Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping
The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors.A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L.The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg.In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L.
Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping
Abstract The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors. A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L. The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg. In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L. PMID:27902589
Valliant, Melinda W; Emplaincourt, Heather Pittman; Wenzel, Rachel Kieckhaefer; Garner, Bethany Hilson
Eleven female participants from a NCAA Division I volleyball team were evaluated for adequate energy and macronutrient intake during two off-seasons. Total energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by food records and results were compared against estimated needs using the Nelson equation. Dietary intervention was employed regarding the individual dietary needs of each athlete as well as a pre- and post-sports nutrition knowledge survey. Post dietary intervention, total energy, and macronutrient intake improved, as well as a significant improvement in sports nutrition knowledge (p < 0.001). Nutrition education is useful in improving dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of female athletes.
Valliant, Melinda W.; Pittman Emplaincourt, Heather; Wenzel, Rachel Kieckhaefer; Garner, Bethany Hilson
Eleven female participants from a NCAA Division I volleyball team were evaluated for adequate energy and macronutrient intake during two off-seasons. Total energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by food records and results were compared against estimated needs using the Nelson equation. Dietary intervention was employed regarding the individual dietary needs of each athlete as well as a pre- and post-sports nutrition knowledge survey. Post dietary intervention, total energy, and macronutrient intake improved, as well as a significant improvement in sports nutrition knowledge (p < 0.001). Nutrition education is useful in improving dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of female athletes. PMID:22822449
Spronk, Inge; Kullen, Charina; Burdon, Catriona; O'Connor, Helen
The present systematic review examined the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake in adults (mean age ≥ 18 years). Relevant databases were searched from the earliest record until November 2012. Search terms included: nutrition; diet or food knowledge and energy intake; feeding behaviour; diet; eating; nutrient or food intake or consumption. Included studies were original research articles that used instruments providing quantitative assessment of both nutrition knowledge and dietary intake and their statistical association. The initial search netted 1,193,393 potentially relevant articles, of which twenty-nine were eligible for inclusion. Most of them were conducted in community populations (n 22) with fewer (n 7) in athletic populations. Due to the heterogeneity of methods used to assess nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, a meta-analysis was not possible. The majority of the studies (65·5%: community 63·6%; athletic 71·4%) reported significant, positive, but weak (r< 0·5) associations between higher nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, most often a higher intake of fruit and vegetables. However, study quality ranged widely and participant representation from lower socio-economic status was limited, with most participants being tertiary educated and female. Well-designed studies using validated methodologies are needed to clarify the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Diet quality scores or indices that aim to evaluate compliance to dietary guidelines may be particularly valuable for assessing the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Nutrition knowledge is an integral component of health literacy and as low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes, contemporary, high-quality research is needed to inform community nutrition education and public health policy.
Delange, François; de Benoist, Bruno; Burgi, Hans
OBJECTIVE: Urinary iodine concentration is the prime indicator of nutritional iodine status and is used to evaluate population-based iodine supplementation. In 1994, WHO, UNICEF and ICCIDD recommended median urinary iodine concentrations for populations of 100- 200 micro g/l, assuming the 100 micro g/l threshold would limit concentrations <50 micro g/l to =20% of people. Some scientists felt this proportion was unacceptably high and wanted to increase the threshold above 100 micro g/l. The study was carried out to determine the frequency distribution of urinary iodine in iodine-replete populations (schoolchildren and adults) and the proportion of concentrations <50 micro g/l. METHOD: A questionnaire on frequency distribution of urinary iodine in iodine-replete populations was circulated to 29 scientific groups. FINDINGS: Nineteen groups reported data from 48 populations with median urinary iodine concentrations >100 micro g/l. The total population was 55 892, including 35 661 (64%) schoolchildren. Median urinary iodine concentrations were 111-540 (median 201) micro g/l for all populations, 100-199 micro g/l in 23 (48%) populations and >/=200 micro g/l in 25 (52%). The frequencies of values <50 micro g/l were 0-20.8 (mean 4.8%) overall and 7.2% and 2.5% in populations with medians of 100-199 micro g/l and >200 micro g/l, respectively. The frequency reached 20% only in two places where iodine had been supplemented for <2 years. CONCLUSION: The frequency of urinary iodine concentrations <50 micro g/l in populations with median urinary iodine concentrations >/=100 micro g/l has been overestimated. The threshold of 100 micro g/l does not need to be increased. In populations, median urinary iodine concentrations of 100-200 micro g/l indicate adequate iodine intake and optimal iodine nutrition. PMID:12219154
Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L
The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained.
Rubio-López, Nuria; Llopis-González, Agustín; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María
Calcium is an important nutrient for child development. The main objective of this study was to assess calcium intake and its adequacy with dietary reference intake (DRI) in Spanish children. The ANIVA (Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia) study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During two academic years 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, 1176 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from 14 primary schools in Valencia (Spain). Three-day food records were used to assess dietary intake, completed by parents/guardian. Anthropometric data (weight and height) were evaluated in all subjects. Nutritional intake was compared to estimated average requirements (EARs) and adequate intake (AI) values to determine nutritional adequacy. A percentage of 25.77% had inadequate calcium intake, and a significantly higher prevalence was observed in girls (p = 0.006). Adequate calcium intake showed a positive association with the height z-score (p = 0.032). When assessing dietary patterns, schoolchildren with adequate calcium intakes had better nutritional adequacy in all nutrients, except cholesterol (p = 0.086) and fluorine (p = 0.503). These results suggest a public health problem that must be addressed through nutrition education programs to increase intake of calcium-rich food and to correct the associated dietary pattern. PMID:28230804
DiCecco, S.; Nelson, J.; Burnes, J.; Fleming, C.R.
Nutrient intake patterns were analyzed in 23 patients with gut failure who were receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN). All patients had stable weights without changes in intravenous calories or protein for 3 consecutive months. Our objectives were to assess oral intake of calories, carbohydrates, fat, and protein, to examine relationships between oral nutrient intakes and disease categories, and to compare oral and intravenous intakes to calculated resting energy expenditure (REE). Two patterns of oral nutrient intake were identified among the patients. Patients with short bowel syndrome, regardless of the underlying disease, consumed calories by mouth that clearly exceeded calculated resting energy expenditure (short bowel, non-Crohn's, 170% of REE; short bowel, Crohn's, 200 of REE); however, calories approximating the REE had to be given via HPN, suggesting that efficiency of absorption was at a very low level. Patients with diffuse gut diseases (radiation enteritis or pseudo-obstruction syndromes) had very low intakes of oral nutrients. The distribution of oral calories among carbohydrate, protein, and fat did not differ among the disease categories.
Shell-Duncan, Bettina; McDade, Thomas
The purpose of this study was to examine the context of iron deficiency and feeding patterns of iron-rich foods among northern Kenyan school-aged children. A nutrition survey was conducted among 300 subjects in two Rendille communities, Korr and Karare. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency as it relates to parasitic infection, dietary intake, and sociodemographic factors, as well as cultural food proscriptions influencing child feeding. Sociodemographic and qualitative data on food beliefs and child-feeding practices were obtained from the primary caretaker of each subject. From pediatric subjects, 24-hour dietary recall data were obtained with the help of the primary caretaker, and capillary blood from a fingerstick was used to detect iron deficiency based on measures of hemoglobin, the zinc protoporphyrin-to-heme ratio, C-reactive protein, and transferrin receptor. With an overall prevalence of 31.2%, iron deficiency was found to be associated with dietary iron intakes constrained by diverse economic, cultural, and environmental factors among Rendille children. In Karare, where children's iron intake approached recommended levels, iron deficiency was found to be attributable to low bioavailability of iron (only 4.3% of total iron intake), rather than low dietary intake per se. By contrast, in Korr the average daily iron intake was estimated at only 65% of recommended allowances, indicating that iron deficiency was the outcome not merely of low bioavailability, but rather of overall inadequate iron intake. Sociodemographic analysis showed a significant interaction between sex and economic status, revealing that girls in economically sufficient households were 2.4 times as likely to have iron deficiency as boys. This difference in risk parallels culturally defined gender-based proscriptions for child feeding: girls are believed to benefit from "soft foods," including rice, maize porridge, and tea, whereas boys benefitfrom "hard foods
Perrier, E T; Bottin, J H; Vecchio, M; Lemetais, G
Growing evidence suggests a distinction between water intake necessary for maintaining a euhydrated state, and water intake considered to be adequate from a perspective of long-term health. Previously, we have proposed that maintaining a 24-h urine osmolality (UOsm) of ⩽500 mOsm/kg is a desirable target for urine concentration to ensure sufficient urinary output to reduce renal health risk and circulating vasopressin. In clinical practice and field monitoring, the measurement of UOsm is not practical. In this analysis, we calculate criterion values for urine-specific gravity (USG) and urine color (UCol), two measures which have broad applicability in clinical and field settings. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis performed on 817 urine samples demonstrates that a USG ⩾1.013 detects UOsm>500 mOsm/kg with very high accuracy (AUC 0.984), whereas a subject-assessed UCol⩾4 offers high sensitivity and moderate specificity (AUC 0.831) for detecting UOsm >500 m Osm/kg.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 1 February 2017; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.269.
Reusser, Molly E; DiRienzo, Douglas B; Miller, Gregory D; McCarron, David A
Cardiovascular disease kills nearly as many Americans each year as the next seven leading causes of death combined. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease and most of its associated risk factors is markedly higher and increasing more rapidly among African Americans than in any other racial or ethnic group. Improving these statistics may be simply a matter of improving diet quality. In recent years, a substantial and growing body of evidence has revealed that dietary patterns complete in all food groups, including nutrient-rich dairy products, are essential for preventing and reducing cardiovascular disease and the conditions that contribute to it. Several cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, insulin resistance syndrome, and obesity, have been shown to be positively influenced by dietary patterns that include adequate intake of dairy products. The benefits of nutrient-rich dietary patterns have been specifically tested in randomized, controlled trials emphasizing African American populations. These studies demonstrated proportionally greater benefits for African Americans without evidence of adverse effects such as symptoms of lactose intolerance. As currently promoted for the prevention of certain cancers and osteoporosis, regular consumption of diets that meet recommended nutrient intake levels might also be the most effective approach for reducing cardiovascular disease risk in African Americans.
Meier, Toni; Senftleben, Karolin; Deumelandt, Peter; Christen, Olaf; Riedel, Katja; Langer, Martin
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany--in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar--and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS) were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002-2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3-24.1 billion EUR) in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10%) of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR). This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0-12.1); salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2-7.3) and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million-4.7 billion). Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR.
Park, Joon Seong; Yoon, Dong Sup; Kim, Woo Jeong; Chung, Hae-yun
The adequate dietary intake is important to maintain the nutritional status of the patients after pancreatic cancer surgery. This prospective study was designed to investigate the dietary intake and the nutritional status of the patients who had pancreatic cancer surgery. Thirty-one patients (15 men, 16 women) were enrolled and measured body weight, body mass index (BMI), nutritional risk index (NRI), and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). Actual oral intake with nutritional impact symptoms recorded on the clinical research foam at every meal and medical information were collected from electronic medical charts. The rates of malnutrition at admission were 45.1% (14/31) and 28.9% (9/31) by NRI and MUST method, respectively, but those were increased to 87% (27/31) and 86.6% (26/31) after operation on discharge. The median values of daily intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat, and protein were 588.1 kcal, 96.0 g, 11.8 g, and 27.0 g, respectively. Most patients (n = 20, 64.5%) experienced two or more symptoms such as anorexia, abdominal bloating and early satiety. There were negative correlations between C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the intake of total energy, protein, fat, and zinc. The rates of malnutrition were increased sharply after surgery and the dietary intake also influenced the inflammatory indicators. The results suggested that need of considering special therapeutic diets for the patients who received pancreatic surgery. PMID:27812517
Calkins, B M; Whittaker, D J; Nair, P P; Rider, A A; Turjman, N
A 3-day diary with portion sizes weighed by the subject and a 24-h recall were obtained on 50 sets of subjects: Seventh-day Adventist lacto-ovo-vegetarians and nonvegetarians, and general population nonvegetarians, matched on age (+/- 5 yr), sex, marital status, education, type of milk preferred, and an index of the frequency of dairy and egg product use. An additional 18 unmatched persons who follow a pure vegetarian dietary pattern (use no meat, fish, fowl, dairy, or egg products) were recruited into the study. The rational for the dietary methods used is presented and details of each of the methods used are given. The results of the nutrient analysis of the 24-h recall and 3-day diary are presented. The 3-day nutrient intake means for the four groups are compared to the sex-specific recommended daily allowance both with and without supplements. The contribution of nutritional supplements to the nutrient intake is discussed. All groups show adequate or excess intake levels of calories, protein, and fat when either the 24-h recall or the 3-day diary values are considered. The higher intake of calories noted among nonvegetarians can be explained by a higher intake of both fat and protein in these groups. A, B, and C vitamin levels (3-day dairy estimates) are adequate both with and without supplements. Calcium intake is much below recommended levels for pure vegetarian females. Iron intake is low for all females. A heme iron source does not improve the intake levels for nonvegetarian females. A comparison of these results with prior reports of nutrient intake among Seventh-day Adventists is presented.
Owusu, Andrew; Murdock, Peggy O'Hara; Weatherby, Norman L.
With 85% of the world's adolescent populations residing in developing countries, it is important to monitor and track their nutrition status and habits. The purpose of this study, conducted in Ghana, was to provide results from a nutrition intake and eating habits questionnaire which was modified from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Questions were…
Xu, Xiaoyue; Byles, Julie E; Shi, Zumin; Hall, John J
Little is known about the macronutrient intake status of older Chinese people. The present study evaluated the macronutrient intake status of older Chinese people (aged ≥ 60 years), investigated whether they had intake levels that met the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and explored the associations between macronutrient intakes and age groups, sex, education levels, work status, BMI groups, urbanicity levels and four socio-economic regions of China (Northeast, East Coast, Central and Western). Dietary intake data of 2746 older Chinese with complete dietary intake data in the Longitudinal China Health and Nutrition Survey (2009 wave) carried out across four diverse regions were analysed. Dietary intake data were obtained by interviews using 24 h recalls over three consecutive days. The MUFA:SFA ratios were calculated based on the Chinese Food Composition Table. Less than one-third of the older Chinese people included in the present study had intake levels meeting the adequate intake for carbohydrate-energy and fat-energy; less than one-fifth had intake levels meeting the recommended nutrient intake for protein-energy; and more than half of the older people had fat-energy intakes higher than the DRI. There were strong associations between the proportions of energy from the three macronutrients and education levels, urbanicity levels and the four socio-economic regions of China, with older people living in the East Coast region having different patterns of macronutrient-energy intakes when compared with those living in the other three regions. Macronutrient intakes across different urbanicity levels in the four regions revealed considerable geographical variations in dietary patterns, which will affect the risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Clinical interventions and public health policies should recognise these regional differences in dietary patterns.
Nishimuta, Mamoru; Kodama, Naoko; Morikuni, Eiko; Yoshioka, Yayoi H; Matsuzaki, Nobue; Takeyama, Hidemaro; Yamada, Hideaki; Kitajima, Hideaki
In the previous analysis of our human mineral balance studies, we demonstrated positive correlations between the balances of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na) intake in the range of 3.06 and 4.06 g/d or 43.71 and 96.40 mg/kg body weight (BW)/d, but there was no correlation between Na intake and Na balance. This suggested that the balances of Ca and Mg are affected by Na intake. Therefore, in the current study, we recalculated equilibrium intakes for Ca and Mg when balances of their intakes and outputs were equal to zero within the above Na range to reduce the effects of Na intake. From 1986 to 2000, 90 volunteers (10 male, 80 female; age 18 to 28 y) took part in 9 mineral balance studies. The balance periods ranged from 8 to 12 d, with adaptation periods of 2 to 4 d. The dietary intakes of Ca and Mg ranged from 294 to 719 and 154 to 334 mg/d, or from 4.83 to 15.07 and 2.44 to 6.42 mg/kg BW/d, respectively. Intake of Ca significantly correlated with Ca balance (r2 = 0.268; p < 0.0001). When the balance was equal to zero, the mean value and upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for the regression equation between intake vs. balance were 10.072 and 10.660 mg/kg BW/d, respectively. Mg intake correlated significantly with Mg balance (r2 = 0.141, p = 0.003). When the balance was equal to zero, the mean value and upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for the regression equation between intake and balance were 4.078 and 4.287 mg/kg BW/d, respectively.
Beck, Anne Marie; Hansen, Kirsten S
Underweight is a significant problem among older Danish nursing home residents and home-care clients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional composition of the meals prepared for older adults in nursing homes and receiving Meals-on-Wheels deliveries, focusing on the menus most commonly served, including the standard menu (most commonly prepared), the energy and protein dense menu, and two types of texture modified menus (chopped and blended). Also, one portion of a homemade energy and protein dense drink was collected and analyzed. For each of the participating kitchens (N = 10), extra portions of different menus were made (3 days in a row). The meal samples (total n = 389) were analyzed for content of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate. The findings were compared with recommendations regarding the foods to be served in Danish institutions. The nutrient content of the meals-on-wheels and nursing home meals, as well as that of the homemade energy and protein dense drink, varied considerably. The nursing home menus seldom or never fulfilled the recommendations. Our findings support the conclusion that meals served in Danish nursing homes and to meals-on-wheels clients do not consistently offer adequate nutritional intakes.
Cardon-Thomas, Danielle K.; Riviere, Timothy; Tieges, Zoë; Greig, Carolyn A.
Daily distribution of dietary protein may be important in protecting against sarcopenia, specifically in terms of per meal amounts relative to a proposed threshold for maximal response. The aims of this study were to determine total and per meal protein intake in older adults, as well as identifying associations with physical activity and sedentary behavior. Three-day food diaries recorded protein intake in 38 participants. Protein distribution, coefficient of variation (CV), and per meal amounts were calculated. Accelerometry was used to collect physical activity data as well as volume and patterns of sedentary time. Average intake was 1.14 g·kg−1·day−1. Distribution was uneven (CV = 0.67), and 79% of participants reported <0.4 g·kg−1 protein content in at least 2/3 daily meals. Protein intake was significantly correlated with step count (r = 0.439, p = 0.007) and negatively correlated with sedentary time (r = −0.456, p = 0.005) and Gini index G, which describes the pattern of accumulation of sedentary time (r = −0.421, p = 0.011). Total daily protein intake was sufficient; however, distribution did not align with the current literature; increasing protein intake may help to facilitate optimization of distribution. Associations between protein and other risk factors for sarcopenia may also inform protective strategies. PMID:28241469
Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen; Smed, Sinne; Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Mojca; Rayner, Mike; Darmon, Nicole; Robertson, Aileen
Background Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Methods Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods. Results The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6). The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8). The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN) to 134 (DGN) foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N) and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN). Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN) tripled it. Conclusion Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable. PMID:27760131
Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida
The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in non-consumers. The PANDiet index was significantly higher in yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p < 0.001). The adequacy sub-score for 17 nutrients for which usual intake should be above the reference value was significantly higher among yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet.
Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Dahl, Lisbeth
The present literature review is a part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) issued in 2004. The main objective of the review is to assess the influence of different intakes of iodine at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation) in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. The literature search resulted in 1,504 abstracts. Out of those, 168 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Full paper selection resulted in 40 papers that were quality assessed (A, B, or C). The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, and no conclusion. We found suggestive evidence for improved maternal iodine status and thyroid function by iodine supplementation during pregnancy. Suggestive evidence was found for the relationship between improved thyroid function (used as an indicator of iodine status) during pregnancy and cognitive function in the offspring up to 18 months of age. Moderately to severely iodine-deficient children will probably benefit from iodine supplementation or improved iodine status in order to improve their cognitive function, while only one study showed improved cognitive function following iodine supplementation in children from a mildly iodine-deficient area (no conclusion). No conclusions can be drawn related to other outcomes included in our review. There are no new data supporting changes in dietary reference values for children or adults. The rationale for increasing the dietary reference values for pregnant and lactating women in the NNR5 needs to be discussed in a broader perspective, taking iodine status of pregnant women in the Nordic countries into account. PMID:23060737
Penagini, Francesca; Mameli, Chiara; Fabiano, Valentina; Brunetti, Domenica; Dilillo, Dario; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo
Neurologically impaired (NI) children are at increased risk of malnutrition due to several nutritional and non-nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, insufficient dietary intake as a consequence of feeding difficulties is one of the main issues. Feeding problems are frequently secondary to oropharyngeal dysphagia, which usually correlates with the severity of motor impairment and presents in around 90% of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP) during the first year of life. Other nutritional factors are represented by excessive nutrient losses, often subsequent to gastroesophageal reflux and altered energy metabolism. Among the non-nutritional factors, the type and severity of neurological impairment, ambulatory status, the degree of cognitive impairment, and use of entiepileptic medication altogether concur to determination of nutritional status. With the present review, the current literature is discussed and a practical approach for nutritional assessment in NI children is proposed. Early identification and intervention of nutritional issues of NI children with a multidisciplinary approach is crucial to improve the overall health and quality of life of these complex children. PMID:26580646
Until about 1900, large proportions of the world population endured hunger and poverty. The 20th century saw world population increase from 1.6 to 6.1 billion, accompanied and to some extent made possible by rapid improvements in health standards and food supply, with associated advances in agricultural and nutrition sciences. In this paper, I use the application of linear programming (LP) in preparation of rations for farm animals to illustrate a method of calculating the lowest cost of a human diet selected from locally available food items, constrained to provide recommended levels of food energy and nutrients; then, to find a realistic minimum cost, I apply the further constraint that the main sources of food energy in the costed diet are weighted in proportion to the actual reported consumption of food items in that area. Worldwide variations in dietary preferences raise the issue as to the sustainability of popular dietary regimes, and the paper reviews the factors associated with satisfying requirements for adequate nutrition within those regimes. The ultimate physical constraints on food supply are described, together with the ways in which climate change may affect those constraints. During the 20th century, food supply increased sufficiently in most areas to keep pace with the rapid increase in world population. Many challenges will need to be overcome if food supply is to continue to meet demand, and those challenges are made more severe by rising expectations of quality of life in the developing world, as well as by the impacts of climate change on agriculture and aquaculture.
Until about 1900, large proportions of the world population endured hunger and poverty. The 20th century saw world population increase from 1.6 to 6.1 billion, accompanied and to some extent made possible by rapid improvements in health standards and food supply, with associated advances in agricultural and nutrition sciences. In this paper, I use the application of linear programming (LP) in preparation of rations for farm animals to illustrate a method of calculating the lowest cost of a human diet selected from locally available food items, constrained to provide recommended levels of food energy and nutrients; then, to find a realistic minimum cost, I apply the further constraint that the main sources of food energy in the costed diet are weighted in proportion to the actual reported consumption of food items in that area. Worldwide variations in dietary preferences raise the issue as to the sustainability of popular dietary regimes, and the paper reviews the factors associated with satisfying requirements for adequate nutrition within those regimes. The ultimate physical constraints on food supply are described, together with the ways in which climate change may affect those constraints. During the 20th century, food supply increased sufficiently in most areas to keep pace with the rapid increase in world population. Many challenges will need to be overcome if food supply is to continue to meet demand, and those challenges are made more severe by rising expectations of quality of life in the developing world, as well as by the impacts of climate change on agriculture and aquaculture. PMID:28231177
dos Reis, Lígia Cardoso; Correia, Ingrid Chaves; Mizutani, Edna Shibuya
ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the nutritional and dietetic profile of freshman Nutrition undergraduate students, and its association with stages of changes (Transtheoretical Model) for fruit and vegetable intake. Methods: Demographic (age and gender), anthropometric (body mass index and waist circumference) and nutritional (pattern of fruit and vegetable intake) data were obtained. The Transtheoretical Model was used to identify the stages of change for fruit and vegetable intake. Food consumption was assessed with a questionnaire developed by the Ministry of Health. The significance level considered for all statistical tests was 0.05 (p<0.05). Results: From 433 eligible students, anthropometric measurements were taken from 219 (50.6%), and 299 (69%) underwent food intake evaluation. The sample included undergraduate students with a low frequency of adequate fruit and vegetables intake (29.8%), being the majority (64.9%) of them classified as at the preparation stage to increase the intake of these food groups. Prevalence of adequate fruit and vegetables intake was higher among students at the action/maintenance stages (83.3%) compared to those at the precontemplation/contemplation (18.3%) and at the preparation stages (32.0%). Students at the preparation stage presented the highest medians for body mass index (p=0.004) and waist circumference (p=0.039) compared to those at the precontemplation/contemplation stages. There was no association between fruit and vegetables intake and the presence of overweight or abdominal obesity (p=0.373). Conclusion: This instrument is effective to predict the food intake and, even among aware individuals and ready to change their food behavior, the prevalence of nutritional risk is high. PMID:24728246
Sánchez-Muñoz, C; Zabala, M; Muros, J J
Appropriate nutrition through adequate dietary intake of total calories, macronutrients, and micronutrients is an essential component of optimizing the performance of all elite athletes. The aim of this study was to describe the food intake, body composition, and biochemical profile of professional cyclists during the Tour of Andalusia, a four-stage race covering a total distance of 647.6 km. Nutritional data were collected by trained investigators who weighed all of the food and fluid ingested by the cyclists. The nutritional intake of the cyclists was as follows: CHO, 12.8 ± 1.7 g/kg of body weight (BW; 62.3%); fat, 2.1 ± 0.2 g/kg BW (23.2%); proteins, 3.0 ± 0.3 g/kg BW (14.5%); total kcal was 5644.3 ± 593.1. Intake of all micronutrients, except for folate and potassium [which were 93.7% and 91.3% of Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)] exceeded the RDA/I. Percentage of body fat and fat weight significantly decreased (P < 0.05) while weight of muscle mass remained unchanged after the Tour. Concentrations of urea, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, myoglobin, and high-density lipoproteins significantly increased (P < 0.05) after the Tour. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe both nutritional intake and the body and biochemical composition of a sample of professional road cyclists during a top-class cycling race.
Wyka, Joanna; Biernat, Jadwiga; Mikołajczak, Jolanta; Piotrowska, Ewa
The proportion of elderly people in the global population is rapidly increasing. Their nutritional status indicates many deficiencies that are risky to health. The aim of this paper was to assess the nutrition and nutritional status in elderly individuals above 60 years old living in their family houses in rural areas. Dietary intake and nutritional status were measured in 174 elderly women and 64 men living in the rural areas of Oleśnica (near Wrocław, SW Poland). Energy intake, consumption of nutrients, selected anthropometric and biochemical indicators, were measured in two groups: one at risk of malnutrition and one with adequate nutrition. Using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) questionnaire, 238 persons over 60 years of age were qualified according to their nutritional status. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. The group of women at risk of malnutrition (n=30) showed a statistically significantly lower energy intake in their diet (1,127 kcal) compared to women with adequate nutrition (1,351 kcal). The entire group of examined individuals showed a too low consumption of fiber, calcium, vitamins C and D, and folates. Most of the examined women had a too high body mass index (BMI) (on average 28.8), waist circumference was 96.3 cm, and the triceps skinfold (TSF) was 25.2mm thick. Women at a risk of malnutrition had statistically significantly lower lipid parameters than those with adequate nutrition (respectively: TC 191.1 vs. 219.1m/dl, p<0.001, LDL-cholesterol 107.1 vs. 125.1m/dl, p<0.008, TG 129 vs. 143 mg/dl). Men with a risk of malnutrition had a statistically significantly lower BMI (26.0 vs. 28.7, p<0.04), and also lower waist and arm perimeters compared to men with correct nutrition. According to the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), 8.2% of person with adequate nutrition had poor prognostic indicator for overall survival. All the examined individuals showed many significant nutritional deficiencies. The group with
Yasutake, Kenichiro; Kohjima, Motoyuki; Nakashima, Manabu; Kotoh, Kazuhiro; Nakamuta, Makoto; Enjoji, Munechika
The dietary intake of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is generally characterized by high levels of carbohydrate, fat, and/or cholesterol, and these dietary patterns influence hepatic lipid metabolism in the patients. Therefore, careful investigation of dietary habits could lead to better nutrition therapy in NAFLD patients. The main treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is interferon-based antiviral therapy, which often causes a decrease in appetite and energy intake; hence, nutritional support is also required during therapy to prevent undernourishment, treatment interruption, and a reduction in quality of life. Moreover, addition of some nutrients that act to suppress viral proliferation is recommended. As a substitutive treatment, low-iron diet therapy, which is relatively safe and effective for preventing hepatocellular carcinoma, is also recommended for CHC patients. Some patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) have decreased dietary energy and protein intake, while the number of LC patients with overeating and obesity is increasing, indicating that the nutritional state of LC patients has a broad spectrum. Therefore, nutrition therapy for LC patients should be planned on an assessment of their complications, nutritional state, and dietary intake. Late evening snacks, branched-chain amino acids, zinc, and probiotics are considered for effective nutritional utilization.
Xia, Wei; Zhou, Yanjuan; Sun, Caihong; Wang, Jia; Wu, Lijie
Parents of children with autism often report gastrointestinal problems as well as picky eating and selective eating in their children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status and the nutrient intake in 111 Chinese children with autism, aged between 2 and 9 years. Anthropometric data were expressed as Z scores. A 3-day dietary recall was provided by the parents, and the data were compared with the national Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) standards for Chinese children. The results showed that only nine of the autistic children (8.1%) were acute or chronically malnourished. From the remaining 102 patients, 67 (60.4%) were eutrophic and 35 (31.5%) had either overweight or obesity. Intakes of both calories and proteins were adequate in the vast majority of these children, but the calories from fat was lower than DRI in the same age group. The average intake of vitamin E and niacin exceeded 100% of DRI, and the intakes of vitamin B1 and B2, magnesium, and iron were between 80% and 90% of DRI range. However, the following nutrients did not meet the DRI requirements at all: vitamins A, B6 and C, folic acid, calcium, and zinc. Although growth was satisfactory in the vast majority of these children with autistic disorder, this study revealed serious deficiencies in the intakes of several vitamins and essential nutrients.
Yen, Chin-En; Yen, Chi-Hua; Huang, Men-Chung; Cheng, Chien-Hsiang; Huang, Yi-Chia
The aim of this study was to assess and compare dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents. Fifty-six omnivores (28 children and 28 parents) and 42 vegetarians (21 preschool children with 18 lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 3 ovo-vegetarians; 21 parents with 16 lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 2 ovo-vegetarians, 1 lacto-vegetarian, and 2 vegans) were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were taken; body mass index and weight-for-height index (WHI) were calculated. Nutrient intake was recorded using 3-day dietary records. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained to estimate hematologic and vitamin status parameters. Height, weight, body mass index, WHI, and triceps skinfold thickness value differences between omnivores and vegetarians in both parent and child groups were not found. Both omnivorous parents and their children had significantly higher fat and lower fiber intakes than vegetarian parents and children. Omnivorous children had significantly higher protein and lower vitamin C intakes than vegetarian children, whereas omnivorous parents had significantly lower vitamin A and iron intakes than vegetarian parents. Vegetarians and omnivores in both parent and child groups had mean calcium consumption less than 75% of the Taiwan dietary intakes. All mean hematologic and biochemical nutrient status indices were within the reference range in any groups. However, both vegetarian parents and children had significantly lower mean total cholesterol and serum ferritin concentrations than those of omnivorous parents and children. Our vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children had normal growth and adequate nutritional status. However, both parents and children had inadequate calcium intakes, which may potentially affect bone health, especially for preschool children in the growing stage.
Watson, B C; Matthews, J O; Southern, L L; Shelton, J L
Five experiments (Exp.) were conducted to determine the effects of phytase on growth performance and intestinal transit time in chicks fed nutritionally adequate diets and diets deficient in Ca and nonphytate P (nPP). In Exp. 1 and 2, chicks were fed a nutritionally adequate diet from 0 to 6 d or from 0 to 4 d posthatching; assay periods were 8 or 10 d; average initial BW were 98 or 79 g; and average final BW were 371 or 369 g, respectively. Treatments were replicated with 12 pens of 5 chicks each. Corn-soybean meal (C-SBM) diets were adequate in all nutrients except Ca and nPP where appropriate. The treatments were 1) C-SBM, 1.0% Ca, and 0.45% nPP; 2) C-SBM, 0.80% Ca, and 0.25% nPP; 3) Diet 1 + 600 phytase units/kg of diet; 4) Diet 2 + 600 phytase units/kg of diet. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 were conducted to determine the effects of phytase on intestinal transit time in broilers. Broilers were fed the same nutritionally adequate diet from 0 to 18, 27, or 23 d posthatching, and the assay periods were 7 d. Treatments were replicated with 18 individually penned broilers. Average initial BW were 768, 1,108, or 838 g, and average final BW were 1,299, 1,704, or 1,392 g in Exp. 3 to 5, respectively. Transit time data were collected on d 1 and 7 of the Exp. Diets were 1) C-SBM, 0.9% Ca, and 0.35% nPP; 2) C-SBM, 0.80% Ca, and 0.25% nPP + 600 phytase units/kg of diet. Transit time was calculated as the difference between the time feed was first ingested and the time of first appearance of solid feces. In Exp. 1 and 2, the reduction in dietary Ca and nPP reduced (P < 0.01) average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain:feed. Phytase addition increased (P < 0.02) ADG and ADFI in diets deficient in Ca and nPP and in the nutritionally adequate diets. In Exp. 2, the reduction in Ca and nPP reduced (P < 0.01) toe and tibia ash percentage, but phytase addition increased (P < 0.01) toe and tibia ash percentage. The increase in toe ash percentage was greater in
Johnson-Down, Louise; Egeland, Grace M
Dietary habits among Arctic preschoolers are unknown. A cross-sectional health survey of 388 Inuit, aged 3-5 y, was conducted in 16 communities in Canada's Nunavut Territory. Twenty-four-hour recall and FFQ with parents and primary caregivers quantified diet from market and traditional foods (TF). The Institute of Medicine's Dietary Reference Intakes estimated adequacy comparing intakes with Estimated Average Requirement or Adequate Intakes (AI). High-sugar and high-fat food and sugar beverage consumption and the extent to which dietary habits followed the Canadian Food Guide were evaluated. The children's mean age was 4.4 +/- 0.9 y and the mean BMI percentile was 90.2%. Consumption of nutrient-poor and energy-dense food and beverages contributed to 35% of energy. Most children met the requirements for many nutrients despite not eating the recommended servings from Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide First Nations, Inuit and Métis. Higher intake of TF resulted in higher intakes of cholesterol, vitamins A and D, iron, magnesium, and zinc. The percent above the AI for vitamin D was 43.1, 56.8, and 83.2% among no, low, and high TF consumers, respectively (chi2 test; P-trend < 0.0001). Dietary habits indicate a population at risk for overweight, obesity, and tooth decay. Interventions should encourage TF, including plant-based TF; healthy market food choices, including fruit and vegetables; and milk or alternative sources of vitamin D and calcium and discourage unhealthy market food choices.
Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda
The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6-9 years) in 2013-2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children's dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson's chi-square and Student's t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies.
Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda
The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6–9 years) in 2013–2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children’s dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson’s chi-square and Student’s t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443
Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia
if adequate micronutrient intake cannot be achieved through regular dietary intake alone. However, dietary analyses should be conducted on a regular basis throughout the year to improve the nutritional knowledge of the athletes and assure adequate micronutrient intake.
Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia
if adequate micronutrient intake cannot be achieved through regular dietary intake alone. However, dietary analyses should be conducted on a regular basis throughout the year to improve the nutritional knowledge of the athletes and assure adequate micronutrient intake. PMID:27383836
Lundberg, A C; Akesson, A; Akesson, B
Oesophageal dysmotility and abnormalities of intestinal function are important manifestations in systemic sclerosis and may have a significant effect on nutrient absorption and nutritional status. In this study 30 patients with systemic sclerosis with symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract were compared with matched healthy control subjects with respect to nutrient intake (four day record), anthropometric measurements, and biochemical nutritional status. The intake of energy (8.1 and 8.4 MJ/day) and its distribution among nutrients did not differ between patients and control subjects, but the lower intake of dietary fibre among patients with systemic sclerosis suggests that they avoided food with a coarse structure, such as coarse bread. The intake of vegetables and fruit also tended to be lower among patients with systemic sclerosis. Half of the patients had a subnormal arm muscle circumference, and two patients also had a subnormal triceps skinfold thickness, indicating severe malnutrition. The concentration of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, carotene, selenium, and also the proportion of linoleic acid (18:2) in serum phosphatidylcholine was lower in patients than in control subjects.
Rice, Barbara L.; Dlouhy, Holly; Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.
Background: Maintaining adequate nutrient intake in microgravity is important not only to meet health maintenance needs of astronauts but also to help counteract the negative effects of space flight. Beyond this, food provides psychosocial benefits throughout a mission. Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to discuss dietary intake data from multiple space programs, including Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Description: These data arise from medical monitoring of both dietary intake and crew health, as well as research protocols designed to assess the role of diet in counteracting bone loss and other health concerns. Ground-based studies are conducted to better understand some of the negative issues related to space flight. Examples of these analog studies are extended bed rest studies, vitamin D supplementation studies in Antarctica, and saturation diving missions on the floor of the ocean. Methods and findings will be presented describing the use of weighed records, diet diaries, and food frequency questionnaires in these various environments. Provision of food and nutrients in spaceflight is important for many body systems including cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, endocrine, immune, and others. Some key areas of concern are loss of body mass, bone and muscle loss, radiation exposure, nutrient intakes during spacewalks, depletion of nutrient stores, and inadequate dietary intake. Initial experimental research studies using food and nutrition as a countermeasure to aid in mitigating these concerns are underway. Conclusion: Beyond their importance for the few individuals leaving the planet, these studies have significant implications for those remaining on Earth.
Hubbard, V S; Mangrum, P J
Historically, it has been thought that the patient with cystic fibrosis (CF) has a voracious appetite. It is now becoming apparent that many patients do not have caloric intakes which meet their full energy requirements. Our study of CF patient, utilizing, a five-day written record of food consumptions and direct observation, supports this finding and points out the need for further nutritional counseling in providing optimal care for these patients. The cause of increased nutrient requirements and considerations for individualization of counseling are briefly discussed.
Green, Julie; And Others
Female adolescents were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=29), which received nutrition instruction, and a no-treatment control group (n=20). In the experimental group, nutrition knowledge increased significantly, calcium and vitamin D intake increased, and mean intakes for calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus were closer to the…
Shad, Brandon J; Wallis, Gareth; van Loon, Luc J C; Thompson, Janice L
Regular physical activity (PA) promotes musculoskeletal health in older adults. However, the majority of older individuals do not meet current PA guidelines and are also highly sedentary. Emerging evidence indicates that large amounts of sedentary time accelerate the loss of skeletal muscle mass (i.e., sarcopenia) and physical function with advancing age. However, current PA recommendations for sedentary time are non-specific (i.e., keep sedentary time to a minimum). Research indicates that physical inactivity and large amounts of sedentary time accelerate sarcopenic muscle loss by inducing skeletal muscle 'anabolic resistance'. These findings suggest a critical interaction between engaging in 'sufficient' levels of PA, minimising sedentary time, and consuming 'adequate' nutrition to promote optimal musculoskeletal health in older adults. However, current PA recommendations do not take into account the important role that nutrition plays in ensuring older adults can maximise the benefits from the PA in which they engage. The aim of this narrative review is: (1) to briefly summarise the evidence used to inform current public health recommendations for PA and sedentary time in older adults; and (2) to discuss the presence of 'anabolic resistance' in older adults, highlighting the importance of regular PA and minimising sedentary behaviour. It is imperative that the synergy between PA, minimising sedentary behaviour and adequate nutrition is integrated into future PA guidelines to promote optimal musculoskeletal health and metabolic responses in the growing ageing population.
Objectives. We compared sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB), alcohol, and other caloric beverage (juice and milk) consumption of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants with that of low-income nonparticipants. Methods. We used 1 day of dietary intake data from the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 4594 adults aged 20 years and older with household income at or below 250% of the federal poverty line. We used bivariate and multivariate methods to compare the probability of consuming and the amount of calories consumed for each beverage type across 3 groups: current SNAP participants, former participants, and nonparticipants. We used instrumental variable methods to control for unobservable differences in participant groups. Results. After controlling for observable characteristics, SNAP participants were no more likely to consume SSBs than were nonparticipants. Instrumental variable estimates showed that current participants consumed fewer calories from SSBs than did similar nonparticipants. We found no differences in alcoholic beverage consumption, which cannot be purchased with SNAP benefits. Conclusions. SNAP participants are not unique in their consumption of SSBs or alcoholic beverages. Purchase restrictions may have little effect on SSB consumption. PMID:25033141
Waern, Rosilene V R; Cumming, Robert G; Blyth, Fiona; Naganathan, Vasi; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Le Couteur, David; Simpson, Stephen J; Kendig, Hal; Hirani, Vasant
Previous research shows that older men tend to have lower nutritional intakes and higher risk of under-nutrition compared with younger men. The objectives of this study were to describe energy and nutrient intakes, assess nutritional risk and investigate factors associated with poor intake of energy and key nutrients in community-dwelling men aged ≥75 years participating in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project - a longitudinal cohort study on older men in Sydney, Australia. A total of 794 men (mean age 81·4 years) had a detailed diet history interview, which was carried out by a dietitian. Dietary adequacy was assessed by comparing median intakes with nutrient reference values (NRV): estimated average requirement, adequate intake or upper level of intake. Attainment of NRV of total energy and key nutrients in older age (protein, Fe, Zn, riboflavin, Ca and vitamin D) was incorporated into a 'key nutrients' variable dichotomised as 'good' (≥5) or 'poor' (≤4). Using logistic regression modelling, we examined associations between key nutrients with factors known to affect food intake. Median energy intake was 8728 kJ (P5=5762 kJ, P95=12 303 kJ), and mean BMI was 27·7 (sd 4·0) kg/m2. Men met their NRV for most nutrients. However, only 1 % of men met their NRV for vitamin D, only 19 % for Ca, only 30 % for K and only 33 % for dietary fibre. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only country of birth was significantly associated with poor nutritional intake. Dietary intakes were adequate for most nutrients; however, only half of the participants met the NRV of ≥5 key nutrients.
Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim
The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency.
Camacho, Leticia E; Meyer, Allison M; Neville, Tammi L; Hammer, Carolyn J; Redmer, Dale A; Reynolds, Lawrence P; Caton, Joel S; Vonnahme, Kimberly A
To investigate the effects of maternal selenium (Se) supplementation and nutritional intake during gestation on hormone changes, percentage body weight (BW) change, and organ mass in neonatal lambs, ewes were allocated to differing Se levels (adequate Se (ASe, 11.5 μg/kg BW) or high Se (HSe, 77.0 μg/kg BW)) initiated at breeding and nutritional intake (60% (RES), 100% (CON), or 140% (HIGH) of NRC requirements) initiated at day 40 of gestation. At parturition, all lambs were removed from dams, fed common diets, and BW and blood samples were collected until day 19. There was a Se × nutritional intake × day interaction for percentage BW change from birth. Lambs born to ASe-HIGH ewes tended to have decreased BW change compared with ASe-CON and ASe-RES groups on day 7. Lambs from HSe-HIGH ewes tended to have increased BW change compared with HSe-RES and HSe-CON groups from days 7 to 19. At birth, there was a Se × sex of offspring interaction, in which male lambs from HSe ewes had decreased cortisol concentrations compared with all other lambs. By 24 h, lambs from RES ewes had decreased cortisol compared with those from HIGH ewes, with lambs from CON ewes being intermediate. Lambs from RES- and CON-fed ewes had greater thyroxine than HIGH ewes at 24 h. Organ masses on day 19 were mainly impacted by maternal nutritional intake and sex of the offspring. Birth weight alone did not predict growth performance during neonatal life. Moreover, despite a similar postnatal diet, maternal nutritional plane and Se status did impact neonatal endocrine profiles. Exact mechanisms of how neonatal endocrine status can influence later growth and development need to be determined.
The WHO recommends that exclusive breastfeeding should last up to 6 months. However, human milk intake of Sri Lankan infants has not been quantified scientifically. The objectives of this study were to measure the human milk intake of Sri Lankan infants during the first 6 months of age and to docume...
Prebiotics have been shown to enhance bone and gastrointestinal health. Recent data suggest a benefit to weight maintenance as well. However, few data are available in children or adolescents. The interactive effects of prebiotic intake and calcium intake on weight maintenance are unknown. Our objec...
Vrabcova, Michaela; Mikuska, Livia; Vazan, Rastislav; Miko, Michal; Varga, Ivan; Mravec, Boris
Changes in the quantity and/or quality of food intake have been shown to be associated with morphological and functional alterations of the gastrointestinal system. To examine this, we investigated the effect of chronic liquid nutrition intake (Fresubin) on stomach and duodenum morphology in Wistar rats fed liquid nutrition during different developmental periods. We used four groups of rats: a) control group (CON) fed pelleted chow for 130days; b) liquid nutrition group (LN) fed liquid nutrition for 130days; c) liquid nutrition juvenile group (LNJ) fed liquid nutrition for 70days and then pelleted food for 60days; d) liquid nutrition adult group (LNA) fed pelleted chow for 70days and then liquid nutrition for 60days. We found that LN and LNA rats showed a significant reduction of empty stomach mass compared to CON animals, while stomach and duodenal longitudinal muscle layer thickness did not differ between groups. Villus height was increased only in LNA animals, while villus width was increased in both LN and LNA rats. Crypt depth was reduced in LNJ. However, liquid nutrition intake did not affect villus height/crypt depth ratio, nor number of goblet cells. We found that chronic intake of liquid nutrition affects some morphological parameters of the stomach and duodenum but these changes were not homogenous between experimental groups. Interestingly, transition from liquid nutrition to solid food reversed the alterations of stomach weight as well as villus width induced by intake of liquid nutrition in LNA rats. Our data indicate that morphological and functional changes in the gastrointestinal system induced by qualitative and quantitative changes in food intake are at least partially reversible. Therefore, specific diets may be used potentially as adjuvant treatment for modulating the progression of gastrointestinal diseases by affecting stomach and small intestine morphology.
Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Sarmento, José Lindenberg Rocha; Neto, Severino Gonzaga; de Paula, Ney Rômulo Oliveira; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; do Rêgo, Wagner Martins Fontes
The goal of this bibliographical study was to provide information about residual feed intake (RFI), a new criterion used in the selection of beef cattle for growth rate, food ingestion, and feed efficiency. RFI is calculated as the difference between real consumption and the quantity of food an animal is expected to eat based on its mean live weight and rate of weight gain. In studies of RFI, many speculations are made among researchers about the reliability of this criterion. However, there is a high genetic correlation with characteristics related to post-weaning consumption and maturity, indicating that the biological processes that regulate consumption and efficiency in young animals are similar to the processes that regulate consumption and efficiency in animals of greater age. In contrast to feed conversion, selection based on RFI seems to select for lower rates of consumption and lower animal maintenance requirements without changing adult weight or weight gain. Therefore, we conclude that the data indicate that there are extraordinary benefits to be gained from changing the goals of selection from increased weight gain to improved nutritional efficiency. Given the importance of animal production for economic development in Brazil choosing the best selection goals for livestock improvement is essential. To include an index of feed efficiency in future goals would be desirable, and RFI may play a part in this if economic methods of implementation can be developed.
Zhang, J.; Babiarz, K.; Goldhaber-Fiebert, J.; Lobell, D. B.
Many studies have investigated effects of weather on production of key food crops, largely motivated by a desire to anticipate impacts of climate change. However, health outcomes are most directly affected by food consumption, not production. Consumption changes will not necessarily follow production changes, primarily because people can adjust their diets away from foods that are most negatively affected. To more directly evaluate the effects of weather on nutrition, we analyzed reported household expenditure and consumption data from 20 rounds of the National Sample Survey (NSS) of India along with aggregated weather data of the two main agricultural seasons, kharif and rabi. Per capita intake of calories, protein, fats, and micronutrients were calculated from reported data at the household level, and then aggregated to district level for comparison with weather data. Regression analysis revealed significant negative effects of increased temperatures on calorie consumption in rural areas, with lower sensitivities in urban areas. We also found a higher sensitivity of protein and fat consumption to weather than for calories, which likely reflects the ability of households to switch to cheaper sources of calories in lean times. The results of this analysis will be useful for assessing the overall health burdens associated with climate change in India.
Li, Li; Somerset, Shawn
An increased prevalence of cystic fibrosis (CF) related complications such as impaired bone health and diabetes has accompanied increased survival of patients with CF. This review was conducted to determine the extent to which adults with CF are meeting current nutrition recommendations for micronutrients in association with CF-related complications management. Although dietary intake and nutritional status in CF has improved significantly in recent decades, micronutrient status seems to have diverged. While vitamin A and E intakes appear adequate, frequent vitamin D and K deficiency/insufficiency and compromised bone health in CF, occurs despite supplementation. Although deficiency of water-soluble vitamins and minerals is uncommon, ongoing surveillance will enhance overall health outcomes, particularly in cases of CF-related liver disease and deteriorated lung function and bone health. Salt and fluid status in CF may also need attention due to diminished thirst sensation and voluntary rehydration. Further investigation in micronutrient status optimisation in CF will inform the development of more effective and targeted nutrition therapies to enable integration of more refined recommendations for micronutrient intakes in CF based on individual needs and disease progression.
Kim, Kirang; Park, Sun Min; Oh, Kyung Won
The objectives of this study were to examine the trend in unhealthy food intake by socioeconomic position (SEP) and to determine whether the government's nutritional policies affect socioeconomic disparity in the food intake among adolescents. Data were from the six independent cross-sectional survey data (2006-2011) of Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey and included 445,287 subjects aged 12-18 years. The unhealthy food intake was assessed by food frequency intake and SEP was evaluated with the family affluence scale. We observed that unhealthy food intakes decreased through the years, showing the apparent decline when nutritional policies focusing on the restriction of unhealthy foods were implemented, and the trend was all same in the different SEP groups. The pattern of unhealthy food intakes by SEP has changed before and after implementation of the policies. The intakes of carbonated beverages, fast food, and confectioneries were higher in the higher SEP group before implementation of the policies but the difference was not shown after implementation of the policies. The intake of instant noodles was consistently higher in the lower SEP group. The risk of frequent consumption of unhealthy foods was generally more decreased through the years in the higher SEP group than the lower SEP group. In conclusion, this study found the positive effect of nutritional policy on unhealthy food intake among adolescents and the high SEP group appeared to undergo greater desirable changes in dietary behaviors after implementation of nutritional policies than the low SEP group.
Nagayama, I; Notsu, A; Noda, H; Otsuka, Y
This study was performed to estimate the dietary fiber intake calculated using individual food intake data and the dietary fiber tables, and to ascertain the relationship between food intake patterns and dietary fiber intake of the general population. The 805 subjects over 15 years old were obtained from the Tottori Prefecture Nutrition Survey. The results are summarized as follows: 1. The average dietary fiber intake per capita per day was 18.19 g; 18.67 g in men, and 17.81 g in women. Dietary fiber intake per energy was different among sexes and ages: women had more dietary fiber than men and the aged had more than the young. Those who had high fiber intake per energy took green vegetables, fruits, milk, soybean products, seaweed and potatoes more frequently, and did not take oil so frequently. 2. Total dietary fiber intake from 20 food-group sources was analyzed by Multiple Regression Analysis. For both men and women fruits, vegetables and soybean products mostly influenced dietary fiber intake. 3. Based on the intake of the 20 food-groups obtained from 356 men and 449 women, the correlation matrix among these foods was calculated. The correlation matrix was also submitted to a Principal Component Analysis. The result of the Principal Component Analysis told that food intake patterns were different among the levels of dietary fiber intake. Food intake patterns of men and women who had high fiber intake per energy had an eating pattern characterized by relatively more non-processed vegetable food, bread and milk. 4. The level of blood pressure was significantly related to dietary fiber intake per energy in men over 60 years old. In the hypertensive men over 60 years old, 23.3% were in the low fiber intake group, 37.2% in the middle group, and 39.5% in the high group. But in the normal blood pressure men over 60 years old, 50.0% were in the low fiber intake group, 8.3% in the middle group, and 41.7% in the high group.
Farajian, P; Kavouras, S A; Yannakoulia, M; Sidossis, L S
To investigate whether aquatic athletes follow optimal dietary intake, 58 athletes, all members of the Greek national swimming and water polo teams, were tested. Dietary intake was assessed at the nutrient, food, and food group level using the 24-h recall method and a food frequency questionnaire. Mean energy intake for males and females was 14.3 and 8.5 MJ, respectively. Mean carbohydrate consumption for male and female athletes was 4.5 g/kg and 3.8 g/kg of body weight, respectively. Fat intake was 153 g for males and 79 g for females. A significant number of the athletes (71% of the males, 93% of the females) did not meet the Dietary Reference Intakes for at least one of the antioxidant vitamins. The data suggest that athletes of both genders consumed too much fat and too little carbohydrate. Insufficient fruit and vegetable intake was related to low intake of antioxidants.
Ijarotimi, O S; Keshinro, O O
This study aimed at assessing the anthropometry, dietary intake and micronutrient status of hypertensive patients attending specialist hospitals in Ondo State, Nigeria. A descriptive case control study was conducted among subjects attending two specialist hospitals located in Akure and Ondo towns. A total of 452 subjects (44.9% males and 55.1% females), was purposely selected from the study centres. A structured questionnaire was designed to collect information on demographic characteristics, socio-economic parameters, nutrition knowledge and dietary intakes of the subjects. The quantities of subjects' dietary intakes were measured using household measurements. Weight, height, systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures were measured using electronic bathroom scale, standiometer and sphygmomanometer, respectively. The subject's urine was collected; and vitamin C, sodium, potassium, calcium, zinc and magnesium were determined using standard procedures. The results showed the following means: age 52.4 +/- 2.38 years, weight 66.4 +/- 1.63kg, height 1.64 +/- 0.01m, body mass index (BMI) 24.13 +/- 0.69kg/m2, SBP 124.86 +/- 2.3mmHg and DBP 76.22 +/- 1.86 mmHg. Blood pressure (BP) of the subjects showed that 46.9% had optimal BP, 14.2% normal BP, 11.5% high normal BP, 12.8% mild hypertension, 9.7% moderate hypertension and 4.9% severe hypertension. For BMI, 8.8% were underweight, 47.1% normal, 30.3% overweight, 6.0% obesity class I, 6.0% obesity class II and 1.8% obesity class III. The proportion of hypertensive subjects that were obese was significantly (P = 0.0001) higher than control subjects. Three-fifth of the control subjects had good nutrition knowledge compared to one-fifth of hypertensive subjects. The estimated mean energy intake was 8.46 MJ, protein 93.1g, carbohydrate 314.5g, fat 42.9g, fibres 5.6g and appreciable amount of vitamin C, calcium, zinc, magnesium, sodium and potassium. The subjects' urinary vitamin C concentration was 32.49 +/- 2.53mg
Shepherd, R; Towler, G
Validated questionnaires eliciting information on nutrition knowledge and attitudes, related to fat intake from meat, meat products, dairy products and fried foods, were completed by 538 subjects. There were high correlations (ranging from 0.40 to 0.77) between the sums of belief-evaluations, attitudes, intention and self-reported behaviour, with similar correlations for a subgroup of males aged 35-54 years. Nutrition knowledge, showed some statistically significant (but small) negative correlations with components of attitudes. Females had higher nutrition knowledge scores and more negative views of the foods than did males. Fat intake, measured using 3 day weighed intakes, correlated with self-reported behaviour (r = 0.55, p<0.01) in a subsample of 30 males, aged 35-54 years. Thus, nutrition knowledge seems less clearly related to consumption of these foods than are more specific beliefs and attitudes.
Mardon, Julie; Habauzit, Véronique; Trzeciakiewicz, Anna; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Lebecque, Patrice; Mercier, Sylvie; Tressol, Jean-Claude; Horcajada, Marie-Noëlle; Demigné, Christian; Coxam, Véronique
Low energy and protein intake has been suggested to contribute to the increased incidence of osteoporosis in the elderly. The impact of dietary protein on bone health is still a matter of debate. Therefore, we examined the effect of the modulation of protein intake under adequate or deficient energy conditions on bone status in 16-month-old male rats. The animals were randomly allocated to six groups (n = 10/group). Control animals were fed a diet providing either a normal-protein content (13%, C-NP) or a high-protein content (26%) (C-HP). The other groups received a 40% protein/energy-restricted diet (PER-NP and PER-HP) or a normal protein/energy-restricted diet (ER-NP and ER-HP). After 5 months of the experiment, protein intake (13% or 26%) did not modulate calcium retention or bone status in those rats, although a low-grade metabolic acidosis was induced with the HP diet. Both restrictions (PER and ER) decreased femoral bone mineral density and fracture load. Plasma osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline levels were lowered, suggesting a decrease in bone turnover in the PER and ER groups. Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I levels were also lowered by dietary restrictions, together with calcium retention. Adequate protein intake in the ER condition did not elicit any bone-sparing effect compared to PER rats. In conclusion, both energy and protein deficiencies may contribute to age-related bone loss. This study highlights the importance of sustaining adequate energy and protein provision to preserve skeletal integrity in the elderly.
Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne
This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h dietary recalls with accompanying nutritional supplement questionnaires. In the majority of both users and non-users of dietary supplements, vitamin D intake was below the estimated average requirement (AR) if supplements were not included in the analysis. Including dietary supplements improved vitamin D intake, but still a part of the athletes, both men and women, reported an intake below the AR. Non-users of dietary supplements were particularly at risk for low intakes of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and vitamins A, C and selenium. Mean iron intake was reported below the AR in a substantial group of women, both users and non-users. The use of sport nutrition products contributed only slightly to micronutrient intake. A small prevalence of athletes using dietary supplements showed intakes of some micronutrients above the Upper Level. In conclusion, both users and non-users of nutritional supplements reported inadequate intake of micronutrients. For most micronutrients, use of nutritional supplements does not completely compensate for intakes below AR. Athletes should consider making better food choices and the daily use of a low-dosed multivitamin supplement. PMID:28212284
Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne
This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h dietary recalls with accompanying nutritional supplement questionnaires. In the majority of both users and non-users of dietary supplements, vitamin D intake was below the estimated average requirement (AR) if supplements were not included in the analysis. Including dietary supplements improved vitamin D intake, but still a part of the athletes, both men and women, reported an intake below the AR. Non-users of dietary supplements were particularly at risk for low intakes of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and vitamins A, C and selenium. Mean iron intake was reported below the AR in a substantial group of women, both users and non-users. The use of sport nutrition products contributed only slightly to micronutrient intake. A small prevalence of athletes using dietary supplements showed intakes of some micronutrients above the Upper Level. In conclusion, both users and non-users of nutritional supplements reported inadequate intake of micronutrients. For most micronutrients, use of nutritional supplements does not completely compensate for intakes below AR. Athletes should consider making better food choices and the daily use of a low-dosed multivitamin supplement.
Papadopoulou, Sousana K; Barboukis, Vassilis; Dalkiranis, Anastasios; Hassapidou, Maria; Petridou, Anatoli; Mougios, Vassilis
The aim of the study was to develop and validate a specific semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess nutritional intake of Greek adolescents. The sample of the study consisted of 250 pupils (15.3 +/- 0.7 years), who completed the Youth Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire enriched with 22 Greek foods and recipes to include ethnic and racial diversity. A 3-day weighed food recall was used as the criterion to test the validity of the questionnaire. The analysis of correlation revealed significant correlations between the two methods for almost all variables. The Pearson's coefficients ranged from 0.83 for energy intake to 0.34 for folate intake. Non-significant correlations were found for selenium and vitamin D intakes. The findings of the study provide evidence for the validity of the scale and its utility in assessing nutritional intake of Greek adolescents.
Devlin, Brooke L; Leveritt, Michael D; Kingsley, Michael; Belski, Regina
Sports nutrition professionals aim to influence nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition to improve athletic performance. Understanding the interrelationships between these factors and how they vary across sports has the potential to facilitate better-informed and targeted sports nutrition practice. This observational study assessed body composition (DXA), dietary intake (multiple-pass 24-hour recall) and nutrition knowledge (two previously validated tools) of elite and sub-elite male players involved in two team-based sports; Australian football (AF) and soccer. Differences in, and relationships between, nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition between elite AF, sub-elite AF and elite soccer players were assessed. A total of 66 (23 ± 4 years, 82.0 ± 9.2 kg, 184.7 ± 7.7 cm) players participated. Areas of weaknesses in nutrition knowledge are evident (57% mean score obtained) yet nutrition knowledge was not different between elite and sub-elite AF and soccer players (58%, 57% and 56%, respectively, p > 0.05). Dietary intake was not consistent with recommendations in some areas; carbohydrate intake was lower (4.6 ± 1.5 g/kg/day, 4.5 ± 1.2 g/kg/day and 2.9 ± 1.1 g/kg/day for elite and sub-elite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) and protein intake was higher (3.4 ± 1.1 g/kg/day, 2.1 ± 0.7 g/kg/day and 1.9 ± 0.5 g/kg/day for elite and sub-elite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) than recommendations. Nutrition knowledge was positively correlated with fat-free soft tissue mass (n = 66; r(2) = 0.051, p = 0.039). This insight into known modifiable factors may assist sports nutrition professionals to be more specific and targeted in their approach to supporting players to achieve enhanced performance.
Background Nutritional requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this study was to compare the food intake and prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women. Methods Two-day dietary records of 322 pregnant and 751 lactating women were compared to those of 6837 non-pregnant and non-lactating women aged 19 to 40 years from a nationwide representative sample. The usual nutrient intake was estimated using the National Cancer Institute method, and compared to nutritional goals to estimate prevalence of inadequate intake. Results Pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women did not differ in their average consumption of 18 food groups, except for rice, with greatest intake among lactating women. The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy in pregnant women was higher than in reproductive-age women for folate (78% versus 40%) and vitamin B6 (59% versus 33%). In lactating women, prevalence was higher than in reproductive-age women for vitamin A (95% versus 72%), vitamin C (56% versus 37%), vitamin B6 (75% vs. 33%), folate (72% versus 40%) and zinc (64% versus 20%). The percentage of sodium intake above the upper limit was greater than 70% in the three groups. Conclusions Inadequate intake is frequent in women and increases during pregnancy and lactation, because women do not change their food intake. Guidelines should stimulate healthy food intake for women across the lifespan. PMID:24890188
White, J A; Mok, E; Thibault, L; Booth, D A
To determine if an increase in intake at a meal before a long fast can be conditioned to food texture cues, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given a high- or low-fat diet in one texture (powder or pellet) for 1 h prior to a 12.5-h fast and in the other texture before a 3-h fast. Each group (N = 9) went through a pseudorandom sequence of four duplicates of each texture-fast pairing over 4 experimental days in each of three training trials, followed by one 4-day trial under extinction, i.e. without the difference in fast lengths between textures. Neither the high-fat group nor the low-fat group as a whole gave a clear indication of a learnt texture-cued increase in meal size before the longer fast relative to the shorter fast. However, the rats trained on the high-fat diet that had the highest intakes on the first 4 days of training showed a relative increase in the amount eaten of the texture predicting the longer fast during the third training trial, and this effect also approached statistical significance in the extinction test. These results provide some support for the conclusion that anticipatory hunger/satiety can be differentially conditioned to dietary texture cues, but only if sufficient food is eaten before a short fast to prevent the rise in hunger during longer fasts that reinforces the discriminative increase in meal size.
Castetbon, Katia; Vernay, Michel; Malon, Aurélie; Salanave, Benoit; Deschamps, Valérie; Roudier, Candice; Oleko, Amivi; Szego, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge
The French National Programme on Nutrition and Health (Programme national nutrition santé (PNNS)), the aim of which is to reduce nutrition-related chronic diseases, necessitates monitoring of nutritional characteristics. Our objective was to describe dietary intake, physical activity and nutritional status in a national sample of adults, especially according to current French recommendations. The study is based on a cross-sectional population-based survey using a multistage sampling design (Etude nationale nutrition santé (ENNS)). Between February 2006 and March 2007, 3115 18-74-year-old adults were included (participation rate 59.7 %). Energy, macronutrient and food consumption were estimated through three randomly distributed 24 h recalls, and compared to PNNS recommendations; physical activity was described using International Physical Activity Questionnaire guidelines; anthropometry, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were assessed according to national and international references. When compared to current recommendations, intake of carbohydrates (>50 % energy intake without alcohol: 26.4 %), SFA ( < 35 % total lipids: 18.5 %) and total fibre (>25 g/d: 13.7 %) was frequently unsatisfactory. While overall consumption of 'meat, seafood and eggs' was satisfactory, that of fruits and vegetables ( > or = 400 g/d: 43.8 %) and seafood (two or more servings per week: 29.9 %) was frequently too low. The physical activity level was satisfactory at 63.2 %. Overweight was observed in 49.3 % of adults, while 30.9 % were hypertensive and 44.1 % had dyslipidaemia. Vitamin and iron-poor status was found to affect less than 10 % of the population. Based on the ENNS survey, overall nutrition remains a problem in France. Comparison of these data with those of other countries could contribute to a better understanding of variations in nutrition-related diseases.
Oka, Roberta K; Sanders, Mark G
Little is known about the nutritional status of heart failure patients and the potential synergistic effects between nutritional intake and exercise. This small, randomized trial examined the effects of a 3-month exercise program on body composition and nutritional intake in 31 men (17 exercisers; 14 controls), aged 30-76 years (mean, 56 years) with stable class II-III heart failure. Baseline and 3-month evaluations included body mass index, body fat mass by triceps skinfold thickness, dietary intake by food frequency questionnaire, and the 6-minute walk test. Exercise consisted of walking 3 d/wk and resistance exercises 2 d/wk for 40-60 minutes. Dietary recommendations were consistent with the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology heart failure guidelines. Exercisers decreased body weight (p=0.001), body mass index (p=0.0001), and triceps skinfold thickness (p=0.03) and improved 6-minute walk test (p=0.01) compared with controls. Exercisers also demonstrated trends toward decreased total caloric and cholesterol intake and a three-fold higher carbohydrate, fiber, and beta carotene intake vs. controls. In this study population, protein, fiber, and magnesium intake were below recommended daily allowance. After exercise, body mass index was reduced, accompanied by dietary modifications including greater intake of foods with higher moisture content. Further study is needed to investigate the interaction among diet, exercise, and weight.
Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Shahar, Danit R; Fraser, Drora; Vardi, Hillel; Friger, Michael; Bolotin, Arkardy; Freedman, Laurence S
Bedouin Arabs in southern Israel are a traditionally semi-nomadic population undergoing the nutrition transition in a context of urbanisation. The effect of these changes on the nutritional status of pregnant women is unknown. The Dietary Exposures and Pregnancy Outcomes in a Society In Transition (DEPOSIT) study evaluated the adequacy of pregnant Bedouin women's usual dietary intake and their nutritional status. Dietary intake was assessed in a cross-sectional study design using repeat 24 h recall (24HR) questionnaires. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the usual intake of selected nutrients. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was used to evaluate nutrient intake adequacy. Measured weight and height data were used to calculate the participants' BMI. A total of 1109 24HR were obtained from 683 participants, of which 8 % contained no animal-source protein and an additional 43 % contained no haeme-Fe. Animal-source protein intake reached less than half of the EAR for most participants (71 %). Over 90 % had inadequate intakes of Ca, Fe, animal-source Zn, vitamin A and folate. The probability of consuming haeme-source Fe was higher among urban than rural participants (OR 1·68, 95 % CI 1·17, 2·41), and among those with employed v. unemployed husbands (OR 1·81, 95 % CI 1·27, 2·58). Only 14 % reported consuming home-produced animal products. According to pre-pregnancy BMI, 42 % were overweight or obese. The DEPOSIT study findings suggest that Bedouin Arab women are in need of interventions that address the co-existing problems of inadequate nutrient intakes and increased risk of obesity.
Hillesheim, Elaine; Lima, Luiz R A; Silva, Rosane C R; Trindade, Erasmo B S M
This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the nutritional status and dietary intake of HIV-infected children and adolescents and the relationship between nutritional status and dietary intake and CD4(+) T-cell count and viral load. The sample was composed of 49 subjects aged 7-17 years and living in Florianópolis, Brazil. Nutritional status was assessed by height-for-age and body mass index-for-age. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Spearman correlations and multiple linear regressions were used to determine the relationship between energy, nutrient intake and body mass index-for-age and CD4(+) T-cell count and viral load. The mean body mass index-for-age and height-for-age values were -0.26 ± 0.86 and -0.56 ± 0.92, respectively. The energy intake was 50.8% above the estimated energy requirement and inadequate intake of polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol, fibre, calcium and vitamin C was present in 100%, 57.1%, 40.8%, 61.2% and 26.5% of the sample, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that energy intake was correlated with CD4+ T-cell count (r = 0.33; p = 0.028) and viral load (r = -0.35; p = 0.019). These data showed low body mass index-for-age and height-for-age z-scores, high energy intake and inadequate intake of important nutrients for immune function, growth and control of chronic diseases. A lower energy intake was correlated with viral suppression and immune preservation.
Nakamura, Mieko; Tajima, Sanae; Yoshiike, Nobuo
The National Nutrition Survey is a unique survey that provides nationwide information on nutrient intake in Japan. Descriptive statistical data of nutrient intake, which has not been described in annual reports, are summarized in this report. A dataset from the National Nutrition Survey between 1995 and 1999 was used for analyses. The distribution of vitamin A intake had an extremely long right-hand tail and the difference between mean and median was very large. The results alert us to understand and use statistics properly when one summarizes the data. Means and medians of each nutrient intake except vitamin C were higher in men than in women, however, means and medians of nutrient density (per 1,000 kcal energy intake) for all nutrients were higher in women than in men. Fat intake was the highest in individuals in their 20 s and gradually declined in older age groups. Most of other forms of nutrient intake were the highest in individuals in their 50 s or 60 s and declined in older age groups. However, a declining trend with aging was not observed in the nutrient density of all nutrients except fat. These statistical data would support better interpretation of the survey data. Furthermore, some methodological limitations in the dietary assessment of the present survey, including the possibility of overestimating nutrient intake by not taking nutrient loss during the cooking process in households into account, were discussed. It is important to use and interpret the survey data under careful consideration on such methodological limitations.
Temple, Jennifer L; Johnson, Karena M; Archer, Kelli; Lacarte, Allison; Yi, Christina; Epstein, Leonard H
The purpose of these studies was to test the hypotheses that simplified nutrition labeling and taxation alter food selection and intake. In Experiment 1, participants consumed lunch in the laboratory three times with no labels, standard nutrition labels, or traffic light diet labels at each visit. In Experiment 2, participants were given $6.00 with which to purchase lunch in the laboratory twice with standard pricing on one visit and a 25% tax on "red" foods on another visit. Participants received a brief education session on the labeling systems being used. Total energy intake and energy intake and number of foods purchased from each traffic light category were measured. Nutrition labeling decreased energy intake in lean females, but had no effect in men or in obese females. Traffic light labels increased consumption of "green" foods and decreased consumption of "red" foods. Taxation decreased the purchasing of "red" foods in obese, but not non-obese participants. There were no interactions between taxation and simplified nutrition labeling. Although generalization to real-world purchasing and consumption is limited by the laboratory study design, our findings suggests that taking multiple, simultaneous approaches to reduce energy intake may have the greatest impact on food purchases and/or nutrient consumption.
Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae
This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at P<0.05. The study results indicated no significant differences in nutritional in-take among dancer types. Despite no significant differences in body composition among dancer types, contemporary and ballet dancers had lower body fat percentages than controls (P<0.05). No significant differences were seen in bone mineral density and bone mineral contents among dancer types. No significant differences were found in isokinetic strength in right or left knee flexion and extension at 60°/sec (P<0.05). There were significant differences in body composition and isokinetic strength between dancer groups and the control group. Further studies of different professional dance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed.
Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae
This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at P<0.05. The study results indicated no significant differences in nutritional in-take among dancer types. Despite no significant differences in body composition among dancer types, contemporary and ballet dancers had lower body fat percentages than controls (P<0.05). No significant differences were seen in bone mineral density and bone mineral contents among dancer types. No significant differences were found in isokinetic strength in right or left knee flexion and extension at 60°/sec (P<0.05). There were significant differences in body composition and isokinetic strength between dancer groups and the control group. Further studies of different professional dance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed. PMID:26730387
Background: Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the establishment of dietary treatment. Design: Women, aged 19 to 30 years, with both restricting and binge purge types of AN, participating in an ecological momentary assessment study, completed three nonc...
Chen, Shih-Neng; Tseng, Jauling
Objective: To assess various marginal effects of nutrient intakes, health behaviours and nutrition knowledge on the entire distribution of body mass index (BMI) across individuals. Design: Quantitative and distributional study. Setting: Taiwan. Methods: This study applies Becker's (1965) model of health production to construct an individual's BMI…
Genton, L; Viatte, V; Janssens, J-P; Héritier, A-C; Pichard, C
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) alters nutritional state, energy intake and energy expenditure. This article aims at reviewing present knowledge on these topics in order to determine energy requirements for maintaining a neutral energy balance in ALS patients. Maintaining a neutral energy balance prevents malnutrition and its complications and may improve physical functioning, quality of life and survival. Prevalence of malnutrition varies between 16 and 55% in ALS patients. Energy intakes are below recommended dietary allowances in 70% of ALS patients at least. These elements suggest a chronic negative energy balance with an imbalance between requirements and intakes. While insufficient intakes can be compensated with nutritional support, the energy requirements are unclear. Studies generally report hypermetabolism in ALS patients. Estimation of total energy expenditure and as a corollary energy needs, necessitates taking into account this hypermetabolism, physical activity and possibly mechanical ventilation. The review suggests a flow chart for optimal nutritional follow-up in clinics. Further studies are required to assess whether optimal nutritional follow-up improves outcome.
Bellows, Anne C; Lemke, Stefanie; Jenderedjian, Anna; Scherbaum, Veronika
This article addresses under-acknowledged barriers of structural violence and discrimination that interfere with women's capacity to realize their human rights generally, and their right to adequate food and nutrition in particular. Case studies from Georgia and South Africa illustrate the need for a human rights-based approach to food and nutrition security that prioritizes non-discrimination, public participation, and self-determination. These principles are frustrated by different types of structural violence that, if not seriously addressed, pose multiple barriers to women's economic, public, and social engagement.
Hamner, Heather C; Cogswell, Mary E; Johnson, Mary Ann
Previous studies have shown that acculturation factors are associated with dietary patterns of older Mexican Americans (MAs), but the association of these factors with post-fortification folate intake is unknown. We estimated usual folate intakes for U.S. MAs aged ≥60 years (N = 712) by acculturation factors using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006. Mean total folic acid and total folate, but not natural folate intakes, were lower for MAs with lower acculturation factors, and 16% of MAs had total folate intakes less than the estimated average requirement (EAR) of 320 µg/day. Most older U.S. MAs did not meet requirements from natural food folate intake alone, regardless of acculturation status, but their intakes were adequate when fortified foods and supplement sources were taken into account. Logistic regression models including age, sex, education, poverty, and acculturation factors indicated that low income, not acculturation, was significantly associated with intake below the EAR. Thus our findings indicate that the association of low acculturation with folate intake below the EAR is not independent of poverty. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics for the following free supplemental resource: a table of the distribution of usual folate intake among Mexican Americans aged ≥60 years by sex, age, education level, poverty income ratio, and acculturation factors, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006.].
Background There is growing evidence that quality, rather that quantity of fat is the determinant of cardiovascular risk. The objective of the study is to describe quantitatively the intake and adequacy of fatty acid classes among the Mexican population aged 5-90 years from a probabilistic survey. Methods Dietary intake of individual and classes of fatty acids was computed from the dataset of the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT2006), collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Adequacy was calculated in reference to authoritative recommendations. Results The mean intake of total fatty acids (TFA ≈ 25%E) fell within WHO recommendations; the intakes of saturated fatty acids (SFA) among all age-groups (45-60%) and of trans fatty acids (TrFA) in 30% of school-age children and adolescents and 20% of adults exceeded international recommendations. The mean intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and particularly of n6 and n3 PUFAS, was inadequately insufficient in 50% of the sample. Conclusions The main public health concerns are the high intake of SFA and the suboptimal intake of PUFA in Mexican population. The TrFA intake represents a low public health risk. PMID:21651771
Eating habits may be formed at a young age and once entrenched, tend to track across childhood and beyond (Tsuji et al, 2012). Although parents have a significant role in the development of their child's dietary intake (Clarke et al, 2007), Harris (2010) argues that the diets and feeding habits of young children are now no longer the sole responsibility of parents but other childcare professionals, including nannies and nursery staff. The aim of this article is to provide parents and professionals with guidance to help encourage parents, and other members of the multidisciplinary team, to provide children with a healthy diet.
Andrews, Michael C; Itsiopoulos, Catherine
Athletes require sufficient nutrition knowledge and skills to enable appropriate selection and consumption of food and fluids to meet their health, body composition, and performance needs. This article reports the nutrition knowledge and dietary habits of male football (soccer) players in Australia. Players age 18 years and older were recruited from 1 A-League club (professional) and 4 National Premier League clubs (semiprofessional). No significant difference in general nutrition knowledge (GNK; 54.1% ± 13.4%; 56.8% ± 11.7%; M ± SD), t(71) = -0.91, p = .37, or sports nutrition knowledge (SNK; 56.9% ± 15.5%; 61.3% ± 15.9%), t(71) = -1.16, p = .25) were noted between professional (n = 29) and semiprofessional (n = 44) players. In general, players lacked knowledge in regard to food sources and types of fat. Although nutrition knowledge varied widely among players (24.6-82.8% correct responses), those who had recently studied nutrition answered significantly more items correctly than those who reported no recent formal nutrition education (62.6% ± 11.9%; 54.0% ± 11.4%), t(67) = 2.88, p = .005). Analysis of 3-day estimated food diaries revealed both professionals (n = 10) and semiprofessionals (n = 31) consumed on average less carbohydrate (3.5 ± 0.8 gC/kg; 3.9 ± 1.8 gC/kg) per day than football-specific recommendations (FIFA Medical and Assessment Research Centre [F-MARC]: 5-10 gC/kg). There was a moderate, positive correlation between SNK and carbohydrate intake (n = 41, ρ = 0.32, p = .04), indicating that players who exhibited greater SNK had higher carbohydrate intakes. On the basis of these findings, male football players in Australia would benefit from nutrition education targeting carbohydrate and fat in an attempt to improve nutrition knowledge and dietary practices.
Goes, Vanessa Fernanda; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela Billig; de Oliveira, Lilian Oliveira; Hack, Jaqueline; Magro, Marcela; Bonini, Juliana Sartori
Objective to evaluate the risk of dysphagia and its relationship with the stage of Alzheimer's Disease, as well as the relationship between the risk of dysphagia and nutritional status and caloric intake in elderly people with Alzheimer's disease. Methods the sample consisted of 30 subjects of both genders with probable Alzheimer's disease. The stage of the disease, nutritional status, energy intake, and risk of dysphagia were assessed. Results it was found that increased risk of dysphagia is associated with the advance in the stages of Alzheimer's disease and that even patients in the early stages of disease have a slight risk of developing dysphagia. No association was found between nutritional status and the risk of dysphagia. High levels of inadequate intake of micronutrients were also verified in the patients. Conclusion an association between dysphagia and the development of Alzheimer's disease was found. The results indicate the need to monitor the presence of dysphagia and the micronutrient intake in patients with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26107841
Leite, Fernanda Maria de B.; Ferreira, Haroldo da Silva; Bezerra, Myrtis Katille de A.; de Assunção, Monica Lopes; Horta, Bernardo Lessa
OBJECTIVE: To assess the dietary intake and the nutritional status of children from Alagoas maroon communities. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving 724 children (12-60 months) from 39 Alagoas maroon communities. The nutritional status was investigated by anthropometric, biochemical (hemoglobin) and food consumption indicators. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, stunting and obesity were, respectively, 48.0, 9.7 and 6.0%. The children had a monotonous eating pattern and a considerable prevalence of inadequate intake of zinc (17.0%), folate (18.1%), iron (20.2%) and vitamins A (29.7%) and C (34.3%). Compared to the other socioeconomic classes, the E class children had lower average consumption (p<0.05) for energy, carbohydrate, vitamins A and C, folate, iron, zinc and phosphorus. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia is a serious Public Health problem. The prevalence of chronic malnutrition and obesity were similar to those observed for the children in the State as a whole, where a nutritional transition process is occuring. There was a high prevalence of inadequate food intake risk for zinc, folate, iron and vitamins A and C, suggesting the need for nutritional education actions. PMID:24473948
There have been significant changes in the understanding of the role of carbohydrates during endurance exercise in recent years, which allows for more specific and more personalized advice with regard to carbohydrate ingestion during exercise. The new proposed guidelines take into account the duration (and intensity) of exercise and advice is not restricted to the amount of carbohydrate; it also gives direction with respect to the type of carbohydrate. Studies have shown that during exercise lasting approximately 1 h in duration, a mouth rinse or small amounts of carbohydrate can result in a performance benefit. A single carbohydrate source can be oxidized at rates up to approximately 60 g/h and this is the recommendation for exercise that is more prolonged (2-3 h). For ultra-endurance events, the recommendation is higher at approximately 90 g/h. Carbohydrate ingested at such high ingestion rates must be a multiple transportable carbohydrates to allow high oxidation rates and prevent the accumulation of carbohydrate in the intestine. The source of the carbohydrate may be a liquid, semisolid, or solid, and the recommendations may need to be adjusted downward when the absolute exercise intensity is low and thus carbohydrate oxidation rates are also low. Carbohydrate intake advice is independent of body weight as well as training status. Therefore, although these guidelines apply to most athletes, they are highly dependent on the type and duration of activity. These new guidelines may replace the generic existing guidelines for carbohydrate intake during endurance exercise.
Roba, Alemzewed C; Gabriel-Micheal, Kebebush; Zello, Gordon A; Jaffe, Joann; Whiting, Susan J; Henry, Carol J
Poor nutrition in adolescent girls poses critical health risks on future pregnancy and birth outcomes especially in developing countries. Our purpose was to assess nutritional status and dietary intake of rural adolescent girls and determine pulse and food intake patterns associated with poor nutritional status. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in a traditional pulse growing region of southern Ethiopia on 188 girls between 15 to 19 years of age, with 70% being from food insecure families. Prevalence of stunting (30.9%) and underweight (13.3%) were associated with low food and nutrient intake. Diets were cereal-based, with both animal source foods and pulses rarely consumed. Improving dietary intakes of female adolescents with nutrient dense foods would ensure better health for themselves and for the next generation.
Elorinne, Anna-Liisa; Alfthan, Georg; Erlund, Iris; Kivimäki, Hanna; Paju, Annukka; Salminen, Irma; Turpeinen, Ursula; Voutilainen, Sari; Laakso, Juha
Background Vegetarian and vegan diets have become more popular among adolescents and young adults. However, few studies have investigated the nutritional status of vegans, who may be at risk of nutritional deficiencies. Objective To compare dietary intake and nutritional status of Finnish long-term vegans and non-vegetarians. Methods Dietary intake and supplement use were estimated using three-day dietary records. Nutritional status was assessed by measuring biomarkers in plasma, serum, and urine samples. Vegans’ (n = 22) data was compared with those of sex- and age-matched non-vegetarians (n = 19). Results All vegans adhered strictly to their diet; however, individual variability was marked in food consumption and supplementation habits. Dietary intakes of key nutrients, vitamins B12 and D, were lower (P < 0.001) in vegans than in non-vegetarians. Nutritional biomarker measurements showed lower concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), iodine and selenium (corrected for multiple comparisons, P < 0.001), Vegans showed more favorable fatty acid profiles (P < 0.001) as well as much higher concentrations of polyphenols such as genistein and daidzein (P < 0.001). Eicosapentaenoic acid proportions in vegans were higher than expected. The median concentration of iodine in urine was below the recommended levels in both groups. Conclusions Long-term consumption of a vegan diet was associated with some favorable laboratory measures but also with lowered concentrations of key nutrients compared to reference values. This study highlights the need for nutritional guidance to vegans. PMID:26840251
This article provides evidence on the role of consumer food subsidies in improving nutritional intake and diet quality by evaluating the expansion of the government food assistance program coverage in the hunger prone state of Odisha in India. In 8 districts of Odisha, popularly known as the Kalahandi-Balangir-Koraput (KBK) region which is notable for extreme poverty and starvation deaths, the government did away with the targeted food assistance program in 2008 and made the scheme universal. Using a Difference-in-Difference methodology over two repeated cross sectional household surveys, this article finds that the shift from targeted to a universal food security program in the KBK region of Odisha has led to an improvement in the household nutritional intake and diet quality. Further examination suggests that proportion of households consuming below the recommended dietary allowance of calorie, fats and protein has declined significantly in this region post the intervention.
Dewinter, Louise; Casteels, Kristina; Corthouts, Karen; Van de Kerckhove, Kristel; Van der Vaerent, Katrien; Vanmeerbeeck, Kelly; Matthys, Christophe
The aims of the current cross-sectional study were (1) to assess the intake of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-k, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, sucralose, saccharin, steviol glycosides and neotame among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D); (2) to compare the obtained intakes with the respective acceptable daily intake (ADI) values; and (3) to conduct a scenario analysis to obtain practical guidelines for a safe consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) among children with T1D. T1D patients of the Paediatrics Department of the University Hospitals Leuven were invited to complete a food frequency questionnaire designed to assess NNS intake using a tier 2 and tier 3 exposure assessment approach. A scenario analysis was conducted by reducing the P95 consumption of the most contributing food categories in order to reach a total sweetener intake lower than or equal to the ADI. Estimated total intakes higher than ADIs were only found for the P95 consumers only of acesulfame-k, cyclamate and steviol glycosides (tier 2 and tier 3 approach). Scenario analysis created dietary guidelines for each age category for diet soda, bread spreads and dairy drinks. There is little chance for T1D children to exceed the ADI of the different NNS, however diabetes educators and dieticians need to pay attention regarding the use of NNS.
Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon
Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…
Ozaki, Roberto Koity Fujihara; Soares, Ana Cristina Fontenele; Speridião, Patricia da Graça Leite; de Morais, Mauro Batista
This cross-sectional study evaluates the relations between the water load test in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders with food intake and nutritional status. Patients with functional dyspepsia required a lower maximum water intake to produce fullness (n = 11, median = 380 mL) than patients with irritable bowel syndrome (n = 10, median = 695 mL) or functional abdominal pain (n = 10, median = 670 mL) (P < 0.05). Among patients who ingested ≤560 mL (n = 17) or >560 mL (n = 14) in the water load test, there was no relation between the maximum drinking capacity and food intake, body mass index, or height.
Ozaki, Roberto Koity Fujihara; Soares, Ana Cristina Fontenele; da Graça Leite Speridião, Patricia; de Morais, Mauro Batista
This cross-sectional study evaluate the relationships between the water load test in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders with food intake and nutritional status. Patients with functional dyspepsia required a lower maximum water intake to produce fullness (n = 11, median = 380 mL) than patients with irritable bowel syndrome (n = 10, median = 695 mL) or functional abdominal pain (n = 10, median = 670 mL) (p < 0.05). Among patients who ingested ≤560 mL (n = 17) or >560 mL (n = 14) in the water load test, there was no relationship between the maximum drinking capacity and food intake, body mass index or height.
Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Bazylak, Grzegorz
The aim of present study was to estimate nutrient intake as well as nutritional status of female pharmacy students from Bydgoszcz, and to investigate relationship of these factors with type of usual residence place during academic year The 24-hour recall method was used to evaluate dietary intake of 47 subjects. Measured values of height, body mass and four skinfolds thickness were used for calculation of BM, FFM, %FM indices. An analysis of nutritional status of studied population showed lower body mass and BMI in the sub-group of female students residing outside of their family home. In comparison to the female students living without parents percentage of energy provided by total fat (29.9%) was significantly less and percentage of energy from carbohydrate was significantly higher (55.4%) than students who reside with their parents. Elevated intake of phosphorus and retinol accompanied by inadequate intake of riboflavin, calcium, iron and copper was exhibited in both residence-type related sub-groups of investigated female pharmacy students.
Bradbury, E J; Wilkinson, S J; Cronin, G M; Thomson, P C; Bedford, M R; Cowieson, A J
The interaction between calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) in broiler nutrition and skeletal health is highly complex with many factors influencing their digestion, absorption and utilisation. The use of an investigative model such as the geometric framework allows a graphical approach to explore these complex interactions. A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were allocated to one of 15 dietary treatments with five replicates and eight birds per replicate. Dietary treatments were formulated to one of three total densities of total Ca+nPP; high (15 g/kg), medium (13.5 g/kg) and low (12 g/kg) and at each density there were five different ratios of Ca : nPP (4, 2.75, 2.1, 1.5 and 1.14 : 1). Weekly performance data was collected and at the end of the experiment birds were individually weighed and the right leg removed for tibia ash analysis. Skeletal health was assessed using the latency to lie (LTL) at day 27. At low Ca and high nPP as well as high Ca and low nPP diets, birds had reduced feed intake, BW gain, poorer feed efficiency and lower tibia ash, resulting in a significant interaction between dietary Ca and nPP (P<0.05). LTL times were negatively influenced by diets having either a broad ratio (high Ca, low nPP) or too narrow a ratio (low Ca, high nPP) indicating that shorter LTL times may be influenced by the ratio of Ca : nPP rather than absolute concentrations of either mineral. The calculated intake arrays show that broilers more closely regulate Ca intake than nPP intake. Broilers are willing to over consume nPP to defend a Ca intake target more so than they are willing to over consume Ca to defend an nPP target. Overall dietary nPP was more influential on performance metrics, however, from the data it may appear that birds prioritise Ca intake over nPP and broadly ate to meet this requirement. As broilers are more willing to eat to a Ca intake target rather than an nPP intake target, this emphasises the importance of formulating
The objective of this study is to examine differences between self-reported intakes of sodium, trans-fat, and total fat among hypertension (HTN) subgroups of participants in Mississippi Communities for Healthy Living nutrition education intervention. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequenc...
Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon
This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness.
Pem, Dhandevi; Bhagwant, Suress; Jeewon, Rajesh
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent nutrition education program among adults. A pretest—posttest design was used assessing Nutritional Knowledge (NK), BMI, Energy Intake (EI), Physical Activity Level (PAL), Dietary Intake (DI) and attitudes. 353 adults aged 19–55 years (178 control group (CG) and 175 intervention group (IG)) were recruited. IG participants attended nutrition education sessions evaluated through a post-test given at the end of the 12-week program. Statistical tests performed revealed that compared to CG, participants in IG increased fruit intake and decreased intake of snacks high in sugar and fat significantly (p < 0.05). NK and attitudinal scores also increased significantly in the IG (p < 0.05). No intervention effect was found for vegetables intake, EI, BMI and PAL (p > 0.05). Factors influencing NK were age, gender and education level. “Taste” was the main barrier to the application of the nutrition education strategy. Findings are helpful to health practitioners in designing their intervention programs. PMID:26938555
Pem, Dhandevi; Bhagwant, Suress; Jeewon, Rajesh
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent nutrition education program among adults. A pretest-posttest design was used assessing Nutritional Knowledge (NK), BMI, Energy Intake (EI), Physical Activity Level (PAL), Dietary Intake (DI) and attitudes. 353 adults aged 19-55 years (178 control group (CG) and 175 intervention group (IG)) were recruited. IG participants attended nutrition education sessions evaluated through a post-test given at the end of the 12-week program. Statistical tests performed revealed that compared to CG, participants in IG increased fruit intake and decreased intake of snacks high in sugar and fat significantly (p < 0.05). NK and attitudinal scores also increased significantly in the IG (p < 0.05). No intervention effect was found for vegetables intake, EI, BMI and PAL (p > 0.05). Factors influencing NK were age, gender and education level. "Taste" was the main barrier to the application of the nutrition education strategy. Findings are helpful to health practitioners in designing their intervention programs.
Feeney, Emma L; Nugent, Anne P; Mc Nulty, Breige; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Eileen R
Dairy products are important contributors to nutrient intakes. However, dairy intakes are reportedly declining in developed populations, potentially due to concerns regarding Na and SFA in dairy foods, particularly cheese. This could impact other nutrient intakes. The present study used data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) to (1) examine dairy intakes, with a specific focus on cheese, and (2) to examine the contribution of cheese to population nutrient intakes. The NANS captured detailed dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample (n 1500) between 2008 and 2010 using 4-d semi-weighed food diaries; 99·9% of the population reported dairy intake. Mean daily population dairy intake was 290·0 (SD 202·1) g. Dairy products provided 8·7% of the population intake of reported dietary Na, 19·8% SFA, 39% Ca, 34·5% vitamin B12 and 10·5% Mg. Cheese alone provided 3·9% Na intake, 9·1% Ca, 12·6% retinol, 8·3% SFA, 3·7% protein, 3·4% vitamin B12 and 3·2% riboflavin. High dairy consumers had greater Ca and Mg intakes per 10 MJ, greater total energy intake, greater percentage of energy from carbohydrate and SFA and lower Na intakes compared with low dairy consumers. Similar trends were observed for high consumers of cheese for most nutrients except Na. These results demonstrate that dairy and cheese are important contributors to nutrient intakes of public health interest, such as Ca and B12. Our analysis also demonstrated that food-based dietary guidelines recommending lower-fat versions of dairy products are warranted.
Joo, Nam-Seok; Yang, Sung-Won; Song, Byeng Chun; Yeum, Kyung-Jin
The association of high vitamin A intake and low bone mineral density (BMD) is still controversial. To determine the association of dietary vitamin A intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration with BMD, a total of 6481 subjects (2907 men and 3574 women) aged ≥50 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011) were divided into groups according to dietary vitamin A intake (tertiles) and serum 25(OH)D (<50, 50-75, >75 nmol/L), and evaluated for BMD after adjusting for relevant variables. Mean dietary vitamin A intakes were 737 and 600 μg RE (Retinol Equivalents) in men and women, respectively. Total hip and femoral neck BMD in men and lumbar spine BMD in women were both positively correlated with dietary vitamin A intake in subjects with serum 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L. Among men with serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L, both the top (mean 1353 μg RE) and bottom (mean 218 μg RE) tertiles of dietary vitamin A intake had lower BMD than the middle group (mean 577 μg RE). In this population, BMD was the highest among men and women with serum 25(OH)D = 50-75 nmol/L and that there were no differences in BMD by vitamin A intake in these vitamin D adequate groups. This cross-sectional study indicates that vitamin A intake does not affect bone mineral density as long as the serum 25(OH)D concentration is maintained in the moderate level of 50-75 nmol/L.
Kherkheulidze, M; Kavlashvili, N; Kandelaki, E; Manjavidze, T
The aim of the study was assessment of the general nutrition knowledge and physical activity rate among the first grade school age children and evaluation of their diet and nutritional skills based on the parental interviews. Cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected schools of Tbilisi. In each school was selected one group of the second grade children and their parents by cluster selection method. A population of 290 children aged 6-8 years and their parents were interviewed. The statistical analysis was carried out by means of the SPPS 17. Questionnaires, except those with incomplete answers (n=30), were used for the analytical data. The study shows that in general, the level of knowledge related to rich sources of nutrients was poor. The most of the children can't identify the role of calcium (72,6%), proteins (68,1%) and iron (84,6 %). Children prefer to eat and select foods which they like (71,8%), such as sweets and cakes, hamburgers, chips and etc. The study showed that the most of the children (83,3%) have normal weight for age, underweight was revealed in 3,1% of children, more frequent was overweight (12,3%) and obesity (1,4%). There wasn't significant difference of overweight and underweight distribution in boys and girls. The assessment of child dietary intake show, that intake of fruits and vegetables, as well as milk and milk products is quite low, while intake of bread and pastry, and sweets and cakes are quite high. Daily consumption of sweets and snacks was significantly higher in girls (64.2%) than in boys (47.5%) (p<0.01). The study revealed that only 62 % of children eat the breakfast, in frequent cases children eat very fast (26,1%), 47,8 % of children need to remind to wash hands before eating, most children 60,4% view TV during the meal time or play computer games. The most of the children play the active games approximately 30-60 minutes, quite often children play active games only 20-30 minutes that is much less then WHO
Francis, Sarah L; MacNab, Lindsay; Shelley, Mack
At-risk older adults need community-based nutrition programs that improve nutritional status and practices. This 6-month study assessed the impact of the traditional Chef Charles (CC) program (Control) compared to a theory-based CC program (Treatment) on nutritional risk (NR), dietary intakes, self-efficacy (SE), food security (FS), and program satisfaction for congregate meal participants. Participants were mostly educated, single, "food secure" White females. NR change for the treatment group was significantly higher (P = 0.042) than the control group. No differences were noted for SE or FS change and program satisfaction between groups. The overall distribution classification levels of FS changed significantly (P < .001) from pre to post. Over half (n = 46, 76.7%) reported making dietary changes and the majority (n = 52, 86.7%) rated CC as good to excellent. Results suggest the theory-based CC program (treatment) is more effective in reducing NR and dietary practices than the traditional CC program (control).
Wratten, Stephen D.; Porter, John R.
Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies. PMID:27478691
Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John R
Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies.
Yun, Sungha; Kim, Hyun Ja
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Assessing changes in energy intake and dietary sources is important to understand trends in the prevalence of obesity. Thus, we examined trends in energy intake and its nutrient and food sources in Korean adults from 1998 through 2015. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study included 70,769 subjects aged ≥ 19 years who completed a nutrition survey. Subject data were obtained from the 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007-2009, 2010-2012, and 2013-2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Dietary intake was assessed by a 1-day 24-hour recall method. RESULTS In men, the daily energy intake significantly increased from 2,196 kcal in 1998 to 2,489 kcal in 2013-2015 (P for trend < 0.0001). However, the daily energy intake among women did not change significantly over the same period (P for trend = 0.5772). The percentages of energy intake from animal foods (e.g., meat and milk) and beverages increased during the study period in both men and women. However, the percentage of energy intake from plant foods decreased due to a marked decrease in the intake of white rice. Changes in food sources of energy intake led to changes in the nutrient sources of energy intake; for example, the increase of energy intake from fat and decrease of energy intake from carbohydrate. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that since 1998, energy intake has increased among Korean adult men, but not among women. However, the composition of food and nutrient sources of energy intake has changed in both men and women. Energy intake and its nutrient and food sources should continue to be monitored regularly in the Korean adult population. PMID:28386388
Malihi, Z; Kandiah, M; Chan, Y M; Esfandbod, M; Vakili, M; Hosseinzadeh, M; Zarif Yeganeh, M
This study aimed to evaluate how changes in dietary intake among acute lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukaemia (ALL and AML) patients affect nutritional status after the first induction chemotherapy. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-h recall and a 136-item food frequency questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed by Patients Subjective Global Assessment questionnaire before starting induction therapy and again after 1 month. All newly diagnosed acute leukaemia patients aged 15 years old and older who attended three referral hospitals for initiation of their induction chemotherapy were included in the sample selection provided that they gave informed consent. A total of 30 AML and 33 ALL patients participated in the study. Dietary intake and nutritional status worsened after the chemotherapy treatment. Dietary intake in terms of macronutrients, micronutrients, food variety and diet diversity score changed significantly after the induction chemotherapy. No significant relationship was found between the changes in dietary indices and nutritional status. Chemotherapy-related side effects as an additional factor to cancer itself could affect dietary intake of leukaemia patients. The effectiveness of an early assessment of nutritional status and dietary intake should be further investigated in order to deter further deterioration.
Farfán, Mariel; Álvarez, Alfredo; Gárate, Alan
Summary The optimal physical, chemical and nutritional properties of natural lipids depend on the structure and composition of triacylglycerols. However, they are not always mutually compatible. Lipid modification is a good way to give them specific functionalities, increase their oxidative stability, or improve their nutritional value. As such, chemical and enzymatic interesterification may be used to modify them and produce structured lipids. In accordance, the aim of this study is to compare chemical and enzymatic interesterification of binary blends of fully hydrogenated soybean oil and walnut oil, using sodium methoxide or Lipozyme TL IM, respectively, to produce a fat base with adequate nutritional and physical characteristics. Three different mass ratios of fully hydrogenated soybean oil and walnut oil blends (20:80, 40:60 and 60:40) were interesterified and evaluated. Total interesterification was determined by the stabilization of the solid fat content. Chemical reaction of the 20:80 blend was completed in 10 min and of the 40:60 and 60:40 blends in 15 min. Enzymatically interesterified blends were stabilized in 120 min at all of the mass ratios. Complete interesterification significantly reduced the solid fat content of the blends at any composition. Chemical and enzymatically interesterified fully hydrogenated blend of soybean and walnut oil at mass ratio of 40:60 showed the plastic curve of an all-purpose- -type shortening rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, with a high linolenic acid (C18:3n3) content and with zero trans-fatty acids. PMID:27904370
Adaikalakoteswari, Antonysunil; Venkataraman, Hema; Maheswaran, Hendramoorthy; Saravanan, Ponnusamy
Objective To assess serum B12, folate and the associated homocysteine (Hcy) levels among women of childbearing age in the UK and examine their association with dietary intake in relation to the UK Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) for B12 and folate. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Data from two publicly available National Diet and Nutrition Surveys (NDNS 2000/2001 and 2008/2012) were used. These were population-based surveys of randomly selected samples of adults which were carried out in their households. Participants Women of childbearing age (aged 19–39 years), representative of the UK population. Those who were pregnant or breastfeeding were excluded. Outcome measures The associations between micronutrient intakes and blood levels of B12, folate and Hcy were assessed by correlation and stepwise linear regression. B12 intake was divided into quintiles and plotted against blood B12 and Hcy concentrations to determine the threshold of any associations. Results 299 women from the first NDNS cohort had complete intake and biomarker data. The prevalence of serum vitamin B12 (≤150 pmol/L) and serum folate (≤10 nmol/L) deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia (≥12 µmol/L) was 12.4%, 6.4% and 21.2%, respectively, despite seemingly adequate B12 intakes (median 3.8 μg/day, 96% consumed more than the UK RNI of 1.5 μg/day). B12 concentrations increased across all quintiles of intake with serum levels in quintiles 4 and 5 (median intake 4.9 and 7.1 μg/day, respectively) significantly higher than quintile 1. However, Hcy concentrations levelled off between quintiles 4 and 5. Comparison of micronutrient intake between the two surveys found that folate intake has reduced in the more recent cohort. Conclusions The UK RNI for B12 intake should be increased for women of childbearing age with intakes of around 5–7 μg/day likely to be associated with stable biomarker levels. B12 levels should also be measured in women preconceptionally or in early
Burkhart, Sarah J; Pelly, Fiona E
International travel and short-term residence overseas is now a common feature of an elite athlete's competition schedule, however, food choice away from home may be challenging and potentially impact on performance. Guidelines for dietary intake specific to competition exist for athletes, however, there is little evidence available to ascertain if athletes meet these recommendations during competition periods, particularly when food is provided in-house. During the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games, dietitians based in the dining hall recorded 24 h dietary recalls with all athletes who visited the nutrition kiosk. Analysis of dietary intake was conducted with FoodWorks (Xyris Pty Ltd., Brisbane, Australia). Overall, athletes reported consuming a median total daily energy intake of 8674 kJ (range 2384-18,009 kJ), with carbohydrate within the range of 1.0-9.0 g per kg of bodyweight (g/kg) (median = 3.8) and contributing to 50% total energy (TE) (range 14%-79%). Protein and fat intake ranged from 0.3-4.0 g/kg (median = 1.7) to 10-138 g (median = 67 g), and contributed to 21% TE (range 8%-48%) and 24% TE (range 8%-44%), respectively. Athletes reported consuming between 4 and 29 different food items (median = 15) in the previous 24 h period, with predominately discretionary, grains/cereals, meats, poultry, fish, eggs, and meat alternative items. This suggests that dairy, fruit, and vegetable intake may be suboptimal and intake of the micronutrients iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins A and C may be of concern for a number of athletes.
Burkhart, Sarah J.; Pelly, Fiona E.
International travel and short-term residence overseas is now a common feature of an elite athlete’s competition schedule, however, food choice away from home may be challenging and potentially impact on performance. Guidelines for dietary intake specific to competition exist for athletes, however, there is little evidence available to ascertain if athletes meet these recommendations during competition periods, particularly when food is provided in-house. During the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games, dietitians based in the dining hall recorded 24 h dietary recalls with all athletes who visited the nutrition kiosk. Analysis of dietary intake was conducted with FoodWorks (Xyris Pty Ltd., Brisbane, Australia). Overall, athletes reported consuming a median total daily energy intake of 8674 kJ (range 2384–18,009 kJ), with carbohydrate within the range of 1.0–9.0 g per kg of bodyweight (g/kg) (median = 3.8) and contributing to 50% total energy (TE) (range 14%–79%). Protein and fat intake ranged from 0.3–4.0 g/kg (median = 1.7) to 10–138 g (median = 67 g), and contributed to 21% TE (range 8%–48%) and 24% TE (range 8%–44%), respectively. Athletes reported consuming between 4 and 29 different food items (median = 15) in the previous 24 h period, with predominately discretionary, grains/cereals, meats, poultry, fish, eggs, and meat alternative items. This suggests that dairy, fruit, and vegetable intake may be suboptimal and intake of the micronutrients iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins A and C may be of concern for a number of athletes. PMID:27754418
Collins, Andy C; Ward, Kenneth D; Mirza, Bridget; Slawson, Deborah L; McClanahan, Barbara S; Vukadinovich, Christopher
Swimming is a very popular sport among adolescents in the US. Little is known about the diet of competitive adolescent swimmers in the US but data from other countries indicate several inadequacies, including excessive intake of fat and lower than recommended intake of carbohydrate and several micronutrients that may affect athletic performance and bone accrual. We assessed usual diet, using a food frequency questionnaire and calcium checklist, among 191 adolescent males and females [91 swimmers (mean 13.7, s = 2.5 years) and 100 non-athletes (mean 14.4, s = 2.8 years)]. For both males and females, swimmers and non-athletes generally had similar average intakes of macro- and micro-nutrients, including higher than recommended amounts of total fat (36%) and saturated fat (12%), and inadequate amounts of calcium, vitamin D, and daily servings of fruits, vegetables, grains, and dairy products. This first study of nutritional intake among adolescent swimmers in the US suggests that dietary habits of adolescents who swim competitively may jeopardize optimal athletic performance and place them at risk for future chronic diseases, including osteoporosis.
Collins, Andy C.; Ward, Kenneth D.; Mirza, Bridget; Slawson, Deborah L.; McClanahan, Barbara S.; Vukadinovich, Christopher
Swimming is a very popular sport among adolescents in the US. Little is known about the diet of competitive adolescent swimmers in the US but data from other countries indicate several inadequacies, including excessive intake of fat and lower than recommended intake of carbohydrate and several micronutrients that may affect athletic performance and bone accrual. We assessed usual diet, using a food frequency questionnaire and calcium checklist, among 191 adolescent males and females [91 swimmers (mean 13.7, s = 2.5 years) and 100 non-athletes (mean 14.4, s = 2.8 years)]. For both males and females, swimmers and non-athletes generally had similar average intakes of macro- and micro-nutrients, including higher than recommended amounts of total fat (36%) and saturated fat (12%), and inadequate amounts of calcium, vitamin D, and daily servings of fruits, vegetables, grains, and dairy products. This first study of nutritional intake among adolescent swimmers in the US suggests that dietary habits of adolescents who swim competitively may jeopardize optimal athletic performance and place them at risk for future chronic diseases, including osteoporosis. PMID:27672430
Hewson-Hughes, Adrian K.; Colyer, Alison; Simpson, Stephen J.; Raubenheimer, David
There is a large body of research demonstrating that macronutrient balancing is a primary driver of foraging in herbivores and omnivores, and more recently, it has been shown to occur in carnivores. However, the extent to which macronutrient selection in carnivores may be influenced by organoleptic properties (e.g. flavour/aroma) remains unknown. Here, we explore the roles of nutritional and hedonic factors in food choice and macronutrient balancing in a mammalian carnivore, the domestic cat. Using the geometric framework, we determined the amounts and ratio of protein and fat intake in cats allowed to select from combinations of three foods that varied in protein : fat (P : F) composition (approx. 10 : 90, 40 : 60 and 70 : 30 on a per cent energy basis) to which flavours of different ‘attractiveness’ (fish, rabbit and orange) were added. In two studies, in which animal and plant protein sources were used, respectively, the ratio and amounts of protein and fat intake were very consistent across all groups regardless of flavour combination, indicating regulation of both protein and fat intake. Our results suggest that macronutrient balancing rather than hedonistic rewards based on organoleptic properties of food is a primary driver of longer-term food selection and intake in domestic cats. PMID:27429768
Corrao, Giovanni; Zambon, Antonella; Bagnardi, Vinccnzo; Aricò, Sarino; Loguercio, Carmelina; D'Amicis, Amleto
Several experimental studies have suggested that specific nutrients might play a role on the risk of liver damage. Nevertheless, few epidemiological studies have evaluated the role of diet on the risk of symptomatic liver cirrhosis, giving contradictory results. To evaluate the role of the intake of nutritional factors and dietary patterns on the risk of symptomatic liver cirrhosis and to examine their combined action with alcohol consumption we used data from the Italian Study on Liver Cirrhosis Determinants project. From 1994 to 1998 all the consecutive cirrhotic inpatients admitted to 19 Italian collaborative hospitals for signs of liver decompensation in whom the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis was made for the first time (259 cases) and one or two gender, age and area of residence matched individuals (416 controls) were recruited. Data on lifetime alcohol intake, usual consumption of 191 food items and on markers of hepatitis B and C viral infection were collected. The analysis of principal components identified a nutritional pattern positively correlated with vegetable and fruit intakes and negatively with animal and no-fruit sugar products. With respect to abstainers, relative risks in consumers of use < or = 25 and > or = 51 g/day of alcohol increased from 0.4 [95% confidence interval 0.0, 5.9] to 9.3 [1.3, 69.0] and from 2.1 [1.1, 4.2] to 18.1 [2.8, 118.3] for the lowest and the highest value of this nutritional pattern, respectively. Diet might therefore modulate the damaging effect of alcohol on the liver.
School nutrition policies aim to eliminate ubiquitous unhealthy foods and beverages from schools to improve adolescent dietary behavior and reduce childhood obesity. This paper evaluates the impact of an early nutrition policy, Los Angeles Unified School District's food-and-beverage standards of 2004, using two large datasets on food intake and physical measures. I implement cohort and cross-section estimators using "synthetic" control groups, combinations of unaffected districts that are reweighted to closely resemble the treatment unit in the pre-intervention period. The results indicate that the policy was mostly ineffective at reducing the prevalence of overweight or obesity 8-15 months after the intervention but significantly decreased consumption of two key targets, soda and fried foods. The policy's impact on physical outcomes appears to be mitigated by substitution toward foods that are still (or newly) available in the schools.
Maillot, Matthieu; Drewnowski, Adam
The 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee has recommended that no more than 5-15% of total dietary energy should be derived from solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS). The guideline was based on USDA food pattern modeling analyses that met the Dietary Reference Intake recommendations and Dietary Guidelines and followed typical American eating habits. This study recreated food intake patterns for 6 of the same gender-age groups by using USDA data sources and a mathematical optimization technique known as linear programming. The analytic process identified food consumption patterns based on 128 food categories that met the nutritional goals for 9 vitamins, 9 minerals, 8 macronutrients, and dietary fiber and minimized deviation from typical American eating habits. Linear programming Model 1 created gender- and age-specific food patterns that corresponded to energy needs for each group. Model 2 created food patterns that were iso-caloric with diets observed for that group in the 2001-2002 NHANES. The optimized food patterns were evaluated with respect to MyPyramid servings goals, energy density [kcal/g (1 kcal = 4.18 kJ)], and energy cost (US$/2000 kcal). The optimized food patterns had more servings of vegetables and fruit, lower energy density, and higher cost compared with the observed diets. All nutrient goals were met. In contrast to the much lower USDA estimates, the 2 models placed SoFAS allowances at between 17 and 33% of total energy, depending on energy needs.
Crockett, Rachel A; Jebb, Susan A; Hankins, Matthew; Marteau, Theresa M
There is some evidence for paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake particularly amongst restrained eaters and those with a higher body mass index (BMI) resulting in greater consumption of energy from foods with a positive health message (e.g. "low-fat") compared with the same foods, unlabelled. This study aimed to investigate, in a UK general population sample, the likelihood of paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake. Participants (n = 287) attended a London cinema and were offered a large tub of salted or toffee popcorn. Participants were randomised to receive their selected flavour with one of three labels: a green low-fat label, a red high-fat label or no label. Participants watched two film clips while completing measures of demographic characteristics, emotional state and taste of the popcorn. Following the experiment, popcorn consumption was measured. There were no main effects of nutritional labelling on consumption. Contrary to predictions neither BMI nor weight concern moderated the effect of label on consumption. There was a three-way interaction between low-fat label, weight concern and socioeconomic status (SES) such that weight-concerned participants of higher SES who saw a low-fat label consumed more than weight unconcerned participants of similar SES (t = -2.7, P = .04). By contrast, weight-concerned participants of lower SES seeing either type of label, consumed less than those seeing no label (t = -2.04, P = .04). Nutritional labelling may have different effects in different socioeconomic groups. Further studies are required to understand fully the possible contribution of food labelling to health inequalities.
Domellöf, Magnus; Thorsdottir, Inga; Thorstensen, Ketil
Background The present literature review is part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) issued in 2004. Objective The objective of this systematic literature review was to assess the health effects of different intakes of iron, at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation), in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. Methods The initial literature search resulted in 1,076 abstracts. Out of those, 276 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Of those, 49 were considered relevant and were quality assessed (A, B, or C). An additional search on iron and diabetes yielded six articles that were quality assessed. Thus, a total of 55 articles were evaluated. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing (grade 1), probable (grade 2), suggestive (grade 3), and inconclusive (grade 4). Results There is suggestive evidence that prevention or treatment of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) improves cognitive, motoric, and behavioral development in young children, and that treatment of IDA improves attention and concentration in school children and adult women. There is insufficient evidence to show negative health effects of iron intakes in doses suggested by the NNR 4. There is insufficient evidence to suggest that normal birth weight, healthy, exclusively breast-fed infants need additional dietary iron before 6 months of life in the Nordic countries. An iron concentration of 4–8 mg/L in infant formulas seems to be safe and effective for normal birth weight infants. There is probable evidence that iron supplements (1–2 mg/kg/day) given up to 6 months of age to infants with low birth weight (<2,500 g) prevents IDA and possibly reduce the risk of behavioral problems later on. There is probable evidence that ID and IDA in
Oh, Chorong; Kim, Hak-Seon; No, Jae-Kyung
The frequency of dining out has rapidly increased; however, the independent associations between dining out, metabolic syndrome risk factors and nutritional status have not been well characterised. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between dining out, nutritional intakes and metabolic syndrome risk factors among Korean adults, using data from the 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Frequency of dining out was significantly associated with intake of nutrients such as energy, water, protein, fat, carbohydrate, Ca, Na, vitamin A and carotene. Especially, the result revealed that Korean adults had insufficient Ca intake compared with the Korean reference intake (700 mg). As the frequency of dining out increased, so did energy intake. In addition, individuals who dined out seven or more times per week experienced a 64% higher likelihood of blood pressure abnormalities, an 88% higher likelihood of waist circumference abnormalities, and a 32% higher likelihood of low HDL-cholesterol levels than those who dined out less than once per week. BMI was not associated with the frequency of dining out. Our findings suggest that strategies to modify dining-out behaviour could reduce metabolic syndrome risk factors via improved nutrition.
Ramos, Camila Irigonhé; Cuervo, Maria Rita Macedo
The Human Right to Adequate Nutrition must be ensured through the public policies included in SAN, namely the Food and Nutritional Security campaign. Besides the income transfer geared to ensuring access to basic social rights, the "Bolsa Família" Program (PBF) is included in this context. This study seeks to analyze the operational aspects of the PBF and also ascertain whether or not the health professionals see the program as a core element of the SAN public policy. With this in mind, semi-structured interviews were conducted with primary healthcare workers involved directly both with the PBF and with the families who receive this benefit. By the end of the study, it was possible to perceive the importance of training health professionals who work in this area, because when one dissociates the social reality in which the beneficiaries live from the program objectives, this can lead to the simple mechanization of these practices. In this respect, it should be stressed that health professionals need to understand the proposals of the program as political and social strategies which, in addition to providing immediate relief, strive to overcome the problems related to poverty and hunger.
Mouritsen, Ole G
Diet and lifestyle have an impact on the burden of ill health and non-communicable ailments such as cardiovascular disease (including hypertension), obesity, diabetes, cancer and certain mental illnesses. The consequences of malnutrition and critical unbalances in the diet with regard to sugar, salt and fat are becoming increasingly manifest in the Western world and are also gradually influencing the general health condition for populations in developing countries. In this topical mini-review I highlight the lack of deliciousness and umami (savoury) flavour in prepared meals as a possible reason for poor nutritional management and excess intake of salt, fat and sugar. I argue that a better informed use of the current scientific understanding of umami and its dependence of the synergetic relationship between monosodium glutamate and certain 5'-ribonucleotides and their action on the umami taste receptors will not only provide better-tasting and more flavoursome meals but may also help to regulate food intake, in relation to both overeating and nutritional management of elderly and sick individuals.
Kamran, Aziz; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Heydari, Heshmatolah; Sharifian, Elham
Introduction Though Nutrition plays a key role in the control of hypertension, it is often forgotten in Iranian patients’ diet. In fact, dietary behavior can be regarded as unsatisfactory among Iranian patients. This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of theory based educational intervention on fat intake, weight, and blood lipids among rural hypertensive patients. Methods This quasi experimental study was conducted on 138 hypertensive patients who had referred to Ardabil rural health centers during 2014. The nutritional education based on DASH and Health Promotion Model (HPM) was treated for six sessions. The pre-test and post-test had intervals of two and six months. Data were analyzed using SPSS-18 and Chi-square, independent-samples t-test, paired-samples t-test and repeated measure ANOVA. Results After treating intervention, weight, dietary fat, LDL_C and Total cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased significantly in the intervention group compared with the control group (p < 0.001). In contrast, HDL_C increased significantly in the intervention group. Conclusion Educational intervention, provided based on Pender’s health promotion model, affecting fat intake, blood lipids, and blood pressure, led to their decrease PMID:28163845
Hou, Yi-Cheng; Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te; Yang, Shwu-Huey
Abstract The neurophysiology of prediabetes plays an important role in preventive medicine. The dysregulation of glucose metabolism is likely linked to changes in neuron-related gray matter. Therefore, we designed this study to investigate gray matter alterations in medication-naive prediabetic patients. We expected to find alterations in the gray matter of prediabetic patients. A total of 64 prediabetic patients and 54 controls were enrolled. All subjects received T1 scans using a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging machine. Subjects also completed nutritional intake records at the 24-hour and 3-day time points to determine their carbohydrate, protein, fat, and total calorie intake. We utilized optimized voxel-based morphometry to estimate the gray matter differences between the patients and controls. In addition, the preprandial serum glucose level and the carbohydrate, protein, fat, and total calorie intake levels were tested to determine whether these parameters were correlated with the gray matter volume. Prediabetic patients had lower gray matter volumes than controls in the right anterior cingulate gyrus, right posterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, left super temporal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus (corrected P < 0.05; voxel threshold: 33). Gray matter volume in the right anterior cingulate was also negatively correlated with the preprandial serum glucose level gyrus in a voxel-dependent manner (r = –0.501; 2-tailed P = 0.001). The cingulo-temporal and insula gray matter alterations may be associated with the glucose dysregulation in prediabetic patients. PMID:27336893
Neville, T L; Caton, J S; Hammer, C J; Reed, J J; Luther, J S; Taylor, J B; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P; Vonnahme, K A
Lambs born from feed-restricted or overfed ewes can be lighter at birth, whereas maternal Se supplementation can increase fetal size near term. We hypothesized that birth weight would be inversely related to feed efficiency and growth rates during postnatal development. To examine the effects of maternal dietary Se and nutrient restriction or excess on postnatal lamb growth, diet digestibility, and N retention, 82 ewe lambs (52.2 ± 0.8 kg) were allotted randomly to 1 of 6 treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Factors were dietary Se [adequate Se (9.5 μg/kg of BW; ASe) vs. high Se (Se-enriched yeast; 81.8 μg/kg of BW; HSe)] and maternal nutritional intake [60% (restricted, RES), 100% (control, CON), or 140% (high, HI) of NRC requirements]. Selenium treatments began at breeding. Nutritional treatments began on d 50 of gestation. Lambs were immediately removed from their dams at parturition, provided artificial colostrum, and fed milk replacer until weaning. After weaning, lambs were maintained using common management and on common diets until necropsy at 180 d. Male and female lambs from RES-fed ewes were lighter (P ≤ 0.03) at birth than lambs from CON-fed ewes, with lambs from HI-fed ewes being intermediate. Although maternal nutritional intake influenced (P < 0.06) BW gain before weaning on d 57, both maternal nutritional intake and sex of offspring influenced (P ≤ 0.09) BW gain from d 57 to 180. Although maternal nutritional intake did not influence (P ≥ 0.35) female lamb BW gain, male lambs from RES-fed ewes were lighter (P ≤ 0.09) than those from CON-fed ewes until d 162. By d 180, male lambs from RES- and HI-fed ewes were lighter (P ≤ 0.09) than those from CON-fed ewes. In a subset of lambs used in a feed efficiency study, namely, those born to ASe ewes, HI maternal nutritional intake decreased (P ≤ 0.09) ADG and G:F compared with lambs born to RES- and CON-fed ewes, which did not differ (P ≥ 0.60). Conversely, when lambs were born to
Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan Kumar; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, A M Shamsir
This study estimated the levels and differentials in nutritional status and dietary intake and relevant knowledge of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh using data from the Baseline Survey 2004 of the National Nutrition Programme. A stratified two-stage random cluster-sampling was used for selecting 4,993 unmarried adolescent girls aged 13-18 years in 708 rural clusters. Female interviewers visited girls at home to record their education, occupation, dietary knowledge, seven-day food-frequency, intake of iron and folic acid, morbidity, weight, and height. They inquired mothers about age of their daughters and possessions of durable assets to divide households into asset quintiles. Results revealed that 26% of the girls were thin, with body mass index (BMI)-for-age <15th percentile), 0.3% obese (BMI-for-age >95th percentile), and 32% stunted (height-for-age < or = 2SD). Risks of being thin and stunted were higher if girls had general morbidity in the last fortnight and foul-smelling vaginal discharge than their peers. Consumptions of non-staple good-quality food items in the last week were less frequent and correlated well positively with the household asset quintile. Girls of the highest asset quintile ate fish/meat 2.1 (55%) days more and egg/milk two (91%) days more than the girls in the lowest asset quintile. The overall dietary knowledge was low. More than half could not name the main food sources of energy and protein, and 36% were not aware of the importance of taking extra nutrients during adolescence for growth spurt. The use of iron supplement was 21% in nutrition-intervention areas compared to 8% in non-intervention areas. Factors associated with the increased use of iron supplements were related to awareness of the girls about extra nutrients and their access to mass media and education. Community-based adolescent-friendly health and nutrition education and services and economic development may improve the overall health and nutritional knowledge and
Trier, Catherine M; Johnston, Carol S
Sales of nutrition bars increased almost 10-fold to $1.7billion over the past decade yet few studies have examined the impact of bar ingestion on dietary parameters. In this crossover trial, 24-h energy intakes were assessed in free-living college students ingesting a high-protein (HP, 280kcal) or a high-carbohydrate (HC, 260kcal) nutrition bar upon waking. Fifty-four students entered the trial, and 37 participants completed the three test days. Daily energy intakes ranged from 1752±99kcal for the non-intervention day to 1846±75 and 1891±110kcal for the days the HP and HC bars were consumed respectively (p=0.591). However, for individuals who reported high levels of physically activity (n=11), daily energy intakes increased significantly compared to the control day for the HC bar day (+45%; p=0.030) and HP bar day (+22%; p=0.038). Macro- and micro-nutrient intakes differed significantly across test days in the total sample mirroring the nutrient profile of the specific bars. These data suggest that young adults adjust caloric intakes appropriately following the ingestion of energy-dense nutrition bars over a 24-h period. Moreover, nutrition bars may represent a unique opportunity to favorably influence nutrient status of young adults.
Kennedy, Gina; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Seghieri, Chiara; Arimond, Mary; Koreissi, Yara; Dossa, Romain; Kok, Frans J; Brouwer, Inge D
The prevalence of micronutrient deficiency is high among women of reproductive age living in urban Mali. Despite this, there are little data on the dietary intake of micronutrients among women of reproductive age in Mali. This research tested the relationship between the quantity of intake of 21 possible food groups and estimated usual micronutrient (folate, vitamin B-12, calcium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin A, iron, thiamin, vitamin B-6, vitamin C, and zinc) intakes and a composite measure of adequacy of 11 micronutrients [mean probability of adequacy (MPA)] based on the individual probability of adequacy (PA) for the 11 micronutrients. Food group and micronutrient intakes were calculated from 24-h recall data in an urban sample of Malian women. PA was lowest for folate, vitamin B-12, calcium, and riboflavin. The overall MPA for the composite measure of 11 micronutrients was 0.47 ± 0.18. Grams of intake from the nuts/seeds, milk/yogurt, vitamin A-rich dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV), and vitamin C-rich vegetables food groups were correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.20-0.36; P < 0.05) with MPA. Women in the highest consumption groups of nuts/seeds and DGLV had 5- and 6-fold greater odds of an MPA > 0.5, respectively. These findings can be used to further the development of indicators of dietary diversity and to improve micronutrient intakes of women of reproductive age.
The aims of this study were to develop strategies and algorithms of calculating food commodity intake suitable for exposure assessment of residual chemicals by using the food intake database of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). In this study, apples and their processed food products were chosen as a model food for accurate calculation of food commodity intakes uthrough the recently developed Korea food commodity intake calculation (KFCIC) software. The average daily intakes of total apples in Korea Health Statistics were 29.60 g in 2008, 32.40 g in 2009, 34.30 g in 2010, 28.10 g in 2011, and 24.60 g in 2012. The average daily intakes of apples by KFCIC software was 2.65 g higher than that by Korea Health Statistics. The food intake data in Korea Health Statistics might have less reflected the intake of apples from mixed and processed foods than KFCIC software has. These results can affect outcome of risk assessment for residual chemicals in foods. Therefore, the accurate estimation of the average daily intake of food commodities is very important, and more data for food intakes and recipes have to be applied to improve the quality of data. Nevertheless, this study can contribute to the predictive estimation of exposure to possible residual chemicals and subsequent analysis for their potential risks. PMID:27152299
Kim, Bumsik; Baek, Min-Seok; Lee, Yongmin; Paik, Jean Kyung; Chang, Moon-Ik; Rhee, Gyu-Seek; Ko, Sanghoon
The aims of this study were to develop strategies and algorithms of calculating food commodity intake suitable for exposure assessment of residual chemicals by using the food intake database of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). In this study, apples and their processed food products were chosen as a model food for accurate calculation of food commodity intakes uthrough the recently developed Korea food commodity intake calculation (KFCIC) software. The average daily intakes of total apples in Korea Health Statistics were 29.60 g in 2008, 32.40 g in 2009, 34.30 g in 2010, 28.10 g in 2011, and 24.60 g in 2012. The average daily intakes of apples by KFCIC software was 2.65 g higher than that by Korea Health Statistics. The food intake data in Korea Health Statistics might have less reflected the intake of apples from mixed and processed foods than KFCIC software has. These results can affect outcome of risk assessment for residual chemicals in foods. Therefore, the accurate estimation of the average daily intake of food commodities is very important, and more data for food intakes and recipes have to be applied to improve the quality of data. Nevertheless, this study can contribute to the predictive estimation of exposure to possible residual chemicals and subsequent analysis for their potential risks.
Alaimo, Katherine; Oleksyk, Shannon; Golzynski, Diane; Drzal, Nick; Lucarelli, Jennifer; Reznar, Melissa; Wen, Yalu; Krabill Yoder, Karen
The Michigan Healthy School Action Tools (HSAT) is an online self-assessment and action planning process for schools seeking to improve their health policies and practices. The School Nutrition Advances Kids study, a 2-year quasi-experimental intervention with low-income middle schools, evaluated whether completing the HSAT with a facilitator assistance and small grant funding resulted in (1) improvements in school nutrition practices and policies and (2) improvements in student dietary intake. A total of 65 low-income Michigan middle schools participated in the study. The Block Youth Food Frequency Questionnaire was completed by 1,176 seventh-grade students at baseline and in eighth grade (during intervention). Schools reported nutrition-related policies and practices/education using the School Environment and Policy Survey. Schools completing the HSAT were compared to schools that did not complete the HSAT with regard to number of policy and practice changes and student dietary intake. Schools that completed the HSAT made significantly more nutrition practice/education changes than schools that did not complete the HSAT, and students in those schools made dietary improvements in fruit, fiber, and cholesterol intake. The Michigan HSAT process is an effective strategy to initiate improvements in nutrition policies and practices within schools, and to improve student dietary intake.
Goni, Leticia; Cuervo, Marta; Milagro, Fermín I; Martínez, J Alfredo
There is little evidence about genetic risk score (GRS)-diet interactions in order to provide personalized nutrition based on the genotype. The aim of the study was to assess the value of a GRS on obesity prediction and to further evaluate the interactions between the GRS and dietary intake on obesity. A total of 711 seekers of a Nutrigenetic Service were examined for anthropometric and body composition measurements and also for dietary habits and physical activity. Oral epithelial cells were collected for the identification of 16 SNPs (related with obesity or lipid metabolism) using DNA zip-coded beads. Genotypes were coded as 0, 1 or 2 according to the number of risk alleles, and the GRS was calculated by adding risk alleles with such a criterion. After being adjusted for gender, age, physical activity and energy intake, the GRS demonstrated that individuals carrying >7 risk alleles had in average 0.93 kg/m(2) of BMI, 1.69 % of body fat mass, 1.94 cm of waist circumference and 0.01 waist-to-height ratio more than the individuals with ≤7 risk alleles. Significant interactions for GRS and the consumption of energy, total protein, animal protein, vegetable protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, total carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates and fiber intake on adiposity traits were found after adjusted for confounders variables. The GRS confirmed that the high genetic risk group showed greater values of adiposity than the low risk group and demonstrated that macronutrient intake modifies the GRS association with adiposity traits.
Bruins, Maaike J.; Mugambi, Gladys; Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Hoekstra, Jeljer; Kraemer, Klaus; Osendarp, Saskia; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Gallagher, Alison M.; Verhagen, Hans
Fortification of foods consumed by the general population or specific food products or supplements designed to be consumed by vulnerable target groups is amongst the strategies in developing countries to address micronutrient deficiencies. Any strategy aimed at dietary change needs careful consideration, ensuring the needs of at-risk subgroups are met whilst ensuring safety within the general population. This paper reviews the key principles of two main assessment approaches that may assist developing countries in deciding on effective and safe micronutrient levels in foods or special products designed to address micronutrient deficiencies, that is, the cut-point method and the stepwise approach to risk–benefit assessment. In the first approach, the goal is to shift population intake distributions such that intake prevalences below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) are both minimized. However, for some micronutrients like vitamin A and zinc, a narrow margin between the EAR and UL exists. Increasing their intakes through mass fortification may pose a dilemma; not permitting the UL to be exceeded provides assurance about the safety within the population but can potentially leave a proportion of the target population with unmet needs, or vice versa. Risk–benefit approaches assist in decision making at different micronutrient intake scenarios by balancing the magnitude of potential health benefits of reducing inadequate intakes against health risks of excessive intakes. Risk–benefit approaches consider different aspects of health risk including severity and number of people affected. This approach reduces the uncertainty for policy makers as compared to classic cut-point methods. PMID:25630617
Cox, D N; Anderson, A S; Reynolds, J; McKellar, S; Lean, M E; Mela, D J
This study reports results from a randomized controlled intervention trial, focusing on: (1) the identification of successful consumer strategies for increasing fruit and vegetable intakes to the recommended levels of more than five (80 g) portions per day and (2) impact on overall diet and nutrient intakes. Adult men and women (n 170) fulfilling the main recruitment criterion of eating less than five fruit and vegetable portions per day but contemplating increasing intakes were recruited. Complete valid dietary data was provided by 101 intervention (fifty-nine estimated fruit and vegetable intakes, and forty-two simultaneous weighted total dietary and estimated fruit and vegetable intakes) and twenty-four control subjects (weighed total dietary intakes). Intervention advice included the specific association of high fruit and vegetable intake with reduced risk of disease, practicalities, and portion definition with a target intake of greater than five 80 g fruit and vegetable portions per day for 8 weeks. There were significant effects (P < 0.001) on weighed intakes of fruit and vegetables in the intervention group, rising from 324 (SE 25) to 557 (SE 31) g/d and reflected by validated portion measures at 8 weeks intervention. Successful strategies chosen by 'achievers' of the target intake (65% of subjects) were conventional (fruit as a snack, vegetables with main meals etc.) and favoured fruit. There were significant increases in percentage energy from carbohydrate (from sugars not starch), vitamin C, carotenes and NSP and there was a significant decrease in percentage energy from fat for subjects who had high fat intakes (> 35% energy) at baseline. Follow-up self-reported measures at 6 and 12 months indicated mean intakes of 4.5 and 4.6 defined portions/d respectively, suggesting some sustainable effect. In conclusion, the intervention led to significant increases in fruit and vegetable intakes largely via conventional eating habits, with some desirable effects
Smith, Scott M.; Lane, Helen W.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)
Adequate nutritional status is critical for maintenance of crew health during extended- duration space flight and postflight rehabilitation. Nutrition issues relate to intake of required nutrients, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, psychological adaptation to extreme environments, and countermeasures to ameliorate the negative effects of space flight. Thus, defining the nutrient requirements for space flight and ensuring provision and intake of those nutrients are critical issues for crew health and mission success. Specialized nutritional requirements have only been considered for what are referred to here as extended- duration flights, i.e., those greater than 30 days in length. While adequate nutrition is important on the 1- to 3-week Shuttle flights, intakes of specific nutrients above or below space specific requirements for this period will not produce cause for concern. Thus, Shuttle flights have always used the recognized nutritional requirements for adult men and women. In this chapter, long-duration flights will be further differentiated into orbital missions (e.g., International Space Station) and interplanetary exploration missions.
Phosphorus (P) exists at the all organs and plays important physiological roles in the body. A wide range of food contains P, which is absorbed at a higher level (60-70%) and its insufficiency and deficiency are rarely found. P is used as food additives in many processed food, where risk of overconsumption could be an issue. P has less evidence in terms of nutrition. P has the adequate intake and the tolerable upper intake level, for risk reduction of health disorders associated with excess intake, at the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2010 edition).
Spagnoli, T D; Bioletti, L; Bo, C; Formigatti, M
The relationship between television viewing and obesity in children and adults was examined in a large number of cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Some randomised, controlled trials confirmed the evidence that television viewing is a cause of increased body fatness. It seems of utility in nutritional surveillance to esteem time spent by children and adults in television watching and to evaluate ads contents and food preferences suggested by them. This editorial shows a two-years long analysis of food commercials broadcasted by the main Italian TV networks; food ads targeted on children, housewives and sport fans were evaluated; the relationship between television viewing, commercials and food intake or global lifestyle was investigated in a Piedmont's population (from Northern Italy). School projects aimed to reduce television viewing represent a promising strategy for preventing childhood obesity.
Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena
Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…
Cook, Judith; And Others
Survey focused on school children 8-11 and 13-15 years in Kent (England) between September 1968 and March 1970. Sex, age, and weight were found independently associated with highly significant differences in nutritional intake. Social class, number of siblings, and mother's work status were not generally associated with significant differences in…
Jacoby, Ann; And Others
The stated purpose of the study discussed here was to investigate the relationship of socio-economic factors to both nutrient intake and nutritional status using data gathered in Kent from September 1968 to March 1970; for each child in the study, information collected comprised a weighed diet record, a socio-economic questionnaire, and a medical…
Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi
Little information is available to estimate water-soluble vitamin intakes from urinary vitamins and their metabolite contents as possible nutritional markers. Determination of the relationships between the oral dose and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in human subjects contributes to finding valid nutrition markers of water-soluble vitamin intakes. Six female Japanese college students were given a standard Japanese diet in the first week, the same diet with a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture as a diet with approximately onefold vitamin mixture based on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Japanese in the second week, with a threefold vitamin mixture in the third week, and a sixfold mixture in the fourth week. Water-soluble vitamins and their metabolites were measured in the 24-h urine collected each week. All urinary vitamins and their metabolite levels except vitamin B(12) increased linearly in a dose-dependent manner, and highly correlated with vitamin intake (r=0.959 for vitamin B(1), r=0.927 for vitamin B(2), r=0.965 for vitamin B(6), r=0.957 for niacin, r=0.934 for pantothenic acid, r=0.907 for folic acid, r=0.962 for biotin, and r=0.952 for vitamin C). These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite levels can be used as good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes.
Watanabe, Reiko; Hanamori, Kiyoko; Kadoya, Hiroko; Nishimuta, Mamoru; Miyazaki, Hideo
The purpose of this study was to obtain detailed data on the dietary intake of energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients, especially minerals and vitamins, of healthy free-living people over the age of 70 in Japan and to clarify the correlations among nutrient intakes. The survey was conducted in November 2001 for 57 persons (men: 31, women: 26) aged 74 y (born in 1927) living in Niigata City, Japan. A precise weighing method was used to record food intake for three consecutive days. Nutrient intake was calculated based on the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan (5th ed.). The intakes of energy and total protein were 44.8+/-7.7 kcal/kg/d and 1.80+/-0.35 g/kg/d for men and 38.1+/-7.6 kcal/ kg/d and 1.51+/-0.26 g/kg/d for women. These values are significantly higher than those proposed by the current Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and the data by the 2001 National Nutrition Survey in Japan. The energy intake ratios from protein, carbohydrate and fat for men were 16 : 58 : 22, respectively, and the residual part was alcohol. For women, the ratios were 16 : 62 : 22. The proportion of total protein intake that consisted of animal protein was 57.8% for men and 52.8% for women. For both sexes, all of the mean daily intakes of nine minerals and 12 vitamins were higher than those prescribed for elderly Japanese people (> or =70 y) in the RDAs. Significant strong correlations were found between total protein intake and intakes of vitamins D, B2 and B6, as well as niacin and pantothenic acid (p<0.0001). Among the nine minerals, the correlations were very strong between potassium and magnesium, calcium and phosphorus, magnesium and iron, magnesium and copper, iron and copper, and zinc and copper (r's>0.700). For vitamins, strong correlations were found between vitamin A and folic acid, vitamin B2 and pantothenic acid, and folic acid and pantothenic acid. Furthermore, strong relationships were observed between potassium and folic acid, potassium and pantothenic
Adequately Diversified Dietary Intake and Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy Is Associated with Reduced Occurrence of Symptoms Suggestive of Pre-Eclampsia or Eclampsia in Indian Women
Agrawal, Sutapa; Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Stuckler, David
Background/Objective Pre-eclampsia or Eclampsia (PE or E) accounts for 25% of cases of maternal mortality worldwide. There is some evidence of a link to dietary factors, but few studies have explored this association in developing countries, where the majority of the burden falls. We examined the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E in Indian women. Methods Cross-sectional data from India’s third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-06) was used for this study. Self-reported symptoms suggestive of PE or E during pregnancy were obtained from 39,657 women aged 15-49 years who had had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E after adjusting for maternal, health and lifestyle factors, and socio-demographic characteristics of the mother. Results In their most recent pregnancy, 1.2% (n=456) of the study sample experienced symptoms suggestive of PE or E. Mothers who consumed an adequately diversified diet were 34% less likely (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.51-0.87) to report PE or E symptoms than mothers with inadequately diversified dietary intake. The likelihood of reporting PE or E symptoms was also 36% lower (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88) among those mothers who consumed iron and folic acid supplementation for at least 90 days during their last pregnancy. As a sensitivity analysis, we stratified our models sequentially by education, wealth, antenatal care visits, birth interval, and parity. Our results remained largely unchanged: both adequately diversified dietary intake and iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were associated with a reduced occurrence of PE or E symptoms. Conclusion Having a adequately diversified dietary
Schulze, M B; Brandstetter, B R; Kroke, A; Wahrendorf, J; Boeing, H
The EPIC-Heidelberg and the EPIC-Potsdam studies with about 53,000 study participants represent the German contribution to the EPIC (European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohort study. Within the EPIC study, standardized 24-hour dietary recalls were applied as a quantitative calibration method in order to estimate the amount of scaling bias introduced by the varying center-specific dietary assessment methods. This article presents intake of food items and food groups in the two German cohorts estimated by 24-hour quantitative dietary recalls. Recalls from 1,013 men and 1,078 women in Heidelberg and 1,032 men and 898 women in Potsdam were included in the analysis. The intake of recorded food items or recipe ingredients as well as fat used for cooking was summarized into 16 main food groups and a variety of different subgroups stratified by sex and weighted for the day of the week and age. In more than 90% of the recalls, consumption of dairy products, cereals and cereal products, bread, fat, and non-alcoholic beverages, particularly coffee/tea, was reported. Inter-cohort evaluations revealed that bread, potatoes, fruit and fat were consumed in higher amounts in the Potsdam cohort while the opposite was found for pasta/rice, non-alcoholic, and alcoholic beverages. It was concluded that the exposure variation was increased by having two instead of one EPIC study centers in Germany.
Gravel, Karine; Doucet, Éric; Herman, C Peter; Pomerleau, Sonia; Bourlaud, Anne-Sophie; Provencher, Véronique
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutrition claims on food perceptions and intake among adult men and women, during ad libitum snacks. In a three (healthy vs. diet vs. hedonic) by two (normal-weight vs. overweight/obese) by two (unrestrained vs. restrained eaters) factorial design, 164 men and 188 women were invited to taste and rate oatmeal-raisin cookies. Despite the fact that the cookies were the same in all conditions, they were perceived as being healthier in the "healthy" condition than in the "diet" and "hedonic" conditions. The caloric content was estimated as higher by participants in the "hedonic" than in the "healthy" condition, by women than by men, and by restrained than by unrestrained eaters. Although measured ad libitum cookie intake did not differ as a function of experimental condition, overweight restrained men ate more than did women from each BMI and restraint category. Conversely, overweight restrained women ate less than did men from each BMI and restraint category. In conclusion, our manipulations of healthiness and "fatteningness" of food were effective in changing perceptions, but were not in changing behavior.
Dietary Protein Intake in Young Children in Selected Low-Income Countries Is Generally Adequate in Relation to Estimated Requirements for Healthy Children, Except When Complementary Food Intake Is Low.
Arsenault, Joanne E; Brown, Kenneth H
Background: Previous research indicates that young children in low-income countries (LICs) generally consume greater amounts of protein than published estimates of protein requirements, but this research did not account for protein quality based on the mix of amino acids and the digestibility of ingested protein.Objective: Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake by young children in LICs, accounting for protein quality.Methods: Seven data sets with information on dietary intake for children (6-35 mo of age) from 6 LICs (Peru, Guatemala, Ecuador, Bangladesh, Uganda, and Zambia) were reanalyzed to estimate protein and amino acid intake and assess adequacy. The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score of each child's diet was calculated and multiplied by the original (crude) protein intake to obtain an estimate of available protein intake. Distributions of usual intake were obtained to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake for each cohort according to Estimated Average Requirements.Results: The prevalence of inadequate protein intake was highest in breastfeeding children aged 6-8 mo: 24% of Bangladeshi and 16% of Peruvian children. With the exception of Bangladesh, the prevalence of inadequate available protein intake decreased by age 9-12 mo and was very low in all sites (0-2%) after 12 mo of age. Inadequate protein intake in children <12 mo of age was due primarily to low energy intake from complementary foods, not inadequate protein density.Conclusions: Overall, most children consumed protein amounts greater than requirements, except for the younger breastfeeding children, who were consuming low amounts of complementary foods. These findings reinforce previous evidence that dietary protein is not generally limiting for children in LICs compared with estimated requirements for healthy children, even after accounting for protein quality. However, unmeasured effects of infection and
Caccialanza, Riccardo; Cereda, Emanuele; Klersy, Catherine; Bonardi, Chiara; Cappello, Silvia; Quarleri, Lara; Turri, Annalisa; Montagna, Elisabetta; Iacona, Isabella; Valentino, Francesco; Pedrazzoli, Paolo
The assessment of nutritional intakes during hospitalization is crucial, as it is known that nutritional status tends to worsen during the hospital stay, and this can lead to the negative consequences of malnutrition. International guidelines recommend the use of parenteral nutrition (PN) in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition. However, to date, there are no published data regarding either energy intake or objective measurements associated with it in this patient population. The aim of the present exploratory methodological study was to evaluate whether phase angle (PhA) and handgrip strength normalized for skeletal muscle mass (HG/SMM) are sensitive early markers of energy intake in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition. We evaluated 30 eligible patients, who were treated with personalized dietary modifications and supplemental PN for at least one week during hospitalization. In a liner regression model adjusted for age, gender, basal protein intake and the basal value of each variable, a trend toward improvement of PhA and preservation of HG/SMM was observed in patients satisfying the estimated calorie requirements (N = 20), while a significant deterioration of these parameters occurred in those who were not able to reach the target (N = 10). The mean adjusted difference and 95% CI were +1.4° (0.5-2.3) (p = 0.005) for PhA and +0.23 (0.20-0.43) (p = 0.033) for HG/SMM. A significant correlation between PhA and HG/SMM variations was also observed (r = 0.56 (95% CI, 0.23-0.77); p = 0.0023). PhA and HG/SMM were able to distinguish between hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk who satisfied their estimated caloric requirements and those who did not after a one-week personalized nutritional support. Clinical studies are warranted, in order to verify these preliminary observations and to validate the role of PhA variations as early
The association between mushroom consumption and nutrient intake or diet quality has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between these variables in a nationally representative sample of adults. Dietary intake was determined using a 24-hour recall on adult 1...
Rocks, Tetyana; Pelly, Fiona; Slater, Gary; Martin, Lisa Anne
The aim of this research was to explore the relationship of total energy and macronutrient intake, energy balance and energy availability to eating attitudes and cognitive restraint in students enrolled in undergraduate nutrition degrees. Energy and micronutrient intake was assessed in 63 students (n = 50 nutrition, and n = 13 occupation therapy degrees; n = 51 females, n = 12 males) using three 24-h dietary recalls. Energy requirements were calculated based on measured resting metabolic rate, estimated exercise energy expenditure, and dietary induced thermogenesis. Body composition was assessed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Eating attitudes and cognitive restraint were measured using previously validated tools. Eighteen percent of nutrition students were classified as having low energy availability (<30 kcal kgFFM(-1)d(-1)) and 38% were in negative energy balance. Eating attitudes and cognitive restraint were not associated with total energy or macronutrient intake. However, female nutrition students with high cognitive restraint had greater exercise energy expenditure and thus lower energy availability than those with low cognitive restraint (371 (302) kcal d(-1) compared to 145 (206) kcal d(-1), P < 0.01, and 35 (7) kcal d(-1) compared to 41 (10) kcal d(-1) of fat free mass, P = 0.005). Additionally, in females, disordered eating attitudes and cognitive restraint negatively correlated with energy availability (rs = -0.37, P = 0.02 and rs = -0.51, P < 0.01 respectively). There were no differences in outcomes between nutrition and non-nutrition students. The current study suggests that those students with disordered eating attitudes and cognitive restraint may be controlling their energy balance through exercise, as opposed to restricting food intake.
Earing, J E; Hathaway, M R; Sheaffer, C C; Hetchler, B P; Jacobson, L D; Paulson, J C; Martinson, K L
Management strategies for horses with respiratory disease include soaking hay before feeding. Hay steaming is an alternative to this practice; however, little is known about its impact on forage nutritive values or intake. The objective was to determine the effect of steaming on forage nutritive value and intake by horses. Two alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) mixed hays were evaluated: a low moldy (NM) and moderately moldy (MM) hay. Six mature horses were used in a 10 d crossover design. Three horses were assigned to each hay type and treatments were switched on d 6. Each day, one bale of each hay was sampled (pre- and poststeaming) and steamed for 90 min using a commercial hay steamer. Two flakes of steamed or unsteamed NM or MM hay were weighed and offered simultaneously to each horse in individual hay nets. Horses were allowed access to hay for 2 h, orts were collected, and 2 h DMI was calculated. Six additional bales of NM and MM were used to evaluate the effect of steaming on total suspended particulate (TSP). Flakes of unsteamed or steamed hay were agitated in an electric cement mixer, and TSP were recorded every min for 30 min using a tapered element oscillating microbalance sampler. Paired t tests and PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC) were used to compare steamed and unsteamed hay nutritive values, mold concentration, TSP, and 2 h DMI. Steaming increased hay moisture and therefore reduced DM to 77 and 81% for NM and MM, respectively (P < 0.001). In NM and MM hay, steaming reduced P content by 16 and 17%, respectively (P ≤ 0.007). Steaming reduced water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and ethanol-soluble carbohydrates (ESC) by 13% (P = 0.001) and 27% (P = 0.003), respectively, for MM but had no effect on NM (P > 0.05). Steaming reduced mold concentrations in both hays by ≥ 91% (P < 0.001). Total suspended particulate of MM hay was reduced by 55% (P = 0.043), but TSP in NM hay was not affected by steaming (P = 0
Sturtzel, Baerbel; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Ohrenberger, Gerald
To investigate how the energy intake of institutionalized long-term-care patients through the regular nontherapeutic meals provision is associated with the nutritional status and the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI). A 9 month longitudinal, observational study. Long-term-care Hospital. 66 long-term-care patients with multiple medical conditions and solely oral food-intake. 47 (71 %) patients, predominantly women (n = 39/47), with a mean age of 83.04 (±9.58) years completed study time and 19 (29 %) deceased. At week 1 and week 36 of observation time energy intake was measured by means of three-days-weighing-records. Body composition was assessed with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Serum albumin, body weight and body height were taken from the medical report. Albumin content, body weight and height were used to calculate the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index: GNRI = [1.489 × albumin (g/L)] + [41.7 × (weight/ideal body weight)]. Energy intake was significantly below 24 kcal/kg body weight per day. The GNRI of the deceased patients was significantly (p = 0.002) lower than the GNRI of the completers. During observation time energy-intake p < 0.001, body fat (p = 0.001) and phase angle (PA) of bio impedance measurement (p = 0.018) and likewise the GNRI (p = 0.021) of the completers decreased significantly. At the beginning and at the end of observation time energy intake correlated significantly with PA (p = 0.028/p < 0.001) and GNRI (p = 0.436/p = 0.004). Also GNRI and PA correlated significantly at the beginning (p = 0.001) and at the end (p < 0.001) of observation time. The energy intake through non therapeutic meals provision was too low for sustaining the nutritional status and likewise the GNRI. The malnourishment and the nutrition related clinical risk of the geriatric patients aggrevated during observation time.
Lee, Se Jin; Lee, So Young; Sung, Su Ah; Chin, Ho Jun
Little is known about the risk factors of proteinuria in the Asian population. On the basis of the association between rice intake patterns and chronic diseases, we hypothesized that rice intake patterns are associated with proteinuria in the Asian population. Data, including data regarding rice intake frequency and dipstick urinalysis results, from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 1998, 2001, 2005, and 2007 were analyzed. The study involved 19,824 participants who were older than 20 years of age. Low rice intake was defined as consumption of rice ≤ 1 time/day. Proteinuria was defined as dipstick urinalysis protein ≥ 1 positive. Among the 19,824 participants, the prevalence of low rice intake and proteinuria were 17.3% and 2.9%, respectively. The low rice intake group showed a higher rate of proteinuria than the non-low rice intake group did (3.8% vs. 2.7%, P < 0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) of low rice intake for proteinuria was 1.54 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25–1.89; P < 0.001). Low rice intake was also independently associated with high blood pressure (OR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.31–1.56; P < 0.001) and diabetes (OR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.27–1.62; P < 0.001). In conclusion, low rice intake was found to be independently associated with proteinuria in the Asian population, which might have been affected by the associations of low rice intake with high blood pressure and diabetes. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm the results of this study. PMID:28081248
The effect of a nutritional education program on the nutritional status of elderly patients in a long-term care hospital in Jeollanamdo province: health behavior, dietary behavior, nutrition risk level and nutrient intake.
Kim, Bok Hee; Kim, Mi-Ju; Lee, Yoonna
This study was conducted to assess improvements in nutritional status following the application of nutrition education to elderly patients in a long-term care hospital. The study was carried out from January to May 2009, during which a preliminary survey, a pretest, the application of nutrition education, and a post-test were applied in stages. The number of subjects at pretest was 81, and the number of participants included in the final analysis was 61 (18 men, 43 women), all of whom participated in both the nutrition education program and the post-test. The survey consisted of general demographic items, health behaviors, dietary behaviors, the Nutrition Screening Initiative checklist, and nutrient intake assessment (24 hour recall method). The nutrition education program lasted for four weeks. It included a basic education program, provided once a week, and mini-education program, which was offered daily during lunch times. The survey was conducted before and after the education program using the same assessment method, although some items were included only at pretest. When analyzing the changes in elderly patients after the nutritional education program, we found that, among subjective dietary behaviors, self-rated perceptions of health (P < 0.001) and of depression (P < 0.001) improved significantly and that dietary behavior scores also improved significantly (P < 0.001), while nutritional risk levels decreased. In terms of nutrient intake, subjects' intake of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C all increased significantly (P < 0.001). These results indicated that nutritional education is effective in improving the nutritional status of elderly patients. We hope that the results of this study can be used as preliminary data for establishing guidelines for nutrition management tailored to elderly patients in long-term care hospitals.
Cannoosamy, Komeela; Pem, Dhandevi; Bhagwant, Suress; Jeewon, Rajesh
The purpose of the study was to assess the determinants of nutrition behaviors and body mass index and determine the impact of a nutrition education intervention (NEI) among Mauritian housewives. A pretest-posttest design was used assessing Nutrition Knowledge (NK), Nutrition Attitudes, Fruit and Vegetable Intake (FVI), body mass index (BMI). Two hundred Mauritian housewives were recruited. The NEI was in the form of a lecture and lasted for twenty minutes. Statistical tests performed revealed that the mean NK score at baseline was 65.8 ± 6.92 and a significant increase of +17.1 at post-test and +16.1 at follow-up was observed. Determinants of NK were age, presence of elderly people, and BMI. Mean nutrition attitude score at baseline was 2.37 ± 0.22 with significant increase of +0.2 (post-test) and +0.17 at follow-up. Age, level of education, presence of elders, and NK were linked to a positive attitude. FVI was predicted by age, income, presence of elders, NK, and nutrition attitudes. Baseline FVI was 4.77 ± 1.11 which increased significantly (p < 0.001) to 4.98 ± 1.13 at post-test and 5.03 ± 1.20 at follow up. NEI had a positive impact suggesting the benefits of such intervention in the promotion of healthy nutrition behaviors. PMID:27916818
Kumstát, Michal; Rybárová, Silvie; Thomas, Andy; Novotný, Jan
The nutritional intake of elite open water swimmers during competition is not well established, and therefore this case study aims to provide new insights by describing the feeding strategies adopted by an elite female swimmer (28 yrs; height; 1.71 m; body mass: 60 kg; body fat: 16.0%) in the FINA open water Grand Prix 2014.Seven events of varying distances (15-88 km) and durations (3-12 hrs) were included. In all events, except one, feeds were provided from support boats. Swimmer and support staff were instructed to track in detail all foods and beverages consumed during the events. Nutritional information was gathered from the packaging and dietary supplements labels and analyzed by nutrition software. Mean carbohydrate (CHO) and protein intake reached 83 ± 5 g·h-1 and 12 ± 8 g·h-1, respectively. Fat intake was neglected (~1 g·h-1). Mean in-race energy intake reached 394 ± 26 kcal·h-1. Dietary supplements in the form of sport beverages and gels, containing multitransportable CHO, provided 40 ± 4 and 49 ± 6% of all CHO energy, respectively. Caffeine (3.6 ± 1.8 mg·kg-1 per event) and sodium (423 ± 16 mg·h-1) were additionally supplemented in all events. It was established that continuous intake of high doses of CHO and sodium and moderate dose of caffeine were an essential part of the feeding strategy for elite-level high intensity ultra-endurance open-water swimming races. A well scheduled and well-prepared nutrition strategy is believed to have ensured optimal individual performance during Grand Prix events.
Jakszyn, Paula; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Agudo, Antonio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Molina, Esther; Sánchez, Ma José; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Siersema, Peter D; Matiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Saieva, Calogero; Pala, Valeria; Vineis, Paolo; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Bastide, Nadie; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Riboli, Elio; Murphy, Neil; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Oikonomidou, Edespina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Johansen, Dorthe; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansson, Mattias; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Freisling, Heinz; Barricarte, Aurelio; Huerta, Jose Ma; Amiano, Pilar; Tjonneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Kuehn, Tilman; Grote, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Peeters, Petra H M; González, Carlos A
Although recent studies suggest that high intakes of meat and heme iron are risk factors for several types of cancer, studies in relation to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are scarce. Previous results in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) based on a relatively small number of cases suggested a positive association between processed meat and EAC. In this study, we investigate the association between intake of different types of meats and heme iron intake and EAC risk in a larger number of cases from EPIC. The study included 481,419 individuals and 137 incident cases of EAC that occurred during an average of 11 years of follow-up. Dietary intake of meat (unprocessed/processed red and white meat) was assessed by validated center-specific questionnaires. Heme iron was calculated as a type-specific percentage of the total iron content in meat. After adjusting for relevant confounders, we observed a statistically significant positive association of EAC risk with heme iron and processed meat intake, with HR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.05-2.68 and HR: 2.27, 95% CI:1.33-3.89, respectively, for comparison of the highest vs. lowest tertile of intake. Our results suggest a potential association between higher intakes of processed meat and heme iron and risk of EAC.
Zamora-Ros, Raul; Barupal, Dinesh K; Rothwell, Joseph A; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Romieu, Isabelle; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Overvad, Kim; Kyrø, Cecilie; Tjønneland, Anne; Affret, Aurélie; His, Mathilde; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Kritikou, Maria; Saieva, Calogero; Agnoli, Claudia; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Tumino, Rosario; Fasanelli, Francesca; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Merino, Susana; Jakszyn, Paula; Sánchez, Maria-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Sonestedt, Emily; Ericson, Ulrika; Maria Nilsson, Lena; Bodén, Stina; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Freisling, Heinz; Cross, Amanda J; Riboli, Elio; Scalbert, Augustin
Flavonoids have been shown to inhibit colon cancer cell proliferation in vitro and protect against colorectal carcinogenesis in animal models. However, epidemiological evidence on the potential role of flavonoid intake in colorectal cancer (CRC) development remains sparse and inconsistent. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total flavonoids and their subclasses and risk of development of CRC, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. A cohort of 477,312 adult men and women were recruited in 10 European countries. At baseline, dietary intakes of total flavonoids and individual subclasses were estimated using centre-specific validated dietary questionnaires and composition data from the Phenol-Explorer database. During an average of 11 years of follow-up, 4,517 new cases of primary CRC were identified, of which 2,869 were colon (proximal = 1,298 and distal = 1,266) and 1,648 rectal tumours. No association was found between total flavonoid intake and the risk of overall CRC (HR for comparison of extreme quintiles 1.05, 95% CI 0.93-1.18; p-trend = 0.58) or any CRC subtype. No association was also observed with any intake of individual flavonoid subclasses. Similar results were observed for flavonoid intake expressed as glycosides or aglycone equivalents. Intake of total flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses, as estimated from dietary questionnaires, did not show any association with risk of CRC development.
Chandyo, Ram K.; Ulak, Manjeswori; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Schneede, Jørn; Ueland, Per M.; Strand, Tor A.
Cobalamin and folate are especially important for women of childbearing age due to their ubiquitous role in fetal growth and development. Population-based data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking from Nepal, where diets are mostly vegetarian. The objectives of the study were to investigate cobalamin and folate intake and status, and to explore associations with socio-demographics, anthropometrics, anemia, and dietary habits. Following a random selection of geographical clusters, we collected blood samples from 500 non-pregnant women and 24-h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires from a subsample of 379 women. Twenty percent of the women did not consume any food containing cobalamin during the days recalled, and in 72% nutritional cobalamin intake was <1 μg/day. Eighty-four percent of the women had cobalamin intake lower than the estimated average requirement (EAR) (<2 μg/day). In contrast, only 12% of the women had a folate intake less than 100 μg per day, whereas 62% had intake between 100 and 320 μg. Low plasma cobalamin (<150 pmol/L) was found in 42% of the women, most of whom (88%) also had elevated levels of methylmalonic acid. Our results indicated a high prevalence of nutritional cobalamin deficiency, while folate deficiency was uncommon. PMID:27338469
Smith, Scott M.
Adequate nutrition is critical for crew health and safety during spaceflight. To ensure adequate nutrition, the nutrient requirements need to be both accurate and available from the spaceflight food system. The existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration spaceflight have been defined largely by extrapolation from ground-based research. However, nutritional requirements are influenced by most of the physiological consequences of spaceflight, including loss of lean, adipose, and bone tissue; changes in blood composition; and increased risk of renal stone formation. This review focuses on key areas where information has been gained in recent years: dietary intake and energy metabolism, bone health, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and hematological changes. Areas in which specific nutrients have the potential to serve as countermeasures to the negative effects of spaceflight are also reviewed. Dietary Intake
Osofsky, H J
Repeated nutritional assessments were made on 118 low-income women who registered at an urban hospital clinic prior to the twenty-eighth week of pregnancy and then on 122 comparable women who were provided with protein-mineral supplementation. Demographic and background information were obtained. Medical assessments were carried out throughout pregnancy, labor, delivery, and the postpartum period. The infants were assessed both medically and with Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scales. In spite of their low-income status, the subjects did not appear nutritionally deprived. Few significant relationships were obtained between maternal nutritional intake and measures of maternal or infant medical status or infant psychological status. A limited number of consistent relationships were obtained when the supplemented and nonsupplemented groups were compared. Although consistent infant medical and psychological benefits were not noted, mothers in the supplemented group developed fewer parameters of pre-eclampsia and had fewer complications during labor and delivery.
Kim, You Jin; Park, Min Young; Chang, Namsoo; Kwon, Oran
With an effort to investigate possible relationship between flavonoids and health, an accurate estimation of flavonoid intake is valuable. We estimated dietary flavonoid intake and identified the major food sources. Subjects were healthy adults aged >=19 y (n=11,474) who completed the 24-h dietary recall of the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010-2012). The US Department of Agriculture and newly estimated or published values for typical Korean foods were combined into a Korean-targeted flavonoid database. The mean intake of total flavonoid was 107±1.47 mg/d, with a higher intake in women than in men after energy-adjustment. Quercetin, cyanidin, genistein, daidzein, epigallocatechin 3-gallate, epicatechin, hesperetin, and luteolin were identified as major flavonoid compounds. Across the age range studied, flavonols and flavones showed a reversed U-shape curve; flavan-3-ol and flavanones showed a decreasing pattern; and anthocyanidins and isoflavones showed an increasing pattern. Forty-five food items were identified as contributing >2% of at least one flavonoid compound's intake. Kimchi was the major food source of total flavonoids, followed by green tea, persimmons, and soybeans. Single food items accounting for more than 50% of the intake of a specific flavonoid included persimmons (cyanidin), green tea (epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate), black tea (thearubigin), tangerines (hesperetin and naringenin), and onions (isorhamnetin). This study provides information on Korean flavonoid intake to enable international comparisons, along with insight into how the sources and intake of various flavonoids vary according to age and gender. This work should facilitate future investigations of the association between flavonoid intake and health.
Lee, Haeng-Shin; Park, Sohyun; Kim, Mi-Hyun
Water is essential for life and plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for decreasing energy intake. Due to limited data on characteristics associated with water intake among Korean adolescents, this study examined associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with plain water intake by using nationally representative sample of South Korean adolescents. The data (2007-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for 1,288 high school-aged adolescents (15-18 years) were used. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with low water intake (< 4 cups/day) and very low water intake (< 2.5 cups/day). Nationwide, 38.4% and 19.0% of adolescents reported drinking water < 4.0 cups/day and < 2.5 cups/day, respectively. The mean plain water intake was 5.7 cups/day for males and 4.1 cups/day for females. Females had significantly higher odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 2.2) than males, whereas adolescents with low milk consumption had significantly lower odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 0.7). Factors significantly associated with a greater odds for drinking water < 4 cups/daywere being female (OR = 2.8) and not meeting physical activity recommendations (≥ 20 min/day on < 3 days/week) (OR = 1.6). Being underweight, overweight, and obese were significantly associated with reduced odds for drinking water < 4 cups/day (OR = 0.7, 0.4 and 0.5, respectively). However, intake of soda, coffee drinks, fruits, vegetables, and sodium and eating out were not significantly associated with low or very low water intake. These findings may be used to target intervention efforts to increase plain water intake as part of a healty lifestyle.
Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rothwell, Joseph A; Scalbert, Augustin; Knaze, Viktoria; Romieu, Isabelle; Slimani, Nadia; Fagherazzi, Guy; Perquier, Florence; Touillaud, Marina; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Menéndez, Virginia; Tumino, Rosario; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Palli, Domenico; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sieri, Sabina; Crowe, Francesca L; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Grote, Verena; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Förster, Jana; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Tsiotas, Konstantinos; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ros, Martine; Peeters, Petra H M; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Ericson, Ulrika; Wallström, Peter; Johansson, Ingegerd; Landberg, Rikard; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Wark, Petra; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A
Phenolic acids are secondary plant metabolites that may have protective effects against oxidative stress, inflammation and cancer in experimental studies. To date, limited data exist on the quantitative intake of phenolic acids. We estimated the intake of phenolic acids and their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Phenolic acid intakes were estimated for 36,037 subjects aged 35-74 years and recruited between 1992 and 2000 in ten European countries using a standardised 24 h recall software (EPIC-Soft), and their food sources were identified. Dietary data were linked to the Phenol-Explorer database, which contains data on forty-five aglycones of phenolic acids in 452 foods. The total phenolic acid intake was highest in Aarhus, Denmark (1265·5 and 980·7 mg/d in men and women, respectively), while the intake was lowest in Greece (213·2 and 158·6 mg/d in men and women, respectively). The hydroxycinnamic acid subclass was the main contributor to the total phenolic acid intake, accounting for 84·6-95·3% of intake depending on the region. Hydroxybenzoic acids accounted for 4·6-14·4%, hydroxyphenylacetic acids 0·1-0·8% and hydroxyphenylpropanoic acids ≤ 0·1% for all regions. An increasing south-north gradient of consumption was also found. Coffee was the main food source of phenolic acids and accounted for 55·3-80·7% of the total phenolic acid intake, followed by fruits, vegetables and nuts. A high heterogeneity in phenolic acid intake was observed across the European countries in the EPIC cohort, which will allow further exploration of the associations with the risk of diseases.
Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Rostgaard-Hansen, Agnetha Linn; Tjønneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie; Katzke, Verena A; Kühn, Tilman; Förster, Jana; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Klinaki, Eleni; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Argüelles, Marcial; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chamosa, Saioa; Almquist, Martin; Tosovic, Ada; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Schmidt, Julie A; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Cross, Amanda J; Slimani, Nadia; Byrnes, Graham; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Franceschi, Silvia
Incidence rates of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC) have increased in many countries. Adiposity and dietary risk factors may play a role, but little is known on the influence of energy intake and macronutrient composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between TC and the intake of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 477,274 middle-age participants (70.2% women) from ten European countries. Dietary data were collected using country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Total carbohydrates, proteins, fats, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (PUFA), starch, sugar, and fiber were computed as g/1,000 kcal. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by intake quartile (Q). After a mean follow-up time of 11 years, differentiated TC was diagnosed in 556 participants (90% women). Overall, we found significant associations only with total energy (HRQ4 vs .Q1 , 1.29; 95% CI, 1.00-1.68) and PUFA intakes (HRQ4 vs .Q1 , 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.95). However, the associations with starch and sugar intake and GI were significantly heterogeneous across body mass index (BMI) groups, i.e., positive associations with starch and GI were found in participants with a BMI ≥ 25 and with sugar intake in those with BMI < 25. Moreover, inverse associations with starch and GI were observed in subjects with BMI < 25. In conclusion, our results suggest that high total energy and low PUFA intakes may increase the risk of differentiated TC. Positive associations with starch intake and GI in participants with BMI ≥ 25 suggest that those persons may have a greater insulin response to high starch intake and GI than lean people.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether elective course work based nutrition education in university can change students' body composition and eating habits associated with obesity and its related health risk in first-year college students. A total of 38 students agreed and participated in the study. Participants received a series of lecture about obesity, weight management, and concepts of nutrition and food choices for 13 weeks. The students' BMI and body composition, including body fat and muscle contents, were measured. A 24-hour diet recall for two days was performed for food intake analysis, and the questionnaires for dietary behaviors were collected at the beginning and the end of the study. Paired t-test and χ2-test were used for statistical analysis. Data showed that most of the anthropometric parameters including body weight were not significantly changed at the end of the coursework. Interestingly, skeletal muscle contents in both obese (BMI ≥ 23) and lean (18.5 ≤ BMI ≤ 22.9) subjects were significantly increased. Total energy intake was decreased in total subjects after the study. Also, general nutrition behavior of the subjects including enough hydration and utilization of nutrition knowledge were significantly improved during the study period. The total number of responses to doing aerobic exercise was slightly increased after the study, but the average frequency of exercise in each individual was not changed. These results suggest that class-work based nutrition education on a regular basis could be a time and cost effective method for improving body composition and nutritional behavior in general college students. PMID:23908979
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether elective course work based nutrition education in university can change students' body composition and eating habits associated with obesity and its related health risk in first-year college students. A total of 38 students agreed and participated in the study. Participants received a series of lecture about obesity, weight management, and concepts of nutrition and food choices for 13 weeks. The students' BMI and body composition, including body fat and muscle contents, were measured. A 24-hour diet recall for two days was performed for food intake analysis, and the questionnaires for dietary behaviors were collected at the beginning and the end of the study. Paired t-test and χ(2)-test were used for statistical analysis. Data showed that most of the anthropometric parameters including body weight were not significantly changed at the end of the coursework. Interestingly, skeletal muscle contents in both obese (BMI ≥ 23) and lean (18.5 ≤ BMI ≤ 22.9) subjects were significantly increased. Total energy intake was decreased in total subjects after the study. Also, general nutrition behavior of the subjects including enough hydration and utilization of nutrition knowledge were significantly improved during the study period. The total number of responses to doing aerobic exercise was slightly increased after the study, but the average frequency of exercise in each individual was not changed. These results suggest that class-work based nutrition education on a regular basis could be a time and cost effective method for improving body composition and nutritional behavior in general college students.
Mendeluk, Gabriela Ruth; Cohen, Mariano Isaac; Ferreri, Carla; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos
Fatty acid analyses of sperm and erythrocyte cell membrane phospholipids in idiopathic infertile patients evidenced that erythrocyte contents of EPA, DHA, omega-6–omega-3 ratio and arachidonic acid provide a mathematical correspondence for the prediction of EPA level in sperm cells. The erythrocyte lipidomic profile of patients was significantly altered, with signatures of typical Western pattern dietary habits and no fish intake. A supplementation with nutritional levels of EPA and DHA and antioxidants was then performed for 3 months, with the follow-up of both erythrocyte and sperm cell membranes composition as well as conventional sperm parameters. Some significant changes were found in the lipidomic membrane profile of erythrocyte but not in sperm cells, which correspondently did not show significant parameter ameliorations. This is the first report indicating that membrane lipids of different tissues do not equally metabolize the fatty acid elements upon supplementation. Molecular diagnostic tools are necessary to understand the cell metabolic turnover and monitor the success of nutraceuticals for personalized treatments. PMID:26583072
Nicklas, Theresa A.; O'Neil, Carol E.; Fulgoni, Victor L.
Background Consumption of fruit has been associated with a variety of health benefits, yet, 75% of children have usual intakes of total fruit below minimum recommended amounts. Apples are the second most commonly consumed fruit in the United States; however, no studies have examined the impact of apple consumption on nutrient intake and adequacy in children's diets. Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the association between apple (various forms) consumption with nutrient intake and nutrient adequacy in a nationally representative sample of children. Design Participants were children aged 2–18 years (n=13,339), from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010. Least square means of total energy and nutrient intake, and the percentage of the population below the estimated average requirement (EAR) or above the adequate intake (AI) among apple consumers and non-consumers were examined. Results Consumers of total apple products had higher (p<0.01) total intakes of fiber, magnesium, and potassium and lower intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acid, and sodium than non-consumers. Apple consumers had higher (p<0.01) total sugar intake, but lower intake of added sugars compared to non-consumers. A lower (p<0.01) percentage of apple consumers were below the EAR for 13 of the 16 nutrients studied. Apple consumers had approximately a 10 percentage unit difference below the EAR for calcium and magnesium, and vitamins A, C, D, and E, than non-consumers. The percentage above the AI for fiber was significantly (p<0.0001) higher among total apple consumers (6.24±0.45 g) compared to non-consumers (0.57±0.07 g). The results were similar for individual apple products (i.e. apple juice, applesauce, and whole apples). Conclusion Consumption of any forms of apples provided valuable nutrients in the diets of children. PMID:26445211
Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna
Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)
Baek, Yeji; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Kim, Kirang; Moon, Hyun-Kyung; Kweon, Sanghui; Yang, Jieun
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to estimate average total fat and fatty acid intakes as well as identify major food sources using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) VI-1 (2013). SUBJECTS/METHODS Total fat and fatty acid intakes were estimated using 24-hour dietary recall data on 7,048 participants aged ≥ 3 years from the KNHANES VI-1 (2013). Data included total fat, saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), n-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA), and n-6 fatty acid (n-6 FA) levels. Population means and standard errors of the mean were weighted in order to produce national estimates and separated based on sex, age, income, as well as residential region. Major food sources of fat, SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 FA, and n-6 FA were identified based on mean consumption amounts of fat and fatty acids in each food. RESULTS The mean intake of total fat was 48.0 g while mean intakes of SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 FA, and n-6 FA were 14.4 g, 15.3 g, 11.6 g, 1.6 g, and 10.1 g, respectively. Intakes of MUFA and SFA were each higher than that of PUFA in all age groups. Pork was the major source of total fat, SFA, and MUFA, and soybean oil was the major source of PUFA. Milk and pork were major sources of SFA in subjects aged 3-11 years and ≥ 12 years, respectively. Perilla seed oil and soybean oil were main sources of n-3 FA in subjects aged ≥ 50 years and aged < 50 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Estimation of mean fatty acid intakes of this study using nationally represented samples of the Korean population could be useful for developing and evaluating national nutritional policies. PMID:26634055
Gonçalves de Orange, Luciana; Bion, Francisca Martins; Rolim de Lima, Cybelle
The present study evaluated the effects of food and alcohol intake on the nutritional and metabolic status of male and female periadolescent rats submitted to single (15%) and multiple (10%, 20%, 30%) concentrations of hydroalcoholic solutions of sugar-based alcohol associated with a feed mixture. Thirty-six periadolescent Wistar rats were used and randomly arranged into three groups: Group A (control; 0% ethanol; six males and six females), Group B (15% ethanol; six males and six females), and Group C (10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol; six males and six females). Food consumption, body weight, water intake (mL), ethanol intake (g/kg/day), ethanol preference in relation to water and different concentrations, and serum biochemical dosages (glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein fraction, triglycerides, cholesterol/HDL [CT/HDL], albumin) were analyzed. Males from Group C ingested more feed than females, which consumed reducing amounts throughout the weeks studied. Males also had heavier body weight, which increased throughout the experimental period. The animals ingested more water (females ingested more than males) in the first experimental week. Group C had a higher ethanol intake and greater preference for ethanol over water in both genders than Group B, which decreased over the subsequent weeks. Serum glucose was lower in Group A, whereas the CT/HDL ratio was lower in Group C. These findings allow the conclusion that nutritional and metabolic impact resulting from alcohol intake is different between genders and between the different forms in which the drug is offered. It is important to warn the population about the concentrations of alcohol intake, which may influence the growth and development of adolescents, thereby compromising their quality of life.
Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M.; Sherry, Bettylou; Brener, Nancy; O’Toole, Terrence
Drinking plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for reducing energy intake. Only a few studies have examined characteristics associated with plain water intake among US youth. The purpose of our cross-sectional study was to examine associations of demographic characteristics, weight status, dietary habits, and other behavior-related factors with plain water intake among a nationally representative sample of US high school students. The 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study data for 11,049 students in grades 9 through 12 were used. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for variables associated with low water intake (<3 times/day). Nationwide, 54% of high school students reported drinking water <3 times/day. Variables significantly associated with a greater odds for low water intake were age ≤15 years (OR 1.1), consuming <2 glasses/day of milk (OR 1.5), nondiet soda ≥1 time/day (OR 1.6), other sugar-sweetened beverages ≥1 time/day (OR 1.4), fruits and 100% fruit juice <2 times/day (OR 1.7), vegetables <3 times/day (OR 2.3), eating at fast-food restaurants 1 to 2 days/week and ≥3 days/week (OR 1.3 and OR 1.4, respectively), and being physically active ≥60 minutes/ day on <5 days/week (OR 1.6). Being obese was significantly associated with reduced odds for low water intake (OR 0.7). The findings of these significant associations of low water intake with poor diet quality, frequent fast-food restaurant use, and physical inactivity may be used to tailor intervention efforts to increase plain water intake as a substitute for sugar-sweetened beverages and to promote healthy lifestyles. PMID:22749261
Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdański, Paweł; Duda, Grażyna; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Piątek, Jacek; Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta
The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional factors connected with the prevalence of hypertension in rural and urban areas of Greater Poland. The study consisted of 308 people aged 35-62, with essential hypertension but without any other coexisting disorders. The studied group consisted of 154 residents of Poznań (79 women and 75 men) and 152 inhabitants of rural areas in Greater Poland (78 women and 74 men). Participants were randomly assigned to the study. Nutritional state assessment was based on Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage. Dietary intake were assessed with a 24-hour nutritional survey from 3 consecutive days. Analysis of anthropometric examination results showed a large prevalence of obesity in the studied group. Moreover people living in rural areas had a significantly higher BMI and body fat percentage than those living in a city. It has been proved that the patients with hypertension consume food with an excess of fat and a shortage of fibre, antioxidant vitamins, potassium, calcium and magnesium. The total food rations of rural dwellers consisted of larger amounts of fat, cholesterol and vitamin A compared to those of city dwellers. Present studies have shown incorrect dietary intake among patients with hypertension, often related to the coexistence of overweight and obesity. Obtained results indicate significantly worse eating habits and state of nutrition among rural inhabitants.
Kwon, S-J; Ha, Y-C; Park, Y
The present cross-sectional study performed using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 9526 women older than 18 years of age demonstrates that high sodium intake is associated with lower bone mineral density and sodium intake ≥2000 mg/day is a risk factor for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
Walingo, Mary K.; Musamali, Betty
Objective: To compare nutrient intake and indicators of nutritional status of western Kenyan pupil participants and nonparticipants of a parent-supported school lunch program. Design: Pupils and their caregivers were interviewed to assess their 24-hour dietary intake and the socioeconomic status of the family. Pupils' weights and heights were…
Fowler, Katherine T; Williams, Ruth; Mitchell, Carol O; Levy, Marian C; Pope, Lucille F; Smeltzer, Matthew P; Wang, Winfred C
Dietary fluid and sodium intake may influence the risk for vasoocclusive events in persons with sickle cell anemia (SCA). The objective of this study was to examine the dietary intake of water and sodium in children and adolescents with SCA and identify possible factors influencing intake. We compared water (mL) and sodium (mg) intake in 21 patients with SCA, aged 5 to 18 years, to reported adequate intake for water, daily fluid requirement, upper limit for sodium, and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2006 data for sodium, and sociodemographic factors. Dietary intake from 3-day food records was evaluated retrospectively. Median water intake was significantly lower than adequate intake, and median sodium intake was significantly higher than sodium upper limit. Sociodemographic factors were not associated with dietary water or sodium intake. Our results suggest that children and adolescents with SCA would benefit from education regarding increasing fluid intake and limiting high sodium foods.
Mahaffey, Kathryn R; Clickner, Robert P; Bodurow, Catherine C
Blood organic mercury (i.e., methyl mercury) concentrations among 1,709 women who were participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1999 and 2000 (1999-2000 NHANES) were 0.6 microg/L at the 50th percentile and ranged from concentrations that were nondetectable (5th percentile) to 6.7 microg/L (95th percentile). Blood organic/methyl mercury reflects methyl mercury intake from fish and shellfish as determined from a methyl mercury exposure parameter based on 24-hr dietary recall, 30-day food frequency, and mean concentrations of mercury in the fish/shellfish species reported as consumed (multiple correlation coefficient > 0.5). Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations were lowest among Mexican Americans and highest among participants who designated themselves in the Other racial/ethnic category, which includes Asians, Native Americans, and Pacific Islanders. Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations were ~1.5 times higher among women 30-49 years of age than among women 16-29 years of age. Blood mercury (BHg) concentrations were seven times higher among women who reported eating nine or more fish and/or shellfish meals within the past 30 days than among women who reported no fish and/or shellfish consumption in the past 30 days. Blood organic/methyl mercury concentrations greater than or equal to 5.8 microg/L were lowest among Mexican Americans (2.0%) and highest among examinees in the Other racial/ethnic category (21.7%). Based on the distribution of BHg concentrations among the adult female participants in 1999-2000 NHANES and the number of U.S. births in 2000, > 300,000 newborns each year in the United States may have been exposed in utero to methyl mercury concentrations higher than those considered to be without increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental effects associated with methyl mercury exposure. PMID:15064162
Allen, Naomi E; Appleby, Paul N; Key, Timothy J; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Ros, Martine M; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Weikert, Steffen; Boeing, Heiner; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Teucher, Birgit; Panico, Salvatore; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Peeters, Petra; Quirós, Jose Ramón; Jakszyn, Paula; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Ljungberg, Börje; Hallmans, Göran; Ehrnström, Roy; Ericson, Ulrika; Gram, Inger Torhild; Parr, Christine L; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Karapetyan, Tina; Dilis, Vardis; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherrazzi, Guy; Romieu, Isabelle; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio
Previous studies have suggested that dietary factors may be important in the development of bladder cancer. We examined macronutrient intake in relation to risk of urothelial cell carcinoma among 469,339 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Associations were examined using Cox regression, stratified by sex, age at recruitment and centre and further adjusted for smoking status and duration, body mass index and total energy intake. After an average of 11.3 years of follow-up, 1,416 new cases of urothelial cell carcinoma were identified. After allowing for measurement error, a 3% increase in the consumption of energy intake from animal protein was associated with a 15% higher risk (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3-30%; p(trend) = 0.01) and a 2% increase in energy from plant protein intake was associated with a 23% lower risk (95% CI: 36-7%, p(trend) = 0.006). Dietary intake of fat, carbohydrate, fibre or calcium was not associated with risk. These findings suggest that animal and/or plant protein may affect the risk of urothelial cell carcinoma, and examination of these associations in other studies is needed.
Sousa, Mónica; Carvalho, Pedro; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor H
Proper nutrition, not simply adequate energetic intake, is needed to achieve optimal dance performance. However, little scientific research exists concerning nutrition in dance, and so, to propose nutritional guidelines for this field, recommendations need to be based mainly on studies done in other physically active groups. To diminish the risk of energy imbalance and associated disorders, dancers must consume at least 30 kcal/kg fat-free mass/day, plus the training energy expenditure. For macronutrients, a daily intake of 3 to 5 g carbohydrates/kg, 1.2 to 1.7 g protein/kg, and 20 to 35% of energy intake from fat can be recommended. Dancers may be at increased risk of poor micronutrient status due to their restricted energy intake; micronutrients that deserve concern are iron, calcium, and vitamin D. During training, dancers should give special attention to fluid and carbohydrate intake in order to maintain optimal cognition, motivation, and motor skill performance. For competition/stage performance preparation, it is also important to ensure that an adequate dietary intake is being achieved. Nutritional supplements that may help in achieving specific nutritional goals when dietary intake is inadequate include multivitamins and mineral, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements, sports drinks, sports bars, and liquid meal supplements. Caffeine can also be used as an ergogenic aid. It is important that dancers seek dietary advice from qualified specialists, since the pressure to maintain a low body weight and low body fat levels is high, especially in styles as ballet, and this can lead to an unbalanced diet and health problems if not correctly supervised.
... Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition Sodium in Your Diet: Use the Nutrition Facts Label ... probably heard that most Americans eat too much sodium, and too much sodium can raise blood pressure – ...
Jenab, Mazda; Ferrari, Pietro; Slimani, Nadia; Norat, Teresa; Casagrande, Corinne; Overad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Stripp, Connie; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kesse, Emmanuelle; Nieters, Alexandra; Bergmann, Manuela; Boeing, Heiner; Naska, Androniki; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Celentano, Egidio; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Hendrik B; Ocké, Marga C; Peeters, Petra H M; Engeset, Dagrun; Quirós, José R; González, Carlos A; Martínez, Carmen; Chirlaque, Maria D; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Wallström, Peter; Palmqvist, Richard; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Bingham, Sheila; San Joaquin, Miguel A; Saracci, Rodolfo; Kaaks, Rudolf; Riboli, Elio
A link between unsaturated fatty acids or phytonutrients and reduced risk of colorectal cancer has been suggested. However, the effects of higher intake of dietary sources of these nutrients, such as the nuts and seeds food group, are less clear. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of nut and seed intake on colorectal cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, a large prospective cohort study involving 10 European countries. Total nut and seed intake was determined from country-specific dietary questionnaires. The data set included 478,040 subjects (141,988 men, 336,052 women) with a total of 855 (327 men, 528 women) colon and 474 (215 men, 259 women) rectal cancer cases. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, stratified by center and controlled for fruit intake, dietary fiber, energy, height, weight, sex, age, physical activity, and smoking, was used. The data show no association between higher intake of nuts and seeds and risk of colorectal, colon, and rectal cancers in men and women combined, but a significant inverse association was observed in subgroup analyses for colon cancer in women at the highest (>6.2 g/d) versus the lowest (nonconsumers; hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.95) category of intake and for the linear effect of log-transformed intake (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.98), with no associations in men. It is not evident from this data why there may be a stronger association in women or why it may be limited to the colon, suggesting that much further research is necessary.
Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Peeters, Petra H M; Freisling, Heinz; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Schock, Helena; Fortner, Renée T; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Menéndez, Virginia; Sanchez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Huerta Castaño, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Wirfält, Elisabeth; Stocks, Tanja; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Skeie, Guri; Gram, Inger T; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J
Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as "probably carcinogenic" to humans, was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. The association between dietary acrylamide intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (EOC) has been previously studied in one case-control and three prospective cohort studies which obtained inconsistent results and could not further examine histologic subtypes other than serous EOC. The present study was carried out in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) subcohort of women (n = 325,006). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between questionnaire-based acrylamide intake and EOC risk. Acrylamide was energy-adjusted using the residual method and was evaluated both as a continuous variable (per 10 μg/d) and in quintiles; when subgroups by histologic EOC subtypes were analyzed, acrylamide intake was evaluated in quartiles. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1,191 incident EOC cases were diagnosed. At baseline, the median acrylamide intake in EPIC was 21.3 μg/d. No associations and no evidence for a dose-response were observed between energy-adjusted acrylamide intake and EOC risk (HR10μg/d,1.02; 95% CI, 0.96-1.09; HRQ5vsQ1, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.76-1.23). No differences were seen when invasive EOC subtypes (582 serous, 118 endometrioid, and 79 mucinous tumors) were analyzed separately. This study did not provide evidence that acrylamide intake, based on food intake questionnaires, was associated with risk for EOC in EPIC. Additional studies with more reliable estimates of exposure based on biomarkers may be needed.
Ecological-level associations between highly processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations: results from a cross-sectional study within the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC).
Chajès, Véronique; Biessy, Carine; Byrnes, Graham; Deharveng, Geneviève; Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra; Jenab, Mazda; Peeters, Petra H M; Ocké, Marga; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hallmans, Göran; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfält, Elisabet; Jakszyn, Paula; González, Carlos A; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Martinez, Carmen; Amiano, Pilar; Suárez, Laudina Rodriguez; Ardanaz, Eva; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Berrino, Franco; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Spencer, Elisabeth A; Crowe, Francesca L; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Boeing, Heiner; Nöethlings, Ute; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Zilis, Dimosthenis; Oustoglou, Erifili; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia
Elaidic acid is the main unnatural trans fatty acid isomer occurring during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils used as ingredients for the formulation of processed foods. The main objective is to assess associations between processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. A cross-sectional study was used to determine fatty acid profiles in 3,003 subjects from 16 centers. Single 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) were collected using a standardized computerized interview program. Food intakes were computed according to their degree of processing (moderately/nonprocessed foods, processed staple foods, highly processed foods). Adjusted ecological and individual correlations were calculated between processed food intakes and plasma elaidic acid levels. At the population level, mean intakes of highly processed foods were strongly correlated with mean levels of plasma elaidic acid in men (P = 0.0016) and in women (P = 0.0012). At the individual level, these associations remained but at a much lower level in men (r = 0.08, P = 0.006) and in women (r = 0.09, P = 0.0001). The use of an averaged 24-HDR measure of highly processed food intakes is adequate for predicting mean levels of plasma elaidic acid among European populations.
Smith, Scott M.; Rice, Barbara L.
Nutrition has played a critical role throughout the history of exploration, and space exploration is no exception. While a one- to two-week flight aboard the Space Shuttle might be analogous to a camping trip, adequate nutrition is absolutely critical while spending several months on the International Space Station (Figure 1) or several years on a mission to another planet. To ensure adequate nutrition, space nutrition specialists must know how much of the individual nutrients astronauts need, and these nutrients must be available in the spaceflight food system. To complicate matters, these spaceflight nutritional requirements are influenced by many of the physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. In this chapter, we describe some of these changes, their impact on crew health, and ways NASA is investigating how to minimize these changes. We also review the space food systems, issues involved in setting up a cafeteria in a weightless environment, and information about dietary intake of nutrients during space missions
Tran, Nga L; Barraj, Leila M; Bi, Xiaoyu; Schuda, Laurie C; Moya, Jacqueline
Usual intake estimates describe long-term average intake of food and nutrients and food contaminants. The frequencies of fish and shellfish intake over a 30-day period from National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2006) were combined with 24-h dietary recall data from NHANES 2003-2004 using a Monte Carlo procedure to estimate the usual intake of fish and shellfish in this study. Usual intakes were estimated for the US population including children 1 to <11 years, males/females 11 to <16 years, 16 to <21 years, and adults 21+ years. Estimated mean fish intake (consumers only) was highest among children 1 to <2 years and 2 to <3 years, at 0.37 g/kg-day for both age groups, and lowest for females 11 to <16 years, at 0.13 g/kg-day. In all age groups, daily intake estimates were highest for breaded fish, salmon, and mackerel. Among children and teenage consumers, tuna, salmon, and breaded fish were the most frequently consumed fish; shrimp, scallops, and crabs were the most frequently consumed shellfish. The intake estimates from this study better reflect long-term average intake rates and are preferred to assess long-term intake of nutrients and possible exposure to environmental contaminants from fish and shellfish sources than 2-day average estimates.
Leung, Angela M; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E
Adequate iodine intake is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones that are important for normal fetal and infant neurodevelopment. In this review, we discuss iodine physiology during pregnancy and lactation, methods to assess iodine sufficiency, the importance of adequate iodine nutrition, studies of iodine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation, the consequences of hypothyroidism during pregnancy, the current status of iodine nutrition in the United States, the global efforts toward achieving universal iodine sufficiency, and substances that may interfere with iodine use.
Uno, Kaoru; Takemi, Yukari; Hayashi, Fumi; Hosokawa, Momo
Objective The present study examined nutritional status and dietary intake of pregnant women in Japan in relation to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI).Methods Participants included 141 Japanese women with singleton pregnancies, from the outpatient department of the S hospital, Gunma prefecture, Japan. Two-day food records, dietary assessment questionnaires, and clinical records were obtained at 20 weeks gestation. Nine patients were excluded from the study due to morning sickness. The remaining 132 participants were divided into 3 groups according to pre-pregnancy BMI: underweight, normal weight, and overweight. Nutritional status and dietary intake were analyzed in relation to BMI using the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Kruskal-Wallis test, one-way analysis of variance, and analysis of covariance with adjustment for age, employment status, and total energy intake.Results Women who were underweight before pregnancy were more frequently working full-time than normal weight and overweight women. Underweight women were also more frequently anemic (P=0.038, underweight 39.3%, normal weight 24.7%, overweight 0%) and had lower mean hemoglobin (Hb) (P=0.021, underweight 11.3 g/dL, normal weight 11.6 g/dL, overweight 12.1 g/dL) and hematocrit (Hct) levels (P=0.025, underweight 33.7%, normal weight 34.3%, overweight 36.0%). Their dietary intake of protein, iron, magnesium, and folic acid was lower than that of normal weight and overweight women. Their meals tended to include fewer meat, fish, egg, and soybean dishes (underweight, mean of 4.7 servings per day; normal weight, 6.1 servings; overweight, 6.1 servings).Conclusion Pregnant women who were underweight before pregnancy had increased risk of anemia as well as reduced Hb and Hct levels. They had lower dietary intake of protein, iron and folic acid compared to women in the other BMI categories. Anemia and these nutrient deficiencies are known risk factors for low birth weight. Our findings suggest
Jia, Xiaofang; Su, Chang; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Huijun; Jiang, Hongru; Zhang, Bing
Objective This study aimed to evaluate daily cholesterol intake across demographic factors and its food sources in elderly Chinese. Design A longitudinal study was conducted using demographic and dietary data for elders aged 60 and above from eight waves (1991–2011) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Setting The data were derived from urban and rural communities of nine provinces (autonomous regions) in China. Participants There were 16 274 participants (7657 male and 8617 female) in this study. Outcomes The primary outcome was daily cholesterol intake, which was calculated by using the Chinese Food Composition Table, based on dietary data. Results Daily consumption of cholesterol in the elderly significantly increased by 34% from 1991 to 2011 (p<0.0001) and reached 253.9 mg on average in 2011. Secular trends in the proportion of subjects with an intake of >300 mg/day increased significantly during 1991–2011 (p<0.0001). The major food sources of cholesterol by ranked order were eggs, pork, and fish and shellfish in 1991 and 2011, while organ meats which ranked fourth in the contribution to total intake in 1991 was replaced by poultry in 2011. Moreover, younger elders, male elders and elders from a high-income family or a highly urbanised community had higher cholesterol intakes and larger proportions of subjects with excessive cholesterol consumption in each survey year. Conclusions The large growth in daily cholesterol intake may pose major challenges for the health of elders in China. Reduced exposure to food enriched in cholesterol is required for elderly Chinese. PMID:27507232
Molina‐Montes, Esther; Zamora‐Ros, Raul; Bueno‐de‐Mesquita, H.B(as); Wark, Petra A.; Obon‐Santacana, Mireia; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Travis, Ruth C.; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Naccarati, Alessio; Mattiello, Amalia; Krogh, Vittorio; Martorana, Caterina; Masala, Giovanna; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta, José‐María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Quirós, José‐Ramón; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Angell Åsli, Lene; Skeie, Guri; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Peeters, Petra H.; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin; Overvad, Kim; Clemens, Matthias; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Peppa, Eleni; Vidalis, Pavlos; Khaw, Kay‐Tee; Wareham, Nick; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutroun‐Rualt, Marie‐Christine; Clavel‐Chapelon, Françoise; Cross, Amanda J.; Lu, Yunxia; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J.
Despite the potential cancer preventive effects of flavonoids and lignans, their ability to reduce pancreatic cancer risk has not been demonstrated in epidemiological studies. Our aim was to examine the association between dietary intakes of flavonoids and lignans and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. A total of 865 exocrine pancreatic cancer cases occurred after 11.3 years of follow‐up of 477,309 cohort members. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake was estimated through validated dietary questionnaires and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Phenol Explorer databases. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using age, sex and center‐stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for energy intake, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol and diabetes status. Our results showed that neither overall dietary intake of flavonoids nor of lignans were associated with pancreatic cancer risk (multivariable‐adjusted HR for a doubling of intake = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.95–1.11 and 1.02; 95% CI: 0.89–1.17, respectively). Statistically significant associations were also not observed by flavonoid subclasses. An inverse association between intake of flavanones and pancreatic cancer risk was apparent, without reaching statistical significance, in microscopically confirmed cases (HR for a doubling of intake = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.91–1.00). In conclusion, we did not observe an association between intake of flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses or lignans and pancreatic cancer risk in the EPIC cohort. PMID:27184434
Cuenca-García, M; Ortega, F B; Huybrechts, I; Ruiz, J R; González-Gross, M; Ottevaere, C; Sjöström, M; Dìaz, L E; Ciarapica, D; Molnar, D; Gottrand, F; Plada, M; Manios, Y; Moreno, L A; De Henauw, S; Kersting, M; Castillo, M J
The present study investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and dietary intake in European adolescents. The study comprised 1492 adolescents (770 females) from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. CRF was assessed by the 20 m shuttle run test. Adolescents were grouped into low and high CRF levels according to the FITNESSGRAM Standards. Dietary intake was self-registered by the adolescents using a computer-based tool for 24 h dietary recalls (HELENA-Dietary Assessment Tool) on two non-consecutive days. Weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated. Higher CRF was associated with higher total energy intake in boys (P = 0·003). No association was found between CRF and macronutrient intake (as percentage of energy), yet some positive associations were found with daily intake of bread/cereals in boys and dairy products in both boys and girls (all P < 0·003), regardless of centre, age and BMI. CRF was inversely related to sweetened beverage consumption in girls. These findings were overall consistent when CRF was analysed according to the FITNESSGRAM categories (high/low CRF). A high CRF was not related to compliance with dietary recommendations, except for sweetened beverages in girls (P = 0·002). In conclusion, a high CRF is associated with a higher intake of dairy products and bread/cereals, and a lower consumption of sweetened beverages, regardless of centre, age and BMI. The present findings contribute to the understanding of the relationships between dietary factors and physiological health indicators such as CRF.
Kyrø, Cecilie; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Scalbert, Augustin; Tjønneland, Anne; Dossus, Laure; Johansen, Christoffer; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Christensen, Jane; Ward, Heather; Aune, Dagfinn; Riboli, Elio; His, Mathilde; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Overvad, Kim; Lasheras, Cristina; Travier, Noémie; Sánchez, Maria-José; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Masala, Giovanna; Grioni, Sara; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; van Gils, Carla; Borgquist, Signe; Butt, Salma; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Sund, Malin; Hjartåker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Anja; Romieu, Isabelle
The aim was to investigate the association between pre-diagnostic intakes of polyphenol classes (flavonoids, lignans, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and other polyphenols) in relation to breast cancer survival (all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality). We used data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Pre-diagnostic usual diet was assessed using dietary questionnaires, and polyphenol intakes were estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database. We followed 11,782 breast cancer cases from time of diagnosis until death, end of follow-up or last day of contact. During a median of 6 years, 1482 women died (753 of breast cancer). We related polyphenol intake to all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality using Cox proportional hazard models with time since diagnosis as underlying time and strata for age and country. Among postmenopausal women, an intake of lignans in the highest versus lowest quartile was related to a 28 % lower risk of dying from breast (adjusted model: HR, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, 0.72, 95 % CI 0.53; 0.98). In contrast, in premenopausal women, a positive association between lignan intake and all-cause mortality was found (adjusted model: HR, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, 1.63, 95 % CI 1.03; 2.57). We found no association for other polyphenol classes. Intake of lignans before breast cancer diagnosis may be related to improved survival among postmenopausal women, but may on the contrary worsen the survival for premenopausal women. This suggests that the role of phytoestrogens in breast cancer survival is complex and may be dependent of menopausal status.
Romieu, Isabelle; Mannino, David M; Redd, Stephen C; McGeehin, Michael A
Childhood asthma may be affected by dietary changes and increased body mass related to a sedentary lifestyle, although the mechanisms are poorly understood. To test this hypothesis, we used data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) from 1988-1994, including 7,904 children. We analyzed cross-sectional information on body mass index (BMI = weight/height2), physical activity (hr/day viewing television), dietary intake (24-hr recall), and vitamin C intake (60 mg/day). The probability of self-reported asthma or wheezing relating to risk factors was calculated by logistic regression. After controlling for dietary intake, physical activity, and sociodemographic variables, asthma risk was three times higher for children aged 6-16 years in the highest percentiles of BMI (>95th percentile) when compared to children in percentiles 25-49 (OR = 3.44; 95% CI, 1.49-7.96). No increase was observed in children aged 2-5 years. Low vitamin C intake was marginally related to self-reported current wheezing in children aged 6-16 years. Our results show that increased BMI may influence asthma prevalence in children, but further investigation is needed.
Ridoutt, Bradley; Baird, Danielle; Bastiaans, Kathryn; Hendrie, Gilly; Riley, Malcolm; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Syrette, Julie; Noakes, Manny
As nations seek to address obesity and diet-related chronic disease, understanding shifts in food intake over time is an imperative. However, quantifying intake of basic foods is not straightforward because of the diversity of raw and cooked wholefoods, processed foods and mixed dishes actually consumed. In this study, data from the Australian national nutrition surveys of 1995 and 2011, each involving more than 12,000 individuals and covering more than 4500 separate foods, were coherently disaggregated into basic foods, with cooking and processing factors applied where necessary. Although Australians are generally not eating in a manner consistent with national dietary guidelines, there have been several positive changes. Australians are eating more whole fruit, a greater diversity of vegetables, more beans, peas and pulses, less refined sugar, and they have increased their preference for brown and wholegrain cereals. Adult Australians have also increased their intake of nuts and seeds. Fruit juice consumption markedly declined, especially for younger Australians. Cocoa consumption increased and shifts in dairy product intake were mixed, reflecting one of several important differences between age and gender cohorts. This study sets the context for more detailed research at the level of specific foods to understand individual and household differences. PMID:28231135
Ridoutt, Bradley; Baird, Danielle; Bastiaans, Kathryn; Hendrie, Gilly; Riley, Malcolm; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Syrette, Julie; Noakes, Manny
As nations seek to address obesity and diet-related chronic disease, understanding shifts in food intake over time is an imperative. However, quantifying intake of basic foods is not straightforward because of the diversity of raw and cooked wholefoods, processed foods and mixed dishes actually consumed. In this study, data from the Australian national nutrition surveys of 1995 and 2011, each involving more than 12,000 individuals and covering more than 4500 separate foods, were coherently disaggregated into basic foods, with cooking and processing factors applied where necessary. Although Australians are generally not eating in a manner consistent with national dietary guidelines, there have been several positive changes. Australians are eating more whole fruit, a greater diversity of vegetables, more beans, peas and pulses, less refined sugar, and they have increased their preference for brown and wholegrain cereals. Adult Australians have also increased their intake of nuts and seeds. Fruit juice consumption markedly declined, especially for younger Australians. Cocoa consumption increased and shifts in dairy product intake were mixed, reflecting one of several important differences between age and gender cohorts. This study sets the context for more detailed research at the level of specific foods to understand individual and household differences.
Ward, Heather A; Gayle, Alicia; Jakszyn, Paula; Merritt, Melissa; Melin, Beatrice; Freisling, Heinz; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Kyrozis, Andreas; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Quirós, José Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel; Larrañaga, Nerea; Huerta, José M; Barricarte, Aurelio; Sonestedt, Emily; Drake, Isabel; Sandström, Maria; Travis, Ruth C; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio; Cross, Amanda J
Diets high in red or processed meat have been associated positively with some cancers, and several possible underlying mechanisms have been proposed, including iron-related pathways. However, the role of meat intake in adult glioma risk has yielded conflicting findings because of small sample sizes and heterogeneous tumour classifications. The aim of this study was to examine red meat, processed meat and iron intake in relation to glioma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. In this prospective cohort study, 408 751 individuals from nine European countries completed demographic and dietary questionnaires at recruitment. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine intake of red meat, processed meat, total dietary iron and haem iron in relation to incident glioma. During an average follow-up of 14.1 years, 688 incident glioma cases were diagnosed. There was no evidence that any of the meat variables (red, processed meat or subtypes of meat) or iron (total or haem) were associated with glioma; results were unchanged when the first 2 years of follow-up were excluded. This study suggests that there is no association between meat or iron intake and adult glioma. This is the largest prospective analysis of meat and iron in relation to glioma and as such provides a substantial contribution to a limited and inconsistent literature.
Grzegorzewska, Alicja E; Leander, Magdalena
Dietary deficiency causes abnormalities in circulating lymphocyte counts. For the present paper, we evaluated correlations between total and subpopulation lymphocyte counts (TLC, SLCs) and parameters of nutrition in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Studies were carried out in 55 patients treated with PD for 22.2 +/- 11.4 months. Parameters of nutritional status included total body mass, lean body mass (LBM), body mass index (BMI), and laboratory indices [total protein, albumin, iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC)]. The SLCs were evaluated using flow cytometry. Positive correlations were seen between TLC and dietary intake of niacin; TLC and CD8 and CD16+56 counts and energy delivered from protein; CD4 count and beta-carotene and monounsaturated fatty acids 17:1 intake; and CD19 count and potassium, copper, vitamin A, and beta-carotene intake. Anorexia negatively influenced CD19 count. Serum albumin showed correlations with CD4 and CD19 counts, and LBM with CD19 count. A higher CD19 count was connected with a higher red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Correlations were observed between TIBC and TLC and CD3 and CD8 counts, and between serum Fe and TLC and CD3 and CD4 counts. Patients with a higher CD19 count showed a better clinical-laboratory score, especially less weakness. Patients with a higher CD4 count had less expressed insomnia. Quantities of ingested vitamins and minerals influence lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood of PD patients. Evaluation of TLC and SLCs is helpful in monitoring the effectiveness of nutrition in these patients.
Nieves, Jeri W
Nutrition is important in promoting bone health and in managing an individual with low bone mass or osteoporosis. In adult women and men, known losses of bone mass and microarchitecture occur, and nutrition can help minimize these losses. In every patient, a healthy diet with adequate protein, fruits, vegetables, calcium, and vitamin D is required to maintain bone health. Recent reports on nutritional remedies for osteoporosis have highlighted the importance of calcium in youth and continued importance in conjunction with vitamin D as the population ages. It is likely that a calcium intake of 1200 mg/d is ideal, and there are some concerns about excessive calcium intakes. However, vitamin D intake needs to be increased in most populations. The ability of soy products, particularly genistein aglycone, to provide skeletal benefit has been recently studied, including some data that support a new medical food marketed as Fosteum (Primus Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, AZ).
Romero, J J; Zarate, M A; Queiroz, O C M; Han, J H; Shin, J H; Staples, C R; Brown, W F; Adesogan, A T
The objectives were to compare the effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (Biocellulase A20) or anhydrous ammonia (4% DM) treatment on the nutritive value, voluntary intake, and digestion kinetics of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cultivar Coastal) hay harvested after 2 maturities (5- and 13-wk regrowths). Six individually housed, ruminally cannulated Brangus steers (BW 325 ± 10 kg) were used in an experiment with a 6 × 6 Latin square design with a 3 (additives) × 2 (maturities) factorial arrangement of treatments. Each period consisted of 14 d of adaptation and 7, 4, 1, 1, and 4 d for measuring in vivo digestibility, in situ degradability, no measurements, rumen liquid fermentation and passage indices, and rate of solid passage, respectively. Steers were fed hay for ad libitum intake and supplemented with sugarcane molasses and distillers grain (supplement total of 2.88 kg DM/d). Enzyme did not affect the nutritional composition of hay but ammonia treatment decreased hay NDF, hemicellulose, and ADL concentrations and increased the CP concentration particularly for the mature lignified 13-wk hay. The enzyme increased NDF and hemicellulose digestibility of the 5-wk hay but decreased those of the 13-wk hay. Ammoniation decreased intake of hay but increased digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, hemicellulose, ADF, and cellulose and increased the ruminal in situ soluble and potentially digestible fractions and the rate of DM degradation of the 13-wk hay. Also, ammoniation increased the concentrations of ruminal NH3, total VFA, acetate, and butyrate but enzyme treatment did not. Neither enzyme addition nor ammoniation affected rate of liquid and solid passage. In conclusion, ammoniation decreased the concentration of most fiber fractions, decreased the intake of hays, and increased their CP concentration, in vivo digestibility, and in situ degradability at both maturities whereas enzyme application increased fiber digestibility of the 5-wk hay but decreased it in the case of
Gold, Abby; Larson, Mary; Tucker, Jared; Strang, Michelle
Background: We tested the effectiveness of the Go Wild With Fruits and Veggies! (GWWFV) Extension curriculum on increasing fruit and vegetable (FV) intake of third graders. Methods: An intervention study was used testing self-reported FV intake pre/post GWWFV. Recruited schools were randomized to control (12 schools, N = 369, third grade children)…
Hendriksen, M A H; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J; Noort, M W; van Raaij, J M A
Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically feasible minimum level or alteration of consumers' behavior on sodium intake in the Netherlands. Subjects/methods: Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (2007–2010) and the Food Composition Table (2011) were used to estimate the current sodium intake. In the first scenario, levels in processed foods were reduced toward their technologically feasible minimum level (sodium reduction in processed foods scenario). The minimum feasible levels were based on literature searches or expert judgment. In the second scenario, foods consumed were divided into similar food (sub)groups. Subsequently, foods were replaced by low-sodium alternatives (substitution of processed foods scenario). Sodium intake from foods was calculated based on the mean of two observation days for the current food consumption pattern and the scenarios. Results: Sodium levels of processed foods could be reduced in most food groups by 50%, and this may reduce median sodium intake from foods by 38% (from 3042 to 1886 mg/day in adult men). Substitution of foods may reduce sodium intake by 47% (from 3042 to 1627 mg/day in adult men), owing to many low-sodium alternatives within food groups. Conclusions: In the Netherlands, reduction of sodium intake by modification of food composition or by alteration of behavior may substantially reduce the median sodium intake from foods below the recommended sodium intake. PMID:25782426
Won, Myeong Suk; Kim, Sunghee; Yang, Yoon Jung
This study aimed to provide supporting data for the management of dietary habits in depression by comparing health and nutrition in adult Korean women according to depression status. A total of 2,236 women aged between 19 and 64 years who participated in the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into a depression group (n = 315) and a non-depression group (n = 1,921). Among 19-29-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, and suicidal thoughts than the non-depression group. The depression group showed lower intake of cereal, chocolate, meat, and carbonated drinks, as well as a lower index of nutritional quality (INQ) for protein, iron, and niacin. Among 30-49-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, chronic disease, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of rice with mixed grains and higher intake of instant and cup noodles than the non-depression group. Among 50-64-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of vegetables, mushrooms, and seaweed, lower nutritional intake of fat, saturated fat, and n-3 fatty acids, as well as a lower INQ for niacin and a lower Recommended Food Score. For all age groups, individuals with depression showed poorer health and nutritional intake than healthy individuals, demonstrating a correlation of depression with health and nutritional intake.
Won, Myeong Suk; Kim, Sunghee
This study aimed to provide supporting data for the management of dietary habits in depression by comparing health and nutrition in adult Korean women according to depression status. A total of 2,236 women aged between 19 and 64 years who participated in the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into a depression group (n = 315) and a non-depression group (n = 1,921). Among 19–29-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, and suicidal thoughts than the non-depression group. The depression group showed lower intake of cereal, chocolate, meat, and carbonated drinks, as well as a lower index of nutritional quality (INQ) for protein, iron, and niacin. Among 30–49-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, chronic disease, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of rice with mixed grains and higher intake of instant and cup noodles than the non-depression group. Among 50–64-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of vegetables, mushrooms, and seaweed, lower nutritional intake of fat, saturated fat, and n-3 fatty acids, as well as a lower INQ for niacin and a lower Recommended Food Score. For all age groups, individuals with depression showed poorer health and nutritional intake than healthy individuals, demonstrating a correlation of depression with health and nutritional intake. PMID:27152301
Bettonviel A, E O; Brinkmans N, Y J; Russcher, Kris; Wardenaar, Floris C; Witard, Oliver C
The nutritional status of elite soccer players across match, postmatch, training and rest days has not been defined. Recent evidence suggests the pattern of dietary protein intake impacts the daytime turnover of muscle proteins and, as such, influences muscle recovery. We assessed the nutritional status and daytime pattern of protein intake in senior professional and elite youth soccer players and compared findings against published recommendations. Fourteen senior professional (SP) and 15 youth elite (YP) soccer players from the Dutch premier division completed nutritional assessments using a 24-hr web-based recall method. Recall days consisted of a match, postmatch, rest, and training day. Daily energy intake over the 4-day period was similar between SP (2988 ± 583 kcal/day) and YP (2938 ± 465 kcal/day; p = .800). Carbohydrate intake over the combined 4-day period was lower in SP (4.7 ± 0.7 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) vs. YP (6.0 ± 1.5 g·kg-1 BM·day-1, p = .006) and SP failed to meet recommended carbohydrate intakes on match and training days. Conversely, recommended protein intakes were met for SP (1.9 ± 0.3 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) and YP (1.7 ± 0.4 g·kg-1 BM·day-1), with no differences between groups (p = .286). Accordingly, both groups met or exceeded recommended daily protein intakes on individual match, postmatch, rest and training days. A similar "balanced" daytime pattern of protein intake was observed in SP and YP. To conclude, SP increased protein intake on match and training days to a greater extent than YP, however at the expense of carbohydrate intake. The daytime distribution of protein intake for YP and SP aligned with current recommendations of a balanced protein meal pattern.
Kennerly, Susan; Boss, Lisa; Yap, Tracey L.; Batchelor-Murphy, Melissa; Horn, Susan D.; Barrett, Ryan; Bergstrom, Nancy
The Braden Scale for Pressure Sore Risk© is a screening tool to determine overall risk of pressure ulcer development and estimate severity of specific risk factors for individual residents. Nurses often use the Braden nutrition subscale to screen nursing home (NH) residents for nutritional risk, and then recommend a more comprehensive nutritional assessment as indicated. Secondary data analysis from the Turn for Ulcer ReductioN (TURN) study’s investigation of U.S. and Canadian NH residents (n = 690) considered at moderate or high pressure ulcer (PrU) risk was used to evaluate the subscale’s utility for identifying nutritional intake risk factors. Associations were examined between Braden Nutritional Risk subscale screening, dietary intake (mean % meal intake and by meal timing, mean number of protein servings, protein sources, % intake of supplements and snacks), weight outcomes, and new PrU incidence. Of moderate and high PrU risk residents, 61.9% and 59.2% ate a mean meal % of <75. Fewer than 18% overall ate <50% of meals or refused meals. No significant differences were observed in weight differences by nutrition subscale risk or in mean number protein servings per meal (1.4 (SD = 0.58) versus 1.3 (SD = 0.53)) for moderate versus high PrU risk residents. The nutrition subscale approximates subsequent estimated dietary intake and can provide insight into meal intake patterns for those at either moderate or high PrU risk. Findings support the Braden Scale’s use as a preliminary screening method to identify focused areas for potential intervention. PMID:27417802
Welch, Patricia K.; And Others
This study examined the effects of nutrition education on body composition and diet patterns of 39 female college athletes. The findings, which are discussed, suggest that individual nutrition counseling is effective in improving the diet quality of female athletes. (Author/MT)
Cirignano, Sherri M.; Hughes, Luanne J.; Wu-Jung, Corey J.; Morgan, Kathleen; Grenci, Alexandra; Savoca, LeeAnne
The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHFKA) of 2010 sets new nutrition standards for schools, requiring them to serve a greater variety and quantity of fruits and vegetables. Extension educators in New Jersey partnered with school nutrition professionals to implement a school wellness initiative that included taste-testing activities to support…
School food environments are rapidly undergoing change due to state and local policy initiatives. This study assessed the impact of the 2004 Texas Public School Nutrition Policy that introduced nutrition standards to promote a healthier school food environment in Texas schools. Two years of lunch fo...
Prelip, Michael; Thai, Chan Le; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Slusser, Wendy
Purpose: The purpose of this research is to test a comprehensive nutrition program developed specifically to target low-income parents of young school-aged children and determine whether the programme-resulted in changes in parents' knowledge, attitude, self-confidence, and behaviours related to both their and their child's nutrition in relation…
Takeda, Eiji; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka; Inagaki, Nobuya; Hosokawa, Masaya; Shide, Kenichiro; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Kondo, Keiko; Kawasaki, Eiji; Shinozaki, Shoko; Fujinaka, Yuichi; Matsubara, Tsukasa; Katayama, Takafumi; Sasaki, Hajime; Kawashima, Akihiro; Aonuma, Hiromitsu
The isomaltulose based liquid formula (MHN-01), suppresses postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels in healthy persons and patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or type 2 diabetes. MHN-01 intake as a part of breakfast also suppresses glucose and insulin levels after lunch, suggesting second meal effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of nutritional counseling and long-term (24 weeks) MHN-01 ingestion on biomarkers of metabolic syndrome. Forty-one subjects with criteria of metabolic syndrome participated in this study composed with the control period (0-12 week) followed by nutritional counseling and the experimental period (12-36 week) followed by 200 kcal (837 kJ) of MHN-01 or dextrin-based standard balanced liquid formula (SBF) loading as a part of breakfast. In 16 of 41 subjects became to out of criteria for liquid formula loading study during control period (unqualified group). In the unqualified group, several biomarkers were improved. In experimental period, serum HbA1c levels significantly increased in SBF group (n = 12) but did not change in MHN-01 group (n = 10). Thus, intake of 837 kJ MHN-01 as a part of breakfast may be effective for suppression of deteriorating glucose metabolism in metabolic syndrome.
Takeda, Eiji; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka; Inagaki, Nobuya; Hosokawa, Masaya; Shide, Kenichiro; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Kondo, Keiko; Kawasaki, Eiji; Shinozaki, Shoko; Fujinaka, Yuichi; Matsubara, Tsukasa; Katayama, Takafumi; Sasaki, Hajime; Kawashima, Akihiro; Aonuma, Hiromitsu
The isomaltulose based liquid formula (MHN-01), suppresses postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels in healthy persons and patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or type 2 diabetes. MHN-01 intake as a part of breakfast also suppresses glucose and insulin levels after lunch, suggesting second meal effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of nutritional counseling and long-term (24 weeks) MHN-01 ingestion on biomarkers of metabolic syndrome. Forty-one subjects with criteria of metabolic syndrome participated in this study composed with the control period (0–12 week) followed by nutritional counseling and the experimental period (12–36 week) followed by 200 kcal (837 kJ) of MHN-01 or dextrin-based standard balanced liquid formula (SBF) loading as a part of breakfast. In 16 of 41 subjects became to out of criteria for liquid formula loading study during control period (unqualified group). In the unqualified group, several biomarkers were improved. In experimental period, serum HbA1c levels significantly increased in SBF group (n = 12) but did not change in MHN-01 group (n = 10). Thus, intake of 837 kJ MHN-01 as a part of breakfast may be effective for suppression of deteriorating glucose metabolism in metabolic syndrome. PMID:26388672
Atkins, Linda A; McNaughton, Sarah A; Campbell, Karen J; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A
Fe deficiency remains the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and young children are at particular risk. Preventative food-based strategies require knowledge of current intakes, sources of Fe, and factors associated with low Fe intakes; yet few data are available for Australian children under 2 years. This study's objectives were to determine intakes and food sources of Fe for Australian infants and toddlers and identify non-dietary factors associated with Fe intake. Dietary, anthropometric and socio-demographic data from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial Program were analysed for 485 infants (mean age: 9·1 (sd 1·2) months) and 423 toddlers (mean age: 19·6 (sd 2·6) months) and their mothers. Dietary intakes were assessed via 24-h recalls over 3 non-consecutive days. Prevalence of inadequate Fe intake was estimated using the full probability approach. Associations between potential non-dietary predictors (sex, breast-feeding status, age when introduced to solid foods, maternal age, maternal education, maternal employment status and mother's country of birth) and Fe intakes were assessed using linear regression. Mean Fe intakes were 9·1 (sd 4·3) mg/d for infants and 6·6 (sd 2·4) mg/d for toddlers. Our results showed that 32·6 % of infants and 18·6 % of toddlers had inadequate Fe intake. Main food sources of Fe were Fe-fortified infant formula and cereals for infants and toddlers, respectively. Female sex and current breast-feeding were negatively associated with infant Fe intakes. Introduction to solid foods at or later than 6 months was negatively associated with Fe intake in toddlers. These data may facilitate food-based interventions to improve Australian children's Fe intake levels.
Seo, Mi Hae; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Park, Se Eun; Rhee, Eun Jung; Park, Cheol Young; Lee, Won-Young; Baek, Ki Hyun; Song, Ki-Ho; Kang, Moo Il; Oh, Ki Won
Recent data suggest that variations in calcium intake may influence body weight and composition; however, the relationship between daily calcium intake and muscle mass has not been well established. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between daily calcium intake and sarcopenia. We analyzed data for older adults (over 60 years) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted in 2009. A total of 1339 Non-Obese (BMI between 18.5 and 25 kg/m²), older adults (592 men and 707 women) were enrolled. Dietary variables were assessed using a nutrition survey that used a 24-hour recall method. Daily calcium intake based on the consumption of each food item was calculated. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by body weight less than 2 SD below the sex-specific mean for young adults. We found that daily calcium intake was negatively correlated with total body fat percentage and positively correlated with appendicular skeletal mass (p<0.001). Participants with sarcopenia appear to have significantly lower daily calcium intakes than participants without sarcopenia (p<0.001). The unadjusted prevalence of sarcopenia according to daily calcium intake tertiles were 6.3%, 4.3%, and 2.7% in tertiles 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI, total energy intake, and lifestyle factors, compared with those in the lowest tertile of daily calcium intake, participants in the highest tertile had an odds ratio for sarcopenia of 0.295 (95% confidence interval, 0.087-0.768; p for trend = 0.014). We found that daily calcium intake, corrected for total energy intake and serum 25(OH)D status, was significantly lower in subjects with sarcopenia than in those without. Our results suggest a strong inverse association between daily calcium intake and sarcopenia in non-obese, older Korean adults.
Naghashpour, Mahshid; Shakerinejad, Ghodratollah; Lourizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Hajinajaf, Saeedeh; Jarvandi, Farzaneh
This study examined the effects of a nutrition education programme based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of dietary calcium in female students. In this interventional study, 188 students were placed into intervention (95) and control (93) groups. The intervention group participated in a nutrition education programme. Students in both the groups completed KAP and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and after two and three months of follow-up respectively. The data were analyzed by independent and paired t-tests. Those who received the intervention were found to have better attitude (p=0.049) and practice (p=0.005) scores compared to the controls. The HBM constructs, including perceived susceptibility (p=0.006), perceived severity (p=0.001), perceived benefits (p=0.002), perceived barriers (p=0.001), and taking health action (p=0.02) scores, were also significantly higher. The findings support the effectiveness of nutrition education based on the HBM in improving the knowledge, attitude, and practice relating to calcium intake among adolescent students.
McManus, Chris J; Murray, Kelly A; Parry, David A
The aim of this case study is to describe the nutrition practices of a female recreational runner (VO2max 48.9 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) who completed 26 marathons (42.195 km) in 26 consecutive days. Information relating to the nutritional intake of female runners during multi-day endurance events is extremely limited, yet the number of people participating year-on-year continues to increase. This case study reports the nutrition intervention, dietary intake, body composition changes and performance in the lead-up and during the 26 days. Prior to undertaking the 26 marathon challenge, three consultations were held between the athlete and a sports nutrition advisor; planning and tailoring the general diet and race-specific strategies to the endurance challenge. During the marathons, the mean energy and fluid intake was 1039.7 ± 207.9 kcal (607.1 - 1453.2) and 2.39 ± 0.35 L (1.98 - 3.19). Mean hourly carbohydrate intake was 38.9 g·hr(-1). 11 days following the completion of the 26 marathons, body mass had reduced by 4.6 kg and lean body mass increasing by 0.53 kg when compared with 20 days prior. This case study highlights the importance of providing general and event-specific nutrition education when training for such an event. This is particularly prudent for multi-day endurance running events.
Kang, Myung Shin; Jeong, Su Jin
Background Diabetics are likely to receive advice from their physicians concerning lifestyle changes. To understand how much sodium is consumed by diabetics in Korea, we compared the average daily sodium intake between diabetics and non-diabetics after controlling for confounding factors. Methods We obtained the sodium intake data for 13,957 individuals who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008 to 2010, which consisted of a health interview and behavioral and nutritional surveys. The KNHANES uses a stratified, multistage, probability-sampling design, and weighting adjustments were conducted to represent the entire population. Results Our analysis revealed that, overall, diabetics tended to have lower sodium intake (4,910.2 mg) than healthy individuals (5,188.2 mg). However, both diabetic and healthy individuals reported higher sodium intake than is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Stratified subgroup analyses revealed that the sodium intake (4,314.2 mg) among newly diagnosed diabetics was higher among women when compared to patients with known diabetes (3,812.5 mg, P=0.035). Female diabetics with cardiovascular disease had lower average sodium intake compared to those without cardiovascular disease after adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, and total energy intake (P=0.058). Sodium intake among male diabetics with hypercholesterolemia (P=0.011) and female diabetics with hypertriglyceridemia (P=0.067) tended to be higher than that among those who without dyslipidemia. Conclusion The average sodium intake of diabetics in Korea was higher than the WHO recommends. Sodium intake in newly diagnosed diabetics was significantly higher than that in non-diabetics and previously diagnosed diabetics among females. Prospective studies are needed to identify the exact sodium intake. PMID:27352151
Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; McCullough, Marjorie L; Teras, Lauren R; Thun, Michael J; Patel, Alpa V
Although several studies have shown a lower risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in alcohol drinkers compared with nondrinkers, the dose-response relation and potential differences between former and current drinking and across beverage types and subtypes are unclear. The authors examined associations of alcohol intake with risk of NHL and NHL subtypes in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, a prospective study of US men and women aged 50-74 years. Between 1992 and 2007, there were 1,991 incident NHL cases among 143,124 participants. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were computed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Compared with nondrinkers, the relative risk of NHL associated with former drinking was 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75, 1.10); the relative risks associated with current intakes of <1, 1-2, and >2 drinks/day were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.83, 1.03), 0.91 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.06), and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.93), respectively. Associations did not differ by sex (P-interaction = 0.45) or beverage type (P-difference = 0.22). Alcohol intake was more strongly associated with B-cell lymphoma (P-trend = 0.005) than with T-cell lymphoma (P-trend = 0.76), and associations were similar among B-cell lymphoma subtypes. In this prospective study, current heavy alcohol intake was associated with a reduced risk of NHL. Associations did not differ by beverage type and were slightly stronger for B-cell tumors than for T-cell tumors.
Millward, D Joe; Garnett, Tara
Legally-binding legislation is now in place to ensure major reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the UK. Reductions in intakes of meat and dairy products, which account for approximately 40% of food-related emissions, are an inevitable policy option. The present paper assesses, as far as is possible, the risk to nutritional status of such a policy in the context of the part played by these foods in overall health and well-being and their contribution to nutritional status for the major nutrients that they supply. Although meat may contribute to saturated fat intakes and a higher BMI, moderate meat consumption within generally-healthy population groups has no measurable influence on morbidity or mortality. However, high consumption of red and processed meat has been associated with increased risk of colo-rectal cancer and recent advice is to reduce intakes to a maximum of 70 g/d. Such reductions in meat and haem-Fe intake are unlikely to influence Fe status in functional terms. However, overall protein intakes would probably fall, with the potential for intakes to be less than current requirements for the elderly. Whether it is detrimental to health is uncertain and controversial. Zn intakes are also likely to fall, raising questions about child growth that are currently unanswerable. Milk and dairy products, currently specifically recommended for young children and pregnant women, provide 30-40% of dietary Ca, iodine, vitamin B12 and riboflavin. Population groups with low milk intakes generally show low intakes and poor status for each of these nutrients. Taken together it would appear that the reductions in meat and dairy foods, which are necessary to limit environmental damage, do pose serious nutritional challenges for some key nutrients. These challenges can be met, however, by improved public health advice on alternative dietary sources and by increasing food fortification.
Park, Sohyun; Sherry, Bettylou; O'Toole, Terrence; Huang, Youjie
There is limited information on which characteristics are associated with water intake among adolescents. This cross-sectional study examined the association between demographic, dietary, and behavioral factors and low water intake as the outcome measure. Analyses were based on the 2007 Florida Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey using a representative sample of 4,292 students in grades six through eight in 86 Florida public middle schools. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for factors associated with low water intake (<3 glasses water per day). About 64% of students had low water intake. Factors significantly associated with low water intake were Hispanic ethnicity and non-Hispanic other (vs non-Hispanic white; ORs 0.79 and 0.76, respectively), drinking no 100% juice, drinking it <1 time/day, and drinking it 1 to 2 times/day (vs drinking it ≥3 times/day; ORs 1.83, 1.91, and 1.32, respectively), drinking no milk and drinking <2 glasses of milk/day (vs drinking ≥2 glasses/day; ORs 1.42 and 1.41, respectively), drinking <1 soda/day (vs drinking none; OR 1.40), drinking fruit-flavored drinks/sports drinks <1 time/day and drinking it ≥1 time/day (vs drinking none; ORs 1.49 and 1.41, respectively), eating at a fast-food restaurant ≥3 days/week (vs none; OR 1.38, respectively), not participating on team sports or participating on 1 to 2 team sports in previous 12 months (vs participating on ≥3 teams; ORs 1.77 and 1.24, respectively), and consuming snack/soda while watching television/movies "sometimes" and "most/every time" (vs never; ORs 1.65 and 2.20, respectively). The strongest factor associated with low water intake was frequent consumption of snacks/sodas while watching television/movies. Although study findings should be corroborated in other states and in a nationally representative sample, they may be useful in targeting adolescents for increased water consumption.
Jin, Minchao; Iannotti, Lora L
Animal source foods (ASF) provide critical micronutrients in highly bioavailable forms, with the potential to efficiently address undernutrition among young children living in developing countries. There is limited evidence for how livestock ownership might increase ASF intake in poor households either through own-consumption or income generation. Along with lack of nutrition knowledge, gender dimensions may affect the pathways leading from livestock ownership to child ASF intake and ultimately to young child growth. Using data from a large-scale impact evaluation conducted in Kenya, this study tested the hypothesis that co-owned/female-owned livestock would be associated with improved child growth, mediated by increases in ASF consumption. Data were collected from September 2010 to January 2011 from households in six provinces in Kenya on a broad range of agricultural, economic, social, health and nutrition factors. Children ages 6-60 months were included in this analysis (n = 183). In this sample, co-owned/female-owned livestock was valued at 18,861 Kenyan shillings in contrast with male-owned livestock valued at 66,343 Kenyan shillings. Multivariate linear regression models showed a positive association between co-owned/female-owned livestock with child weight-for-age z score (WAZ) after adjusting for caregiver education level, income, child age, and child sex. A mediating effect by child ASF intake was evident, explaining 25% of the relationship of livestock ownership with child WAZ, by Sobel-Goodman test (p < .05). A trend towards significance was demonstrated for co-owned/female-owned livestock and height-for-age z score (HAZ), and no effect was apparent for weight-for-height z score (WHZ). The partial mediating effect may be indicative of other factors inherent in co-owned/female-owned livestock such as higher status of females in these households with greater influence over other child care practices promoting growth. Nonetheless, our study suggests
Gee, Margaret I.; And Others
This study investigated relationships between dietary intake and taste perception for elderly women living independently in the community. It is unclear whether they have diminished taste perception, but it has been established that they are at high risk for nutrient deficiencies that may indirectly affect the taste process. (JOW)
McManus, Chris J.; Murray, Kelly A.; Parry, David A.
The aim of this case study is to describe the nutrition practices of a female recreational runner (VO2max 48.9 ml·kg-1·min-1) who completed 26 marathons (42.195 km) in 26 consecutive days. Information relating to the nutritional intake of female runners during multi-day endurance events is extremely limited, yet the number of people participating year-on-year continues to increase. This case study reports the nutrition intervention, dietary intake, body composition changes and performance in the lead-up and during the 26 days. Prior to undertaking the 26 marathon challenge, three consultations were held between the athlete and a sports nutrition advisor; planning and tailoring the general diet and race-specific strategies to the endurance challenge. During the marathons, the mean energy and fluid intake was 1039.7 ± 207.9 kcal (607.1 – 1453.2) and 2.39 ± 0.35 L (1.98 – 3.19). Mean hourly carbohydrate intake was 38.9 g·hr-1. 11 days following the completion of the 26 marathons, body mass had reduced by 4.6 kg and lean body mass increasing by 0.53 kg when compared with 20 days prior. This case study highlights the importance of providing general and event-specific nutrition education when training for such an event. This is particularly prudent for multi-day endurance running events. Key points Multi-day endurance running (MDER) events are increasingly prevalent among recreational and elite runners, as such, reporting the practices of populations underrepresented in the literature are important. This case study reports nutritional practices of a female recreational runner undertaking 26 marathons in 26 consecutive days. This case study highlights the importance of providing general and event-specific nutrition education when training for such an event. This is particularly prudent for MDER events. PMID:28344459
We assessed the effect of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on middle school student lunchtime food consumption. Three years of lunch food records were collected from middle school students in southeast Texas: baseline (2001-2002), after local district changes (2002-2003), and 1 year after im...
Pallaro, Anabel; Tarducci, Gabriel
The application of nuclear techniques in the area of nutrition is safe because they use stable isotopes. The deuterium dilution method is used in body composition and human milk intake analysis. It is a reference method for body fat and validates inexpensive tools because of its accuracy, simplicity of application in individuals and population and the background of its usefulness in adults and children as an evaluation tool in clinical and health programs. It is a non-invasive technique as it uses saliva, which facilitates the assessment in pediatric populations. Changes in body fat are associated with non-communicable diseases; moreover, normal weight individuals with high fat deposition were reported. Furthermore, this technique is the only accurate way to determine whether infants are exclusively breast-fed and validate conventional methods based on surveys to mothers.
Kwon, Song Hee; Park, Hae Ryun; Lee, Young Mi; Kwon, Soo Youn; Kim, Ok Sun; Kim, Hee Young
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Chewing difficulty is a factor contributing to a poor nutritional status in the elderly. The aim of this study was to examine disparities in food and nutrition intakes among Korean elderly people with and without chewing difficulty. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study utilized data from the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2013. The study subjects included males and females over 65 years of age who were not required to adhere to a special diet due to disease or sickness. They were divided into groups according to their chewing ability. Those who found chewing “very difficult” or “difficult”, were combined to form the chewing difficulty group. Similarly, those who found chewing “moderately difficult”, “easy”, and “very easy” were combined to form the normal chewing group. RESULTS Of the 999 subjects, 47.7% had chewing difficulties and the prevalence of chewing difficulty was higher in females than in males (P = 0.03) and higher in those 75 years of age and over than in younger individuals (P < 0.001). The chewing difficulty group had a significantly lower intake of fruits and vegetables (P < 0.05) and lower vitamin C and potassium intake than those in the normal group. Comparison of the percentages of Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans (KDRIs) in the two groups indicated that the intake of most nutrients (energy, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and iron) were significantly lower in the chewing difficulty group than in the normal group. In particular, calcium intake was inadequate (51% of KDRIs) in the chewing difficulty group. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate that chewing difficulty is closely related to food and nutrient intake in the elderly and can result in vitamin and mineral intake deficiencies. It is evident that the care of elderly subjects with chewing difficulty is essential for maintaining a healthy lifestyle. PMID:28386387
Seo, Kyung Won; Yoon, Ki Young
Weight loss and malnutrition are common in cancer patients. Although weight loss is predominantly due to loss of fat mass, the morbidity risk is given by the decrease in muscle mass. The assessment of nutritional status is essential for a diagnosis of nutritional compromise and required for the multidisciplinary approach. Subjective global assessment (SGA) is made by the patients nutritional symptoms and weight loss. The objective assessment, a significant weight loss (>10%) for 6 months is considered an indicator of nutritional deficiency. The mean body index, body fat mass and body protein mass are decreased as cancer stage increases. The biochemical data of albumin, cholesterol, triglyceride, Zn, transferrin, total lymphocyte count are decreased in advanced cancer stage. Daily energy intake, cabohyderate and Vit B1 intake is decreased according to cancer stage. The patients are divided into three groups according to SGA. The three groups showed a significant difference in body weight, 1 month weight loss%, 6 month weight loss%, body mass index, mid arm circumference, albumin, energy intake, as well as carbohyderate intake protein and energy malnutrition. Nutritional assessment is of great importance because undernutrition has been shown to be associated with increase in stomach cancer associated morbidity and mortality. The authors concluded that nutritional assessment should be done in cancer patients preoperatively, and with adequate nutritional support, the morbidity and mortality would be decreased.
The objective of this study was to examine the association of consumption of whole grains (WG) with diet quality and nutrient intake in children and adolescents by a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. The 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to study children ...
Reicks, Marla; Jonnalagadda, Satya; Albertson, Ann M; Joshi, Nandan
Whole grain (WG) foods have been shown to reduce chronic disease risk and overweight. Total dietary fiber is associated with WG and its health benefits. The purpose was to determine whether associations exist between WG intake (no-WG intake, 0 ounce equivalent [oz eq]; low, >0-<3 oz eq; high, ≥3 oz eq) and total dietary fiber intake among Americans 2 years and older. One-day food intake data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2010 (n = 9042) showed that only 2.9% and 7.7% of children/adolescents (2-18 years) and adults (≥19 years) consumed at least 3 WG oz eq/d, respectively. For children/adolescents and adults, individuals in the high WG intake group were 59 and 76 times more likely to fall in the third fiber tertile, respectively, compared with those with no-WG intake. Total dietary fiber intake from food sources varied by WG intake group for children/adolescents and adults with more total dietary fiber consumed from ready-to-eat (RTE) and hot cereals and yeast breads/rolls in the high WG intake group compared with the no-WG intake group. Major WG sources for children/adolescents and adults included yeast bread/rolls (24% and 27%, respectively), RTE cereals (25% and 20%, respectively), and oatmeal (12% and 21%, respectively). Among those with the highest WG intake, WG RTE cereal with no added bran was the greatest contributor to total dietary fiber compared with other RTE cereal types. Whole grain foods make a substantial contribution to total dietary fiber intake and should be promoted to meet recommendations.
Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Mi Kyung
We investigated whether dietary and urinary Na is associated with adiposity in Korean children and adolescents (10-18 years), a population with a high salt intake. Study subjects were Korean children and adolescents who participated in the cross-sectional nationally representative Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011). This study used measures of dietary (24-h dietary recall) and urinary Na (Na:creatinine ratio) and three methods to determine obesity (BMI, waist circumference (WC) and total body per cent fat (TBPF)). Higher Na intake was significantly associated with obesity, adjusting for the covariates. Subjects in the highest tertile of urinary Na excretion had a significantly higher OR for higher adiposity compared with those in the lowest tertile (multivariate-adjusted OR 3·13 (95% CI 1·81, 5·50) for BMI, 2·15 (95% CI 1·27, 3·66) for WC and 1·92 (95% CI 1·29, 2·86) for TBPF, respectively). Na intake estimated by the 24-h recall method also showed significant association with adiposity (multivariate-adjusted OR 2·79 (95% CI 1·66, 4·68) for BMI and 2·14 (95% CI 1·25, 3·67) for WC, respectively). The significant associations between Na and adiposity remained significant after additionally adjusting for sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Our results revealed a significant positive association between urinary and dietary Na and adiposity in Korean children and adolescents, independent of SSB consumption.
De Cosmi, V; Mehta, N M; Boccazzi, A; Milani, G P; Esposito, S; Bedogni, G; Agostoni, C
Nutrition has a coadjuvant role in the management of children with acute diseases. We aimed to examine nutritional status, macronutrient requirements and actual macronutrient delivery in bronchiolitis. The nutritional status was classified according to WHO criteria and resting energy expenditure (MREE) was measured using an indirect calorimeter. Bland-Altman analysis was used to examine the agreement between MREE and estimated energy expenditure (EEE) with standard equations. Based on the ratio MREE/EEE in relation to Schofield equation on admission, we defined the subjects' metabolic status. A total of 35 patients were enrolled and 46% were malnourished on admission, and 25.8% were hypermetabolic, 37.1% hypometabolic and 37.1% normometabolic. We performed a 24-h recall in 10 children and 80% were overfed (AEI: MREE >120%). Mean bias (limits of agreement) with MREE was 8.9 (-73.9 to 91.8%) for Schofield; 61.0 (-41 to 163%) for Harris-Benedict; and 9.9 (-74.4 to 94.2%) for FAO-WHO equation. Metabolism of infants with bronchiolitis is not accurately estimated by equations.
Mut-Salud, Nuria; Álvarez, Pablo Juan; Garrido, Jose Manuel; Carrasco, Esther; Aránega, Antonia; Rodríguez-Serrano, Fernando
The role of the induction of oxidative stress as the mechanism of action of many antitumor drugs is acquiring an increasing interest. In such cases, the antitumor therapy success may be conditioned by the antioxidants present in our own body, which can be synthesized de novo (endogenous) or incorporated through the diet and nutritional supplements (exogenous). In this paper, we have reviewed different aspects of antioxidants, including their classification, natural sources, importance in diet, consumption of nutritional supplements, and the impact of antioxidants on health. Moreover, we have focused especially on the study of the interaction between antioxidants and antitumor therapy, considering both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In this regard, we found that the convenience of administration of antioxidants during cancer treatment still remains a very controversial issue. In general terms, antioxidants could promote or suppress the effectiveness of antitumor treatment and even protect healthy tissues against damage induced by oxidative stress. The effects may depend on many factors discussed in the paper. These factors should be taken into consideration in order to achieve precise nutritional recommendations for patients. The evidence at the moment suggests that the supplementation or restriction of exogenous antioxidants during cancer treatment, as appropriate, could contribute to improving its efficiency. PMID:26682013
Christmann, Viola; Gradussen, Charlotte J W; Körnmann, Michelle N; Roeleveld, Nel; van Goudoever, Johannes B; van Heijst, Arno F J
Preterm infants are at significant risk to develop reduced bone mineralization based on inadequate supply of calcium and phosphorus (Ca-P). Biochemical parameters can be used to evaluate the nutritional intake. The direct effect of nutritional intake on changes in biochemical parameters has not been studied. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of Ca-P supplementation on biochemical markers as serum (s)/urinary (u) Ca and P; alkaline phosphatase (ALP); tubular reabsorption of P (TrP); and urinary ratios for Ca/creatinin (creat) and P/creatinin in Very-Low-Birth-Weight infants on Postnatal Days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14. This observational study compared two groups with High (n = 30) and Low (n = 40) intake of Ca-P. Birth weight: median (IRQ) 948 (772-1225) vs. 939 (776-1163) grams; and gestational age: 28.2 (26.5-29.6) vs. 27.8 (26.1-29.4) weeks. Daily median concentrations of biochemical parameter were not different between the groups but linear regression mixed model analyses showed that Ca intake increased the uCa and TrP (p = 0.04) and decreased ALP (p = 0.00). Phosphorus intake increased sP, uP and uP/creat ratio and ALP (p ≤ 0.02) and caused decrease in TrP (p = 0.00). Protein intake decreased sP (p = 0.000), while low gestational age and male gender increased renal excretion of P (p < 0.03). Standardized repeated measurements showed that biochemical parameters were affected by nutritional intake, gestational age and gender.
Christmann, Viola; Gradussen, Charlotte J. W.; Körnmann, Michelle N.; Roeleveld, Nel; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; van Heijst, Arno F. J.
Preterm infants are at significant risk to develop reduced bone mineralization based on inadequate supply of calcium and phosphorus (Ca-P). Biochemical parameters can be used to evaluate the nutritional intake. The direct effect of nutritional intake on changes in biochemical parameters has not been studied. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of Ca-P supplementation on biochemical markers as serum (s)/urinary (u) Ca and P; alkaline phosphatase (ALP); tubular reabsorption of P (TrP); and urinary ratios for Ca/creatinin (creat) and P/creatinin in Very-Low-Birth-Weight infants on Postnatal Days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14. This observational study compared two groups with High (n = 30) and Low (n = 40) intake of Ca-P. Birth weight: median (IRQ) 948 (772–1225) vs. 939 (776–1163) grams; and gestational age: 28.2 (26.5–29.6) vs. 27.8 (26.1–29.4) weeks. Daily median concentrations of biochemical parameter were not different between the groups but linear regression mixed model analyses showed that Ca intake increased the uCa and TrP (p = 0.04) and decreased ALP (p = 0.00). Phosphorus intake increased sP, uP and uP/creat ratio and ALP (p ≤ 0.02) and caused decrease in TrP (p = 0.00). Protein intake decreased sP (p = 0.000), while low gestational age and male gender increased renal excretion of P (p < 0.03). Standardized repeated measurements showed that biochemical parameters were affected by nutritional intake, gestational age and gender. PMID:27916815
This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article.
Gose, Maria; Krems, Carolin; Heuer, Thorsten; Hoffmann, Ingrid
The German National Nutrition Monitoring (NEMONIT) is a longitudinal and nationwide study to assess changes in food consumption and nutrient intake in Germany. A sample of 1840 participants (baseline age: 14-80 years) was drawn from the nationally representative German National Nutrition Survey (NVS) II (2005-2007). The participants have been interviewed by telephone annually since 2008. Food consumption was assessed by two 24-h recalls in the NVS II and the 4 years of NEMONIT (2008-2012/2013), respectively. Energy and nutrient intakes were calculated using the German Nutrient Database 3.02. Diet quality was evaluated using the Healthy Eating Index-NVS (HEI-NVS) II. Time trends were analysed by generalised estimating equation. Consumption of fruit/fruit products and fruit juice/nectar among men and women decreased, whereas consumption of water, soft drinks and coffee/tea increased over the 6-year period. Furthermore, increased consumption of confectionery and animal fats was observed among women. HEI-NVS II did not change since NVS II in both sexes. There were no changes in energy and protein intakes, but carbohydrate intake declined while fat intake increased over time. Regarding micronutrients, a decreasing intake of thiamin, riboflavin and vitamin B6 was observed in both sexes, but intake of Mg, Fe and niacin increased among women over time. In conclusion, food consumption and nutrient intake remained relatively stable between 2005-2007 and 2012/2013 within this German cohort. A few favourable and unfavourable changes were observed. Compared with national dietary guidelines, consumption of food of plant origin remained too low and consumption of meat/meat products remained too high in Germany.
Irwin, Mitchell T; Raharison, Jean-Luc; Raubenheimer, David R; Chapman, Colin A; Rothman, Jessica M
Animals experience spatial and temporal variation in food and nutrient supply, which may cause deviations from optimal nutrient intakes in both absolute amounts (meeting nutrient requirements) and proportions (nutrient balancing). Recent research has used the geometric framework for nutrition to obtain an improved understanding of how animals respond to these nutritional constraints, among them free-ranging primates including spider monkeys and gorillas. We used this framework to examine macronutrient intakes and nutrient balancing in sifakas (Propithecus diadema) at Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar, in order to quantify how these vary across seasons and across habitats with varying degrees of anthropogenic disturbance. Groups in intact habitat experience lean season decreases in frugivory, amounts of food ingested, and nutrient intakes, yet preserve remarkably constant proportions of dietary macronutrients, with the proportional contribution of protein to the diet being highly consistent. Sifakas in disturbed habitat resemble intact forest groups in the relative contribution of dietary macronutrients, but experience less seasonality: all groups' diets converge in the lean season, but disturbed forest groups largely fail to experience abundant season improvements in food intake or nutritional outcomes. These results suggest that: (1) lemurs experience seasonality by maintaining nutrient balance at the expense of calories ingested, which contrasts with earlier studies of spider monkeys and gorillas, (2) abundant season foods should be the target of habitat management, even though mortality might be concentrated in the lean season, and (3) primates' within-group competitive landscapes, which contribute to variation in social organization, may vary in complex ways across habitats and seasons.
Irwin, Mitchell T.; Raharison, Jean-Luc; Raubenheimer, David R.; Chapman, Colin A.; Rothman, Jessica M.
Animals experience spatial and temporal variation in food and nutrient supply, which may cause deviations from optimal nutrient intakes in both absolute amounts (meeting nutrient requirements) and proportions (nutrient balancing). Recent research has used the geometric framework for nutrition to obtain an improved understanding of how animals respond to these nutritional constraints, among them free-ranging primates including spider monkeys and gorillas. We used this framework to examine macronutrient intakes and nutrient balancing in sifakas (Propithecus diadema) at Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar, in order to quantify how these vary across seasons and across habitats with varying degrees of anthropogenic disturbance. Groups in intact habitat experience lean season decreases in frugivory, amounts of food ingested, and nutrient intakes, yet preserve remarkably constant proportions of dietary macronutrients, with the proportional contribution of protein to the diet being highly consistent. Sifakas in disturbed habitat resemble intact forest groups in the relative contribution of dietary macronutrients, but experience less seasonality: all groups’ diets converge in the lean season, but disturbed forest groups largely fail to experience abundant season improvements in food intake or nutritional outcomes. These results suggest that: (1) lemurs experience seasonality by maintaining nutrient balance at the expense of calories ingested, which contrasts with earlier studies of spider monkeys and gorillas, (2) abundant season foods should be the target of habitat management, even though mortality might be concentrated in the lean season, and (3) primates’ within-group competitive landscapes, which contribute to variation in social organization, may vary in complex ways across habitats and seasons. PMID:26061401
Kiuchi, Aki; Ohashi, Yasushi; Tai, Reibin; Aoki, Toshiyuki; Mizuiri, Sonoo; Ogura, Toyoko; Aikawa, Atsushi; Sakai, Ken
Reduced dietary protein intake in malnourished patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be associated with adverse clinical outcomes, which may mask any efficacy of a low-protein diet. The study included 126 patients with CKD who attended a dedicated dietary counseling clinic in 2005–2009 and were systematically followed until January 2015. Of these patients, 20 (15.9%) had moderate or severe nutrition-related risk of geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) < 92; these patients were more likely to be older, have a greater proteinuria, and have lower body mass index and serum albumin concentration. Dietary protein intake was significantly lower in older patients (r = −0.33, p < 0.001) and those with lower glomerular filtration rate (r = 0.47, p < 0.001). The non-protein to nitrogen calorie ratio was independently associated with GNRI. Reduced GNRI was significantly associated with mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 4.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.61–15.42, p = 0.012) and cardiovascular events (HR = 9.37; 95% CI = 2.49–37.34, p = 0.006), but not with adverse renal outcomes. Restricting protein intake may be harmful to patients with any nutrition-related risk, suggesting that improvement of nutritional status should be a high priority. PMID:27782097
Gouagna, Louis Clément; Kerampran, Renaud; Lebon, Cyrille; Brengues, Cecile; Toty, Celine; Wilkinson, David A; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier
Plant-derived sugar is the only source of dietary carbohydrate for males of most mosquito species. Male resource acquisition and utilization remain an under-researched area of behavior in vectors of human diseases. However, the renewed interest in the use of sterile males against disease vector mosquitoes reinforces the urgent need for studies on the behavioral and ecological processes that underpin male fitness and reproductive success. Here an attempt was made first to characterize the conditions and modes of resource acquisition (plant derived sugar meals) early in the life of An. arabiensis males, and second to test the hypothesis that the plants chosen for their sugar meals are those which maximize their fitness in terms of energy gains (i.e. amount of lipids, proteins, glycogen and glucose). Olfactometry assays demonstrated the ability of An. arabiensis males to discriminate among a sample of ten abundant flowering plants present in their natural habitats. In further experiments, we observed significant variations in the sugar intake rates that matched their olfactory preferences, with the most attractive plants eliciting significantly higher sugar intake rates. Consistent with our expectations, analyses of the whole-body free sugars, lipids and glycogen unequivocally showed that the energy reserve accumulated post-feeding is dependent on the diet of the adult males, with the preferred plants providing more energy reserves than the less preferred ones, despite mosquitoes actively feeding on both. Taken together, these results show that An. Arabiensis males are able to discern between food sources, preferentially feeding on those species of plant that provide the highest metabolic payoff. Ensuring or somehow heightening the ability to detect and obtain rewarding sugar meals by male mosquitoes reared for field release could enhance their competitive ability in the field.
Bazzano, Lydia A; He, Jiang; Ogden, Lorraine G; Loria, Catherine M; Vupputuri, Suma; Myers, Leann; Whelton, Paul K
The objective of this study was to assess agreement on nutrient intake between the nutrient database of the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) and an up-to-date (December 1998) nutrient database, the ESHA Food Processor. Analysis was conducted among 11,303 NHANES I participants aged 25-74 years in 1971-1975 who had undergone dietary assessment. A list of all unique foods consumed was obtained from a single 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire administered during the baseline NHANES I visit. Foods on the list were matched to foods in the ESHA Food Processor software. Agreement between participants' nutrient intakes as calculated with the NHANES I and ESHA nutrient databases was assessed using intraclass correlation analysis, linear regression analysis, and graphic methods. Intraclass correlation analysis demonstrated excellent concordance between most nutrient intakes, with coefficients above 0.95 for intakes of energy, carbohydrates, protein, cholesterol, and calcium; coefficients between 0.90 and 0.95 for intakes of total fat, saturated fat, potassium, and vitamin C; and coefficients of approximately 0.85 for intakes of sodium and vitamin A. Graphic methods and regression analyses also showed good-to-excellent correspondence for most nutrients. These findings support the validity of expanding existing nutrient intake databases to explore current hypotheses, provided that food formulation, enrichment, and fortification practices have not changed substantially over time.
Byelashov, Oleksandr A; Sinclair, Andrew J; Kaur, Gunveen
Fish oils and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids are well recognized for their critical role in human diets. Docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22 : 5n-3) has always been a part of healthy nutrition, since infants obtain almost as much DPA as DHA from human milk. Fish oil supplements and ingredients, oily fish, and grass-fed beef can serve as the primary DPA sources for the general population. Although the DPA levels in fish oils are substantially lower than those of EPA and DHA, concentrated DPA products are now becoming commercially available, and DPA-based drugs are under development. Epidemiological studies show that similar to eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20 : 5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22 : 6n-3) acids, DPA is linked to various improvements in human health, perhaps owing to its structural similarity to the other two molecules. Studies in mammals, platelets, and cell cultures have demonstrated that DPA reduces platelet aggregation, and improves lipid metabolism, endothelial cell migration, and resolution of chronic inflammation. Further, other in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that DPA can improve neural health. A human supplementation trial with 99.8% pure DPA suggested that it serves as a storage depot for EPA and DHA in the human body. Future randomized controlled human trials with purified DPA will help clarify its effects on human health. They may confirm the available evidence pointing to its nutritional and biological functions, unique or overlapping with those of EPA and DHA. PMID:26097290
Orozco, Angela M; Yeung, Lorraine F; Guo, Jing; Carriquiry, Alicia; Berry, Robert J
The Food and Drug Administration mandated that by 1998, all enriched cereal grain products (ECGP) be fortified with folic acid in order to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. The Institute of Medicine established the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid (1000 µg/day for adults) in 1998. We characterized U.S. adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL. Using NHANES 2003-2010 data, we estimated the percentage of 18,321 non-pregnant adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, and among them, we calculated the weighted percentage by sex, age, race/ethnicity, sources of folic acid intake, supplement use and median usual daily folic acid intakes. Overall, 2.7% (standard error 0.6%) of participants had usual daily intake exceeding the UL for folic acid; 62.2% were women; 86.3% were non-Hispanic whites; and 98.5% took supplements containing folic acid. When stratified by sex and age groups among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, 20.8% were women aged 19-39 years. Those with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL were more likely to be female, non-Hispanic white, supplement users or to have at least one chronic medical condition compared to those not exceeding the folic acid UL. Among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL who also took supplements, 86.6% took on average >400 µg of folic acid/day from supplements. Everyone with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL consumed folic acid from multiple sources. No one in our study population had usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL through consumption of mandatorily-fortified enriched cereal grain products alone. Voluntary consumption of supplements containing folic acid is the main factor associated with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL.
Yamazaki, Toru; Martiniuk, Alexandra LC; Irie, Koichiro; Sokejima, Shigeru; Lee, Crystal Man Ying
Objectives The need for denture treatment in public health will increase as the population ages. However, the impact of dentures on nutrition, particularly overdenture treatment, remains unclear although the physical and psychological effects are known. We investigated whether treatment with a mandibular implant supported overdenture improves nutrient intake and markers of nutritional status better than a conventional complete denture in edentulous patients. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for eligible studies published up to April 2016. We included studies which compared the treatment effect of an overdenture to conventional denture on nutrition, in which primary outcomes included changes in intake of macronutrients and/or micronutrients and/or indicators of nutritional status. Two reviewers independently evaluated eligible studies and assessed the risk of bias. We used a fixed effects model to estimate the weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% CI for change in body mass index (BMI), albumin and serum vitamin B12 between overdenture and conventional denture 6 months after treatment. Results Of 108 eligible studies, 8 studies involving 901 participants were included in the narrative appraisal. Four studies reported changes in markers of nutritional status and nutrient intake after treatment with a prosthetic, regardless of type. In a meta-analysis of 322 participants aged 65 years or older from three studies, pooled analysis suggested no significant difference in change in BMI between an overdenture and conventional denture 6 months after treatment (WMD=−0.18 kg/m2 (95% CI −0.52 to 0.16)), and no significant difference in change in albumin or vitamin B12 between the two treatments. Conclusions The modifying effect of overdenture treatment on nutritional status might be limited. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness and efficacy of
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Spíndola Garcêz, Laís; de Sousa Paz Lima, Geania; de Azevedo Paiva, Adriana; Maria Rebêlo Sampaio da Paz, Suzana; Lázaro Gomes, Erica Ivana; Nunes, Valéria Sutti; Cotta de Faria, Eliana; de Barros-Mazon, Sílvia
Globally, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects about 19.1 million pregnant women. Its occurrence is classically associated with inadequate food intake and may also be associated with socioeconomic factors and the presence of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to serum retinol levels among pregnant teenagers. The sample consisted of 89 pregnant adolescents, from whom socioeconomic, obstetric, anthropometric, and food consumption data were collected. Serum concentrations of retinol and the supposed presence of infection were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and C-reactive protein quantification, respectively. The serum retinol concentrations were classified according to the criteria of the World Health Organization. We adopted a 5% significance level for all statistical tests. Serum retinol levels were significantly and positively associated with sanitation (p = 0.008) and pre-gestational nutritional status (p = 0.002), and negatively with the trimester (p = 0.001). The appropriate sanitation conditions and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were shown to have a protective effect against VAD. Conversely, serum retinol levels were reduced with trimester progression, favoring VAD occurrence.
Spíndola Garcêz, Laís; de Sousa Paz Lima, Geania; de Azevedo Paiva, Adriana; Maria Rebêlo Sampaio da Paz, Suzana; Lázaro Gomes, Erica Ivana; Nunes, Valéria Sutti; Cotta de Faria, Eliana; de Barros-Mazon, Sílvia
Globally, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects about 19.1 million pregnant women. Its occurrence is classically associated with inadequate food intake and may also be associated with socioeconomic factors and the presence of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to serum retinol levels among pregnant teenagers. The sample consisted of 89 pregnant adolescents, from whom socioeconomic, obstetric, anthropometric, and food consumption data were collected. Serum concentrations of retinol and the supposed presence of infection were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and C-reactive protein quantification, respectively. The serum retinol concentrations were classified according to the criteria of the World Health Organization. We adopted a 5% significance level for all statistical tests. Serum retinol levels were significantly and positively associated with sanitation (p = 0.008) and pre-gestational nutritional status (p = 0.002), and negatively with the trimester (p = 0.001). The appropriate sanitation conditions and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were shown to have a protective effect against VAD. Conversely, serum retinol levels were reduced with trimester progression, favoring VAD occurrence. PMID:27792135
Staples, C R; Emanuele, S M; Prine, G M
Florigraze rhizoma peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) is a very persistent, high quality legume that is well adapted to subtropical and tropical environments. This legume was ensiled and compared with corn silage (Zea mays) as a feedstuff for lactating dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows, including 4 ruminally fistulated cows (mean, 70 days in milk), were used in an experiment with a 4 x 4 Latin square design replicated three times. Diets were formulated to contain 50% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Dietary treatments were rhizoma peanut silage and corn silage fed at DM ratios of 0:50, 20:30, 35:15, and 50:0. The dry matter intake, digestibilities of DM and crude protein, and production of milk and fat-corrected milk decreased quadratically as the percentage of legume in the diet increased. Nearly all of the decrease occurred when rhizoma peanut silage was the sole forage in the diet. The organic matter digestibility of the two forage types was similar; however, digestion of crude protein in rhizoma peanut silage was only 45% (calculated using simultaneous equations). Ruminal pH increased, and ammonia and total volatile fatty acid concentrations decreased, as the percentage of rhizoma peanut silage in the diet increased. In situ digestion rate constants for DM of rhizoma peanut silage were twice that of corn silage, but extent of DM digestion was greater for corn silage. Passage rates of concentrates and forage were unaffected by dietary treatments. Rhizoma peanut silage can replace 70% of corn silage in diets containing 50% concentrate without affecting dairy cow performance.
Lane, Helen W.; Smith, Scott M.; Leach, Carolyn S.; Rice, Barbara L.
Studies of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis have been completed since the early human space flight programs, with comprehensive research completed on the Spacelab Life Sciences missions SLS-1 and SLS-2 flights, and more recently on the Mir 18 mission. This work documented the known shifts in fluids, the decrease in total blood volume, and indications of reduced thirst. Data from these flights was used to evaluate the nutritional needs for water, sodium, and potassium. Interpretations of the data are confounded by the inadequate energy intakes routinely observed during space flight. This in turn results in reduced fluid intake, as food provides approximately 70% water intake. Subsequently, body weight, lean body mass, total body water, and total body potassium may decrease. Given these issues, there is evidence to support a minimum required water intake of 2 L per day. Data from previous Shuttle flights indicated that water intake is 2285 +/- 715 ml/day (mean +/- SD, n=26). There are no indications that sodium intake or homeostasis is compromised during space flight. The normal or low aldosterone and urinary sodium levels suggest adequate sodium intake (4047 +/- 902 mg/day, n=26). Because excessive sodium intake is associated with hypercalciuria, the recommended maximum amount of sodium intake during flight is 3500 mg/day (i.e., similar to the Recommended Dietary Allowance, RDA). Potassium metabolism appears to be more complex. Data indicate loss of body potassium related to muscle atrophy and low dietary intake (2407 +/- 548 mg/day, n=26). Although possibly related to measurement error, the elevations in blood potassium suggest alterations in potassium homeostasis. The space RDA for minimum potassium intake is 3500 mg/day. With the documented inadequate intakes, efforts are being made to increase dietary consumption of potassium.
Fontana, Crisciele; Vitolo, Márcia R; Campagnolo, Paula D B; Mattevi, Vanessa S; Genro, Júlia P; Almeida, Silvana
Variants of dopamine system genes such as the DRD4 and the SLC6A3 genes may be involved in food intake regulation because the dopaminergic system influences food reward. We investigated an association of polymorphisms in the DRD4 (exon 3 VNTR) and SLC6A3 (3'UTR VNTR, rs2550948, rs2652511 and rs1048953) genes with food intake and nutritional status in children. This prospective cohort study recruited 359 children at birth. Dietary data and nutritional status were collected at 1 year, 3-4 years, and 7-8 years of age. The polymorphisms were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction based techniques. Food intake and nutritional status were compared among the different SNP genotypes. In the first year of life, DRD4.7R- children showed higher BMI Z-scores (P=.019) than the DRD4.7R+ cohort. At 3-4 years old, DRD4.7R- and SLC6A3.10R/10R children showed a higher intake of palatable foods (P=.024) and a higher waist circumference (P=.017). The rs1048953 SLC6A3 polymorphism was associated with average daily energy intake (P=.003) at 3-4 years and with a waist-to-height ratio of children at 7-8 years (P=.041). Carriers of high dopamine activity alleles of the VNTRs studied in DRD4 and SLC6A3 genes and carriers of T/T genotype of the variant rs1048953 SLC6A3 can present an increased risk for obesity related to overeating because high dopamine activity can increase the perceived incentive value of food reward.
Food sources of alpha-linolenic acid (PFA 18:3), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006
Food sources of alpha-linolenic acid (PFA 18:3), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006
Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006
Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006
Food sources of arachidonic acid (PFA 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006
Food sources of arachidonic acid (PFA 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006
Rubin, Daniela A.; Nowak, Jill; McLaren, Erin; Patiño, Monzeratt; Castner, Diobel M.; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn C.
Background Individuals with Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) have extremely regulated diets to prevent the development of morbid obesity. Objective This study evaluated potential deficiencies in macro and micronutrients in a cohort of youth with PWS and compared them to a group of children with non-congenital obesity and to US national recommendations. Design Participants were 32 youth with PWS (age=10.8±2.6 years, body fat=46.7±10.1%) and 48 children without PWS but classified as obese (age=9.7±1.2 years, body fat=43.4±5.7%). Participants’ parents completed a training session on food recording before completing a 3-day food record during a typical week including a weekend day and two weekdays, as well as a screening form indicating nutritional supplements use. Results Youth with PWS reported less calories (1,312±75 vs. 1,531±61 kcal, p=0.03), carbohydrate (175±10 vs. 203±8 g), and sugars (67±5 vs. 81±4 g; p=0.04 for both) than obese. Youth with PWS consumed more vegetables (1.1±0.1 vs. 0.6±0.1 cups) and more of them met the daily recommendation (p<0.01 for both). Likewise, youth with PWS consumed more calcium than obese (899±53 vs. 752±43 mg) and more of them met the recommended daily dose (p=0.04 for both). The majority of participants in this study did not meet the vitamin D recommendation. Conclusion Despite consuming less calories, youth with PWS had a similar proportion of macronutrients in their diet as children with obesity. Micronutrient deficiencies in calcium and vitamin D in youth with PWS were noted despite a third of youth with PWS consuming multivitamin supplements. Special attention must be paid to the diets of youth with PWS and with obesity to ensure they are meeting micronutrient needs during this period of growth and development. PMID:26652260
Socioeconomic factors are associated with folate and vitamin B12 intakes and related biomarkers concentrations in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.
Iglesia, Iris; Mouratidou, Theodora; González-Gross, Marcela; Novakovic, Romana; Breidenassel, Christina; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Huybrechts, Inge; De Henauw, Stefaan; Geelen, Anouk; Gottrand, Frédéric; Kafatos, Anthony; Mistura, Lorenza; de Heredia, Fátima Pérez; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yanis; Molnar, Denes; Stehle, Peter; Gurinovic, Mirjana; Cavelaars, Adrienne E J M; Van't Veer, Pieter; Moreno, Luis A
Because socioeconomic factors (SEFs) may influence dietary quality and vitamin intakes, this study aimed to examine associations between socioeconomic factors and folate and vitamin B12 intakes as well as their related biomarkers in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Vitamin intakes were obtained from two 24-hour recalls in 2253 participants (47% males). Vitamin B biomarkers were assessed in a subsample of 977 participants (46% males). Socioeconomic factors were assessed by questionnaire, and 1-way analysis of covariance and linear regression analysis were applied. For males and females, mean intakes of folate were 211.19 and 177.18 μg/d, and for vitamin B12, 5.98 and 4.54 μg/d, respectively. Levels of plasma folate, red blood cell folate, serum B12, and holotranscobalamin were 18.74, 807.19, 330.64, and 63.04 nmol/L in males, respectively, and 19.13, 770.16, 377.9, and 65.63 nmol/L in females, respectively. Lower folate intakes were associated with several SEFs, including maternal and paternal education in both sexes. Regarding folate biomarkers, lower plasma folate intakes were associated with single/shared care in males and with lower paternal occupation in females. Lower vitamin B12 intakes were associated with almost all the studied SEFs, except paternal occupation in both sexes. In females, when considering vitamin B12 biomarkers, lower plasma vitamin B12 was associated with lower maternal education and occupation, and lower holotranscobalamin was associated with lower maternal education and lower paternal occupation. In conclusion, from the set of socioeconomic determinants studied in a sample of European adolescents, maternal education and paternal occupation were more consistently associated with folate and vitamin B12 intakes and biomarkers concentrations.
Naughton, Robert J; Drust, Barry; O'Boyle, Andy; Abayomi, Julie; Mahon, Elizabeth; Morton, James P; Davies, Ian G
It is recommended that soccer players consume a high carbohydrate diet to augment performance. However, growing evidence suggests that there is a link between high free-sugar (FS) intake (>5% total energy intake; TEI) and metabolic diseases. Furthermore, foods that are often high in sugar, such as processed foods, are typically lacking in nutrient quality. We therefore analysed total-sugar, FS, dietary fibre, and micronutrient intake of players from an English Premier League academy under (U) 18 (n = 13), U15/16 (n = 25), and U13/14 (n = 21) using a 7-day food diary. Data were compared with current United Kingdom (UK) dietary reference value (DRV) for FS via a t test. The U13/14s (10% ± 18%) and U15/16s (11% ± 30%) both consumed higher amounts of FS in comparison with the UK DRV of 5% TEI (P < 0.01); conversely, the U18s did not exceed the DRV (5% ± 13%). Furthermore, FS intake of the U18s was significantly lower than the U13/14s and U15/16s (P < 0.01). Dietary fibre was below the DRV (25 g/day for U13/14 and U15/16s; 30 g/day for U18s) for all squads (19.0 ± 4.7, 19.6 ± 8.3, 17.1 ± 4.2 g/day, respectively), but not different between squads. Additionally, micronutrient reference intakes were generally met. In conclusion, we provide novel data on dietary sugar, fibre, and micronutrient intake within elite youth soccer players. We report an apparent "nutritional transition" from schoolboy to fulltime soccer player, with U18s showing a significantly lower intake of sugar in comparison with younger squads, and a similar intake of FS to the UK DRVs. Practitioners should target improving player education around sugar and fibre consumption.
Sen, D; Prakash, J
Malnutrition is a common clinical problem in dialysis patients, which is multifactorial in origin. It is most often found in a patient of chronic renal failure (CRF) during the period when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls below 10 ml/min, but dialysis is yet to be started. The loss of proteins, aminoacids and other essential nutrients during the procedure of dialysis may further aggravate the malnutrition. Poor nutrition in dialysis patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the form of delayed wound healing, malaise, fatigue, increased susceptibility to infection and poor rehabilitation. In view of the above consequences, all patients on dialysis must undergo nutritional assessment. It is very vital to maintain good nutritional status in-patients on dialysis by adequate protein and calories intake, appropriate supplementation of iron, calcium, minerals and water-soluble vitamins and, of course, the supplementation should be individualised. Nutritional needs are enhanced in presence of stresses like infection or surgery to limit excessive tissue catabolism and therefore, these are the situations, which demand intensive nutrition therapy. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) may be required for patients on dialysis in intensive care unit, using a central venous catheter. However, enteral route is always preferred to parenteral ones, whenever possible. Even after adequate dialysis has been given, dietary counselling is often required for both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients to ensure that they ingest the recommended amount of protein, calories and essential micronutrients.
Wardenaar, F C; Steennis, J; Ceelen, I J M; Mensink, M; Witkamp, R; de Vries, J H M
Information on dietary composition is vitally important for elite athletes to optimise their performance and recovery, which requires valid tools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the validity of assessing protein intake using three web-based 24-h recalls and questionnaires, by comparing these with three urinary N excretions on the same day. A total of forty-seven Dutch elite top athletes, both disabled and non-disabled, aged between 18 and 35 years, with a BMI of 17·5-31 kg/m2, exercising >12 h/week were recruited. Estimated mean dietary protein intake was 109·6 (sd 33·0) g/d by recalls and questionnaires v. 141·3 (sd 38·2) g/d based on N excretions in urine; the difference was 25·5 (sd 21·3) % between the methods (P<0·05). We found a reasonably good association between methods for protein intake of 0·65 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·79). On an individual level, under-reporting was larger with higher protein intakes than with lower intakes. No significant differences were found in reporting absolute differences between subcategories (sex, under-reporting, BMI, collection of recalls within a certain amount of time and using protein supplements or not). In conclusion, combined, multiple, 24-h recalls and questionnaires underestimated protein intake in these young elite athletes more than that reported for non-athlete populations. The method proved to be suitable for ranking athletes according to their protein intake as needed in epidemiological studies. On an individual level, the magnitude of underestimation was about equal for all athletes except for those with very high protein intakes.
Rosado, Jorge L; del R Arellano, María; Montemayor, Karina; García, Olga P; Caamaño, María del C
Background The main emphasis of dietary advice for control of obesity has been on reducing dietary fat. Increasing ready to eat cereal (RTEC) consumption could be a strategy to reduce fat intake and increase carbohydrate intake resulting in a diet with lower energy density. Objectives 1. To determine if an increase in RTEC intake is an effective strategy to reduce excess body weight and blood lipids in overweight or at risk of overweight children. 2. To determine if a nutrition education program would make a difference on the response to an increase in cereal intake. 3) To determine if increase in RTEC intake alone or with a nutrition education program has an effect on plasma lipid profile. Experimental design One hundred and forty seven overweight or at risk of overweight children (6–12 y of age) were assigned to one of four different treatments: a. One serving of 33 ± 7 g of RTEC for breakfast; b. one serving of 33 ± 7 g of RTEC for breakfast and another one for dinner; c. one serving of 33 ± 7 g of RTEC for breakfast and a nutrition education program. d. Non intervention, control group. Anthropometry, body composition, physical activity and blood lipids were measured at baseline, before treatments, and 12 weeks after treatments. Results After 12 weeks of intervention only the children that received 33 ± 7 g of RTEC and nutrition education had significantly lower body weight [-1.01 (-1.69, -0.34) ], p < 0.01], lower BMI [-0.95 (-1.71, -0.20), p < 0.01] and lower total body fat [-0.71 (-1.71, 0.28), p < 0.05] compared with the control group [1.19 (0.39, 1.98), 0.01 (-0.38, 0.41), 0.44 (-0.46, 1.35) respectively]. Plasma triglycerides and VLDL were significantly reduced [-20.74 (-36.44, -5.05), -3.78 (-6.91, -0.64) respectively, p < 0.05] and HDL increased significantly [6.61 (2.15, 11.08), p < 0.01] only in this treatment group. The groups that received 1 or 2 doses of RTEC alone were not significantly different to the control group. Conclusion A strategy to
Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; da Silva, Carla Cristiane; Peres, Luciana Natal Lopes; Berbel, Marina Nogueira; Heigasi, Máircia Braz; Ribeiro, Josy Maria Cabral; Suzuki, Karina; Josué, Liene Mílcia Aparecida; Dalmas, José Carlos
Adolescents' eating habits are determined by social, psychological, economic, political, and educational influences. They tend to prefer foods with inadequate nutritional value and high fat and carbohydrate content which leads to excessive weight gain and for many, calcium intake is restricted. According to some authors, low calcium intake is linked to increased adiposity. The objective was to evaluate adolescent calcium intake and investigate a possible relationship between calcium intake and nutritional state. As part of their first consultation at Botucatu Adolescent Outpatient Clinic-UNESP, 107 adolescents were nutritionally classified by BMI, according to age, gender, and bands proposed by CDC and AAP. Diet was evaluated by a 3 day 24h food recall, adopting 1300 mg/day calcium intake as recommended by Dietary Reference Intakes. Median calcium intake for the whole sample was 546.6 mg/day, with 91.30% female and 86.84% male presenting lower than adequate daily recommended ingestion levels (DRI). There was significant difference between calcium densities (Ca mg/1000 kcal) in eutrophic and overweight/obesity in males. Male adolescents showed an inverse relationship between calcium intake and adiposity (r = -0.488 and p = 0.0173), which corroborates the hypothesis that low calcium intake is linked to fatty tissue gain. Only 8.70% of female and 13.16% of male adolescents reached their daily recommended calcium intake levels. It must therefore be stressed that nutritional education is an important protection factor for children and adolescents in later life.
Travis, Ruth C; Appleby, Paul N; Siddiq, Afshan; Allen, Naomi E; Kaaks, Rudolf; Canzian, Federico; Feller, Silke; Tjønneland, Anne; Føns Johnsen, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Ramón Quirós, J; González, Carlos A; Sánchez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Oustoglou, Erifili; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B(as); Stattin, Pär; Ferrari, Pietro; Johansson, Mattias; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy J
High dairy protein intake has been found to be associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). To further examine this possible relationship, we investigated the hypothesis that a genetic polymorphism in the lactase (LCT) gene might be associated with elevated dairy product intake and increased prostate cancer risk in a case–control study nested in EPIC. The C/T-13910 lactase variant (rs4988235) was genotyped in 630 men with prostate cancer and 873 matched control participants. Dairy product consumption was assessed by diet questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) for prostate cancer in relation to lactase genotype were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Lactase genotype frequency varied significantly between countries, with frequencies of the T (lactase persistence) allele ranging from 7% in Greece to 79% in Denmark. Intake of milk and total dairy products varied significantly by lactase genotype after adjustment for recruitment center; adjusted mean intakes of milk were 44.4, 69.8 and 82.3 g/day among men with CC, CT and TT genotypes, respectively. The lactase variant was not significantly associated with prostate cancer risk, both in our data (adjusted OR for TT vs. CC homozygotes: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.76–1.59) and in a meta-analysis of all the published data (combined OR for T allele carriers vs. CC homozygotes: 1.12, 0.96–1.32). These findings show that while variation in the lactase gene is associated with milk intake in men, the lactase polymorphism does not have a large effect on prostate cancer risk. What's new? High dairy protein intake has previously been found to be associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The current study was nested in EPIC, and results from this first Europe-wide study suggest that while the C/T13910 lactase polymorphism is associated with milk intake, the variant has no
Olea López, Ana Lorena; Johnson, Laura
Obesity is a global public health priority. Restrained eating is related to obesity and total energy intake but associations with the eating patterns are unclear. We examined the associations of restrained eating with the size and frequency of intake occasions among 1213 British adult (19–64 y) participants in a cross-sectional analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2000. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire assessed restrained eating. Overall intake occasions were all energy consumed in a 60 min period. A food-based classification separated intake occasions into meals, snacks, or drinks from seven-day weighed food diaries. Average daily frequency and size (kcal) of overall intake, meal, snack and drink occasions were calculated and associations with restrained eating were modelled using multiple linear regression including under-reporting of energy intake, age, gender, BMI, emotional eating, external eating and physical activity as covariates. Restrained eating was very weakly positively correlated with overall intake (r = 0.08, p<0.05) and meal frequency (r = 0.10, p<0.05) but not snack or drink frequency (r = 0.02 and -0.02 respectively). Adjusted regressions showed a one-point change in restrained eating was associated with 0.07 (95% CI 0.03, 0.11) more meal occasions/day and 0.13 (95% CI 0.01, 0.25) extra overall intake occasions/day. Overall intake occasion size was weakly negatively correlated with restrained eating regardless of type (r = -0.16 to -0.20, all p<0.0001). Adjusted regressions showed each one-point increase in restrained eating was associated with lower-energy meals (-15 kcal 95% CI -5.9, -24.2) and drinks (-4 kcal 95%CI -0.1, -8), but not snacks or overall intake occasions. Among a national sample of UK adults, greater restrained eating was associated with smaller and slightly more frequent eating, suggesting that restrained eaters restrict their energy intake by reducing meal/drink size rather than skipping snacks. PMID
Schwartz, J; Weiss, S T
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which predominates in marine fish, tends to counteract and inhibit the uptake and incorporation of arachidonic acid and membrane phospholipids and dilute arachidonic acid as a potential substrate for oxidation. Thus, fish intake may be protective for the occurrence of asthma and other pulmonary diseases. We wanted to examine the relationship between the effect of chronic dietary intake to fish and its relationship to level of pulmonary function. We performed this analysis using data from the First National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES I). A detailed subsample of 2,526 adults had a medical history questionnaire, that included a 24-hour dietary recall, and performed spirometric examination. Log of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) served as a dependent variable in regression analysis which included an adjustment for height, age, cigarette smoking and gender. When added to the regression model including the above variables dietary fish intake showed a protective association with FEV1 (beta = 0.008 +/- 0.004, p = 0.028). When smokers were excluded from the analysis, the effect of fish intake on pulmonary function appeared to increase slightly (beta = 0.0108 +/- 0.006, p = 0.61). These data suggest that chronic dietary intake of fish is associated with higher levels of pulmonary function and is consistent with the hypothesis of an effect of fish oil on arachidonic acid metabolism.
Merli, Manuela; Giusto, Michela; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Riggio, Oliviero
Chronic liver disease has a profound effect on nutritional status and undernourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. In the last decades, due to epidemiological changes, a trend showing an increase in patients with end-stage liver disease and associated obesity has also been reported in developed countries. Nutrition abnormalities may influence the outcome after transplantation therefore, the importance to carefully assess the nutritional status in the work-up of patients candidates for liver transplantation is widely accepted. More attention has been given to malnourished patients as they represent the greater number. The subjective global nutritional assessment and anthropometric measurements are recognized in current guidelines to be adequate in identifying those patients at risk of malnutrition. Cirrhotic patients with a depletion in lean body mass and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk and malnutrition may impact on morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. For this reason an adequate calorie and protein intake should always be ensured to malnourished cirrhotic patient either through the diet, or using oral nutritional supplements or by enteral or parenteral nutrition although studies supporting the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in improving the clinical outcomes after transplantation are still scarce. When liver function is restored, an amelioration in the nutritional status is expected. After liver transplantation in fact dietary intake rapidly normalizes and fat mass is progressively regained while the recovery of muscle mass can be slower. In some patients unregulated weight gain may lead to over-nutrition and may favor metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia). This condition, defined as 'metabolic syndrome', may play a negative role on the overall survival of liver transplant patients. In this report we review
Fuente-Martín, Esther; Granado, Miriam; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Sanchez-Garrido, Miguel A; Frago, Laura M; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A
Long-term metabolic effects induced by early nutritional changes are suspected to differ between males and females, but few studies have analyzed both sexes simultaneously. We analyzed the consequences of neonatal nutritional changes on body weight (BW) and the adult response to a sucrose-enriched diet in both male and female rats. Litter size was manipulated at birth to induce over- and undernutrition (4 pups: L4; 12 pups: L12; 20 pups: L20). From 50 to 65 days of age, half of each group received a 33% sucrose solution instead of water. Serum leptin, insulin, and ghrelin levels were analyzed at day 65. At weaning, rats from L4 weighed more and those from L20 weighed less than controls (L12). Body weight was greater in L4 rats throughout the study and increased further compared with controls in adult life. L20 males ate less and gained less weight throughout the study, but L20 females had a significant catch-up in BW. Sucrose intake increased total energy consumption in all groups, but not BW gain, with L4 males and L4 and L20 females reducing weight gain. Yet, sucrose intake increased serum leptin levels, with this increase being significant in L4 and L20 males. Our results suggest that females are more capable than males of recuperating and maintaining a normal BW after reduced neonatal nutrition. Furthermore, increased sucrose intake does not increase BW, but could alter body composition as reflected by leptin levels, with the percentage of calories consumed in the form of sucrose being affected by sex and neonatal nutrition.
Praagman, Jaike; Dalmeijer, Geertje W; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Monique Verschuren, W M; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Beulens, Joline W J
The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between total and subtypes of bacterial fermented food intake (dairy products, cheese, vegetables and meat) and mortality due to all causes, total cancer and CVD. From the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort, 34 409 Dutch men and women, aged 20-70 years who were free from CVD or cancer at baseline, were included. Baseline intakes of total and subtypes of fermented foods were measured with a validated FFQ. Data on the incidence and causes of death were obtained from the national mortality register. Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyse mortality in relation to the quartiles of fermented food intake. After a mean follow-up of 15 (sd 2·5) years, 2436 deaths occurred (1216 from cancer and 727 from CVD). After adjustment for age, sex, total energy intake, physical activity, education level, hypertension, smoking habit, BMI, and intakes of fruit, vegetables and alcohol, total fermented food intake was not found to be associated with mortality due to all causes (hazard ratio upper v. lowest quartile (HR(Q4 v. Q1)) 1·00, 95% CI 0·88, 1·13), cancer (HR(Q4 v. Q1) 1·02, 95% CI 0·86, 1·21) or CVD (HR(Q4 v. Q1) 1·04, 95 % CI 0·83, 1·30). Bacterial fermented foods mainly consisted of fermented dairy foods (78 %) and cheese (16%). None of the subtypes of fermented foods was consistently related to mortality, except for cheese which was moderately inversely associated with CVD mortality, and particularly stroke mortality (HR(Q4 v. Q1) 0·59, 95% CI 0·38, 0·92, P trend= 0·046). In conclusion, the present study provides no strong evidence that intake of fermented foods, particularly fermented dairy foods, is associated with mortality.
Ward, Heather A; Norat, Teresa; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Skeie, Guri; Romaguera-Bosch, Dora; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Carbonnel, Franck; Affret, Aurélie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Aleksandrova, Krassimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Åsli, Lene Angell; Jakszyn, Paula; Ramón Quirós, J; Sánchez, María-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, José-María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Jirström, Karin; Ericson, Ulrika; Johansson, Ingegerd; Gylling, Björn; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Stepien, Magdalena; Freisling, Heinz; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J; Riboli, Elio
Improvements in colorectal cancer (CRC) detection and treatment have led to greater numbers of CRC survivors, for whom there is limited evidence on which to provide dietary guidelines to improve survival outcomes. Higher intake of red and processed meat and lower intake of fibre are associated with greater risk of developing CRC, but there is limited evidence regarding associations with survival after CRC diagnosis. Among 3789 CRC cases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, pre-diagnostic consumption of red meat, processed meat, poultry and dietary fibre was examined in relation to CRC-specific mortality (n 1008) and all-cause mortality (n 1262) using multivariable Cox regression models, adjusted for CRC risk factors. Pre-diagnostic red meat, processed meat or fibre intakes (defined as quartiles and continuous grams per day) were not associated with CRC-specific or all-cause mortality among CRC survivors; however, a marginal trend across quartiles of processed meat in relation to CRC mortality was detected (P 0·053). Pre-diagnostic poultry intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality among women (hazard ratio (HR)/20 g/d 0·92; 95 % CI 0·84, 1·00), but not among men (HR 1·00; 95 % CI 0·91, 1·09) (P for heterogeneity=0·10). Pre-diagnostic intake of red meat or fibre is not associated with CRC survival in the EPIC cohort. There is suggestive evidence of an association between poultry intake and all-cause mortality among female CRC survivors and between processed meat intake and CRC-specific mortality; however, further research using post-diagnostic dietary data is required to confirm this relationship.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Observational studies suggest that an association between vegetable consumption and coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the results are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate the daily intake of vegetables on a national level and its effect on the risk of CHD risk, as determined by the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). SUBJECTS/METHODS This study was conducted a cross-sectional design of 2,510 male adults 40-64y of age who participated in the 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Daily intake of vegetable was assessed by 24-h recall, and the consumption frequency of vegetables was determined using a food frequency questionnaire. The odd ratio of CHD risk according to daily intake and frequency of vegetables was analyzed. RESULTS Total vegetable intake was inversely and significantly associated with the risk of CHD (Model 1: 4th vs. 1st quartile, OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58-0.96, P for trend = 0.0015), and the significant relationship with CHD risk remained even after adjusting for potential confounders (Model 3: 4th vs. 1st quartile, adjusted OR [aOR] = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.49-0.95, P for trend = 0.0492). Subjects in the higher quartiles of non-salted vegetable intake had 31% lower odds of the risk of CHD compared to those in the lowest quartile after adjusting for various potential confounders in model 3 (aOR = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.49-0.97, P for trend = 0.0478). No significant associations between the frequency of vegetable intake (total, green, white and red vegetable) and the risk of CHD were found. CONCLUSIONS The major results of this study indicate that higher vegetable intake may help prevent CHD in Korean men. PMID:26865921
Lane, Helen W.
This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.
Bensley, Robert J; Anderson, Judith V; Brusk, John J; Mercer, Nelda; Rivas, Jason
The purpose of this project was to compare the impact of Internet nutrition education to traditional nutrition education on Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participant fruit and vegetable consumption. Interventions were delivered at 15 WIC clinics after normal WIC clinic operations or delivered online. A total of 692 and 872 participants from eight WIC agencies self-enrolled into two phases. A quasi-experimental design using an interrupted time series to determine the impact of two methods of nutrition education and follow-up nutrition counseling was used. Data were collected online and at Michigan WIC clinics during 2005-2007 at 3-month intervals during a 9-month period (per phase). Two Internet nutrition education modules were compared to WIC traditional nutrition education, which included either group classes or a self-guided nutrition education information mall. All interventions were based on the same program learning objectives. Optional motivational negotiation counseling followed 3 months post-intervention. Stage of change progression, belief in ability to change, and fruit and vegetable consumption were measured at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Significance (P<0.05) was analyzed using independent samples t tests, χ(2) distribution, and sample tests for differences in binomial proportions. The Internet group experienced substantial positive differences in stage of change progression, perception that the intervention was helpful and easy to use, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Traditional nutrition education required follow-up counseling to achieve fruit and vegetable consumption levels similar to the Internet nutrition education group. Based on these findings, this study supports Internet nutrition education as a viable alternative to traditional nutrition education for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in some WIC clients.
McGill, Carla R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Devareddy, Latha
Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG). This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for children/adolescents (n=14,973) and adults (n=24,809). Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1) g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19-50 years (y) was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001-2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01) oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19-50 y was 0.61 (±0.02) oz eq/day and for adults 51+0.86 (±0.02) oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001-2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%), grain mixtures (16.3%), other foods (15.8%) and fruits (11.3%). For adults 19+y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%), other foods (14.3%), grain mixtures (12.0%) and fruits (11.1%). Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (31%), yeast breads/rolls (21%) and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%). The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%), RTEC (23%) and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%). Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S.) population.
McGill, Carla R.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Devareddy, Latha
Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG). This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for children/adolescents (n = 14,973) and adults (n = 24,809). Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1) g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19–50 years (y) was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001–2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+ y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01) oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19–50 y was 0.61 (±0.02) oz eq/day and for adults 51+ 0.86 (±0.02) oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001–2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%), grain mixtures (16.3%), other foods (15.8%) and fruits (11.3%). For adults 19+ y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%), other foods (14.3%), grain mixtures (12.0%) and fruits (11.1%). Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (31%), yeast breads/rolls (21%) and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%). The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%), RTEC (23%) and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%). Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S.) population. PMID:25671414
Dietary intakes and lifestyle patterns of Korean children and adolescents with atopic dermatitis: Using the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV,V), 2007-11.
Yang, Ae-Ri; Kim, Young-Nam; Lee, Bog-Hieu
We investigate dietary intake and lifestyle patterns of atopic children and adolescents (N = 539) by obesity level using a national survey of South Korea. Intakes of calcium, iron, and vitamin C in the underweight group were less than those of other groups. The frequency of drinking milk of the overweight group was higher than that of the normal weight group. Majority of the subjects had not applied nutrition labeling in food choices, had no experience of nutrition education, and were vitamin D deficient. In conclusion, most of the atopic subjects had little knowledge of nutrition and were vitamin D deficient.
Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Rice, B. L.; Nillen, J. L.; Gillman, P. L.; Block, G.
Adequate nutrition is critical during long-term spaceflight, as is the ability to easily monitor dietary intake. A comprehensive nutritional status assessment profile was designed for use before, during and after flight. It included assessment of both dietary intake and biochemical markers of nutritional status. A spaceflight food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed to evaluate intake of key nutrients during spaceflight. The nutritional status assessment protocol was evaluated during two ground-based closed-chamber studies (60 and 91 d; n = 4/study), and was implemented for two astronauts during 4-mo stays on the Mir space station. Ground-based studies indicated that the FFQ, administered daily or weekly, adequately estimated intake of key nutrients. Chamber subjects maintained prechamber energy intake and body weight. Astronauts tended to eat 40--50% of WHO-predicted energy requirements, and lost >10% of preflight body mass. Serum ferritin levels were lower after the chamber stays, despite adequate iron intake. Red blood cell folate concentrations were increased after the chamber studies. Vitamin D stores were decreased by > 40% on chamber egress and after spaceflight. Mir crew members had decreased levels of most nutritional indices, but these are difficult to interpret given the insufficient energy intake and loss of body mass. Spaceflight food systems can provide adequate intake of macronutrients, although, as expected, micronutrient intake is a concern for any closed or semiclosed food system. These data demonstrate the utility and importance of nutritional status assessment during spaceflight and of the FFQ during extended-duration spaceflight.
Tang, Hsiu-Chih; Yang, Hui-Lan
We present a 50-year-old male who suffered from ischemic bowel disease, having undergone massive resection of small intestine and ileocecal valve. He had to cope with 40 cm proximal jejunum and 70 cm distal colon remaining. In the postoperative period parenteral nutrition (PN) was used immediately for nutrition support and electrolyte imbalance correction. We gave him home PN as regular recommendation for the short bowel status after discharge from hospital. This patient has tolerated regular oral intake 2 months later and did not develop significant short bowel syndrome. There were several episodes of venous access infection which troubled this patient and admitted him for treatment during home PN. Therefore, we changed home PN to cyclic tapering pattern. The patient could maintain his nutrition and hydration with oral intake alone after tapering home PN 15 months later. He has survived more than one year without PN support and still maintained 80% ideal body weight with average albumin of 3.5 ± 0.2 mg/dL. Although patient was hospitalized every two months to supplement nutrients, however, this has greatly improved the quality of life. PMID:25018889
Kong, S H; Kim, J H; Hong, A R; Lee, J H; Kim, S W; Shin, C S
Dietary potassium may neutralize acid load and reduce calcium loss from the bone, leading to beneficial effect on bone mineral density. In this nationwide Korean population study, dietary potassium intake was associated with improved bone mineral density in older men and postmenopausal women.
Waly, Mostafa I.; Kilani, Hashem A.; Al-Busafi, Majid S.
Objective Adequate dietary intake is crucial for optimum training and performance of athletes. There is almost no available information related to dietary practices among Omani athletes, especially during the competition. This study aimed to assess the nutritional practices (nutritional knowledge, eating habits and daily nutrients intake) among Omani male handball athletes in Muscat city, Oman. Methods This is a cross sectional study including 35 male handball athletes involved in serious training for no less than three years. Data collection was done through personal interviews using a study questionnaire which enlisted questions relating to socio-demographic information, anthropometric measurements and nutritional practices. All the study participants declared no intake of anabolic steroids. Results The mean age of the study participants was 27 ± 3 years. Their anthropometric assessment revealed that their mean height was 166 ± 12 cm, mean weight was 75 ± 10 kg, and body mass index was 27 ± 3. Nutritional knowledge analysis revealed that 80% had no nutritional supervision by a nutritionist/dietitian. Their knowledge of nutritional requirements was only 23% correct for total energy intake, 63% for protein intake, 46% for carbohydrate intake, 11% for fat intake and 83% for water intake. Eating habits indicated that 55% had <3 meals/day, 51% had lunch as the principal meal, 51% always added extra salt to their food, 28% took protein supplements on a daily basis, and 51% used pre-competition glycogen load diet. However, none consumed vitamins or mineral supplements. The mean daily caloric intake was 3674 ± 265 kcal/day, which was roughly comprised of 596 ± 66 g carbohydrates, 147 ± 28 g of protein and 78 ± 20 g of total fat. Conclusion Professional nutritional supervision is needed in order to improve the nutritional knowledge and eating habits of Omani athletes, and therefore improve their athletic performance. PMID:24044066
Purttiponthanee, Sasiumphai; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen; Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Senaprom, Sayamon; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul
The study investigated the association between breakfast types consumed, daily energy intake, and body mass index for age Z-score (BAZ). Cross-sectional data from 1258 children aged 7 to 12.9 years were analyzed for breakfast type, nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight or obesity. Analysis of covariance was used to compare energy and nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight/obese children between breakfast groups. Only 19% of children had adequate energy intake from breakfast. Those consuming snacks had a significantly lower BAZ (Z = -0.73), with 5% of them being overweight/obese. Those consuming beverages and desserts had the lowest total daily energy intake (1314 kcal) and lowest protein intake (8.4 g). The results suggest that breakfast type is associated with daily energy intake and BAZ. Most breakfasts are not adequate. School-based nutrition education programs involving families, teachers, and health professionals can contribute to improve this situation.
Background Several parameters are associated with high bone mineral density (BMD), such as overweight, black background, intense physical activity (PA), greater calcium intake and some medications. The objectives are to evaluate the prevalence and the main aspects associated with high BMD in healthy women. Methods After reviewing the database of approximately 21,500 BMD scans performed in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, from June 2005 to October 2010, high BMD (over 1400 g/cm2 at lumbar spine and/or above 1200 g/cm2 at femoral neck) was found in 421 exams. Exclusion criteria were age below 30 or above 60 years, black ethnicity, pregnant or obese women, disease and/or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. A total of 40 women with high BMD were included and matched with 40 healthy women with normal BMD, paired to weight, age, skin color and menopausal status. Medical history, food intake and PA were assessed through validated questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated through a GE-Lunar DPX MD + bone densitometer. Radiography of the thoracic and lumbar spine was carried out to exclude degenerative alterations or fractures. Biochemical parameters included both lipid and hormonal profiles, along with mineral and bone metabolism. Statistical analysis included parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression models. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results The mean age was 50.9 (8.3) years. There was no significant difference between groups in relation to PA, smoking, intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as laboratory tests, except serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX), which was lower in the high BMD group (p = 0.04). In the final model of multivariate regression, a lower fat intake and body fatness as well a better profile of LDL-cholesterol predicted almost 35% of high BMD in women. (adjusted R2 = 0.347; p < 0.001). In addition, greater amounts of lean mass and higher IGF-1 serum concentrations played a
Correia Horvath, Jaqueline Driemeyer; Dias de Castro, Mariana Laitano; Kops, Natália; Kruger Malinoski, Natasha; Friedman, Rogério
To assess the adequacy of food intake in severely obese patients and describe their main nutritional deficiencies on the basis of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Patients on a waiting list for bariatric surgery were sequentially recruited from March 2010 to November 2011. All subjects underwent nutritional status assessment (anthropometry, dietary recall and semi-structured interview), socioeconomic evaluation (Brazilian Association of Research Companies criteria) and laboratory testing (glucose/hormone/lipid panel). A total of 77 patients were assessed, 50 of whom (76.6%) were female. Mean age was 44.48 ± 12.55 years. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (72.4%), binge eating disorder (47.4%), type 2 diabetes mellitus (32.9%), sleep apnea (30.3%) and dyslipidemia (18.4%). Macronutrient intake was largely adequate, in view of the high calorie intake. However, some micronutrient deficiencies were present. Only 19.5% of patients had an adequate intake of potassium, 26.0% of calcium, and 66.2% of iron. All subjects consumed more than the minimum recommended intake of sodium, with 98.7% reaching the upper limit. Bcomplex vitamin intake was satisfactory (adequate in >80% of subjects), but lipid-soluble vitamin (A, D, E) intake often fell short of the RDI. The diet of severely obese patients is unbalanced, with high calorie intake paralleled by insufficient micronutrient intake. When these patients are assessed and managed, qualitative dietary changes should be considered in addition to routine caloric restriction.
O'Neil, Carol E; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A
Recent epidemiologic studies assessing tree nut (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) consumption and the association with nutrient intake and diet quality are lacking. This study determined the association of tree nut consumption and nutrient intake and diet quality using a nationally representative sample of adults. Adults 19+ years (y) (n=13,292) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Intake was determined from 24-hour diet recalls; tree nut consumers were defined as those consuming > or =(1/4) ounce/day (7.09 g). Means, standard errors, and ANOVA (adjusted for covariates) were determined using appropriate sample weights. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Among consumers, mean intake of tree nuts/tree nut butters was 1.19 +/- 0.04 oz/d versus 0.01 +/- 0.00 oz/d for non-consumers. In this study, 5.5 +/- 0.3 % of individuals 19-50 y (n=7,049) and 8.4 +/- 0.6 % of individuals 51+ y (n=6,243) consumed tree nuts/tree nut butters. Mean differences (p<0.01) between tree nut consumers and non-consumers of adult shortfall nutrients were: fiber (+5.0 g/d), vitamin E (+3.7 mg AT/d), calcium (+73 mg/d), magnesium (+95 mg/d), and potassium (+260 mg/d). Tree nut consumers had lower sodium intake (-157 mg/d, p<0.01). Diet quality was significantly higher in tree nut consumers (58.0+/-0.4 vs. 48.5+/-0.3, p<0.01). Tree nut consumption was associated with a higher overall diet quality score and improved nutrient intakes. Specific dietary recommendations for nut consumption should be provided for consumers.
Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Nakade, Makiko; Imai, Eri; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Nozue, Miho; Umegaki, Keizo; Yoshizawa, Takeshi; Okuda, Nagako; Nishi, Nobuo; Takimoto, Hidemi
This study was performed to: (1) assess the prevalence of dietary supplement and fortified food use, (2) examine the differences in vitamin E intake with and without dietary supplementation and/or fortified food use, and (3) determine whether some individuals consume vitamin E above the tolerable upper intake level (UL). Data were obtained from 64,624 individuals (age, ≥1 y; 47.4% males) who completed a 1-d household dietary assessment that was part of the National Health and Nutrition Survey conducted in Japan, 2003-2009. The survey also obtained information on the brand or generic name of each dietary supplement or fortified food reported, including their ingredients, through dietary assessment. The prevalence of a potential risk of excess was estimated by the proportion of persons above the age-/sex-specific ULs provided by the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese 2010. Supplement use was reported by 5.8% of men and 7.7% of women, whereas fortified food consumption was reported by only 2.9% of men and 3.6% of women. Use of dietary supplements was most common among older women, whereas use of fortified foods was most common among younger women. Both dietary supplement and fortified food use accounted for maximum vitamin E intake; however, the use of dietary supplements and fortified foods had little effect on the median and 95th percentile intake values. None of the subjects consumed nutrients above the UL. The collected data confirm that the use of both dietary supplements and fortified foods contributes a small amount to nutrient intake in Japanese subjects.
Zamora-Ros, R; Sacerdote, C; Ricceri, F; Weiderpass, E; Roswall, N; Buckland, G; St-Jules, D E; Overvad, K; Kyrø, C; Fagherazzi, G; Kvaskoff, M; Severi, G; Chang-Claude, J; Kaaks, R; Nöthlings, U; Trichopoulou, A; Naska, A; Trichopoulos, D; Palli, D; Grioni, S; Mattiello, A; Tumino, R; Gram, I T; Engeset, D; Huerta, J M; Molina-Montes, E; Argüelles, M; Amiano, P; Ardanaz, E; Ericson, U; Lindkvist, B; Nilsson, L M; Kiemeney, L A; Ros, M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H M; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N J; Knaze, V; Romieu, I; Scalbert, A; Brennan, P; Wark, P; Vineis, P; Riboli, E; González, C A
Background: There is growing evidence of the protective role of dietary intake of flavonoids and lignans on cancer, but the association with bladder cancer has not been thoroughly investigated in epidemiological studies. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total and subclasses of flavonoids and lignans and risk of bladder cancer and its main morphological type, urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC), within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: A cohort of 477 312 men and women mostly aged 35–70 years, were recruited in 10 European countries. At baseline, dietary flavonoid and lignan intakes were estimated using centre-specific validated questionnaires and a food composition database based on the Phenol-Explorer, the UK Food Standards Agency and the US Department of Agriculture databases. Results: During an average of 11 years of follow-up, 1575 new cases of primary bladder cancer were identified, of which 1425 were UCC (classified into aggressive (n=430) and non-aggressive (n=413) UCC). No association was found between total flavonoid intake and bladder cancer risk. Among flavonoid subclasses, significant inverse associations with bladder cancer risk were found for intakes of flavonol (hazard ratio comparing fifth with first quintile (HRQ5–Q1) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61–0.91; P-trend=0.009) and lignans (HRQ5–Q1 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62–0.96; P-trend=0.046). Similar results were observed for overall UCC and aggressive UCC, but not for non-aggressive UCC. Conclusions: Our study suggests an inverse association between the dietary intakes of flavonols and lignans and risk of bladder cancer, particularly aggressive UCC. PMID:25121955
Intake estimation of total and individual flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and theaflavins, their food sources and determinants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.
Knaze, Viktoria; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin; Slimani, Nadia; Riboli, Elio; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Dilis, Vardis; Tsiotas, Konstantinos; Skeie, Guri; Engeset, Dagrun; Quirós, J Ramón; Molina, Esther; Huerta, José María; Crowe, Francesca; Wirfäl, Elisabet; Ericson, Ulrika; Peeters, Petra H M; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Johansson, Gerd; Johansson, Ingegerd; Tumino, Rosario; Boeing, Heiner; Drogan, Dagmar; Amiano, Pilar; Mattiello, Amalia; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Luben, Robert; Krogh, Vittorio; Ardanáz, Eva; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Salvini, Simonetta; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Perquier, Florence; González, Carlos A
Epidemiological studies suggest health-protective effects of flavan-3-ols and their derived compounds on chronic diseases. The present study aimed to estimate dietary flavan-3-ol, proanthocyanidin (PA) and theaflavin intakes, their food sources and potential determinants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration cohort. Dietary data were collected using a standardised 24 h dietary recall software administered to 36 037 subjects aged 35-74 years. Dietary data were linked with a flavanoid food composition database compiled from the latest US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and expanded to include recipes, estimations and retention factors. Total flavan-3-ol intake was the highest in UK Health-conscious men (453·6 mg/d) and women of UK General population (377·6 mg/d), while the intake was the lowest in Greece (men: 160·5 mg/d; women: 124·8 mg/d). Monomer intake was the highest in UK General population (men: 213·5 mg/d; women: 178·6 mg/d) and the lowest in Greece (men: 26·6 mg/d in men; women: 20·7 mg/d). Theaflavin intake was the highest in UK General population (men: 29·3 mg/d; women: 25·3 mg/d) and close to zero in Greece and Spain. PA intake was the highest in Asturias (men: 455·2 mg/d) and San Sebastian (women: 253 mg/d), while being the lowest in Greece (men: 134·6 mg/d; women: 101·0 mg/d). Except for the UK, non-citrus fruits (apples/pears) were the highest contributors to the total flavan-3-ol intake. Tea was the main contributor of total flavan-3-ols in the UK. Flavan-3-ol, PA and theaflavin intakes were significantly different among all assessed groups. This study showed heterogeneity in flavan-3-ol, PA and theaflavin intake throughout the EPIC countries.
Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun
Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286-4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the abovementioned variables
Emanuele, Erin; Meliker, Jaymie
We examined the association between seafood consumption, mercury concentration, polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, and Vitamin D in relation to C-reactive protein using the cross-sectional US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. We hypothesized that seafood consumption and fatty acids will be negatively associated, and mercury will be positively associated with C-reactive protein, and that statistical adjustment for these factors will alleviate confounding thereby making these associations more apparent. The study sample included 1217 participants (706 males, 511 females) aged 16-49. Sex-stratified sample weighted multiple linear regression models revealed no associations of mercury, polyunsaturated fatty acids, fish intake, selenium, or vitamin D with serum C-reactive protein. However, when all variables were included together in one model, fish intake was associated with lower levels of CRP in females suggesting confounding in models that do not mutually adjust for seafood contaminants and nutrients. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Porter, Judi; Huggins, Catherine E; Truby, Helen; Collins, Jorja
(1) Background: Mobile technologies may be utilised for dietary intake assessment for people with diabetes. The published literature was systematically reviewed to determine the effect of using mobile electronic devices to record food or nutrient intake on diabetes control and nutrition outcomes; (2) Methods: The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO: registration number CRD42016050079, and followed PRISMA guidelines. Original research of mobile electronic devices where food or nutrient intake was recorded in people with diabetes with any treatment regimen, and where this intervention was compared with usual care or alternative treatment models, was considered. Quality was assessed using the Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research; (3) Results: Nine papers formed the final library with a range of interventions and control practices investigated. The food/nutrient intake recording component of the intervention and patient engagement with the technology was not well described. When assessed for quality, three studies rated positive, five were neutral and one negative. There was significantly greater improvement in HbA1c in the intervention group compared to the control group in four of the nine studies; (4) Conclusion: Based on the available evidence there are no clear recommendations for using technology to record dietary data in this population.
Porter, Judi; Huggins, Catherine E.; Truby, Helen; Collins, Jorja
(1) Background: Mobile technologies may be utilised for dietary intake assessment for people with diabetes. The published literature was systematically reviewed to determine the effect of using mobile electronic devices to record food or nutrient intake on diabetes control and nutrition outcomes; (2) Methods: The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO: registration number CRD42016050079, and followed PRISMA guidelines. Original research of mobile electronic devices where food or nutrient intake was recorded in people with diabetes with any treatment regimen, and where this intervention was compared with usual care or alternative treatment models, was considered. Quality was assessed using the Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research; (3) Results: Nine papers formed the final library with a range of interventions and control practices investigated. The food/nutrient intake recording component of the intervention and patient engagement with the technology was not well described. When assessed for quality, three studies rated positive, five were neutral and one negative. There was significantly greater improvement in HbA1c in the intervention group compared to the control group in four of the nine studies; (4) Conclusion: Based on the available evidence there are no clear recommendations for using technology to record dietary data in this population. PMID:27999302
Arija, Victoria; Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Martínez de Vitoria, Emilio; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Luis; Ribas, Lourdes; Aranceta, Javier
In nutritional epidemiology it is essential to have reference values for nutrition and anthropometry in order to compare individual and population data. With respect to reference nutritional intake, the new concept of Dietary Reference Intakes is generated based more on the prevention of chronic diseases than on covering nutritional deficiencies, as would occur in the early Recommendations. As such, the more relevant international organizations incorporated new concepts in their tables, such as the Adequate Intake levels or the Tolerable Upper Intake levels. Currently, the EURRECA recommendations (EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned) are generating reference values for Europe in a transparent, systematic and scientific manner. Using the DRI, health-care authorities formulated nutritional objectives for countries or territories and Dietary Guides to disseminate the dietary advice to the population. Anthropometric assessment continues to be one of the most-used methods for evaluating and monitoring health status, nutritional state and growth in children, not only individuals but also communities. Different organizations have established anthropometric reference patterns of body mass index (BMI) with cut-off points to define overweight and obesity. In children, growth curves have been revised and adapted to the characteristics of healthy children in order to obtain anthropometric reference standards that better reflect optimum growth in children. The Growth Standards for children below 5 years of age of the WHO are a response to these principles, and are widely accepted and used worldwide.
Wright, Lauri; Vance, Lauren; Sudduth, Christina; Epps, James B
Maintaining independence and continuing to live at home is one solution to manage the rising health care costs of aging populations in the United States; furthermore, seniors are at risk of malnutrition and food insecurity. Home-delivered meal programs are a tool to address food, nutrition, and well-being concerns of this population. Few studies have identified outcomes from these programs; this pilot study reviews the nutritional status, dietary intake, well-being, loneliness, and food security levels of seniors participating in a Meals on Wheels delivery service. Clients, new to the meal program, participated in pre- and postphone interviews, and 51 seniors completed the study. The survey was composed of five scales or questionnaires, and statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS. Improvements across all five measures were statistically significant after participating two months in the home-delivered meal program. Implications for further research, practice, and the Older Americans Act are discussed.
The 2010 Dietary Guidelines recommend Americans reduce sodium intake and choose foods that contain potassium to decrease the risk of hypertension and subsequent heart disease and stroke. We estimated the distributions of usual daily sodium and potassium intakes by sociodemographic and health charact...
Christian, Aaron K; Marquis, Grace S; Colecraft, Esi K; Lartey, Anna; Sakyi-Dawson, Owuraku; Ahunu, Ben K; Butler, Lorna M
Caregivers' nutrition knowledge and attitudes may influence the variety of foods available in the household and the quality of children's diets. To test the link, this study collected data on caregivers' (n 608) nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes as well as the diets of their household and of their 2-5-year-old children in twelve rural communities nested in the three main agro-ecological zones of Ghana. Household foods and children's animal source foods (ASF) consumed in the past 7 d were categorised into one of fourteen and ten groups, respectively. About 28 % of caregivers believed that their children needed to be fed only 2-3 times/d. Reasons for having adult supervision during child meal times, feeding diverse foods, prioritising a child to receive ASF and the perceived child benefits of ASF differed across zones (P<0·001). Households with caregivers belonging to the highest tertile of nutrition knowledge and attitude scores consumed more diverse diets compared with those of caregivers in the lowest tertile group (11·2 (sd 2·2) v. 10·0 (sd 2·4); P<0·001). After controlling for the effect of agro-ecological zone, caregivers' nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes positively predicted household dietary diversity and the frequency and diversity of children's ASF intakes (P<0·001). The number of years of formal education of caregivers also positively predicted household dietary diversity and children's ASF diversity (P<0·001). A key component to improving child nutrition is to understand the context-specific nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes in order to identify relevant interventions.
Eckert, E; Brown, H E; Leslie, K E; DeVries, T J; Steele, M A
Recent research has revealed potential advantages of feeding an elevated plane of nutrition to calves during the preweaning period. However, calves fed more nutrients preweaning may be more susceptible to depressed growth and weaning stress during the transition from liquid to solid feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the age of weaning and feed intake, and its influence on growth, gastrointestinal development, and behavioral indicators in dairy calves fed an elevated plane of nutrition during the preweaning period. To meet this objective, 20 female Holstein calves were randomly assigned at birth to be weaned at 6 or 8 wk. Milk replacer (mixed at 150 g/L) was offered at 1.2 kg/calf per day in 2 meals until a 1-wk step-down, when meals were reduced by 50% 1 wk before weaning. Daily starter, chopped oat straw, water intake, and weekly body weights were measured until d 70 of life. To assess digestive tract development, rumen fluid, fecal, and blood samples were taken before and after weaning (d 35, 49, and 63) and analyzed for ruminal short-chain fatty acids, blood β-hydroxybutyrate, and fecal starch, respectively. Behavioral indicators of weaning stress, including vocalizing and non-nutritive oral behavior, were measured by visual observation for 1 h, 3 times per week, before the second feeding of the day during the period from 2 wk before weaning to 2 wk after weaning. The calves weaned at 8 wk compared with 6 wk had higher average daily gain for the week preweaning (0.79±0.09 vs. 0.34±0.10 kg/d) and postweaning (1.05±0.09 vs. 0.35±0.11 kg/d), and were heavier at d 70 (99.9±1.81 vs. 91.0±2.26 kg). From 5 to 8 wk of age, starter and water intakes were lower in calves weaned at 8 wk of age. However, overall starter intake did not differ during the last week of the experiment. Furthermore, calves weaned at 8 wk compared with 6 wk had higher starter intake for 1 wk preweaning (1.36±0.13 vs. 0.40±0.08 kg/d) and
Meyer, Barbara J
Health benefits have been attributed to omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). Therefore it is important to know if Australians are currently meeting the recommended intake for n-3 LCPUFA and if they have increased since the last National Nutrition Survey in 1995 (NNS 1995). Dietary intake data was obtained from the recent 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2011-2012 NNPAS). Linoleic acid (LA) intakes have decreased whilst alpha-linolenic acid (LNA) and n-3 LCPUFA intakes have increased primarily due to n-3 LCPUFA supplements. The median n-3 LCPUFA intakes are less than 50% of the mean n-3 LCPUFA intakes which highlights the highly-skewed n-3 LCPUFA intakes, which shows that there are some people consuming high amounts of n-3 LCPUFA, but the vast majority of the population are consuming much lower amounts. Only 20% of the population meets the recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes and only 10% of women of childbearing age meet the recommended docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake. Fish and seafood is by far the richest source of n-3 LCPUFA including DHA.
Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Fallah, Shafagh; O'Shea, Marianne; Chu, YiFang
The objective of the present study was to characterize the consumption of cooked oatmeal in the United States (U.S.) and to determine whether oatmeal consumption is associated with body mass index (BMI). To estimate current intakes of cooked oatmeal in the various age and gender population groups, we used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2009-2010 and 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). We also used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2003-2012 NHANES to assess associations between intakes of cooked oatmeal (in g/kg body weight) and NHANES cycle (2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012), age category (3-11 years, 12-18 years, 19-44 years, 45 years+), gender, and BMI classification (underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese), using a multiple linear regression model. A consumer of oatmeal was defined as any individual who reported the consumption of any amount of oatmeal on Day 1 of the survey. Approximately 6% of the total population consumed oatmeal, with an average intake of 238 g/day of cooked oatmeal among consumers. The greatest prevalence of oatmeal consumption was in infants (14.3%) and older female adults (11.1%). Amongst oatmeal consumers, underweight, normal weight, and overweight individuals consumed significantly more oatmeal than obese individuals. Oatmeal was consumed almost exclusively at breakfast and, among consumers, contributed an average of 54.3% of the energy consumed at breakfast across all age groups examined. The association between oatmeal consumption and BMI is interesting and requires confirmation in future clinical studies.
Crowe, Francesca L.; Roddam, Andrew W.; Key, Timothy J.; Appleby, Paul N.; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Misirli, Gesthimani; Lagiou, Pagona; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Boer, Jolanda; van Gils, Carla H.; Beulens, Joline W.J.; Barricarte, Aurelio; Rodríguez, Laudina; Larrañaga, Nerea; Sánchez, Maria-José; Tormo, María-José; Buckland, Genevieve; Lund, Eiliv; Hedblad, Bo; Melander, Olle; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Wennberg, Patrik; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Jenab, Mazda; Danesh, John; Gallo, Valentina; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio
Aims A higher intake of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a lower risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), but there is some uncertainty about the interpretation of this association. The objective was to assess the relation between fruit and vegetable intake and risk of mortality from IHD in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heart study. Methods and results After an average of 8.4 years of follow-up, there were 1636 deaths from IHD among 313 074 men and women without previous myocardial infarction or stroke from eight European countries. Participants consuming at least eight portions (80 g each) of fruits and vegetables a day had a 22% lower risk of fatal IHD [relative risk (RR) = 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65–0.95] compared with those consuming fewer than three portions a day. After calibration of fruit and vegetable intake to account for differences in dietary assessment between the participating centres, a one portion (80 g) increment in fruit and vegetable intake was associated with a 4% lower risk of fatal IHD (RR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.92–1.00, P for trend = 0.033). Conclusion Results from this large observational study suggest that a higher intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of IHD mortality. Whether this association is causal and, if so, the biological mechanism(s) by which fruits and vegetables operate to lower IHD risks remains unclear. PMID:21245490
Liese, Angela D.; Crandell, Jamie L.; Tooze, Janet A.; Kipnis, Victor; Bell, Ronny; Couch, Sarah C.; Dabelea, Dana; Crume, Tessa L.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.
Objective The SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study aims to investigate the role of dietary intake on the development of long-term complications of type 1diabetes in youth and capitalize on measurement error (ME) adjustment methodology. Research Design and Methods Using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) method for episodically-consumed foods, we evaluated the relationship of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and cardiovascular risk factor profile, applying ME adjustment. The calibration sample included 166 youth with two FFQs and three 24-hour dietary recalls within one month. The full sample included 2,286 youth with type 1 diabetes. Results SSB intake was significantly associated with higher triglycerides, total and LDL-cholesterol, adjusted for energy, age, diabetes duration, race/ethnicity, gender, education. The estimated effect size was larger (model coefficients increased approximately threefold) after application of the NCI method than without ME adjustment. Compared to individuals consuming one serving of SSB every two weeks, those who consumed one serving every two days had 3.7 mg/dL higher triglycerides, 4.0 mg/dL higher total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, adjusted for ME and covariates. SSB intake was not associated with measures of adiposity and blood pressure. Conclusions Our findings suggest that SSB intake is significantly related to increased lipid levels in youth with type 1diabetes and that estimates of the effect size of SSB on lipid levels are severely attenuated in the presence of measurement error. Future studies in youth with diabetes should consider a design that will allow for the adjustment for measurement error when studying the influence of diet on health status. PMID:26177613
Travis, Ruth C; Appleby, Paul N; Siddiq, Afshan; Allen, Naomi E; Kaaks, Rudolf; Canzian, Federico; Feller, Silke; Tjønneland, Anne; Føns Johnsen, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Ramón Quirós, J; González, Carlos A; Sánchez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Oustoglou, Erifili; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B as; Stattin, Pär; Ferrari, Pietro; Johansson, Mattias; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy J
High dairy protein intake has been found to be associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). To further examine this possible relationship, we investigated the hypothesis that a genetic polymorphism in the lactase (LCT) gene might be associated with elevated dairy product intake and increased prostate cancer risk in a case-control study nested in EPIC. The C/T-13910 lactase variant (rs4988235) was genotyped in 630 men with prostate cancer and 873 matched control participants. Dairy product consumption was assessed by diet questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) for prostate cancer in relation to lactase genotype were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Lactase genotype frequency varied significantly between countries, with frequencies of the T (lactase persistence) allele ranging from 7% in Greece to 79% in Denmark. Intake of milk and total dairy products varied significantly by lactase genotype after adjustment for recruitment center; adjusted mean intakes of milk were 44.4, 69.8 and 82.3 g/day among men with CC, CT and TT genotypes, respectively. The lactase variant was not significantly associated with prostate cancer risk, both in our data (adjusted OR for TT vs. CC homozygotes: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.76-1.59) and in a meta-analysis of all the published data (combined OR for T allele carriers vs. CC homozygotes: 1.12, 0.96-1.32). These findings show that while variation in the lactase gene is associated with milk intake in men, the lactase polymorphism does not have a large effect on prostate cancer risk.
Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Fallah, Shafagh; O’Shea, Marianne; Chu, YiFang
The objective of the present study was to characterize the consumption of cooked oatmeal in the United States (U.S.) and to determine whether oatmeal consumption is associated with body mass index (BMI). To estimate current intakes of cooked oatmeal in the various age and gender population groups, we used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2009–2010 and 2011–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). We also used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2003–2012 NHANES to assess associations between intakes of cooked oatmeal (in g/kg body weight) and NHANES cycle (2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008, 2009–2010, 2011–2012), age category (3–11 years, 12–18 years, 19–44 years, 45 years+), gender, and BMI classification (underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese), using a multiple linear regression model. A consumer of oatmeal was defined as any individual who reported the consumption of any amount of oatmeal on Day 1 of the survey. Approximately 6% of the total population consumed oatmeal, with an average intake of 238 g/day of cooked oatmeal among consumers. The greatest prevalence of oatmeal consumption was in infants (14.3%) and older female adults (11.1%). Amongst oatmeal consumers, underweight, normal weight, and overweight individuals consumed significantly more oatmeal than obese individuals. Oatmeal was consumed almost exclusively at breakfast and, among consumers, contributed an average of 54.3% of the energy consumed at breakfast across all age groups examined. The association between oatmeal consumption and BMI is interesting and requires confirmation in future clinical studies. PMID:27548210
Poddar, Kavita H; Hosig, Kathy W; Anderson, Eileen S; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Duncan, Susan E
Dairy consumption declines substantially during young adulthood. Interventions that incorporate theory-based nutrition education can provide insight into factors associated with dietary choices. The aim of this experimental study was to improve outcome expectations, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and behavior related to dairy intake in college students using social cognitive theory. Students (n=294) enrolled in a personal health class were randomized to intervention (n=148) or comparison group (n=146). The 5-week intervention (March 2006 to April 2006) was conducted using an online course system; components included e-mail messages, posted information, and behavior checklists with tailored feedback. Multivariate analysis of covariance with age and sex as covariates (P<0.05) was conducted to measure change related to dairy intake and social cognitive theory variables. Ninety-two percent of participants (n=135 intervention, n=136 control) completed the study. Dairy intake from food records did not differ between groups at baseline; baseline intake for all participants (mean ± standard error) was 0.45 ± 0.05 servings/day for low-fat dairy products and 1.44 ± 0.06 servings/day for total dairy products. Participants in the intervention group made greater increases in use of self-regulatory strategies (P=0.038) and self-efficacy for consuming three servings/day of dairy products (P=0.049), but not in outcome expectations or consumption of dairy products. A Web-based intervention designed to change dairy intake in college students was effective in modifying some social cognitive theory constructs; strategies that positively impact outcome expectations and social support through online interventions require further development.
Liese, Angela D; Crandell, Jamie L; Tooze, Janet A; Kipnis, Victor; Bell, Ronny; Couch, Sarah C; Dabelea, Dana; Crume, Tessa L; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J
The SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study aims to investigate the role of dietary intake on the development of long-term complications of type 1 diabetes in youth, and capitalise on measurement error (ME) adjustment methodology. Using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) method for episodically consumed foods, we evaluated the relationship between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and cardiovascular risk factor profile, with the application of ME adjustment methodology. The calibration sample included 166 youth with two FFQ and three 24 h dietary recall data within 1 month. The full sample included 2286 youth with type 1 diabetes. SSB intake was significantly associated with higher TAG, total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, after adjusting for energy, age, diabetes duration, race/ethnicity, sex and education. The estimated effect size was larger (model coefficients increased approximately 3-fold) after the application of the NCI method than without adjustment for ME. Compared with individuals consuming one serving of SSB every 2 weeks, those who consumed one serving of SSB every 2 d had 3.7 mg/dl (0.04 mmol/l) higher TAG concentrations and 4.0 mg/dl (0.10 mmol/l) higher total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, after adjusting for ME and covariates. SSB intake was not associated with measures of adiposity and blood pressure. Our findings suggest that SSB intake is significantly related to increased lipid levels in youth with type 1 diabetes, and that estimates of the effect size of SSB on lipid levels are severely attenuated in the presence of ME. Future studies in youth with diabetes should consider a design that will allow for the adjustment for ME when studying the influence of diet on health status.
Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O
Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings
Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.
Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings
An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…
Irvine, Stephanie L; Hummelen, Ruben; Hekmat, Sharareh
The gut-associated lymphoid tissue is a major site of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity and significantly influences disease prognosis. Reducing immune activation due to gastroenteritis may thus help slow disease progression. Probiotic microorganisms have considerable immunomodulatory effects at the level of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. A probiotic yogurt initiative was thus established in Mwanza, Tanzania, to improve gastrointestinal (GI) integrity and reduce the incidence and severity of opportunistic infections among people with HIV. The research objective was to retrospectively evaluate the effects of yogurt supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus as an adjunct to the diet of people living with HIV on systemic and GI symptoms, daily routine activities, and nutritional intake. Eighty-five people with HIV consuming probiotic yogurt and 86 controls were interviewed. Demographics and HIV disease stage were comparable between groups. Probiotic yogurt consumers reported an ability to work a median of 2 hours more daily (P = .01), experienced a lower fever incidence (P = .01), and were more likely to achieve daily nutrient requirements for vitamin A, several B complex vitamins, and calcium (P = .02). Antiretroviral users experienced less drug-induced stomach pain (P = .02) and a lower overall impact of GI symptoms on routine activities (P = .03). The results of this study need be further substantiated because of limits imposed by the observational, retrospective study design; however, results suggest that yogurt supplemented with L rhamnosus may effectively alleviate GI symptoms and improve productivity, nutritional intake, and tolerance to antiretroviral treatment among people with HIV in Mwanza.
Malara, M; Hübner-Wozniak, E; Lewandowska, I
The purpose of the present study was to examine the nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6 in respect to dietary intake of these vitamins and activity coefficients of the erythrocyte enzymes transketolase, glutathione reductase, and aspartic aminotransferase in young men and women with different physical activity levels. The participants of this study were 20 women and 20 men with high physical activity (groups HAW and HAM, respectively), and 20 women and 20 men with low physical activity (groups LAW and LAM, respectively). The intake of vitamins B1, B2, B6, proteins, and calorie content of the diet was based on the average of the 4-day dietary recalls. To assess nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6, the activity coefficients (α) of erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), erythrocyte glutathione reductase (EGR), and erythrocyte aspartic aminotransferase (EAST) were estimated in blood hemolysates. The intake of the studied vitamins in the diet was statistically significantly lower in the female groups compared with the respective male groups. Deficiency of vitamin B6 in the diet was present more often in women than in men (in terms of the recommended dietary allowances [RDA]). Values of the activity coefficient αETK indicated that none of the groups in this study suffered the risk of vitamin B1 deficiency. The value of the activity coefficient αEGR indicated that the groups of women and men with low physical activity were more prone to vitamin B2 deficiency compared with the high physical activity groups. The risk of vitamin B6 deficiency (αEAST) in both male groups was higher than in both female groups. The obtained results do not allow for unequivocal determination of the impact of sex and the level of physical activity on intake and nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6. Independently of sex and the level of physical activity, the women and men consumed insufficient quantities of vitamins B1 and B6, although this was not always related to
Marcinow, Michelle L; Randall Simpson, Janis A; Whiting, Susan J; Jung, Mary E; Buchholz, Andrea C
Many young Canadian adults are not meeting dietary calcium recommendations. This is concerning as adequate calcium is important throughout young adulthood to maximize peak bone mass for osteoporosis prevention. There are limited studies that have explored young adults' perceptions toward calcium and health. Our objectives were to determine young adults' (18-34 years) knowledge of calcium in relation to health, facilitators and barriers to adequate calcium intake, and to explore both their suggestions for individual strategies to increase calcium intake and ways to communicate calcium-related messaging to this population. Eight gender-specific focus groups (18 men; 35 women) were conducted using a semistructured interview guide, guided by social cognitive theory. Deductive thematic analysis was used to generate themes. Participants perceived adequate calcium intake to be important for children and older adults but were uncertain of the benefits for their own age group. Perceived positive outcomes (e.g., aesthetics such as strong nails) associated with adequate calcium intake were cited as a motivator to increase intake. Perceived barriers to achieving increased calcium intake included the high cost and inconvenience of milk products and negative practices of dairy farmers. Participants suggested planning healthy well-balanced meals and forming a habit of consuming calcium-rich foods as individual strategies to increase calcium intake. Strategies to convey calcium-related information to young adults included increasing awareness of the importance of calcium via credible sources of information and developing nutrition education curricula. Social media and advertising were perceived as ineffective. Our findings provide key information for nutrition education initiatives.
Early, aggressive nutrition is an important contributing factor of long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. To ensure optimal growth in premature infants, adequate protein intake and optimal protein/energy ratio should be emphasized rather than the overall energy intake. Minimal enteral nutrition should be initiated as soon as possible in the first days of life, and feeding advancement should be individualized according to the clinical course of the infant. During hospitalization, enteral nutrition with preterm formula and fortified human milk represent the best feeding practices for facilitating growth. After discharge, the enteral nutrition strategy should be individualized according to the infant's weight at discharge. Infants with suboptimal weight for their postconceptional age at discharge should receive supplementation with human milk fortifiers or nutrient-enriched feeding, and the enteral nutrition strategy should be reviewed and modified continuously to achieve the target growth parameters. PMID:28194211
Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun
Background Although alcohol consumption is commonly encountered in clinical practice, few studies have investigated the clinical significance of alcohol intake on the use of the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level. Objectives This study was performed to investigate the association between alcohol intake and HbA1c level in the general population. Methods Among the 24,594 participants who participated in the 2011–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 12,923 participants were analyzed in this study. We excluded diabetic patients currently taking antidiabetes medication. We compared the HbA1c level and proportions of patients with an HbA1c level of ≥5.7%, ≥6.1%, and ≥6.5% according to the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentration range and the amount of alcohol intake. The average amounts of daily alcohol intake were categorized into three groups: 0 g/day, <30 g/day, ≥30 g/day. Results The mean HbA1c level was 5.65%, and the mean FPG concentration was 95.3 mg/dl. The percentages of patients with an HbA1c level of ≥5.7%, ≥6.1%, and ≥6.5% were 42.6%, 13.4%, and 4.5%, respectively. The average amount of alcohol intake was 12.3 g/day. The percentages of subjects with alcohol intake 0, <30, and ≥ 30 g/day were 16.5%, 69.7%, and 13.8%, respectively. There was a significant positive relationship between alcohol intake and FPG concentration (P < 0.001), the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (P < 0.001), and the prevalence of diabetes (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant relationship between the alcohol intake and HbA1c level. Overall, the adjusted HbA1c levels decreased across alcohol intake (5.70% ± 0.01%, 5.66% ± 0.01%, and 5.55% ± 0.01%) after adjustment for confounding factors such as age, sex, FPG concentration, college graduation, smoking history, presence of hypertension, waist circumference, serum total cholesterol concentration, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, serum triglyceride
Omidvar, Nasrin; Neyestani, Tirang-Reza; Hajifaraji, Majid; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Armin, Saloumeh; Haidari, Homa; Zowghi, Telma
Background: Adequate calcium intake may have a crucial role with regards to prevention of many chronic diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, different types of cancer, obesity and osteoporosis. In children, sufficient calcium intake is especially important to support the accelerated growth spurt during the preteen and teenage years and to increase bone mineral mass to lay the foundation for older age. Objectives: This study aimed to assess daily calcium intake in school-age children to ensure whether they fulfill the FGP dairy serving recommendations, the recommended levels of daily calcium intake and to assess the relationship between dietary calcium intake and major bone health indicators. Patients and Methods: A total of 501 Iranian school-age children were randomly selected. Calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone health indicators were also assessed. Results: Dairy products contributed to 69.3% of the total calcium intake of the children. Daily adequate intake of calcium was achieved by 17.8% of children. Only 29.8% met the Food guide pyramid recommendations for dairy intake. Dietary calcium intake was not significantly correlated with serum calcium and other selected biochemical indicators of bone health. Conclusions: The need for planning appropriate nutrition strategies for overcoming inadequate calcium intake in school age children in the city of Tehran is inevitable. PMID:26199684
Bhurosy, Trishnee; Jeewon, Rajesh
Background. Low calcium intake, a risk factor of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures, has been previously reported among post-menopausal women in Mauritius. Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a theory-based educational intervention in improving the calcium intake, self-efficacy, and knowledge of older Mauritians. Methodology. The study was conducted as a pre- and post-test design which was evaluated through a baseline, immediate postintervention, and 2-month follow-up assessments. Participants were adults (n = 189) aged ≥40 years old from 2 urban community-based centres. The intervention group (IG) (n = 98) participated in 6 weekly interactive lessons based on the health belief model (HBM). The main outcome measures were calcium intake, HB scale scores, knowledge scores, and physical activity level (PAL). Anthropometric measurements were also assessed. Results. The IG significantly increased its baseline calcium intake, knowledge and self-efficacy (P < 0.001) at post-assessments. A significant decrease in waist circumference in the IG was noted (P < 0.05) after intervention. PAL significantly increased by 12.3% at post-test and by 29.6% at follow-up among intervention adults when compared to the CG (P < 0.001). Conclusion. A theory-driven educational intervention is effective in improving the dietary calcium intake, knowledge, self-efficacy, and PAL of older community-based Mauritian adults.
Background. Low calcium intake, a risk factor of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures, has been previously reported among post-menopausal women in Mauritius. Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a theory-based educational intervention in improving the calcium intake, self-efficacy, and knowledge of older Mauritians. Methodology. The study was conducted as a pre- and post-test design which was evaluated through a baseline, immediate postintervention, and 2-month follow-up assessments. Participants were adults (n = 189) aged ≥40 years old from 2 urban community-based centres. The intervention group (IG) (n = 98) participated in 6 weekly interactive lessons based on the health belief model (HBM). The main outcome measures were calcium intake, HB scale scores, knowledge scores, and physical activity level (PAL). Anthropometric measurements were also assessed. Results. The IG significantly increased its baseline calcium intake, knowledge and self-efficacy (P < 0.001) at post-assessments. A significant decrease in waist circumference in the IG was noted (P < 0.05) after intervention. PAL significantly increased by 12.3% at post-test and by 29.6% at follow-up among intervention adults when compared to the CG (P < 0.001). Conclusion. A theory-driven educational intervention is effective in improving the dietary calcium intake, knowledge, self-efficacy, and PAL of older community-based Mauritian adults. PMID:24453901
Lane, Helen W.; Rice, Barbara; Smith, Scott M.
Prior to the Shuttle program, all understanding of nutritional needs in space came from Skylab metabolic research. Because Shuttle flights were short, most less than 14 days, research focused on major nutritional issues: energy (calories), protein and amino acids, water and electrotypes, with some more general physiology studies that related to iron and calcium. Using stable isotope tracer studies and diet intake records, we found that astronauts typically did not consume adequate calories to meet energy expenditure. To monitor energy and nutrient intake status and provide feedback to the flight surgeon and the astronauts, the International Space Station (ISS) program implemented a weekly food frequency questionnaire and routine body mass measurements. Other Shuttle investigations found that protein turnover was higher during flight, suggesting there was increased protein degradation and probably concurrent increase in protein synthesis, and this occurred even in cases of adequate protein and caloric intake. These results may partially explain some of the loss of leg muscle mass. Fluid and electrolyte flight studies demonstrated that water intake, like energy intake, was lower than required. However, sodium intakes were elevated during flight and likely related to other concerns such as calcium turnover and other health-related issues. NASA is making efforts to have tasty foods with much lower salt levels to reduce sodium intake and to promote fluid intake on orbit. Red blood cell studies conducted on the Shuttle found decreased erythrogenesis and increased serum ferritin levels. Given that the diet is high in iron there may be iron storage health concerns, especially related to the role of iron in oxidative damage, complicated by the stress and radiation. The Shuttle nutrition research lead to new monitoring and research on ISS. These data will be valuable for future NASA and commercial crewed missions.
Zamora-Ros, Raul; Ferrari, Pietro; González, Carlos A; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Bredsdorff, Lea; Overvad, Kim; Touillaud, Marina; Perquier, Florence; Fagherazzi, Guy; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Tikk, Kaja; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Dilis, Vardis; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Engeset, Dagrun; Menéndez, Virginia; Travier, Noémie; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Wallström, Peter; Sonestedt, Emily; Sund, Malin; Landberg, Rikard; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Travis, Ruth C; Scalbert, Augustin; Ward, Heather A; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle
Evidence on the association between dietary flavonoids and lignans and breast cancer (BC) risk is inconclusive, with the possible exception of isoflavones in Asian countries. Therefore, we investigated prospectively dietary total and subclasses of flavonoid and lignan intake and BC risk according to menopause and hormonal receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 334,850 women, mostly aged between 35 and 70 years from ten European countries. At baseline, country-specific validated dietary questionnaires were used. A flavonoid and lignan food composition database was developed from the US Department of Agriculture, the Phenol-Explorer and the UK Food Standards Agency databases. Cox regression models were used to analyse the association between dietary flavonoid/lignan intake and the risk of developing BC. During an average 11.5-year follow-up, 11,576 incident BC cases were identified. No association was observed between the intake of total flavonoids [hazard ratio comparing fifth to first quintile (HRQ5-Q1) 0.97, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.90-1.04; P trend = 0.591], isoflavones (HRQ5-Q1 1.00, 95 % CI: 0.91-1.10; P trend = 0.734), or total lignans (HRQ5-Q1 1.02, 95 % CI: 0.93-1.11; P trend = 0.469) and overall BC risk. The stratification of the results by menopausal status at recruitment or the differentiation of BC cases according to oestrogen and progesterone receptors did not affect the results. This study shows no associations between flavonoid and lignan intake and BC risk, overall or after taking into account menopausal status and BC hormone receptors.
Dahl, Wendy J; Stewart, Maria L
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that the public should consume adequate amounts of dietary fiber from a variety of plant foods. Dietary fiber is defined by the Institute of Medicine Food Nutrition Board as "nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants." Populations that consume more dietary fiber have less chronic disease. Higher intakes of dietary fiber reduce the risk of developing several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers, and have been associated with lower body weights. The Adequate Intake for fiber is 14 g total fiber per 1,000 kcal, or 25 g for adult women and 38 g for adult men, based on research demonstrating protection against coronary heart disease. Properties of dietary fiber, such as fermentability and viscosity, are thought to be important parameters influencing the risk of disease. Plant components associated with dietary fiber may also contribute to reduced disease risk. The mean intake of dietary fiber in the United States is 17 g/day with only 5% of the population meeting the Adequate Intake. Healthy adults and children can achieve adequate dietary fiber intakes by increasing their intake of plant foods while concurrently decreasing energy from foods high in added sugar and fat, and low in fiber. Dietary messages to increase consumption of whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits, and nuts should be broadly supported by food and nutrition practitioners.
Choi, Injoo; Kim, Won Gyoung
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The commercial foodservice industry in Korea has shown rapid growth recently. This study examined Korean adults' consumption of commercially-prepared meals based on where the food was prepared. SUBJECTS/METHODS Data from a 24-hour dietary recall of the 2001 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed. A total of 10,539 subjects (n = 6,152 in 2001; n = 4,387 in 2011) aged 19-64 years were included for analysis. Commercially-prepared meals were classified into four food source groups based on where the food was prepared: Korean restaurants, Chinese/Western/Japanese restaurants, fast-food restaurants, and retail stores. Subjects' energy intake, including the amount and proportion of calories, was examined for each food source. The analysis was also conducted by gender for age-stratified groups: 19-29, 30-49, and 50-64 years old. RESULTS Korean adults' energy intake from commercially-prepared meals increased in the amount of calories (551 kcal to 635 kcal, P < 0.01), but not in the proportion of daily calories (27% to 28%) from 2001 to 2011. The most frequent food source of commercially-prepared meals was Korean restaurants in both years. The amount and proportion of calories from retail stores increased from 83 kcal to 143 kcal (P < 0.001) and from 4% to 7% (P < 0.001), respectively, during the same period. Males aged 30-49 years (34%) and females aged 19-29 years (35%) consumed the highest proportion of daily calories from commercially-prepared meals in 2011. CONCLUSIONS Korean adults consumed about one-fourth of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. In particular, males aged 30-49 years and females aged 19-29 years consumed more than one-third of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. Korean restaurants played a significant role in Korean adults' energy intake. Retail stores increased influence on Korean adults' energy intake. These results could be useful for developing health
Evatt, Marian L
Advise patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) to consume a balanced diet, with special attention to adequate intake of dietary fiber, fluids, and macro- and micronutrients. Regularly reassess patients' nutritional history and anthropomorphic measures (height and weight), particularly in patients with advanced disease. PD-related psychosocial as well as physical and cognitive limitations increase susceptibility to subacute and chronic malnutrition. Nutritional requirements may change with PD progression or after surgical therapy for PD. Patients and caregivers may benefit from counseling by a dietician who is knowledgeable about the nutritional risks and needs of PD. Regularly inquire about dysphagia symptoms, and consider speech therapy consultation for clinical and modified barium-swallowing evaluations and management recommendations. Although non-oral delivery options of dopaminergic therapy are increasing, severe dysphagia may warrant percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement for nutritional support and more reliable PD medication dosing. Analyze vitamin B(12) and D concentrations at regular intervals. Both vitamins are frequently deficient in elderly persons but may not be routinely checked by primary care physicians. Record over-the-counter and nutritional supplement medications at each visit, and assist patients in periodically re-evaluating their potential benefits, side effects, drug interactions, and costs. To date, clinical trials of antioxidant vitamins and nutritional supplements have provided insufficient evidence to support routine use for PD in the clinic. Data from several clinical trials of antioxidant vitamins/nutritional supplements are expected in the near future. Consider altering medication dosing in relation to meals to help with mild to moderate motor fluctuations. Patients with severe motor fluctuations may benefit from adapting the 5:1 carbohydrate-to-protein ratio in their daily meals and snacks. Following a "protein
[Epidemiologic studies on nutrition role in develomeat of osteoarthrosis. Report 1. Analysis of actual intake of nutrients and energy in depend on financial position and in come patients osteoarthrosis].
Khodyrev, V N; Martinchik, A N
The study gives the characteristic of the social situation of patients with osteoarthrosis (OA), among which is dominated by people with disabilities and senior citizens (60%), most of which belongs to the poor. The actual nutrition of patients with OA is characterized by low energy intake and macronutrients. Feeding low-income patients with OA was characterized by inadequate intake of ascorbic acid and calcium, whereas the intake of vitamin A, E and beta-carotene was higher in patients with OA compared with the control group.
Silver, Heidi J
Despite the current global obesity crisis, undernutrition remains prevalent among older adults worldwide. This review compares the efficacy of the main oral strategies used to increase older adults' energy and nutrient intakes, i.e., meal enhancement, multivitamin/multimineral supplementation and oral liquid nutrition supplements. Well-designed long-term investigations that are adequately powered to differentiate effects on nutritional, clinical, functional, and cost outcomes are much needed before scientific and clinical consensus can be reached on where and when to implement any strategy as the optimal choice for improving dietary intakes in a specific older adult population.
Identifying current major dietary sources of sodium can enhance strategies to reduce excess sodium intake which occurs among 90% of U.S. school-aged children. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 24-hour dietary recall data from a nationally representative sample of 2,142 U.S. children aged 6...
DelCampo, Diana; Baca, Jacqueline S.; Jimenez, Desaree; Sanchez, Paula Roybal; DelCampo, Robert
Just Be It! Healthy and Fit reduces the risk factors for childhood obesity for fifth graders using hands-on field trips, in-class lessons, and parent outreach efforts. Pre-test and post-test scores from the year-long classroom instruction showed a statistically significant increase in fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, and nutrition…
Pencharz, Paul B
When considering the effects of disease on nutritional status it is useful to think of the body consisting of lean mass and fat mass. The latter relates to energy status and the former to protein nutritional status. In addition, childhood growth in length/height is to a high degree dependent upon having an adequate protein intake. If insufficient non-protein energy is fed, then protein is used to help meet energy needs. Hence achieving an optimum protein nutritional status also requires receiving sufficient energy. Assessment of protein nutritional status starts with measurement of length/height and weight in relationship to growth standards. Next comes using mid-upper arm parameters in which the measurement of muscle area or circumference is a reflection of protein nutritional status while triceps skin-fold thickness is a measurement of energy status. Serum albumin remains the number one short term parameter reflecting protein nutritional status followed by serum transferrin. Plasma amino acid profiles can be measured but are mostly dependent on recent dietary intake and so are hard to interpret. Classically, nitrogen balance has been used as a reflection of dietary protein intake. While it has been used extensively on a research basis its clinical applicability is limited.
Hammad, Ahmed; Kaido, Toshimi; Uemoto, Shinji
Protein-energy malnutrition is frequently seen in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. This causes a deterioration of the patients' clinical condition and affects their post-transplantation survival. Accurate assessment of the nutritional status and adequate intervention are prerequisites for perioperative nutritional treatment. However, the metabolic abnormalities induced by liver failure make the traditional assessment of the nutritional status difficult. The methods that were recently developed for accurately assessing the nutritional status by body bioelectrical impedance may be implemented in pre-transplant management. Because preoperative malnutrition and the loss of skeletal muscle mass, called sarcopenia, have a significant negative impact on the post-transplantation outcome, it is essential to provide adequate nutritional support during all phases of liver transplantation. Oral nutrition is preferred, but tube enteral nutrition may be required to provide the necessary caloric intake. We herein discuss both bioelectrical impedance and the latest findings in the current perioperative nutritional interventions in liver transplant patients regarding synbiotics, micronutrients, branched-chain amino acid supplementation, the use of immune system modulating formulas, the fluid balance and the offering of nocturnal meals.
Martinez, Sonia; Aguilo, Antoni; Rodas, Lluis; Lozano, Leticia; Moreno, Carlos; Tauler, Pedro
Adequate dietary strategies are essential for the successful participation in ultra-endurance races. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the energy and water intakes of participants during three different mountain ultra-endurance runs. The study took place at the "Ultra Mallorca Serra de Tramuntana" (Mallorca, Spain), an ultra-endurance mountain event with runners participating either in a 44-km (Marathon, n = 51), a 67-km (Trail, n = 109) or a 112-km (Ultra, n = 53) run competition. Participants in the study answered a questionnaire focused on the nutritional intake within an hour after finishing the competition. Mean energy intake during the competitions was 183 kcal · h(¯1), with an average carbohydrate intake of 31 g · h(¯1) (52.1% of participants consumed less than 30 g · h(¯1)). No significant differences between competitions were found in these parameters. However, a higher percentage of energy from lipids in participants in the Trail and the Ultra was found (P = 0.034). Furthermore, significant differences were observed in water intake per hour of competition (P = 0.039), with the lowest value for the intake during the Ultra competition. In conclusion, the majority of the participants in the study present low carbohydrate intakes. However, fluid intake seems to be adequate. Different distances did not significantly influence the participants' nutritional strategies.
Arsenault, Joanne E; Singleton, Michelle C; Funderburk, LesLee K
Point-of-purchase nutrition labeling is a potential tool to help consumers choose healthier foods. The objectives of our study were to survey soldiers on their use of the Go-for-Green nutrition labeling system in dining facilities and compare characteristics of users and nonusers. The study population consisted of 299 US Army active duty soldiers at two US Army installations. The frequency of use of food labels and characteristics were calculated and differences in characteristics of label users and nonusers were compared using χ(2) and regression analyses. Forty-seven percent of soldiers reported using nutrition labels to make food choices always or sometimes. Users were more likely to be following a special diet (P=0.04) and to take a multivitamin or protein supplement (P<0.001) than nonusers. Users consumed a mean of 32% of energy from fat vs 36% for nonusers (P<0.0001) after adjusting for reported use of special diets. Use of the Go-for-Green nutrition labeling system is encouraging and should be further investigated to determine whether the program is actually influencing dietary choices in broader military settings.
Anding, Jenna D.; Suminski, Richard R.; Boss, Linda
Surveyed the diet, exercise, and health habits of female college students, calculating body mass index, assessing physical activity, and estimating food and nutrient intake. Overall, no participants had adopted all of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Diets were nutritionally adequate but exceeded national recommendations for fat, sugar, and…
Douglas, G N; Overton, T R; Bateman, H G; Dann, H M; Drackley, J K
Previous research in our laboratory showed that dietary fat supplementation during the dry period was associated with decreased peripartum hepatic lipid accumulation. However, fat supplementation decreased dry matter (DM) intake and thereby confounded results. Consequently, 47 Holstein cows with body condition scores (BCS) < or = 3.5 at dry-off were used to determine whether source or amount of energy fed to dry cows was responsible for the decreased hepatic lipid content. Moderate grain- or fat-supplemented diets [1.50 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NE(L))/kg] were fed from dry-off (60 d before expected parturition) to calving at either ad libitum (160% of NE(L) requirement) or restricted (80% of NE(L) requirement) intakes. Postpartum, cows were fed a single lactation diet for ad libitum intake and performance was measured for 105 d. Prepartum intakes of DM and NE(L) were significantly lower for feed-restricted cows as designed. During the first 21 d postpartum, previously restricted cows had higher intakes of DM and NE(L). Body weights and BCS were lower prepartum for restricted cows but groups converged to similar nadirs postpartum. Restricted-fed cows had lower concentrations of glucose and insulin and increased concentrations of NEFA in plasma during the dry period. Peripartum NEFA rose markedly for all treatments but were higher postpartum for cows previously fed ad libitum. Plasma concentrations of NEFA and BHBA remained lower in cows restricted-during the dry period. Postpartum concentrations of total lipid and triglyceride in liver were lower in cows previously feed-restricted. Across dietary treatments, activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) in hepatic mitochondria was lowest at - 21 d, highest at 1 d, and decreased at 21 and 65 d relative to parturition. The activity of CPT at d 1 tended to be higher for previously feed-restricted cows; thereafter, CPT activity declined more rapidly than in cows fed ad libitum. Nutrient intake during the dry
Massanet, Pablo Lucas; Petit, Laurent; Louart, Benjamin; Corne, Philippe; Richard, Celine; Preiser, Jean Charles
The maintenance of homeostasis after severe injury requires the restoration of the physiological regulation of food intake. A wide array of functional alterations can hinder the intake of adequate amounts of nutrients to support the recovery from critical illness. These alterations encompass changes in the preprandial phase, reflected by a loss of appetite; changes in the prandial phase, yielding swallowing disorders; and changes in the postprandial phase, including impairments of gastric emptying, gut motility, and satiety. This tutorial aims to review these often overlooked features and to suggest recommendations for the nutrition rehabilitation of the critically ill.
Park, Sunmin; Bae, Ji-Hyun
The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) has continuously increased throughout the world in every age group, and the recent increase in AD in Korean adults may be related to changes in nutrient intakes due to westernization of dietary patterns. We hypothesized that the prevalence of AD is associated with the different dietary patterns and fermented food intakes of the Korean adult population. We examined the hypothesis using 9763 adults 19 years or older using the 2012-2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We identified 4 dietary patterns in addition to that including fermented foods using principal component analysis on data obtained from a 116-item validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire: meat and processed foods; vegetables, fruits, legumes, seafood, and seaweed; rice and grains; and coffee, chocolate, and ice cream. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for AD were calculated according to dietary patterns after adjusting for potential confounders. High levels of consumption (>92 times/month) of fermented foods such as doenjang, chungkookjang, kimchi, fermented seafood, makgeolli, and beer were associated with a lower prevalence of AD (OR, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.84). In contrast, high levels of consumption of meat and processed foods were strongly associated with the prevalence of AD (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.48-3.94). Interestingly, the consumption of coffee, chocolate, and ice cream was significantly negatively associated with the prevalence of AD (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.34-0.82). In conclusion, the hypothesis was accepted. The results can be applied to nutrition education programs for the general population to decrease risk factors for AD.
1 cup refers to 1 measuring cup (8 oz) = I half-pint milk 1 glass refers to ordinary drinking glass or 3/4 c (6 oz) 4. Cocoa - note whether made...with milk or what part milk (ex. cocoa ( milk ) - 1 c or cocoa (½ milk ) - 1 c 5. Be sure to include additions to coffee and tea, as: lemon, sugar, cream...aviators 27 Use of nutritional supplements 28 Use of fad diets 29 Food consumption practices of student army aviators 30 Milk 30 Meat 31 iv TABLE OF CONTENTS
Burke, Louise M; Millet, Gregoire; Tarnopolsky, Mark A
The goal of training is to prepare the distance athlete to perform at his or her best during major competitions. Whatever the event, nutrition plays a major role in the achievement of various factors that will see a runner or walker take the starting line in the best possible form. Everyday eating patterns must supply fuel and nutrients needed to optimize their performance during training sessions and to recover quickly afterwards. Carbohydrate and fluid intake before, during, and after a workout may help to reduce fatigue and enhance performance. Recovery eating should also consider issues for adaptation and the immune system that may involve intakes of protein and some micronutrients. Race preparation strategies should include preparation of adequate fuel stores, including carbohydrate loading for prolonged events such as the marathon or 50-km walk. Fluid and carbohydrate intake during races lasting an hour or more should also be considered. Sports foods and supplements of value to distance athletes include sports drinks and liquid meal supplements to allow nutrition goals to be achieved when normal foods are not practical. While caffeine is an ergogenic aid of possible value to distance athletes, most other supplements are of minimal benefit.
Mistura, Lorenza; D’Addezio, Laura; Turrini, Aida
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate total water intake (TWI) from water, beverages and foods among Italian adults and the elderly. Methods: Data of 2607 adults and the elderly, aged 18–75 years from the last national food consumption survey, INRAN-SCAI 2005-06, were used to evaluate the TWI. The INRAN-SCAI 2005-06 survey was conducted on a representative sample of 3323 individuals aged 0.1 to 97.7 years. A 3-day semi-structured diary was used for participants to record the consumption of all foods, beverages and nutritional supplements. Results: On average, TWI was 1.8 L for men and 1.7 L for women. More than 75% of women and 90% of men did not comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Adequate Intake. The contribution of beverages to the total energy intake (EI) was 6% for the total sample. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by alcoholic beverages for men and hot beverages for women. Conclusion: According to the present results, adults and elderly Italians do not reach the adequate intake for water as suggested by the EFSA and by the national reference level of nutrient and energy intake. Data on water consumption should also be analyzed in single socio-demographic groups in order to identify sub-groups of the population that need more attention and to plan more targeted interventions. PMID:27792160
Casaer, Michaël P; Mesotten, Dieter; Schetz, Miet RC
Acute kidney injury (AKI) develops mostly in the context of critical illness and multiple organ failure, characterized by alterations in substrate use, insulin resistance, and hypercatabolism. Optimal nutritional support of intensive care unit patients remains a matter of debate, mainly because of a lack of adequately designed clinical trials. Most guidelines are based on expert opinion rather than on solid evidence and are not fundamentally different for critically ill patients with or without AKI. In patients with a functional gastrointestinal tract, enteral nutrition is preferred over parenteral nutrition. The optimal timing of parenteral nutrition in those patients who cannot be fed enterally remains controversial. All nutritional regimens should include tight glycemic control. The recommended energy intake is 20 to 30 kcal/kg per day with a protein intake of 1.2 to 1.5 g/kg per day. Higher protein intakes have been suggested in patients with AKI on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). However, the inadequate design of the trials does not allow firm conclusions. Nutritional support during CRRT should take into account the extracorporeal losses of glucose, amino acids, and micronutrients. Immunonutrients are the subject of intensive investigation but have not been evaluated specifically in patients with AKI. We suggest a protocolized nutritional strategy delivering enteral nutrition whenever possible and providing at least the daily requirements of trace elements and vitamins. PMID:18768091
VanHeel, Nancy; Pettit, Janet; Rice, Barbara; Smith, Scott M.
Food and nutrient databases are populated with data obtained from a variety of sources including USDA Reference Tables, scientific journals, food manufacturers and foreign food tables. The food and nutrient database maintained by the Nutrition Coordinating Center (NCC) at the University of Minnesota is continually updated with current nutrient data and continues to be expanded with additional nutrient fields to meet diverse research endeavors. Data are strictly evaluated for reliability and relevance before incorporation into the database; however, the values are obtained from various sources and food samples rather than from direct chemical analysis of specific foods. Precise nutrient values for specific foods are essential to the nutrition program at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Specific foods to be included in the menus of astronauts are chemically analyzed at the Johnson Space Center for selected nutrients. A request from NASA for a method to enter the chemically analyzed nutrient values for these space flight food items into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) software resulted in modification of the database and interview system for use by NASA, with further modification to extend the method for related uses by more typical research studies.
Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kopple, Joel D; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar
Protein-energy wasting (PEW), characterized by a decline in body protein mass and energy reserves, including muscle and fat wasting and visceral protein pool contraction, is an underappreciated condition in early to moderate stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and a strong predictor of adverse outcomes. The prevalence of PEW in early to moderate CKD is ≥20-25% and increases as CKD progresses, in part because of activation of proinflammatory cytokines combined with superimposed hypercatabolic states and declines in appetite. This anorexia leads to inadequate protein and energy intake, which may be reinforced by prescribed dietary restrictions and inadequate monitoring of the patient's nutritional status. Worsening uremia also renders CKD patients vulnerable to potentially deleterious effects of uncontrolled diets, including higher phosphorus and potassium burden. Uremic metabolites, some of which are anorexigenic and many of which are products of protein metabolism, can exert harmful effects, ranging from oxidative stress to endothelial dysfunction, nitric oxide disarrays, renal interstitial fibrosis, sarcopenia, and worsening proteinuria and kidney function. Given such complex pathways, nutritional interventions in CKD, when applied in concert with nonnutritional therapeutic approaches, encompass an array of strategies (such as dietary restrictions and supplementations) aimed at optimizing both patients' biochemical variables and their clinical outcomes. The applicability of many nutritional interventions and their effects on outcomes in patients with CKD with PEW has not been well studied. This article reviews the definitions and pathophysiology of PEW in patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD, examines the current indications for various dietary modification strategies in patients with CKD (eg, manufactured protein-based supplements, amino acids and their keto acid or hydroxyacid analogues), discusses the rationale behind their potential use in patients
Kabasakalis, Athanasios; Kalitsis, Konstantinos; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Tsalis, George; Kouretas, Dimitris; Loupos, Dimitris; Mougios, Vassilis
Effects of exercise training on important determinants of children's long-term health, such as redox and iron status, have not been adequately investigated. The aim of the present study was to examine changes in markers of the redox, iron and nutritional status of boy and girl swimmers during a prolonged period of training. 11 boys and 13 girls, aged 10-11 years, were members of a swimming club. They were assessed at the beginning of the training season, at 13 weeks and at 23 weeks through blood sampling and recording of the diet. Reduced glutathione increased at 13 and 23 weeks, whereas oxidised glutathione decreased at 13 weeks, resulting in an increase of the reduced/oxidised glutathione ratio at 13 and 23 weeks. Total antioxidant capacity, catalase, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation and ferritin did not change significantly. Carbohydrate intake was below 50% of energy and fat intake was above 40% of energy. Intakes of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol were excessive. Iron intake was adequate but intakes of folate, vitamin E, calcium and magnesium did not meet the recommended daily allowances. No significant differences were found between sexes in any of the parameters measured. In conclusion, child swimmers improved the redox status of glutathione during training, although the intake of antioxidant nutrients did not change. The iron status was not impaired by training. Suboptimal intake of several nutrients suggests the need for nutritional monitoring and education of children athletes.
Thuita, F M; Mirie, W
The role of nutrition in the management of HIV infection and AIDS is now widely recognized. To highlight the influence of nutrition on the progress of HIV/AIDS and the role and importance of good nutrition in the management of the disease, literature selected from local and international scientific books and journals on the subject of nutrition and HIV/AIDS were reviewed and synthesized in this article. As an intervention, it should begin in the early stages of HIV infection and should include nutrition counseling, and in the later stages of the disease, using more advanced nutrition support methods including enteral and parenteral support. These would enable HIV/AIDS patients to achieve an adequate nutrient intake and energy for as long as possible, thus enhancing the quality of their lives and minimizing the symptoms of the disease.
Paschoal, Valéria Cristina Provenza; Amancio, Olga Maria Silverio
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the body composition, dietary intake, use of nutritional supplements, and biochemical status of 8 Brazilian male elite swimmers, aged 18-21 years, participants at a national swimming competition. Data from the athletes were obtained through a 4-day food record, a fasting blood sample, and anthropometric measurements. The anthropometric results showed that body composition was compatible with sport category. The dietary assessment showed an adequate ingestion of calories, vitamins, and mineral, with the exception of calcium, for which only half of the sample reached the recommendation. The results also indicated low carbohydrate and high protein and cholesterol intakes. Of the swimmers, 62.5% and 25% consumed synthetic aminoacids and antioxidants supplements, respectively. The biochemical indices of the nutritional status were within normal limits in all swimmers, with the exception of creatine-kinase, which was above the recommended level, indicating muscle degradation probably due to poor carbohydrate intake. In conclusion, the results suggest the importance of nutritional education to promote a balanced intake, provide all nutrients in optimal amounts, inhibit unnecessary ingestion of nutritional supplements, maintain ideal performance, and improve the swimmers' health status.
The measurement error correction de-attenuation factor was estimated from two studies using recovery biomarkers. One study, the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN), was unable to adequately account for within-person variation in protein and energy intake estimated by recovery biomarkers, ...
Paré, S; Barr, S I; Ross, S E
Studies have shown that severe daytime restriction of dietary protein improves the efficacy of L-dopa and reduces response fluctuations in some Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. This study investigated the nutritional adequacy of the daytime restricted-protein diet. Eleven free-living PD patients suffering from unpredictable response fluctuations to L-dopa were counseled to limit protein intake to approximately 10 g before 1700. Three sets of 6-d food records obtained during the 8-wk study showed that while on the test diet, mean intakes of most nutrients remained above the recommended nutrient intakes, although significant decreases occurred in protein, calcium, iron, phosphorus, riboflavin, and niacin intakes. The impact of the test diet on nutritional status as evaluated by changes in body weight and serum prealbumin was small. We conclude that healthy and highly motivated patients can maintain adequate intakes of most nutrients while restricting daytime protein intake. However, nutrient intakes might be compromised in patients whose regular diets are marginally adequate.
Lopes, Patrícia Ayrosa C.; Amancio, Olga Maria S.; Araújo, Roberta Faria C.; Vitalle, Maria Sylvia de S.; Braga, Josefina Aparecida P.
OBJECTIVES To assess the food intake pattern and the nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 90 children from two to 12.8 years with cerebral palsy in the following forms: hemiplegia, diplegia, and tetraplegia. Nutritional status was assessed by weight, height, and age data. Food intake was verified by the 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaire. The ability to chew and/or swallowing, intestinal habits, and physical activity were also evaluated. RESULTS For 2-3 year-old age group, the mean energy intake followed the recommended range; in 4-6 year-old age group with hemiplegia and tetraplegia, energy intake was below the recommended limits. All children presented low intake of carbohydrates, adequate intake of proteins and high intake of lipids. The tetraplegia group had a higher prevalence of chewing (41%) and swallowing (12.8%) difficulties compared to 14.5 and 6.6% of children with hemiplegia, respectively. Most children of all groups had a daily intestinal habit. All children presented mild physical activity, while moderate activity was not practiced by any child of the tetraplegia group, which had a significantly lower height/age Z score than those with hemiplegia (-2.14 versus -1.05; p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS The children with cerebral palsy presented inadequate dietary pattern and impaired nutritional status, with special compromise of height. Tetraplegia imposes difficulties regarding chewing/swallowing and moderate physical activity practice. PMID:24142317
Cordero, V V; Cavinder, C A; Tedeschi, L O; Sigler, D H; Vogelsang, M M; Arnold, C E
Mathematical nutrition models have been developed for beef and dairy cattle to estimate dietary energy intake needed to change BCS. Similar technology has not been used to improve nutrition and feeding strategies for horses. An accurate equine nutrition model may enhance feeding management and reduce the costs of unnecessary overfeeding and promote an optimal level of fatness to achieve reproductive efficiency. The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a mathematical nutrition model capable of accurately predicting dietary energy changes to alter BW, rump fat (RF) thickness, and overall body fat (BF), which is needed to maximize profitability and productivity of mares. Model structure was similar to a previously developed model for cattle, and literature data for Quarter Horse mares were used to parameterize the horse model in predicting DE requirement associated with BCS changes. Evaluation of the horse model was performed using an independent dataset comprising 20 nonlactating Quarter Horse mares. Pretrial BCS was used to assign mares to 1 of 4 treatment groups and fed to alter BCS by 1 unit as follows: from 4 to 5 (Group 1), 5 to 4 (Group 2), 6 to 7 (Group 3), and 7 to 6 (Group 4). The BCS, RF thickness, and BW were measured for each mare before the commencement of the feeding trial and once per week thereafter for the duration of a 30-d feeding trial. Initial and target BCS, percent BF, and BW data were collected from each mare and inputted into the model. Mares were individually fed according to the DE suggestions proposed by the model to achieve the targeted BCS change within 30 d. The coefficient of determination of observed and model-predicted values (model precision) was 0.907 (P < 0.001) for BCS, 0.607 (P < 0.001) for percent BF, and 0.94 (P < 0.001) for BW. The BCS was highly correlated to percent BF (r = 0.808; P = 0.01). We concluded the reparameterized model was reliable to predict changes in BW and BCS, but more work is needed to
German, J Bruce; Dillard, Cora J
Public health recommendations for the US population in 1977 were to reduce fat intake to as low as 30% of calories to lower the incidence of coronary artery disease. These recommendations resulted in a compositional shift in food materials throughout the agricultural industry, and the fractional content of fats was replaced principally with carbohydrates. Subsequently, high-carbohydrate diets were recognized as contributing to the lipoprotein pattern that characterizes atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia. The rising incidences of metabolic syndrome and obesity are becoming common themes in the literature. Current recommendations are to keep saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and cholesterol intakes as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet. In the face of such recommendations, the agricultural industry is shifting food composition toward lower proportions of all saturated fatty acids. To date, no lower safe limit of specific saturated fatty acid intakes has been identified. This review summarizes research findings and observations on the disparate functions of saturated fatty acids and seeks to bring a more quantitative balance to the debate on dietary saturated fat. Whether a finite quantity of specific dietary saturated fatty acids actually benefits health is not yet known. Because agricultural practices to reduce saturated fat will require a prolonged and concerted effort, and because the world is moving toward more individualized dietary recommendations, should the steps to decrease saturated fatty acids to as low as agriculturally possible not wait until evidence clearly indicates which amounts and types of saturated fatty acids are optimal?
Stang, Jamie; Bayerl, Cynthia Taft
t is the position of the American Dietetic Association that children and adolescents should have access to an adequate supply of healthful and safe foods that promote optimal physical, cognitive, and social growth and development. Nutrition assistance programs, such as food assistance and meal service programs and nutrition education initiatives, play a vital role in meeting this critical need. Nutrition assistance programs create a safety net that ensures that children and adolescents at risk for poor nutritional intakes have access to a safe, adequate, and nutritious food supply. Federally funded nutrition assistance programs help ensure that children and adolescents receive meals that provide adequate energy and nutrients to meet their growth and development needs; children and adolescents have access to adequate food supplies; and women, infants, and children who have nutritional or medical risk factors, such as iron-deficiency anemia or overweight, receive supplemental nutritious foods as well as nutrition education. In addition, federally funded nutrition assistance programs serve as a means to combat hunger and food insecurity and as a vehicle for nutrition education and promotion of physical activity designed to prevent or reduce obesity and chronic disease. It is important that continued funding be provided for these programs that have been consistently shown to have a positive influence on child and adolescent well-being. Registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, are uniquely qualified to design, implement, and evaluate nutrition assistance programs for children and adolescents. Registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, are the only food and nutrition practitioners with adequate training in food science, nutrition, and food systems to implement research and surveillance programs to monitor, evaluate, and improve the nutritional status of children and adolescents.
Maughan, Ronald J; Shirreffs, Susan M
There is little information on the nutritional habits of female football players at any level of the game. There is also a shortage of information on the nutrition and hydration strategies that players should adopt. In general, differences in nutritional needs between males and females are smaller than differences between individuals, so that principles developed for male players also apply to women. There is a need to address energy balance and body composition: prolonged energy deficits cannot be sustained without harm to health and performance. Published reports show mean carbohydrate intakes for female players of about 5 g/kg/day, and this seems to be too low to sustain consistent intensive training. The timing of protein intake may be as important as the amounts consumed, provided that the total intake is adequate. Dehydration adversely affects skill and stamina in women as it does in men, so an individualised hydration strategy should be developed. The prevalence of iron deficiency in women generally is high, but it seems to be alarmingly high in female players. All players should adopt dietary habits that ensure adequate iron intake. Football training seems to increase bone mass in the weight-bearing limbs, with positive implications for bone health in later life, but some players may be at risk from inadequate calcium dietary intake.
Hartati; Aryanti, S.; Muherman, S. Y.
The main purpose study was to find out the effect of once a year of 400 mg albendazole on the nutritional status and learning achievement of elementary school students in Sukarami Palembang. Methods study used quasi experimental research with non -equivalent control group pretest-posttest design. This study was conducted in Palembang, South Sumatera for one year. Samples of this study were 1914 students deriving from a systematic stratified random sampling and divided into 2 groups: 986 students for the treatment samples were given 400 mg albendazole and 928 students for the controlled samples were given placebo. The result of this study found that there was a decrease in the prevalence of worm infection both in the treatment and controlled samples. However the number of infected students in the treatment samples decreased. The implication research is the drug albendazole worm declared as the most effective drug to treat intestinal worm infections.
Schier, Lindsey A; Davidson, Terry L; Powley, Terry L
In a previous report (Schier et al., Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301: R1557-R1568, 2011), we demonstrated with a new behavioral procedure that rats exhibit stimulus-bound suppression of intake in response to an intraduodenal (ID) bitter tastant predicting subsequent malaise. With the use of the same modified taste aversion procedure, the present experiments evaluated whether the sweet taste properties of ID stimuli are likewise detected and encoded. Thirsty rats licked at sipper spouts for hypotonic NaCl for 30 min and received brief (first 6 min) yoked ID infusions of either the same NaCl or an isomolar lithium chloride (LiCl) solution in each session. An intestinal taste cue was mixed directly into the LiCl infusate for aversion training. Results showed that rats failed to detect intestinal sweet taste alone (20 mM Sucralose) but clearly suppressed licking in response to a nutritive sweet taste stimulus (234 mM sucrose) in the intestine that had been repeatedly paired with LiCl. Rats trained with ID sucrose in LiCl subsequently generalized responding to ID Sucralose alone at test. Replicating this, rats trained with ID Sucralose in compound with 80 mM Polycose rapidly suppressed licking to the 20 mM Sucralose alone in a later test. Furthermore, ID sweet taste signaling did not support the rapid negative feedback of sucrose or Polycose on intake when their digestion and transport were blocked. Together, these results suggest that other signaling pathways and/or transporters engaged by caloric carbohydrate stimuli potentiate detection of sweet taste signals in the intestine.
Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E
Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012, we investigated the prevalence and characteristics of under- and over-reporting of energy intake (EI) among 14 044 US children and adolescents aged 2-19 years. For the assessment of EI, two 24-h dietary recalls were conducted with the use of the US Department of Agriculture Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Under-, plausible and over-reporters of EI were identified using two methods: based on the 95 % confidence limits (1) for agreement between the ratio of EI:BMR and a physical activity level for sedentary lifestyle (1·55) and (2) of the expected ratio of EI:estimated energy requirement (EER) of 1·0. BMR was calculated using Schofield's equations. EER was calculated using equations from the US Dietary Reference Intakes, assuming 'low active' level of physical activity. The risk of being an under- or over-reporter compared with a plausible reporter was analysed using multiple logistic regression. Percentages of under-, plausible and over-reporters were 13·1, 81·5 and 5·4 %, respectively, based on EI:BMR and 18·8, 72·3 and 8·8 %, respectively, based on EI:EER. Under-reporting was associated with older age, non-Hispanic blacks (compared with non-Hispanic whites) and overweight and obesity (compared with normal weight). Over-reporting was associated with younger age, lower family poverty income ratio, normal weight and the first survey cycle. Similar findings were obtained when analysing only the first 24-h recall data from NHANES 1999-2012 (n 22 949). In conclusion, we found that EI misreporting remains prevalent and differential in US children and adolescents.
Reviews changes in United States nutrition since the 1969 White House Conference on Food, Nutrition, and Health and identifies necessary components of public, private and expert contributions towards a policy for ensuring adequate nutrition for all Americans. (AL)
Thomson, A. M.; Black, A. E.
This paper reviews the literature on the incidence and duration of breast-feeding in various countries, the volume and composition of breast milk, the health and nutrition of breast-fed babies as judged by growth and morbidity, maternal nutritional requirements during lactation, and the effect of prolonged lactation on maternal health. It appears that lactation can be as well sustained by impoverished as by affluent mothers, and that even in communities where malnutrition is common the average growth of infants is satisfactory up to the age of about 3 months on a diet of breast milk alone. Breast milk appears to have specific anti-infective properties, but prolonged breast-feeding will not prevent infections among older infants reared in a poor environment. The authors believe that breast-feeding is the best form of nutrition for the young infant and deplore its decline in modern industrial societies. The recommendations of various FAO/WHO Expert Groups on nutritional intakes during lactation are summarized. The need for an increased daily energy intake of 4.2 MJ (1 000 kcal) is questioned, and an increase of 2.5 MJ (600 kcal) is suggested. Data on the effect of prolonged lactation on the health of the mother are scanty; body weight appears to be maintained even among poorly nourished mothers. The authors stress the need for well-planned and technically adequate studies of the material and psychological factors involved in breast feeding. PMID:816479
Smith, Scott M.
History has often proven the criticality for adequate nutrition to ensure expedition success. Space exploration will be no different, with the exception of the certainty that food will not be found along the journey. Ensuring the health and safety of astronauts is critical and nutrition will serve several functions to that end. Nutritional assessment of International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers not only serves to evaluate the nutritional health of individuals, but also allows a better understanding of how space flight affects nutritional requirements, and how nutrition can serve in mitigating the negative effects of weightlessness on the human. Available data suggest that the nutritional status of astronauts is compromised during and after flight. Inadequate dietary intake and subsequent weight loss are often considered hallmarks of space flight, although exceptions to this do exist, and provide hope. However, beyond energy intake, specific nutrient issues also exist. Several vitamins, including D and folate, are affected in space travelers. Hematological and antioxidant defense systems are impacted, with increased iron storage, and increased markers of oxidative damage. Bone loss during space flight remains a critical challenge. Ground-based studies have proven that nutrition is a potent modulator of the bone response to simulated weightlessness. Protein and sodium are two nutrients which tend to exacerbate bone resorption and loss, likely mediated through acid base balance. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health. Both flight and ground-based research provide a unique situation, one where healthy individuals are put in a unique and challenging environment. A full understanding of the role of nutrition during space flight will not only enhance crew health and safety during flight, but will also expand our understanding of the role of
Girardet, J-P; Rieu, D; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Hankard, R; Goulet, O; Simeoni, U; Turck, D; Vidailhet, M
Very early in life, sodium intake correlates with blood pressure level. This warrants limiting the consumption of sodium by children. However, evidence regarding exact sodium requirements in that age range is lacking. This article focuses on the desirable sodium intake according to age as suggested by various groups of experts, on the levels of sodium intake recorded in consumption surveys, and on the public health strategies implemented to reduce salt consumption in the pediatric population. Practical recommendations are given by the Committee on nutrition of the French Society of Pediatrics in order to limit salt intake in children.
Wang, Zhifang; Zhu, Wenming; Mo, Zhe; Wang, Yuanyang; Mao, Guangming; Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming
Universal salt iodization (USI) has been implemented for two decades in China. It is crucial to periodically monitor iodine status in the most vulnerable population, such as pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was carried out in an evidence-proved iodine-sufficient province to evaluate iodine intake in pregnancy. According to the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation criteria of adequate iodine intake in pregnancy (150–249 µg/L), the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of the total 8159 recruited pregnant women was 147.5 µg/L, which indicated pregnant women had iodine deficiency at the province level. Overall, 51.0% of the total study participants had iodine deficiency with a UIC < 150 µg/L and only 32.9% of them had adequate iodine. Participants living in coastal areas had iodine deficiency with a median UIC of 130.1 µg/L, while those in inland areas had marginally adequate iodine intake with a median UIC of 158.1 µg/L (p < 0.001). Among the total study participants, 450 pregnant women consuming non-iodized salt had mild-moderate iodine deficiency with a median UIC of 99.6 µg/L; 7363 pregnant women consuming adequately iodized salt had a lightly statistically higher median UIC of 151.9 µg/L, compared with the recommended adequate level by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD (p < 0.001). Consuming adequately iodized salt seemed to lightly increase the median UIC level, but it may not be enough to correct iodine nutrition status to an optimum level as recommended by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD. We therefore suggest that, besides strengthening USI policy, additional interventive measure may be needed to improve iodine intake in pregnancy. PMID:28230748
Raaijmakers, L G M; Bessems, K M H H; Kremers, S P J; van Assema, P
The aim of this study was to assess energy, saturated fat and fibre intakes at breakfast among Dutch youngsters aged 10-19 years and the extent to which they meet nutritional value recommendations and the educational messages on food group intake by the Netherlands Nutrition Centre (NNC). A cross-sectional design was used and data were collected through an online questionnaire among 2380 students attending 71 Dutch schools for primary and secondary education. Energy intake at breakfast was, on average, 15.8% of daily recommended energy intake; mean saturated fat intake was 7.5 en% and mean fibre intake 1.0 g per 100 kcal. Of the participants, 67.2% met the saturated fat intake recommendation and 35.3% the fibre intake recommendation. In addition, 25.5% were assessed to have an adequate energy intake based on daily recommended, but not individually measured, age- and gender-specific energy intake. Most participants consumed products from the grains food group, in combination with products from one or two other food groups. Consumption from two or more food groups resulted in less favourable intake. Our study found generally inadequate fibre intake at breakfast as well as an indication of inadequate energy intake at breakfast among Dutch youngsters. The educational message of the NNC to consume at least (wholemeal) bread or another fibre-rich product (cereals) at breakfast seems realistic in terms of compliance and favourable in terms of the resulting nutritional value. The educational message to preferably eat from each of the five main food groups should be reconsidered.
Ning, Hongyan; Van Horn, Linda; Shay, Christina M; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M
Dietary fiber intake might reduce cardiovascular risk factor levels and, in turn, might lower the long-term risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A total of 11,113 subjects, aged 20 to 79 years with no history of CVD, from the 2005 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in the present study to examine associations of dietary fiber intake with predicted lifetime CVD risk and C-reactive protein levels. Dietary fiber intake showed a significant gradient association with the likelihood of having a low or an intermediate predicted lifetime CVD risk among young and middle-age adults. In fully adjusted multinomial logistic models, dietary fiber intake was related to a low lifetime CVD risk with an odds ratio of 2.71 (95% confidence interval 2.05 to 3.59) in the young adults and 2.13 (95% confidence interval 1.42 to 3.20) in the middle-age adults and was related to an intermediate lifetime risk of 2.65 (95% confidence interval 1.79 to 3.92) in the young and 1.98 (95% confidence interval 1.32 to 2.98) in the middle-age adults compared with a high lifetime risk. A significant inverse linear association was seen between dietary fiber intake and log-transformed C-reactive protein levels with a regression coefficient ± standard error of -0.18 ± 0.04 in the highest quartile of fiber intake compared with the lowest fiber intake. In conclusion, these data suggest that dietary fiber intake is independently associated with the predicted lifetime CVD risk, especially in young and middle-age adults. A greater amount of dietary fiber intake might be associated with lower C-reactive protein levels.
Brown, Denise M; Tammineni, Suresh K
School environments that provide consistent and reliable nutrition information promote the development of healthful eating in children. High-energy, nutrient-poor beverages offered for sale to children during the school day compete with healthful choices. The primary objective of this prospective, quasiexperimental study was to encourage children to choose more healthful beverages during the school day without adversely affecting the profits realized from vending sales. Fifteen of 18 schools completed voluntary changes to beverage sales practices during the school day between August 2005 and May 2006. Twelve of 15 schools reported increased profits from the previous year (2004-2005) while offering more healthful beverage choices at discounted prices. Units of carbonated soft drinks sold declined when sports drinks, 100% fruit juice, and water were made available in their place. Passive marketing in the form of vending machine fronts, attractive pricing with a nominal 10% to 25% discount, and changing the types and proportions of beverages offered encouraged children to make more healthful choices. Local school administrators were receptive to making changes to beverage sales when local needs were incorporated into the study design. Profit information from this study informed state legislators and the Mississippi State Board of Education in the development and adoption of statewide snack and beverage vending guidelines. Registered dietitians serve as advocates to foster these collaborative efforts, inform key decision makers, and work in their local communities to develop and promote healthful practices in K-12 school settings.
Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Ferreira, Andreza Campos; Pereira, Cristina Novack Amaral; Silva, Roberta Ribeiro
The objective of this article is to evaluate socioeconomic conditions, nutritional status and food intake of preschool children assisted at Municipal Educational Centers (CEMs) of Alfenas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A transverse study involving 186 children was performed. The socioeconomic profile, weight, height, age, sex and food intake by a direct weighting tool were evaluated. It was observed an income family of one to three minimum wages, incomplete fundamental learning, private house with basic sanitation, four to five inhabitants per house of whom two worked at most. The average age was 49.2 +/- 12.9 months. The stunting rates were more prevalent among the children (20.5%). The whole, 72.6% of children have energy intake below Estimated Energy Intake (EER). However, when stratifying for age group, 78.4% of the children from 1 to 3 years old have high energy intake and 74.1% from 4 to 6 years old have inadequate energy intake. All children presented consumption below the Adequate Intake (AI) of calcium and most of them below to Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of iron. Despite some biosocioeconomic factors be favorable to the nutritional status, malnutrition, and inadequate nutrient intake were present, which demanded the implementation of nutritional programs in CEMs.
Nnam, N M
Much has been learned during the past several decades about the role of maternal nutrition in the outcome of pregnancy. While the bulk of the data is derived from animal models, human observations are gradually accumulating. There is need to improve maternal nutrition because of the high neonatal mortality rate especially in developing countries. The author used a conceptual framework which took both primary and secondary factors into account when interpreting study findings. Nutrition plays a vital role in reducing some of the health risks associated with pregnancy such as risk of fetal and infant mortality, intra-uterine growth retardation, low birth weight and premature births, decreased birth defects, cretinism, poor brain development and risk of infection. Adequate nutrition is essential for a woman throughout her life cycle to ensure proper development and prepare the reproductive life of the woman. Pregnant women require varied diets and increased nutrient intake to cope with the extra needs during pregnancy. Use of dietary supplements and fortified foods should be encouraged for pregnant women to ensure adequate supply of nutrients for both mother and foetus. The author concludes that nutrition education should be a core component of Mother and Child Health Clinics and every opportunity should be utilised to give nutrition education on appropriate diets for pregnant women.
Barger, Mary K
Diet and patterns of eating during pregnancy can affect perinatal outcomes through direct physiologic effects or by stressing the fetus in ways that permanently affect phenotype. Supplements are not a magic nutritional remedy, and evidence of profound benefit for most supplements remains inconclusive. However, research supports calcium supplements to decrease preeclampsia. Following a low glycemic, Mediterranean-type diet appears to improve ovulatory infertility, decrease preterm birth, and decrease the risk of gestational diabetes. Although women in the United States have adequate levels of most nutrients, subpopulations are low in vitamin D, folate, and iodine. Vitamin D has increasingly been shown to be important not only for bone health, but also for glucose regulation, immune function, and good uterine contractility in labor. To ensure adequate vitamin and micronutrient intake, especially of folate before conception, all reproductive age women should take a multivitamin daily. In pregnancy, health care providers need to assess women's diets, give them weight gain recommendations based on their body mass index measurement, and advise them to eat a Mediterranean diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids (ingested as low-mercury risk fatty fish or supplements), ingest adequate calcium, and achieve adequate vitamin D levels through sun exposure or supplements. Health care providers should continue to spend time on nutrition assessment and counseling.
Ranchordas, Mayur K
Adventure racing requires competitors to perform various disciplines ranging from, but not limited to, mountain biking, running, kayaking, climbing, mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating and orienteering over a rugged, often remote and wilderness terrain. Races can vary from 6 hours to expedition-length events that can last up to 10-consecutive days or more. The purpose of this article is to provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for adventure racing competitors. Energy expenditures of 365-750 kcal/hour have been reported with total energy expenditures of 18 000-80 000 kcal required to complete adventure races, and large negative energy balances during competitions have been reported. Nutrition, therefore, plays a major role in the successful completion of such ultra-endurance events. Conducting research in these events is challenging and the limited studies investigating dietary surveys and nutritional status of adventure racers indicate that competitors do not meet nutrition recommendations for ultra-endurance exercise. Carbohydrate intakes of 7-12 g/kg are needed during periods of prolonged training to meet requirements and replenish glycogen stores. Protein intakes of 1.4-1.7 g/kg are recommended to build and repair tissue. Adequate replacement of fluid and electrolytes are crucial, particularly during extreme temperatures; however, sweat rates can vary greatly between competitors. There is considerable evidence to support the use of sports drinks, gels and bars, as they are a convenient and portable source of carbohydrate that can be consumed during exercise, in training and in competition. Similarly, protein and amino acid supplements can be useful to help meet periods of increased protein requirements. Caffeine can be used as an ergogenic aid to help competitors stay awake during prolonged periods, enhance glycogen resynthesis and enhance endurance performance.
Bischoff, Adrianne R; Tomlinson, Christopher; Belik, Jaques
It is widely accepted that sodium is an essential nutritional electrolyte and its deficiency is associated with neurological sequelae and poor growth. The provision of an adequate sodium intake to preterm neonates is hampered by the technical difficulty in clinically assessing total body sodium content. As addressed in this review, there is a lack of consensus on the definition of hyponatremia early in life, but there is no evidence that it should deviate from the widely accepted normative data for adult subjects. A low urinary sodium content is accepted by many as reflecting total body sodium deficiency, yet spot urinary sodium measurements are of questionable clinical value. The hormonal regulation of sodium homeostasis is here reviewed and the mechanism accounting for sodium deficiency-induced growth impairment in preterm infants addressed. Lastly, we provide evidence-based gestational and postnatal age-dependent recommendations for the provision of adequate sodium intake to preterm neonates.
Scott, Jane; Davey, Kristina; Ahwong, Ellen; Devenish, Gemma; Ha, Diep; Do, Loc
Breastfeeding is recommended beyond 12 months of age, but little is known about the contribution of breastmilk and infant formula to the nutritional intake of toddlers as they transition to a family diet in the second year of life. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a birth cohort study in Adelaide, Australia. Dietary intake data were collected when children were approximately 1 year of age by an interviewer-administered multi-pass 24 h recall and a mother-completed 2 days food diary. Children were categorized according to their milk feeding method, i.e., breastmilk, infant formula, combination or other, and their nutrient intakes compared with recommended nutrient reference values. Complete data were available for 832 children, of which 714 had plausible energy intakes. Breastmilk and formula made a substantial contribution to the nutrient intake of those toddlers, contributing 28% and 34% of total energy, and 16% and 26% of protein intake, respectively when not drunk in combination. In general, Australian toddlers transitioning to the family diet consumed nutritionally adequate diets, although almost one quarter of all children and half of breastfed children with plausible intakes had iron intakes below the estimated average requirement, placing them at risk of iron deficiency.
Vitamin D Intake and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Korean Adults: Analysis of the 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-3) Using a Newly Established Vitamin D Database
Yoo, Kyoungok; Cho, Jinah; Ly, Sunyung
Vitamin D is important for maintaining bone health and may prevent various diseases (i.e., cardiovascular disease and cancer). The aim of this study was to estimate vitamin D intakes of Korean adults using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2009) data and a newly established vitamin D database. KNHANES (2009) participants (n = 4541; 2021 men; 2520 women) aged ≥20 years were included. Dietary vitamin D intake, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), and the relationship between vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D were evaluated. In men and women, vitamin D intakes were 4.00 ± 0.17 µg/day and 2.6 ± 0.1 µg/day respectively, and serum 25(OH)D concentrations were 19.78 ± 0.33 ng/mL and 17.10 ± 0.26 ng/mL respectively. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations of men aged <50 years and women aged >20 years were under 20 ng/mL. After adjusting for confounding factors, the positive relationship between vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D was observed in total subjects (p < 0.05), excluding participants ≥50 years old. The main food sources for vitamin D among Korean adults were fish/shellfish (71.34%) and egg (14.89%). Korean adults should increase their serum 25(OH)D concentrations by increasing vitamin D intake. PMID:27690097
In the last 20 years, Public Health Nutrition focused mainly on the qualitative aspects which may influence the onset of chronic diseases, quality of life, physical and mental performance and life expectancy. This applied knowledge organised as part of preventive and health promotion programs led to the development of Community Nutrition. The aim of Community Nutrition actions is to adequate lifestyles related to food consumption patterns in order to improve the quality of life and contribute to health promotion of the population in the community where programs and services are delivered. Key functions to develop in a Community Nutrition Unit consist in the identification and assessment of nutrition problems in the community as well as the design, implementation and evaluation of intervention programs by means of appropriate strategies. These should aim at different populations groups and settings, such as work places, schools, high risk groups or the general public. Nowadays, Community Nutrition work efforts should focus on three main aspects: nutrition education in schools and in the community; food safety and food security and the development and reinforcement of food preparation skills across all age groups. Social catering services, either in schools, the work place or at the community level, need to ensure adequate nutritional supply, provide foods contributing to healthy eating practices as well as to enhance culinary traditions and social learning. Food safety and food security have become a top priority in Public Health. The concepts referes to the availability of food safe and adequate as well as in sufficient amount in order to satisfy nutrition requirements of all individuals in the community. Social changes along new scientific developments will introduce new demands in Community Nutrition work and individual dietary counselling will become a key strategy. In order to face new challenges, community nutrition pactitioners require a high quality
Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Purba, Martalena Br
In order to sustain life during the occurrence of a natural disaster, it is vital to ensure that people's intake of water and food is adequate (prioritizing first energy, then protein and water-soluble vitamins). Infants, pregnant women, patients, and the elderly are particularly vulnerable to insufficiencies in food intake, even if they are provided with the same quantity of food as others, and providing them with dietary and nutritional support becomes a high priority as their insufficient intake of energy and protein becomes long term. It is necessary to have a system in place for identifying those who are vulnerable and in need of support and providing them with the items (food) and nutritional care that they require. Eating is equivalent to living, and if the vulnerable themselves recognize the importance of food and nutrition, this will help improve the nutritional situation of the entire population. It is recommended that measures be taken in non-emergency periods such as stockpiling food for special dietary uses.
Sánchez-Valverde Visus, F; Moráis López, A; Ibáñez, J; Dalmau Serra, J
Several health benefits have been attributed to sports practice, and an adequate nutrition status helps to maintain an optimal performance. Children most frequently practice non-competitive and non-endurance activities in a school setting. The dietary intake of children who practice sports should be similar to the general population, properly meeting their energy and nutrient requirements. During the activity performance, correct hydration should be aimed for, with water appearing to be an adequate source in most cases. General calorie and micronutrient supplementation should not be commonly recommended in children. Paediatricians must control nutritional status and dietary habits of children who practice sports, especially in those cases when weight-loss is aimed for, as well as take into account the psychological implications of competitive sports practice.
Mesías, Marta; Seiquer, Isabel; Navarro, M Pilar
Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development. Iron needs are elevated as a result of intensive growth and muscular development, which implies an increase in blood volume; thus, it is extremely important for the adolescent's iron requirements to be met. Diet, therefore, must provide enough iron and, moreover, nutrients producing adequate iron bioavailability to favor element utilization and thus be sufficient for needs at this stage of life. Currently, many adolescents consume monotonous and unbalanced diets which may limit mineral intake and/or bioavailability, leading to iron deficiency and, consequently, to ferropenic anemia, a nutritional deficit of worldwide prevalence. Iron deficiency, apart from provoking important physiological repercussions, can adversely affect adolescents' cognitive ability and behavior. Accordingly, promoting the consumption of a varied, adjusted, and balanced diet by adolescents will facilitate iron utilization, benefiting their health both at present and in adulthood. This review discusses how physiological changes during adolescence can cause iron requirements to increase. Consequently, it is important that diet should contribute an appropriate amount of this mineral and, moreover, with an adequate bioavailability to satisfy needs during this special period of life.
de Sousa, Eliene F; Da Costa, Teresa H M; Nogueira, Julia A D; Vivaldi, Lúcio J
Adolescents aged 11-14 years (n 326), belonging to organized sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil were interviewed. Subjects (n 107) provided four non-consecutive days of food consumption and 219 subjects provided two non-consecutive days of intake. The objective was to assess their nutrient and water intake according to dietary reference intake values and their energy and macronutrient intake by sex and sports groups they were engaged in: endurance, strength-skill or mixed, according to the guidelines established by the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM). Dietary data were corrected for intra-individual variation. Total energy expenditure was higher among endurance athletes (P < 0.001) following their higher training time (P < 0.001) when compared to adolescents engaged in strength-skill or mixed sports. Total energy intake was only significantly higher among endurance-engaged females (P = 0.05). Protein intake of males was above the guidelines established by the ACSM for all sports groups. All male sport groups fulfilled the intake levels of carbohydrate per kg body weight but only females engaged in endurance sports fulfilled carbohydrate guidelines. Intakes of micronutrients with low prevalence of adequate intake were: vitamins B1, E and folate, magnesium and phosphorus. Few adolescents ( < 5 %) presented adequate intake for calcium, fibre, drinking water and beverages. For micronutrients, prevalence of adequacies were lower for females than males, except for liquids and water. Nutrition guidance is needed to help adolescents fulfil specific guidelines of macronutrient intake for their sports and to improve their intake of micronutrients and water. Special attention should be given to female adolescent athletes.
Maffeis, Claudio; Pinelli, Leonardo
Recent recommendations by the American Diabetes Association suggest that children with type 1 diabetes should follow the recommendations for age, sex and body size of the general population. In the case of being overweight or obese, weight-control strategies should be applied. Adherence to recommendations should be pursued by continuous nutritional education that should start at the onset of diabetes and maintained by means of nutritional counselling to the family. The second main target of nutritional intervention is to encourage a reproducible daily meal plan that can be maintained by acquiring good habits when making nutritional choices. Finally, children and parents should be taught how to count carbohydrates, which would help them manage exceptions in their daily meal plan. Specifically, nutritional recommendations for children with diabetes focus on limiting the intake of foods of animal origin (red meat, cheese, cold cuts), moderating fat intake and promoting the intake of foods that naturally contain fibre (mainly vegetables, legumes, fruit). There are two at-risk periods in the lives of children when nutritional education procedures as well as diabetes care in general are less likely to be effective: early years of life and adolescence. In the case of very young children, new behavioural-based intervention strategies to help parents improve mealtimes could be useful in teaching diabetic children to learn to follow a structured eating schedule, which is desirable for long-lasting efficacy in diabetes care. In adolescents, eating disorders and insulin misuse for weight control purposes are concrete and difficult problems to deal with. A good balance between eating for pleasure and maintaining one's health is a challenge for anyone. Appropriate nutritional education helps children with diabetes to find this balance and enjoy a better quality of life.
Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to assess dietary intake of coeliac disease (CD) patients and to determine if they are meeting the dietary reference values for a balanced diet. Subjects/Methods 40 women with CD, aged from 23 to 76 participated in our study. Total daily intake was assessed by a three-day food diary. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation. Considering physical activity level (PAL) 1.4, the recommended total energy expenditure (TEE) value was determined. The data was evaluated with professional evaluation software Prodi and statistically analysed. Results 40 participants returned the food diary. The average energy intake was significantly too low to ensure the meeting of all-day energy needs (p<0.05). The meals contained a recommended proportion of protein, but a statistically significantly higher proportion of fat (p<0.05), lower proportion of carbohydrates and a significantly lower intake of dietary fibre (p<0.05). Regarding macro-, micro- elements and vitamins, there was a significant lack in the intake of calcium and iodine, folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin A (p<0.05), meanwhile iron intake was at the lower limit of the recommended intake, whereas zinc, potassium and vitamin K intake were significantly higher according to the recommended values, but were comparable with the intake of the general population in the Central European area. Conclusion Even in subjects with adequate or low daily energy intake, their meals contained too much fat, too few carbohydrates and dietary fibre as well as inorganic substances. The patients with CD should get regular nutritional monitoring and education on the quality and balance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:27284377
Bazzarre, Terry L.
Reviews nutrition education programs in relation to aging. A summary of nutritional information that constitutes different components of nutrition education programs for the elderly is discussed. A brief review of physiological changes affecting nutrient utilization and food selection and changes in dietary intake and requirements are presented.…
Omi, N; Ezawa, I
Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important nutrients for bone metabolism, such as calcium. In general, P intake is usually adequate in our daily diet, and there is a risk of over-consumption from processed food. On the other hand, Ca intake is not always adequate from the Japanese daily diet. When Ca/P is taken from the daily diet at a level of 0.5 - 2.0, the P intake level dose not affect intestinal Ca absorption. Therefore, it is important not only to pay attention to preventing the over-consumption of P, but also to obtain a sufficient intake of Ca. For the prevention of osteoporosis, it is important to consume sufficient Ca and to maintain and appropriate Ca/P balance from diet.
May, Philip A.; Hamrick, Kari J.; Corbin, Karen D.; Hasken, Julie M.; Marais, Anna-Susan; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Gossage, J. Phillip
Objective Compare nutritional status of 57 South African mothers of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) with 148 mothers of controls. Methods Dietary data were analyzed for macronutrients, micronutrients, and fats via Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) and Adequate Intakes (AI) for pregnant women. Results Virtually all mothers were likely deficient on most micronutrients by either EAR (<50%) or AI values. Mothers of FASD children consumed more of 13 of 25 micronutrients. For percentage below EAR, only vitamin D was significantly higher for FASD mothers. Despite no difference in total food intake, control mothers had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) than FASD mothers. Maternal BMI is more significant for positive child outcomes than any individual nutrient. Conclusions Most mothers have inadequate dietary intake. Minor advantages in nutrient intake are overpowered by teratogenic effects of alcohol. Further study is needed of the interaction of alcohol, maternal nutrition, and metabolism. PMID:26656914
Chao, Andrew; Waitzberg, Dan; de Jesus, Rosangela Passos; Bueno, Allain A; Kha, Victor; Allen, Karen; Kappus, Matthew; Medici, Valentina
Malnutrition is associated with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and related complications such as hepatic encephalopathy and increased rate of infections. Avoidance of prolonged fasting and overly restrictive diets is important to avoid poor nutrition. Adequate intake of calories, protein, and micronutrients via frequent small meals and evening supplements and/or enteral and parenteral nutrition when indicated has been associated with reduced mortality and morbidity in patients with ALD. Modification of protein/fat sources and composition in addition to probiotic supplementation are promising interventions for decreased progression of ALD and its complications.
In 1998, a new system called the potluck party method (PPM) for the operation of nutrition support teams (NSTs) was developed. In the PPM, just as at a potluck party where each participant brings a single dish of food to share, the NST is operated and managed by each department contributing a small amount of staff and resources at one time. Based on the PPM, 1 or 2 staff members are selected from each department and each ward and carry out the work of the NST as they continue to go about their routine duties. The roles of the NST are 1) nutritional assessments, 2) checking whether the nutritional support provided is adequate, 3) recommending the best nutritional therapy for each patient, 4) preventing complications during nutritional therapy, and 5) responding to consultations on nutritional support. NST performance based on the PPM have proven effective as demonstrated by the following results: 1) decreases in the number of problem cases in terms of nutritional management; 2) reductions in the incidence of catheter sepsis; 3) reductions in the numbers of patients with poor food intake; 4) prevention of pressure ulceration; 5) attempts to eradicate nosocomial infections; 6) decreases in mean length of hospital stay; and 7) a total cost benefit of at least 120,000,000 yen (US$1,000,000) per year.
Vyncke, Krishna E; Libuda, Lars; De Vriendt, Tineke; Moreno, Luis A; Van Winckel, Myriam; Manios, Yannis; Gottrand, Frederic; Molnar, Denes; Vanaelst, Barbara; Sjöström, Michael; González-Gross, Marcela; Censi, Laura; Widhalm, Kurt; Michels, Nathalie; Gilbert, Chantal C; Xatzis, Christos; Cuenca García, Magdalena; de Heredia, Fátima Pérez; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge
Dietary fatty acids (FA) play a role in several (patho)physiological processes at any age, and different FA have different effects on lipid status and health outcome. The present study aims to describe the FA intake and its main food sources in a population of healthy European adolescents and to assess the variation in intake as a function of non-dietary factors. FA intake was assessed with 24 h recall interviews in 1804 adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years. Usual intakes were calculated using the multiple source method. Multilevel analyses, adjusting for study centre, were used to investigate the influence of non-dietary factors. The mean total fat intake was 33·3 (sd 1·2) % of total energy intake (%E). The mean SFA intake was 13·8 (sd 1·2) %E, with 99·8 % of the population exceeding the recommendations. SFA was mainly delivered by meat and cake, pies and biscuits. In most adolescents, the PUFA intake was too low, and 35·5 % of the population did not achieve the minimum recommended intake for α-linolenic acid (ALA). The main determinants of FA intake in the present study population were age and sex, as well as physical activity in the male subgroup. No contributions of body composition, socio-economic status or sexual maturation to the variance in FA intake were observed. In conclusion, the most important public health concerns regarding FA intake in this adolescent population were the low intake of ALA and the high intake of SFA, mainly seen in the younger-aged boys. In this group the major contributor to SFA was meat.
Ritchie, Lorrene D; Wakimoto, Patricia; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Thompson, Frances E; Loria, Catherine M; Wilson, Dawn K; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B; Webb, Karen L
Multifaceted community interventions directed at improving food environments are emerging, but their impact on dietary change and obesity prevalence has not been adequately documented. The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is seeking to identify characteristics and combinations of programs and policies that are associated with children's diets and obesity-related outcomes in various types of communities across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used in 2013-2015 in the HCS to assess dietary intake, school nutrition environments, and other nutrition-related behaviors. The conceptual framework of the HCS is based on the socioecological model and behaviors shown in previous studies to be related to obesity in children guided selection of domains. Nine domains were identified as essential measures of nutrition in the HCS: (1) intake of selected foods and beverages; (2) food patterns and behaviors; (3) social support; (4) home environment; (5) school environment; (6) community environment; (7) breastfeeding history; (8) household food insecurity; and (9) dieting behaviors and body image. Children's dietary intake was assessed using a dietary screener and up to two automated 24-hour recalls. Dietary-related behaviors were assessed by a survey administered to the parent, child, or both, depending on child age. School nutrition measures were obtained from a combination of school staff surveys and researcher observations. Information from these measures is expected to contribute to a better understanding of "what is working" to improve the dietary behaviors that are likely to prevent obesity and improve health in children.
Shepherd, R; Cooksley, W G; Cooke, W D
To investigate the role of nutritional factors in growth and in the clinical, nurtitional, and respiratory status in cystic fibrosis, we studied 12 problem CF patients from six months before to six months after a period of supplemental parenteral nutrition. During the initial six months' observation period on appropriate conventional therapy, the patients (aged 0.5 to 11 years) had inadequate growth and weight gain, a total of 21 active pulmonary infections, and, despite dietary supplements, inadequate ad libitum nutrient intakes. After nutritional therapy, providing a balanced consistent hypercaloric intake for 21 days, catch-up weight gain occurred by one month and continued at six months; catch-up in linear growth was observed by three months and continued at six months. In addition, significantly fewer pulmonary infections were observed in the six months' post-therapy (n = 3), sustained and significant improvements were noted in clinical score and plumonary function, and there was a marked improvement in well-being and ad libitum nutrient intake. We conclude that adequate nutritional support can favorably affect growth, clinical status, and the course of chronic pulmonary disease in problem cases of CF.
Palacin-Arce, Alba; Monteagudo, Celia; Beas-Jimenez, Juan de Dios; Olea-Serrano, Fatima; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel
Background Numerous supplements are used by sportspeople. They are not always appropriate for the individual or the sports activity and may do more harm than good. Vitamin and mineral supplements are unnecessary if the energy intake is sufficient to maintain body weight and derives from a diet with an adequate variety of foods. The study objectives were to evaluate the main nutrients used as supplements in sports and to propose a nutritional quality index (NQI) that enables sportspeople to optimize their use of supplements and detect and remedy possible nutritional deficits. Material and Methods A nutritional study was performed in 485 sportspeople recruited from Centros Andaluces de Medicina del Deporte, (CAMD). All completed socio-demographic, food frequency, and lifestyle questionnaires. The nutritional quality of their diet and need for supplementation were evaluated by scoring their dietary intake with and without supplementation, yielding two NQI scores (scales of 0-21 points) for each participant. Results A superior mean NQI score was obtained when the supplements taken by participants were not included (16. 28 (SD of 3.52)) than when they were included (15.47 (SD: 3.08)), attributable to an excessive intake of some nutrients through supplementation. Conclusions These results indicate that sportspeople with a varied and balanced diet do not need supplements, which appear to offer no performance benefits and may pose a health risk. PMID:25938239
The HIV infected child has increased caloric needs, yet multiple factors interfere with adequate nutritional intake. Nutritional support is needed to maintain optimum nourishment during the symptomatic period, in order to prevent further deterioration of the nutritional status during acute episodes of infection, and to improve the nutritional status during the stable symptom free period. With the advent of better methods of detection and better therapies, we are beginning to see HIV infected children surviving longer; and thus coming under the care of a host of affiliated medical personnel, including dentists. Oral health care workers need to provide dental care for HIV-infected patients and recognize as well as understand the significance of oral manifestations associated with HIV infection. The present article reviews, on the basis of literature, nutritional status, nutrition assessment and counseling in HIV/AIDS children and adolescents. Dental treatment considerations in these, as well as modifications in treatment if required, are also discussed.
One in three children in Britain lives in poverty (households whose income was less than 50% average earnings). Low income is associated with poor nutrition at all stages of life, from lower rates of breast-feeding to higher intakes of saturated fatty acids and lower intakes of antioxidant nutrients. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that poor nutrition in childhood is associated with both short-term and long-term adverse consequences such as poorer immune status, higher caries rates and poorer cognitive function and learning ability. These problems arise primarily because parents do not have enough money to spend on food, not because money is being spent unwisely. Policy options to improve the dietary health of poor children include: giving more money to the parents by increasing Income Support (social security) payments, providing food stamps or vouchers, and using food budget standards to inform the levels of income needed to purchase an adequate diet; feeding children directly at school (not only at lunchtime but also at breakfast or homework clubs), by providing free fruit at school, and by increasing entitlement to free food amongst children living in households with low incomes; improving access to a healthy and affordable diet by first identifying 'food deserts' and then considering with retailers and local planners how best to provide food in an economical and sustainable way. The value of using food budget standards is illustrated with data relating expenditure on food to growth in children from 'at-risk' families (on low income, overcrowded, headed by a lone parent or with four or more children under 16 years of age) living in a poor area in London. Lower levels of expenditure are strongly associated with poorer growth and health, independent of factors such as birth weight, mother's height, or risk score. The present paper provides evidence that supports the need to review Government legislation in light of nutrition-related inequalities in the
Noda, Yuka; Iide, Kazuhide; Masuda, Reika; Kishida, Reina; Nagata, Atsumi; Hirakawa, Fumiko; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Imamura, Hiroyuki
The purpose of this study was: 1) to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise athletes about nutrition practices that might enhance performance, and 2) to evaluate the dietary iron intake and blood iron status of Japanese collegiate soccer players. The subjects were 31 soccer players and 15 controls. Dietary information was obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. The mean carbohydrate (6.9 g.kg-1 BW) and protein (1.3 g/kg) intakes of the soccer players were marginal in comparisons with recommended targets. The mean intakes of calcium, magnesium, vitamin A, B1, B2, and C were lower than the respective Japanese recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate dietary intakes in the soccer players. The mean intakes of green and other vegetables, milk and dairy products, fruits, and eggs were lower than the recommended targets. Thus, we recommended athletes to increase the intake of these foodstuffs along with slight increase in carbohydrate and lean meat. The mean intake of iron was higher than the respective RDA in the soccer players. A high prevalence of hemolysis (71%) in the soccer players was found. None of the soccer players and controls had anemia. Two soccer players had iron depletion, while none was found in the controls. In those players who had iron deficiency, the training load need to be lowered and/or iron intake may be increased.
McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Tlustos, Christina; Gibney, Michael J
I is an important mineral for health, required for the production of key thyroid hormones, which are essential for cellular metabolism, growth and physical development. Hence, adequate I is crucial at all stages of life, but imperative during pregnancy for fetal brain development and during a child's early life for neurodevelopment. Within Ireland, limited information exists on population I intakes and status. Therefore, the purposes of the present analysis were to estimate dietary I intakes and to analyse urinary iodine (UI) status using the cross-sectional National Adult Nutrition Survey 2008-2010 and the most recent Irish Total Diet Study. Median I intakes in the total population (n 1106) were adequate with only 26 % of the population being classified as below the estimated average requirement (EAR). Milk consumption was the major source of I in the diet, contributing 45 % to total intake. Likewise, median UI concentrations (107 µg/l) indicated 'optimal' I nutrition according to the WHO cut-off points. In our cohort, 77 % of women of childbearing age (18-50 years) did not meet the EAR recommendation set for pregnant women. Although I is deemed to be sufficient in the majority of adult populations resident in Ireland, any changes to the current dairy practices could significantly impact intake and status. Continued monitoring should be of priority to ensure that all subgroups of the population are I sufficient.
Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.
The contents of this working paper comprise a series of journal articles focusing on nutrition and special groups. Papers relating to those on the aged are entitled: Nutrition and Health of Older People, and Nutrition for the Aged--A Summation. Those on the American Indian discuss nutrition intake and food patterns, contemporary dietary patterns,…
Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others
In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)
Prentice, Ann; Schoenmakers, Inez; Laskey, M Ann; de Bono, Stephanie; Ginty, Fiona; Goldberg, Gail R
The growth and development of the human skeleton requires an adequate supply of many different nutritional factors. Classical nutrient deficiencies are associated with stunting (e.g. energy, protein, Zn), rickets (e.g. vitamin D) and other bone abnormalities (e.g. Cu, Zn, vitamin C). In recent years there has been interest in the role nutrition may play in bone growth at intakes above those required to prevent classical deficiencies, particularly in relation to optimising peak bone mass and minimising osteoporosis risk. There is evidence to suggest that peak bone mass and later fracture risk are influenced by the pattern of growth in childhood and by nutritional exposures in utero, in infancy and during childhood and adolescence. Of the individual nutrients, particular attention has been paid to Ca, vitamin D, protein and P. There has also been interest in several food groups, particularly dairy products, fruit and vegetables and foods contributing to acid-base balance. However, it is not possible at the present time to define dietary reference values using bone health as a criterion, and the question of what type of diet constitutes the best support for optimal bone growth and development remains open. Prudent recommendations (Department of Health, 1998; World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization, 2003) are the same as those for adults, i.e. to consume a Ca intake close to the reference nutrient intake, optimise vitamin D status through adequate summer sunshine exposure (and diet supplementation where appropriate), be physically active, have a body weight in the healthy range, restrict salt intake and consume plenty of fruit and vegetables.
Bell, Jack; Bauer, Judith; Capra, Sandra; Pulle, Chrys Ranjeev
Inadequate energy and protein intake leads to malnutrition; a clinical disease not without consequence post acute hip fracture. Data detailing malnutrition prevalence, incidence, and intake adequacy varies widely in this patient population. The limited success of reported interventional strategies may result from poorly defined diagnostic criteria, failure to address root causes of inadequate intake, or errors associated with selection bias. This pragmatic study used a sequential, explanatory mixed methods design to identify malnutrition aetiology, prevalence, incidence, intake adequacy, and barriers to intake in a representative sample of 44 acute hip fracture patients (73% female; mean age, 81.7 ± 10.8 years). On admission, malnutrition prevalence was 52.2%. Energy and protein requirements were only met twice in 58 weighed 24 h food records. Mean daily patient energy intake was 2957 kJ (50.9 ± 36.1 kJ·kg(-1)) and mean protein intake was 22.8 g (0.6 ± 0.46 g·kg(-1)). This contributed to a further in-patient malnutrition incidence of 11%. Barriers to intake included patient perceptions that malnutrition and (or) inadequate intake were not a problem, as well as patient and clinician perceptions that treatment for malnutrition was not a priority. Malnutrition needs to be treated as a disease not without consequence, and food should be considered as a medicine after acute hip fracture.
Albertson, Ann M; Thompson, Douglas R; Franko, Debra L; Holschuh, Norton M
Few studies have explored the relationship between sugar content in cereal and health outcome among children and adolescents. This study was designed to investigate the associations between ready-to-eat cereals, categorized by sugar content, with weight indicators and nutrient intake profiles. Data collected from 6- to 18-year-old US children and adolescents (N = 9660) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-06 were used to analyze cereal consumption. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age, waist-to-height ratio, percent overweight or obese, mean day-1 intake, and usual daily intake of macronutrients and micronutrients were the dependent variables; day-1 cereal intake, categorized by tertiles of sugar content, was the main independent variable. Weighted regression with adjustment for the survey design was used to model the dependent variables as a function of day-1 cereal intake, adjusting for age group, sex, race/ethnicity, total day-1 intake of energy, calcium and sugar, the Healthy Eating Index-2005 total score, and household income. For all tertiles of sugar classifications of cereal, children who consumed cereal had significantly lower BMI compared with children who consumed no cereal (P's < .05). Similarly, when compared with children who consumed no cereal, those who ate cereal consumed significantly less fat and cholesterol and significantly more carbohydrates, sugar, whole grains, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B(6), folic acid, vitamin B(12), vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Lower weight and positive nutrient profiles were associated with cereal consumption regardless of sugar content.
Energy density of the diets of Japanese adults in relation to food and nutrient intake and general and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional analysis from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan.
Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi
The associations of dietary energy density with dietary intake and obesity have been largely unexplored in non-Western populations. The present cross-sectional study examined the associations using data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan. Dietary intake was assessed using a 1-d semi-weighed dietary record in 15 618 Japanese adults aged ≥20 years. Mean dietary energy density (calculated on the basis of foods only) was 5·98 (sd 1·20) kJ/g in men and 5·72 (sd 1·16) kJ/g in women. Dietary energy density was positively associated with intakes of bread, noodles (only men), meat, fats and oils, and sugar and confectionery but inversely with intakes of white rice (only men), potatoes, pulses, vegetables, fruits, and fish and shellfish. For nutrient intake, dietary energy density was positively associated with total fat and SFA but inversely associated with all other nutrients examined such as protein, carbohydrate, alcohol (only women), dietary fibre, and several vitamins and minerals, including Na. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, dietary energy density was positively associated with abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥80 cm) in women (adjusted prevalence ratio between the extreme tertiles 1·07; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·12; P for trend=0·003). Dietary energy density was also positively but non-significantly associated with general obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) in women (P for trend=0·08). There were no such associations in men. In conclusion, lower energy density of the diets of Japanese adults was associated with favourable food and nutrient intake patterns, except for higher Na, and, in only women, a lower prevalence of abdominal obesity.
Ross, Alastair B; Pineau, Nicolas; Kochhar, Sunil; Bourgeois, Alexandre; Beaumont, Maurice; Decarli, Bernard
Estimation of whole-grain (WG) food intake in epidemiological and nutritional studies is normally based on general diet FFQ, which are not designed to specifically capture WG intake. To estimate WG cereal intake, we developed a forty-three-item FFQ focused on cereal product intake over the past month. We validated this questionnaire against a 3-d-weighed food record (3DWFR) in thirty-one subjects living in the French-speaking part of Switzerland (nineteen female and twelve male). Subjects completed the FFQ on day 1 (FFQ1), the 3DWFR between days 2 and 13 and the FFQ again on day 14 (FFQ2). The subjects provided a fasting blood sample within 1 week of FFQ2. Total cereal intake, total WG intake, intake of individual cereals, intake of different groups of cereal products and alkylresorcinol (AR) intake were calculated from both FFQ and the 3DWFR. Plasma AR, possible biomarkers for WG wheat and rye intake were also analysed. The total WG intake for the 3DWFR, FFQ1, FFQ2 was 26 (sd 22), 28 (sd 25) and 21 (sd 16) g/d, respectively. Mean plasma AR concentration was 55.8 (sd 26.8) nmol/l. FFQ1, FFQ2 and plasma AR were correlated with the 3DWFR (r 0.72, 0.81 and 0.57, respectively). Adjustment for age, sex, BMI and total energy intake did not affect the results. This FFQ appears to give a rapid and adequate estimate of WG cereal intake in free-living subjects.
Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J.; Rice, B. L.; Lane, H. W.
The authors review studies conducted to define nutritional requirements for astronauts during space flight and to assess nutrition before, during, and after space flight. Topics include space food systems, research and limitations on spacecraft, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, energy requirements, dietary intake during space flight, bone demineralization, gastrointestinal function, blood volume, and nutrition requirements for space flight. Benefits of space-related nutrition research are highlighted.
Sathyamala, C; Kurian, NJ; DE, Anuradha; Saxena, KB; Priya, Ritu; Baru, Rama; Srivastava, Ravi; Mittal, Onkar; Noronha, Claire; Samson, Meera; Khalsa, Sneh; Puliyel, Ashish
The Public Report on Health (PRoH) was initiated in 2005 to understand public health issues for people from diverse backgrounds living in different region specific contexts. States were selected purposively to capture a diversity of situations from better-performing states and not-so-well performing states. Based on these considerations, six states – the better-performing states of Tamil Nadu (TN), Maharashtra (MH) and Himachal Pradesh (HP) and the not-so-well performing states of Madhya Pradesh (MP), Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Orissa (OR) – were selected. This is a report of a study using food diaries to assess food intakes in sample households from six states of India. Method: Food diaries were maintained and all the raw food items that went into making the food in the household was measured using a measuring cup that converted volumes into dry weights for each item. The proportion consumed by individual adults was recorded. A nutrient calculator that computed the total nutrient in the food items consumed, using the ‘Nutritive Value of Indian Foods by Gopalan et al., was developed to analyze the data and this is now been made available as freeware (http://bit.ly/ncalculator). The total nutrients consumed by the adults, men and women was calculated. Results: Identifying details having been removed, the raw data is available, open access on the internet http://bit.ly/foodlogxls.The energy consumption in our study was 2379 kcal per capita per day. According to the Summary Report World Agriculture the per capita food consumption in 1997-99 was 2803 which is higher than that in the best state in India. The consumption for developing countries a decade ago was 2681 and in Sub-Saharan Africa it was 2195. Our data is compatible in 2005 with the South Asia consumption of 2403 Kcal per capita per day in 1997-99. For comparison, in industrialized countries it was 3380. In Tamil Nadu it was a mere 1817 kcal. Discussion: The nutrient consumption in this study suggests that
Figueroa Pedraza, Dixis
We approach the determining factors and results of food and nutritional security in Brazil. The following aspects are considered: i. The concept to be studied; ii, The form of measuring a particular factor; iii. A Brazilian characterization on the subject, and iv. conclusions. Nutritional status is primarily a result of the balance between the needs and the spending of food energy and other essential nutrients and, secondarily, of multiple determinants in a given space, represented by physical, genetic, biological, cultural, psychosocio-economic and environmental factors. According to this, there are 3 basic causes of nutritional disorders: food, health and care. Because the repercussions of the economic changes on the nutritional status are not immediate, food security is only one factor of nutritional status and because subjects adapt differently to low food intake, the most adequate nutritional indicators in studies of food and nutritional security are the childhood indicators and the indicators of historical trends. The interpretation of nutritional indicators poses 3 main problems: to determine if the problem is really one of food security; to establish the degree of importance of the problem, and to determine which could be the appropriate normative intervention. The studies of nutritional status in Brazil show considerable improvement in the anthropometric indicators, emphasizing that the worst conditions prevail in the North East region and in the rural areas. Regarding micronutrient deficiencies, the absence of nationwide studies and the great advances in the programs to tackle this deficiencies, mainly vitamin A and iodine deficiencies are highlighted.
Monica, Dorothy; Cullen, Karen Weber; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Gray, Heewon Lee; Sikorskii, Alla
Introduction The objective of this exploratory study was to determine whether fruit and vegetable consumption differed by race/ethnicity, by origin and nativity among Hispanics, and by language preference (as an indicator of acculturation) among foreign-born Hispanics. Methods We recruited 723 women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and orally administered a questionnaire containing demographic items, validated measures of food security status and social desirability trait, and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System fruit and vegetable module. Differences in intakes of 100% fruit juice, fruit, cooked or canned beans, and dark green, orange-colored, and other vegetables were assessed by using analysis of covariance with Bonferroni post hoc tests. Analyses were controlled for age, pregnancy status, breastfeeding status, food security status, educational attainment, and social desirability trait. Results The frequency of vegetable intake differed by race/ethnicity (cooked or canned beans were consumed more often among Hispanic than non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white or other participants, orange-colored vegetables were consumed more often among Hispanics than non-Hispanic black participants, and other vegetables were consumed more often among non-Hispanic white or other than among non-Hispanic black and Hispanic participants), origin (other vegetables were consumed more often among Columbian and other Hispanics than Dominican participants) and nativity (orange-colored vegetables were consumed more often among foreign-born than US-born Hispanics). Fruit and vegetable intake did not differ by language preference among foreign-born Hispanics. Conclusion Differences in fruit and vegetable consumption among WIC participants by race/ethnicity and by Hispanic origin and nativity may have implications for WIC nutrition policies and nutrition education efforts. PMID:27560723
Méndez Estévez, Eugenia; Romero Pita, Juana; Fernández Domínguez, Ma José; Troitiño Álvarez, Patricia; García Dopazo, Silvia; Jardón Blanco, Milagros; Rey Charlo, Manuela; Rivero Cotilla, María Isabel; Rodríguez Fernández, Cristina; Menéndez Rodríguez, Martín
Determinar el estado nutricional de los ancianos de un área de salud rural y ver si la institucionalización es un factor de riesgo. Diseño del estudio: Estudio observacional descriptivo en SAP de Xinzo de Limia 3. Sujetos: El tamaño muestral fue de 311 pacientes mayores de 75 años, seleccionados por muestreo aleatorio simple. Mediciones: Edad, sexo, estado civil, nivel de estudios, institucionalización o no, estado nutricional: valorado mediante el cuestionario MNA y parámetros antropométricos; apoyo social: medido mediante la escala de Duke- Unc; Calidad de vida: con la escala Euro-Quol; patologías asociadas; trastornos de la deglución; tratamiento habitual: tipo de dieta, fármacos. Resultados principales: La mediana de edad era de 82,55 años (DT 4,83 años) y el 51,8% eran mujeres, el 52,7% estaba casado y el 76,8% referían estudios primarios. La mediana de patologías por individuo era del 3 (DT: 1,42) y del número de fármacos usados era de 4 (DT 2,44). El 54,70% vivía acompañado por su pareja u otro familiar. Estaban institucionalizados el 17,4%. La mediana de calidad de vida era de 6,84. Según los resultados del MNA no encontramos ningún caso de desnutrición, pero un 20.3% de los pacientes presentan valores de riesgo. En el análisis multivariante encontramos relación entre la presencia o no de desnutrición y la institucionalización OR = 0,40 (IC 95%, 0,18- 0,87), con el nº de patologías OR = 1,30 (IC 95%, 1,03-1,64), calidad de vida OR = 1,40 (IC 95%, 1,14-1,71). Conclusiones: Los pacientes ancianos validos estudiados presentan un buen estado nutricional. Los pacientes con riesgo de presentar desnutrición son un 20,3%, siendo la institucionalización, los mayores de 85 años con mayor número de patologías los que presentan mayor riesgo de desnutrición. La peor calidad de vida y el menor apoyo social influyen negativamente.
Epidemiologic studies assessing chickpea/hummus consumption and the association with nutrient intake, diet quality, and health biomarkers are lacking. The association between chickpea/hummus consumption and nutrient intake, dietary quality, and health biomarkers was examined in adults using data fro...
The consumption of whole grains and its association with nutrient intake has not been assessed in a recent nationally representative population. The objective was to examine the association of consumption of whole grains, using the new whole-grain definition, with diet quality and nutrient intake in...
Despite its contribution to nutrient intake and status, milk and dairy product consumption by children and adolescents in many countries has waned over the past decades, with a substantial proportion of youth failing to meet intake recommendations. Dairy products remain an important dietary source o...
The effect of different breakfast consumption patterns on nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity status is unknown. The objective was to compare nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity measures of consumers assigned to different breakfast patterns with breakfast skippers. Th...
Lluch, Anne; Maillot, Matthieu; Gazan, Rozenn; Vieux, Florent; Delaere, Fabien; Vaudaine, Sarah; Darmon, Nicole
Dietary changes needed to achieve nutritional adequacy for 33 nutrients were determined for 1719 adults from a representative French national dietary survey. For each individual, an iso-energy nutritionally adequate diet was generated using diet modeling, staying as close as possible to the observed diet. The French food composition table was completed with free sugar (FS) content. Results were analyzed separately for individuals with FS intakes in their observed diets ≤10% or >10% of their energy intake (named below FS-ACCEPTABLE and FS-EXCESS, respectively). The FS-EXCESS group represented 41% of the total population (average energy intake of 14.2% from FS). Compared with FS-ACCEPTABLE individuals, FS-EXCESS individuals had diets of lower nutritional quality and consumed more energy (2192 vs. 2123 kcal/day), particularly during snacking occasions (258 vs. 131 kcal/day) (all p-values < 0.01). In order to meet nutritional targets, for both FS-ACCEPTABLE and FS-EXCESS individuals, the main dietary changes in optimized diets were significant increases in fresh fruits, starchy foods, water, hot beverages and plain yogurts; and significant decreases in mixed dishes/sandwiches, meat/eggs/fish and cheese. For FS-EXCESS individuals only, the optimization process significantly increased vegetables and significantly decreased sugar-sweetened beverages, sweet products and fruit juices. The diets of French adults with excessive intakes of FS are of lower nutritional quality, but can be optimized via specific dietary changes. PMID:28230722
Zhao, Ai; Xue, Yong; Zhang, Yumei; Li, Wenjun; Yu, Kai; Wang, Peiyu
Objective Objectives of this study were 1) to investigate the mineral intake by Chinese lactating women, 2) to explore the dietary source of minerals, and 3) the ratios between different dietary minerals. Methods A total of 468 lactating women in 5–240 days post-partum participated in this study. Food intakes by participants were measured using one time of 24-hour dietary recall, and minerals from food were calculated based on the Chinese Food Composition Table, second edition. Results In post-partum, women had inadequate food intake. 81.0% of women’s daily intake of dairy products was lower than 300g, and 97.1% of women’s daily intake of salt over 6g. For mineral intake, there were 81.8%, 59.0%, 47.6%, 45.7% and 66.8% of women’s calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and selenium intake lower than the estimated average requirement, respectively, and 91.7% of women’s excessive intake of sodium. The calcium/phosphorus and sodium/potassium ratios were 0.41±0.26/1 and 3.13±2.89/1, respectively. Considering the dietary sources of minerals, 27.3%, 25.3% and 30.1% of iron, zinc and calcium were from animal-based food, respectively, and 60.3%, 66.1% and 58.0% of iron, zinc and calcium were from plant-based food, respectively. The phosphorus-protein ratio was 0.014±0.003/1. Lactation stage was associated with nutrient intake. Women within 30 days post-partum and the ones who live in Guangzhou had a significantly lower intake of certain minerals, while women with a high education experience had a high intake of calcium, potassium, iron and zinc. Productive age, whether obese or not, and delivery ways were not associated with mineral intakes (P all >0.05). Conclusion Chinese women in three studied cities had an inappropriate food intake and resulted in both insufficient and excessive intakes of certain minerals. PMID:26730592
Fuglestad, Anita J; Fink, Birgit A; Eckerle, Judith K; Boys, Christopher J; Hoecker, Heather L; Kroupina, Maria G; Zeisel, Steven H; Georgieff, Michael K; Wozniak, Jeffrey R
This study evaluated dietary intake in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Pre-clinical research suggests that nutrient supplementation may attenuate cognitive and behavioral deficits in FASD. Currently, the dietary adequacy of essential nutrients in children with FASD is unknown. Dietary data were collected as part of a randomized, double-blind controlled trial of choline supplementation in FASD. Participants included 31 children with FASD, ages 2.5-4.9 years at enrollment. Dietary intake data was collected three times during the nine-month study via interview-administered 24-hour recalls with the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall. Dietary intake of macronutrients and 17 vitamins/minerals from food was averaged across three data collection points. Observed nutrient intakes were compared to national dietary intake data of children ages 2-5 years (What we Eat in America, NHANES 2007-2008) and to the Dietary Reference Intakes. Compared to the dietary intakes of children in the NHANES sample, children with FASD had lower intakes of saturated fat, vitamin D, and calcium. The majority (>50%) of children with FASD did not meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Adequate Intake (AI) for fiber, n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, choline, and calcium. This pattern of dietary intake in children with FASD suggests that there may be opportunities to benefit from nutritional intervention. Supplementation with several nutrients, including choline, vitamin D, and n-3 fatty acids, has been shown in animal models to attenuate the cognitive deficits of FASD. These results highlight the potential of nutritional clinical trials in FASD.
Nutrition and dietary intake and their association with mortality and hospitalisation in adults with chronic kidney disease treated with haemodialysis: protocol for DIET-HD, a prospective multinational cohort study
Palmer, Suetonia C; Ruospo, Marinella; Campbell, Katrina L; Garcia Larsen, Vanessa; Saglimbene, Valeria; Natale, Patrizia; Gargano, Letizia; Craig, Jonathan C; Johnson, David W; Tonelli, Marcello; Knight, John; Bednarek-Skublewska, Anna; Celia, Eduardo; del Castillo, Domingo; Dulawa, Jan; Ecder, Tevfik; Fabricius, Elisabeth; Frazão, João Miguel; Gelfman, Ruben; Hoischen, Susanne Hildegard; Schön, Staffan; Stroumza, Paul; Timofte, Delia; Török, Marietta; Hegbrant, Jörgen; Wollheim, Charlotta; Frantzen, Luc; Strippoli, G F M
Introduction Adults with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) treated with haemodialysis experience mortality of between 15% and 20% each year. Effective interventions that improve health outcomes for long-term dialysis patients remain unproven. Novel and testable determinants of health in dialysis are needed. Nutrition and dietary patterns are potential factors influencing health in other health settings that warrant exploration in multinational studies in men and women treated with dialysis. We report the protocol of the “DIETary intake, death and hospitalisation in adults with end-stage kidney disease treated with HaemoDialysis (DIET-HD) study,” a multinational prospective cohort study. DIET-HD will describe associations of nutrition and dietary patterns with major health outcomes for adults treated with dialysis in several countries. Methods and analysis DIET-HD will recruit approximately 10 000 adults who have ESKD treated by clinics administered by a single dialysis provider in Argentina, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden and Turkey. Recruitment will take place between March 2014 and June 2015. The study has currently recruited 8000 participants who have completed baseline data. Nutritional intake and dietary patterns will be measured using the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA2LEN) food frequency questionnaire. The primary dietary exposures will be n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption. The primary outcome will be cardiovascular mortality and secondary outcomes will be all-cause mortality, infection-related mortality and hospitalisation. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the relevant Ethics Committees in participating countries. All participants will provide written informed consent and be free to withdraw their data at any time. The findings of the study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations and to participants via regular newsletters
The Philippine Food and Nutrition Program deliver priority short, simple, clear, and action filled nutrition messages in different languages and dialects to different audiences. Its 1st priority task is to promote breast feeding. It informs mothers that breast milk is the most nutritious food for infants and that it protects them from infectious diseases. The program also encourages breast feeding as long as possible. If mothers cannot breast feed, they should talk to an infant nutrition expert to help them choose the best formula and learn about proper preparation. A 4-6 month infant needs to begin eating small amounts of semisolid nutritious foods. Moreover these foods must include body building foods, such as meat and eggs, and energy providing foods, such as corn and rice. Mothers must 1st attend to food needs of infants and preschoolers since they are more likely to suffer malnutrition than older children and adults. This is especially important when they suffer from an infection. Specifically, the very young need a variety of foods each day including the vitamin and mineral rich vegetables and fruits. In fact, families should grow their own fruits and vegetables to ensure an adequate supply. Hands must be cleaned with soap and water after defecation and before preparing foods. Mothers should add fats and oils when preparing foods because they provide concentrated energy, fatty acids, and fat soluble vitamins. Pregnant mothers must consume increased amounts of fish, beans, and other body building foods as well as regulating foods (vegetables and fruits). Mothers must also space births. They should weigh children each month to monitor nutritional levels. Moreover they must pay attention to signs indicating inadequate and insufficient food intake e.g., underweight and night blindness.
Singler, K; Goisser, S; Volkert, D
The prevalence of malnutrition or the risk of malnourishment is high among orthogeriatric patients and a poor nutritional status is associated with a negative outcome. A comprehensive management of preoperative and postoperative nutritional and fluid intake in these patients can help to improve the situation. The management includes identification of patients affected, a thorough assessment of the nutritional status, work-up of possible underlying causes, documentation of nutritional and fluid intake and, most importantly, procedures to improve the preoperative and postoperative nutritional situation. This article gives an overview of the recently updated recommendations on nutritional management in orthogeriatric patients as published by the orthogeriatric working group of the German Geriatric Society.
Summary Protein energy wasting is common in patients with CKD and ESRD and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, such as increased rates of hospitalization and death, in these patients. A multitude of factors can affect the nutritional and metabolic status of patients with CKD, including decreased dietary nutrient intake, catabolic effects of renal replacement therapy, systemic inflammation, metabolic and hormonal derangements, and comorbid conditions (such as diabetes and depression). Unique aspects of CKD also confound reliable assessment of nutritional status, further complicating management of this comorbid condition. In patients in whom preventive measures and oral dietary intake from regular meals cannot help them maintain adequate nutritional status, nutritional supplementation, administered orally, enterally, or parenterally, is effective in replenishing protein and energy stores. The advantages of oral nutritional supplements include proven efficacy, safety, and compliance. Anabolic steroids and exercise, with nutritional supplementation or alone, improve protein stores and represent potential additional approaches for the treatment of PEW. There are several emerging novel therapies, such as appetite stimulants, anti-inflammatory interventions, and anabolic agents. PMID:23970134
Ikizler, T Alp
Protein energy wasting is common in patients with CKD and ESRD and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, such as increased rates of hospitalization and death, in these patients. A multitude of factors can affect the nutritional and metabolic status of patients with CKD, including decreased dietary nutrient intake, catabolic effects of renal replacement therapy, systemic inflammation, metabolic and hormonal derangements, and comorbid conditions (such as diabetes and depression). Unique aspects of CKD also confound reliable assessment of nutritional status, further complicating management of this comorbid condition. In patients in whom preventive measures and oral dietary intake from regular meals cannot help them maintain adequate nutritional status, nutritional supplementation, administered orally, enterally, or parenterally, is effective in replenishing protein and energy stores. The advantages of oral nutritional supplements include proven efficacy, safety, and compliance. Anabolic steroids and exercise, with nutritional supplementation or alone, improve protein stores and represent potential additional approaches for the treatment of PEW. There are several emerging novel therapies, such as appetite stimulants, anti-inflammatory interventions, and anabolic agents.
The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Fresh Start (WFS) is a randomized controlled trial of nutrition education to promote farmers' market fruit and vegetable (F/V) purchases and consumption among women enrolled in WIC. Our objectives were to use baseline ...
The association of coffee intake with liver cancer risk is mediated by biomarkers of inflammation and hepatocellular injury: data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition123
Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bamia, Christina; Drogan, Dagmar; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Romieu, Isabelle; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Pischon, Tobias; Tsilidis, Kostas; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Bouton-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Racine, Antoine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Tsironis, Christos; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Saitakis, George; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lukic, Marko; Braaten, Tonje; Quirós, J Ramón; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Sánchez, María-José; Chilarque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanas, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Sund, Malin; Wallström, Peter; Ohlsson, Bodil; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Stepien, Magdalena; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Assi, Nada; Murphy, Neil; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
Background: Higher coffee intake has been purportedly related to a lower risk of liver cancer. However, it remains unclear whether this association may be accounted for by specific biological mechanisms. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the potential mediating roles of inflammatory, metabolic, liver injury, and iron metabolism biomarkers on the association between coffee intake and the primary form of liver cancer—hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Design: We conducted a prospective nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition among 125 incident HCC cases matched to 250 controls using an incidence-density sampling procedure. The association of coffee intake with HCC risk was evaluated by using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression that accounted for smoking, alcohol consumption, hepatitis infection, and other established liver cancer risk factors. The mediating effects of 21 biomarkers were evaluated on the basis of percentage changes and associated 95% CIs in the estimated regression coefficients of models with and without adjustment for biomarkers individually and in combination. Results: The multivariable-adjusted RR of having ≥4 cups (600 mL) coffee/d compared with <2 cups (300 mL)/d was 0.25 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.62; P-trend = 0.006). A statistically significant attenuation of the association between coffee intake and HCC risk and thereby suspected mediation was confirmed for the inflammatory biomarker IL-6 and for the biomarkers of hepatocellular injury glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and total bilirubin, which—in combination—attenuated the regression coefficients by 72% (95% CI: 7%, 239%). Of the investigated biomarkers, IL-6, AST, and GGT produced the highest change in the regression coefficients: 40%, 56%, and 60%, respectively. Conclusion: These data suggest that the inverse association of coffee intake
Meyer, Nanna L; Manore, Melinda M; Helle, Christine
Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter sports, however, vary greatly regarding their nutritional requirements due to variable physiological and physique characteristics, energy and substrate demands, and environmental training and competition conditions. What most winter sport athletes have in common is a relatively lean physique and high-intensity training periods, thus they require greater energy and nutrient intakes, along with adequate food and fluid before, during, and after training. Event fuelling is most challenging for cross-country skiers competing in long events, ski jumpers aiming to reduce their body weight, and those winter sport athletes incurring repeated qualification rounds and heats. These athletes need to ensure carbohydrate availability throughout competition. Finally, winter sport athletes may benefit from dietary and sport supplements; however, attention should be paid to safety and efficacy if supplementation is considered.
Poehlman, E T; Dvorak, R V
Alzheimer disease is one of the leading causes of death among older individuals. Unexplained weight loss and cachexia are frequent clinical findings in patients with Alzheimer disease. Thus, it has been postulated that Alzheimer disease may be associated with dysfunction in body weight regulation. This brief review examines the interrelations among energy intake, energy expenditure, and body composition in Alzheimer disease. We explored whether abnormally high daily energy expenditures, low energy intakes, or both contribute to unexplained weight loss and a decline in nutritional status. Specifically, we considered studies that examined energy intake, body composition, and daily energy expenditure and its components. The application of doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry to understand the etiology of wasting has increased our knowledge regarding the relation among energy expenditure, physical activity levels, and body composition in Alzheimer disease patients. Although the number of studies are limited, results do not support the notion that a hypermetabolic state contributes to unexplained weight loss in Alzheimer disease, even in cachectic patients. Recent findings are presented suggesting an association between abnormally elevated levels of physical activity energy expenditure and elevated appendicular skeletal muscle mass and energy intake in Alzheimer disease patients. Clinical strategies aimed at developing lifestyle and dietary interventions to maintain adequate energy intake, restore energy balance, and maintain skeletal muscle mass should be a future area of investigation in Alzheimer disease research.
diets stimulate ventilation and increase alveolar and arterial oxygen pressures at low ambient oxygen pressures 9 2 . Recent preliminary data indicates...relatively low during the cool weather conditions and fecal volume was assumed to be relatively low due to the low caloric intake; hence an arbitrary...intake over the first two days at altitude: low (0 to 733 g, n=9), medium (334 to 666 g, n--24), and high (> 666 g, n=17). Final Questionnaire On the
Mendler, Edward Charles
The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.
McIntyre, Lynn; Glanville, N. Theresa; Raine, Kim D.; Dayle, Jutta B.; Anderson, Bonnie; Battaglia, Noreen
Background Women who live in disadvantaged circumstances in Canada exhibit dietary intakes below recommended levels, but their children often do not. One reason for this difference may be that mothers modify their own food intake to spare their children nutritional deprivation. The objective of our study was to document whether or not low-income lone mothers compromise their own diets to feed their children. Methods We studied 141 low-income lone mothers with at least 2 children under the age of 14 years who lived in Atlantic Canada. Women were identified through community organizations using a variety of recruitment strategies. The women were asked weekly for 1 month to recall their food intake over the previous 24 hours; they also reported their children's (n = 333) food intake. Mothers also completed a questionnaire about “food insecurity,” that is, a lack of access to adequate, nutritious food through socially acceptable means, during each interview. Results Household food insecurity was reported by 78% of mothers during the study month. Mothers' dietary intakes and the adequacy of intake were consistently poorer than their children's intake overall and over the course of a month. The difference in adequacy of intake between mothers and children widened from Time 1, when the family had the most money to purchase food, to Time 4, when the family had the least money. The children experienced some improvement in nutritional intake at Time 3, which was possibly related to food purchases for them associated with receipt of the Child Tax Benefit Credit or the Goods and Services Tax Credit. Interpretation Our study demonstrates that low-income lone mothers compromise their own nutritional intake in order to preserve the adequacy of their children's diets. PMID:12642423
Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Cho, Mi Sook; Song, Won O.
Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC) from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA); dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted. PMID:27240399
Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Cho, Mi Sook; Song, Won O
Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC) from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA); dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted.
Stellingwerff, Trent; Pyne, David B; Burke, Louise M
Elite athletes who compete in aquatic sports face the constant challenge of arduous training and competition schedules in difficult and changing environmental conditions. The huge range of water temperatures to which swimmers and other aquatic athletes are often exposed (16-31 °C for open-water swimming), coupled with altered aquatic thermoregulatory responses as compared with terrestrial athletes, can challenge the health, safety, and performance of these athletes. Other environmental concerns include air and water pollution, altitude, and jetlag and travel fatigue. However, these challenging environments provide the potential for several nutritional interventions that can mitigate the negative effects and enhance adaptation and performance. These interventions include providing adequate hydration and carbohydrate and iron intake while at altitude; optimizing body composition and fluid and carbohydrate intake when training or competing in varying water temperatures; and maximizing fluid and food hygiene when traveling. There is also emerging information on nutritional interventions to manage jetlag and travel fatigue, such as the timing of food intake and the strategic use of caffeine or melatonin. Aquatic athletes often undertake their major global competitions where accommodations feature cafeteria-style buffet eating. These environments can often lead to inappropriate choices in the type and quantity of food intake, which is of particular concern to divers and synchronized swimmers who compete in physique-specific sports, as well as swimmers who have a vastly reduced energy expenditure during their taper. Taken together, planned nutrition and hydration interventions can have a favorable impact on aquatic athletes facing varying environmental challenges.
Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Román-Viñas, Blanca; Serra-Majem, Lluís
The Mediterranean dietary pattern, through a healthy profile of fat intake, low proportion of carbohydrate, low glycemic index, high content of dietary fiber, antioxidant compounds, and anti-inflammatory effects, reduces the risk of certain pathologies, such as cancer or Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). Nutritional adequacy is the comparison between the nutrient requirement and the intake of a certain individual or population. In population groups, the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy can be assessed by the probability approach or using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) cut-point method. However, dietary patterns can also be used as they have moderate to good validity to assess adequate intakes of some nutrients. The objective of this study was to review the available evidence on the Nutritional Adequacy of the Mediterranean Diet. The inclusion of foods typical of the Mediterranean diet and greater adherence to this healthy pattern was related to a better nutrient profile, both in children and adults, with a lower prevalence of individuals showing inadequate intakes of micronutrients. Therefore, the Mediterranean diet could be used in public health nutrition policies in order to prevent micronutrient deficiencies in the most vulnerable population groups. PMID:24394536
Charlton, Karen; Probst, Yasmine; Kiene, Gabriella
To address mild iodine deficiency in Australia, a mandatory fortification program of iodised salt in bread was implemented in 2009. This study aimed to determine factors associated with achieving an adequate dietary iodine intake in the Australian population post-fortification, and to assess whether bread consumption patterns affect iodine intake in high-risk groups. Using nationally representative data of repeated 24-h dietary recalls from the 2011–2012 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, dietary iodine intakes and food group contributions were compared by age, socioeconomic status (SES), and geographical remoteness (N = 7735). The association between fortified bread intake and adequacy of iodine intake (meeting age and sex-specific Estimated Average Requirements) was investigated using logistic regression models in women of childbearing age 14–50 years (n = 3496) and children aged 2–18 years (n = 1772). The effect of SES on bread consumption was further investigated in a sub group of children aged 5–9 years (n = 488). Main sources of iodine intake at the time of the survey were cereal and cereal products, followed by milk products and dishes. Differences in iodine intake and dietary iodine habits according to age, SES and location were found (p < 0.001) for women of child-bearing age. Fortified bread consumption at ≥100 g/day was associated with five times greater odds of achieving an adequate iodine intake (OR 5.0, 95% CI 4.96–5.13; p < 0.001) compared to lower bread consumption in women and 12 times in children (OR 12.34, 95% CI 1.71–89.26; p < 0.001). Disparities in dietary iodine intake exist within sectors of the Australian population, even after mandatory fortification of a staple food. On-going monitoring and surveillance of iodine status is required. PMID:27827915
Nordin, Stacia M; Boyle, Marie; Kemmer, Teresa M
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all people should have consistent access to an appropriately nutritious diet of food and water, coupled with a sanitary environment, adequate health services, and care that ensure a healthy and active life for all household members. The Academy supports policies, systems, programs, and practices that work with developing nations to achieve nutrition security and self-sufficiency while being environmentally and economically sustainable. For nations to achieve nutrition security, all people must have access to a variety of nutritious foods and potable drinking water; knowledge, resources, and skills for healthy living; prevention, treatment, and care for diseases affecting nutrition status; and safety-net systems during crisis situations, such as natural disasters or deleterious social and political systems. More than 2 billion people are micronutrient deficient; 1.5 billion people are overweight or obese; 870 million people have inadequate food energy intake; and 783 million people lack potable drinking water. Adequate nutrient intake is a concern, independent of weight status. Although this article focuses on nutritional deficiencies in developing nations, global solutions for excesses and deficiencies need to be addressed. In an effort to achieve nutrition security, lifestyles, policies, and systems (eg, food, water, health, energy, education/knowledge, and economic) contributing to sustainable resource use, environmental management, health promotion, economic stability, and positive social environments are required. Food and nutrition practitioners can get involved in promoting and implementing effective and sustainable policies, systems, programs, and practices that support individual, community, and national efforts.
Nazni, Peerkhan; Vimala, Srinivasan
Purpose Nutrition is an important component of any physical fitness program. The main dietary goal for active individuals is to obtain adequate nutrition to optimize health fitness and to increase sports performance. The present study aims to assess the nutrition knowledge, attitude and practice among the selected athletes. Methods Athletes from five different private colleges situated in Salem District, Tamilnadu, India were selected. A total number of 102 athletes, 32 sportsmen belong to Volleyball discipline, 25 belongs to weightlifter discipline and 45 belong to runners discipline in sports. All the selected athletes were including in the study. The Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) questionnaire contained ten questions about nutrition knowledge, nine questions about attitudes, and ten questions about dietary practice were collected from the selected athletes. Dietary composition of the sportsmen is also assessed. The collected data was coded and used for evaluation. Results Results about KAP revealed that 42 per cent of the volleyball players had good nutritional knowledge (60–69per cent) compared to weight lifters (43per cent) who had satisfactory (50–59per cent) knowledge about nutrition. Twenty nine per cent of the runners had very good (70–79per cent) knowledge about nutrition. Regarding food consumption pattern intake of cereals, other vegetables and milk was found to be less compared to the RDA for the athletes. Among the three disciplines sports persons, the mean nutrient intake of the runners is high compared to volleyball and weight lifters. Conclusion The sports disciplines strongly affected the nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices of sportsmen. The overall scores indicate that most sportsmen had good knowledge of nutrition and supplements. PMID:22375196
Markovic, Tania P; Natoli, Sharon J
Overweight and obese patients may develop paradoxical nutritional deficiency from eating high-energy foods with a poor nutrient content. In such patients, this condition is probably under-recognised, and thus untreated. The nutrient density of foods has recently been defined by a score--the naturally nutrient-rich (NNR) score--which assesses the contribution a food makes to the nutrient intake of a 2000 calorie (8360 kJ) daily diet and includes 14 key macronutrients. NNR foods are whole foods that provide the highest nutrient-to-kilojoule ratio. An awareness of the importance of the nutrient density of foods can assist health practitioners to recognise and effectively manage paradoxical nutritional deficiency. Knowledge of the nutrient density of foods helps people wanting to reduce their kilojoule intake to maintain a nutritionally sound diet, providing adequate vitamins, minerals and macronutrients.
Malnutrition is found in almost 100% of patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD) awaiting transplantation and malnutrition before transplantation leads to higher rates of post-transplant complications and worse graft survival outcomes. Reasons for protein energy malnutrition include several metabolic alterations such as inadequate intake, malabsorption, and overloaded expenditure. And also, stress from surgery, gastrointestinal reperfusion injury, immunosuppressive therapy and corticosteriods use lead to delayed bowl function recovery and disorder of nutrients absorption. In the pretransplant phase, nutritional goals include optimization of nutritional status and treatment of nutrition-related symptoms induced by hepatic decompensation. During the acute post-transplant phase, adequate nutrition is required to help support metabolic demands, replenish lost stores, prevent infection, arrive at a new immunologic balance, and promote overall recovery. In a word, it is extremely important to identify and correct nutritional deficiencies in this population and provide an adequate nutritional support during all phases of liver transplantation (LT). This study review focuses on prevalence, nutrition support, evaluation, and management of perioperative nutrition disorder in patients with ESLD undergoing LT. PMID:26605281
Zhang, Qi-Kun; Wang, Meng-Long
Malnutrition is found in almost 100% of patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD) awaiting transplantation and malnutrition before transplantation leads to higher rates of post-transplant complications and worse graft survival outcomes. Reasons for protein energy malnutrition include several metabolic alterations such as inadequate intake, malabsorption, and overloaded expenditure. And also, stress from surgery, gastrointestinal reperfusion injury, immunosuppressive therapy and corticosteriods use lead to delayed bowl function recovery and disorder of nutrients absorption. In the pretransplant phase, nutritional goals include optimization of nutritional status and treatment of nutrition-related symptoms induced by hepatic decompensation. During the acute post-transplant phase, adequate nutrition is required to help support metabolic demands, replenish lost stores, prevent infection, arrive at a new immunologic balance, and promote overall recovery. In a word, it is extremely important to identify and correct nutritional deficiencies in this population and provide an adequate nutritional support during all phases of liver transplantation (LT). This study review focuses on prevalence, nutrition support, evaluation, and management of perioperative nutrition disorder in patients with ESLD undergoing LT.
Schulze, M B; Hoffmann, K; Kroke, A; Boeing, H
Dietary pattern analysis has recently received growing attention, as it might be more appropriate in studies of diet-disease associations than the single food or nutrient approach that has dominated past epidemiological research. Factor analysis is a technique which is commonly used to identify dietary patterns within study populations. However, the ability of factor solutions to account for variance of food and nutrient intake has so far remained unclear. The present study therefore explored the statistical properties of dietary patterns with regard to the explained variance. Food intake of 8975 men and 13 379 women, assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire, was aggregated into forty-seven separate food groups. Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis and subsequent varimax rotation. Seven factors were retained for both men and women, which accounted for about 31 % of the total variance. The explained variance was relatively high (>40 %) for cooked vegetables, sauce, meat, dessert, cake, bread other than wholemeal, raw vegetables, processed meat, high-fat cheese, butter and margarine. Factor scores were used to investigate associations between the factors and nutrient intake. The patterns accounted for relatively large proportions of variance of energy and macronutrient intake, but for less variance of alcohol and micronutrient intake, especially of retinol, beta-carotene, vitamin E, Ca and ascorbic acid. In addition, factors were related to age, BMI, physical activity, education, smoking and vitamin and mineral supplement use.
Gleeson, Michael; Nieman, David C; Pedersen, Bente K
Strenuous bouts of prolonged exercise and heavy training are associated with depressed immune cell function. Furthermore, inadequate or inappropriate nutrition can compound the negative influence of heavy exertion on immunocompetence. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients have long been associated with immune dysfunction. An adequate intake of iron, zinc and vitamins A, E, B6 and B12 is particularly important for the maintenance of immune function, but excess intakes of some micronutrients can also impair immune function and have other adverse effects on health. Immune system depression has also been associated with an excess intake of fat. To maintain immune function, athletes should eat a well-balanced diet sufficient to meet their energy requirements. An athlete exercising in a carbohydrate-depleted state experiences larger increases in circulating stress hormones and a greater perturbation of several immune function indices. Conversely, consuming 30-60 g carbohydrate x h(-1) during sustained intensive exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones such as cortisol and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immune depression. Convincing evidence that so-called 'immune-boosting' supplements, including high doses of antioxidant vitamins, glutamine, zinc, probiotics and Echinacea, prevent exercise-induced immune impairment is currently lacking.
Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Maroto-Sánchez, Beatriz; Luzardo-Socorro, Raquel; Palacios, Gonzalo; Palacios Gil-Antuñano, Nieves; González-Gross, Marcela
Continuous physical exercise leads the athlete to maintain an unstable balance between dietary intake, energy expenditure and the additional demands of a high amount of physical activity. Thus, an accurate assessment of nutritional status is essential to optimize the performance, since it affects health, body composition, and the recovery of the athlete. Specific aspects like the type of sport, specialty or playing position, training schedule and competition calendar, category, specific objectives, which differ from the general population, must be considered. A biochemical assessment can give us a general idea of the nutritional status, lipid profile, liver or kidney function, if diet is too high in proteins or fats, as well as possible nutritional deficiencies and the need for supplementation. Sport kinanthropometry has great utility that enables the assessment of body mass, height, length, diameter, perimeter and skinfolds, where information is processed by applying different equations, obtaining information on somatotype, body composition, and the proportionality of different parts of the body. To give proper nutritional counselling, energy needs of the athlete must be known. If objective measurement is not possible, there are tables including theoretically established energy requirements of different sports. Dietary assessment should include information about food consumption and nutrient intake to establish the relationship between diet, health status and athlete's performance. On the other hand, an adequate hydration status in athletes is essential to maintain adequate performance. Hence, the knowledge of fluid intake by the athlete is a matter of the utmost importance. Dehydration can cause harmful effects on athletes' health. As there is no gold standard, urine gravidity and urine colour are the most extended methods for analyzing hydration status. There is consensus that due to complexity, the combination of different methods assures an effective data
Background Physicians are often unable to eat and drink properly during their work day. Nutrition has been linked to cognition. We aimed to examine the effect of a nutrition based intervention, that of scheduled nutrition breaks during the work day, upon physician cognition, glucose, and hypoglycemic symptoms. Methods A volunteer sample of twenty staff physicians from a large urban teaching hospital were recruited from the doctors' lounge. During both the baseline and the intervention day, we measured subjects' cognitive function, capillary blood glucose, "hypoglycemic" nutrition-related symptoms, fluid and nutrient intake, level of physical activity, weight, and urinary output. Results Cognition scores as measured by a composite score of speed and accuracy (Tput statistic) were superior on the intervention day on simple (220 vs. 209, p = 0.01) and complex (92 vs. 85, p < 0.001) reaction time tests. Group mean glucose was 0.3 mmol/L lower (p = 0.03) and less variable (coefficient of variation 12.2% vs. 18.0%) on the intervention day. Although not statistically significant, there was also a trend toward the reporting of fewer hypoglycemic type symptoms. There was higher nutrient intake on intervention versus baseline days as measured by mean caloric intake (1345 vs. 935 kilocalories, p = 0.008), and improved hydration as measured by mean change in body mass (+352 vs. -364 grams, p < 0.001). Conclusions Our study provides evidence in support of adequate workplace nutrition as a contributor to improved physician cognition, adding to the body of research suggesting that physician wellness may ultimately benefit not only the physicians themselves but also their patients and the health care systems in which they work. PMID:20712911
Akerele, D; Sanusi, R A; Fadare, O A; Ashaolu, O F
This study examined the influence of food consumption diversity on adequate intakes of food calories, proteins and micronutrients among households in rural Nigeria within the framework of panel data econometrics using a nationally representative data. We found that substantial proportion of households suffered deficiency of calories, proteins and certain micronutrients; with higher percentage of sufferer households occurring in the post-planting season. The different measures of dietary diversity (constructed and used for analysis) consistently indicate significant and positive influence of dietary diversity on the likelihood of adequate consumption of food nutrients. While higher level of income, education and non-farm enterprise engagement may strongly stimulate adequate nutrient intakes, increases in the number of adolescents would substantially diminish it. Although our findings call for renewed attention on diet diverseness, we stress the complementary/synergistic roles of education and rural income improvement, especially through non-farm enterprise diversification in tackling multiple nutritional deficiencies in rural Nigeria.
Williams, R; Virtue, K; Adkins, A
Cancer therapy causes side effects that interfere with oral intake. Frequently, patients undergoing such therapy suffer from anorexia, nausea, vomiting, food aversions, dysgeusia, and xerostomia, all which adversely affect oral intake. Adequate nutrition intake is an important part of therapy for the cancer patient, especially when that patient is a child. Children who are well nourished are better able to withstand infection and tolerate therapy. Parents and staff at our hospital have worked diligently to improve patient's oral intake with limited success. Hence, a multidisciplinary team was organized to develop a new approach to food services that would improve patients' oral intake. The team initiated patient "room service," and patients were allowed to call the kitchen when they were ready to eat. The system works much like room service in a hotel. After the introduction of room service, patients' caloric intake improved significantly (P = .008), and protein intake increased by 18%. Patient satisfaction with hospital food service also improved; excellent ratings increased by as much as 35%. We conclude that room service is a viable alternative to traditional food services in the pediatric oncology setting and may be useful in other patient populations, such as maternity and general pediatrics.
Fang, Aiping; Li, Keji; Guo, Meihan; He, Jingjing; Li, He; Shen, Xin; Song, Jie
The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate long-term associations between low dietary calcium intake and fracture risk in older adults with plant-based diet. Data of self-reported first fracture events of any type from 6210 Chinese men and women, aged 50 years or older and free from fracture at baseline, in a subcohort based on the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), were analyzed. Diet was repeatedly assessed by a combination of three consecutive 24-hour individual dietary recalls and a weighing and measuring of household food inventory in each round. The older men and women habitually ingested mean (SD) of 415 (147) mg/d and 373 (140) mg/d of calcium from plant-based diet, respectively. During a median follow-up of 7.0 years, 127 men (4.34%) and 232 women (7.06%) experienced first fracture events. The crude rates were 4.88, 2.55, and 6.83 per 1000 person-years at risk for men, and 6.72, 7.10, and 11.0 per 1000 person-years at risk for women in the lowest, third, and highest quintile of dietary calcium intake. In nonlinear regressions, an increased risk of fracture was associated with dietary calcium intake more than 778 mg/d (multivariable adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-4.41) or lower than 275 mg/d (1.74, 95% CI 1.00-3.01) for men and more than 651 mg/d for women (1.54, 95% CI 1.00-2.38). A nonsignificant trend of increase in fracture risk was found below 248 mg/d (1.00, 95% CI 0.67-1.50) in women using restricted cubic spline Cox regression. A relatively low fracture risk is observed in men with dietary calcium intakes of 275 to 780 mg/d and in women with intakes of 250 to 650 mg/d, and higher intakes may have no further benefit for fracture prevention. The patterns of dietary calcium with fracture risk are U-shaped in men and possibly in women. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Ogilvie, G K; Vail, D M
Cancer cachexia is a complex syndrome that results in involuntary weight loss, even in the face of adequate nutritional intake. The profound metabolic abnormalities associated with cancer cachexia affect a large percentage of animals with cancer even before any clinical signs are seen. This paraneoplastic syndrome results in alterations in carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism that, if left untreated, decrease the animal's quality of life and lead to a poor response to cancer therapy. An understanding of the metabolic abnormalities associated with cancer cachexia is of paramount importance to the practicing veterinarian to determine an accurate prognosis and to choose the optimal type of intravenous fluids and nutritional therapy for each patient. Although research identifying the optimal diet for cancer-bearing dogs and cats is still underway, some general principles apply. The first is that the patient should receive nutritional elements orally whenever possible. When oral feeding is not possible, n