthic algal communities in the laboratory as a model system, we find an unimodal relationship between nutrient availability and producer diversity, and that increasing number of consumer species increases producer diversity, but overall grazing decreases algal biodiversity. Interestingly, these two factors interact strongly in determining producer diversity, as an increase in nutrient supply diminishes the positive effect of consumer species richness on producer biodiversity. This novel and thus-far overlooked interaction of bottom-up and top-down control mechanisms of biodiversity may have a pronounced impact on ecosystem functioning and thus have repercussions for the fields of biodiversity conservation and restoration. PMID:28303953

  7. Evaluating topsoil depth effects on phosphorus and potassium nutrient dynamics of grain and switchgrass production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the effects of fertilizer addition and crop removal on long-term change in soil test phosphorus (STP) and soil test potassium (STK) is crucial for maximizing the use of grower inputs on claypan soils. Due to variable nutrient supply from subsoils and variable crop removal across fields...

  8. Corn stover nutrient removal estimates for Central Iowa, U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the most frequently asked questions to those striving to secure sustainable corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock supplies for Iowa’s new bioenergy conversion facilities is “what quantity of nutrients will be removed if I harvest my stover?”. Our objective is to summarize six years of field res...

  9. Climate modifies response of non-native and native species richness to nutrient enrichment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecosystem eutrophication often increases domination by non-natives and causes displacement of native taxa. However, variation in environmental conditions may affect the outcome of interactions between native and non-native taxa in environments where nutrient supply is elevated. We examined the int...

  10. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... made to obtain an adequate and reliable supply of an alternate fuel for use as a primary energy source... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW...

  11. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... made to obtain an adequate and reliable supply of an alternate fuel for use as a primary energy source... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW...

  12. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... made to obtain an adequate and reliable supply of an alternate fuel for use as a primary energy source... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW...

  13. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... made to obtain an adequate and reliable supply of an alternate fuel for use as a primary energy source... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW...

  14. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... made to obtain an adequate and reliable supply of an alternate fuel for use as a primary energy source... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW...

  15. Nutrient insult in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Coad, Jane; Al-Rasasi, Buthaina; Morgan, Jane

    2002-02-01

    Nutrient insults in early pregnancy, such as nutrient deprivation during famines, are often associated with an unfavourable outcome. Suboptimal nutrition in the early stage of gestation has been linked to a number of adverse effects on fetal growth and development. Historically, nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) was an important contributor to pregnancy-related mortality; indeed, Charlotte Bronte died from starvation and dehydration after suffering very severe NVP 4 months into her first pregnancy (Gaskell, 1858). Although NVP seldom now progresses to be life-threatening, it affects the majority of pregnant women, and potentially presents a challenge to nutrient intake in the most vulnerable period of development. Symptoms range from mild (nausea only) to severe (a level of vomiting that restricts nutrient intake and ultimately threatens metabolic and electrolyte balance). Although NVP has been documented for thousands of years, its cause has not yet been satisfactorily elucidated, but seems to be related to endocrinological changes. Pregnant women also frequently report dietary cravings and aversions during pregnancy which can be linked to both the incidence and severity of NVP. Paradoxically, NVP appears to be positively associated with a favourable outcome of pregnancy, including increased birth weight and gestational age. The mechanisms by which NVP favours the outcome of pregnancy are not known. They may be related to women increasing their nutrient intake to alleviate symptoms, improving the quality of their diet or reducing energy expenditure. Alternatively, adaptation to a reduced nutrient intake might stimulate the expression of growth factors and affect placentation or metabolism, thus favouring fetal growth when NVP resolves.

  16. 75 FR 69648 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... ENERGY Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers... designed to hold firmly in place. 10 CFR Part 830 imposes a requirement that a documented safety analysis... provide guidance on meeting the requirements imposed by DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis...

  17. 42 CFR 413.24 - Adequate cost data and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Adequate data capable of being audited is consistent with good business concepts and effective and efficient management of any organization, whether it is operated for profit or on a nonprofit basis. It is a... contract for services (for example, a management contract), directly assigning the costs to the...

  18. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  19. Towards Defining Adequate Lithium Trials for Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Use of lithium with mentally retarded individuals with psychiatric conditions and/or behavior disturbances is discussed. The paper describes components of an adequate clinical trial and reviews case studies and double-blind cases. The paper concludes that aggression is the best indicator for lithium use, and reviews treatment parameters and…

  20. ADEQUATE SHELTERS AND QUICK REACTIONS TO WARNING: A KEY TO CIVIL DEFENSE.

    PubMed

    LYNCH, F X

    1963-11-08

    Case histories collected by investigators in Japan during 1945 illustrate both the effectiveness of shelters and the dangers inherent in apathy of the population, which suffered needless casualties by ignoring air raid warnintgs. Adequate shelters and immediate response to warnings are essential to survival in nuclear attack.

  1. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to…

  2. 45 CFR 1182.15 - Institute responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... record systems. These security safeguards shall apply to all systems in which identifiable personal data... data and automated systems shall be adequately trained in the security and privacy of personal data. (4... technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual...

  3. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  4. Effect of tranquilizers on animal resistance to the adequate stimuli of the vestibular apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maksimovich, Y. B.; Khinchikashvili, N. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of tranquilizers on vestibulospinal reflexes and motor activity was studied in 900 centrifuged albino mice. Actometric studies have shown that the tranquilizers have a group capacity for increasing animal resistance to the action of adequate stimuli to the vestibular apparatus.

  5. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  6. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  7. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  8. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  9. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Adequate Yearly Progress among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…

  10. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall...

  11. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall...

  12. Identifying the Factors Impacting the Adequately Yearly Progress Performance in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Ju-Shan

    2013-01-01

    The NCLB (No Child Left Behind Act) specifies that states must develop AYP (adequate yearly progress) statewide measurable objectives for improved achievement by all students, including economically disadvantaged students, students from minority races, students with disabilities, and students with limited English proficiency. By the 2013-2014…

  13. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  14. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  15. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  16. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled: ``Hemoglobin... discuss blood donor hemoglobin and hematocrit qualification standards in the United States, its impact...

  17. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  18. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  19. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  20. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  1. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  2. 30 CFR 227.801 - What if a State does not adequately perform a delegated function?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... delegated function? 227.801 Section 227.801 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES Performance Review § 227.801 What if a State does not adequately perform a delegated function? If your performance of the delegated function does...

  3. Science Education as a Contributor to Adequate Yearly Progress and Accountability Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act requires states to measure the adequate yearly progress (AYP) of each public school and local educational agency (LEA) and to hold schools and LEAs accountable for failing to make AYP. Although it is required that science be assessed in at least three grades, the achievement results from science examinations are…

  4. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  5. Understanding the pelvic pain mechanism is key to find an adequate therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Van Kerrebroeck, Philip

    2016-06-25

    Pain is a natural mechanism to actual or potential tissue damage and involves both a sensory and an emotional experience. In chronic pelvic pain, localisation of pain can be widespread and can cause considerable distress. A multidisciplinary approach is needed in order to fully understand the pelvic pain mechanism and to identify an adequate therapeutic approach.

  6. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  7. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  8. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  9. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The ...

  10. Adequate Yearly Progress for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders through Research-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannest, Kimberly J.; Temple-Harvey, Kimberly K.; Mason, Benjamin A.

    2009-01-01

    Because schools are held accountable for the academic performance of all students, it is important to focus on academics and the need for effective teaching practices. Adequate yearly progress, a method of accountability that is part of the No Child Left Behind Act (2001), profoundly affects the education of students who have emotional and…

  11. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  12. Power-Supply-Conditioning Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, L. E.; Loveland, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Fluctuations of voltage suppressed in power supplies for precise radio-frequency circuits. Circuit suppresses both periodic and random deviations of dc supply voltage from desired steady level. Highly-stable feedback voltage regulator, conditioner intended in conjunction with conventional power-supply circuit to provide constant voltage to atomic frequency standard or other precise oscillator. Without conditioners, outputs of most commercial power supplies contain fluctuations causing unacceptably-large phase and amplitude modulation of precise oscillators.

  13. Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Salt Marshes Exposed to Chronic Nutrient Enrichment.

    PubMed

    Chmura, Gail L; Kellman, Lisa; van Ardenne, Lee; Guntenspergen, Glenn R

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the impact of nutrient additions on greenhouse gas fluxes using dark static chambers in a microtidal and a macrotidal marsh along the coast of New Brunswick, Canada approximately monthly over a year. Both were experimentally fertilized for six years with varying levels of N and P. For unfertilized, N and NPK treatments, average yearly CO2 emissions (which represent only respiration) at the microtidal marsh (13, 19, and 28 mmoles CO2 m(-2) hr(-1), respectively) were higher than at the macrotidal marsh (12, 15, and 19 mmoles m(-2) hr(-1), respectively, with a flux under the additional high N/low P treatment of 21 mmoles m(-2) hr(-1)). Response of CH4 to fertilization was more variable. At the macrotidal marsh average yearly fluxes were 1.29, 1.26, and 0.77 μmol CH4 m(-2) hr(-1) with control, N, and NPK treatments, respectively and 1.21 μmol m(-2) hr(-1) under high N/low P treatment. At the microtidal marsh CH4 fluxes were 0.23, 0.16, and -0.24 μmol CH4 m(-2) hr(-1) in control, N, and NPK and treatments, respectively. Fertilization changed soils from sinks to sources of N2O. Average yearly N2O fluxes at the macrotidal marsh were -0.07, 0.08, and 1.70, μmol N2O m(-2) hr(-1) in control, N, NPK and treatments, respectively and 0.35 μmol m(-2) hr(-1) under high N/low P treatment. For the control, N, and NPK treatments at the microtidal marsh N2O fluxes were -0.05, 0.30, and 0.52 μmol N2O m(-2) hr(-1), respectively. Our results indicate that N2O fluxes are likely to vary with the source of pollutant nutrients but emissions will be lower if N is not accompanied by an adequate supply of P (e.g., atmospheric deposition vs sewage or agricultural runoff). With chronic fertilization the global warming potential of the increased N2O emissions may be enough to offset the global cooling potential of the C sequestered by salt marshes.

  14. Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Salt Marshes Exposed to Chronic Nutrient Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Chmura, Gail L.; Kellman, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the impact of nutrient additions on greenhouse gas fluxes using dark static chambers in a microtidal and a macrotidal marsh along the coast of New Brunswick, Canada approximately monthly over a year. Both were experimentally fertilized for six years with varying levels of N and P. For unfertilized, N and NPK treatments, average yearly CO2 emissions (which represent only respiration) at the microtidal marsh (13, 19, and 28 mmoles CO2 m-2 hr-1, respectively) were higher than at the macrotidal marsh (12, 15, and 19 mmoles m-2 hr-1, respectively, with a flux under the additional high N/low P treatment of 21 mmoles m-2 hr-1). Response of CH4 to fertilization was more variable. At the macrotidal marsh average yearly fluxes were 1.29, 1.26, and 0.77 μmol CH4 m-2 hr-1 with control, N, and NPK treatments, respectively and 1.21 μmol m-2 hr-1 under high N/low P treatment. At the microtidal marsh CH4 fluxes were 0.23, 0.16, and -0.24 μmol CH4 m-2 hr-1 in control, N, and NPK and treatments, respectively. Fertilization changed soils from sinks to sources of N2O. Average yearly N2O fluxes at the macrotidal marsh were -0.07, 0.08, and 1.70, μmol N2O m-2 hr-1 in control, N, NPK and treatments, respectively and 0.35 μmol m-2 hr-1 under high N/low P treatment. For the control, N, and NPK treatments at the microtidal marsh N2O fluxes were -0.05, 0.30, and 0.52 μmol N2O m-2 hr-1, respectively. Our results indicate that N2O fluxes are likely to vary with the source of pollutant nutrients but emissions will be lower if N is not accompanied by an adequate supply of P (e.g., atmospheric deposition vs sewage or agricultural runoff). With chronic fertilization the global warming potential of the increased N2O emissions may be enough to offset the global cooling potential of the C sequestered by salt marshes. PMID:26914333

  15. Greenhouse gas fluxes from salt marshes exposed to chronic nutrient enrichment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chmura, Gail L.; Kellman, Lisa; van Ardenne, Lee; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the impact of nutrient additions on greenhouse gas fluxes using dark static chambers in a microtidal and a macrotidal marsh along the coast of New Brunswick, Canada approximately monthly over a year. Both were experimentally fertilized for six years with varying levels of N and P. For unfertilized, N and NPK treatments, average yearly CO2 emissions (which represent only respiration) at the microtidal marsh (13, 19, and 28 mmoles CO2 m-2 hr-1, respectively) were higher than at the macrotidal marsh (12, 15, and 19 mmoles m-2 hr-1, respectively, with a flux under the additional high N/low P treatment of 21 mmoles m-2 hr-1). Response of CH4 to fertilization was more variable. At the macrotidal marsh average yearly fluxes were 1.29, 1.26, and 0.77 μmol CH4 m-2 hr-1 with control, N, and NPK treatments, respectively and 1.21 μmol m-2 hr-1 under high N/low P treatment. At the microtidal marsh CH4fluxes were 0.23, 0.16, and -0.24 μmol CH4 m-2 hr-1 in control, N, and NPK and treatments, respectively. Fertilization changed soils from sinks to sources of N2O. Average yearly N2O fluxes at the macrotidal marsh were -0.07, 0.08, and 1.70, μmol N2O m-2 hr-1 in control, N, NPK and treatments, respectively and 0.35 μmol m-2 hr-1 under high N/low P treatment. For the control, N, and NPK treatments at the microtidal marsh N2O fluxes were -0.05, 0.30, and 0.52 μmol N2O m-2 hr-1, respectively. Our results indicate that N2O fluxes are likely to vary with the source of pollutant nutrients but emissions will be lower if N is not accompanied by an adequate supply of P (e.g., atmospheric deposition vs sewage or agricultural runoff). With chronic fertilization the global warming potential of the increased N2O emissions may be enough to offset the global cooling potential of the C sequestered by salt marshes.

  16. 2002 Industry Studies: Strategic Supply

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Strategic Supply is a unique industry study that focused not on a single industry, but rather on a process common to many industries known as Supply ... Chain Management (SCM). We found that the successful, global and innovative companies of today leverage their supply chains to achieve competitive and

  17. Estuarine circulation-driven entrainment of oceanic nutrients fuels coastal phytoplankton in an open coastal system in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Kasai, Akihide; Fukuzaki, Koji; Ueno, Masahiro; Yamashita, Yoh

    2017-01-01

    We investigated interactions among seasonal fluctuations in phytoplankton biomass, riverine nutrient flux, and the fluxes of nutrients entrained by estuarine circulation in Tango Bay, Japan, to determine the influence of freshwater inflows to an open bay on coastal phytoplankton productivity. The riverine nutrient flux was strongly regulated by river discharge. Estuarine circulation was driven by river discharge, with high fluxes of nutrients (mean nitrate + nitrite flux: 5.3 ± 3.5 Mg [mega grams]-N day-1) between winter and early spring, enhanced by nutrient supply to the surface water via vertical mixing. In contrast, low-nutrient seawater was delivered to the bay between late spring and summer (1.0 ± 0.8 Mg-N day-1). Seasonal fluctuations in phytoplankton biomass were affected by the entrained fluxes of oceanic nutrients and variation in the euphotic zone depth, and to a lesser degree by the riverine nutrient flux. Bioassays and stoichiometric analyses indicated that phytoplankton growth was limited by nitrogen and/or phosphorus. Both the entrainment of oceanic nutrients and the euphotic zone depth affected the duration and magnitude of blooms. Our findings show that, unlike semi-enclosed bays, seasonal variations in coastal phytoplankton in an open coastal system are primarily fueled by the entrainment of oceanic nutrients and are influenced by both freshwater inflow and coastal conditions (e.g. vertical mixing and wind events).

  18. [Blood supply readiness in case of war or disasters].

    PubMed

    Fagerhol, M K; Dobloug, I

    1999-09-10

    The supply and use of blood during war or disaster require efficient cooperation between national and regional civilian authorities and blood banks as well as the military chain of command and medical units. Tasks and responsibilities are regulated by a directive issued by the Norwegian Armed Forces Joint Medical Services, specifying that during crises, civilian blood banks will be ordered to provide blood to military units. Based upon information obtained by a questionnaire survey, blood banks have an adequate capacity even if the normal power supply or computerised systems fail temporarily. However, plans are presently lacking for the organisation and operation of the civilian blood supply during a crisis requiring cooperation with military units. Key roles and responsibilities for personnel on the civilian side must be defined. Normal and alternative routes of communication must be established and tested regularly.

  19. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizospher...

  20. Stillage processing for nutrient recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeten, J.M.; Coble, C.G.; Egg, R.P.; Lawhon, J.T.; McBee, G.G.; Schelling, G.T.

    1983-06-01

    Stillage from fermentation of grain sorghum and sweet potatoes was processed for dry matter and nutrient recovery by combinations of screw press, vibrating screen, centrifugation, ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis, yielding up to 98% dry matter removal. For most processes, protein removal equaled or exceeded dry matter removal.