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Sample records for adequate nutritional status

  1. Nutritional Status Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.

  2. Nutritional Status and Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Merli, Manuela; Giusto, Michela; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Riggio, Oliviero

    2012-01-01

    Chronic liver disease has a profound effect on nutritional status and undernourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. In the last decades, due to epidemiological changes, a trend showing an increase in patients with end-stage liver disease and associated obesity has also been reported in developed countries. Nutrition abnormalities may influence the outcome after transplantation therefore, the importance to carefully assess the nutritional status in the work-up of patients candidates for liver transplantation is widely accepted. More attention has been given to malnourished patients as they represent the greater number. The subjective global nutritional assessment and anthropometric measurements are recognized in current guidelines to be adequate in identifying those patients at risk of malnutrition. Cirrhotic patients with a depletion in lean body mass and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk and malnutrition may impact on morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. For this reason an adequate calorie and protein intake should always be ensured to malnourished cirrhotic patient either through the diet, or using oral nutritional supplements or by enteral or parenteral nutrition although studies supporting the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in improving the clinical outcomes after transplantation are still scarce. When liver function is restored, an amelioration in the nutritional status is expected. After liver transplantation in fact dietary intake rapidly normalizes and fat mass is progressively regained while the recovery of muscle mass can be slower. In some patients unregulated weight gain may lead to over-nutrition and may favor metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia). This condition, defined as ‘metabolic syndrome’, may play a negative role on the overall survival of liver transplant patients. In this report we

  3. Maintaining adequate hydration and nutrition in adult enteral tube feeding.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the nutritional and fluid requirements of enterally-fed patients can be challenging and the practicalities of ensuring adequate delivery must be taken into consideration. Patients who are enterally fed can be more reliant on clinicians, family members and carers to meet their nutrition and hydration needs and identify any deficiencies, excesses or problems with delivery. Estimating a patient's requirements can be challenging due to the limitations of using predictive equations in the clinical setting. Close monitoring by all those involved in the patient's care, as well as regular review by a dietitian, is therefore required to balance the delivery of adequate feed and fluids to meet each patient's individual needs and prevent the complications of malnutrition and dehydration. Increasing the awareness of the signs of malnutrition and dehydration in patients receiving enteral tube feeding among those involved in a patient's care will help any deficiencies to be detected early on and rectified before complications occur. PMID:26087203

  4. Most blood biomarkers related to vitamin status, one-carbon metabolism, and the kynurenine pathway show adequate preanalytical stability and within-person reproducibility to allow assessment of exposure or nutritional status in healthy women and cardiovascular patients.

    PubMed

    Midttun, Oivind; Townsend, Mary K; Nygård, Ottar; Tworoger, Shelley S; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Ueland, Per Magne

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of stability during sample transportation and changes in biomarker concentrations within person over time are paramount for proper design and interpretation of epidemiologic studies based on a single measurement of biomarker status. Therefore, we investigated stability and intraindividual vs. interindividual variation in blood concentrations of biomarkers related to vitamin status, one-carbon metabolism, and the kynurenine pathway. Whole blood (EDTA and heparin, n = 12) was stored with an icepack for 24 or 48 h, and plasma concentrations of 38 biomarkers were determined. Stability was calculated as change per hour, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and simple Spearman correlation. Within-person reproducibility of biomarkers was expressed as ICC in samples collected 1-2 y apart from 40 postmenopausal women and in samples collected up to 3 y apart from 551 patients with stable angina pectoris. Biomarker stability was similar in EDTA and heparin blood. Most biomarkers were essentially stable, except for choline and total homocysteine (tHcy), which increased markedly. Within-person reproducibility in postmenopausal women was excellent (ICC > 0.75) for cotinine, all-trans retinol, cobalamin, riboflavin, α-tocopherol, Gly, pyridoxal, methylmalonic acid, creatinine, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, and Ser; was good to fair (ICC of 0.74-0.40) for pyridoxic acid, kynurenine, tHcy, cholecalciferol, flavin mononucleotide, kynurenic acid, xanthurenic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine, sarcosine, anthranilic acid, cystathionine, homoarginine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, betaine, Arg, folate, total cysteine, dimethylglycine, asymmetric dimethylarginine, neopterin, symmetric dimethylarginine, and Trp; and poor (ICC of 0.39-0.15) for methionine sulfoxide, Met, choline, and trimethyllysine. Similar reproducibilities were observed in patients with coronary heart disease. Thus, most biomarkers investigated were essentially stable in cooled whole blood for up to 48 h and had a

  5. [Nutritional status of institutionalized Venezuelan elderly].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Nahir; Hernández, Rosa; Herrera, Héctor; Barbosa, Johanna; Hernández-Valera, Yolanda

    2005-09-01

    With the aim of evaluating the nutritional status of institutionalized elders in different geriatric units of the metropolitan area of Caracas, 126 subjects with ages between 60 and 96 years old were evaluated. The Mini Nutritional Assessment was applied and were identified 48.4% individuals with nutritional risk, 5.6% malnourished and 46% without nutritional problems. Females presented higher prevalences of malnutrition and risk, while males presented an adequate nutritional state. By sex and age, females and males over 80 years presented a higher prevalence of malnutrition and risk when they were compared whit those younger. A low dayly liquid intake, a BMI equal or under of 23 kg/m2 and a limited physical performance were the items that presented the highest prevalence among the studied elders. In conclusion, the high prevalence of malnutrition risk in this population group, remarks the necessity to include into the global geriatric evaluation, a quick, simple and non-invasive instrument that allows to estimate the nutritional status of the elders. PMID:16152778

  6. Metabolic production of methylated selenium species requires adequate methylation status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity negatively impacts methylation status and markers of methylation status vary according to selenium status in supplemented subjects. We have proposed that disruptions in methylation capacity induced by obesity compromise demonstrable anti-cancer effects of Se supplementation. In order to addr...

  7. Aging, Nutritional Status and Health

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Wilma; Hankey, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults. PMID:27417787

  8. Zinc and selenium nutritional status in vegetarians.

    PubMed

    de Bortoli, Maritsa Carla; Cozzolino, Silvia Maria Franciscato

    2009-03-01

    A vegetarian diet may have beneficial effects on human health, however when it is not well-balanced may be deficient in some nutrients, as minerals for example. The aim of the present study was to assess the nutritional status of zinc and selenium in vegetarians in the city of São Paulo. A cross-sectional study was performed, and the inclusion criteria were age > or = 18 years, both gender, no use of food or pharmaceutical supplements. Thirty vegetarian, of both genders, mean age of 27 years and 4.5 years of vegetarianism had performed the study, and their mean BMI was 21.5. Zinc plasma concentration was 71 and 62.5 microg/dL for men and women and erythrocyte concentration was 37 microg/gHb for both genders. Selenium concentration was 73.5 and 77.3 microg/L in plasma and 51.4 and 66.9 microg/L in erythrocytes for men and women, respectively. These biochemical values show that, according to the references, selenium blood levels are adequate and zinc concentration in erythrocytes is deficient in the studied population. For this reason, vegetarians should be constantly assessed and receive nutritional support to reduce the effects of inadequate zinc status. PMID:18953504

  9. Bovine hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron does not support adequate iron status in copper-adequate or copper-deficient rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was designed to determine whether hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron (Fe) could sustain normal Fe status in growing rats. Because adequate copper (Cu) status is required for efficient Fe absorption in the rat, we also determined the effects of Cu deficiency on Fe status of...

  10. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO -16E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Heer, M. A.; Zwart, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective was an experiment initiated to expand nominal pre- and postflight clinical nutrition testing, and to gain a better understanding of the time course of changes during flight. The primary activity of this effort was collecting blood and urine samples 5 times during flight for analysis after return to Earth. Samples were subjected to a battery of tests, including nutritional, physiological, general chemistry, and endocrinology indices. These data provide a comprehensive survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by 4-6 months of space flight. Analyzing the data will help us to define nutritional requirements for long-duration missions, and better understand human adaptation to microgravity. This expanded set of measurements will also aid in the identification of nutritional countermeasures to counteract, for example, the deleterious effects of microgravity on bone and muscle and the effects of space radiation.

  11. Nutrition Status of HIV+ Children in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nnyepi, Maria; Bennink, Maurice R.; Jackson-Malete, Jose; Venkatesh, Sumathi; Malete, Leapetswe; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Lyoka, Philemon; Anabwani, Gabriel M.; Makhanda, Jerry; Weatherspoon, Lorraine J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Identifying and addressing poor nutritional status in school-aged children is often not prioritized relative to HIV/AIDS treatment. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the benefits of integrating nutrition (assessment and culturally acceptable food supplement intervention) in the treatment strategy for this target group.…

  12. Evaluation of nutritional status and energy expenditure in athletes.

    PubMed

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Maroto-Sánchez, Beatriz; Luzardo-Socorro, Raquel; Palacios, Gonzalo; Palacios Gil-Antuñano, Nieves; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    Continuous physical exercise leads the athlete to maintain an unstable balance between dietary intake, energy expenditure and the additional demands of a high amount of physical activity. Thus, an accurate assessment of nutritional status is essential to optimize the performance, since it affects health, body composition, and the recovery of the athlete. Specific aspects like the type of sport, specialty or playing position, training schedule and competition calendar, category, specific objectives, which differ from the general population, must be considered. A biochemical assessment can give us a general idea of the nutritional status, lipid profile, liver or kidney function, if diet is too high in proteins or fats, as well as possible nutritional deficiencies and the need for supplementation. Sport kinanthropometry has great utility that enables the assessment of body mass, height, length, diameter, perimeter and skinfolds, where information is processed by applying different equations, obtaining information on somatotype, body composition, and the proportionality of different parts of the body. To give proper nutritional counselling, energy needs of the athlete must be known. If objective measurement is not possible, there are tables including theoretically established energy requirements of different sports. Dietary assessment should include information about food consumption and nutrient intake to establish the relationship between diet, health status and athlete's performance. On the other hand, an adequate hydration status in athletes is essential to maintain adequate performance. Hence, the knowledge of fluid intake by the athlete is a matter of the utmost importance. Dehydration can cause harmful effects on athletes' health. As there is no gold standard, urine gravidity and urine colour are the most extended methods for analyzing hydration status. There is consensus that due to complexity, the combination of different methods assures an effective data

  13. Iodine Nutritional Status of School Children in Nauru 2015.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jui; Tseng, Chi-Lung; Chen, Harn-Shen; Garabwan, Chanda; Korovo, Samuela; Tang, Kam-Tsun; Won, Justin Ging-Shing; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Wang, Fan-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt) were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6-12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively). The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru. PMID:27563920

  14. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Heer, M.; Coburn, S. P.; Booth, S. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lupton, J.

    2007-01-01

    It has not been possible to assess nutritional status of crew members on the ISS during flight because blood and urine could not be collected during ISS missions. Postflight observations of alterations in nutritional status for several nutrients are troubling, and we require the ability to monitor the status of these nutrients during flight to determine if there is a specific impetus or timeframe for these changes. In addition to the monitoring of crew nutritional status during flight, in-flight sample collection would allow better assessment of countermeasure effectiveness. SMO 016E is also designed to expand the current medical requirement for nutritional assessment (MR016L) to include additional normative markers for assessing crew health and countermeasure effectiveness. Additional markers of bone metabolism will be measured to better monitor bone health and the effectiveness of countermeasures to prevent bone resorption. New markers of oxidative damage will be measured to better assess the type of oxidative insults that occur during space flight. The array of nutritional assessment parameters will be expanded to include parameters that will allow us to better understand changes in folate and vitamin B6 status, and related cardiovascular risk factors during and after flight. Additionally, stress hormones and hormones that affect bone and muscle metabolism will also be measured. This additional assessment will allow us to better monitor the health of crew members and make more accurate recommendations for their rehabilitation. Several nutritional assessment parameters are altered at landing, but it is not known how long these changes persist. We extended the current protocol to include an additional postflight blood and urine sample collection 30 days after landing. Data are being collected before, during, and after flight. These data will provide a complete survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by space flight. Analyzing the data

  15. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Heer, M.; Ericson, K.; Coburn, S. P.; Booth, S. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lupton, J.

    2009-01-01

    Until 2006, it was not been possible to assess nutritional status of crewmembers on the ISS during flight because blood and urine could not be collected during ISS missions. Postflight observations of alterations in status of several nutrients are troubling, and we require the ability to monitor the status of these nutrients during flight to determine if there is a specific impetus or timeframe for these changes. In addition to the monitoring of crew nutritional status during flight, in-flight sample collection would allow better assessment of countermeasure effectiveness. Collecting samples during flight is one of the objectives of SMO 016E, and it is also designed to expand the current medical requirement for nutritional assessment (MR016L) to include additional normative markers for assessing crew health and countermeasure effectiveness. Additional markers of bone metabolism will be measured to better monitor bone health and the effectiveness of countermeasures to prevent bone resorption. New markers of oxidative damage will be measured to better assess the type of oxidative insults that occur during space flight. The array of nutritional assessment variables will be expanded to include ones that will allow us to better understand changes in folate, vitamin K, and vitamin B6 status, as well as risk factors for cardiovascular and oxidative damage during and after flight. Stress hormones and hormones that affect bone and muscle metabolism will also be measured. Measuring these additional variables will allow us to better monitor the health of crewmembers and make more accurate recommendations for their rehabilitation. Several nutritional assessment variables are altered at landing, but it is not known how long these changes persist. We extended the original protocol to include an additional postflight blood and urine sample collection 30 days after landing. Data are being collected before, during, and after flight. These data will provide a complete survey of how

  16. Laboratory Indices of Nutritional Status in Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    This report reviews the current state of knowledge regarding laboratory indices of nutritional and metabolic status during normal pregnancy in order to provide normative data with respect to such indices in healthy pregnant women. The report contains seven chapters: Physiologic Adjustments in General; Hematologic Indices; Electrolytes in Normal…

  17. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  18. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8-10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100-199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  19. Food pattern and nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Patrícia Ayrosa C.; Amancio, Olga Maria S.; Araújo, Roberta Faria C.; Vitalle, Maria Sylvia de S.; Braga, Josefina Aparecida P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the food intake pattern and the nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 90 children from two to 12.8 years with cerebral palsy in the following forms: hemiplegia, diplegia, and tetraplegia. Nutritional status was assessed by weight, height, and age data. Food intake was verified by the 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaire. The ability to chew and/or swallowing, intestinal habits, and physical activity were also evaluated. RESULTS For 2-3 year-old age group, the mean energy intake followed the recommended range; in 4-6 year-old age group with hemiplegia and tetraplegia, energy intake was below the recommended limits. All children presented low intake of carbohydrates, adequate intake of proteins and high intake of lipids. The tetraplegia group had a higher prevalence of chewing (41%) and swallowing (12.8%) difficulties compared to 14.5 and 6.6% of children with hemiplegia, respectively. Most children of all groups had a daily intestinal habit. All children presented mild physical activity, while moderate activity was not practiced by any child of the tetraplegia group, which had a significantly lower height/age Z score than those with hemiplegia (-2.14 versus -1.05; p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS The children with cerebral palsy presented inadequate dietary pattern and impaired nutritional status, with special compromise of height. Tetraplegia imposes difficulties regarding chewing/swallowing and moderate physical activity practice. PMID:24142317

  20. Nutritional status and nutritional therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Corina; Eliakim, Rami; Shamir, Raanan

    2009-01-01

    Underweight and specific nutrient deficiencies are frequent in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In addition, a significant number of children with IBD, especially Crohn’s disease (CD) have impaired linear growth. Nutrition has an important role in the management of IBD. In adults with CD, enteral nutrition (EN) is effective in inducing clinical remission of IBD, although it is less efficient than corticosteroids. Exclusive EN is an established primary therapy for pediatric CD. Limited data suggests that EN is as efficient as corticosteroids for induction of remission. Additional advantages of nutritional therapy are control of inflammation, mucosal healing, positive benefits to growth and overall nutritional status with minimal adverse effects. The available evidence suggests that supplementary EN may be effective also for maintenance of remission in CD. More studies are needed to confirm these findings. However, EN supplementation could be considered as an alternative or as an adjunct to maintenance drug therapy in CD. EN does not have a primary therapeutic role in ulcerative colitis. Specific compositions of enteral diets-elemental diets or diets containing specific components-were not shown to have any advantage over standard polymeric diets and their place in the treatment of CD or UC need further evaluation. Recent theories suggest that diet may be implicated in the etiology of IBD, however there are no proven dietary approaches to reduce the risk of developing IBD. PMID:19496185

  1. Nutritional Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is the most common, and most compelling form of elder mistreatment. Individuals who cannot provide the basic needs for themselves may develop social, functional, and physical deficits. The CREST project has the goal of systematically characterizing these individuals, and the objective of the study reported here is to characterize aspects of their nutritional status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects referred from Adult Protective Services were recruited and consented. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socio-economic status when possible. Reported here are data on 47 SN subjects (age 77 +/- 7, mean +/- SD; body weight 76 kg +/- 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 +/- 7, 79 kg +/- 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of nutritional status. SN subjects had higher serum concentrations of homocysteine (p < 0.01) and methylmalonic acid (p < 0.05). Red blood cell folate levels were lower (p < 0.01) in the SN subjects and serum folate levels tended (p < 0.07) to be lower, also. C-reactive protein concentrations were higher than 10 mg/dL in 36% of SN subjects and 18% of CN subjects. Total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were similar in the two groups. These data demonstrate that the self-neglecting elderly population is at risk with respect to several markers of nutritional status.

  2. Gluten-Free Diet in Children: An Approach to a Nutritionally Adequate and Balanced Diet

    PubMed Central

    Penagini, Francesca; Dilillo, Dario; Meneghin, Fabio; Mameli, Chiara; Fabiano, Valentina; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Gluten-free diet (GFD) is the cornerstone treatment for celiac disease (CD). GFD implies a strict and lifelong elimination from the diet of gluten, the storage protein found in wheat, barley, rye and hybrids of these grains, such as kamut and triticale. The absence of gluten in natural and processed foods, despite being the key aspect of GFD, may lead to nutritional consequences, such as deficits and imbalances. The nutritional adequacy of GFD is particularly important in children, this the age being of maximal energy and nutrient requirements for growth, development and activity. In recent years, attention has focused on the nutritional quality of gluten-free products (GFPs) available in the market. It is well recognized that GFPs are considered of lower quality and poorer nutritional value compared to the gluten-containing counterparts. The present review focuses on the nutritional adequacy of GFD at the pediatric age, with the aim being to increase awareness of the potential complications associated with this diet, to identify strategies in order to avoid them and to promote a healthier diet and lifestyle in children with CD. PMID:24253052

  3. Changes in nutritional status after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Giusto, Michela; Lattanzi, Barbara; Di Gregorio, Vincenza; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Merli, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Chronic liver disease has an important effect on nutritional status, and malnourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. During recent decades, a trend has been reported that shows an increase in number of patients with end-stage liver disease and obesity in developed countries. The importance of carefully assessing the nutritional status during the work-up of patients who are candidates for liver replacement is widely recognised. Cirrhotic patients with depleted lean body mass (sarcopenia) and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk; malnutrition may further impact morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. After transplantation and liver function is restored, many metabolic alterations are corrected, dietary intake is progressively normalised, and lifestyle changes may improve physical activity. Few studies have examined the modifications in body composition that occur in liver recipients. During the first 12 mo, the fat mass progressively increases in those patients who had previously depleted body mass, and the muscle mass recovery is subtle and non-significant by the end of the first year. In some patients, unregulated weight gain may lead to obesity and may promote metabolic disorders in the long term. Careful monitoring of nutritional changes will help identify the patients who are at risk for malnutrition or over-weight after liver transplantation. Physical and nutritional interventions must be investigated to evaluate their potential beneficial effect on body composition and muscle function after liver transplantation. PMID:25152572

  4. [Diagnosis of child and adolescent nutritional status

    PubMed

    Sigulem, D M; Devincenzi, M U; Lessa, A C

    2000-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a review on the methods for the assessment of child and adolescent nutritional status, emphasizing anthropometry and the various methods for the assessment of body composition; pointing out their advantages, limitations and risks. METHODS: Chapters of textbooks, theses, and articles relevant to the topic, as well as personal files and authors previous publications were selected. RESULTS: Anthropometry, which consists of the assessment of physical dimensions and global composition of the human body, has been regarded as the most frequently used isolated method for nutritional diagnosis, especially in childhood and adolescence, due to its ease of use, low cost and innocuousness. The most frequently adopted measurements aim at determining body mass, expressed by weight; linear dimensions, especially height; body composition and reserves of energy and proteins, estimated through subcutaneous fat and muscle mass. Laboratorial methods especially developed for the assessment of body composition are presented here. The justification for the use of methods that expose children and adolescents to ionizing radiation is also presented. CONCLUSIONS: On defining methods for the assessment of nutritional status, we should select those that better detect the nutritional deficiencies we want to correct, also taking into consideration their costs, level of personal skill required for their proper application, necessary time for application, acceptability by the studied population and possible health risks. PMID:14676905

  5. Thyroid and iodine nutritional status: a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Vanderpump, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones, which play a crucial role in brain and neurological development. At least one-third of the world's population is estimated to be iodine deficient predominantly in developing countries. Recently concern had also been expressed about the iodine status in industrialised countries such as the UK. A recent survey of the UK iodine status found that that more than two-thirds of schoolgirls aged 14-15 years were iodine deficient due to the reduced milk intake. Maternal iodine deficiency in pregnancy is correlated with cognitive outcomes such as intelligence quotient and reading ability in offspring. No randomised trial data exist for iodine supplementation in mild-moderate iodine-deficient pregnant women. It is possible to combine population interventions to reduce population salt intake with salt iodisation programmes in order to maintain adequate levels of iodine nutrition. PMID:25468924

  6. A high UV environment does not ensure adequate Vitamin D status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimlin, M. G.; Lang, C. A.; Brodie, A.; Harrison, S.; Nowak, M.; Moore, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    Queensland has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world and due to the high levels of solar UV in this region it is assumed that incidental UV exposure should provide adequate vitamin D status for the population. This research was undertaken to test this assumption among healthy free-living adults in south-east Queensland, Australia (27°S), at the end of winter. This research was approved by Queensland University of Technology Human Research Ethics Committee and conducted under the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki. 10.2% of the sample had serum vitamin D levels below 25nm/L (deficiency) and a further 32.3% had levels between 25nm/L and 50nm/L (insufficiency). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency can occur at the end of winter, even in sunny climates. The wintertime UV levels in south-east Queensland (UV index 4-6) are equivalent to summertime UV levels in northern regions of Europe and the USA. These ambient UV levels are sufficient to ensure synthesis of vitamin D requirements. We investigated individual UV exposure (through a self reported sun exposure questionnaire) and found correlations between exposure and Vitamin D status. Further research is needed to explore the interactions between the solar UV environment and vitamin D status, particularly in high UV environments, such as Queensland.

  7. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Heer, M. A.; Zwart, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective was initiated to expand nominal clinical nutrition testing of ISS astronauts, and to gain a better understanding of the time course of changes in nutritional status during flight. The primary activity of this effort was collecting blood and urine samples during flight for analysis after return to Earth. Samples were subjected to a battery of tests. The resulting data provide a comprehensive survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by 4-6 months of space flight. Analysis of these data has yielded many findings to date, including: Vision. Documented evidence that biochemical markers involved in one-carbon metabolism were altered in crewmembers who experienced vision-related issues during and after flight (1). Iron, Oxidative Stress, and Bone. In-flight data document a clear association of increased iron stores, markers of oxidative damage to DNA, and bone loss (2). Exercise. Documented that well-nourished crewmembers performing heavy resistance exercise returned from ISS with bone mineral densities unchanged from preflight (3). Furthermore, the response of bone to space flight and exercise countermeasures was the same in men and women (4). Body Mass. Crewmembers lose 2-5% of their body mass in the first month of flight, and maintain the lower body mass during flight (5). Additionally, the two devices to measure body mass on orbit, the SLAMMD and BMMD, provide similar results (5). Cytokines. Findings indicated that a pattern of persistent physiological adaptations occurs during space flight that includes shifts in immune and hormonal regulation (6). Fish/Bone. Documented a relationship between fish intake and bone loss in astronauts (that is, those who ate more fish lost less bone) (7). Vitamin K. Documented that in generally well-fed and otherwise healthy individuals, vitamin K status and bone vitamin K-dependent proteins are unaffected by space flight (and bed rest) (8

  8. [Increase of physical activity by improvement of the nutritional status].

    PubMed

    Torún, B

    1989-09-01

    Physical activity is affected by nutritional modifications and, in turn, influences growth, cognition, social behavior, work performance and other functions. Studies in preschool children showed that: 1. A decrease in energy intake during four to seven days reduced the time allocated to energy-demanding activities and increased sedentary activities. 2. Children with mild weight deficit were more sedentary than well-nourished counterparts. 3. Children became more active when nutritional status improved. 4. A 10% reduction in energy intake reduced total energy expenditure by 15% without affecting weight gain nor basal metabolism. Studies of men working in non-mechanized agriculture showed that: 1. Dietary improvements led to faster salaried work, reduction of napping time and greater physical activity after work. 2. An increase in energy intake increased total daily energy expenditure, tending to maintain energy balance and relatively stable body weight within the cyclic variations of the agricultural year. 3. Food supplementation did not necessarily improve productivity. Other labor incentives without dietary improvements increased energy expenditure during working hours, which resulted in weight loss. In conclusion, good health and nutrition provide the biological basis for adequate physical activity that may improve cognitive development, social interactions, economic productivity and the quality of life of an individual or a population, but other incentives are required for the optimal expression of that biologic potential. PMID:2518785

  9. Liver Cirrhosis: Evaluation, Nutritional Status, and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Hiroki; Osaki, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    The liver is the major organ for the metabolism of three major nutrients: protein, fat, and carbohydrate. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of chronic liver disease. Liver cirrhosis (LC) results from different mechanisms of liver injury that lead to necroinflammation and fibrosis. LC has been seen to be not a single disease entity but one that can be graded into distinct clinical stages related to clinical outcome. Several noninvasive methods have been developed for assessing liver fibrosis and these methods have been used for predicting prognosis in patients with LC. On the other hand, subjects with LC often have protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and poor physical activity. These conditions often result in sarcopenia, which is the loss of skeletal muscle volume and increased muscle weakness. Recent studies have demonstrated that PEM and sarcopenia are predictive factors for poorer survival in patients with LC. Based on these backgrounds, several methods for evaluating nutritional status in patients with chronic liver disease have been developed and they have been preferably used in the clinical field practice. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge in the field of LC from the viewpoints of diagnostic method, nutritional status, and clinical outcomes. PMID:26494949

  10. Liver Cirrhosis: Evaluation, Nutritional Status, and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Hiroki; Osaki, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    The liver is the major organ for the metabolism of three major nutrients: protein, fat, and carbohydrate. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of chronic liver disease. Liver cirrhosis (LC) results from different mechanisms of liver injury that lead to necroinflammation and fibrosis. LC has been seen to be not a single disease entity but one that can be graded into distinct clinical stages related to clinical outcome. Several noninvasive methods have been developed for assessing liver fibrosis and these methods have been used for predicting prognosis in patients with LC. On the other hand, subjects with LC often have protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and poor physical activity. These conditions often result in sarcopenia, which is the loss of skeletal muscle volume and increased muscle weakness. Recent studies have demonstrated that PEM and sarcopenia are predictive factors for poorer survival in patients with LC. Based on these backgrounds, several methods for evaluating nutritional status in patients with chronic liver disease have been developed and they have been preferably used in the clinical field practice. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge in the field of LC from the viewpoints of diagnostic method, nutritional status, and clinical outcomes. PMID:26494949

  11. Nutritional status assessment in semiclosed environments: ground-based and space flight studies in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Rice, B. L.; Nillen, J. L.; Gillman, P. L.; Block, G.

    2001-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical during long-term spaceflight, as is the ability to easily monitor dietary intake. A comprehensive nutritional status assessment profile was designed for use before, during and after flight. It included assessment of both dietary intake and biochemical markers of nutritional status. A spaceflight food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed to evaluate intake of key nutrients during spaceflight. The nutritional status assessment protocol was evaluated during two ground-based closed-chamber studies (60 and 91 d; n = 4/study), and was implemented for two astronauts during 4-mo stays on the Mir space station. Ground-based studies indicated that the FFQ, administered daily or weekly, adequately estimated intake of key nutrients. Chamber subjects maintained prechamber energy intake and body weight. Astronauts tended to eat 40--50% of WHO-predicted energy requirements, and lost >10% of preflight body mass. Serum ferritin levels were lower after the chamber stays, despite adequate iron intake. Red blood cell folate concentrations were increased after the chamber studies. Vitamin D stores were decreased by > 40% on chamber egress and after spaceflight. Mir crew members had decreased levels of most nutritional indices, but these are difficult to interpret given the insufficient energy intake and loss of body mass. Spaceflight food systems can provide adequate intake of macronutrients, although, as expected, micronutrient intake is a concern for any closed or semiclosed food system. These data demonstrate the utility and importance of nutritional status assessment during spaceflight and of the FFQ during extended-duration spaceflight.

  12. Laboratory Indices of Nutritional Status in Pregnancy. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    This report, a condensation of a publication titled "Laboratory Indices of Nutritional Status in Pregnancy," summarizes the effects of normal gestation on certain laboratory indices of nutritional and metabolic status in an effort to provide the clinician with normative data applicable to healthy pregnant women. The report is divided into six…

  13. Oral and nutritional status in frail elderly.

    PubMed

    Soini, Helena; Routasalo, Pirkko; Lauri, Sirkka; Ainamo, Anja

    2003-01-01

    This article describes associations between oral health and nutritional status among chronically ill older adults who were living at home and receiving regular professional home care services. A structured questionnaire, oral examination, and Mini-Nutritional Assessment were completed for 51 subjects (mean age 83.7 years). Two-thirds of the sample were edentulous, and one-third had between 2 and 23 teeth (mean 10.59, SD +/- 6.92). Sixty percent of subjects complained of xerostomia, while dentists found only 48% to have clinical signs of dry mouth. More than half of the subjects had stimulated saliva rates of < 0.8 ml/min. Stimulated saliva secretion rates were lower for persons with no functional natural dentition or prostheses (p = 0.012). Subjects assessed their dentures to be more functional than did the dentist (Kappa 0.338). No one was considered malnourished. 47% were at risk of malnutrition, and 52% were well nourished. The dentist's estimation of dry mouth and eating problems were significantly associated to lower MNA scores (p = 0.049 and p = 0.015, respectively). Subjects with a natural functioning dentition had higher BMI scores (p = 0.0485). PMID:15085957

  14. Mother surrogate and nutritional status of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Jain, S; Choudhry, M

    1993-01-01

    The study was conducted on 200 preschool children to find out the effect of mother surrogate on the nutritional status. The nutritional status of children was found to be affected by the time devoted by mother on child care activities, working status of mother and type of family independently and jointly. The children cared by mother had better nutritional status than those children who were cared by servants and any other family member in the absence of mother. It shows that no one can substitute the care provided by the mother. PMID:8253493

  15. CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN OLDER HAN WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Jun, Tao; Yuan, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Malnutrition is one of the most prevalent problems in older people, but there is little information about the nutritional status of the older women in China. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the nutritional status and clinically correlated factors for malnutrition in older Han women in China. In total, 2,556 hospital- and community-based Han women aged 60 years or older were recruited between May 2007 and December 2014. All women completed comprehensive geriatric assessment, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) was used to assess the nutritional status. The clinically corre- lated factors for malnutrition were also analyzed, including social factors, health status, and dietary behavior. The average age of these women was 75.9 ± 9.4 years, and 63.8% women lived in urban areas. Of the total respondents, 344 and 716 women were classified as malnutrition and at risk of malnutrition, respectively. Five factors were independently and positively correlated with poor nutrition, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), gastrointestinal disease, depression, cognitive impairment, and comorbidity (≥ 2). Three factors were independently and negatively correlated with poor nutrition, including economic status, meat intake, and fish intake. The older Han women with these five health problems should be given more attention with regards to their nutritional status. Improving economic status, eating more meat and fish were recommended for preventing poor nutrition in older women. PMID:27086430

  16. Assessment of nutritional status and in vivo immune responses in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Mills, P R; Shenkin, A; Anthony, R S; McLelland, A S; Main, A N; MacSween, R N; Russell, R I

    1983-12-01

    Nutritional status and in vivo immune responses were investigated in 30 patients with alcoholic liver disease who were drinking heavily up until emergency hospital admission. Investigations were performed on admission and after 2 wk abstention and adequate hospital diet. No relationship was found between the severity of liver disease revealed histologically and the recent quantity or total duration of alcohol intake, inadequacy of diet, or nutritional status. Skin anergy was more common in those patients with cirrhosis but did not relate to depletion in circulating T lymphocytes, poor nutritional status, or to the direct effect of alcohol toxicity. Acute alcohol toxicity did, however, produce extensive and rapidly reversible metabolic and cellular changes including reduction in serum potassium, magnesium and phosphate and depletion of all circulating lymphocyte subpopulations. PMID:6650446

  17. Food intake and the nutritional status of women undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Isabela Borges; Marinho, Eduarda da Costa; Custódio, Isis Danyelle Dias; Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Maia, Yara Cristina de Paiva

    2016-06-01

    The objective behind this study was the analysis of food intake and the nutritional status of women with breast cancer (BC) undergoing chemotherapy (CT). The quantitative dietary evaluation was performed in accordance with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), whereas the qualitative evaluation was performed through the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index - Revised (BHEI-R).From among the total number of patients (n = 20), 60% (n = 12) presented waist circumference, equal to or higher than 88cm. It was noted that 75% (n = 15) individuals were overweight. The average intake for calcium, copper, iron, dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, vitamin B6 and zinc, were found to be below adequate intake levels, while the intake of vitamin C, phosphorus, manganese, sodium and thiamine were all found to be above DRIs recommendations. As for the analysis of the BHEI-R, 80% (n = 16) of the patients presented a "diet that needs modifications", while 20% (n = 4) presented a "healthy diet". Noted from these observations was the presence of a high overweight rate, a discrepancy in the intake of micronutrients and a diet that needed improvements. In this manner, the establishment and use of a nutritional intervention protocol are very important when it comes to the improvement of the diet in patients with BC and who are undergoing CT. PMID:27383354

  18. Is dengue severity related to nutritional status?

    PubMed

    Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Nimmannitya, Suchitra

    2005-03-01

    A retrospective review of dengue patients admitted to Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (previously known as Children's Hospital) from 1995 to 1999 revealed 4,532 confirmed cases of dengue infection; 80.9% were dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and 19.1% were dengue fever cases (DF). Among the DHF patients; 30.6% had shock. The majority of them, 66.6%, had a normal nutritional status, while 9.3% were malnourished and 24.2% had obesity as classified by weight for age. Compared with control patients with other diagnoses (excluding HIV/AIDS patients), malnourished children had a lower risk of contracting dengue infection (odds ratio = 0.48, 95% Cl = 0.39-0.60, p = 0.000) while obese children had a greater risk of infection with dengue viruses (odds ratio = 1.96, 95% Cl = 1.55-2.5, p = 0.000). The clinical signs, symptoms and laboratory findings of dengue were almost the same among the 3 groups of malnourished, normal, and obese patients. The minor differences observed were that in obese children liver enlargement was found less often; maculopapular/convalescence rash and elevations of alanine aminotransferase were found more often. Malnourished patients had a higher risk of developing shock (37.8%) than normal (29.9%) and obese patients (30.2%) (p = 0.000). Obese patients had more unusual presentations: encephalopathy (1.3%) and associated infections (4.8%), than normal (0.5% and 2.7%) and malnourished patients (1.2% and 3.1%). Complications of fluid overload were found more in obese patients (6.5%) compared to normal (3.2%) and malnourished patients (2.1%) (p = 0.000). The case-fatality rates (CFR) in malnourished patients and obese patients were 0.5% and 0.4%, respectively, while in normal patients the CFR was 0.07%. Under and over nutrition DHF patients had either a greater risk of shock or unusual presentations and complications, which can lead to severe disease or complications and probably a higher CFR. PMID:15916044

  19. Preschool child feeding, health and nutritional status in Gualaceo, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Novotny, R

    1987-09-01

    Anthropologic, survey, dietary recall and anthropometric techniques were used to study the correlates of nutritional status of preschool children under five years of age in Gualaceo Ecuador. A widespread stunting was found among the children. Nutritional status was worst among infants comprised between 12 and 23 months old but it improved between April and August, thus suggesting seasonality changes of nutritional status. The correlates of nutritional status (expressed as Z score of weight-for-age) were dietary diversity, birth-spacing, fertility, migration, household income, material goods owned, and parental education. A regression model with these variables predicted 63% of the variability in weight-for-age. The prediction of height-for-age was similar, but only predicted 43% of the variability in height-for-age. Correlates of dietary diversity, birth-spacing, fertility, and migration were child age, maternal age and arm circumference, parental education, use of birth control, household food expenditure, material goods owned, and the raising of animals. Parental education was a correlate of dietary diversity, fertility and migration. Parental education was related to change in weight-for-age in the longitudinal subset. Pre-harvest time and a pathway of illness leading to decreased dietary diversity and to decreased nutritional status in April, were suggested as important to preschool child nutritional status. Hot-cold ideology--resulting in food withdrawal during illness and restriction of high-protein and high-calorie foods--appears to be an important mechanism determining preschool child nutritional status. Breast-feeding, sanitary, higienic, birth control, and drinking (alcohol) practices were suggested as areas that could be improved, in order to improve preschool child nutritional status. Communication between parents and western health care providers was also suggested as an area for improvement. PMID:3506399

  20. Trismus, xerostomia and nutrition status in nasopharyngeal carcinoma survivors treated with radiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-J; Chen, S-C; Wang, C-P; Fang, Y-Y; Lee, Y-H; Lou, P-J; Ko, J-Y; Chiang, C-C; Lai, Y-H

    2016-05-01

    The aims of the study were to: (1) examine levels of trismus, xerostomia and nutritional status; (2) compare levels of trismus, xerostomia and nutritional status in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) receiving different types of radiation modalities; and (3) identify factors related to NPC survivors' risk status for malnutrition and existing malnutrition. A cross-sectional study with consecutive sampling was conducted. NPC survivors were recruited from otolaryngology/oncology outpatient clinics in a medical centre in Northern Taiwan. Study measures included (1) Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire, (2) Xerostomia Questionnaire, (3) Mini Nutrition Assessment, (4) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale - Depression subscale, and (5) Symptom Severity Scale. A total of 110 subjects were recruited. Those receiving intensity-modulated radiation therapy had less trismus and xerostomia than patients receiving two-dimensional radiation therapy. Patients with female gender, advanced stage, completion of treatments within 1 year, higher levels of depression, more severe trismus and higher symptom severity tended to have malnutrition or were at risk of malnutrition. Trismus and xerostomia are long-term problems in some NPC survivors and may contribute to malnutrition. To better manage a patient's trismus and xerostomia and to enhance nutritional status, clinicians should develop a patient-specific care programme based on careful assessment and targeted measures to improve oral function and insure adequate nutritional intake. PMID:25495287

  1. Iodine nutritional status in Uttarakhand State, India

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Neha; Kapil, Umesh; Nambiar, Vanisha; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Khenduja, Preetika

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Uttarakhand (UK) state is a known endemic region to iodine deficiency (ID). Objective: To assess the current status of iodine nutrition in a population of UK. Methodology: Three districts, namely Udham Singh Nagar (USN), Nainital (N), and Pauri Garhwal (PG) were selected. In each district, 30 clusters were identified by utilizing the population proportional to size cluster sampling methodology. Total of 6143 school age children (SAC) (USN; 1807, N; 2269, PG: 2067), 5430 adolescent girls (AGs) (USN; 1823, N; 1811, PG: 1796), 1727 pregnant mothers (PMs) (USN; 632, N; 614, PG: 481), and 2013 Neonates (USN; 649, N; 670, PG: 694), were included in the study. Clinical examination of thyroid of each child, AG and PM was conducted. Spot urine and salt samples were collected from children, AGs and PMs. Cord blood samples were collected from neonates for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Results: In SAC, total goiter rate (TGR) was 13.2% (USN), 15.9% (N), and 16.8% (PG). Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) level was 150 μg/l (USN), 125 μg/l (N), and 115 μg/l (PG). In AGs, TGR was 6.8% (USN), 8.2% (N) and 5.6% (PG). Median UIC level was 250 μg/l (USN), 200 μg/l (N), and 183 μg/l (PG). In PMs, TGR was 16.1% (USN), 20.2% (N), and 24.9% (PG). Median UIC level was 124 μg/l (USN), 117.5 μg/l (N) and 110 μg/l (PG), respectively. In Neonates, TSH levels of >5 mIU/L were found in 55.3 (USN), 76.4 (N) and 72.8 (PG) percent of neonates. Conclusion: UIC level in PMs and TSH levels among neonates indicate the prevalence of ID in three districts surveyed. PMID:27042411

  2. Health and nutritional status of old-old African Americans.

    PubMed

    Bernard, M A; Anderson, C; Forgey, M

    1995-01-01

    This study reports the initial results of a baseline cross-sectional evaluation of the health and nutritional status of 58 old-old African Americans, 74 years of age and older, residing in low income housing complexes in metropolitan Oklahoma City. Although the population had a high overall functional status, cognitive status, and mood, there were a number of nutritional parameters suggestive of nutritional risk. In particular, 20% of subjects had relatively low serum albumin levels, 14% had serum cholesterol levels below 160 mg/dl, and a subset of the population reported low intake during 24 hour dietary recall. The National Center and Caucus on Black Aged report that 60% of African American elders live at or below the poverty level. These study findings suggest that the present cohort of African American elders may be at nutritional risk. PMID:7602459

  3. Environmental influences on helminthiasis and nutritional status among Pacific schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Hughes, R G; Sharp, D S; Hughes, M C; Akau'ola, S; Heinsbroek, P; Velayudhan, R; Schulz, D; Palmer, K; Cavalli-Sforza, T; Galea, G

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes a study undertaken to: (1) determine the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm infections and nutritional status among Pacific Island school children; (2) identify factors influencing helminthiasis; (3) identify interventions to improve school health. A total of 3,683 children aged 5-12 years attending 27 primary schools in 13 Pacific Island countries were surveyed along with school environmental data. Stool samples were collected from 1996 children (54.2%) and analysed for ova and helminths. Total prevalence of helminthiasis was 32.8%. Anaemia prevalence was 12.4%. Children with helminthiasis and anaemia were found to be 8.7 times more likely to be stunted and 4.3 times more likely to be underweight than non-anaemic and non-infected children. Four significant environmental influences on helminthiasis were identified: (1) an inadequate water supply; (2); availability of a school canteen; (3) regular water/sanitation maintenance regimes; and (4) overcrowded classrooms. Helminthiasis was found to be strongly associated with anaemia, stunting and underweight and environmental influences identified. Although mass anti-helminthic drug administrations (MDA) have been taking place, reinfection is common as drug therapy alone is not enough. Programme effectiveness depends upon upgrading school environments to include an adequate water supply, controlled food preparation/provision, well-maintained water/sanitation facilities and class sizes of 30 students or less. PMID:15203448

  4. Does nutritional status interfere with adolescents' body image perception?

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Karla L; Sousa, Ana L L; Carneiro, Carolina S; Nascente, Flávia M N; Póvoa, Thaís I R; Souza, Weimar K S B; Jardim, Thiago S V; Jardim, Paulo C B V

    2014-08-01

    Adolescents' body image (BI) may not match their nutritional status. This study selected representative sample of healthy adolescents aged between 12 and 18 from public and private schools. Anthropometric measures were performed in order to calculate the body mass index (BMI) percentile. The silhouette scale proposed by Childress was used to evaluate BI, making it possible to assess BI satisfaction and BI distortion. The sample was composed of 1168 adolescents with a mean age of 14.7 years; 52.9% were female, 50.9% were fair-skinned, 62.4% had consumed or still consume alcohol and 67% attended public school. Male adolescents presented more overweight and obesity (28.4%) (p<0.05) than the female (17.1%). It was observed that 69.4% were dissatisfied with BI, 91.1% of the obese and 69.8% of those with overweight wished to lose body weight and 82.5% of those underweight wished to gain body weight. BI distortion was identified, since 35% of the adolescents who were underweight did not regard themselves thin, 39.1% of the overweight individuals and 62.1% of the obese did not see themselves in their adequate classifications. Adolescents with overweight/obesity were those who presented higher dissatisfaction with BI, mainly the females. Male individuals presented a greater wish of gaining weight. BI distortion was present in adolescents of all classes of BMI percentile. PMID:25064308

  5. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Karakochuk, Crystal D.; Michaux, Kristina D.; Chai, Tze L.; Chan, Benny B.; Whitfield, Kyly C.; Barr, Susan I.; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18–45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100–199 and 150–249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  6. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  7. Nutritional Status of Institutionalized Children and Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesce, Kathleen A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive nutritional assessment was conducted of 37 institutionalized developmentally disabled children/adolescents. Variables included dietary intake, serum laboratory values, anthropometric measurements, feeding skills assessment, and clinical assessment. Findings suggested that the children/adolescents were adequately nourished and had…

  8. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P.; Woodruff, Bradley A.; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S.; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H.; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women’s urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001). Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women’s education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency. PMID:26848685

  9. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P; Woodruff, Bradley A; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-02-01

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world's population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women's urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001). Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women's education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency. PMID:26848685

  10. Nutritional status, nutritional self-perception, and use of licit drugs in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Denise Máximo; Mekitarian, Eduardo; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Lotufo, João Paulo Becker; Lo, Denise Swei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To associate the nutritional status and the self-perception of nutritional status with the use of licit drugs among adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 210 adolescents answered a questionnaire on alcohol and tobacco experimentation and self-perceptions about their nutritional status. The correspondence between the adolescents' perception of their own nutritional status and actual nutritional status was analyzed, as well as associations between nutritional status, self-perception of nutritional status, gender, age, and presence of smokers at home with alcohol and tobacco use. The variables were analyzed separately in a bivariate analysis and, subsequently, a multivariate analysis determined the factors associated with drug use. Results: The study included 210 adolescents with a median age of 148 months; 56.6% were females. Of the total sample, 6.6% have tried cigarettes, and 20% have tried alcohol; 32.3% had BMI Z-Score ≥1, 12.85% had BMI Z-Score ≥2, and 50.7% had a correct perception of his/her weight. After a multivariate analysis, only the self-perception about weight statistically influenced experimentation of tobacco, and patients who identified themselves as having very high weight were more likely to experiment tobacco (odds ratio (OR) 13.57; confidence interval (95% CI) 2.05-89.8; p=0.007); regarding alcohol use, adolescents who identified themselves as having high weight were 2.4 times more likely to experiment with alcohol than adolescents that identified themselves as having normal weight (95% CI 1.08-5.32, p=0.031). Conclusions: Adolescents with self-perception of excess weight may constitute a risk group for alcohol and tobacco use. PMID:25765447

  11. Violence as an Under-Recognized Barrier to Women's Realization of Their Right to Adequate Food and Nutrition: Case Studies From Georgia and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bellows, Anne C; Lemke, Stefanie; Jenderedjian, Anna; Scherbaum, Veronika

    2015-10-01

    This article addresses under-acknowledged barriers of structural violence and discrimination that interfere with women's capacity to realize their human rights generally, and their right to adequate food and nutrition in particular. Case studies from Georgia and South Africa illustrate the need for a human rights-based approach to food and nutrition security that prioritizes non-discrimination, public participation, and self-determination. These principles are frustrated by different types of structural violence that, if not seriously addressed, pose multiple barriers to women's economic, public, and social engagement. PMID:26139694

  12. Chewing ability, nutritional status and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Lee, I-C; Yang, Y-H; Ho, P-S; Lee, I-C

    2014-02-01

    In the literature, most researchers evaluate individuals' nutritional status and chewing ability by types of foods chosen or blood test. However, most of previous researches enrolled small sample size and the results might be influenced by personal preference of foods as well as the individuals' response to invasive examination. In this study, researchers assessed individuals' nutritional status and chewing ability with non-invasive test and excluded the personal preference of foods. This study had two aims: first, to explore associations between chewing ability, edentulous or dentulous, self-perceived oral health and individuals' nutritional status and quality of life; second, to assess whether the association proposed by Locker's model is valid. This study used the database of Phase I 'Publicly-funded Denture Installation Plan for the Elderly' of Kaohsiung City Government. Nine hundred and fifty-four subjects aged 65 years and older completed the questionnaires for data analysis. The research results supported and verified the theoretical model proposed by Locker. Individual's chewing ability associated significantly with his/her nutritional status and quality of life. The results demonstrated that better chewing ability of the elderly leads to better nutritional status and quality of life. The appropriateness of the indicators and measurements of individual's chewing ability and nutritional status used in this study has been evaluated and presented. These indicators and measurements are suggested to be generally used for clinical or research application on future-related issues. Consequently, the maintenance or improvement in the chewing ability of the elderly is extremely beneficial to healthy ageing. PMID:24289210

  13. Maternal education and intelligence predict offspring diet and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Wachs, Theodore D; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Cueto, Santiago; Jacoby, Enrique

    2005-09-01

    The traditional assumption that children's nutritional deficiencies are essentially due either to overall food scarcity or to a lack of family resources to purchase available food has been increasingly questioned. Parental characteristics represent 1 type of noneconomic factor that may be related to variability in children's diets and nutritional status. We report evidence on the relation of 2 parental characteristics, maternal education level and maternal intelligence, to infant and toddler diet and nutritional status. Our sample consisted of 241 low-income Peruvian mothers and their infants assessed from 3 to 12 mo, with a further follow-up of 104 of these infants at 18 mo of age. Using a nonexperimental design, we related measures of level of maternal education, maternal intelligence, and family socioeconomic status to infant anthropometry, duration of exclusive breast-feeding, adequacy of dietary intake, and iron status. Results indicated unique positive relations between maternal education level and the extent of exclusive breast-feeding. Significant relations between maternal education and offspring length were partially mediated by maternal height. There also were unique positive relations between maternal intelligence and quality of offspring diet and hemoglobin level. All findings remained significant even after controlling for family socioeconomic characteristics. This pattern of results illustrates the importance of parental characteristics in structuring the adequacy of offspring diet. Maternal education and intelligence appear to have unique influences upon different aspects of the diet and nutritional status of offspring. PMID:16140895

  14. Vision impairment and nutritional status among older assisted living residents.

    PubMed

    Muurinen, Seija M; Soini, Helena H; Suominen, Merja H; Saarela, Riitta K T; Savikko, Niina M; Pitkälä, Kaisu H

    2014-01-01

    Vision impairment is common among older persons. It is a risk factor for disability, and it may be associated with nutritional status via decline in functional status. However, only few studies have examined the relationship between vision impairment and nutritional status, which was investigated in this cross-sectional study. The study included all residents living in the assisted living facilities in Helsinki and Espoo in 2007. Residents in temporary respite care were excluded (5%). Of permanent residents (N=2214), 70% (N=1475) consented. Trained nurses performed a personal interview and assessment of each resident including the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), functional and health status. Patient records were used to confirm demographic data and medical history. Mortality in 2010 was retrieved from central registers. Of the residents, 17.5% (N=245) had vision impairment and they were not able to read regular print. Those with vision impairment were older, more often females, and malnourished according to MNA. They had lower BMI, and suffered more often from dementia and chewing problems than those without vision impairment. In logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender, chewing problems and dementia, vision impairment was independently associated with resident's malnutrition (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.80-3.51). According to our results older residents in assisted living with vision impairment are at high risk for malnutrition. Therefore it is important to assess nutritional status of persons with vision impairment. It would be beneficial to repeat this kind of a study also in elderly community population. PMID:24398167

  15. Black and White Adolescent Females' Pre-Pregnancy Nutrition Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Roger C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Results indicated that black females ingested more energy, protein, calcium, and iron than did white females. Significant percentages of both black and white females' intakes of energy, calcium, and iron fell below recommended allowances, suggesting that most of those surveyed possessed poor prepregnancy nutritional status. (RJM)

  16. The nutritional status of children in resettlement villages in Kelantan.

    PubMed

    Zulkifli, A; Khairul Anuar, A; Atiya, A S

    1999-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey of the nutritional status of children aged 1-10 years old from the Kuala Betis resettlement villages was carried out. A total of 620 children were examined, of which 329 were preschool children and 291 were schoolchildren. The age was determined and anthropometric measurements such as weight, height and MUAC were taken. The nutritional status was assessed by looking at the distributions of the z-scores of weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ) in relation to the growth charts of the National Center for Health Statistics reference population. It was found that the nutritional status of the Orang Asli children was poor, with a prevalence of 33.7-65.3% underweight, 55.3-74.4% stunting and 4.4-29.7% wasting based on the NCHS reference values. The prevalence of malnutrition among the Malay children was lower, underweight--7.3-34.1%, stunting--9.8-34.1% and wasting--1.7-17.1%. The nutritional status of the Orang Asli children were poorer compared to the Malay children. More preschool Orang Asli children were stunted compared to the Orang Asli schoolchildren. This may be due to the poor economic base of the Orang Asli community during the transformation period after resettlement. A comprehensive primary health care program is essential, especially targeting the preschool Orang Asli children in these resettlement villages. PMID:10695800

  17. Assessment of nutritional status in the healthcare setting in Spain.

    PubMed

    Campos del Portillo, Rocío; Palma MiIla, Samara; García Váquez, Natalia; Plaza López, Bricia; Bermejo López, Laura; Riobó Serván, Pilar; García-Luna, Pedro Pablo; Gómez-Candela, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Early identification of undernourished patients in the healthcare setting, and their nutritional treatment, are essential if the harmful effects of poor nourishment are to be avoided and care costs kept down. The aim of assessing nutritional status is to determine the general health of a patient from a nutritional viewpoint. All hospitalised patients should undergo nutritional screening within 24-48 h of admission, as should any patient who shows signs of being malnourished when visiting any healthcare centre. The infrastructure and resources available, the possibilities of automisation, and the healthcare setting in which such assessment must be performed, etc., determine which method can be used. The European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN) recommends the use of the Nutritional Risk Screening-2002 (NRS-2002) method for hospitalised patients, the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) in the community healthcare setting, and the first part of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) for elderly patients. In centres where screening can be computerised, the CONUT® or INFORNUT® methods can be used. A nutritional diagnosis is arrived at using the patient's medical history, a physical examination (including anthropometric assessment), biochemical analysis, and functional tests. No single variable allows a diagnosis to be made. The Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) and MNA tests are useful in nutritional assessment, but they are not universally regarded as the gold standard. At our hospital, and at many other centres in the Spanish health system, the Nutritional Status Assessment (NSA) method (in Spanish Valoración del Estado Nutricional) is used, which involves the SGA method, the taking of anthropometric measurements, and biochemical analysis. After making a nutritional diagnosis, which should be included in the patient's medical history adhering to International Classification of Diseases code 9 (ICD- 9), and prescribing a nutritional

  18. Nutritional status of rural Bolivian children.

    PubMed

    Blount, B W; Krober, M S; Gloyd, S S; Kozakowski, M; Casey, L

    1993-06-01

    While providing health care in rural Bolivia, 349 children under 4 years old were seen. Height and weight were measured and demographic data obtained. The purpose was to describe the prevalence of malnutrition and its associated socioeconomic factors. The sample included Mataco Indians and Bolivians of European or of mixed descent. Using international standards, 21% of the children had weight below the fifth percentile for age; 27% had height below the fifth percentage for age; 17% were below the fifth percentile for weight/height. Malnutrition was more common in younger children (peak prevalence in 1-2 year olds). Malnutrition was associated with race and water source, but not with family size, literacy, immunizations, meals per day, or deaths in family. Attempts to improve nutrition should focus on the youngest children. PMID:8361590

  19. Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Nutrition in Asia and Future Nutrition Policy Studies.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Nobuko

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of health disparities has been reported around the world. One of the intermediate factors between socioeconomic status (SES) and health is nutrition. Many studies reported socioeconomically disadvantaged people had more risk of obesity and lifestyle-related diseases than others in western society. Micronutrient intake affected by SES, but little evidence indicates that SES affects either energy intake or the macronutrient composition of the diet in western countries. In contrast, there is not enough evidence of a consistent relationship between SES and nutrition in Asian countries at present. The present status of nutrition disparities in Asia is considered to vary by economic level of the country. For developing countries in Asia, India and Vietnam, SES associates with BMI positively in women. For relatively developed countries in Asia, Korea and Japan, SES associates with BMI negatively in women. Low SES groups consume more carbohydrate, and less protein and fat, so not only micronutrient but also macronutrient intake is affected by SES both in developing and in developed Asian countries. There are some studies on the pathway from SES to diet/nutrition. The association between low SES and obesity may be mediated, in part, by the low cost of energy-dense foods, concern about food price and dietary knowledge. Nutrition policy research is required to reduce nutrition disparities in Asia. We need a collaborative study of the impact of potential political options on diet and on health with other academic fields. PMID:26598891

  20. Parenteral nutrition improves nutritional status, autonomic symptoms and quality of life in transthyretin amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Russo, Massimo; Vita, Gian Luca; Stancanelli, Claudia; Mazzeo, Anna; Vita, Giuseppe; Messina, Sonia

    2016-06-01

    Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) is an inherited amyloidosis, leading to death in about ten years in most cases due to cardiac failure or wasting syndrome. Previous studies showed that modified body mass index was related to time before death, duration of gastrointestinal disturbances, malabsorption and functional capacity. We report two patients in whom nutritional status worsened despite diet modification, hypercaloric supplement and two relevant therapeutic approaches such as liver transplant and tafamidis meglumine, respectively. The first patient, a 52-year-old lady carrying Thr49Ala mutation, had a disease duration of twelve years and had lost weight up to 35 kg because of daily diarrhea. The second patient, a 63-year-old man with Glu89Gln mutation and a disease duration of fifteen years, was in the New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification class III and his weight was 39 kg. In both cases, a peripherally inserted central catheter was placed for parenteral nutrition. It allowed to improve their nutritional status and clinical conditions, with body weight gains of 11 and 8 kg in a one year follow-up, respectively. Moreover, reduction of autonomic symptoms including postural hypotension, nausea and diarrhoea was recorded with ameliorated quality of life. Our experience suggests that parenteral nutrition may be useful in reducing complications and disabilities in TTR-FAP patients, even when all dietary adjustments have been ineffective. Reasonably, the improvement in nutritional status may prolong survival in TTR-FAP patients. PMID:27132122

  1. Differential correlates of nutritional status in Kinshasa, Zaire.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, W E; Mock, N B; Franklin, R R

    1988-09-01

    In an effort to search for causes of malnutrition in the urban environment to guide intervention efforts, a study of more than 2000 mother/child pairs was conducted in Kinshasa, Zaire. Under the auspices of the Zairian National Nutrition Planning Center a representative sample of a large lower class urban population was interviewed at two points in time. One phase covered morbidity and nutritional status measurements for all children under five years of age. A second phase examined a complex set of socioeconomic and behavioural variables possibly linked to nutritional outcomes for a 20% sample of the households. After merging the data sets bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed twice, using the youngest child and the household as the unit of analysis respectively. Results showed that different complexes of variables predicted malnutrition as measured by three separate anthropometric measures. For so-called acute malnutrition (weight-for-height) morbidity, migration, and diarrhoeal knowledge, all emerged as significant predictors. Chronic malnutrition (height-for-age), however, was only significantly predicted by zone of residence, a level of living score, and recent morbidity when all major variables were considered in the regression model. Factors that were significant predictors of each of these two indices also were predictors of the third nutritional indicator, weight-for-age. Birth interval also was associated with this index. The findings here suggest more careful scrutiny of the nature, causes, interpretation and use of these widely accepted measures of nutritional status. PMID:3145250

  2. Overview of nutritional status in the United States.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, A P

    1981-01-01

    Nutritional surveys attempt to estimate the nutritional status of people from various physical (clinical, anthropometric) and biochemical (with respect to nutrients) measurements, whereas dietary surveys attempt to measure what people eat. Although dietary surveys help explain possible reasons for clinical and laboratory findings, the nutritional status of people cannot be inferred from the diet alone. The determinants of nutritional status and, for that matter, the health of the individual and the population as a whole, include a variety of factors, biologic (genetic), behavioral, sociocultural, economic, and environmental. Diet is one environmental factor of great importance in determining man's level of health and well-being. The 1971-1974 HANES showed that excessive weight or obesity is a major health problem affecting people at all age and economic levels. At the same time, the survey showed a trend toward low calorie intake among certain adults over age 45, particularly women over age 60. The data also indicate that iron deficiency occurs among young children, pregnant women, and the elderly and that dental caries is a prevalent condition. Vitamin and iodine deficiencies, for practical purposes, do not exist in the U.S. population, although several surveys have uncovered certain vitamin deficiencies among the elderly. Dietary deficiencies, where they occur, are related to socioeconomic and cultural factors, specific conditions, and disease states. Reliable data do not exist to estimate the extent of malnutrition among the hospitalized and institutionalized population. PMID:7301853

  3. Physical methods for evaluating the nutrition status of hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Marcelli, Daniele; Wabel, Peter; Wieskotten, Sebastian; Ciotola, Annalisa; Grassmann, Aileen; Di Benedetto, Attilio; Canaud, Bernard

    2015-10-01

    This article aims to provide an overview of the different nutritional markers and the available methodologies for the physical assessment of nutrition status in hemodialysis patients, with special emphasis on early detection of protein energy wasting (PEW). Nutrition status assessment is made on the basis of anamnesis, physical examination, evaluation of nutrient intake, and on a selection of various screening/diagnostic methodologies. These methodologies can be subjective, e.g. the Subjective Global Assessment score (SGA), or objective in nature (e.g. bioimpedance analysis). In addition, certain biochemical tests may be employed (e.g. albumin, pre-albumin). The various subjective-based and objective methodologies provide different insights for the assessment of PEW, particularly regarding their propensity to differentiate between the important body composition compartments-fluid overload, fat mass and muscle mass. This review of currently available methods showed that no single approach and no single marker is able to detect alterations in nutrition status in a timely fashion and to follow such changes over time. The most clinically relevant approach presently appears to be the combination of the SGA method with the bioimpedance spectroscopy technique with physiological model and, additionally, laboratory tests for the detection of micro-nutrient deficiency. PMID:25791209

  4. Seminar on young child nutrition: improving nutrition and health status of young children in indonesia.

    PubMed

    Isabelle, Mia; Chan, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    The Seminar on Young Child Nutrition: Improving Nutrition and Health Status of Young Children in Indonesia held in Jakarta on November 2009 reviewed the current nutritional and health status of young children in Indonesia and identified key nutrient deficiencies affecting their optimal growth. The continuation of child growth from fetal stage is of paramount importance; and maternal and child health should be a central consideration in policy and strategy development. Clinical management of nutrient deficiency and malnutrition, as well as strategies and education to improve feeding practices of young Indonesian children were discussed in the seminar. Relevant experiences, approaches and strategies from France, New Zealand and Malaysia were also shared and followed with discussion on how regulatory systems can support the development of health policy for young children. This report highlights important information presented at the seminar. PMID:21393122

  5. Nutritional status is altered in the self-neglecting elderly.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Mathews Oliver, Susan A; Zwart, Sara R; Kala, Geeta; Kelly, P Adam; Goodwin, James S; Dyer, Carmel B

    2006-10-01

    Elder self-neglect is the most common form of elder mistreatment. Individuals who cannot provide basic needs for themselves may develop social, functional, and physical deficits. The systematic characterization of self-neglecting individuals is the goal of the Consortium for Research in Elder Self-Neglect of Texas project. This study reports on the nutritional status of self-neglecting elderly. Self-neglectors (SN) were recruited based on referrals along with matched control (CN) subjects. Data are for 40 SN subjects (age 76 +/- 7 y) and 40 CN subjects (76 +/- 7 y). Blood samples were collected and analyzed for indices of nutritional status. SN subjects had a greater serum concentration of total homocysteine than CN subjects (13.6 +/- 4.5 vs. 11.6 +/- 5.6 micromol/L, P < 0.05) and a lower concentration of red blood cell folate (1380 +/- 514 vs. 1792 +/- 793 nmol/L, P < 0.05). Plasma beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol were lower in SN subjects (0.28 +/- 0.2 vs. 0.43 +/- 0.33 micromol/L; 23.2 +/- 9.3 vs. 27.8 +/- 9.3 micromol/L, P < 0.05). SN subjects had a lower serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D than CN subjects (33.7 +/- 16.4 vs. 44.1 +/- 19.6 nmol/L, P < 0.05). These differences in markers of nutritional status show that the self-neglecting elderly are at risk for altered nutritional status, particularly of folate, antioxidants, and vitamin D. Evaluation of these data in relation to other functional and cognitive assessments are critical for evaluating the relation between nutrition and self-neglect. PMID:16988122

  6. [Nutritional status of elderly Brazilians: a multilevel approach].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ingrid Freitas da Silva; Spyrides, Maria Helena Constantino; Andrade, Lára de Melo Barbosa

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to diagnose the nutritional status of the elderly Brazilian population and to identify associated factors. The study used data from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey (2008/2009) for 20,114 elderly, whose nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI). Associated factors were tested with the Pearson chi-square test and multilevel linear models. The hierarchical analysis showed a significant effect of state of Brazil on BMI variance (p-value = 0.001). The individual level showed a negative association (p-value < 0.001) with Asian-descendant race, male gender, living alone, and older age and a positive association with per capita income. Underweight was more prevalent among elderly in rural areas (26.3%) and in the Northeast (23.7%) and Central regions (20.9%), and obesity was more prevalent in the South (45.1%) and Southeast (38.3%) and in cities (39%). The study suggests the importance of further in-depth research on nutritional status of elderly based on contextual variables. PMID:27276697

  7. Association among salivary flow rate, caries risk and nutritional status in pre-schoolers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Patricia N; Martínez Reinoso, Josefina; Gamba, Carlota A; Salgado, Pablo A; Mateo, María Teresa; Manto, María del Carmen; Molgatini, Susana L; Iglesias, Verónica; Argentieri, Ángela B

    2015-01-01

    Modeer T. et al.(2011) claim that there is association between decreased salivary flow rate and caries in obese adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the association among nutritional status, salivary flow rate and caries risk in preschoolers. The study comprised 60 children aged 3 to 6 years attending kindergartens in areas immediately adjacent to Buenos Aires City, Argentina. Body weight and height of the children were determined. Body mass index was calculated and the population was classified anthropometrically according to the WHO 2007 (WHO Anthro. Program). Caries risk was determined. Saliva was collected in sterile graduated widemouth containers, without stimulation and without food restrictions. Salivary flow rate (SFR) was determined. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's test. It was found that 56.7% (IC95%: 37.7-74.0) of anthropometrically adequate children (Ad) and 37.0% (IC95%: 20.1-57.5) of overweight and obese children (OW/Ob) had caries. The odds ratio for caries (OR=3.78; IC95%: 1.2-11.8, p=0.02) was almost 4 times higher in adequate children than in the others. SFR was 0.534 0.318 ml/min in Ad and 0.439 } 0.234 ml/min in OW/Ob. Pearson's test showed no correlation between SFR and nutritional status (r= 0.004592, p= 0.5977). Although the presence of caries was lower in overweight and obese children, no correlation was found between nutritional status and salivary flow rate. PMID:26355891

  8. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production

    PubMed Central

    Wratten, Stephen D.; Porter, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies. PMID:27478691

  9. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production.

    PubMed

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John R

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies. PMID:27478691

  10. Nutritional status, assessment, requirements and adequacy of traumatic brain injury patients.

    PubMed

    Daradkeh, Ghazi; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Al-Adawi, S Samir; Subash, Selvaraju; Mahmood, Lubna; Kumar, Parvathy R

    2014-10-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) has been considered as a serious public health problem. Each year, traumatic brain injuries are contributing to a substantial number of cases of permanent disability and deaths and it can be classified according to the severity into penetrating and closed head injury. Symptoms, beside to be unconscious can be defined as vomiting, nausea, headache, dizziness, lack of motor coordination, difficulty in balancing, blurred vision and lightheadedness, bad taste in the mouth, ringing in the ears, fatigue and lethargy as well as changes in sleep patterns. The brain is known to be the functional regulator for all the metabolic activities inside the body and TBI patients mostly have a complex metabolic alterations including aberrant cellular metabolism, abnormal metabolic processes, changes in hormones functions and inflammatory cascade. The TBI patient's status needed to be assessed medically and nutritionally since the medical status of the patients can affect the nutrition part. Data from the four assessment tools are needed to be correctly used and interpreted in order to make a proper nutritional diagnosis, clinical assessment, biochemistry as well as anthropometric measurements. Regardless the methods used for assessing TBI patients, having adequate intake and medical care can lead to a reduction in hospital costs, numbers of day hospitalized, numbers of hours of mechanical ventilation and in the overall infection rates. PMID:26027152

  11. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    PubMed

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers. PMID:16425649

  12. Food Choices and Consequences for the Nutritional Status: Insights into Nutrition Transition in an Hospital Community

    PubMed Central

    Piple, Jitendra; Gora, Ranjeet; Purbiya, Pragati; Puliyel, Ashish; Chugh, Parul; Bahl, Pinky; Puliyel, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although economic development is generally accompanied by improvements in the overall nutritional status of the country’s population the ‘nutritional transition’ often involves a shift to high energy diets and less exercise with negative consequences. This pilot study was done to examine if education of parents operates at the household level to influence dietary choices and the nutritional status of children in a small community of hospital workers. Material and Methods 3 groups of persons with varying skill and education levels participated. Weighed food logs were used in all households to calculate ‘adult equivalent’ per-capita-consumption. Nutrients were calculated using nutrients calculator software. BMI was used to classify children as underweight, normal weight and overweight. Results 128 individuals participated from 30 families included 47 children. 10 children (21%) were underweight, 29 (62%) were normal and 8 (17%) were overweight. Energy consumption was highest in families with overweight children 2692 +/-502 compared to 2259 +/-359 in families with normal weight and 2031+/-354 in the family of underweight children. These differences were statistically significant. 42% underweight children belonged to Class 1 at the lowest skill level and there were no overweight children in this group. Most of the overweight children belonged to Class 2. In Class 3 there were no underweight children and the majority was normal weight children. Conclusion Underweight children came from the poorer households. Per capita intake of the family as a whole correlated well with BMI in the children. There was increased obesity in middle income families belonging to Class 2—probably in families who move up the scale from deprivation. Nutritional status in children correlated mostly with maternal education status. PMID:26559817

  13. Nutritional status of married adolescent girls in rural Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, S; Kapil, U; Bhanthi, T; Gnanasekaran, N; Pandey, R M

    1994-01-01

    Adolescence is period of rapid growth and development. The present study was undertaken to assess the nutritional status of 941 adolescent girls, aged 10-18 years belonging to Scheduled Caste communities in rural Rajasthan, using the probability proportionate to size sampling procedure. Data on 93 married adolescent girls was analysed in detail. Nutritional status of the subjects was assessed by anthropometry, dietary intake and by clinical examination of nutritional deficiency disorders. Anthropometric measurements were recorded for height, weight, chest circumference, MUAC and TSF using standardised techniques. On comparing the present study's data with ICMR's study data (1956-65) it was found that there has been a significant improvement in the height, weight and chest circumference of the adolescent girls but the values were below the well-to-do group study data. Dietary intake was assessed by 24 hours recall method. The dietary intake was compared against ICMR's RDA. It was found that the diets were deficient in calories by 30 to 40% in proteins by 25 to 37%, by 39 to 55% in iron and by 10 to 34% in vitamin A. 78% of the subjects suffered from various grades of anaemia and 40% of the subjects had B-complex deficiency. PMID:7721375

  14. Impact of Chemotherapy on Diet and Nutritional Status of Women with Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Certain food groups are often rejected during chemotherapy (CT) due to the side effects of treatment, which may interfere with adequate diet and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment impact on the diet and nutritional status of women with breast cancer (BC). In this prospective longitudinal study, conducted in 2014–2015, 55 women diagnosed with BC, with a mean age 51.5±10.1 years, were followed and data were collected at three different times. Anthropometric and dietary assessments were performed, the latter by applying nine 24h dietary recalls, by using the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised (BHEI-R), and calculating the prevalence of inadequacy by the EAR cut-off point method. Regarding the BHEI-R analysis, the majority of women had a “diet requires modification’, both at the beginning (T0, 58.2%, n = 32) and during treatment (T1, 54.5%, n = 30). However, after the end of the CT, the greater percentage of patients (T2, 49.1%, n = 27) were classified as having an "inadequate diet", since the Total Fruit consumption as well as the Dark Green and Orange Vegetable and Legume consumption decreased significantly during treatment (p = 0.043 and p = 0.026, respectively). There was a significant reduction in the intake of macro and micronutrients, with a high prevalence of inadequacy, of up to 100%, for calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamin B6, vitamin C and zinc. Assessment of the nutritional status indicated that 56% (n = 31) of patients were overweight at these three different times. Weight, BMI and Waist Circumference increased significantly, indicating a worse nutritional status, and there was a correlation between poor diet quality and higher values for BMI, Waist-Hip Ratio and Waist-to-Height Ratio. Chemotherapy interferes in the patients’ diet generating a negative impact on the quality and intake of micro and macronutrients, as well as an impact on their nutritional status, with

  15. Impact of Chemotherapy on Diet and Nutritional Status of Women with Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Custódio, Isis Danyelle Dias; Marinho, Eduarda da Costa; Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Maia, Yara Cristina de Paiva

    2016-01-01

    Certain food groups are often rejected during chemotherapy (CT) due to the side effects of treatment, which may interfere with adequate diet and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment impact on the diet and nutritional status of women with breast cancer (BC). In this prospective longitudinal study, conducted in 2014-2015, 55 women diagnosed with BC, with a mean age 51.5±10.1 years, were followed and data were collected at three different times. Anthropometric and dietary assessments were performed, the latter by applying nine 24h dietary recalls, by using the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised (BHEI-R), and calculating the prevalence of inadequacy by the EAR cut-off point method. Regarding the BHEI-R analysis, the majority of women had a "diet requires modification', both at the beginning (T0, 58.2%, n = 32) and during treatment (T1, 54.5%, n = 30). However, after the end of the CT, the greater percentage of patients (T2, 49.1%, n = 27) were classified as having an "inadequate diet", since the Total Fruit consumption as well as the Dark Green and Orange Vegetable and Legume consumption decreased significantly during treatment (p = 0.043 and p = 0.026, respectively). There was a significant reduction in the intake of macro and micronutrients, with a high prevalence of inadequacy, of up to 100%, for calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamin B6, vitamin C and zinc. Assessment of the nutritional status indicated that 56% (n = 31) of patients were overweight at these three different times. Weight, BMI and Waist Circumference increased significantly, indicating a worse nutritional status, and there was a correlation between poor diet quality and higher values for BMI, Waist-Hip Ratio and Waist-to-Height Ratio. Chemotherapy interferes in the patients' diet generating a negative impact on the quality and intake of micro and macronutrients, as well as an impact on their nutritional status, with an

  16. Nutritional Status and Age at Menarche on Female Students of Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juliyatmi, Rihul Husnul; Handayani, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Menarche is the first menstrual period as one of the sign of puberty. There are many factors may affect the age at menarche such as nutritional status, genetic, environmental conditions, socioeconomic status, and education. The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between nutritional status and age of menarche on female…

  17. Iron, zinc, folate and vitamin B12 nutritional status and milk composition of low-income Brazilian mothers.

    PubMed

    Donangelo, C M; Trugo, N M; Koury, J C; Barreto Silva, M I; Freitas, L A; Feldheim, W; Barth, C

    1989-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional status of low-income Brazilian mothers, who were supplemented with iron and vitamin B12 during pregnancy, in terms of iron, zinc, folate and vitamin B12, in different stages of lactation and to determine the influence of the maternal nutritional status on milk composition. The effect of folate supplementation during pregnancy on folate status of the nursing mothers and milk composition was investigated. The effect of partial weaning on maternal status and milk composition was also studied. In general, the nutritional status of iron, zinc, folate and vitamin B12 of the mothers appears adequate. However, some of the mothers had indices of status lower than normal limits for non-pregnant women. These values, particularly after 30 d post-partum, indicate that these mothers might be at nutritional risk and that the nutrient supplementation received during pregnancy was insufficient to meet demands. There was an increase with the stage of lactation for haematocrit, serum vitamin B12, serum zinc, serum albumin, milk folate and saturation of its binding protein, but there was a decrease for milk protein, total and whey-bound iron and zinc, and lactoferrin. Mothers who took folate supplements during pregnancy had higher serum folate levels immediately after birth than those not taking the supplements but no differences were found at later stages of lactation. Milk composition was not affected. Partial weaning did not affect the maternal nutritional status or the milk composition except for iron which was higher in milk from mothers who were partially breastfeeding.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2661218

  18. The Effects of Market Integration on Childhood Growth and Nutritional Status: the Dual Burden of Under- and Over-Nutrition in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Houck, K; Sorensen, MV; Lu, F; Alban, D; Alvarez, K; Hidobro, D; Doljanin, C; Ona, A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Market integration is an important source of cultural change exposing indigenous populations to epidemiologic and nutrition transitions. As children and adolescents are biologically sensitive to the health effects of market integration, we examine community variation of anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and growth among a cross-cultural sample of Kichwa, Shuar, Huaorani and Cofán indigenous groups in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon. Methods We measured height, weight, body mass index (BMI), upper arm circumference and triceps skinfolds of 186 children and adolescents aged two to 18 years from seven communities. Anthropometric z-scores were calculated based on the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. Comparisons were made to this US reference group, along with between community differences to contextually explore the impacts of varying degrees of market integration. Results We found a high prevalence of stunting in both boys (40%) and girls (34%). Adiposity increased with age and 40% of girls between 15 and 18 years old were overweight. There were large sex differences in body composition with higher BMI, arm circumference and triceps skinfolds in adolescent girls. The Kichwa demonstrated the poorest growth outcomes and nutritional stress followed by the Huaorani and Shuar; yet distinctions in under- and over-nutrition were evident within groups. Conclusion Market integration is a major factor influencing the developmental and lifestyle mismatch associated with the epidemiologic and nutrition transition in general, and the dual burden pattern of high rates of stunting yet adequate to above average short-term nutritional status indicators found among indigenous Amazonian populations. PMID:23657874

  19. Nutritional Status of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Do We Know Enough?12

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Sobhana; Nasser, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is on the rise; therefore, well-timed screening is important. Given that this is a nutritionally vulnerable population, it is imperative to conduct a detailed nutritional assessment so that timely and intensive interventions can be recommended. This review article summarizes the research, focusing on the nutritional status of individuals with ASDs based on their anthropometric measurements, biomarkers, and dietary assessments. Research examining anthropometric measurements reveals an abnormally accelerated rate of growth among children with autism but shows inconsistent findings on the prevalence of overweight/obesity in comparison with typically growing children. Although dysregulated amino acid metabolism, increased homocysteine, and decreased folate, vitamins B-6 and B-12, and vitamin D concentrations have been proposed as possible biomarkers for an early diagnosis of ASDs, research investigating their association with age, gender, severity, and other comorbid psychiatric/nonpsychiatric disorders is lacking. There is consensus that children with autism have selective eating patterns, food neophobia, limited food repertoire, and sensory issues. Although inadequate micronutrient but adequate macronutrient intakes are increasingly reported, there are inconsistent results about the extent and type of nutrient deficiencies. Identification and development of nutritional assessment indicators that serve as early warning signs during routine practice beginning at birth and extending throughout the child’s growth are necessary. With this population aging, there is also a dire need to study the adult population. A more vigorous role by nutrition professionals is warranted because management of potential comorbidities and contributory factors may be particularly problematic. PMID:26178024

  20. Association of dialysis adequacy with nutritional and inflammatory status in patients with chronic kidney failure.

    PubMed

    Hemayati, Roya; Lesanpezeshki, Mahboub; Seifi, Sepideh

    2015-11-01

    The number of patients with dialysis-dependent renal failure has increased in the past years worldwide. Several parameters have been introduced for the quantitative assessment of dialysis adequacy. The National Cooperative Dialysis Study results indicated that Kt/V and time-averaged concentration of urea (TAC) are predictors of mortality in patients who receive maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Also, the protein catabolic ratio (PCR), which is an indicator of nutritional status, can predict patients' mortality. Our aim was to assess the impact of parameters that show dialysis adequacy on indices of nutrition or inflammation. A total of 46 patients were included in the study; eight patients were excluded during the course of the study and 38 patients were enrolled in the final analysis. All patients were receiving HD for at least for three months. HD was administered three times per week and the study lasted for two months. Kt/V, TAC and PCR were assessed at the beginning of the study based on patients' urea and blood urea nitrogen in the first week of our study; these calculations were repeated at the end of the first and second months using the mean of the mentioned values in the month. Both adequacy indices significantly and positively correlated with changes in PCR (P <0.001). However, no significant correlation was detectable between Kt/V and TAC with either body mass index and albumin or C-reactive protein. Based on the Kt/V values, patients with adequate dialysis had slower decrease in the PCR (P <0.001). Our results indicate that adequacy of dialysis is correlated with patients' nutritional status. No correlation was observed between dialysis adequacy and inflammatory status. PMID:26586053

  1. Geohelminth Infections and Nutritional Status of Preschool Aged Children in a Periurban Settlement of Ogun State

    PubMed Central

    Omitola, O. O.; Mogaji, H. O.; Oluwole, A. S.; Adeniran, A. A.; Alabi, O. M.; Ekpo, U. F.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the geohelminth and nutritional status of preschoolers in a periurban community of Ogun state. Fresh stool specimens were collected for laboratory analysis, processed using ether concentration method, and examined under the microscope for geohelminth ova. Demographic characteristics and daily nutrient intake of children were subjectively assessed during an interview session with parents, following anthropometric data collection. Data obtained were analysed using a statistical software for Windows. Nutritional indicators such as underweight, stunting, and wasting were computed from anthropometric data. Results showed an overall prevalence of 39.2% and 12.4% for Ascariasis and Hookworm infection, respectively, with no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the sexes. Prevalence of nutritional indicators was 52.6%, 35.1%, 34.0%, and 9.3% for underweight, stunting, wasting, and thinness conditions, respectively. A good proportion of the malnourished preschoolers were free of Ascaris infection but infected with Hookworm parasite. The adverse effect of geohelminth infection cannot still be ignored in impaired growth, reduced survival, poor development, and cognitive performance of preschoolers. Therefore promotion of adequate health education program on measures of preventing geohelminth infections is needed. PMID:27034905

  2. Geohelminth Infections and Nutritional Status of Preschool Aged Children in a Periurban Settlement of Ogun State.

    PubMed

    Omitola, O O; Mogaji, H O; Oluwole, A S; Adeniran, A A; Alabi, O M; Ekpo, U F

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the geohelminth and nutritional status of preschoolers in a periurban community of Ogun state. Fresh stool specimens were collected for laboratory analysis, processed using ether concentration method, and examined under the microscope for geohelminth ova. Demographic characteristics and daily nutrient intake of children were subjectively assessed during an interview session with parents, following anthropometric data collection. Data obtained were analysed using a statistical software for Windows. Nutritional indicators such as underweight, stunting, and wasting were computed from anthropometric data. Results showed an overall prevalence of 39.2% and 12.4% for Ascariasis and Hookworm infection, respectively, with no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the sexes. Prevalence of nutritional indicators was 52.6%, 35.1%, 34.0%, and 9.3% for underweight, stunting, wasting, and thinness conditions, respectively. A good proportion of the malnourished preschoolers were free of Ascaris infection but infected with Hookworm parasite. The adverse effect of geohelminth infection cannot still be ignored in impaired growth, reduced survival, poor development, and cognitive performance of preschoolers. Therefore promotion of adequate health education program on measures of preventing geohelminth infections is needed. PMID:27034905

  3. Iodine nutrition status amongst neonates in Kangra district, Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Umesh; Kabra, Madhulika; Sareen, Neha; Khenduja, Preetika; Pande, Shubhra

    2014-07-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) is an endemic health problem in Kangra district, Himachal Pradesh (HP) state. ID leads to mental retardation, deaf mutism, squint, dwarfism, spastic diplegia, neurological defects and congenital anomalies. Iodine nutrition status amongst neonates can be assessed by estimating thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). The present study was conducted with an objective to assess the iodine nutrition status amongst Neonates in Kangra district, HP. All of the hospitals in the district which provide obstetric services were enlisted, of which three were selected for this survey. A total of 613 umbilical cord blood samples of neonates were collected on filter paper and analyzed for TSH. WHO (2007) reported that that a <3% frequency of TSH concentrations above 5 mIU/L in samples collected 3-4 days after birth indicates iodine sufficiency in a population. In our study we found that 73.4% of the neonates had TSH levels of more than 5 mlU/l, thus indicating ID in the population studied. Iodine deficiency continues to be a public health problem in Kangra district, Himachal Pradesh. PMID:24797042

  4. Caregiver perceptions of child nutritional status in Magallanes, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Heitzinger, Kristen; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Parra, Sonia G.; Barbosa, Clarita; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to identify risk factors for childhood overweight and obesity and the accuracy of caregivers’ perceptions of their child’s nutritional status in the Magallanes region, Patagonia, Chile. Methods Heights and weights of children attending day care centers and elementary schools were collected and caregivers completed questionnaires regarding their child’s health and behavior. The child’s nutritional status was diagnosed using the 2006 WHO Child Growth Standards (for children under age 6) and the CDC 2000 Growth Charts (for children age 6 and older). Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors related to childhood overweight/obesity and weight underestimation by caregivers of overweight or obese children. Results Of the 795 children included in the study, 247 (31.1%) were overweight and 223 (28.1%) were obese. Risk factors for overweight/obesity included younger age and being perceived to eat more than normal by the caregiver. Caregivers were less likely to underestimate their child’s weight if the child was older or if the caregiver believed the child ate more than a normal amount. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in Magallanes and the majority of caregivers underestimate the extent of the problem in their children. PMID:24548582

  5. [Nutritional status of vitamin A in preschoolers with ocular diseases].

    PubMed

    Villaseñor-Fierro, Emma T; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Kumazawa-Ichikawa, Miguel; Villalpando-Hernández, Salvador; Vélez-Gómez, Ezequiel

    2009-09-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the nutritional status of vitamin A in preschool children with ocular diseases attending to the Hospital Civil of Guadalajara. In a cross sectional design 100 preschool children between 24 and 71 mo of age with ocular diseases were included. Vitamin A intake was evaluated by 24 h dietetic recall, plasma Retinol concentration by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC); and, conjunctiva impression cytology (CIC) was carried out by a trained pathologist. ANOVA and U Mann Whitney tests, and also Spearman correlations were estimated. There were 44.1% females and 55,9% males. Strabismus was the most common disease (41,9%), conjunctivitis (19,4%), and congenital diseases (17,2%). The mean intake of Vitamin A was 374 microg/d +/- 706 and the serum concentration of retinol was of 30 microg/dL +/- 7,6; CIC was normal in 75,6%. The percentage of vitamin A deficiency was 3,2% according to the serum concentration of Retinol and 3,5% to the CIC criteria. It was not association between the nutritional status of vitamin A and ocular diseases. A positive correlation between vitamin A intake and weight/height index (r = 0,244) was found. In conclusion, most preschool children covered the dietary reference intake recommendation of vitamin A; deficiency of this vitamin was lower and, it was not associated to ocular diseases. PMID:19886511

  6. Evaluation of Nutritional Status of Patients with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kaner, Gülşah; Soylu, Meltem; Yüksel, Nimet; Inanç, Neriman; Ongan, Dilek; Başmısırlı, Eda

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives. Our goal was to determine nutritional status, body composition, and biochemical parameters of patients diagnosed with depression based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Methods. A total of 59 individuals, aged 18–60 years admitted to Mental Health Centre of Kayseri Education and Research Hospital, were included in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups; depression group (n = 29) and control group (n = 30). Anthropometric measurements, some biochemical parameters, demographic data, and 24-hour dietary recall were evaluated. Results. 65.5% of depression and 60.0% of control group were female. Intake of vitamins A, thiamine, riboflavin, B6, folate, C, Na, K, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, and fibre (p < 0.05) were lower in depression group. Median levels of body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in depression group. Fasting blood glucose levels, serum vitamins B12, and folic acid (p < 0.05) in depression group were lower than controls. Serum insulin and HOMA levels of two groups were similar. Conclusion. Some vitamin B consumption and serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were low while signs of abdominal obesity were high among patients with depression. Future research exploring nutritional status of individuals with depression is warranted. PMID:26413529

  7. Nutritional status, metabolic changes and white blood cells in adolescents☆

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Thatianne Moreira Silva; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Franceschini, Sylvia C.C.; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between the peripheral blood white cells, metabolic changes, and nutritional status of adolescents with and without excess weight and body fat. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated the body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF) in 362 adolescents from 15 to 19 years of age, of both sexes. White blood cell count, platelet count, uric acid, fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were measured. The inclusion criteria were agreement to participate in the study and signature of the informed consent. Exclusion criteria were: presence of chronic or infectious disease; use of medications that could cause changes in biochemical tests; pregnancy; participation in weight reduction and weight control programs; use of diuretics and laxatives; or the presence of a pacemaker. The following statistical tests were applied: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Student's t or Mann-Whitney test, Pearson or Spearman correlation tests, and chi-squared test, considering p<0.05. RESULTS: Overweight was observed in 20.7% of adolescents. The total cholesterol (TC) had a higher percentage of inadequacy (52.2%), followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (38.4%). There was a positive correlation between white cells and serum lipids, insulin, body fat, and BMI. Monocytes were negatively correlated with BMI, and rods with BMI, body fat, and insulin. CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional status is related to an inflammatory process, and adolescents with excess weight or body fat presented higher amounts of white blood cells. PMID:25510999

  8. Nutritional status in cirrhosis. Italian Multicentre Cooperative Project on Nutrition in Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    1994-09-01

    Malnutrition frequently occurs in patients with chronic liver disease and may represent a risk factor influencing both short- and long-term survival in these patients. Previously published studies have tended to be confined to alcoholic patients and there are few data on the prevalence of nutritional abnormalities in patients with cirrhosis not of alcoholic origin. Anthropometric measurements and a clinical evaluation of the nutritional status of 1402 patients with cirrhosis (883 males and 519 females) were recorded between January 1988 and 1989 by the Italian Multicentre Cooperative project on Nutrition in Liver Cirrhosis. The origin of liver disease was alcohol-related in 37% of patients. Child-Pugh criteria were used to establish the severity of the liver disease. Patients with cirrhosis exhibited a wide range of nutritional abnormalities. While 29% of females and 18% of males appeared to be overnourished, a significant reduction in fat stores, as estimated by the mid-arm fat area, and/or muscle mass, as estimated by mid-arm muscle area, was observed in 30% of patients with cirrhosis. The prevalence of signs of nutritional depletion increased in both sexes as liver function deteriorated. Mean values for mid-arm fat area decreased by 30% in males and by 40% in females with moderate to severe liver failure (Child-Pugh Classes B and C). The reduction in mid-arm muscle area was more evident in males (17% decrease) than in females (9% decrease). Patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis showed a higher prevalence of malnutrition and had more frequent severe liver impairment (Child-Pugh Classes B and C).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7836699

  9. Nutritional Status of Children Hospitalized for Parapneumonic Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Huysentruyt, Koen; Alliet, Philippe; Raes, Marc; Willekens, Julie; De Schutter, Iris; De Wachter, Elke; Malfroot, Anne; Devreker, Thierry; Goyens, Philippe; Vandenplas, Yvan; De Schepper, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Among children hospitalized for pneumonia, those with parapneumonic effusion (PPE) are at particular risk for nutritional deterioration. This study aimed to 1) investigate the evolution of the nutritional status during hospitalization and at outpatient follow-up; 2) determine clinical risk factors for weight loss during hospitalization; 3) describe the nutritional interventions for these children. Methods Retrospective chart review (January ‘07 - September ‘12) of 56 children with pneumonia, complicated by PPE in two Belgian hospitals for data on body weight and height at admission (t0) and discharge (t1), and two weeks (t2) and one month (t3) after discharge. Length of hospitalization (LoS), length of stay in paediatric intensive care (LoSPICU) and maximal in-hospital weight loss (tmax) were calculated and nutritional interventions were recorded. Results The median (range) age was 3.5 (1.0–14.8) years. Weight or height was lacking in five (8.9%) children at t0 and in 28 (50%) at t1; 21.4% was weighed only once during hospitalization. At tmax, respectively 17/44 and 5/44 children lost ≥5% and ≥10% of their weight. Median (range) LoS and LoSPICU were 18.0 (10–41) and 4.0 (0–23) days. One-fourth received a nutritional intervention. Weight for height at admission (WFH(t0)) significantly predicted maximal weight loss (β (95% CI) = −0.34 (−2.0–−0.1); p = 0.03). At t2 and t3, 13/32 and 5/22 of the children with available follow-up data did not reach WFH(t0), whilst in 4/35 and 5/26 body weight remained ≥5% under the weight(t0). Conclusions One-third of children with pneumonia complicated by PPE and monitored for weight and height, lost ≥5% of their body weight during hospitalization. One-fourth did not reach initial WFH one month after discharge. Those with a higher WFH at admission were at higher risk of weight loss. More attention for monitoring of weight loss and the nutritional policy during and after

  10. Determinants of health and nutritional status of rural Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Ene-Obong, H N; Enugu, G I; Uwaegbute, A C

    2001-12-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of socioeconomic and cultural factors on the health and nutritional status of 300 women of childbearing age in two rural farming communities in Enugu State, Nigeria. The women were engaged in farming, trading, and teaching. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using both qualitative and quantitative data-collection methods. The study involved focus-group discussions (FGDs), interviews using a questionnaire, measurement of food/nutrient intake, assessment of activity patterns, anthropometry, and observations of clinical signs of malnutrition. The better-educated women had higher incomes than those with little or no education. Poor education was mainly attributed to lack of monetary support by parents (34%), marriage while in school (27%), and sex discrimination (21%). The teachers had significantly (p < 0.05) better health status, health and nutrition knowledge, food habits, nutrient intake, and self-concept, and adhered less to detrimental cultural practices. However, none of the women met their iron, riboflavin and niacin requirements. More cases of chronic energy deficiency were observed among the farmers (16%) and traders (13%) than among the teachers (5%). Generally, the women worked long hours with reported working hours (6-7 hours) being lower than the observed working hours (11 hours) for the traders and teachers. Income had a significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation with all nutritional variables, except vitamin C, age-at-marriage (r = 0.719), and nutrition knowledge (r = 0.601). Age-at-marriage had a positive correlation with body mass index (BMI) and all nutritional variables but was significant (p < 0.05) for protein (r = 0.362), calcium (r = 0.358), iron (r = 0.362), riboflavin (r = 0.364), and vitamin C (r = 0.476). Workload was negatively correlated with protein intake (r = 0.346; p < 0.05). Meal frequencies for more than 70% of the farmers and petty traders and 42% of the teachers were dependent

  11. Nutritional status and dietary pattern of male athletes in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oladunni, M O; Sanusi, R A

    2013-01-01

    Several factors, including nutritional status and dietary pattern are paramount to optimum performance among athletes. Notwithstanding, risky behaviours that limit or impair athletic performance are widely prevalent among athletes; these include excessive weight reduction and inappropriate dietary practices. This study was conducted to provide information on the nutritional status and dietary pattern of athletes in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. This was a cross sectional descriptive study, involving 207 athletes aged 17 to 40 years in Ibadan. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric indices: Body Mass Index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF). BMI was calculated from weight and height measurements and %BF was estimated from the sum of skin-fold thickness at 4 sites (triceps, biceps, sub-scapular and supra-iliac skin-folds). Dietary pattern was assessed by food habits and food frequency questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were conducted to describe and examine relationships between variables. Mean (SD) for variables were: age; 26.09(±4.77) years, weight; 72.13(±0.45) kg, height; 1.74(±0.06)m, and BMI; 23.89(±3.34)kg/m2. Only 4(1.93%) of the participants were underweight, 39(18.84%) were overweight and 8(3.86%) obese. Mean (SD) of %BF among overweight athletes was 14.25(±3.12) and maximum %BF among overweight athletes was 21.2. A strong and positive correlation was observed between BMI and %BF and %BF increased with age among overweight athletes. About 72% of the athletes skipped meals, 77% drank water or sports drinks during sporting activities, about 11% spent less than #40.00 for each meal. About 49% ate before sports. Foods most frequently consumed by athletes in this study were meat, fish, roots/tubers, cereals, vegetables and fruits. Milk and legumes were less frequently consumed by these athletes. Most of these athletes had nutritional status adequate for their sport activity. With regards to food habits, most of these athletes

  12. Diet, nutritional knowledge and health status of urban middle-aged Malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet

  13. Nutritional Status: The Interpretation of Indicators. Children in the Tropics: Review of the International Children's Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; Masse-Raimbault, Anne-Marie

    1989-01-01

    The assessment of individual or community nutritional status involves the use of indicators; when properly analyzed and interpreted, these may be used to decide what strategies to implement, or how to orient activities aimed at improving nutritional status. In primary health care programs, one approach which remains underused involves obtaining…

  14. Students' Use of Tutoring Services, by Adequate Yearly Progress Status of School. Statistics in Brief. NCES 2010-023

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warkentien, Siri; Grady, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief contributes to current research by investigating the use of tutoring services among a nationally representative group of public school students enrolled in grades K-12. The report compares students in schools that have not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for 3 or more years, and were thereby enrolled in schools that…

  15. Influence of diet and nutritional status on drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Walter-Sack, I; Klotz, U

    1996-07-01

    Genetic and environmental factors contribute to a wide inter- and intraindividual variability in drug metabolism. Among the environmental factors that may influence drug metabolism, the diet and nutritional status of the individuals are important determinants. As altered drug-metabolising enzyme activities can influence the intensity and duration of drug action, such factors should be considered in pharmacotherapy. For this reason the effects of dietary energy, protein deficiency, nutritional ingredients, special diet forms and nutrition regimens and malnutritional states must be differentiated. In various pharmacokinetic studies different model drugs metabolised either by oxidative phase I pathways [e.g. phenazone (antipyrine), aminopyrine, phenacetin, theophylline, propranolol, nifedipine] or phase II conjugation reactions [e.g. paracetamol (acetaminophen), oxazepam] were used and from the calculated pharmacokinetic data some information on the involved and affected drug-metabolising enzymes [e.g. cytochrome P450 (CYP) subspecies, glucuronosyltransferases] can be generated. It is well known that smoking, charcoal broiled food or cruciferous vegetables induce the metabolism of many xenobiotics, whereas grapefruit juice increases the oral bioavailability of the high clearance drugs nifedipine, nitrendipine or felodipine by inhibiting their presystemic (intestinal) elimination. Energy deficiency, and especially a low intake of protein, will cause a decrease of about 20 to 40% in phenazone and theophylline clearance and elimination of those drugs can be accelerated by a protein-rich diet. In the same way, protein deficiency induced by either vegetarian food or undernourishment will have the opposite pharmacokinetic consequences. On the basis of some more examples from the literature it is emphasised that the variable influence of the above factors should be taken into account in study participant selection and study design when the pharmacokinetics of a drug must be

  16. Use and interpretation of anthropometric indicators of nutritional status*

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Studies carried out during the last decade have led to a better understanding of the value of anthropometric indicators of nutritional status. The present report concentrates on data concerning 0-5-year-old children and examines the indices of weight and height and the biological significance of ”wasting” and ”stunting”. The need for a reference population as well as for a standard or target is recognized and the advantages and disadvantages of local versus international reference populations are discussed. In the analysis of data, preference is given to the use of standard deviation (SD) scores and to the presentation of whole distributions. Cut-offs, for example -2SD, are needed for comparison of prevalences and for screening of populations. Sequential or serial measurements and the increasing use of growth velocities are discussed and their uses and difficulties are outlined. PMID:3493862

  17. How nutritional status signalling coordinates metabolism and lignocellulolytic enzyme secretion.

    PubMed

    Brown, Neil Andrew; Ries, Laure Nicolas Annick; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2014-11-01

    The utilisation of lignocellulosic plant biomass as an abundant, renewable feedstock for green chemistries and biofuel production is inhibited by its recalcitrant nature. In the environment, lignocellulolytic fungi are naturally capable of breaking down plant biomass into utilisable saccharides. Nonetheless, within the industrial context, inefficiencies in the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes impede the implementation of green technologies. One of the primary causes of such inefficiencies is the tight transcriptional control of lignocellulolytic enzymes via carbon catabolite repression. Fungi coordinate metabolism, protein biosynthesis and secretion with cellular energetic status through the detection of intra- and extra-cellular nutritional signals. An enhanced understanding of the signals and signalling pathways involved in regulating the transcription, translation and secretion of lignocellulolytic enzymes is therefore of great biotechnological interest. This comparative review describes how nutrient sensing pathways regulate carbon catabolite repression, metabolism and the utilisation of alternative carbon sources in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ascomycete fungi. PMID:25011009

  18. Cecal infusion of nutrients improves nutritional status of rats.

    PubMed

    Aghdassi, E; Raina, N; Allard, J P

    1995-11-01

    The role of colonic fermentation in providing energy was investigated in rats with small bowel transection (T) or 80% resection (SBR). Rats were randomized to receive for 12 d either saline (S) or the enteral solution (E) through a cecostomy to meet 30% of energy requirement; the rest (70%) was provided by parenteral nutrition. Although SBR-S rats lost weight significantly compared with d 1 of the study, SBR-E rats gained. Significantly greater carcass wet weight and fat were found in SBR-E and T-E rats compared with SBR-S and T-S rats. SBR-E and T-E rats had significantly greater colonic mucosal dry weight and protein compared with SBR-S and T-S rats. Cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) contents were also significantly higher in SBR-E and T-E rats compared with SBR-S and T-S rats. There was no significant effect of surgery (T vs. SBR) on any of the variables studied. These results suggest that the products of fermentation of an enteral solution infused through a cecostomy contribute substantially to energy requirement, maintenance of body composition and nutritional status of rats. PMID:7472670

  19. Brain cholecystokinin and nutritional status in rats and mice.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, B S; Monahan, J W; Hirsch, J

    1979-01-01

    Under certain conditions, exogenously administered cholecystokinin (CCK) or its COOH-terminal octapeptide can terminate feeding and cause behavioral satiety in animals. Furthermore, high concentrations of CCK are normally found in the brains of vertebrate species. It has thus been hypothesized that brain CCK plays a role in the control of appetite. To explore this possibility, a COOH-terminal radioimmunoassay was used to measure concentrations of CCK in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, and brain stem of rats and mice after a variety of nutritional manipulations. CCK, mainly in the form of its COOH-terminal octapeptide, was found to appear in rat brain shortly before birth and to increase rapidly in cortex and brain stem throughout the first 5 wk of life. Severe early undernutrition had no effect on the normal pattern of CCK development in rat brain. Adult rats deprived of food for up to 72 h and rats made hyperphagic with highly palatable diets showed no alterations in brain CCK concentrations or distribution of molecular forms of CCK as determined by Sephadex gel filtration of brain extracts. Normal CCK concentrations were also found in the brains of four strains of genetically obese rodents and in the brains of six animals made hyperphagic and obese by surgical or chemical lesioning of the ventromedial hypothalamus. It is concluded that despite extreme variations in the nutritional status of rats and mice, CCK concentrations in major structures of the brain are maintained with remarkable constancy. PMID:500815

  20. Dietary intake and nutritional status of micronutrients in adults with cystic fibrosis in relation to current recommendations.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Somerset, Shawn

    2016-08-01

    An increased prevalence of cystic fibrosis (CF) related complications such as impaired bone health and diabetes has accompanied increased survival of patients with CF. This review was conducted to determine the extent to which adults with CF are meeting current nutrition recommendations for micronutrients in association with CF-related complications management. Although dietary intake and nutritional status in CF has improved significantly in recent decades, micronutrient status seems to have diverged. While vitamin A and E intakes appear adequate, frequent vitamin D and K deficiency/insufficiency and compromised bone health in CF, occurs despite supplementation. Although deficiency of water-soluble vitamins and minerals is uncommon, ongoing surveillance will enhance overall health outcomes, particularly in cases of CF-related liver disease and deteriorated lung function and bone health. Salt and fluid status in CF may also need attention due to diminished thirst sensation and voluntary rehydration. Further investigation in micronutrient status optimisation in CF will inform the development of more effective and targeted nutrition therapies to enable integration of more refined recommendations for micronutrient intakes in CF based on individual needs and disease progression. PMID:26159903

  1. Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Korean Myopathy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seong-Woong; Choi, Won Ah; Lee, Jang Woo; Suh, Mi Ri; Lee, Song Mi

    2016-01-01

    In myopathy patients, fat mass increases as the disease progresses, while lean body mass decreases. The present study aimed to investigate the overall nutritional status of Korean myopathy patients through surveys of diet and dietary habits, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and biochemistry tests, as well as the examination of related factors, for the purpose of using such findings as a basis for improving the nutritional status in myopathy patients. The energy intake of all participants was found to be insufficient at only 44.5% of Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans 2010 (KDRIs 2010), whereas protein intake was sufficient at 89.8% of KDRIs 2010. Dietary fiber intake was found to be 58.4% of sufficient dietary fiber intake for adults according to KDRIs 2010. Calcium intake was found to be 55.0% and magnesium was 14.9% of the recommended calcium and magnesium intake for adults according to KDRIs 2010. With respect to quality of life (QOL), overall increase in QOL domain score showed significant positive correlations with vegetable fat intake (p < 0.05), vegetable protein intake (p < 0.05), and dietary fiber intake (p < 0.05). With respect to BIA, the mean phage angle of all participants was found to be 2.49 ± 0.93°, which was below the cutoff value. As a study that examined nutrient analysis and dietary habits of myopathy patients in Korea, the present study is meaningful in providing the basic data for future studies that aim to present dietary guidelines for patients suffering from myopathy. PMID:26839876

  2. Cooperative breeding and Aka children's nutritional status: is flexibility key?

    PubMed

    Meehan, Courtney L; Helfrecht, Courtney; Quinlan, Robert J

    2014-04-01

    Research suggests that nonmaternal caregivers (allomothers) offer essential assistance through caregiving and provisioning, helping to support lengthy child development. Here, we examine the role of allomothers and the broader social and sharing network on Aka forager children's anthropometrics. We hypothesize that nonmaternal investors strategically target their assistance when it is most needed and when it will have the greatest effect. We evaluate children's nutritional status using WHO standards [weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ), and weight-for-height (WHZ)] during four periods of child development [early infancy (birth to <9 months), mobility to weaning (9 to <36 months), early childhood (36 to <72 months), and middle childhood (72 to <120 months); N = 127]. We explore the effects of allomothers and the social network across these different risk periods and examine whether the broader social network buffers the loss of a primary allomother. ANOVA results suggest that girls may be experiencing some growth faltering, while boys start smaller and remain small across these stages. We used OLS multiple regression models to evaluate the effects of sex, camp composition, risk periods, and allomothers' presence on WAZ, HAZ, and WHZ. Grandmothers are the most influential allomother, with their effect most evident during the 9 to <36 month period. Camp size was also associated with greater WAZ, suggesting that children residing in small camps may be disadvantaged. Our findings also indicate that, under specific residence patterns, cooperative child rearing networks buffer the loss of a grandmother. Overall, our results suggest the importance of social networks to children's nutritional status and that individuals target investment to critical phases. PMID:24452414

  3. Vitamin D status and nutrition in Europe and Asia.

    PubMed

    Lips, P

    2007-03-01

    Vitamin D status is highly different in various countries of Europe, the Middle East and Asia. For this review, vitamin D deficiency is defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) <25 nmol/l. Within European countries, serum 25(OH)D is <25 nmol/l in 2-30% of adults, increasing in the elderly and institutionalized to more than 80% in some studies. A north-south gradient was observed for serum 25(OH)D in the Euronut and MORE studies with higher levels in Scandinavia and lower levels in Italy and Spain and some Eastern European countries. This points to other determinants than sunshine, e.g. nutrition, food fortification and supplement use. Mean vitamin D intake in Scandinavia is 200-400IU/d, twice that in other European countries. Very low serum 25(OH)D levels have been reported in the Middle East, e.g. Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan and Iran. In these countries serum 25(OH)D was lower in women than in men and associated with clothing habits. In a Lebanese survey, vitamin D deficiency was observed in the majority and occurred mainly in veiled women. In India, vitamin D deficiency was observed in more than 30%, vitamin D status being poor in school children, pregnant women and large cities. Vitamin D status was much better in Malaysia and Singapore, but lower serum 25(OH)D was observed in Japan and China. Rickets and osteomalacia appear quite common in India, but precise data are lacking. Immigrants in Europe from the Middle East and Asia carry a high risk for vitamin D deficiency, pregnant women being especially at risk. Comparison of vitamin D status between countries is hampered by interlaboratory variation of serum 25(OH)D measurement. In addition, there is a need of population-based data. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is common in Southern Europe, the Middle East, India, China and Japan. It is less common in Northern Europe and Southeast Asia. Risk groups are young children, the elderly, pregnant women and non-western immigrants in Europe. Important

  4. Full Fields, Empty Cupboards: The Nutritional Status of Migrant Farmworkers in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotland, Jeffrey

    This study is the result of a 1987-88 nutrition survey of Florida farmworkers, and it develops a composite picture of this group's overall health. The survey included a nutritional profile questionnaire identifying factors limiting migrants' access to an adequate diet and a survey examining their nutrient-specific dietary adequacy. The data show…

  5. Association between Maternal and Child Nutritional Status in Hula, Rural Southern Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Negash, Canaan; Whiting, Susan J.; Henry, Carol J.; Belachew, Tefera; Hailemariam, Tewodros G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal and child under nutrition is highly prevalent in low-income and middle-income countries, resulting in substantial increases in mortality and overall disease burden. The aim of this baseline survey was to determine the association between selected maternal characteristics, maternal nutritional status and children’s nutritional status. Methods and Findings A survey with a cross sectional design was conducted between September and October 2012 in Hula, Ethiopia. The study subjects were 197 mothers of children between the ages of 6 and 23 months. Weight and height (mothers) or recumbent length (children) were measured using calibrated, standardized techniques. Seven percent of children were below -2 weight for height Z score (WHZ), 11.5% were below -2 height for age Z score (HAZ) and 9.9% were below -2 weight for age Z score (WAZ). Maternal anthropometrics were associated with child nutritional status in the bivariate analysis. Maternal BMI (r = 0.16 P = 0.02) and educational status (r = 0.25 P = 0.001) were correlated with WHZ of children while maternal height (r = 0.2 P = 0.007) was correlated with HAZ of children. After multivariate analysis, children whose mothers had salary from employment had a better WHZ score (P = 0.001) and WAZ score (P<0.001). Both maternal BMI and maternal height were associated with WHZ (P = 0.04) and HAZ (P = 0.01) score of children. Conclusion Having a mother with better nutritional status and salaried employment is a benefit for the nutritional status of the child. The interrelationship between maternal and child nutritional status stresses the value of improving maternal nutritional status as this should improve both maternal and child health outcomes. Therefore strategies to improve nutritional status of children should also include improving the nutritional status of the mother and empowering her financially. PMID:26588687

  6. Ordinal logistic regression analysis on the nutritional status of children in KarangKitri village

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohyver, Margaretha; Yongharto, Kimmy Octavian

    2015-09-01

    Ordinal logistic regression is a statistical technique that can be used to describe the relationship between ordinal response variable with one or more independent variables. This method has been used in various fields including in the health field. In this research, ordinal logistic regression is used to describe the relationship between nutritional status of children with age, gender, height, and family status. Nutritional status of children in this research is divided into over nutrition, well nutrition, less nutrition, and malnutrition. The purpose for this research is to describe the characteristics of children in the KarangKitri Village and to determine the factors that influence the nutritional status of children in the KarangKitri village. There are three things that obtained from this research. First, there are still children who are not categorized as well nutritional status. Second, there are children who come from sufficient economic level which include in not normal status. Third, the factors that affect the nutritional level of children are age, family status, and height.

  7. Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim

    2013-09-01

    The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency. PMID:24016764

  8. Nutritional Status in Humans during Long-Duration Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; MatthewsOliver, Susan A.; Dillon, E. Lichar; Fesperman, Vernell

    2006-01-01

    Bed rest is a valuable ground-based model for many of the physiological changes associated with space flight. A series of studies was undertaken to evaluate nutritional changes during and after 60 or 90 days of -6 head-down-tilt bed rest. A total of 11 subjects (8 M, 3 F; age 26-55 y) participated in the studies. Blood and urine were collected twice before bed rest and once per month during bed rest. Samples were analyzed in batch at the end of each study. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Markers of bone resorption (such as n-telopeptide excretion, p less than 0.05) increased during bed rest, and 25-OH vitamin D status tended to decline (p=0.06). During bed rest oxidative damage markers, such as superoxide dismutase increased (p less than 0.01) and 8-(OH)-2'-deoxyguanosine tended to increase (p=0.07); whereas total antioxidant capacity decreased (p less than 0.02). Iron status indices showed patterns of increased iron stores, with decreased transferrin receptors (p less than 0.001). Biochemical markers revealed a tendency toward a loss of muscle mass, by lower excretion of creatinine and 3-methyl-histidine during bed rest. All of these changes are very similar to those observed during space flight, and further document the utility of bed rest as a model of space flight.

  9. The nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 of Buddhist vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yujin; Krawinkel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 in vegetarians were assessed and compared with those of non- vegetarians in Korea. The vegetarian subjects were 54 Buddhist nuns who ate no animal source food except for dairy products. The non-vegetarians were divided into two groups: 31 Catholic nuns and 31 female college students. Three-day dietary records were completed, and the blood samples were collected for analyzing a complete blood count, and serum levels of ferritin, folate, and vitamin B-12. There was no difference in hemoglobin among the diet groups. The serum ferritin and hematocrit levels of vegetarians did not differ from that of non- vegetarian students with a high intake of animal source food but low intake of vitamin C, and the levels were lower than that of non-vegetarian Catholic nuns with a modest consumption of animal source food and a high intake of vitamin C. The serum vitamin B-12 levels of all subjects except one vegetarian and the serum folate levels of all subjects except one non-vegetarian student fell within a normal range. In vegetarians, there was a positive correlation between the vitamin C intake and serum ferritin levels as well as between the laver intake and serum vitamin B-12 levels. In order to achieve an optimal iron status, both an adequate amount of iron intake and its bioavailability should be considered. Sufficient intake of vegetables and fruits was reflected in adequate serum folate status. Korean laver can be a good source of vitamin B-12 for vegetarians. PMID:21393109

  10. Interactions among host diet, nutritional status and gastrointestinal parasite infection in wild bovids.

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O

    2004-03-29

    In this study, I explored the interactions among host diet, nutritional status and gastrointestinal parasitism in wild bovids by examining temporal patterns of nematode faecal egg shedding in species with different diet types during a drought and non-drought year. Study species included three grass and roughage feeders (buffalo, hartebeest, waterbuck), four mixed or intermediate feeders (eland, Grant's gazelle, impala, Thomson's gazelle) and two concentrate selectors (dik-dik, klipspringer). Six out of the nine focal species had higher mean faecal egg counts in the drought year compared to the normal year, and over the course of the dry year, monthly faecal egg counts were correlated with drought intensity in four species with low-quality diets, but no such relationship was found for species with high-quality diets. Comparisons of dietary crude protein and faecal egg count in impala showed that during the dry season, individuals with high faecal egg counts (> or =1550 eggs/g of faeces) had significantly lower crude protein levels than individuals with low (0-500 eggs/g) or moderate (550-1500 eggs/g) egg counts. These results suggest that under drought conditions, species unable to maintain adequate nutrition, mainly low-quality feeders, are less able to cope with gastrointestinal parasite infections. In particular, during dry periods, reduced protein intake seems to be associated with declining resilience and resistance to infection. PMID:15013743

  11. Interactions among host diet, nutritional status and gastrointestinal parasite infection in wild bovids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ezenwa, V.O.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, I explored the interactions among host diet, nutritional status and gastrointestinal parasitism in wild bovids by examining temporal patterns of nematode faecal egg shedding in species with different diet types during a drought and non-drought year. Study species included three grass and roughage feeders (buffalo, hartebeest, waterbuck), four mixed or intermediate feeders (eland, Grant's gazelle, impala, Thomson's gazelle) and two concentrate selectors (dik-dik, klipspringer). Six out of the nine focal species had higher mean faecal egg counts in the drought year compared to the normal year, and over the course of the dry year, monthly faecal egg counts were correlated with drought intensity in four species with low-quality diets, but no such relationship was found for species with high-quality diets. Comparisons of dietary crude protein and faecal egg count in impala showed that during the dry season, individuals with high faecal egg counts (???1550 eggs/g of faeces) had significantly lower crude protein levels than individuals with low (0-500 eggs/g) or moderate (550-1500 eggs/g) egg counts. These results suggest that under drought conditions, species unable to maintain adequate nutrition, mainly low-quality feeders, are less able to cope with gastrointestinal parasite infections. In particular, during dry periods, reduced protein intake seems to be associated with declining resilience and resistance to infection. ?? 2003 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6–9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6–9 years) in 2013–2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children’s dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson’s chi-square and Student’s t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443

  13. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6-9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study.

    PubMed

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-12-01

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6-9 years) in 2013-2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children's dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson's chi-square and Student's t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443

  14. Nutritional status and growth of indigenous Xavante children, Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to characterize the nutritional status of Xavante Indian children less than 10 years of age in Central Brazil and to evaluate the hypothesis of an association between child nutrition and socioeconomic differentiation in this population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2006 that included all children under the age of 10 from the Xavante village Pimentel Barbosa in Mato Grosso, Brazil. The data collected included weight, height, and sociodemographic information. Sociodemographic data were used to generate two indices ("income" and "wealth") and to determine the proportion of adults in each household. Descriptive analyses were performed for weight-for-age (W/A), height-for-age (H/A), and weight-for-height (W/H) using the NCHS and the WHO growth references. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using H/A and W/A as a response variables. Results Of a total of 246 children under the age of ten residing in the village, 232 (94.3%) were evaluated. Following the NCHS reference, 5.6% of children under the age of ten presented low W/A and 14.7% presented low H/A. Among children under the age of five, deficit percentages for weight and height were 4.5% and 29.9%, respectively, following the WHO curves. Among children < 2 years of age, H/A index variability was found to be directly related to child's age and inversely related to the proportion of adults in the household. Maternal BMI was positively associated with growth for children from 2 to 4 years of age, explaining 11.5% of the z-score variability for the H/A index. For children 5 years of age and older, the wealth index and maternal height were positively associated with H/A. No significant associations were found using W/A as the dependent variable. Conclusion This study demonstrated that undernutrition, in particular linear growth deficit, is a notable health issue for Xavante children. These findings contrast with the nutritional profile observed

  15. Nutritive value of meals, dietary habits and nutritive status in Croatian university students according to gender.

    PubMed

    Colić Barić, Irena; Satalić, Zvonimir; Lukesić, Zeljka

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate daily menus at students' restaurants and to report dietary habits and other health-related behaviour of Croatian university students (n=2075) according to gender. A specially designed self-administered questionnaire was used. One hundred and twenty daily menus were chosen by random sampling, and the nutritive value was calculated using food composition tables. Daily menus on average provide an adequate amount of energy, protein and most micronutrients: 88.2% of daily menus provide a balanced intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates, 22.5% of daily menus provide more than 300 mg of cholesterol, and 58.8% have more than 25 g dietary fibre. On average, students had 2.4 meals and 1.3 snacks per day. Breakfast was the most often skipped meal. Red meat, cereals and fast food were consumed more often by males (P<0.05). Low-fat dairy products, whole grain products and breakfast cereals were consumed more often by females (P<0.05). The most common choice for snacks was fruit. Males exercised more than females (4.4 h/week versus 1.6 h/week; P<0.05). A higher percentage of females (29.8%) than males (17.2%) smoked cigarettes. For alcohol consumption it was vice versa: 88.9 and 84.8% of males and females, respectively. A total of 80.4% of students were well nourished. This study showed that meals offered at students' restaurants are adequate. Dietary and other health-related behaviour differed according to gender. Clustering of some behaviours was observed. PMID:14522693

  16. Patterns of Risk: The Nutritional Status of the Rural Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotland, Jeffrey; Loonin, Deanne

    Nutrition and health are underlying influences to education performance. This report is a collection and analysis of data on nutrition and the rural poor in the United States. It presents an empirical assessment of critical nutritional and social-service problems experienced by the rural poor population. The first section of the report uses data…

  17. Pilot Study on the Influence of Nutritional Counselling and Implant Therapy on the Nutritional Status in Dentally Compromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wöstmann, Bernd; Simon, Teresa; Neuhäuser-Berthold, Monika; Rehmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the impact of implant-prosthetic rehabilitation combined with nutritional counseling on the nutritional status of patients with severely reduced dentitions. Design An explorative intervention study including an intra-individual comparison of 20 patients with severely reduced dentitions in terms of nutrition- and quality of life-related parameters recorded at baseline and at six and twelve months after implant-prosthetic rehabilitation. Participants Twenty patients from the Department of Prosthetic Dentistry of Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, with an mean age of 63 years, who had fewer than ten pairs of antagonists. Measurements The baseline data collection included dental status, a chewing ability test, laboratory parameters, anthropometric data (body mass index), energy supply, a 3-day dietary record, an analysis of the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) with the OHIP-G14, the Mini-Mental Status (MMS) and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Six months after implantation and prosthetic rehabilitation, individual nutritional counseling was performed by a dietician. Data were again collected and analyzed. A final follow-up was conducted 12 months after prosthetic rehabilitation. Results Despite the highly significant improvement in masticatory ability and OHRQoL after implant-prosthetic rehabilitation, no significant changes were observed regarding MNA, anthropometric data or energy supply. Except for cholinesterase (p = 0.012), ferritin (p = 0.003), folic acid (p = 0.019) and vitamin A (p = 0.004), no laboratory parameter changed significantly during the investigation period. In addition, no general significant differences were observed for nutrient intake or food choice. Conclusion The present study does not confirm the assumption that the implant-prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with severely reduced residual dentitions with or without an individual nutritional counseling influences nutritional status. PMID:26821352

  18. Nutritional status of patients with phenylketonuria in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okano, Yoshiyuki; Hattori, Toshikazu; Fujimoto, Hiroki; Noi, Kaori; Okamoto, Miki; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Ryoko; Fujii, Rika; Tamaoki, Tomoko

    2016-09-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that hyperphenylalaninemia in phenylketonuria (PKU) can cause neuropsychological and psychosocial problems in diet-off adult patients, and that such symptoms improve after resumption of phenylalanine-restricted diet, indicating the need for lifetime low-phenylalanine diet. While limiting protein intake, dietary therapy should provide adequate daily intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins, and microelements. We evaluated nutrient balance in 14 patients with classical PKU aged 4-38 years. Approximately 80-85% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of protein in Japanese was supplied through phenylalanine-free (Phe-free) milk and Phe-free amino acid substitutes. Nutritional evaluation showed that the calorie and protein intakes were equivalent to the RDA. Phenylalanine intake was 9.8 ± 2.2 mg/kg of body weight/day, which maintained normal blood phenylalanine concentration by the 80% Phe-free protein rule. The protein, fat, and carbohydrate ratio was 9.5:23.9:66.6% with relative carbohydrate excess. Phe-free milk and amino acid substitutes provided 33.7% of carbohydrate, 82.1% of protein, and 66.7% of fat intake in all. Selenium and biotin intakes were 25.0% and 18.1% of the RDA and adequate intake (AI) for Japanese, respectively; both were not included in Phe-free milk. PKU patients showed low serum selenium, low urinary biotin, and high urinary 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid in this study. The intakes of magnesium, zinc, and iodine were low (71.5%, 79.5%, and 71.0% of the RDA, respectively) and that of phosphorus was 79.7% of the AI, although they were supplemented in Phe-free milk. PKU patients depend on Phe-free milk and substitutes for daily requirement of microelements and vitamins as well as protein and fat. Development of low-protein food makes it possible to achieve the aimed phenylalanine blood level, but this lowers the intake of microelements and vitamins from natural foods. The dietary habits vary continuously with

  19. Environmental Considerations for Improving Nutritional Status in Older Adults with Dementia: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Joy W; Lawrence, Jeannine C

    2015-11-01

    As the number of older adults in the United States continues to grow, the American health care system will face the unique challenge of providing care for these individuals, including many who will be diagnosed with some form of dementia. As dementia progresses, patients require increasing amounts of care and nutrient intake usually declines. This tends to result in weight loss, malnutrition, and increased morbidity and mortality. Various interventions have been developed with the goal of improving meal intake and reducing unintentional weight loss in patients with dementia. Several studies have shown that meal intake improves with the provision of adequate assistance, either from staff members or from volunteer feeding assistants. Some studies have focused on the method of meal service and its influence on meal intake and nutrition status. Both buffet-style and family-style dining have shown promising results in terms of improving meal intake and quality of life among older adults in long-term-care settings. Other environment-related interventions include improving lighting and visual contrast, altering the dining room to more closely resemble a home-style setting, using the aroma of food to stimulate appetite, using routine seating arrangements, and using relaxing or familiar music in the dining room to provide a calmer environment. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the research on environment-based interventions to improve nutritional status among older adults with dementia, to describe potential for practical applications, and to identify gaps in the existing literature whereon further research is warranted. PMID:26233887

  20. Nutritional status assessment in geriatrics: Consensus declaration by the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology Nutrition Work Group.

    PubMed

    Camina-Martín, M Alicia; de Mateo-Silleras, Beatriz; Malafarina, Vincenzo; Lopez-Mongil, Rosa; Niño-Martín, Virtudes; López-Trigo, J Antonio; Redondo-del-Río, M Paz

    2015-07-01

    Ongoing population ageing is one of the factors influencing the increase in the prevalence of undernutrition, because elderly people are a vulnerable group due to their biological, psychological and social characteristics. Despite its high prevalence, undernutrition is underdiagnosed in the geriatric sphere. For this reason, the aim of this consensus document is to devise a protocol for geriatric nutritional assessment. A multidisciplinary team has been set up within the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (in Spanish Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología, SEGG) in order to address undernutrition and risk of undernutrition so that they can be diagnosed and treated in an effective manner. The MNA-SF is a practical tool amongst the many validated methods for nutritional screening. Following suspicion of undernutrition or after establishing the presence of undernutrition, a full assessment will include a detailed nutritional history of the patient. The compilation of clinical-nutritional and dietetic histories seeks to aid in identifying the possible risk factors at the root of a patient's undernutrition. Following this, an anthropometric assessment associated to laboratory data, will describe the patient's physical and metabolic changes associated to undernutrition. Currently, the tendency is to further nutritional assessment through the use of non-invasive techniques to study body composition in association with functional status. The latter is an indirect index for nutritional status which is very interesting from a geriatrician's point of view. To conclude, correct nutritional screening is the fundamental basis for an early undernutrition diagnosis and to assess the need for nutritional treatment. In order to achieve this, it is fundamental to foster research in the field of nutritional geriatrics, in order to expand our knowledge base and to increasingly practice evidence-based geriatrics. PMID:26025067

  1. [Nutritional status assessment in Geriatrics: Consensus declaration by the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology NutritionWork Group].

    PubMed

    Camina-Martín, María Alicia; de Mateo-Silleras, Beatriz; Malafarina, Vincenzo; Lopez-Mongil, Rosa; Niño-Martín, Virtudes; López-Trigo, José Antonio; Redondo-Del-Río, María Paz

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing population ageing is one of the factors influencing the increase in the prevalence of undernutrition, as elderly people are a vulnerable group due to their biological, psychological and social characteristics. Despite its high prevalence, undernutrition is underdiagnosed in the geriatric sphere. For this reason, the aim of this consensus document is to devise a protocol for geriatric nutritional assessment. A multidisciplinary team has been set up within the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (in Spanish Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología [SEGG]) in order to address undernutrition and risk of undernutrition so that they can be diagnosed and treated in an effective manner. The MNA-SF is a practical tool amongst the many validated methods for nutritional screening. Following suspicion of undernutrition, or after establishing the presence of undernutrition, a full assessment will include a detailed nutritional history of the patient. The compilation of clinical-nutritional and dietetic histories is intended to help in identifying the possible risk factors at the root of a patient's undernutrition. Following this, an anthropometric assessment, combined with laboratory data, will describe the patient's physical and metabolic changes associated to undernutrition. Currently, the tendency is for further nutritional assessment through the use of non-invasive techniques to study body composition in association with functional status. The latter is an indirect index for nutritional status, which is very interesting from a geriatrician's point of view. To conclude, correct nutritional screening is the fundamental basis for an early undernutrition diagnosis and to assess the need for nutritional treatment. In order to achieve this, it is fundamental to foster research in the field of nutritional geriatrics, in order to expand our knowledge base and to increasingly practice evidence-based geriatrics. PMID:26388249

  2. Vitamin D nutritional status and the risk for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    LIU, MIN; LI, XIANCHI; SUN, RONGRONG; ZENG, YI; CHEN, SHUANG; ZHANG, PEIYING

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. CVD has a significant impact on health care systems worldwide and over 23 million individuals are expected to succumb to the disease by 2030. Early onset of atherosclerosis in childhood along with other risk factors of CVD, including elevated circulating lipids, have been shown to persist in adulthood and lead to CVD. Vitamin D deficiency is considered a risk factor for the pathogenesis of CVD, with childhood nutritional status of vitamin D being an important determinant of the development of CVD. Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D can arise due to reduced intake as well as geographical location, and other diseases/conditions such as chronic kidney disease and obesity. Childhood vitamin D deficiency can progress and lead to atherosclerosis and other CVDs in adulthood. Early intervention with vitamin D supplementation is an ideal approach towards preventive therapy. However, there is no clear consensus regarding the role of vitamin D in childhood CVD. In the present study, we reviewed the available evidence in favor of and against such a role for this vitamin. PMID:27073421

  3. Nutrient intake, nutritional status, and cognitive function with aging.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2016-03-01

    With the demographic aging of populations worldwide, diseases associated with aging are becoming more prevalent and costly to individuals, families, and healthcare systems. Among aging-related impairments, a decline in cognitive function is of particular concern, as it erodes memory and processing abilities and eventually leads to the need for institutionalized care. Accumulating evidence suggests that nutritional status is a key factor in the loss of cognitive abilities with aging. This is of tremendous importance, as dietary intake is a modifiable risk factor that can be improved to help reduce the burden of cognitive impairment. With respect to nutrients, there is evidence to support the critical role of several B vitamins in particular, but also of vitamin D, antioxidant vitamins (including vitamin E), and omega-3 fatty acids, which are preferentially taken up by brain tissue. On the other hand, high intakes of nutrients that contribute to hypertension, atherosclerosis, and poor glycemic control may have negative effects on cognition through these conditions. Collectively, the evidence suggests that considerable slowing and reduction of cognitive decline may be achieved by following a healthy dietary pattern, which limits intake of added sugars, while maximizing intakes of fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds. PMID:27116240

  4. Relationships between nutritional status, depression and pleasure of eating in aging men and women.

    PubMed

    Bailly, Nathalie; Maître, Isabelle; Van Wymelbeke, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional health is an essential component of quality of life among older adults. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of nutritional status in order to identify both common and sex specific predictive pathways in an aging population. A questionnaire was administered to 464 people living at home aged 65 years and above. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about nutritional status (MNA), depression (GDS), pleasure of eating and demographic characteristics. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relationships between the variables. For both sexes, results indicate that depression and pleasure of eating are related to nutritional status. In addition, different pathways were found between men and women. In particular, while pleasure of eating is affected by depression among aging women this is not the case for men. The implications of the findings for nutrition communication are discussed. PMID:26337662

  5. The Relationship between the Neighborhood Safety and Nutritional Status of Children in Baghdad City, Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal; Isa, Zaleha Md.; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Abdal Qader, Mohammed A.; Hasan, Tiba Nezar; AL-abed, AL-abed Ali

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The neighborhoods where the children live play an important role in their development physically and mentally. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between neighborhood safety and child nutritional status in Baghdad city, Iraq. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Baghdad city, Iraq, among 400 primary school children from 4 schools. BMI-for-age Z score was used to assess the nutritional status of the children. Newly developed questionnaires on neighborhood safety were distributed to the parents to answer them. Results. In this study, males were more predominant than females with 215 participants compared to 185 females. A total of 49% were normal weight, 38.8% either overweight or obese, and only 12.2% underweight. There was a significant relationship between father education, father and mother working status, family income, and children nutritional status (P = 0.10, 0.009, <0.001, 0.37), respectively. The association between neighborhood safety variables and child nutritional status was significant except for worrying about child safety and thinking of leaving the neighborhood (P = 0.082, 0.084), respectively. Conclusion. Nutritional status of school children continues to be a public health issue in Iraq especially Baghdad city. There was a significant association between neighborhood safety and children nutritional status. PMID:25243083

  6. Preoperative Nutritional Status and The Impact on Radical Cystectomy Recovery: An International Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bente Thoft; Dalbagni, Guido; Borre, Michael; Love-Retinger, Nora

    2016-01-01

    In radical cystectomy, under-nutrition is common and has detrimental physiological and clinical effects, which can lead to increased complications and prolonged recovery. This article compares measurements and outcomes across continents in this patient population with advanced bladder cancer. The association of preoperative nutritional risk, nutritional status, and length of stay is equal across continents, and the results promote increased clinical awareness that women at severe risk should be identified preoperatively. PMID:27501594

  7. Nutritional status of iodine in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain): study on hygiene-dietetic habits and iodine in urine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation and irrreversible cerebral lesions around the world. However, few studies have been published on the nutritional status of iodine in the pregnant population within the Primary Care setting, a health care level which plays an essential role in the education and control of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of the present study is: 1.- To know the hygiene-dietetic habits related to the intake of foods rich in iodine and smoking during pregnancy. 2.- To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and the factors associated with its appearance during pregnancy. Methods/design We will perform a cluster randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Randomisation unit: Primary Care Team. Study population: 898 pregnant women over the age of 17 years attending consultation to a midwife during the first trimester of pregnancy in the participating primary care centres. Outcome measures: consumption of iodine-rich foods and iodine deficiency. Points of assessment: each trimester of the gestation. Intervention: group education during the first trimester of gestation on healthy hygiene-dietetic habits and the importance of an adequate iodine nutritional status. Statistical analysis: descriptive analysis of all variables will be performed as well as multilevel logistic regression. All analyses will be done carried out on an intention to treat basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Discussion Evidence of generalised iodine deficiency during pregnancy could lead to the promotion of interventions of prevention such as how to improve and intensify health care

  8. The Plausibility of Maternal Nutritional Status Being a Contributing Factor to the Risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: The Potential Influence of Zinc Status as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Keen, Carl L.; Uriu-Adams, Janet Y.; Skalny, Anatoly; Grabeklis, Andrei; Grabeklis, Sevil; Green, Kerri; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Wertelecki, W. W.; Chambers, Christina D.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that human pregnancy outcome can be significantly compromised by suboptimal maternal nutritional status. Poor diet results in a maternal-fetal environment in which the teratogenicity of other insults such as alcohol might be amplified. As an example, there is evidence that zinc (Zn) can interact with maternal alcohol exposure to influence the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Studies with experimental animals have shown that the teratogenicity of alcohol is increased under conditions of Zn deficiency, while its teratogenicity is lessened when animals are given Zn supplemented diets or Zn injections prior to the alcohol exposure. Alcohol can precipitate an acute phase response resulting in a subsequent increase in maternal liver metallothionein, which can sequester Zn and lead to decreased Zn transfer to the fetus. Importantly, the teratogenicity of acute alcohol exposure is reduced in metallothionein knockout mice, which can have improved Zn transfer to the conceptus relative to wild-type mice. Consistent with the above, Zn status has been reported to be low in alcoholic women at delivery. Preliminary data from two basic science and clinical nutritional studies that are ongoing as part of the international Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CIFASD) support the potential role of Zn, among other nutritional factors, relative to risk for FASD. Importantly, the nutrient levels being examined in these studies are relevant to general clinical populations and represent suboptimal levels rather than severe deficiencies. These data suggest that moderate deficiencies in single nutrients can act as permissive factors for FASD, and that adequate nutritional status or intervention through supplementation may provide protection for some of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:20333752

  9. Anthropometric measures and nutritional status in a healthy elderly population

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-García, Sergio; García-Peña, Carmen; Duque-López, María Ximena; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cortés-Núñez, Alma Rosa; Reyes-Beaman, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Background Anthropometric evaluation is an essential feature of geriatric nutritional evaluation for determining malnutrition, being overweight, obesity, muscular mass loss, fat mass gain and adipose tissue redistribution. Anthropometric indicators are used to evaluate the prognosis of chronic and acute diseases, and to guide medical intervention in the elderly. We evaluated anthropometric measurements and nutritional status as they relate to age and gender in healthy elderly people. Methods The study analyzed data from the national survey "Health needs and health service use by older-than-60-year-old beneficiaries of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS)". The present study included only individuals who reported no chronic disease in the last 20 years and had no hospital admission in the two months prior to the survey. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), body circumference (arm, waist, hip and calf), waist to hip ratio (WHR), elbow amplitude and knee-heel length. Results Application of the inclusion criteria resulted in a study population elderly of 1,968, representing 12.2% of the original number in the national survey in urban areas beneficiaries of the IMSS. The study population comprised 870 women and 1,098 men, with a mean age of 68.6 years. The average weights were 62.7 kg for women and 70.3 kg for men (p < 0.05), and the mean heights were 1.52 m for women and 1.63 m for men (p < 0.05). Age related changes in anthropometric values were identified. BMI values indicated that 62.3% of the population was overweight, and 73.6% of women and 16.5% of men had high fat tissue distribution. Conclusion Our findings suggest that applying the BMI thresholds that identify being overweight in the general adult population may lead to an overestimation in the number of overweight elderly Similar problems appear to exist when assessing waist circumference and WHR values. Prospective studies are required to determine the

  10. Effect of nutritive status on Mytilus galloprovincialis pollution biomarkers: Implications for large-scale monitoring programs.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Carmen; Albentosa, Marina; Campillo, Juan A; Viñas, Lucía; Romero, Diego; Franco, Angeles; Bellas, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Biomarkers have been extensively used in monitoring programs with the aim of assessing the biological effects of pollutants on marine organisms and determining environmental status. Data obtained from these programs are sometimes difficult to interpret due to the large amount of natural variables affecting biological processes, which could act as confounding factors on biomarker responses. The main aim of this work was to identify the effect of one of these variables, the food availability, and consequently, the mussel nutritive status, on biomarker responses. For that purpose, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were conditioned to three different food rations for 2 months in order to create three mussel nutritive statuses and afterwards, each status was exposed to three nominal concentrations of fluoranthene (FLU) for 3 weeks. A battery of biomarkers was considered in this study to cover a wide range of organism responses, both physiological (scope for growth - SFG) and biochemical (superoxide dismutase - SOD, catalase - CAT, glutathione reductase - GR, glutathione peroxidase - GPx, glutathione-S-transferase - GST and phenoloxidase - PO activities, and lipid membrane peroxidation - LPO). The results obtained, evidenced that most of the studied biomarkers (SFG, SOD, CAT, GPx, and PO) were strongly affected by mussel nutritive status, showing higher values at lower status, whereas the effect of toxicant was not always evident, masked by the nutritive status effect. This paper demonstrates that toxicants are not the only source of variability modulating pollution biomarkers, and confirms nutritive status as a major factor altering biochemical and physiological biomarkers. PMID:26277408

  11. [The influence of dietary fibers on cell immunity under the adequate nutrition and in the presence of alimentary polyhypovitaminosis in rats].

    PubMed

    Trushina, É N; Mustafina, O K; Vrzhesinskaia, O A

    2013-01-01

    The effect of wheat bran on cell immunity in rats adequately provided with vitamins or insufficiently supplied with vitamins has been investigated. 48 male Wistar rats (58.1 +/- 0.5 g) were divided into 6 group and fed with complete semi-synthetic diet, containing 100% or 20% of vitamin mixture (Vit) with or without supplement of insoluble dietary fiber (DF) in the dose corresponding to the upper allowable level of its consumption (5% wheat bran of diet mass) for 4 weeks. The animals of the 1 group received 100% of vitamin mixture (100% Vit); 2 group--100% Vit+DF; 3 group--20% of vitamin mixture (20% Vit); 4 group--20% of vitamin mixture and DF (20% Vit+DF). The next 5 days rats from vitamin-deficient groups were fed with diets supplemented with 80% of Vit: (5 group--20% Vit+80% Vit; 6 group--20% Vit+DF+80% Vit). The contents of lymphocytes, relative quantity of B-(CD45RA+) and T-lymphocytes (CD3+), subpopulations of T-lymphocytes: T-helper (CD3+CD4+) and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CD3+CD8+), NK-cells (CD161a+) in the peripheral blood of rats were determined by the method of flow cytometry using Beckman Coulter FC 500 (USA) cytometer. In rats fed complete semi-synthetic diet supplemented with DF (100% Vit+DF) the reduction of relative contents of T-lymphocytes and the increase of the fraction of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes in peripheral blood has been found. The analogous changes and more pronounced degree of immunosupression, that appeared in a lymphocytopenia, much smaller level of T-lymphocytes, T-helper and increase of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes content in rats fed a low vitamins diet (20% Vit) in comparison with these parameters of control group, have been detected. In rats received 20% Vit+DF the suppressed cell immunity was accompanied with decreased level of NK-cells. Normalization of vitamins content in the diets of rat deficient groups led to an almost complete recovery of cell immunity indicators to the level of the animals from the corresponding control groups

  12. Quantitative estimates of dietary intake with special emphasis on snacking pattern and nutritional status of free living adults in urban slums of Delhi: impact of nutrition transition

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Archna; Gupta, Vidhu; Ghosh, Arpita; Lock, Karen; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna

    2016-01-01

    Background The nutritional landscape of India is experiencing the fallout of urbanization and globalization. The changes are manifest in dietary patterns as well as health outcomes. The study aimed at assessing household dietary intake pattern with special emphasis on snacking pattern, anthropometric and lipid profiles in low socio-economic status households in an urban slum of Delhi. Methods Community based cross-sectional study in 260 households of a purposively selected urban slum in North-East district of Delhi, India. Family dietary surveys including consumption pattern of commercial food products rich in Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils (PHVOs), 24 h dietary recall and assessment of dietary diversity using Household Diet Diversity Scores (HDDS) were done. Assessment of nutritional status using anthropometric and lipid profile on a subsample (n =130) were also conducted. Results Median energy and fat intake were adequate. Micronutrient intake was found to be inadequate for vitamin A, riboflavin, calcium and folate. PHVO usage was low (<20 % households). Milk (39 %), green leafy vegetables (25 %) and fruits (25 %) intake were below recommendations. Mean HDDS was 7.87. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was high (66.7 %). Lipid profile showed mean HDL-C levels lower than recommendations for females. Conclusion Community based awareness programs for prevention of non-communicable diseases should incorporate healthy diet and lifestyle practices with emphasis on quantity and quality of nutrient intake. This must be considered as an integral part of chronic disease prevention strategy for underprivileged communities in urban India. PMID:26918196

  13. The Nutritional Status of Low-Income Preschool Children in the United States: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotch, Jonathan; Shackelford, Jo

    This review of the nutritional status of low-income preschool children in the United States discusses the topic in historical perspective and details current knowledge of the nutritional status of preschoolers. Discussion first focuses on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II of 1976-80, and then turns to the National Food…

  14. Nutritional status and physical inactivity in moderated asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Andreina; Uasuf, Carina Gabriela; Insalaco, Giuseppe; Barazzoni, Rocco; Ballacchino, Antonella; Gjomarkaj, Mark; Pace, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Preservation of nutritional status and of fat-free mass (FFM) and/or preventing of fat mass (FM) accumulation have a positive impact on well-being and prognosis in asthma patients. Physical inactivity is identified by World Health Organization as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Physical activity (PA) may contribute to limit FM accumulation, but little information is available on the interactions between habitual PA and body composition and their association with disease severity in asthma severity. Associations between habitual PA, FM, FFM, and pulmonary function were investigated in 42 subjects (24 patients with mild-moderate asthma and 18 matched control subjects). Sensewear Armband was used to measure PA and metabolic equivalent of tasks (METs) continuously over 4 days, while body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Respiratory functions were also assessed in all study participants. FM and FFM were comparable in mild-moderate asthmatics and controls, but PA was lower in asthmatics and it was negatively correlated with FM and positively with the FFM marker body cell mass in all study subjects (P < 0.05). Among asthmatics, treated moderate asthmatics (ICS, n = 12) had higher FM and lower PA, METs, steps number/die, and forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) than in untreated intermittent asthmatics (UA, n = 12). This pilot study assesses that in mild-moderate asthma patients, lower PA is associated with higher FM and higher disease severity. The current results support enhancement of habitual PA as a potential tool to limit FM accumulation and potentially contribute to preserve pulmonary function in moderate asthma, considering the physical inactivity a strong risk factor for asthma worsening. PMID:27495092

  15. The Change in Nutritional Status in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients: A Retrospective Descriptive Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masha'al, Dina A.

    There is a high prevalence in malnutrition among traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to the hypermetabolism and hypercatabolism which develop post injury. Traumatic brain injury patients are different, even among themselves, in their energy requirements and response to nutritional therapy. This implies that there are other factors that affect the energy intake of these patients and enhance the incidence of malnutrition. This dissertation study examines the nutritional status of TBI patients upon admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and during their hospital stay to describe baseline status, detect changes in nutritional status over 7 days, and identify the factors affecting the adequacy of energy intake and the change in nutritional status as a consequence. Anthropometric measurements, biomedical measurements, measures of severity of illness, daily health status, level of brain injury severity, and other data were collected from the medical records of 50 patients, who were ≥ 18 years old, mechanically ventilated in the first 24 hours of ICU admission, and had a Glasgow Coma Scale score between 3-12. These data were used to examine the previous relationships. Although there was no statistically significant change found in body mass index and weight, there was a significant change detected in other nutritional markers, including hemoglobin, albumin, and total lymphocyte levels over the 7 days of ICU and hospital stay. No significant relationship was found between the adequacy of energy intake and total prescribed energy, severity of illness, level of brain injury severity, daily health status, patient age, intracranial pressure, or time of feeding initiation. Findings may be used to develop and test interventions to improve nutritional status during the acute phase of TBI. This will lay a foundation for health care providers, including nurses, to establish standards for practice and nutrition protocols to assure optimal nutrition assessment and intervention in a

  16. Low serum levels of vitamin B12 in older adults with normal nutritional status by mini nutritional assessment.

    PubMed

    Araújo, D A; Noronha, M B; Cunha, N A; Abrunhosa, S F; Rocha, A N; Amaral, T F

    2016-07-01

    Undernutrition as well as low levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid are common problems among older adults. However, recommended routine nutritional status assessment tools may result in inadequate vitamin serum levels to go unnoticed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the inadequacy of serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid within Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) classification categories among older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 97 older adults residing in care homes in Portugal. Undernutrition was identified through the MNA, and serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid were measured using chemiluminescence. Cognitive function, depressive symptoms and functional characteristics were also assessed using the Abbreviated Mental Test Score, the Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Barthel Index, respectively. The mean age of older adults was 82.2 (6.3) years; 3.1% were undernourished and 26.8% were at undernutrition risk. In the MNA normal nutritional status group, 11.8% presented vitamin B12 deficiency (<200 pg/ml), 32.4% had low serum levels (200-400 pg/ml) and 4.4% had folic acid deficiency (<3 ng/ml). A high proportion of older adults with low serum levels of vitamin B12 presenting normal nutritional status by MNA was identified. This finding emphasizes the need to evaluate serum vitamin B12 levels, independently of the MNA results. PMID:27004491

  17. Nutrition and Aging: Assessment and Treatment of Compromised Nutritional Status in Frail Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Jennie L; Dumbrell, Andrea C

    2006-01-01

    Nutrition is an important determinant of health in persons over the age of 65. Malnutrition in the elderly is often underdiagnosed. Careful nutritional assessment is necessary for both the successful diagnosis and development of comprehensive treatment plans for malnutrition in this population. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with an educational overview of this essential but often underecognized aspect of geriatric assessment. This article will review some common issues in nutrition for the elderly in both hospital and community settings. The complexity and impact of multiple comorbidities on the successful nutritional assessment of elderly patients is highlighted by using case scenarios to discuss nutritional issues common to elderly patients and nutritional assessment tools. Three case studies provide some context for an overview of these issues, which include the physiology of aging, weight loss, protein undernutrition, impaired cognition, malnutrition during hospitalization, screening procedures, and general dietary recommendations for patients 65 years of age and older. PMID:18047259

  18. Nutritional and Immunological Status and Burden of Infection in Elderly Ecuadorian

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of the elderly in Latin America is expected to rise substantially. To define the prevalence of infections and micronutrient deficiencies, and immunological status, and to evaluate associations between nutritional status and infection, we performed a cross-sectional study of elderly Ecuado...

  19. Oral Health and Nutritional Status of Semi-Institutionalized Persons with Mental Retardation in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batista, Luciana Rodrigues Vieira; Moreira, Emilia Addison Machado; Rauen, Michelle Soares; Corso, Arlete Catarina Tittoni; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck

    2009-01-01

    Association between oral health status and nutritional status was investigated in 200 semi-institutionalized persons with mental retardation aged 5-53 years, 45.5% female, in the cities of Florianopolis and Sao Jose, province of Santa Catarina, Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, clinical-odontological examination revealed a high percentage of…

  20. Nutritional Status and Performance in Test of Verbal and Non-Verbal Intelligence in 6-Year- Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arija, Victoria; Esparo, Griselda; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan; Murphy, Michelle M.; Biarnes, Elisabeth; Canals, Josefa

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between nutritional status and intellectual capacity in 6-year-old children was investigated in 83 subjects of medium-high socio-economic status, without any apparent risk of malnutrition and normal or high intellectual capacity. Nutritional status was evaluated by measuring food consumption, anthropometrical measurements and…

  1. Status of zinc nutrition in Bangladesh: the underlying associations.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Sabuktagin; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Alam, Nurul; Ahmed, A M Shamsir; Ireen, Santhia; Chowdhury, Ireen Akhter; Chowdhury, Fatima Parveen; Rahman, S M Mustafizur

    2016-01-01

    Bangladesh is a country with a high burden of micronutrient malnutrition. Stunting affects 41 % of children aged under 5 years. Zn is one of the key micronutrients that is associated with stunting. The present study, as part of the national micronutrient survey 2011-2012, revealed for the first time the nationally representative prevalence of Zn deficiency and determined the associations of the condition. A cross-sectional 'nationwide' survey was conducted in pre-school-age children (6-59 months; PSAC) and non-pregnant non-lactating women (15-49 years; NPNLW). Multistage random sampling was done in 150 clusters; fifty in each of the rural, urban and slum strata. Data were analysed on 662 PSAC and 1073 NPNLW. Serum Zn was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Zn deficiency was defined as serum Zn of <9·9 and <10·1 µmol/l in PSAC and NPNLW, respectively. The national prevalence of Zn deficiency was 44·6 and 57·3 % in PSAC and NPNLW, respectively. In PSAC, it was 29·5, 48·6 and 51·7 %, respectively, in urban, rural and slum strata. Household expenses (β = 0·13; P = 0·007), Hb (β = 0·10; P = 0·005), intake of animal-source Zn (β = 0·096; P = 0·02) and asset score (β = 0·11; P = 0·03) were positively associated with serum Zn in NPNLW. Residence in an urban area (β = 0·33; P = 0·03) and intake of plant-origin Zn (β = -0·13; P = 0·038) determined higher and lower status of Zn in PSAC, respectively. Zn deficiency was highly prevalent in Bangladesh, and it was principally related to inadequate quality of diet. To improve Zn nutrition, Bangladesh needs to strengthen research and programmes related to Zn biofortification, fortification and phytate-reducing technologies in the food system in the short and medium term. In addition, promotion of animal-source Zn for all is important in the long run. PMID:27547388

  2. Factor Analysis of Measures of Nutritional Status of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, H. A.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    On the basis of the findings of this study, it is reasonable to recommend elimination of some of the demography, anthropometry, and biochemical indices commonly evaluated in nutritional surveys of U.S. preschool children. (DM)

  3. Appraisal of Nutritional Status. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latanick, Maureen Rogan; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  4. Nutritional and functional status indicators in residents of a long-term care facility.

    PubMed

    Grieger, Jessica A; Nowson, Caryl A; Ackland, Leigh M

    2009-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, we determined whether results from the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and Katz Activities of Daily Living (ADL), were associated with nutritional status and mobility in long-term care residents. One hundred and fifteen study participants (mean [SD] age: 80.2 [10.6]) provided informed consent. Fifty eight percent (n = 66) responded to all three questionnaires: 12 were assessed as malnourished (MNA < 17) and 28 were depressed (GDS >or = 6). Higher levels of depression were associated with lower serum zinc (n = 71, r = -.356, p = .001) and associated with a slower Timed Up and Go test (TUG, n = 38, r = .301, p = .030). MNA was also associated with serum zinc (n = 44, r = .307, P = .021). Non responders to questionnaires (n = 36) had a lower BMI (mean difference: -2.5 +/- 1.0 kg/m(2), p = .013) and serum 25(OH)D (-8.7 +/- 3.8 nmol/l, p = .023) vs. responders. The GDS, in addition to the MNA, is useful in identifying poor nutritional status in residential care. Intervention programs that target depression and poor nutritional status could potentially improve overall quality of life, but it is not clear if depression is leading to poor nutritional status or if poor nutrition is leading to depression. PMID:19234994

  5. Relationship between social support and the nutritional status of patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, L.W.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive, correlational study was to ascertain if there is a relationship between social support and the nutritional status of patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer. The data collection instruments used included the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ), the Personal Characteristics Form, the abbreviated Health History, the Flow Sheet for Nutritional Data, and the Interview Schedule. For the analysis of data descriptive statistics were utilized to provide a profile of subjects, and correlational statistics were used to ascertain if there were relationships among the indicators of nutritional status and the social support variables. A convenience sample was comprised of 50 cancer patients deemed curable by radiation therapy. Findings included significant decreases in anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests during therapy. Serial assessments of nutritional status, therefore, are recommended for all cancer patients during therapy in order to plan and implement strategies for meeting the self-care requisites for food and water. No statistically significant relationships were found between the social support variables as measured by the NSSQ and the indicators of nutritional status. This suggests that nurses can assist patients by fostering support from actual and potential nutritional confidants.

  6. Serum levels of vitamin A and carotenoids as reflectors of nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Olson, J A

    1984-12-01

    Of the total body reserve of vitamin A, the liver is the major repository (greater than or equal to 90%); plasma contains only 1% of the total amount. Although the median liver concentration in well-nourished American adults is approximately 100 micrograms/g, a minimally adequate concentration is suggested to be 20 micrograms/g. Physiologic, nutritional, clinical, and genetic factors affect plasma retinol levels by a variety of mechanisms. Of total body carotenoids, most are associated with adipose tissue (greater than 80%), and a lesser amount is associated with liver (10%). Vitamin A concentrations in the liver are low at birth but then rise to adult levels at 1-4 years of age. Liver carotenoid concentrations are not proportional to liver vitamin A reserves. Total liver retinol is proportional to dietary retinol but not in a purely linear fashion. When liver reserves exceed 30 micrograms/g, the excretion of vitamin A metabolites in bile is much increased. Plasma vitamin A is homeostatically controlled over the physiologic range of liver vitamin A concentrations, e.g., 20-300 micrograms/g. Below 20 micrograms/g liver, plasma vitamin A values tend to fall; above 300 micrograms/g liver, plasma values tend to increase. At very high intakes, plasma vitamin A values can be greater than or equal to 300 micrograms/dl. In such cases most of the plasma vitamin A is in the form of retinyl ester. Thus, except in cases of deficiency or excess, vitamin A levels in the plasma are not good indicators of vitamin A status. Other methods of evaluating vitamin A status include relative dose response, analysis of liver autopsy or biopsy samples, isotope-dilution approach, and pseudoequilibrium approach. The first two of these methods have proven to be very useful in specific circumstances, whereas the others are under development. PMID:6439934

  7. The French National Nutrition and Health Program score is associated with nutritional status and risk of major chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Estaquio, Carla; Castetbon, Katia; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Bertrais, Sandrine; Deschamps, Valérie; Dauchet, Luc; Péneau, Sandrine; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2008-05-01

    Few studies have found that adherence to dietary guidelines reduces the incidence of chronic disease. In 2001, a National Nutrition and Health Program (Program National Nutrition Santé) was implemented in France and included 9 quantified priority nutritional goals involving fruit, vegetable, and nutrient intakes, nutritional status, and physical activity. We developed an index score that includes indicators of these public health objectives and examined the association between this score and the incidence of major chronic diseases in the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants cohort. Data from middle-aged adults free of major chronic diseases and who provided at least 3 24-h dietary records during the first 2 y of follow-up have been included in the present analysis (n = 4,976). Major chronic disease, documented during the 8-y follow-up period (n = 455), was defined as the combination of cardiovascular disease (n = 131), cancer (n = 261), or death (n = 63), whichever came first. In fully adjusted Cox models, men in the top tertile score compared with those in the lowest one had a 36% lower risk of major chronic diseases (hazard ratio = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44-0.96). No association was found in women. Healthy diet and lifestyle were associated with a lower risk of chronic diseases, particularly in men, thereby underlying relevance of the French nutritional recommendations. PMID:18424606

  8. Nutritional knowledge, nutrients intake and nutritional status of hypertensive patients in Ondo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ijarotimi, O S; Keshinro, O O

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed at assessing the anthropometry, dietary intake and micronutrient status of hypertensive patients attending specialist hospitals in Ondo State, Nigeria. A descriptive case control study was conducted among subjects attending two specialist hospitals located in Akure and Ondo towns. A total of 452 subjects (44.9% males and 55.1% females), was purposely selected from the study centres. A structured questionnaire was designed to collect information on demographic characteristics, socio-economic parameters, nutrition knowledge and dietary intakes of the subjects. The quantities of subjects' dietary intakes were measured using household measurements. Weight, height, systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures were measured using electronic bathroom scale, standiometer and sphygmomanometer, respectively. The subject's urine was collected; and vitamin C, sodium, potassium, calcium, zinc and magnesium were determined using standard procedures. The results showed the following means: age 52.4 +/- 2.38 years, weight 66.4 +/- 1.63kg, height 1.64 +/- 0.01m, body mass index (BMI) 24.13 +/- 0.69kg/m2, SBP 124.86 +/- 2.3mmHg and DBP 76.22 +/- 1.86 mmHg. Blood pressure (BP) of the subjects showed that 46.9% had optimal BP, 14.2% normal BP, 11.5% high normal BP, 12.8% mild hypertension, 9.7% moderate hypertension and 4.9% severe hypertension. For BMI, 8.8% were underweight, 47.1% normal, 30.3% overweight, 6.0% obesity class I, 6.0% obesity class II and 1.8% obesity class III. The proportion of hypertensive subjects that were obese was significantly (P = 0.0001) higher than control subjects. Three-fifth of the control subjects had good nutrition knowledge compared to one-fifth of hypertensive subjects. The estimated mean energy intake was 8.46 MJ, protein 93.1g, carbohydrate 314.5g, fat 42.9g, fibres 5.6g and appreciable amount of vitamin C, calcium, zinc, magnesium, sodium and potassium. The subjects' urinary vitamin C concentration was 32.49 +/- 2.53mg

  9. [Present status and future prospects of nutritional support teams].

    PubMed

    Hirata, Koichi; Kawasaki, Kieko; Tatsumi, Hiroomi; Mizuguchi, Toru; Meguro, Makoto; Hasegawa, Itaru; Sasaki, Ken-ichi; Ishizaka, Eri; Fujita, Ayumi; Nobuoka, Takayuki

    2010-11-01

    Academic interest in nutritional support teams (NSTs) has increased rapidly in Japan since 1999, when they were first planned by the Japanese Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (JSPEN). The JSPEN promoted their use extensively after 2006 when extra medical fees were approved for medical management by NSTs under the national health insurance system. The purpose of NSTs is to provide the best nutritional support to patients who are malnourished or at high risk of developing malnutrition, without causing conflict among different medical staff. NSTs offer appropriate medical support and help prevent the deterioration of patients' health. The teams are comprised of specialized medical staff with nutritional expertise who work at the bedside and are committed to establishing good medical practice. The main targets of NSTs are patients who undergo surgery or are being treated in a geriatric or internal medicine unit, including those with lifestyle-related diseases. Therefore, most targets of NSTs are patients with common conditions. A package medical system based on the diagnostic-procedure combination was established, and regional medical centers were integrated to ensure high-quality medical care throughout Japan. Under this system, NSTs are expected to resolve individual patients' dietary issues. In addition, improvement of medical care quality and the training of reliable medical staff are necessary to provide nutritional management in the clinical setting. It will be necessary to the revise the assessment of NSTs as proposed by a committee of the Japanese Nutritional Support Promotion Group or to carry out surveillance to evaluate the outcomes of NST activity. PMID:21174708

  10. Role of nutritional status in predicting quality of life outcomes in cancer--a systematic review of the epidemiological literature.

    PubMed

    Lis, Christopher G; Gupta, Digant; Lammersfeld, Carolyn A; Markman, Maurie; Vashi, Pankaj G

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition is a significant factor in predicting cancer patients' quality of life (QoL). We systematically reviewed the literature on the role of nutritional status in predicting QoL in cancer. We searched MEDLINE database using the terms "nutritional status" in combination with "quality of life" together with "cancer". Human studies published in English, having nutritional status as one of the predictor variables, and QoL as one of the outcome measures were included. Of the 26 included studies, 6 investigated head and neck cancer, 8 gastrointestinal, 1 lung, 1 gynecologic and 10 heterogeneous cancers. 24 studies concluded that better nutritional status was associated with better QoL, 1 study showed that better nutritional status was associated with better QoL only in high-risk patients, while 1 study concluded that there was no association between nutritional status and QoL. Nutritional status is a strong predictor of QoL in cancer patients. We recommend that more providers implement the American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) guidelines for oncology patients, which includes nutritional screening, nutritional assessment and intervention as appropriate. Correcting malnutrition may improve QoL in cancer patients, an important outcome of interest to cancer patients, their caregivers, and families. PMID:22531478

  11. Screening Children for Nutritional Status: Suggestions for Child Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Rockville, MD. Maternal and Child Health Service.

    This report details two screening programs aimed at determining childhood nutritional problems within a given community. Discussed in section I is a simplified screening approach which involves gathering information about the frequency of specific food stuffs and food nutrients in the community; obtaining family demographic and dietary information…

  12. Overweight and poor nutritional status in Mexican American youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children in the United States have consistently been shown to have less than the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommended daily allowances (RDA) of nutrients. Mexican American children have been shown to have the most nutritionally deficient diets. Obesity is increasingly becoming associa...

  13. Association of nutritional status with quality of life in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Shooka; Sulaiman, Suhaina; Koon, Poh Bee; Amani, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional status and dietary intake play a significant role in the prognosis of breast cancer and may modify the progression of disease. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of nutritional status on the quality of life of Iranian breast cancer survivors. Cross-sectional data were collected for 100 Iranian breast cancer survivors, aged 32 to 61 years, attending the oncology outpatient clinic at Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran. Nutritional status of subjects was assessed by anthropometric measurements, Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) and three non-consecutive 24-hour diet recalls. The European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life form (EORTC QLQ-C30) was used to assess quality of life. Ninety-four percent of the survivors were well-nourished, 6% were moderately malnourished or suspected of being malnourished while none were severely malnourished. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 86%. Overall, participants had an inadequate intake of vitamin D, E, iron and magnesium according to dietary reference intake (DRI) recommendations. Survivors with better nutritional status had better functioning scales and experienced fewer clinical symptoms. It appears important to provide educational and nutritional screening programs to improve cancer survivor quality of life. PMID:24460363

  14. Relationship between the nutritional status of breast-feeding Mayan mothers and their infants in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Frojo, Gianfranco A.; Rogers, Nathaniel G.; Mazariegos, Manolo; Keenan, John; Jolly, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Objective A case-control study was conducted to determine the association between maternal height and infant length-for-age and to evaluate how this association is modified by either maternal or infant nutritional status. We hypothesized that maternal excess caloric intake (measured as BMI) would increase the association while infant nutrition (measured in main meals consumed in addition to breast feeding) will diminish the effect. Methods Mother and infant pairs in Chimaltenango, Guatemala were measured for anthropometric values and nutritional status, and mothers were interviewed to elicit nutritional and socio-economic information. Infant length was converted into z-scores based on the World Health Organization's (WHO) standards. Odds ratios (OR), associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) were calculated. Cases were infants below 2 z-scores of the WHO's length-for-age while controls were infants within the -2 to 2 z-score range. Results Cases (n=84) had an increased odds (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.57-5.74) of being born to a stunted mother (below 145 cm) when compared to controls (n=85). When adjusted for potential confounders, the OR decreased to 2.55 (95% CI 1.30-5.02) . Negative RERI values were produced for the joint exposure of maternal BMI ≥25 and maternal stuntedness (RERI -0.96) as well as for the joint exposure of maternal stuntedness and infant nutrition (RERI -2.27). Conclusion Our results confirm that maternal stuntedness is a significant contributor to infant stuntedness; however, this association is modified negligibly by maternal nutritional status and significantly by infant nutritional status, each in a protective manner. PMID:22462552

  15. Nutritional Status in Community-Dwelling Elderly in France in Urban and Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Marion J.; Dorigny, Béatrice; Kuhn, Mirjam; Berr, Claudine; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Letenneur, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent condition in elderly people, especially in nursing homes and geriatric wards. Its frequency is less well known among elderly living at home. The objective of this study was to describe the nutritional status evaluated by the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) of elderly community-dwellers living in rural and urban areas in France and to investigate its associated factors. Methods Subjects aged 65 years and over from the Approche Multidisciplinaire Intégrée (AMI) cohort (692 subjects living in a rural area) and the Three-City (3C) cohort (8,691 subjects living in three large urban zones) were included. A proxy version of the MNA was reconstructed using available data from the AMI cohort. Sensitivity and specificity were used to evaluate the agreement between the proxy version and the standard version in AMI. The proxy MNA was computed in both cohorts to evaluate the frequency of poor nutritional status. Factors associated with this state were investigated in each cohort separately. Results In the rural sample, 38.0% were females and the mean age was 75.5 years. In the urban sample, 60.3% were females and the mean age was 74.1 years. Among subjects in living in the rural sample, 7.4% were in poor nutritional status while the proportion was 18.5% in the urban sample. Female gender, older age, being widowed, a low educational level, low income, low body mass index, being demented, having a depressive symptomatology, a loss of autonomy and an intake of more than 3 drugs appeared to be independently associated with poor nutritional status. Conclusion Poor nutritional status was commonly observed among elderly people living at home in both rural and urban areas. The associated factors should be further considered for targeting particularly vulnerable individuals. PMID:25133755

  16. Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status in Mentally Retarded Children and Adolescents: A Study from North Western India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, Manju; Bhargava, Rachna; Benipal, Ramandeep; Luthra, Neena; Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Jasbinder; Chavan, B. S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the dietary habits and nutritional status of mentally retarded (MR) and normal (NG) subjects and to examine the relationship between the dietary habits and nutritional status and the level of mental retardation in the MR group. Method: A case control design was utilized: 117 MR (random sampling) and 100 NG (quota sampling)…

  17. Nutritional status in cognitively intact older people receiving home care services--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Soini, H; Routasalo, P; Lagstrom, H

    2005-01-01

    Older adults are a potentially vulnerable group for malnutrition. This cross-sectional pilot study aims to assess the nutritional status of elderly patients living at home and receiving home health care services. The data were collected from patient care plans, the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and a questionnaire on eating problems. In addition, serum nutritional status indicators were measured, and an oral examination including quantitative saliva measurement was carried out. Out of 71 eligible patients 51 (72%) patients aged 76-93 years participated. MNA results showed that 47% were at risk of malnutrition. Care plans for 26 patients made reference to questions of nutrition but provided no detailed forward planning. The mean serum albumin value was 39.1 +/- 3.8 g/l, seven patients had a value lower than 35 g/l. MNA scores were significantly lower for female patients with haemoglobin values lower than 120 g/l (p = 0.027). The dentist's estimation of dry mouth and subjective problems in energy intake were significantly associated with lower MNA scores (p = 0.049 and p = 0.015). Subjects with functioning natural dentition had higher body mass index (BMI) scores than others (p = 0.0485). The results point at the importance of using screening tools such as the MNA for purposes of nutritional assessment, the estimation of oral problems such as dry mouth, chewing and swallowing problems, and advance planning in nutritional issues within the field of home care. PMID:15980925

  18. [Nutritional screening before surgery for esophageal cancer - current status and evaluation results].

    PubMed

    Shimakawa, Takeshi; Asaka, Shinich; Sagawa, Masano; Shimazaki, Asako; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Usui, Takebumi; Yokomizo, Hajime; Shiozawa, Shunichi; Yoshimatsu, Kazuhiko; Katsube, Takao; Naritaka, Yoshihiko

    2014-10-01

    The incidence of postoperative complications and mortality are usually higher in patients with preoperative malnutrition. Malnutrition often preexists, particularly in patients undergoing surgery for esophageal cancer, which is substantially invasive. It is therefore important to understand the nutritional condition of patients and actively control perioperative nutrition.Our hospital has been providing nutritional status screening for patients before resection of esophageal cancer, and we report the current status and evaluation results in this article.This screening included 158 patients requiring radical resection of esophageal cancer.Age, comorbidity with diabetes, body mass index(BMI), serum albumin(Alb), Onodera's prognostic nutritional index(PNI), and Glasgow prognostic score(GPS)were used as nutritional indicators to stratify patients for analysis.Evaluation parameters included the incidence of postoperative complications(any complication, pulmonary complications, psychiatric disorder, and anastomotic leakage)and rates of long-term postoperative hospitalization.The analysis indicated that age, BMI, serum Alb, PNI, and GPS are useful for predicting the onset of postoperative complications and prolonged postoperative hospitalization.For such patients, more active nutritional control should be provided. PMID:25335724

  19. Analysis of risk factors for pharyngocutaneous fistula after total laryngectomy with particular focus on nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, F; Bettini, M; Molteni, G; Piccinini, A; Valoriani, F; Gabriele, S; Presutti, L

    2015-10-01

    Pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF) is the most common complication following total laryngectomy and the most difficult to manage. It often causes increased morbidity, delays starting adjuvant therapy, prolongs hospitalisation, increases treatment costs and reduces the quality of life (QoL). The objective of this study is to analyse the predisposing factors and the most important nutritional parameters related to the development of PCF in patients undergoing total laryngectomy and to suggest medical alternatives that might improve results. We performed a retrospective study of 69 patients who underwent either primary or salvage total laryngectomy in our department between January 2008 and January 2012. Risk factors for fistula formation were analysed including tumour characteristics (histology, grading, AJCC stage), treatment (primary or salvage surgery, extent of resection, flap reconstruction, preoperative radiotherapy), comorbidity and nutritional status (preoperative haemoglobin, albumin and prealbumin levels and their changes during hospitalisation). Twenty-four patients developed a PCF (overall incidence 34.8%). Fistula formation was significantly higher in patients with diabetes, preoperative malnutrition (identified from low preoperative albumin and prealbumin levels). After specific nutritional evaluation and support, no patient developed a PCF. Risk factors for PCF formation are extensively treated in the literature but identification of high-risk patients is still controversial. Our study demonstrates that nutritional status of the patient, assessed by preoperative albumin, is also an important risk factor for PCF formation in addition to classical factors. Maintenance of a normal perioperative nutritional status can be helpful to avoid this complication. PMID:26824210

  20. Nutritional status of Korean male patients with alcoholic and viral liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yukyung; Lee, Seokhwa; Lee, Minho; Lee, Ohyoung

    2003-01-01

    This descriptive cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether malnutrition occurs in outpatients with liver cirrhosis, and to compare the nutritional status of patients with alcoholic and viral liver cirrhosis using a variety of objective measures. This study also aimed to provide useful information about nutritional education and nutritional therapies for medical teams and patients with liver cirrhosis. Sixty-six Korean men between the ages of 30 and 69 with liver cirrhosis (24 alcohol-related and 42 virus-related) were recruited from the Internal Medicine Centres, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul, Korea. The results showed that patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC) were significantly lower in socio-economic status than patients with viral liver cirrhosis (VLC) (P<0.05). The energy intakes (excluding alcohol-derived energy) were 1448kcal and 1769kcal in the ALC and the VLC groups, respectively (P<0.05). As well, vitamin C intake was found to be higher in the VLC group than the ALC group, yet still more than 125% of the RDA for both groups (P<0.05). Among nutritional indices, only the TSF thickness showed interaction with the aetiology and the severity of the cirrhosis (P<0.05). Thus, these findings indicate that outpatients with liver cirrhosis in this study, particularly those with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, consumed a lower energy intake than suggested, but may not have been in a status of malnutrition. Body fat is more affected than other nutritional parameters in patients with liver cirrhosis. PMID:12810412

  1. Heart valve surgery in hemodialysis-dependent patients: nutrition status impact on surgical outcome.

    PubMed

    Kawahito, Koji; Aizawa, Kei; Oki, Shinichi; Saito, Tsutomu; Misawa, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    Valve surgery in hemodialysis-dependent patients is associated with postoperative complications and a high mortality rate, and such patients frequently suffer cachexia. This study aimed to determine pre- and intraoperative risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality and long-term survival in hemodialysis-dependent patients undergoing heart valve surgery from the viewpoint of nutrition status. Eighty-seven hemodialysis-dependent patients who underwent valve surgery between January 1998 and October 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-seven potential perioperative risk factors were evaluated. The in-hospital mortality rate was 12.6 % (11 patients). Univariate analysis identified New York Heart Association Functional Classification III or IV, emaciation (body mass index <17.6 kg/m(2)), total cholesterol <120 mg/dl, serum albumin <3.0 mg/dl, emergent/urgent surgery, and intraoperative blood transfusion >3000 ml as predictors of in-hospital death. Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed low serum albumin <3.0 mg/dl (hazard ratio 7.22; p = 0.032) and emergent/urgent operation (hazard ratio 43.57; p = 0.035) as independent predictors of in-hospital death. The 1- and 3-year actuarial survival rates were 64.9 ± 5.4 and 51.8 ± 5.8 %, respectively. Long-term survival estimated by log-rank test was negatively impacted by anemia (hemoglobin <10 mg/dl), low serum albumin, emergent/urgent operation, and infective endocarditis. Multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards modeling indicated low serum albumin (hazard ratio 2.12; p = 0.047) and emergent/urgent operation (hazard ratio 8.97; p = 0.0002) as independent predictors of remote death. Hypoalbuminemia and emergent/urgent operation are strong predictors of in-hospital and remote death. Malnutrition before surgery should be considered for operative risk estimation, and adequate preoperative nutrition management may improve surgical outcomes for hemodialysis

  2. Nutritional Status of Flemish Vegetarians Compared with Non-Vegetarians: A Matched Samples Study

    PubMed Central

    Deriemaeker, Peter; Alewaeters, Katrien; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Lefevre, Johan; Philippaerts, Renaat; Clarys, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The present study compares the nutritional status of vegetarian (V) with non-vegetarian (NV) subjects. A three-day food record and a health questionnaire were completed by 106 V and 106 NV matched for following characteristics: sex, age, BMI, physical activity, tobacco use and alcohol consumption. Total energy intake was not significantly different (men: V: 2,346 ± 685 kcal/d; NV: 2,628 ± 632 kcal/d; p = 0.078; women: V: 1,991 ± 539 kcal/d; NV: 1,973 ± 592 kcal/d; p = 0.849). Macronutrients intake differed significantly between the V and NV subjects for protein (men: V:12.7 ± 2.3 E%; NV:15.3 ± 4.5 E%; p = 0.003; women: V: 13.2 ± 2.3 E%; NV:16.0 ± 4.0 E%; p < 0.001), fat (men: V: 29.3 ± 8.4 E%; NV: 33.8 ± 5.3 E%; p = 0.010; women: V: 29.7 ± 6.9 E%; NV: 34.7 ± 9.0 E%; p < 0.001), and carbohydrate (men: V: 55.3 ± 10.1 E%; NV: 47.4 ± 6.9 E%; p < 0.001; women: V: 55.1 ± 7.6 E%; NV: 47.2 ± 8.2 E%; p < 0.001). The intake of most minerals was significantly different between the V and the NV subjects. V had a lower sodium intake, higher calcium, zinc, and iron intake compared to the NV subjects. Our results clearly indicate that a vegetarian diet can be adequate to sustain the nutritional demands to at least the same degree as that of omnivores. The intakes of the V subjects were closer to the recommendations for a healthy diet when compared to a group of well matched NV subjects. PMID:22254054

  3. Hunger Doesn't Take a Vacation: Summer Nutrition Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food Research and Action Center, Washington, DC.

    This report describes the current status of the Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) and the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) (referred to in combination as the Summer Nutrition Programs), federal entitlement programs providing support for state and local efforts to offer low-income children nutritious summer meals and snacks during supervised…

  4. Health and Nutritional Status of Working and Non-Working Mothers in Poverty Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Daphne A.; Eickwort, Kathleen R.

    The aim of this study was to examine the health and nutritional status of low-income women in Upstate New York and to identify problems that interfere with their employment. Questionnaires on health and work, complete medical and employment histories, physical examination, laboratory tests, dental examination and diet recalls were obtained for 469…

  5. [Use of computers in studying the actual nutritional and health status of children].

    PubMed

    Mostovaia, L A; Bushko, R P; Rassokhan', G I; Iakovleva, L S; Broverman, L L

    1985-01-01

    The authors have devised a pack of applied programs for statistic data treatment, which can be used for studying problems of nutrition and the health status of children, for design of rational diets by the research institutes and childhood establishments sponsored by the public health and education systems, as well as by trade unions. PMID:4036078

  6. Nutritional Status of Mexican American Preschool Children in East Los Angeles and San Diego.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    Results of a 1968 pilot study of the nutritional status of Mexican American preschool children in East Los Angeles and San Diego are reported in this document. Questionnaire data collected from mothers of preschool children are presented in terms of a description of families, prenatal care, clinical examinations, dietary intakes, and biochemical…

  7. Household Income during Childhood and Young Adult Weight Status: Evidence from a Nutrition Transition Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeer, Kammi K.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores whether household income at different stages of childhood is associated with weight status in early adulthood in a nutrition transition setting (a developing country with both underweight and overweight populations). I use multinomial logistic regression to analyze prospective, longitudinal data from Cebu, Philippines.…

  8. Rising Poverty, Declining Health: The Nutritional Status of the Rural Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Voice for Food and Health Policy, Washington, DC.

    Using five key indicators of nutritional status (dietary intake, biochemical tests for circulating levels of nutrients or their metabolites, anthropometric measures, low birth weight and infant mortality rates, and food, health, and income assistance program participation rates and benefit levels), this 1-year research project identified national,…

  9. Hunger Doesn't Take a Vacation: Summer Nutrition Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Doug

    This report describes the current status of the Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) and the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) (referred to in combination as the Summer Nutrition Programs), federal entitlement programs providing support for state and local efforts to offer millions of low-income children nutritious summer meals and snacks during…

  10. HIGHER DIETARY VARIETY IS ASSOCIATED WITH BETTER NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN FRAIL ELDERLY PEOPLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: A narrow range of food choices may lead to dietary inadequacies, a particular concern in elderly people. We hypothesized that consumption of a more diverse diet would predict better nutritional status in frail elderly persons. SUBJECTS: Subjects included 98 frail nursing home residents (3...

  11. Consistent improvement in the nutritional status of Colombian children between 1965 and 1989.

    PubMed

    Mora, J O; de Paredes, B; de Navarro, L; Rodríguez, E

    1992-01-01

    Three national anthropometric surveys carried out in Colombia in 1965-1966, 1977-1980, and 1986-1989 provide a reasonably standardized basis for comparing the nutritional status of infants and young children in those years. That comparison, presented here together with appropriate socioeconomic data, indicates marked reduction of malnutrition paralleling strong socioeconomic gains. PMID:1600432

  12. Nutritional Status and Risk Factors for Chronic Disease in Urban-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez, Sandra; Sheean, Patricia; Tomey, Kristin M.; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional status and biochemical risk factors for chronic disease were assessed in 48 community-dwelling adults with Down syndrome in the Chicago area. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participant's primary caregiver; anthropometric measures included height and weight and waist circumference.…

  13. Child Nutritional Status by Rural/Urban Residence: A Cross-National Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Kiira; Heaton, Tim B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural children in developing countries have poor health outcomes in comparison with urban children. This paper considers 4 questions regarding the rural/urban difference, namely: (1) do individual-level characteristics account for rural/urban differences in child nutritional status; (2) do community-level characteristics account for…

  14. Behavioral aspects of development of eating behavior and nutrition status.

    PubMed

    Vazir, Shahnaz

    2002-05-01

    Studies on the development of eating behavior in rural India indicated that mothers of young children made food choices that fit into their budgets, and were also influenced by new information. Their choices were still immersed in traditional beliefs, some of which had positive effects on nutrition. Specific childrearing behaviors influenced positive deviance in the growth and psychosocial development of infants and preschoolers. A life-cycle approach to the development of eating behavior that deciphers needs at each stage and linkages between stages is necessary. Cost-benefit needs to be considered when devising strategies for future intervention programs. PMID:12035868

  15. Nutritional status of school-age children - A scenario of urban slums in India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the greatest problems for India is undernutrition among children. The country is still struggling with this problem. Malnutrition, the condition resulting from faulty nutrition, weakens the immune system and causes significant growth and cognitive delay. Growth assessment is the measurement that best defines the health and nutritional status of children, while also providing an indirect measurement of well-being for the entire population. Methods A cross-sectional study, in which we explored nutritional status in school-age slum children and analyze factors associated with malnutrition with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and clinical examination from December 2010 to April 2011 in urban slums of Bareilly, Uttar-Pradesh (UP), India. Result The mean height and weight of boys and girls in the study group was lower than the CDC 2000 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) standards in all age groups. Regarding nutritional status, prevalence of stunting and underweight was highest in age group 11 yrs to 13 yrs whereas prevalence of wasting was highest in age group 5 yrs to 7 yrs. Except refractive errors all illnesses are more common among girls, but this gender difference is statistically significant only for anemia and rickets. The risk of malnutrition was significantly higher among children living in joint families, children whose mother's education was [less than or equal to] 6th standard and children with working mothers. Conclusions Most of the school-age slum children in our study had a poor nutritional status. Interventions such as skills-based nutrition education, fortification of food items, effective infection control, training of public healthcare workers and delivery of integrated programs are recommended. PMID:22958757

  16. Anemia and nutritional status of pre-school children in Kerala.

    PubMed

    George, K A; Kumar, N S; Lal, J J; Sreedevi, R

    2000-08-01

    A study on the pattern of anemia and its relation to nutritional status and dietary habits was conducted among 3633 pre-school children of 108 selected anganwadi centers in rural areas of Kerala State during the period 1996 to 1998. Children were invited with their parent or guardian. Capillary blood was collected from each child and hemoglobin was estimated by cyanomethemoglobin method. Weight and height of children were taken for assessing their nutritional status. The information regarding their age, sex, clinical condition and dietary habits was collected in a performa through an interview. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship of anemia to sex, dietary habits, and nutritional status. For multivariate analysis logistic regression model was employed. The prevalence of anemia was 11.4%. The percentage of anemic children among male and female children was 10.25 and 12.55 respectively and statistical analysis showed that female children were more susceptible to anemia. Normal nutritional status was seen among 46.7% of the children. When 187 (11.78%) of the mild undernourished children were anemic, the percentage anemic among the moderate undernourished children was 57 (16.37%). Moderate under nutrition and anemia showed a significant association. Anemia was reported among both vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Among 927 vegetarians, 86 (9.27%) were anemic and among 2,706 non-vegetarians, 328 (12.1%) were anemic. Dietary survey revealed that, consumption of iron sources, whether haem or non-haem, was below the recommended level. Undernutrition can be attributed as the major reason for nutritional anemia. Changes in eating behaviour could have potentially affected the iron bio-availability. PMID:10984998

  17. Nutritional status of Brazilian children: trends from 1975 to 1989.

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, C. A.; Benicio, M. H.; Iunes, R.; Gouveia, N. C.; Taddei, J. A.; Cardoso, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of malnutrition among under-5-year-olds in Brazil fell by more than 60% between 1975 and 1989. The benefits were smaller for population strata that were more affected by malnutrition in the 1970s, i.e., children from the North and North-east regions and those from poor families in general. Regional and socioeconomic differentials in the prevalence of malnutrition therefore increased between 1975 and 1989. Trends in family income indicate extraordinary economic gains in the 1970s, some losses in the 1980s, and a modest net gain over the period 1975-89. The availability of sanitation, health, and education services, and the provision of preschool supplementary feeding programmes increased markedly in the 1970s and 1980s. Demographic trends were also positive, reducing the demand for services and programmes, increasing the economic efficiency of families, and concentrating the population in urban areas, where incomes, job opportunities, and social and material infrastructures are better. The observed nutritional improvement was therefore probably due to a moderate increase in family income associated with a substantial expansion in the provision of services and programmes, both of which were facilitated by favourable demographic trends. Also, the nutritional improvement was probably concentrated during the 1970s, while little, if any, occurred after 1980; prospects for the 1990s point to a stagnant situation. This is a reason for great concern particularly in the North and North-east regions of the country, where high rates of child malnutrition are still found. PMID:1464153

  18. Factors affecting poor nutritional status after small bowel resection in patients with Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ki Ung; Yu, Chang Sik; Lim, Seok-Byung; Park, In Ja; Yoon, Yong Sik; Kim, Chan Wook; Lee, Jong Lyul; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Ye, Byong Duk; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2016-07-01

    In Crohn disease, bowel-preserving surgery is necessary to prevent short bowel syndrome due to repeated operations. This study aimed to determine the remnant small bowel length cut-off and to evaluate the clinical factors related to nutritional status after small bowel resection in Crohn disease.We included 394 patients (69.3% male) who underwent small bowel resection for Crohn disease between 1991 and 2012. Patients who were classified as underweight (body mass index < 17.5) or at high risk of nutrition-related problems (modified nutritional risk index < 83.5) were regarded as having a poor nutritional status. Preliminary remnant small bowel length cut-offs were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves. Variables associated with poor nutritional status were assessed retrospectively using Student t tests, chi-squared tests, Fisher exact tests, and logistic regression analyses.The mean follow-up period was 52.9 months and the mean patient ages at the time of the last bowel surgery and last follow-up were 31.2 and 35.7 years, respectively. The mean remnant small bowel length was 331.8 cm. Forty-three patients (10.9%) underwent ileostomy, 309 (78.4%) underwent combined small bowel and colon resection, 111 (28.2%) had currently active disease, and 105 (26.6%) underwent at least 2 operations for recurrent disease. The mean body mass index and modified nutritional risk index were 20.6 and 100.8, respectively. The independent factors affecting underweight status were remnant small bowel length ≤240 cm (odds ratio: 4.84, P < 0.001), ileostomy (odds ratio: 4.70, P < 0.001), and currently active disease (odds ratio: 4.16, P < 0.001). The independent factors affecting high nutritional risk were remnant small bowel length ≤230 cm (odds ratio: 2.84, P = 0.012), presence of ileostomy (odds ratio: 3.36, P = 0.025), and currently active disease (odds ratio: 4.90, P < 0.001).Currently active disease, ileostomy, and remnant small

  19. Comparison of the Nutritional Status of Overseas Refugee Children with Low Income Children in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Dawson-Hahn, Elizabeth E.; Pak-Gorstein, Suzinne; Hoopes, Andrea J.; Matheson, Jasmine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The extent that the dual burden of undernutrition and overnutrition affects refugee children before resettlement in the US is not well described. Objective To describe the prevalence of wasting, stunting, overweight, and obesity among refugee children ages 0–10 years at their overseas medical screening examination prior to resettlement in Washington State (WA), and to compare the nutritional status of refugee children with that of low-income children in WA. Methods We analyzed anthropometric measurements of 1047 refugee children ages 0–10 years old to assess their nutritional status at the overseas medical screening examination prior to resettlement in WA from July 2012—June 2014. The prevalence estimates of the nutritional status categories were compared by country of origin. In addition, the nutritional status of refugee children age 0–5 years old were compared to that of low-income children in WA from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System. Results A total of 982 children were eligible for the study, with the majority (65%) from Somalia, Iraq and Burma. Overall, nearly one-half of all refugee children had at least one form of malnutrition (44.9%). Refugee children ages 0–10 years were affected by wasting (17.3%), stunting (20.1%), overweight (7.6%) and obesity (5.9%). Among children 0–5 years old, refugee children had a significantly higher prevalence of wasting (14.3% versus 1.9%, p<0.001) and stunting (21.3% versus 5.5%, p<0.001), and a lower prevalence of obesity (6.2% versus 12.9%, p<0.001) than low-income children in WA. Conclusion The dual burden of under- and over-nutrition among incoming refugee children as well as their overall difference in prevalence of nutritional status categories compared to low-income children in WA provides evidence for the importance of tailored interventions to address the nutritional needs of refugee children. PMID:26808275

  20. Poor Nutrition Status and Associated Feeding Practices among HIV-Positive Children in a Food Secure Region in Tanzania: A Call for Tailored Nutrition Training

    PubMed Central

    Sunguya, Bruno F.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Mlunde, Linda B.; Urassa, David P.; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2014-01-01

    Undernutrition among HIV-positive children can be ameliorated if they are given adequate foods in the right frequency and diversity. Food insecurity is known to undermine such efforts, but even in food rich areas, people have undernutrition. As yet no study has examined feeding practices and their associations with nutrition status among as HIV-positive children in regions with high food production. We therefore examined the magnitude of undernutrition and its association with feeding practices among HIV-positive children in a high food production region in Tanzania. Methods We conducted this mixed-method study among 748 children aged 6 months-14 years attending 9 of a total of 32 care and treatment centers in Tanga region, Tanzania. We collected quantitative data using a standard questionnaire and qualitative data through seven focus group discussions (FGDs). Results HIV-positive children had high magnitudes of undernutrition. Stunting, underweight, wasting, and thinness were prevalent among 61.9%, 38.7%, 26.0%, and 21.1% of HIV-positive children, respectively. They also had poor feeding practices: 88.1% were fed at a frequency below the recommendations, and 62.3% had a low level of dietary diversity. Lower feeding frequency was associated with stunting (β = 0.11, p = 0.016); underweight (β = 0.12, p = 0.029); and thinness (β = 0.11, p = 0.026). Lower feeding frequency was associated with low wealth index (β = 0.06, p<0.001), food insecurity (β = −0.05, p<0.001), and caregiver's education. In the FGDs, participants discussed the causal relationships among the key associations; undernutrition was mainly due to low feeding frequency and dietary diversity. Such poor feeding practices resulted from poor nutrition knowledge, food insecurity, low income, and poverty. Conclusion Feeding practices and nutrition status were poor among HIV-positive children even in food rich areas. Improving feeding frequency may help to ameliorate

  1. Age related changes in gut physiology and nutritional status.

    PubMed Central

    Lovat, L B

    1996-01-01

    Few gastrointestinal functions decline to an important extent as a result of old age alone and there is little clinical evidence that significant malnutrition occurs in any normal elderly person as a result of the aging process itself. Nevertheless, decreased gastrointestinal reserve makes older people highly sensitive to minor insults and decompensation can rapidly occur. Drugs appreciably affect taste sensation, which is already blunted and psychological as well as physical disability can have a major impact on appetite. Malabsorption can be caused by gastric hypochlorhydria with small bowel bacterial overgrowth and while gastrointestinal dysmotility can be caused by subclinical hypothyroidism, it can improve in response to physical exercise. Evidence is now mounting that thorough investigation of gastrointestinal disturbances in elderly patients coupled with intensive nutritional support can make a very real impact on their outcome. Gastroenterologists should therefore seek out and actively treat gastrointestinal disorders in the elderly and not just ascribe them to old age. PMID:8675079

  2. Age related changes in gut physiology and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Lovat, L B

    1996-03-01

    Few gastrointestinal functions decline to an important extent as a result of old age alone and there is little clinical evidence that significant malnutrition occurs in any normal elderly person as a result of the aging process itself. Nevertheless, decreased gastrointestinal reserve makes older people highly sensitive to minor insults and decompensation can rapidly occur. Drugs appreciably affect taste sensation, which is already blunted and psychological as well as physical disability can have a major impact on appetite. Malabsorption can be caused by gastric hypochlorhydria with small bowel bacterial overgrowth and while gastrointestinal dysmotility can be caused by subclinical hypothyroidism, it can improve in response to physical exercise. Evidence is now mounting that thorough investigation of gastrointestinal disturbances in elderly patients coupled with intensive nutritional support can make a very real impact on their outcome. Gastroenterologists should therefore seek out and actively treat gastrointestinal disorders in the elderly and not just ascribe them to old age. PMID:8675079

  3. Energy Allowances for Solid Fats and Added Sugars in Nutritionally Adequate U.S. Diets Estimated at 17–33% by a Linear Programming Model1

    PubMed Central

    Maillot, Matthieu; Drewnowski, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee has recommended that no more than 5–15% of total dietary energy should be derived from solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS). The guideline was based on USDA food pattern modeling analyses that met the Dietary Reference Intake recommendations and Dietary Guidelines and followed typical American eating habits. This study recreated food intake patterns for 6 of the same gender-age groups by using USDA data sources and a mathematical optimization technique known as linear programming. The analytic process identified food consumption patterns based on 128 food categories that met the nutritional goals for 9 vitamins, 9 minerals, 8 macronutrients, and dietary fiber and minimized deviation from typical American eating habits. Linear programming Model 1 created gender- and age-specific food patterns that corresponded to energy needs for each group. Model 2 created food patterns that were iso-caloric with diets observed for that group in the 2001–2002 NHANES. The optimized food patterns were evaluated with respect to MyPyramid servings goals, energy density [kcal/g (1 kcal = 4.18 kJ)], and energy cost (US$/2000 kcal). The optimized food patterns had more servings of vegetables and fruit, lower energy density, and higher cost compared with the observed diets. All nutrient goals were met. In contrast to the much lower USDA estimates, the 2 models placed SoFAS allowances at between 17 and 33% of total energy, depending on energy needs. PMID:21178090

  4. Growth, nutritional, and developmental status of young children living in orphanages in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Hearst, Mary O; Himes, John H; Johnson, Dana E; Kroupina, Maria; Syzdykova, Aigul; Aidjanov, Musa; Sharmonov, T

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the nutritional and developmental status of young children living in Baby Houses (orphanages for children ages 0-3 years) in Kazakhstan. In 2009/2010, 308 children under age 3 years living in 10 Baby Houses were measured for height/length and weight. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development (N. Bayley, 2006) were used to assess mental and motor development. Blood was collected on a subsample to assess key nutritional factors. The World Health Organization growth charts were used to calculate Z-scores. Cut points for wasting (moderate to severe low weight for length/height growth), underweight (low weight for age), stunting (low length/height for age), development, and biomarkers used established guidelines. Most (n = 286) children had complete data on z-scores. Of these, 22.1% were experiencing wasting, 31.5% were underweight, and 36.7% had stunting. The nutritional status of the children, based on blood biomarkers, revealed that 37.1% of the children were anemic, 21.4% had low albumin, 38.1% had low vitamin D, 5.5% were iodine-deficient, and 2% had low serum zinc. One half had mild to significant mental and motor delays. Children living at these Baby Houses in Kazakhstan have substantial nutritional deficits and developmental delays. Focused attention is needed to provide a nutritionally enhanced diet and improved developmental opportunities to improve the long-term outcomes for these children. PMID:25798515

  5. Nutritional status changes in HIV-infected children receiving combined antiretroviral therapy including protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fiore, P; Donelli, E; Boni, S; Pontali, E; Tramalloni, R; Bassetti, D

    2000-11-01

    Maintaining linear growth and weight gain in HIV-infected children is often difficult. Nutritional evaluation and support are recognised as important factors to improve their quality of life. Combination antiretroviral therapy including protease inhibitors (HAART) reduces HIV-viral load and improves survival, quality of life and nutritional status. Our study aimed to determine changes in nutrional status based on body weight, height and nutritional habits, of HIV-infected children receiving HAART. Possible side effects of lipid metabolism were also studied. Twenty five children, 13 treated with HAART (group B) were followed up for 12 months. We did not observe statistically significant differences in nutritional status over that time or between groups A and B. Inadequate energy intake was more common in patients with advanced HIV-disease. Hyperlipidemia was found in 70% of children receiving ritonavir and in approximately 50% of children receiving nelfinavir. We observed an important although not statistically significative modification in the height of those in group B. PMID:11091066

  6. Food and Nutrient Intake and Nutritional Status of Finnish Vegans and Non-Vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    Elorinne, Anna-Liisa; Alfthan, Georg; Erlund, Iris; Kivimäki, Hanna; Paju, Annukka; Salminen, Irma; Turpeinen, Ursula; Voutilainen, Sari; Laakso, Juha

    2016-01-01

    Background Vegetarian and vegan diets have become more popular among adolescents and young adults. However, few studies have investigated the nutritional status of vegans, who may be at risk of nutritional deficiencies. Objective To compare dietary intake and nutritional status of Finnish long-term vegans and non-vegetarians. Methods Dietary intake and supplement use were estimated using three-day dietary records. Nutritional status was assessed by measuring biomarkers in plasma, serum, and urine samples. Vegans’ (n = 22) data was compared with those of sex- and age-matched non-vegetarians (n = 19). Results All vegans adhered strictly to their diet; however, individual variability was marked in food consumption and supplementation habits. Dietary intakes of key nutrients, vitamins B12 and D, were lower (P < 0.001) in vegans than in non-vegetarians. Nutritional biomarker measurements showed lower concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), iodine and selenium (corrected for multiple comparisons, P < 0.001), Vegans showed more favorable fatty acid profiles (P < 0.001) as well as much higher concentrations of polyphenols such as genistein and daidzein (P < 0.001). Eicosapentaenoic acid proportions in vegans were higher than expected. The median concentration of iodine in urine was below the recommended levels in both groups. Conclusions Long-term consumption of a vegan diet was associated with some favorable laboratory measures but also with lowered concentrations of key nutrients compared to reference values. This study highlights the need for nutritional guidance to vegans. PMID:26840251

  7. Nutritional Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Lane, Helen W.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutritional status is critical for maintenance of crew health during extended- duration space flight and postflight rehabilitation. Nutrition issues relate to intake of required nutrients, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, psychological adaptation to extreme environments, and countermeasures to ameliorate the negative effects of space flight. Thus, defining the nutrient requirements for space flight and ensuring provision and intake of those nutrients are critical issues for crew health and mission success. Specialized nutritional requirements have only been considered for what are referred to here as extended- duration flights, i.e., those greater than 30 days in length. While adequate nutrition is important on the 1- to 3-week Shuttle flights, intakes of specific nutrients above or below space specific requirements for this period will not produce cause for concern. Thus, Shuttle flights have always used the recognized nutritional requirements for adult men and women. In this chapter, long-duration flights will be further differentiated into orbital missions (e.g., International Space Station) and interplanetary exploration missions.

  8. Nutritional Status of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients Admitted in Hospital With Acute Exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Barkha; Kant, Surya; Mishra, Rachna; Verma, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) are frequently hospitalized with an acute exacerbation. Patients with COPD often lose weight. Consequently, deterioration in nutritional status (loss of lean body mass) is a likely repercussion of acute exacerbation in hospitalized COPD patients. The study was carried out to assess the nutritional status of COPD patients with acute exacerbation, during the period of hospital admission, and to evaluate the relationships between the nutritional indices and the pulmonary function parameters. Methods A cross sectional observation study constituting 83 COPD patients consecutively hospitalized with acute exacerbation on accrual during a period of one year. Lung function was measured by routine spirometry. Nutritional status was assessed by the measurement of anthropometric parameters. Hospital outcome was also assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0 Independent t-tests and Pearsons correlation coefficient was used. Results Mean body weight was 50.03 ± 9.23 kg. Subjects had approximately 5 kg weight loss in previous six months. All the subjects had low BMI (19.38 ± 3.10) and MUAC (21.18 ± 2.31) that was significantly below the predicted levels. The correlation between body weight and FEV1/FVC% was good (r = 0.648, p = 0.003). BMI was negatively correlated (r = - 0.0103, p= 0.03) with duration of hospital stay. Conclusions The high prevalence of malnutrition among hospitalized COPD patients with acute exacerbation is related to their lung function and hospital outcome such as duration of hospital stay. Keywords Nutritional status; COPD; Acute exacerbation; Hospitalization PMID:21811522

  9. The impact of integrating food supplementation, nutritional education and HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) on the nutritional status of patients living with HIV/AIDS in Mozambique: results from the DREAM Programme.

    PubMed

    Scarcella, P; Buonomo, E; Zimba, I; Doro Altan, A M; Germano, P; Palombi, L; Marazzi, M C

    2011-01-01

    in BMI was significant and substantially higher in HAART patients because of the impact of HAART on nutritional status of AIDS patients. Subjects on HAART and with a DDS > 5, showed a substantial BMI gain. This association showed an additional expression of the synergic effect of integrating food supplementation, nutritional education and HAART on the nutritional status of African AIDS patients and also highlights the complementary role of an adequate and diversified diet in persons living with HIV/AIDS in resources limited settings. PMID:21468153

  10. The relationship between dental status, food selection, nutrient intake, nutritional status, and body mass index in older people.

    PubMed

    Marcenes, Wagner; Steele, Jimmy George; Sheiham, Aubrey; Walls, Angus Willian Gilmour

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviewed the findings from a national survey in Great Britain which assessed whether dental status affected older people's food selection, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. The survey analyzed national random samples of free-living and institution subjects for dental examination, interview, and four-day food diary as well as blood and urine tests In the free-living sample, intakes of non-starch polysaccharides, protein, calcium, non-heme iron, niacin, and vitamin C were significantly lower in edentulous as compared to dentate subjects. People with 21 or more teeth consumed more of most nutrients, particularly non-starch polysaccharides. This relationship in intake was not apparent in the hematological analysis. Plasma ascorbate and retinol were the only analytes significantly associated with dental status. Having 21 or more teeth increased the likelihood of having an acceptable body mass index (BMI). Thus, maintaining a natural and functional dentition defined as having more than twenty teeth into old age plays an important role in having a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables, a satisfactory nutritional status, and an acceptable BMI. PMID:12806483

  11. Socio-cultural factors influencing nutritional status of infants -- a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Hasan, J; Khan, Z; Sinha, S N

    1991-01-01

    During 1985-1986 in India, health workers went to the homes of 200 infants, 1-11 months old at the time they were brought into the study, and followed them until they reached one year. The researchers aimed to evaluate the role of weaning in determining the nutritional status of infants as well as to identify the sociocultural factors affecting weaning practices in the rural area near Aligarh. 99% of the infants received a prelacteal feed, especially ghutti (94%), within 6 hours of delivery. 99% were breast fed. Breast feeding began between 6 and 72 hours of birth. Almost all mothers believed ghutti cleanses the intestines and that colostrum is harmful. They discarded the colostrum. 73.5% of infants received top diluted milk. Mothers did not feed undiluted milk to their infants because they believed it causes diarrhea. 50.5% of mothers did not give their infants semi-solid foods until after 9 months. 20.5% did not give any semi-solid or solid food at one year. They all thought that semi-solid food causes diarrhea. 62.5% of infants received family food. 15% received biscuits. 98% had poor knowledge about nutritional requirements of infants, other than that breast milk is the natural food of infants. Most mothers practiced poor hygiene. Infants less than 6 months old were significantly more likely to have normal nutrition for age than those older than 6 months old (65.5% vs. 32.4%). Nutritional status declined with age, reflecting the unhygienic weaning practices in the area. At the end of 12 months, 6.8% suffered from severe grades of malnutrition. Nutritional status was not associated with social class. Educational status of mothers and fathers was significantly associated with nutritional status. These findings show that inadequate knowledge about proper weaning, not lack of food, is the limiting factor in infant nutrition. Education about the importance of proper weaning and weaning foods imparted by grass-root level workers is needed. PMID:12346054

  12. Linking Plant Nutritional Status to Plant-Microbe Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Carvalhais, Lilia C.; Dennis, Paul G.; Fan, Ben; Fedoseyenko, Dmitri; Kierul, Kinga; Becker, Anke; von Wiren, Nicolaus; Borriss, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Plants have developed a wide-range of adaptations to overcome nutrient limitation, including changes to the quantity and composition of carbon-containing compounds released by roots. Root-associated bacteria are largely influenced by these compounds which can be perceived as signals or substrates. Here, we evaluate the effect of root exudates collected from maize plants grown under nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), iron (Fe) and potassium (K) deficiencies on the transcriptome of the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. The largest shifts in gene expression patterns were observed in cells exposed to exudates from N-, followed by P-deficient plants. Exudates from N-deprived maize triggered a general stress response in FZB42 in the exponential growth phase, which was evidenced by the suppression of numerous genes involved in protein synthesis. Exudates from P-deficient plants induced bacterial genes involved in chemotaxis and motility whilst exudates released by Fe and K deficient plants did not cause dramatic changes in the bacterial transcriptome during exponential growth phase. Global transcriptional changes in bacteria elicited by nutrient deficient maize exudates were significantly correlated with concentrations of the amino acids aspartate, valine and glutamate in root exudates suggesting that transcriptional profiling of FZB42 associated with metabolomics of N, P, Fe and K-deficient maize root exudates is a powerful approach to better understand plant-microbe interactions under conditions of nutritional stress. PMID:23874669

  13. Maternal nutritional status and milk volume. Is there a cause-effect relationship?

    PubMed

    Villalpando, S; de Santiago, S; Flores-Huerta, S

    1991-09-01

    Studies on human lactation were examined in order to gather some answers about questions concerning the effect of maternal food intake, size, fatness and economic status on milk production. Up to date, evidence in the literature is insufficient to permit definitive answers, but a general conclusion can be drawn: milk volume varies little among mothers with largely variable energy intakes, sizes and economic status. There is a great need for more controlled studies focusing on the relationship between maternal energy balance and milk output. Although many studies have separately addressed the nutritional changes in mothers throughout lactation (1-8) and milk consumption by infants (9-17), very few have correlated maternal nutritional conditions and the volume of milk consumed. This report will consider investigations published from 1975 and on, combining data on maternal nutritional status and milk production in the same individual. The rationale is that around 1975 more accurate and standardized methodology began to be used in related studies. Milk output is estimated by the summary of the differences of body weights of infants obtained before and after each milking episode during 24 hours. Before 1975 the balances used for such a purpose had very poor precision, and this interfered seriously on the inter and intra-personal variability of the measurements. Electronic scales made available after that year gave enough reliability to the procedure. This report is comprised of studies from birth to four months postpartum, when energy supplementation is less common, and quantitatively less important. Nutritional status of the mothers will be analyzed on the basis of four categorizing variables: social and economic status, anthropometry, food intake and body composition. PMID:1824510

  14. Nutritional support to maintain proper immune status during intense training.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged exercise and heavy training are associated with depressed immune function which can increase the risk of picking up minor infections. To maintain robust immunity, athletes should eat a well-balanced diet sufficient to meet their energy, carbohydrate, protein, and micronutrient requirements. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients have long been associated with immune dysfunction and an adequate intake of iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6 and B12 is particularly important in the maintenance of immune function. Consuming carbohydrate during prolonged strenuous exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immune depression. Similar effects can be seen with daily ingestion of high-dose antioxidant vitamin supplements, though concerns have been expressed that excessive antioxidant intake may impair exercise training adaptations. It is safe to say with reasonable confidence that individual amino acids, colostrum, Echinacea, and zinc are unlikely to boost immunity or reduce infection risk in athletes. The ingestion of carbohydrate during exercise and daily consumption of probiotic and plant polyphenol (e.g. quercetin)-containing supplements or foodstuffs (e.g. non-alcoholic beer) currently offer the best chance of success. This approach is likely to be most effective for individuals who are particularly prone to illness. PMID:23765353

  15. Some preliminary findings on the nutritional status of the Hawaiian spiny lobster (Panulirus marginatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrish, F.A.; Martinelli-Liedtke, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    Data on the nutritional status of spiny lobster (Panulirus marginatus) were collected on the commercial trapping grounds of Necker Bank, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, in the summers of 1991, 1994, and 1995. Glycogen levels measured in abdominal tissue of intermolt males were used as an index of nutritional health of the field population. The range of glycogen sampled from wild lobster was less than half the level measured in captive lobster fed to satiation in a previous study. An analysis of covariance identified significant interannual and spatial effects explaining 46% of the variance in the sample of wild lobsters. Most significant was a decline in lobster glycogen levels between samples collected in 1991 and 1994-1995. Seasonal influences on lobster nutrition are unknown and were identified as an obvious direction for future ecological research.

  16. The changing selenium nutritional status of Chinese residents.

    PubMed

    Li, Sumei; Bañuelos, Gary S; Wu, Longhua; Shi, Weiming

    2014-01-01

    The selenium (Se) content in human hair is useful as an indicator of human Se intake and status. In this regard, when measuring the hair Se concentrations in Chinese inhabitants across northeast to southeast China, the results indicated that generally 84% of all residents have normal hair Se content. Between the sexes, the average hair Se content of males was higher than that of females, irrespective of districts. When comparing geographical regions, the average hair Se content of southern residents was greater than that of northern residents, regardless of gender. Historically, the overall hair Se content of today's inhabitants decreased between 24% and 46% when compared with the inhabitants living in the same geographic region 20 years ago. The decrease of hair Se content may be related to the overall decrease of grain consumption and the lower Se content in the staple food rice. PMID:24638069

  17. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    Nutrition Health Education During the 2 years preceding the study: • The percentage of states that provided funding for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health ...

  18. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your diet. These include brightly colored and dark fruits and vegetables. Balance the food you eat ... can also order your free copy of Nutrition Matters and visit our Ask about Nutrition forum. << Back ...

  19. The Baylor pediatric nutrition handbook for residents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Baylor Pediatric Nutrition Handbook for Residents provides basic resource information about the assessment of growth, the nutritional status assessment and feeding guidelines, biochemical evaluation of nutritional status, infant nutrition, enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition, nutritional man...

  20. Nutrition in the adolescent.

    PubMed

    Wahl, R

    1999-02-01

    This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article. PMID:10036686

  1. [Physical and sedentary activity as modulating factors of the nutritional status].

    PubMed

    Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu; Mascaraque Camino, María; Ortega, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary behavior and physical exercise seem to influence the nutritional status of the population independently. In this sense, sedentary behavior is associated inversely with healthy eating patterns and directly with BMI, body fat, risk of chronic diseases and psychological problems. By contrast, regular exercise is associated with a healthier diet and health benefits as the prevention or reduction of excess weight and disease prevention. However, it seems difficult to completely compensate, sedentary behavior and risk factors for health, with physical activity. To improve the nutritional status and health of the population would be advisable to increase non-sedentary behaviors and decrease the time spent in front of the screen. Also, it is encouraged to exercise regularly. PMID:26267770

  2. Use of body mass index of adults in assessing individual and community nutritional status.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, K. V.; Ferro-Luzzi, A.

    1995-01-01

    Adult malnutrition is much more widespread than is commonly recognized. Described in this article is the use of body mass index (BMI = weight in kg/(height in metres)2) as a measure of adult nutritional status, both of individuals and of communities. Concurrent assessment of the nutritional status of children and adults permits conclusions to be drawn about whether there is generalized undernutrition in a community or whether other factors (e.g., childhood infections or feeding practices) are more important in childhood malnutrition. Included is a tabular presentation that permits rapid assessment of both thinness or underweight (BMI values < 16, 17 and 18.5) and overweight (BMI > 25, 30 and 40). Examples of the use of BMI in both clinical and public health practice are also given. PMID:8846494

  3. Food intake and nutritional status of preschool from maroon communities of the state Alagoas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Fernanda Maria de B.; Ferreira, Haroldo da Silva; Bezerra, Myrtis Katille de A.; de Assunção, Monica Lopes; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the dietary intake and the nutritional status of children from Alagoas maroon communities. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving 724 children (12-60 months) from 39 Alagoas maroon communities. The nutritional status was investigated by anthropometric, biochemical (hemoglobin) and food consumption indicators. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, stunting and obesity were, respectively, 48.0, 9.7 and 6.0%. The children had a monotonous eating pattern and a considerable prevalence of inadequate intake of zinc (17.0%), folate (18.1%), iron (20.2%) and vitamins A (29.7%) and C (34.3%). Compared to the other socioeconomic classes, the E class children had lower average consumption (p<0.05) for energy, carbohydrate, vitamins A and C, folate, iron, zinc and phosphorus. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia is a serious Public Health problem. The prevalence of chronic malnutrition and obesity were similar to those observed for the children in the State as a whole, where a nutritional transition process is occuring. There was a high prevalence of inadequate food intake risk for zinc, folate, iron and vitamins A and C, suggesting the need for nutritional education actions. PMID:24473948

  4. Nutrition Education in Medical Schools. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Nutrition of the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate. Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session on Current Status, Impediments, and Potential Solutions. September 20, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Testimonies and articles, letters, and statements from a congressional hearing of the U.S. Senate concerning nutrition education in medical schools are presented. The hearing was held to ascertain the present status of nutrition instruction in U.S. medical schools, to determine the need for such instruction, and to identify problems with…

  5. [Vitamin A deficiency and the anthropometric nutritional status of urban and rural marginalized children in the state of Zulia, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Amaya-Castellanos, Daisy; Viloria-Castejón, Haydée; Ortega, Pablo; Gómez, Gisela; Urrieta, Jesús R; Lobo, Pablo; Estévez, Jesús

    2002-06-01

    The present transversal study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of both vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and protein-energy malnutrition among children (24 to 85 months) from three urban slums (n = 173) in Maracaibo city, Zulia State, Venezuela and a rural slum area (n = 34), vieinal to Maracaibo, by measuring serum retinol and z score of anthropometric indices Height//Age (H//AZ); Weight//Age (W//AZ) and Weight//Height (W//HZ), compared to NCHS-WHO reference values. The Graffar's methodology adapted to Venezuela by Méndez Castellano (1986) confirmed the underprivileged socio-economic condition of the children population. For serum retinol analysis, peripheral venous blood was drawn and serum was treated according to the Bieri et al. (1979) technique and HPLC procedure. Values were recorded in microgram/dL. Statistical analysis was done by using Epi Info 2000, release 1.0 and SAS release 6.0 (1996) computer programs. The prevalence of VAD (serum retinol < 20 micrograms/dL) in the total children population (n = 207) was 22.2%, being higher in urban children than in rural children (22.5% vs 20.5%). No clinical signs of VAD were detected in the children. The nutritional status analysed by Z score of anthropometric indices revealed that 27.4% of children suffered from undernutrition (Z score = -2 to > -3 SD), being 15.4% stunted, 9.6% wasted and 2.6% with acute protein-energy malnutrition. Neither severe malnutrition nor overweight were detected. According with the H//AZ index, 54.6% of children had adequate nutrition. However 23% of them suffered from VAD. In children at risk of developing undernutrition (Z score = -1 to > -2 SD), 20.9% had VAD and of the stunted children, 21.9% presented VAD. With W//AZ, 60.3%, 29.9% and 9.1% of children were with adequate nutrition, at risk, or wasted respectively; of each group, 25.6%, 17.7% and 15%, respectively had serum retinol values below 20 micrograms/dL. The Z score of W//HZ indicator revealed that 87.4%, 10.4% and 2

  6. Nutritional status of women and child refugees from Syria-Jordan, April-May 2014.

    PubMed

    Bilukha, Oleg O; Jayasekaran, Douglas; Burton, Ann; Faender, Gabriele; King'ori, James; Amiri, Mohammad; Jessen, Dorte; Leidman, Eva

    2014-07-25

    As a result of civil war, an estimated 2.8 million refugees have fled Syria and reside in neighboring countries, mainly Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, and Iraq. The largest Syrian refugee camp in the region is Zaatari camp in Jordan, with approximately 79,000 refugees; another estimated 500,000 Syrian refugees live in Jordanian cities, towns, and villages, mostly in the capital (Amman) and in four northern governorates (Irbid, Mafraq, Jarash, and Zarqa). Although all registered refugees in Jordan receive food vouchers from the World Food Programme (WFP) and vulnerable refugees receive cash assistance from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and nongovernmental organizations, the nutritional status of some refugees might be compromised because of dislocation, lack of income, and limited access to nutritious foods. To assess the nutritional status of Syrian refugees, UNHCR, WFP, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Medair International (a nongovernmental organization), and CDC, in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund and the World Health Organization (WHO), conducted cross-sectional, population-representative cluster surveys in Zaatari camp and among refugees residing in the host community. The surveys were conducted during April-May 2014 with the principal objective of assessing nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Preliminary findings indicated a high prevalence of anemia in Zaatari camp among both children and women (48.4% and 44.8%, respectively). Nutrition policies aimed at ensuring optimal child and maternal micronutrient status and addressing the underlying risk factors for anemia are likely to result in improved health outcomes and a reduction in anemia. PMID:25055188

  7. Secular Trends in Growth and Nutritional Status of Mozambican School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Maia, José A. R.; Gomes, Thayse Natacha Q. F.; Daca, Timóteo; Madeira, Aspacia; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Prista, António

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine secular changes in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican children and adolescents between 1992, 1999 and 2012. Methods 3374 subjects (1600 boys, 1774 girls), distributed across the three time points (523 subjects in 1992; 1565 in 1999; and 1286 in 2012), were studied. Height and weight were measured, BMI was computed, and WHO cut-points were used to define nutritional status. ANCOVA models were used to compare height, weight and BMI across study years; chi-square was used to determine differences in the nutritional status prevalence across the years. Results Significant differences for boys were found for height and weight (p<0.05) across the three time points, where those from 2012 were the heaviest, but those in 1999 were the tallest, and for BMI the highest value was observed in 2012 (1992<2012, 1999<2012). Among girls, those from 1999 were the tallest (1992<1999, 1999>2012), and those from 2012 had the highest BMI (1999<2012). In general, similar patterns were observed when mean values were analyzed by age. A positive trend was observed for overweight and obesity prevalences, whereas a negative trend emerged for wasting, stunting-wasting (in boys), and normal-weight (in girls); no clear trend was evident for stunting. Conclusion Significant positive changes in growth and nutritional status were observed among Mozambican youth from 1992 to 2012, which are associated with economic, social and cultural transitional processes, expressing a dual burden in this population, with reduction in malnourished youth in association with an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. PMID:25473837

  8. Clinical evolution and nutritional status in asthmatic children and adolescents enrolled in Primary Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Rosinha Yoko Matsubayaci; Strufaldi, Maria Wany Louzada; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical evolution and the association between nutritional status and severity of asthma in children and adolescents enrolled in Primary Health Care. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 219 asthmatic patients (3-17 years old) enrolled in Primary Care Services (PCSs) in Embu das Artes (SP), from 2007 to 2011. Secondary data: gender, age, diagnosis of asthma severity, other atopic diseases, family history of atopy, and body mass index. To evaluate the clinical outcome of asthma, data were collected on number of asthma exacerbations, number of emergency room consultations and doses of inhaled corticosteroids at follow-up visits in the 6th and 12th months. The statistical analysis included chi-square and Kappa agreement index, with 5% set as the significance level. Results: 50.5% of patients started wheezing before the age of 2 years, 99.5% had allergic rhinitis and 65.2% had a positive family history of atopy. Regarding severity, intermittent asthma was more frequent (51.6%) and, in relation to nutritional status, 65.8% of patients had normal weight. There was no association between nutritional status and asthma severity (p=0.409). After 1 year of follow-up, 25.2% of patients showed reduction in exacerbations and emergency room consultations, and 16.2% reduced the amount of inhaled corticosteroids. Conclusions: The monitoring of asthmatic patients in Primary Care Services showed improvement in clinical outcome, with a decreased number of exacerbations, emergency room consultations and doses of inhaled corticosteroids. No association between nutritional status and asthma severity was observed in this study. PMID:26316387

  9. Nutrition status and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients with virus-related cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jia; Chang, Le; Yuan, Lili; Duan, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is frequently present in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). However, the direct relationship between SIBO and nutrition status in the LC patients has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was an association between nutrition status, evaluated by the subjective global assessment (SGA) and SIBO in patients with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) related cirrhosis. A total of 120 patients with HBV or HCV-related cirrhosis and 30 healthy controls were included. Nutritional status was determined according to SGA and anthropometry. All patients and healthy controls underwent a glucose hydrogen breath test for SIBO. The prevalence of malnutrition for the patients with HBV or HCV related cirrhosis ranged 19.4%-60% in China. The highest prevalence of malnutrition was detected by SGA, the lowest by triceps skinfold thickness. The frequency of SIBO was significantly higher in the malnourished (SGA-B/C) than in the well-nourished (SGA-A) patients with HBV or HCV related cirrhosis [41/72 (56.9%) vs 12/48 (25.0%) (p=0.001)]. Univariate analysis showed that SIBO, ascites, and Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class were associated with malnutrition. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that SIBO [odds ratio (OR) 8.10; p=0.002] and ascites (OR 4.56; p=0.022) were independently associated with the occurrence of malnutrition (SGA-B/C) in the same subjects. SIBO is independently related to the occurrence of malnutrition (SGA-B/C) in patients with HBV or HCV cirrhosis. We deduce that SIBO may play an important role in nutrition status in patients with HBV or HCV cirrhosis. PMID:27222411

  10. The Effect of Early Marriages and Early Childbearing on Women's Nutritional Status in India.

    PubMed

    Goli, Srinivas; Rammohan, Anu; Singh, Deepti

    2015-08-01

    The consequences of early childbearing on the growth and nutritional status of women in India has not been quantified in previous studies. Our study aimed to fill this gap by analysing the association between early marriage and early childbearing on nutritional status of Indian women, with a focus on Bihar and Andhra Pradesh, the two states accounting for the highest proportion of women marrying and giving first birth before 18 years of age. Our findings revealed that a substantial number of women were married before 18 years and thereby exposed to early pregnancy. Furthermore, a significantly higher proportion of women in the 'thin' category were married before 18 years, both in the Indian sample (33 %, p < 0.001) and in the selected states, Andhra Pradesh (31 %, p < 0.001) and Bihar (43 %, p < 0.001), compared to those women married at higher ages. Similarly, across all our samples women whose first birth was before age 18 years also had a significantly higher probability of being in the 'thin' category across all our samples. This pattern was also observed for associations between early childbirth and anemia levels. We conclude that the net effect of the early age at marriage and age at first birth on nutritional status is significant. Our results underline the need for preventing early marriages and the consequent high adolescent pregnancies in India, particularly in high prevalence states. This will help to improve nutritional status and health care utilisation among women, thereby, prevent maternal and child mortality and thus, achieve the MDGs 4-5. PMID:25656721

  11. [Investigation of actual nutrition and some factors of physical status in rugby players].

    PubMed

    Abramova, M A; Azizbekian, G A; Zilova, I S; Lysikov, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    Physical status and nutrition and energy value of factual diets of 18 rugby players (15-30 years old) assessed during current medical observation were analyzed. Anthropometric data (height, body mass--BM, waist circumference/ hip circumference index, body mass index--BMI), body composition data and resting metabolic rate by bioimpedance method (analyzer ABC-01 "Medass") were determined. These indices were found to be normal except more high level of BMI due to high levels of lean and skeletal muscle mass, but not a result of obesity. Estimation of factual nutrition based on 1-day feeding (nutrition-screening questionnaire method) has demonstrate that it was not optimal both for energy and nutrition value for this group of physical activity. Energy value ranged from 1889 kcal to 3175 kcal (22.5-35.1 kcal/kg BM/day) with lower carbohydrate intake (46.9%) and higher fat intake (35.8%) were found. Nutrition value ranges: protein--67-144 g (0.71-1.38 kcal/kg BM/day), fat--75-140 g (0.88-1.51 kcal/kg BM/day), carbohydrate--173-420 g (2.17-4.66 kcal/kg BM/day) were observed. The findings suggest the need to pay more attention to in-depth study of dietary intake of athletes to maintain health and to create optimal conditions for a professional sports activities. PMID:24340935

  12. [Nutritional status and food intake of populations from high altitude regions of the Northwest of Argentia].

    PubMed

    Bassett, Maria Natalia; Gimenez, Maria Alejandra; Romaguera, Dora; Sammán, Norma

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the nutritional status and food intake of Andean populations of Northwest ofArgentine. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in representative samples of populations of highland from Argentine. Also anthropometric measurements, a food intake, a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire were performed and recorded. Stunting (height-for-age Z-score < -2 standard deviations) was the main nutritional problem in children and adolescents in the area of Puna and Quebrada regions. While overweight and obesity, evaluated by BMI> 85th and 95th percentile respectively, were the main nutritional problems among adolescents in the Valleys. Adult populations showed higher prevalence of overweight and obesity according to BMI determined. These are important risk factors for cardiovascular and chronic diseases.Usually the typical composition of the main food dish of regions has a base of rice, pasta, flour or corn, accompanied by tubers or eggs, or a few vegetables and beef. This dish varies little from one day to another, constituting a monotonous diet with a high intake of sugar (sugary drinks and sweets) and refined grains. Results suggest that these populations would be in early stages of nutritional transition and could be the starting point to promote them healthier food consumption and a diet less monotonous. It would be recommendable reincorporate native products of the region. PMID:24934067

  13. Use of mid upper arm circumference for evaluation of nutritional status of OSMF patients

    PubMed Central

    Yallamraju, Suryanarayana R.; Mehrotra, Rachit; Sinha, Abhishek; Gattumeedhi, Shashank Reddy; Gupta, Abhishek; Khadse, Smita V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is always associated with juxtaepithelial inflammatory reaction followed by fibroblastic changes in lamina propria, with epithelial atrophy leading to stiffness of oral mucosa and causing trismus and inability to eat. Mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) is a useful tool for a fast assessment of the nutritional status. Aims: The study was undertaken to evaluate the correlation of MUAC as a nutritional status indicator in OSMF patients. Patients and Methods: The study group comprised 50 clinically diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed cases of OSMF. MUAC was recorded using a plastic measuring tape. The right upper arm was measured at the midpoint between the tip of the shoulder and the tip of the elbow (olecranon process and the acromium). Results: Out of 50 subjects, 76% (38) were having MUAC value <23 cm, which shows an inverse relation between MUAC and clinical staging. The relation of MUAC with clinical staging was significant. Conclusion: The patient with OSMF becomes unable to eat due to burning, ulcers, and inability to open mouth, which affects the health of the individual. Thus, it is crucial to access the nutritional status to improve the survival rate of patients. PMID:25558452

  14. Antioxidant activity and nutritional status in anorexia nervosa: effects of weight recovery.

    PubMed

    Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-04-01

    Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60 μmol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 μmol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system. PMID:25830944

  15. Antioxidant Activity and Nutritional Status in Anorexia Nervosa: Effects of Weight Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60μmol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 μmol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system. PMID:25830944

  16. Impact of Maternal Household Decision-Making Autonomy on Child Nutritional Status in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mosfequr; Saima, Umme; Goni, Md Abdul

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationship between maternal household decision-making autonomy and children's nutritional status using data from 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. The analyses are restricted to 2056 currently married, nonpregnant women aged 15 to 49 years who had at least 1 birth 5 years preceding the survey. Theoretically relevant predictors of children's nutritional status including maternal autonomy are analyzed to identify factors significantly associated with children's nutritional status using stepwise logistic regression. Results indicate that 34.8% children are stunted, 16.1% are wasted, and 45.9% children are underweight. Children whose mothers participated in making all household decisions are 15%, 16%, and 32% significantly less likely to be stunted (odds ratio = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.67-0.98), underweight (odds ratio = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.70-0.98), and wasted (odds ratio = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.52-0.90), respectively, than mothers who did not participate in making any decision. Increasing maternal decision-making autonomy may reduce the prevalence of malnourished children as well as contribute to have a healthier future generation. PMID:25657298

  17. Acceptance of hospital diets and nutritional status among inpatients with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Daiane; Guimarães, Tessa Gomes; Marcadenti, Aline

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To verify acceptance of hospital diets as to the nutritional status among patients admitted to the Oncology/Hematology Unit of a tertiary care hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted among 100 patients, aged ≥18 years, of both genders. Body mass index and subjective global nutritional evaluation by patients were used to detect the nutritional status. The rest-ingestion index was used to evaluate diet acceptance, and the reasons for non-acceptance were identified by means of a questionnaire. Data were expressed in means and standard deviation, or medians and percentages. Comparisons were made using the Student's t test, Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test, and Pearson's χ2 test. Results: A total of 59% of patients were males, and mean age was 51.6±13.5 years. According to the global subjective nutritional evaluation done by the patients themselves, 33% of the participants were considered malnourished and the body mass index detected 6.3% of malnutrition. The main symptoms reported were lack of appetite, xerostomia (dry mouth), constipation, dysgeusia, odor-related nausea, and early satiety. The rest-ingestion index was approximately 37% and significantly greater among the malnourished relative to the well-nourished (58.8 versus 46.4%; p=0.04). The primary reasons reported for non-acceptance of the diet offered were lack of flavor, monotonous preparations, large quantities offered, lack of appetite, and inappropriate temperature of the meal. Conclusion: A high the rest-ingestion index was seen among the patients with cancer, especially those who were malnourished according to the global nutritional evaluation produced by the patient. PMID:23579742

  18. The Effect of Nutritional Status in the Pathogenesis of Critical Illness Myopathy (CIM)

    PubMed Central

    Ogilvie, Hannah; Larsson, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The muscle wasting and loss of specific force associated with Critical Illness Myopathy (CIM) is, at least in part, due to a preferential loss of the molecular motor protein myosin. This acquired myopathy is common in critically ill immobilized and mechanically ventilated intensive care patients (ICU). There is a growing understanding of the mechanisms underlying CIM, but the role of nutritional factors triggering this serious complication of modern intensive care remains unknown. This study aims at establishing the effect of nutritional status in the pathogenesis of CIM. An experimental ICU model was used where animals are mechanically ventilated, pharmacologically paralysed post-synaptically and extensively monitored for up to 14 days. Due to the complexity of the experimental model, the number of animals included is small. After exposure to this ICU condition, animals develop a phenotype similar to patients with CIM. The results from this study show that the preferential myosin loss, decline in specific force and muscle fiber atrophy did not differ between low vs. eucaloric animals. In both experimental groups, passive mechanical loading had a sparing effect of muscle weight independent on nutritional status. Thus, this study confirms the strong impact of the mechanical silencing associated with the ICU condition in triggering CIM, overriding any potential effects of caloric intake in triggering CIM. In addition, the positive effects of passive mechanical loading on muscle fiber size and force generating capacity was not affected by the nutritional status in this study. However, due to the small sample size these pilot results need to be validated in a larger cohort. PMID:24887774

  19. Women's empowerment and child nutritional status in South Asia: a synthesis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Kenda; Ruel, Marie; Ferguson, Elaine; Uauy, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Women's disempowerment is hypothesised to contribute to high rates of undernutrition among South Asian children. However, evidence for this relationship has not been systematically reviewed. This review of empirical studies aims to: (1) synthesise the evidence linking women's empowerment and child nutritional status in South Asia and (2) suggest directions for future research. We systematically searched Global Health, Embase (classic and Ovid), MEDLINE, Campbell Collaboration, Popline, Eldis, Web of Science, EconLit and Scopus. We generated 1661 studies for abstract and title screening. We full-text screened 44 of these, plus 10 additional studies the authors were aware of. Only 12 studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We included English materials published between 1990 and 2012 that examined the relationship(s) of at least one women's empowerment domain and nutritional status among South Asian children. Data were extracted and synthesised within three domains of empowerment: control of resources and autonomy, workload and time, and social support. The results showed women's empowerment to be generally associated with child anthropometry, but the findings are mixed. Inter-study differences in population characteristics, settings or methods/conceptualisations of women's empowerment, and the specific domains studied, likely contributed to these inconsistencies. This review also highlights that different women's empowerment domains may relate differently to child nutritional status. Future research should aim to harmonise definitions of women's empowerment, which key domains it should include, and how it is measured. Rigorous evaluation work is also needed to establish which policies and programmes facilitate women's empowerment and in turn, foster child nutritional well-being. PMID:24850533

  20. The Nutrinet-Santé Study: a web-based prospective study on the relationship between nutrition and health and determinants of dietary patterns and nutritional status

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nutrition-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer are of multiple origin, and may be due to genetic, biologic, behavioural and environmental factors. In order to detangle the specific role of nutritional factors, very large population sample cohort studies comprising precisely measured dietary intake and all necessary information for accurately assessing potential confounding factors are needed. Widespread use of internet is an opportunity to gradually collect huge amounts of data from a large sample of volunteers that can be automatically verified and processed. The objectives of the NutriNet-Santé study are: 1) to investigate the relationship between nutrition (nutrients, foods, dietary patterns, physical activity), mortality and health outcomes; and 2) to examine the determinants of dietary patterns and nutritional status (sociological, economic, cultural, biological, cognitive, perceptions, preferences, etc.), using a web-based approach. Methods/design Our web-based prospective cohort study is being conducted for a scheduled follow-up of 10 years. Using a dedicated web site, recruitment will be carried out for 5 years so as to register 500 000 volunteers aged ≥ 18 years among whom 60% are expected to be included (having complete baseline data) and followed-up for at least 5 years for 240 000 participants. Questionnaires administered via internet at baseline and each year thereafter will assess socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, anthropometry, health status, physical activity and diet. Surveillance of health events will be implemented via questionnaires on hospitalisation and use of medication, and linkage with a national database on vital statistics. Biochemical samples and clinical examination will be collected in a subsample of volunteers. Discussion Self-administered data collection using internet as a complement to collection of biological data will enable identifying nutrition-related risks and

  1. Bone quality and nutritional status in children with congenital heart defects.

    PubMed

    Laura Gabriela, Chico-Barba; Nalleli, Vivanco-Muñoz; Dalia Patricia, Avilés-Toxqui; Juan, Tamayo; Rodolfo, Rivas-Ruíz; Alfonso, Buendía-Hernández; Patricia, Clark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate bone quality and nutritional status in children with congenital heart defects (CHDs) using quantitative ultrasound. A cross-sectional study was designed. A population-based sample of 75 children with CHD (age: 0--6yr) from the Department of Pediatric Cardiology at the National Cardiology Institute "Ignacio Chávez" was compared with 106 healthy children during 2009. Weight and height were determined in both groups; bone status was measured at the radius and tibia as speed of sound (SOS). Nutritional status was defined according to the Waterloo and Gómez index. Chi-square test, Student's t-test, and analysis of variance were used to determine the statistical differences. A linear regression analysis adjusted by age, weight, height, type of CHD, and birth weight was made. Both groups were similar in sex distribution, prematurity, and birth weight. Acyanotic cardiopathy with increased pulmonary flow was the most frequent (61.3%). Prevalence of malnutrition was higher in CHD group compared with healthy children (p<0.001), and radius SOS was lower in children with CHD compared with healthy children (3484±180 vs 3575±159m/s, respectively; 95% confidence interval: 39.8--143; p=0.001). A positive correlation was found between CHD and reduced SOS in the adjusted linear regression model, r²=0.455 (p<0.001). Children with CHD have lower SOS radius values compared with healthy children, suggesting reduced bone quality regardless of the nutritional status. PMID:22402118

  2. Physical growth and nutritional status of Tsimane' Amerindian children of lowland Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Foster, Z; Byron, E; Reyes-García, V; Huanca, T; Vadez, V; Apaza, L; Pérez, E; Tanner, S; Gutierrez, Y; Sandstrom, B; Yakhedts, A; Osborn, C; Godoy, R A; Leonard, W R

    2005-03-01

    This study examines patterns of growth and nutritional status of indigenous Tsimane' children under 9 years of age (n = 199 boys and 210 girls), based on a cross-sectional sample from 58 villages from the Beni Deparment of lowland Bolivia. Compared with US children, Tsimane' children are quite short, with linear growth tracking at or below the US 5th centile in both sexes. The prevalence of low height-for-age ("stunting;" HA Z-scores nutritional status of Tsimane' children is modestly correlated with village-level differences. Degree of isolation, as measured by distance to urban centers or to primary forest, was not a strong predictor of children's anthropometric status. Rather, in both boys and girls, nutritional status was most strongly associated with number of teachers in the village, a measure of access to education. Comparative analyses indicate that high levels of statural growth stunting are common among indigenous populations throughout lowland South America. This problem appears to be largely attributable to poor dietary quality (diets low in key micronutrients) and high disease loads. Further research is needed to identify the specific causes and potential interventions for the high rates of childhood growth stunting in this region. PMID:15386291

  3. Nutritional Risk, Micronutrient Status and Clinical Outcomes: A Prospective Observational Study in an Infectious Disease Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Dizdar, Oguzhan Sıtkı; Baspınar, Osman; Kocer, Derya; Dursun, Zehra Bestepe; Avcı, Deniz; Karakükcü, Cigdem; Çelik, İlhami; Gundogan, Kursat

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional status and micronutrient levels of hospitalized patients in an infectious disease clinic and investigate their association with adverse clinical outcomes. The nutritional status of the study participants was assessed using the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) and micronutrient levels and routine biochemical parameters were tested within the first 24 h of the patient’s admission. The incidence of zinc, selenium, thiamine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 deficiency were 66.7% (n = 40), 46.6% (n = 29), 39.7% (n = 27), 35.3% (n = 24), 14.1% (n = 9), respectively. Selenium levels were significantly higher in patients with urinary tract infections, but lower in soft tissue infections. Copper levels were significantly higher in patients with soft tissue infections. In the Cox regression models, lower albumin, higher serum lactate dehydrogenase levels and higher NRS-2002 scores were associated with increased death. Thiamine, selenium, zinc and vitamin B6 deficiencies but not chromium deficiencies are common in infectious disease clinics. New associations were found between micronutrient levels and infection type and their adverse clinical outcomes. Hypoalbuminemia and a high NRS-2002 score had the greatest accuracy in predicting death, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis on admission. PMID:26938553

  4. Predictors' Factors of Nutritional Status of Male Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pirabbasi, Elham; Najafiyan, Mahin; Cheraghi, Maria; Shahar, Suzana; Abdul Manaf, Zahara; Rajab, Norfadilah; Abdul Manap, Roslina

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a systemic disease that leads to weight loss and muscle dysfunction resulting in an increase in mortality. This study aimed to determine the prevalence rate of malnutrition and nutritional status and also factors associated with nutritional status. A total of 149 subjects were involved in the cross-sectional study. The study was conducted at two medical centers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The results of the study showed that malnutrition was more prevalent (52.4%) in the subjects with severe stages of COPD as compared to mild and moderate COPD stages (26.2%) (P < 0.05). Fat-free mass depletion as assessed using fat-free mass index (FFMI) affected 41.9% of the subjects. Plasma vitamin A, peak expiratory flow (PEF), and handgrip were the predictors for body mass index (BMI) (R2 = 0.190, P < 0.001). Plasma vitamin A and force expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were the predictors of FFMI (R2 = 0.082, P = 0.007). BMI was the predictor of respiratory factors, that is, FEV1% predicted (R2 = 0.052, P = 0.011). It can be concluded that there is a need to identify malnourished COPD patients for an appropriate nutrition intervention. PMID:23209935

  5. Association between Nutritional Status and Severity of Dengue Infection in Children in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Marón, Gabriela M.; Clará, A. Wilfrido; Diddle, John Wesley; Pleités, Ernesto B.; Miller, Laura; MacDonald, Gene; Adderson, Elisabeth E.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical observations and some studies suggest that dengue virus infection is more severe among children with better nutritional status. We examined the nutritional status of children in El Salvador and its relationship between this and the severity of dengue infection. Z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age of children with dengue fever (66), dengue hemorrhagic fever (62), and healthy controls (74) were compared. There were no differences in weight-for-age or BMI-for-age Z-scores between the three groups. Children with dengue fever had a greater height-for-age than healthy controls but no significant differences in rates of stunting. There was no difference in height between children with dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Excess nutrition does not appear to be a risk factor for severe forms of dengue infection in El Salvador, nor does malnutrition appear to be predictive of good outcomes. PMID:20134012

  6. PHYSICAL FITNESS AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF POLISH GROUND FORCE UNIT RECRUITS

    PubMed Central

    Bertrandt, J.; Kłos, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to conduct an examination of the physical fitness and nutritional status of recruits (221 men beginning military service in the infantry unit). Soldiers’ physical efficiency was estimated using 4 tests: standing long jump, pull-ups on bar, 30-second sit-ups and 1000-metre run. The nutritional status assessment was done based on anthropometric measurements including measurements of body height, body mass and selected skin fold thickness. The study group of soldiers were the best at sit-ups (46.33 points). They got over 40 points for the 1000-metre run (43.68 points) and for pull-ups on bar (41.69 points). They obtained the lowest scores for standing long jumps (30.77 points). About 14% of recruits were overweight and 4.1% underweight. Recruits enrolling in the infantry unit present a low physical fitness level. Overweight and obesity occurrence, and particularly underweight, in recruits testify to improper nutrition before beginning military service. PMID:24868118

  7. Nutritional Risk, Micronutrient Status and Clinical Outcomes: A Prospective Observational Study in an Infectious Disease Clinic.

    PubMed

    Dizdar, Oguzhan Sıtkı; Baspınar, Osman; Kocer, Derya; Dursun, Zehra Bestepe; Avcı, Deniz; Karakükcü, Cigdem; Çelik, İlhami; Gundogan, Kursat

    2016-03-01

    Malnutrition has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional status and micronutrient levels of hospitalized patients in an infectious disease clinic and investigate their association with adverse clinical outcomes. The nutritional status of the study participants was assessed using the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) and micronutrient levels and routine biochemical parameters were tested within the first 24 h of the patient's admission. The incidence of zinc, selenium, thiamine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 deficiency were 66.7% (n = 40), 46.6% (n = 29), 39.7% (n = 27), 35.3% (n = 24), 14.1% (n = 9), respectively. Selenium levels were significantly higher in patients with urinary tract infections, but lower in soft tissue infections. Copper levels were significantly higher in patients with soft tissue infections. In the Cox regression models, lower albumin, higher serum lactate dehydrogenase levels and higher NRS-2002 scores were associated with increased death. Thiamine, selenium, zinc and vitamin B6 deficiencies but not chromium deficiencies are common in infectious disease clinics. New associations were found between micronutrient levels and infection type and their adverse clinical outcomes. Hypoalbuminemia and a high NRS-2002 score had the greatest accuracy in predicting death, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis on admission. PMID:26938553

  8. Nutritional Status and Anthropometric Indices in High School Girls in Ilam, West Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jamalikandazi, Fatemeh; Ranjbar, Elham; Gholami-Parizad, Eskandar; Ghazanfari, Zeinab; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Adolescence is one of the most challenging periods for human growth and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status and anthropometric indices in high school girls in Ilam. Methods. This cross-sectional study was performed on 360 domestic high school girl students chosen randomly by cluster sampling. Data were gathered through interviews performed by a dietitian to fill 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency and demographic questionnaires. Then we performed the anthropometric measurements and we compared the results with CDC2000 standards. We analyzed our data by N4 food analyzer and SPSS16 software. Results. The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 5% and 10.8%, respectively. Simultaneously, the prevalence of underweight was 20.2%. The prevalence of stunting was 5.8%. We also showed that 50% of high school girls in Ilam suffered from severe food insecurity, 14.7% suffered from mild insecurity, and 4.7% get extra energy from foods. Food analysis showed that micronutrients such as zinc, iron, calcium, folate, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin B12 were less than what is recommended by the RDA. Conclusion. Undernutrition and overnutrition are completely prevalent among girls studied in Ilam. This needs further acts and investigations in the field and more nutritional and health educations. PMID:27403373

  9. Nutritional Status and Anthropometric Indices in High School Girls in Ilam, West Iran.

    PubMed

    Jamalikandazi, Fatemeh; Ranjbar, Elham; Gholami-Parizad, Eskandar; Ghazanfari, Zeinab; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Adolescence is one of the most challenging periods for human growth and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status and anthropometric indices in high school girls in Ilam. Methods. This cross-sectional study was performed on 360 domestic high school girl students chosen randomly by cluster sampling. Data were gathered through interviews performed by a dietitian to fill 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency and demographic questionnaires. Then we performed the anthropometric measurements and we compared the results with CDC2000 standards. We analyzed our data by N4 food analyzer and SPSS16 software. Results. The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 5% and 10.8%, respectively. Simultaneously, the prevalence of underweight was 20.2%. The prevalence of stunting was 5.8%. We also showed that 50% of high school girls in Ilam suffered from severe food insecurity, 14.7% suffered from mild insecurity, and 4.7% get extra energy from foods. Food analysis showed that micronutrients such as zinc, iron, calcium, folate, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin B12 were less than what is recommended by the RDA. Conclusion. Undernutrition and overnutrition are completely prevalent among girls studied in Ilam. This needs further acts and investigations in the field and more nutritional and health educations. PMID:27403373

  10. Within-litter variation in birth weight: impact of nutritional status in the sow*

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Tao-lin; Zhu, Yu-hua; Shi, Meng; Li, Tian-tian; Li, Na; Wu, Guo-yao; Bazer, Fuller W.; Zang, Jian-jun; Wang, Feng-lai; Wang, Jun-jun

    2015-01-01

    Accompanying the beneficial improvement in litter size from genetic selection for high-prolificacy sows, within-litter variation in birth weight has increased with detrimental effects on post-natal growth and survival due to an increase in the proportion of piglets with low birth-weight. Causes of within-litter variation in birth weight include breed characteristics that affect uterine space, ovulation rate, degree of maturation of oocytes, duration of time required for ovulation, interval between ovulation and fertilization, uterine capacity for implantation and placentation, size and efficiency of placental transport of nutrients, communication between conceptus/fetus and maternal systems, as well as nutritional status and environmental influences during gestation. Because these factors contribute to within-litter variation in birth weight, nutritional status of the sow to improve fetal-placental development must focus on the following three important stages in the reproductive cycle: pre-mating or weaning to estrus, early gestation and late gestation. The goal is to increase the homogeneity of development of oocytes and conceptuses, decrease variations in conceptus development during implantation and placentation, and improve birth weights of newborn piglets. Though some progress has been made in nutritional regulation of within-litter variation in the birth weight of piglets, additional studies, with a focus on and insights into molecular mechanisms of reproductive physiology from the aspects of maternal growth and offspring development, as well as their regulation by nutrients provided to the sow, are urgently needed. PMID:26055904

  11. Predictors' factors of nutritional status of male chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    PubMed

    Pirabbasi, Elham; Najafiyan, Mahin; Cheraghi, Maria; Shahar, Suzana; Abdul Manaf, Zahara; Rajab, Norfadilah; Abdul Manap, Roslina

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a systemic disease that leads to weight loss and muscle dysfunction resulting in an increase in mortality. This study aimed to determine the prevalence rate of malnutrition and nutritional status and also factors associated with nutritional status. A total of 149 subjects were involved in the cross-sectional study. The study was conducted at two medical centers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The results of the study showed that malnutrition was more prevalent (52.4%) in the subjects with severe stages of COPD as compared to mild and moderate COPD stages (26.2%) (P < 0.05). Fat-free mass depletion as assessed using fat-free mass index (FFMI) affected 41.9% of the subjects. Plasma vitamin A, peak expiratory flow (PEF), and handgrip were the predictors for body mass index (BMI) (R(2) = 0.190, P < 0.001). Plasma vitamin A and force expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) were the predictors of FFMI (R(2) = 0.082, P = 0.007). BMI was the predictor of respiratory factors, that is, FEV(1)% predicted (R(2) = 0.052, P = 0.011). It can be concluded that there is a need to identify malnourished COPD patients for an appropriate nutrition intervention. PMID:23209935

  12. Impact of cancer, type, site, stage and treatment on the nutritional status of patients

    SciTech Connect

    Bozzeti, F.

    1982-08-01

    This study analyzed the nutritional status of cancer patients in relation to type and site of origin of the tumor, stage of disease, and previous chemical or radiation therapy. The analysis was performed on 321 patients (280 with cancer and 41 controls). The nutritional parameters included per cent of weight loss, anthropometric indices (arm circumference, triceps skinfold, arm muscle circumference), creatinine-height index, serum protein, albumin, total iron binding capacity and cholinesterase, C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ components of complement, total peripheral lymphocytes, and skin tests. The statistical comparison between patients with different tumors and controls, between patients treated with or without previous chemical or radiation therapy led to the following conclusions: (1) malnutrition is mainly related to the type and site of origin of the tumor and, in the early stages of disease, is more pronounced in patients with cancer of the esophagus and stomach; (2) except in patients with breast and cervix cancer, malnutrition gets more severe as the disease becomes advanced; (3) chemical or radiation therapy has a variable impact on the nutritional status, but in selected patients it causes a drop in body weight, arm circumference, arm muscle circumference, and peripheral lymphocytes; (4) body weight, cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity and serum albumin are the most commonly altered parameters.

  13. Study of Serum Levels of Leptin, C-Reactive Protein and Nutritional Status in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Karajibani, Mansour; Hassanpour, Zahra; Pourmofatteh, Mahla

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and decreases appetite. However, the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of hemodialysis (HD)-related malnutrition has not been fully evaluated. Objectives: The aim of study was to investigate the association between the serum leptin levels, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and nutritional status in hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods: This analytical descriptive study included 45 hemodialysis patients and 40 healthy subjects. Biochemical parameters and serum leptin levels were measured. The nutritional status was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the calculation of the body mass index (BMI). Results: Serum leptin (P < 0.05) and albumin (P < 0.0001) levels and BMI (P < 0.001) of HD patients were significantly lower, while CRP levels were significantly higher than those of controls (P < 0.0001). HD patients consumed the lower daily servings of the food groups compared to the control subjects (P < 0.0001). A significant positive correlation between serum levels of leptin and albumin and BMI was demonstrated. No significant correlations were identified between leptin level, CRP level, and other variables. Conclusions: The findings suggest that low levels of leptin may be a contributory factor for malnutrition in HD patients. Further studies are required to ascertain the significance of leptin levels in relation to nutritional factors in hemodialysis patients. PMID:26430525

  14. Dietary Pattern among Schoolchildren with Normal Nutritional Status in Navarre, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    A nutrition survey was carried out (food intake registration of three consecutive school days) in a randomly selected group of 353 schoolchildren (188 males and 165 females) with normal nutritional status. The average age of the surveyed students was 10.5 years (CI 95%: 10.3–11.7). There were no significant differences between both sexes in mean values for calorie intake (males: 2072.7 ± 261.7 and females: 2060.9 ± 250.6) and intake of macronutrients, minerals and vitamins. Cereals (34%), dairy products (19%) and meats (17%) were responsible for approximately 70% of total calorie intake. Protein accounted for 20.3% of energy intake, carbohydrates for 48.8%, total fat for 30.9%, and saturated fat for 12.6%. Cholesterol intake was excessive and over two-thirds of protein intake was from animal sources. The mean intakes of calcium, iodine and Vitamins A, D and E were below recommended levels. The dietary patterns of the schoolchildren with normal nutritional status differed from the Mediterranean diet. Intakes of meat were too high and dairy products and cereals consumption was relatively limited; while that of vegetables; legumes; fruits and fish were insufficient; leading to excessive protein and fat intake from animal sources and insufficient mineral (calcium and iodine) and Vitamins A; D and E intake. PMID:24732017

  15. Urban–rural disparities of child health and nutritional status in China from 1989 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Fang, Hai; Zhao, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes urban–rural disparities of China’s child health and nutritional status using the China Health and Nutrition Survey data from 1989 to 2006. We investigate degrees of health and nutritional disparities between urban and rural children in China as well as how such disparities have changed during the period 1989–2006. The results show that on average urban children have 0.29 higher height-for-age z-scores and 0.19 greater weight-for-age z-scores than rural children. Urban children are approximately 40% less likely to be stunted (OR = 0.62; p < 0.01) or underweight (OR = 0.62; p < 0.05) during the period 1989–2006. We also find that the urban–rural health and nutritional disparities have been declining significantly from 1989 to 2006. Both urban and rural children have increased consumption of high protein and fat foods from 1989 to 2006, but the urban–rural difference decreased over time. Moreover, the urban–rural gap in child preventive health care access was also reduced during this period. PMID:22608863

  16. In-Depth Assessment of the Nutritional Status of Korean American Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Jongeun; Kim, Miyong T.; Han, Hae-Ra

    2009-01-01

    While studies of immigrants have generally indicated significant dietary changes upon immigration that mirror a Western diet, previous data are limited to the dietary patterns and intakes of younger and middle-aged adults. Using a relatively large sample of Korean American elderly (KAE) immigrants, this paper offers an in-depth assessment of the nutritional status of KAE, one of the most rapidly increasing minority populations in the United States. A total of 202 KAE in a metropolitan city on the East coast participated in a comprehensive nutritional survey using 24-hour dietary recall. Despite their spending about 16 years in the U.S., the KAE consumed more than two regular meals in a day which qualified under a Korean food pattern. When compared with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, the average consumption of nutrients reported was generally lower than Americans, with the exception of carbohydrates, vegetable protein, and sodium intakes. Inadequate intakes of calcium, dietary fiber, and folate were notable when examined in comparison to the Dietary Reference Intakes. The findings can help healthcare providers and researchers to design appropriate nutritional education programs to facilitate the adoption of healthier dietary practices in this immigrant population. In particular, future interventions should consider ways to lower sodium intake and increase fruit and vegetable consumption among KAE, while encouraging them to maintain their healthy dietary pattern. PMID:19818265

  17. Anthropometry and body composition in the perspective of nutritional status in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Chumlea, W C; Baumgartner, R N; Vellas, B P

    1991-01-01

    Understanding normal changes in the body's composition with old age and their health and nutritional implications is important in determining the nutritional status of the elderly. Suitable reference data for anthropometry and body composition obtained from large representative samples of black, white, Hispanic, and Asian elderly persons are needed to improve their nutritional health and care. Distribution statistics for body measurements of persons 65 to 80 years of age are available from national health and nutrition surveys, but for persons older than 80 years, there is little information. Recumbent anthropometric techniques have been developed that are applicable. Underwater weighing continues to be a gold standard for determining body composition in the elderly, but a four-compartment model would improve estimates of body composition in the elderly because of changes in the density of the fat-free mass with old age. Noninvasive methods such as anthropometry and bioelectric impedance could be used to predict body composition if they were validated against direct methods and if appropriate equations become available. PMID:1802188

  18. INH and streptomycin in Ethiopian children with tuberculosis and different nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, M; Bolme, P; Habte, D; Paalzow, L

    1988-11-01

    The plasma concentration of INH and streptomycin was followed in 45 Ethiopian children with tuberculosis. The children were grouped according to their nutritional status as normal, underweight, marasm and kwashiorkor. INH was well absorbed in all nutritional groups to give therapeutically active plasma levels. When terminal half life (t1/2) of INH was calculated for individual patients there were more children in all nutritional groups with t1/2 greater than or equal to 2 hours than less than 2 hours, indicating a slow acetylation of INH. Streptomycin was well absorbed in all nutritional groups and therapeutic levels were obtained with 20 mg/kg i.m. After 30 mg/kg i.m. of streptomycin kwashiorkor children had an increased t1/2 of streptomycin indicating a decreased renal excretion of the drug in kwashiorkor. The clinical follow-up of the children indicated that serious tuberculosis could be successfully treated with INH and streptomycin in the doses used. PMID:3144828

  19. Stents in patients with esophageal cancer before chemoradiotherapy: high risk of complications and no impact on the nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Mão-de-Ferro, S; Serrano, M; Ferreira, S; Rosa, I; Lage, P; Alexandre, D P; Freire, J; Mirones, L; Casaca, R; Bettencourt, A; Pereira, A D

    2016-03-01

    Preoperative chemoradiotherapy is the standard of care for locally advanced esophageal cancer, causing persistent deterioration in the nutritional status. We performed a prospective study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of esophageal double-covered self-expandable metal stents in patients with esophageal cancer before chemoradiotherapy. The nutritional status and dysphagia were prospectively recorded. Eleven patients were included: eight were moderate and three were severely malnourished. After stent placement, dysphagia improved in all patients. With regard to complications, one patient developed an esophageal perforation that required urgent esophagectomy. Four patients presented stent migration. Three of these patients required enteral nutrition and none was submitted to surgery because of poor nutritional status. Of the other six patients, only four were operated upon. Stent placement presented a high complication rate and did not prevent weight loss or malnutrition. Other alternatives, including naso-gastric tube placement or endoscopic percutaneous gastrostomy or jejunostomy, should be considered. PMID:26669568

  20. Mid-upper arm circumference is associated with biochemically determined nutritional status indicators among adolescent girls in Central Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Kulathinal, Sangita; Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Ismael, Carina; Mutanen, Marja

    2016-08-01

    Biochemically determined nutritional status measurements in low-income countries are often too expensive. Therefore, we hypothesized that some anthropometrical or functional measurements (handgrip) could reflect nutritional status measured by specific biochemical indicators. We did a population-based study from 1 urban area and 2 rural districts in Zambézia Province of Mozambique. The participants (n=386) were non-pregnant adolescent girls between 15 and 18 years of age. 96% had a normal BMI-for-age score. Weight and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) were highly correlated (r>0.8) with each other and with total body muscle mass, body mass index (BMI), and with waist circumference, as well as with skinfolds (r>0.6). Upper and total arm lengths were correlated (r>0.7) with height and with each other, and right and left handgrip were correlated only with each other, as were triceps and subscapular skinfolds (r>0.7). Serum albumin correlated negatively with waist circumference (P<.001) and positively with MUAC (P=.007). Stepwise regressions showed that waist circumference, MUAC, weight, and handgrip were important nutritional status indicators in the models using hemoglobin, serum albumin, ferritin, zinc, and plasma retinol concentrations as dependent variables. MUAC could be a valuable anthropometric marker of the overall nutritional status of adolescent girls in low-income countries. When nutrition transition proceeds, waist circumference together with MUAC could form tools for the prediction of worsening of nutritional status. PMID:27440538

  1. Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

  2. Nutritional status of Carcinus maenas (Crustacea: Decapoda) influences susceptibility to contaminant exposure.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, Awantha; Galloway, Tamara S; Jones, Malcolm B

    2008-08-11

    Using the shore crab Carcinus maenas as a model, this study tested the hypothesis that nutritional status influences susceptibility of adult crabs (>60mm carapace width (CW)) to environmental contamination. In the laboratory, crabs were either starved, given a restricted diet (fed on alternate days) or fully fed (fed each day). In addition, crabs under each feeding regime were exposed to a sublethal concentration (200microgl(-1)) of pyrene (PYR) as a model organic (PAH (polyaromatic hydrocarbon)) contaminant. Various physiological end points were measured after 7 and 14 days. Results indicated that adult shore crab physiology was relatively robust to short-term (7 days) nutritional changes as multivariate analysis (ANOSIM) showed no significant difference in shore crab physiological condition between control and pyrene-exposed crabs, irrespective of dietary feeding regime [Global R=0.018, P (%)=19.2]. After 14 days, however, starved crabs showed significant impacts to physiological condition (as revealed by multivariate analysis) [Global R=0.134, P (%)=0.1], [R=0.209, P (%)=0.1]; starved individuals had significantly lower antioxidant status (F(2,48)=5.35, P<0.01) compared to crabs under both types of feeding regime. Exposure to pyrene resulted in significantly elevated pyrene metabolite concentrations in the urine at 7 and 14 days compared with control individuals (P<0.001), validating contaminant bioavailability, and this was found for all dietary treatments. Also, exposed crabs had significantly increased protein levels (proteinuria) than controls (P<0.001) in their urine after 7 and 14 days, irrespective of dietary regime. After 7 days, pyrene-exposed crabs showed significantly increased antioxidant status (P<0.001) and cellular functioning (increased cellular viability and decreased phagocytosis) (P<0.001) compared to control crabs; however, after 14 days, antioxidant status (P<0.01) and cellular viability (P<0.001) were significantly decreased in pyrene

  3. Health-Care Costs, Glycemic Control and Nutritional Status in Malnourished Older Diabetics Treated with a Hypercaloric Diabetes-Specific Enteral Nutritional Formula

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Paris, Alejandro; Boj-Carceller, Diana; Lardies-Sanchez, Beatriz; Perez-Fernandez, Leticia; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes-specific formulas are an effective alternative for providing nutrients and maintaining glycemic control. This study assesses the effect of treatment with an oral enteral nutrition with a hypercaloric diabetes-specific formula (HDSF) for one year, on health-care resources use, health-care costs, glucose control and nutritional status, in 93 type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) malnourished patients. Changes in health-care resources use and health-care costs were collected the year before and during the year of intervention. Glucose status and nutritional laboratory parameters were analyzed at baseline and one-year after the administration of HDSF. The administration of HDSF was significantly associated with a reduced use of health-care resources, fewer hospital admissions (54.7%; p < 0.001), days spent at hospital (64.1%; p < 0.001) and emergency visits (57.7%; p < 0.001). Health-care costs were reduced by 65.6% (p < 0.001) during the intervention. Glycemic control (short- and long-term) and the need of pharmacological treatment did not change, while some nutritional parameters were improved at one year (albumin: +10.6%, p < 0.001; hemoglobin: +6.4%, p = 0.026). In conclusion, using HDSF in malnourished older type-2 diabetic patients may allow increasing energy intake while maintaining glucose control and improving nutritional parameters. The use of health-care resources and costs were significantly reduced during the nutritional intervention. PMID:27005661

  4. Health-Care Costs, Glycemic Control and Nutritional Status in Malnourished Older Diabetics Treated with a Hypercaloric Diabetes-Specific Enteral Nutritional Formula.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Paris, Alejandro; Boj-Carceller, Diana; Lardies-Sanchez, Beatriz; Perez-Fernandez, Leticia; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes-specific formulas are an effective alternative for providing nutrients and maintaining glycemic control. This study assesses the effect of treatment with an oral enteral nutrition with a hypercaloric diabetes-specific formula (HDSF) for one year, on health-care resources use, health-care costs, glucose control and nutritional status, in 93 type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) malnourished patients. Changes in health-care resources use and health-care costs were collected the year before and during the year of intervention. Glucose status and nutritional laboratory parameters were analyzed at baseline and one-year after the administration of HDSF. The administration of HDSF was significantly associated with a reduced use of health-care resources, fewer hospital admissions (54.7%; p < 0.001), days spent at hospital (64.1%; p < 0.001) and emergency visits (57.7%; p < 0.001). Health-care costs were reduced by 65.6% (p < 0.001) during the intervention. Glycemic control (short- and long-term) and the need of pharmacological treatment did not change, while some nutritional parameters were improved at one year (albumin: +10.6%, p < 0.001; hemoglobin: +6.4%, p = 0.026). In conclusion, using HDSF in malnourished older type-2 diabetic patients may allow increasing energy intake while maintaining glucose control and improving nutritional parameters. The use of health-care resources and costs were significantly reduced during the nutritional intervention. PMID:27005661

  5. From Wasting to Obesity: The Contribution of Nutritional Status to Immune Activation in HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Koethe, John R; Heimburger, Douglas C; PrayGod, George; Filteau, Suzanne

    2016-10-01

    The impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on innate and adaptive immune activation occurs in the context of host factors, which serve to augment or dampen the physiologic response to the virus. Independent of HIV infection, nutritional status, particularly body composition, affects innate immune activation through a variety of conditions, including reduced mucosal barrier defenses and microbiome dysbiosis in malnutrition and the proinflammatory contribution of adipocytes and stromal vascular cells in obesity. Similarly, T-cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine expression are reduced in the setting of malnutrition and increased in obesity, potentially due to adipokine regulatory mechanisms restraining energy-avid adaptive immunity in times of starvation and exerting a paradoxical effect in overnutrition. The response to HIV infection is situated within these complex interactions between host nutritional health and immunologic function, which contribute to the varied phenotypes of immune activation among HIV-infected patients across a spectrum from malnutrition to obesity. PMID:27625434

  6. Nutritional status of refugee children entering DeKalb County, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ankoor Y; Suchdev, Parminder S; Mitchell, Tarissa; Shetty, Sharmila; Warner, Catherine; Oladele, Alawode; Reines, Susan

    2014-10-01

    This study determines the nutritional status among refugee children entering one of the largest resettlement counties in the United States and identifies differences between incoming populations. Medical records of all newly arriving pediatric refugees (0-18 years) entering DeKalb County, Georgia between October 2010 and July 2011 were reviewed. Refugee children were grouped as African, Bhutanese, or Burmese (resettling from either Thailand or Malaysia) for comparative analysis. Approximately one in five refugees were anemic or malnourished, while a quarter had stool parasites, and nearly half had dental caries. African refugees had the highest anemia but the lowest underweight prevalence (p < 0.05). Compared to Burmese resettling from Malaysia, Burmese children from Thailand had a higher prevalence of anemia, underweight, and stool parasites (p < 0.05). Clinicians should use CDC medical screening guidelines for newly arriving pediatric refugees, as well as ensure proper nutritional support and follow-up care. PMID:23828627

  7. Health and disease: exploring the relation between parasitic infections, child nutrition status, and markets.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Susan

    2014-10-01

    Research in bioarchaeology and among living people provides insight into the biological and biocultural consequences of subsistence, political, and economic transitions. Central to this effort is examining infectious disease, such as diarrheal disease, respiratory infections, and parasitic infections because they are an important source of nutritional and energetic stress in both past and current groups. Although infection may not always result in overt disease, frequent exposure results in biological stress with a negative effect on child growth and, by extension, health. The goal of this article is to examine the association between a common class of infectious disease, soil-transmitted helminth worms, and nutritional status among youth living in communities that vary with respect to their distance from a commercial center. In 2007, anthropometric measurements and parasitological surveys were collected for 338 2-14-year-old children and adolescents living in lowland Bolivia as part of the Tsimane' Amazonian Panel Study. Associations between the presence of helminth infections and markers of both short- and long-term nutritional status were overall weak. Youth living in communities distant from the commercial center were more likely to be positive for multiple parasite species than youth in near communities, but youth in mid-distance communities had lower infection rates. This article demonstrates the challenge of identifying associations between nutritional and disease stress when individual and household factors are nested in a larger context of socioeconomic and environmental change. Increased collaboration between bioarchaeology and human biology should continue to examine the connections between stress and disease across time. PMID:25059318

  8. Arsenicosis and its relationship with nutritional status in two arsenic affected areas of West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samal, Alok Chandra; Kar, Sandeep; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Santra, Subhas Chandra

    2013-11-01

    Incidence of chronic arsenicosis in the lower Gangetic plain has led to intensive research on arsenic (As) contamination in groundwater and potential health crisis associated with exposure to groundwater As. Arsenic toxicity of local inhabitants and their nutritional status were investigated in two As affected villages (Nonaghata and Doulatpur) of West Bengal, India. Population-based case study on randomly selected subjects was used to assess chronic As exposure through medical evaluation and individual health survey. Groundwater As concentrations were found as high as 870 μg/L and 1752 μg/L in Nonaghata and Doulatpur respectively at a depth 50-100 ft. In Nonaghata, 26.7% of people (among 385 surveyed) showed dermatological manifestation and As skin lesions were dominant in age group of 15-30 and 30-45 years old. In both the age groups, cases of melanosis were higher (22.5% and 31.5%) compared to keratosis (15.4% and 12.5%). In Doulatpur 27.4% of people (among 440 surveyed) was found with dermatological manifestations and As skin lesions were dominant in age group of 15-30 and 30-45 years old. Cases of melanosis are higher (27.2% and 31.4%) compared to keratosis (10.8% and 30.7%) in these two age groups. Assessment on calories intake (mainly carbohydrate and protein) by local inhabitants showed that 67.5% and 66.8% people of these two villages belongs to poor nutrition. Assessment of odds ratios (OR) suggested that the stronger associations were with low nutrition which may increase susceptibility to arsenical skin lesions. Thus it is a matter of concern that nutritional status may be an important factor causing prevalence of As toxicity among local inhabitants.

  9. Associations of Prenatal Growth with Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Resistance, and Nutritional Status in Chilean Children

    PubMed Central

    Mardones, Francisco; Arnaiz, Pilar; Pacheco, Paz; Dominguez, Angelica; Villarroel, Luis; Eriksson, Johan G.; Barja, Salesa; Farías, Marcelo; Castillo, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The association of prenatal growth with nutritional status, metabolic syndrome (MS), and insulin resistance (IR) was studied in school-age children. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was designed linking present data of children with perinatal records. 3325 subjects were enrolled. Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP), and pubertal status were assessed. Blood lipids, glucose, and insulin were measured. Linear associations were assessed using the Cochran-Armitage test. Odds ratios and nonlinear associations were computed. Results. 3290 children (52% females, mean age of 11.4 ± 1 years) were analyzed. Prevalence of obesity, stunting, MS, and IR was 16.0%, 3.6%, 7.3%, and 25.5%, respectively. The strongest positive association was between birth weight (BW) and obesity (OR 2.97 (95% CI 2.01–4.40) at BW ≥ 4,000 g compared to BW 2,500–2,999). The strongest inverse association was between birth length (BL) and stunting (OR 8.70 (95% CI 3.66–20.67) at BL < 48 cm compared to BL 52-53 cm). A U-shaped association between BL and BP ≥ 90th percentile was observed. Significant ORs were also found for MS and IR. Adjustments for present fat mass increased or maintained the most prenatal growth influences. Conclusions. Prenatal growth influences MS, IR, and nutritional status. Prenatal growth was more important than present body composition in determining these outcomes. PMID:25025054

  10. Circulating Irisin Levels Are Not Regulated by Nutritional Status, Obesity, or Leptin Levels in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Quiñones, Mar; Folgueira, Cintia; Sánchez-Rebordelo, Estrella; Al-Massadi, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Irisin is a cleaved and secreted fragment of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) that is mainly released by skeletal muscle and was proposed to mediate the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism. In the present study we aim to investigate the regulation of the circulating levels of irisin in obese animal models (diet-induced obese (DIO) rats and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice), as well as the influence of nutritional status and leptin. Irisin levels were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Radioimmunoassay (RIA). Serum irisin levels remained unaltered in DIO rats and ob/ob mice. Moreover, its circulating levels were also unaffected by fasting, leptin deficiency, and exogenous leptin administration in rodents. In spite of these negative results we find a negative correlation between irisin and insulin in DIO animals and a positive correlation between irisin and glucose under short-term changes in nutritional status. Our findings indicate that serum irisin levels are not modulated by different physiological settings associated to alterations in energy homeostasis. These results suggest that in rodents circulating levels of irisin are not involved in the pathophysiology of obesity and could be unrelated to metabolic status; however, further studies should clarify its precise role in states of glucose homeostasis imbalance. PMID:26568663

  11. Interactions between C-Reactive Protein Genotypes with Markers of Nutritional Status in Relation to Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Nienaber-Rousseau, Cornelie; Swanepoel, Bianca; Dolman, Robin C.; Pieters, Marlien; Conradie, Karin R.; Towers, G. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation, as indicated by C-reactive protein concentrations (CRP), is a risk factor for chronic diseases. Both genetic and environmental factors affect susceptibility to inflammation. As dietary interventions can influence inflammatory status, we hypothesized that dietary effects could be influenced by interactions with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRP gene. We determined 12 CRP SNPs, as well as various nutrition status markers in 2010 black South Africans and analyzed their effect on CRP. Interactions were observed for several genotypes with obesity in determining CRP. Lipid intake modulated the pro-inflammatory effects of some SNPs, i.e., an increase in both saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid intake in those homozygous for the polymorphic allele at rs2808630 was associated with a larger increase in CRP. Those harboring the minor alleles at rs3093058 and rs3093062 presented with significantly higher CRP in the presence of increased triglyceride or cholesterol intake. When harboring the minor allele of these SNPs, a high omega-6 to -3 ratio was, however, found to be anti-inflammatory. Carbohydrate intake also modulated CRP SNPs, as HbA1C and fasting glucose levels interacted with some SNPs to influence the CRP. This investigation highlights the impact that nutritional status can have on reducing the inherent genetic susceptibility to a heightened systemic inflammatory state. PMID:25393688

  12. Interactions between C-reactive protein genotypes with markers of nutritional status in relation to inflammation.

    PubMed

    Nienaber-Rousseau, Cornelie; Swanepoel, Bianca; Dolman, Robin C; Pieters, Marlien; Conradie, Karin R; Towers, G Wayne

    2014-11-01

    Inflammation, as indicated by C-reactive protein concentrations (CRP), is a risk factor for chronic diseases. Both genetic and environmental factors affect susceptibility to inflammation. As dietary interventions can influence inflammatory status, we hypothesized that dietary effects could be influenced by interactions with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRP gene. We determined 12 CRP SNPs, as well as various nutrition status markers in 2010 black South Africans and analyzed their effect on CRP. Interactions were observed for several genotypes with obesity in determining CRP. Lipid intake modulated the pro-inflammatory effects of some SNPs, i.e., an increase in both saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid intake in those homozygous for the polymorphic allele at rs2808630 was associated with a larger increase in CRP. Those harboring the minor alleles at rs3093058 and rs3093062 presented with significantly higher CRP in the presence of increased triglyceride or cholesterol intake. When harboring the minor allele of these SNPs, a high omega-6 to -3 ratio was, however, found to be anti-inflammatory. Carbohydrate intake also modulated CRP SNPs, as HbA1C and fasting glucose levels interacted with some SNPs to influence the CRP. This investigation highlights the impact that nutritional status can have on reducing the inherent genetic susceptibility to a heightened systemic inflammatory state. PMID:25393688

  13. Mothers’ conceptions about excess weight in infancy and the nutritional status of their children

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Janaína Paula Costa; Sarubbi Junior, Vicente; Nascimento, Viviane Gabriela; Bertoli, Ciro João; Gallo, Paulo Rogério; Leone, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze maternal conceptions about excess weight in infancy and the nutritional status of their preschool-aged children. METHODS: A mixed, exploratory study was performed using semi-structured interviews. Two study groups were defined: a group of 16 mothers of children with excess weight and a group of 15 mothers of eutrophic children. The interviews were submitted to content analysis using CHIC software (Classification Hiérarchique Implicative et Cohésitive®). RESULTS: The mothers of children with excess weight tended to conceive thin children as malnourished, while those of normal weight children emphasized the influence of family and genetics as determinants of a child’s nutritional status. Although there was a certain consensus among the mothers that an unhealthy diet contributes to the risk of a child developing excess weight, the concept of genetics as a determinant of a child’s nutritional status was also present in the dialogue from the mothers of both groups. This result indicates a lack of clarity regarding the influence of eating behavior and family lifestyle on weight gain and the formation of a child’s eating habits. Both groups indicated that the mother has a decisive role in the eating habits of her child; however, the mothers of children with excess weight did not seem to take ownership of this concept when addressing the care of their own children. CONCLUSION: Differences in conceptions, including taking ownership of care, may contribute to the development of excess weight in preschool-aged children.

  14. [Influence of helminthic infections and nutritional status on immune response in Venezuelan children].

    PubMed

    Ortiz, D; Afonso, C; Hagel, I; Rodriguez, O; Ortiz, C; Palenque, M; Lynch, N R

    2000-09-01

    We investigated the influence of nutritional status, as determined from anthropometric measurement, and of helminthic infections on the immune response of children of low socioeconomic status in two rural communities in Venezuela: El Cardón in the state of Nueva Esparta and San Daniel in the state of Miranda. A total of 125 boys and girls between 2 and 15 years old participated in the study. Their socioeconomic stratum was determined by a modified Graffar method. A physical examination was performed, as was also an anthropometric evaluation that took into account three indicators--weight-for-height, weight-for-age, and height-for-age--according to parameters established by the World Health Organization. Other examinations included feces, secretory IgA in saliva, total serum IgE, and anti-Ascaris-specific immunoglobulins. The children in both of the communities were in strata IV and V of the of Graffar scale, with a significantly greater number of stratum V inhabitants in San Daniel (P < 0.001). The results suggest that exposure level and individual susceptibility to the parasites are determining factors in parasitic infection and immune system behavior. The intensity of the parasitic burden plays an important role in stimulating polyclonal IgE, which diminishes the effectiveness of the specific response to those infections. On the other hand, nutritional deficiencies could change the immune mechanisms of the mucous membranes, negatively influence the synthesis of secretory IgA, and stimulate the production of polyclonal IgE. Poor sanitary and socioeconomic conditions promote more exposure to gastrointestinal parasites and a deficient nutritional status, which modulates the immune response and affects serum IgE and secretory IgA production mechanisms. PMID:11036425

  15. Nutritional status and clinical outcome of children on continuous renal replacement therapy: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background No studies on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) have analyzed nutritional status in children. The objective of this study was to assess the association between mortality and nutritional status of children receiving CRRT. Methods Prospective observational study to analyze the nutritional status of children receiving CRRT and its association with mortality. The variables recorded were age, weight, sex, diagnosis, albumin, creatinine, urea, uric acid, severity of illness scores, CRRT-related complications, duration of admission to the pediatric intensive care unit, and mortality. Results The sample comprised 174 critically ill children on CRRT. The median weight of the patients was 10 kg, 35% were under percentile (P) 3, and 56% had a weight/P50 ratio of less than 0.85. Only two patients were above P95. The mean age for patients under P3 was significantly lower than that of the other patients (p = 0.03). The incidence of weight under P3 was greater in younger children (p = 0.007) and in cardiac patients and in those who had previous chronic renal insufficiency (p = 0.047). The mortality analysis did not include patients with pre-existing renal disease. Mortality was 38.9%. Mortality for patients with weight < P3 was greater than that of children with weight > P3 (51% vs 33%; p = 0.037). In the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, the only factor associated with mortality was protein-energy wasting (malnutrition) (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.067-4.173; p = 0.032). Conclusions The frequency of protein-energy wasting in children who require CRRT is high, and the frequency of obesity is low. Protein-energy wasting is more frequent in children with previous end-stage renal disease and heart disease. Underweight children present a higher mortality rate than patients with normal body weight. PMID:23016957

  16. Dietary intake and nutritional status of HIV-1-infected children and adolescents in Florianopolis, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hillesheim, Elaine; Lima, Luiz R A; Silva, Rosane C R; Trindade, Erasmo B S M

    2014-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the nutritional status and dietary intake of HIV-infected children and adolescents and the relationship between nutritional status and dietary intake and CD4(+) T-cell count and viral load. The sample was composed of 49 subjects aged 7-17 years and living in Florianópolis, Brazil. Nutritional status was assessed by height-for-age and body mass index-for-age. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Spearman correlations and multiple linear regressions were used to determine the relationship between energy, nutrient intake and body mass index-for-age and CD4(+) T-cell count and viral load. The mean body mass index-for-age and height-for-age values were -0.26 ± 0.86 and -0.56 ± 0.92, respectively. The energy intake was 50.8% above the estimated energy requirement and inadequate intake of polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol, fibre, calcium and vitamin C was present in 100%, 57.1%, 40.8%, 61.2% and 26.5% of the sample, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that energy intake was correlated with CD4+ T-cell count (r = 0.33; p = 0.028) and viral load (r = -0.35; p = 0.019). These data showed low body mass index-for-age and height-for-age z-scores, high energy intake and inadequate intake of important nutrients for immune function, growth and control of chronic diseases. A lower energy intake was correlated with viral suppression and immune preservation. PMID:24352121

  17. Nutritional status and food intake in human immunodeficiency virus infection. GI/HIV Study Group.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, S J; Sharkey, K A; Sutherland, L R; Church, D L

    1992-01-01

    Nutritional status and food intake of HIV+ and HIV- homosexual men that were free from enteric pathogens were compared. Food intake (7-day weighed record), anthropometry, and D-xylose excretion were measured in 44 patients (9 HIV-, 35 HIV+). HIV+ patients were found to be thinner, based on anthropometric measurements of skinfold thickness (p < 0.05) and percentage body fat (p < 0.05), and they also tended to be lighter than the HIV- patients. No differences were observed in the arm muscle mass or the food intake of the two groups. In the HIV+ patients, regression analysis was used to correlate changes in nutritional status with progression of the disease, using CD4+ lymphocyte count as a measure of severity. A decrease in CD4 count positively correlated with a decrease in weight (r = 0.48, p < 0.01), body mass index (r = 0.41, p < 0.05), and arm muscle area (r = 0.42, p < 0.01). Energy intake (r = 0.67, p < 0.01), serum albumin (r = 0.52, p < 0.01), and D-xylose excretion (r = 0.57, p < 0.0001) also positively correlated with CD4 count. Multiple regression analysis revealed a relationship between CD4 count, weight, and energy intake, indicating that as the disease progresses, a decline in weight is seen parallel to a reduction in food intake. These data indicate that changes in body composition and nutritional status are present throughout the stages of HIV disease, though no causal relationships can be interpreted from this study. The initial changes appear to be due to loss of fat stores, as determined by anthropometry.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1357153

  18. Protein supply and nutritional status in nineteenth century Bavaria, Prussia and France.

    PubMed

    Baten, Joerg

    2009-07-01

    What determined regional height differences in the 19th century? We compare anthropometric evidence with production estimates of different food products and other economic variables. To this end, we concentrate on 179 rural regions and 29 towns in Bavaria (Southeast Germany). This regionally disaggregated level of analysis enables us to study the influence of the local supply of different food products on the nutritional status of the population, among which milk turned out particularly important. This result is tested and confirmed with regional data from Prussia and France. PMID:19285929

  19. Factors associated with the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Miglioli, Teresa Cristina; Fonseca, Vania Matos; Gomes, Saint Clair; da Silva, Katia Silveira; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Batista, Malaquias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if the nutritional status of children aged less than five years is related to the biological conditions of their mothers, environmental and socioeconomic factors, and access to health services and social programs. METHODS This cross-sectional population-based study analyzed 664 mothers and 790 children using canonical correlation analysis. Dependent variables were characteristics of the children (weight/age, height/age, BMI/age, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels). Independent variables were those related to the mothers’ nutritional status (BMI, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels), age, environmental and socioeconomic factors and access to health service and social programs. A < 0.05 significance level was adopted to select the interpreted canonical functions (CF) and ± 0.40 as canonical load value of the analyzed variables. RESULTS Three canonical functions were selected, concentrating 89.9% of the variability of the relationship among the groups. In the first canonical function, weight/age (-0.73) and height/age (-0.99) of the children were directly related to the mother’s height (-0.82), prenatal appointments (-0.43), geographical area of the residence (-0.41), and household income per capita (-0.42). Inverse relationship between the variables related to the children and people/room (0.44) showed that the larger the number of people/room, the poorer their nutritional status. Rural residents were found to have the worse nutritional conditions. In the second canonical function, the BMI of the mother (-0.48) was related to BMI/age and retinol of the children, indicating that as women gained weight so did their children. Underweight women tended to have children with vitamin A deficiency. In the third canonical function, hemoglobin (-0.72) and retinol serum levels (-0.40) of the children were directly related to the mother’s hemoglobin levels (-0.43). CONCLUSIONS Mothers and children were associated concerning anemia, vitamin A

  20. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... you would like to see a registered dietitian nutritionist for nutritional guidance when you have lung cancer. ... seek out the expertise of a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) who works with lung cancer patients. This ...

  1. Relaxation: its effect on the nutritional status and performance status of clients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D F; Dixon, J K; Sanderford, L D; Denicola, M A

    1984-02-01

    Relaxation was used to promote normal food consumption patterns among persons with cancer. As part of a larger study, 22 persons with cancer were randomly assigned to receive instruction and reinforcement in a relaxation technique to be used preprandially. The relaxation procedure included four components: (a) deep abdominal breathing, (b) tensing and relaxing of various body parts, (c) relaxation by autosuggestion, and (d) voluntary image control. Twelve clients complied with relaxation instructions in part, and 10 did not. Among compliers, 75% experienced desirable weight change over a six-week period. Performance status, measured by the Karnofsky scale, improved for 33% and worsened for 17% over eight weeks. Research has shown relaxation to be an effective measure in relation to pain, hypertension, and other conditions. These preliminary results now suggest that relaxation may also be effective in treating the eating problems of the person with cancer, leading to improvement in weight and performance status. PMID:6363490

  2. Nutritional status of urban adolescents: individual, household and neighborhood factors based on data from The BH Health Study.

    PubMed

    Bispo, Stephanie; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Xavier, César Coelho; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight in young people suggests that adolescent nutritional status is influenced by environmental factors. Using hierarchical modelling, this study aimed to analyse the association between individual, household and neighborhood factors and adolescent nutritional status and well-being. The study used data from a population-based household survey conducted in Belo Horizonte, the capital of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Data was obtained from an adult and adolescent in each household using a confidential questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Adolescent nutritional status was evaluated using multinomial regression analysis considering distal and proximal influences. The prevalence of overweight and thinness among the sample of 1,030 adolescents was 21.9% and 4.6%, respectively. Although variables from all blocks remained in the final model, head of household education level, family habits and family nutritional status were shown to strongly influence adolescent nutritional status. New approaches to public health are needed which focus on raising awareness and promoting health education targeting teenagers and their social context. PMID:26648377

  3. Accelerating improvements in nutritional and health status of young children in the Sahel region of Sub-Saharan Africa: review of international guidelines on infant and young child feeding and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Wuehler, Sara E; Hess, Sonja Y; Brown, Kenneth H

    2011-04-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child holds governments responsible to ensure children's right to the highest attainable standard of health by providing breastfeeding support, and access to nutritious foods, appropriate health care, and clean drinking water. International experts have identified key child care practices and programmatic activities that are proven to be effective at reducing infant and young child undernutrition, morbidity, and mortality. Nevertheless, progress towards reducing the prevalence of undernutrition has been sporadic across countries of the Sahel sub-region of Sub-Saharan Africa. In view of this uneven progress, a working group of international agencies was convened to 'Reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel.' The first step towards this goal was to organize a situational analysis of the legislative, research, and programmatic activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN) in six countries of the sub-region: Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Senegal. The purposes of this introductory paper are to review current information concerning the nutritional and health status of infants and young children in the Sahel and to summarize international guidelines on optimal IYCN practices. These guidelines were used in completing the above-mentioned situational analyses and encompass specific recommendations on: (i) breastfeeding (introduction within the first hour after birth, exclusivity to 6 months, continuation to at least 24 months); (ii) complementary feeding (introduction at 6 months, use of nutrient dense foods, adequate frequency and consistency, and responsive feeding); (iii) prevention and/or treatment of micronutrient deficiencies (vitamin A, zinc, iron and anaemia, and iodine); (iv) prevention and/or treatment of acute malnutrition; (v) feeding practices adapted to the maternal situation to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV; (vi) activities to ensure food

  4. Nutritional status in relation to lifestyle in patients with compensated viral cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Fumikazu; Momoki, Chika; Yuikawa, Miho; Simotani, Yuko; Kawamura, Etsushi; Hagihara, Atsushi; Fujii, Hideki; Kobayashi, Sawako; Iwai, Shuji; Morikawa, Hiroyasu; Enomoto, Masaru; Tamori, Akihiro; Kawada, Norifumi; Ohfuji, Satoko; Fukusima, Wakaba; Habu, Daiki

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess the nourishment status and lifestyle of non-hospitalized patients with compensated cirrhosis by using noninvasive methods. METHODS: The subjects for this study consisted of 27 healthy volunteers, 59 patients with chronic viral hepatitis, and 74 patients with viral cirrhosis, from urban areas. We assessed the biochemical blood tests, anthropometric parameters, diet, lifestyle and physical activity of the patients. A homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value of ≥ 2.5 was considered to indicate insulin resistance. We measured height, weight, waist circumference, arm circumference, triceps skin-fold thickness, and handgrip strength, and calculated body mass index, arm muscle circumference (AMC), and arm muscle area (AMA). We interviewed the subjects about their dietary habits and lifestyle using health assessment computer software. We surveyed daily physical activity using a pedometer. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression modeling were used to identify the relevant factors for insulin resistance. RESULTS: The rate of patients with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 (which was considered to indicate insulin resistance) was 14 (35.9%) in the chronic hepatitis and 17 (37.8%) in the cirrhotic patients. AMC (%) (control vs chronic hepatitis, 111.9% ± 10.5% vs 104.9% ± 10.7%, P = 0.021; control vs cirrhosis, 111.9% ± 10.5% vs 102.7% ± 10.8%, P = 0.001) and AMA (%) (control vs chronic hepatitis, 128.2% ± 25.1% vs 112.2% ± 22.9%, P = 0.013; control vs cirrhosis, 128.2% ± 25.1% vs 107.5% ± 22.5%, P = 0.001) in patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis were significantly lower than in the control subjects. Handgrip strength (%) in the cirrhosis group was significantly lower than in the controls (control vs cirrhosis, 92.1% ± 16.2% vs 66.9% ± 17.6%, P < 0.001). The results might reflect a decrease in muscle mass. The total nutrition intake and amounts of carbohydrates, protein and fat were not significantly different amongst the

  5. The Role of Nutrition in Health Status after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Refka E.; Gorgey, Ashraf S.; Janisko, Milissa; Dolbow, David R; Moore, Jewel R.; Gater, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition is the process in which growth, repair, and maintenance of the body are accomplished by consuming and utilizing food substances. A proper diet must be ingested to ensure the right amount of nutrition is delivered to sustain appropriate physiological mechanisms. Knowledge of the basic constituent of dietary intake is essential for several of health related variables. Poor diet negatively affects overall health which can lead to obesity and can cause many types of diseases including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, etc. Our research group has previously invested in studying the adaptations in body composition following spinal cord injury (SCI) and how regional as well as total adipose tissue distribution may negatively influence the metabolic profile in this population. Little is known about the role of nutrition following SCI and it is unclear how it impacts body composition and the metabolic profile. The purpose of this mini-review is to summarize the available evidence on how macronutrient components (carbohydrate, fat and protein) impact health status after SCI. We hope as an outcome of this work to stimulate further research in this area to expand the knowledge on how to properly design dietary interventions that suit the adaptations following SCI. PMID:23423356

  6. Pathways to the impairment of human nutritional status by gastrointestinal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W

    1993-01-01

    Gastrointestinal pathogens are of three varieties, those that can, and often do, take the life of the host, those that infect transiently and rarely are life-threatening, and those (parasites) that establish a relatively prolonged residence or colonization of the host's alimentary tract. In the case of the second form, if infections are recurrent, both catabolic effects during the episode and failure to digest foods and/or absorb nutrients results. Similarly, catabolic wastage through activation of the acute phase response, and interference with the host's acquisition of nutrients by maldigestion, malabsorption, intestinal losses and competition with the parasite burden can impair growth and nutrition with helminthic infections. Growth and nutrition with respect to all of the macronutrients and virtually all of the micronutrients have been documented to be adversely affected by gastrointestinal pathogens. For its burgeoning importance as a worldwide health problem, both with the HIV virus as a direct intestinal pathogen and with the opportunistic gut infections occurring in the immunocompromised host, AIDS represents the emerging context of the impairment of nutritional status by intestinal pathogens. PMID:8115184

  7. Fistuloclysis Improves Liver Function and Nutritional Status in Patients with High-Output Upper Enteric Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yin; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Zhou, Bo; Ding, Chao; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Liu, Song; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Background. We aimed to determine the efficacy of fistuloclysis in patients with high-output upper enteric fistula (EF). Methods. Patients were assigned into the fistuloclysis group (n = 35, receiving fistuloclysis plus total enteral nutrition (TEN)) and the control group (n = 60, receiving TEN). Laboratory variables were measured during the four-week treatment. Results. At baseline, variables were similar between the two groups. Delta value was defined as the changes from baseline to day 28. Compared with the control group, the fistuloclysis group showed greater improvements in liver function (Delta total bilirubin (TB): 20.3 ± 9.7 in the fistuloclysis group versus 15.6 ± 6.3 in the control group, P = 0.040; Delta direct bilirubin (DB): 12.5 ± 3.4 versus 10.0 ± 3.6, P = 0.011; Delta alkaline phosphatase (ALP): 98.4 ± 33.5 versus 57.6 ± 20.9, P < 0.001); nutritional status (Delta total protein: 21.8 ± 8.7 versus 10.7 ± 2.1, P < 0.001; Delta albumin: 11.3 ± 2.5 versus 4.2 ± 1.3, P < 0.001). In the fistuloclysis subgroups, biliary fistula patients had the maximum number of variables with the greatest improvements. Conclusions. Fistuloclysis improved hepatic and nutritional parameters in patients with high-output upper EF, particularly in biliary fistula patients. PMID:24719613

  8. [Nutritional status of street children in the district of Manga (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Diongue, M; Ndiaye, P; Yameogo, I; Faye, B F; Dia, A Tal; Diousse, P

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition is an important indicator of development, and its consequences in children and adolescents produce a serious socioeconomic burden. Children living on the street are more vulnerable than others. Thus, our objective was to analyze the nutritional status of children living on the streets of Manga, through a cross-sectional and analytical study. The snowball technique was used for sampling. Data came from individual interviews, blood samples and medical examinations. Of the 237 children studied, 84.8% were boys; the overall mean age was 11.5 years, and 72.6% were adolescents (aged 10 to 17 years). Growth retardation (15.9%) predominated among the children aged 4 to 9 years, while a weight deficit (27.9%) was most common among those aged 10 to 17. Half of the children (50.2%) with blood tests (N = 119) had anemia. There was a link between anemia and underweight (p = 0.0145). Children who ate at least three times a day were 2.63 times less likely to be anemic (p<0.001). Factors associated with anemia (p<0.005) included survival activities. We frequently found nutritional deficits and anemia in these children. A targeted nutritional program would be a good entry point for their successful reintegration.. PMID:25466289

  9. Usefulness of Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index for Assessing Nutritional Status and Its Prognostic Impact in Patients Aged ≥65 Years With Acute Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Honda, Yasuyuki; Nagai, Toshiyuki; Iwakami, Naotsugu; Sugano, Yasuo; Honda, Satoshi; Okada, Atsushi; Asaumi, Yasuhide; Aiba, Takeshi; Noguchi, Teruo; Kusano, Kengo; Ogawa, Hisao; Yasuda, Satoshi; Anzai, Toshihisa

    2016-08-15

    Malnutrition is becoming one of the most important determinants of worse clinical outcomes in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). However, appropriate tools for evaluating the nutritional status in patients aged ≥65 years with AHF remain unclear. We examined 490 consecutive patients aged ≥65 years with AHF. They were divided into 2 groups according to Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI; cut-off value = 92). During a median period of 189 days, the mortality rate was significantly higher in the lower GNRI group than the higher GNRI group (p <0.001). In multivariate analyses, lower GNRI was an independent determinant of adverse events (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.95, p <0.001). The GNRI showed the best prognostic value (C-statistic: 0.70) among other nutritional indexes. Adding GNRI to an existing outcome prediction model for mortality in AHF significantly increased the C-statistic from 0.68 to 0.74 (p = 0.017). The net reclassification improvement afforded by GNRI was 60% overall, 27% for events, and 33% for nonevents (p <0.001). In conclusion, lower GNRI on admission was independently associated with worse clinical outcomes in patients aged ≥65 years with AHF, and it was superior to other nutritional parameters. Furthermore, the assessment of nutritional status using GNRI is very helpful for risk stratification. PMID:27324158

  10. The impact of a nutritional intervention on the nutritional status and anthropometric profile of participants in the health Gym Programme in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Deus, Raquel Mendonça; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Jaime, Patrícia Constante; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of an intervention implemented under the Programa Academia da Saúde (Health Gym Programme) of Belo Horizonte, MG on the nutritional status and anthropometric profile of participants. Intervention study involving participants in the Health Gym Programme which encompasses group food and nutrition education activities over a period of 11 months combined with regular physical activity. Impact was assessed by comparing nutritional and anthropometric indicators in women participants who were divided into two groups according to their participation rate in the intervention. A total of 124 women were evaluated, results showed an increase in the number of daily meals (p<0.001) among all participants. Participants whose participation rate was less than 50% (n = 61) reduced their daily consumption of sugary soft drinks (p = 0.03), while those whose participation rate was 50% and over (n = 63) reduced daily per capita intake of oil (p = 0.01) and sugar (p = 0.002), increased their consumption of fruit (p = 0. 004), and milk and dairy products (p = 0.02), and also experienced weight loss (-1.3 ± 3.9kg; p = 0.02). The findings show the importance of combining nutritional interventions with physical activity to ensure positive impacts on the nutritional status and anthropometric profile of participants in the Health Gym Programme. PMID:26060972

  11. Neurodevelopmental Effects of Maternal Nutritional Status and Exposure to Methylmercury from Eating Fish during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Philip W.; Strain, J.J.; Myers, Gary J.; Thurston, Sally W.; Bonham, Maxine P.; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M.W.; Robson, Paula J.; Duffy, Emeir M.; Georger, Lesley A.; Sloane-Reeves, Jean; Cernichiari, Elsa; Canfield, Richard L.; Cox, Christopher; Huang, Li Shan; Janciuras, Joanne; Clarkson, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Fish contain nutrients that promote optimal brain growth and development but also contain methylmercury (MeHg) that can have toxic effects. The present study tested the hypothesis that the intake of selected nutrients in fish or measures of maternal nutritional status may represent important confounders when estimating the effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure on child development. The study took place in the Republic of Seychelles, an Indian Ocean archipelago where fish consumption is high. A longitudinal cohort study design was used. A total of 300 mothers were enrolled early in pregnancy. Nutrients considered to be important for brain development were measured during pregnancy along with prenatal MeHg exposure. The children were evaluated periodically to age 30 months. There were 229 children with complete outcome and covariate data for analysis. The primary endpoint was the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II), administered at 9 and 30 months of age. Combinations of four secondary measures of infant cognition and memory were also given at 5, 9 and 25 months. Cohort mothers consumed an average of 537 gm of fish (9 meals containing fish) per week. The average prenatal MeHg exposure was 5.9 ppm in maternal hair. The primary analysis examined the associations between MeHg, maternal nutritional measures and children’s scores on the BSID-II and showed an adverse association between MeHg and the mean Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) score at 30 months. Secondary analyses of the association between the PDI and only MeHg alone or nutritional factors alone showed only a borderline significant association between MeHg and the PDI at 30 months and no associations with nutritional factors. One experimental measure at 5 months of age was positively associated with iodine status, but not prenatal MeHg exposure. These findings suggest a possible confounding role of maternal nutrition in studies examining associations between prenatal MeHg exposures and

  12. Maternal Eating and Physical Activity Strategies and their Relation with Children's Nutritional Status1

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Peña, Yolanda; Ortiz-Félix, Rosario Edith; Cárdenas-Villarreal, Velia Margarita; Ávila-Alpirez, Hermelinda; Alba-Alba, Corina Mariela; Hernández-Carranco, Roandy Gaspar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to describe the maternal eating and physical activity strategies (monitoring, discipline, control, limits and reinforcement) [MEES]; to determine the relation between MEES and the child's nutritional status [body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BFP)]; to verify whether the MEES differ according to the child's nutritional status. Method participants were 558 mothers and children (3 to 11 years of age) who studied at public schools. The Parental Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale (PEAS) was applied and the child's weight, height and BFP were measured. For analysis purposes, descriptive statistics were obtained, using multiple linear regression and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results the highest mean score was found for reinforcement (62.72) and the lowest for control (50.07). Discipline, control and limits explained 12% of the BMI, while discipline and control explained 6% of the BFP. Greater control is found for obese children (χ2=38.36, p=0.001) and greater reinforcement for underweight children (χ2=7.19, p<0.05). Conclusions the mothers exert greater control (pressure to eat) over obese children and greater recognition (congratulating due to healthy eating) in underweight children. Modifications in parental strategies are recommended with a view to strengthening healthy eating and physical activity habits. PMID:26107837

  13. Iodine nutritional status among neonates in the Solan district, Himachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Umesh; Kabra, Madhulika; Prakash, Shyam; Sareen, Neha; Khenduja, Preetika

    2014-10-01

    Iodine nutrition status amongst neonates can be assessed by estimating thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). According to WHO, if more than 3 % of the neonates have TSH levels of 5 mlU/l and more in a population, it indicates presence of iodine deficiency (ID). Iodine deficiency is an endemic health problem in Solan district, Himachal Pradesh (HP) state. ID leads to mental retardation, deaf mutism, squint, dwarfism, spastic diplegia, neurological defects and congenital anomalies. The aim is to determine iodine nutrition status of neonates of Solan district. In Solan district, six hospitals/community health centers providing obstetric services and conducting more than 100 deliveries per annum were identified and enlisted. Two hospitals were selected keeping in view of operational feasibility. A total of 683 umbilical cord blood samples of neonates were collected on filter paper and analyzed for TSH. It was found that 63.2 % of the neonates had TSH levels of more than 5 mlU/l indicating iodine deficiency in the Solan district. Iodine deficiency was a public health problem in Solan district, HP. PMID:24563104

  14. Nutritional status of children and adolescents from a town in the semiarid Northeastern Brazil☆

    PubMed Central

    Ramires, Elyssia Karine Nunes Mendonça; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Temoteo, Tatiane Leocádio; Longo-Silva, Giovana; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Costa, Emília Chagas; Asakura, Leiko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the nutritional status of schoolchildren, resident in a semiarid region in the Northeastern Brazil. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, involving 860 children and adolescents aged from 5-19 years-old, enrolled in three public schools in the county. The selection of schools was non-probabilistic type and unintentional. The initial population, which integrated the database, was composed by 1,035 children and teenagers, and 175 students (16.9%) were excluded because of inconsistency in the anthropometric data, resulting in a sample of 860 students. The following outcomes were considered: stunting (malnutrition), overweight and obesity (overweight), being the height/age and body mass index/age (BMI/Age), indices respectively used. Children and adolescents with height <-2 standard deviations and overweight and obese weight z score ≥1 were considered stunted. The statistical analysis was descriptive. Results: The prevalence of stunting and overweight/obesity was 9.1% and 24.0%, respectively. Overweight and stunting were higher in adolescents aged 15 and over, compared to other age groups analyzed. In relation to gender, malnutrition presented itself in a similar way, but overweight was more frequent among females. Conclusions: The results revealed that excess weight, here represented by the sum of overweight and obesity, was more prevalent than stunting (malnutrition), highlighting the urgent need for attention to this problem in order to design interventions capable of contributing to the improvement of schoolchildren nutritional status. PMID:25479850

  15. Measurement of nutritional status in simulated microgravity by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartok, Cynthia; Atkinson, Richard L.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) for assessing nutritional status in spaceflight was tested in two head-down-tilt bed-rest studies. BIS-predicted extracellular water (ECW), intracellular water (ICW), and total body water (TBW) measured using knee-elbow electrode placement were compared with deuterium and bromide dilution (DIL) volumes in healthy, 19- to 45-yr-old subjects. BIS was accurate during 44 h of head-down tilt with mean differences (BIS - DIL) of 0-0.1 kg for ECW, 0.3-0.5 for ICW, and 0.4-0.6 kg for TBW (n = 28). At 44 h, BIS followed the within-individual change in body water compartments with a relative prediction error (standard error of the estimate/baseline volume) of 2.0-3.6% of water space. In the second study, BIS did not detect an acute decrease (-1.41 +/- 0.91 kg) in ICW secondary to 48 h of a protein-free, 800 kcal/day diet (n = 18). BIS's insensitivity to ICW losses may be because they were predominantly (65%) localized to the trunk and/or because there was a general failure of BIS to measure ICW independently of ECW and TBW. BIS may have potential for measuring nutritional status during spaceflight, but its limitations in precision and insensitivity to acute ICW changes warrant further validation studies.

  16. Measurement of nutritional status in simulated microgravity by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bartok, Cynthia; Atkinson, Richard L; Schoeller, Dale A

    2003-07-01

    The potential of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) for assessing nutritional status in spaceflight was tested in two head-down-tilt bed-rest studies. BIS-predicted extracellular water (ECW), intracellular water (ICW), and total body water (TBW) measured using knee-elbow electrode placement were compared with deuterium and bromide dilution (DIL) volumes in healthy, 19- to 45-yr-old subjects. BIS was accurate during 44 h of head-down tilt with mean differences (BIS - DIL) of 0-0.1 kg for ECW, 0.3-0.5 for ICW, and 0.4-0.6 kg for TBW (n = 28). At 44 h, BIS followed the within-individual change in body water compartments with a relative prediction error (standard error of the estimate/baseline volume) of 2.0-3.6% of water space. In the second study, BIS did not detect an acute decrease (-1.41 +/- 0.91 kg) in ICW secondary to 48 h of a protein-free, 800 kcal/day diet (n = 18). BIS's insensitivity to ICW losses may be because they were predominantly (65%) localized to the trunk and/or because there was a general failure of BIS to measure ICW independently of ECW and TBW. BIS may have potential for measuring nutritional status during spaceflight, but its limitations in precision and insensitivity to acute ICW changes warrant further validation studies. PMID:12562674

  17. Occupational stress, working condition and nutritional status of military police officers.

    PubMed

    Santana, Angela Maria C; Gomes, Josiane Keila V; De Marchi, Dione; Girondoli, Yassana M; Rosado, Lina E F P de Lima; Rosado, Gilberto Paixão; de Andrade, Isabel Maria

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between stress, working conditions and the nutritional status of 53 military police officers in a Southeast city of Brazil. In order to evaluate the symptomatology and the stress phase, the Inventory of Stress Symptoms Lipp for Adults - ISSL was utilized. The assessment of the working conditions was performed by means of socio-demographic questionnaire, direct observation and interviews. The nutritional and health conditions were assessed through anthropometric measures, biochemical tests, blood pressure measurements and cardiovascular disease risk calculator. The sample is of the male gender (92.5%) and aging below 40 years old (73.6%). From these, 35.8% showed stress and 68.4% were in the resistance phase, with 31.6% almost burned out. Through the calculation of Chi-square we could find positive association between the BMI and tiredness (P = 0.0188), between the BMI and irritation (P = 0.0005) and the BMI and the appearance of nervous system problems or emotional problems (P = 0.0304), indicating that these statuses or problems could be related to work. We can conclude then, the stress is present among military police officers. No case of critical stress was found, and the stress phases identified are still susceptible to intervention. PMID:22317161

  18. Maternal mental health and nutritional status of six-month-old infants

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Bruna Kulik; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Hasselmann, Maria Helena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if maternal mental health is associated with infant nutritional status at six month of age. METHODS A cross-sectional study with 228 six-month-old infants who used primary health care units of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Mean weight-for-length and mean weight-for-age were expressed in z-scores considering the 2006 World Health Organization reference curves. Maternal mental health was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The following cutoff points were used: ≥ 3 for common mental disorders, ≥ 5 for more severe mental disorders, and ≥ 9 for depression. The statistical analysis employed adjusted linear regression models. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders, more severe mental disorders and depression was 39.9%, 23.7%, and 8.3%, respectively. Children of women with more severe mental disorders had, on average, a weight-for-length 0.37 z-scores lower than children of women without this health harm (p = 0.026). We also observed that the weight-for-length indicator of children of depressed mothers was, on average, 0.67 z-scores lower than that of children of nondepressed women (p = 0.010). Maternal depression was associated with lower mean values of weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS Maternal mental health is positively related to the inadequacy of the nutritional status of infants at six months. PMID:27007683

  19. Socioeconomic determinants of nutritional status of children in Lao PDR: effects of household and community factors.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Yusuke

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of undernutrition among Lao children is among the highest in the region. However, the determinants of childhood undernutrition in Laos have not been fully analyzed. This paper, using the dataset of the Lao Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, which is a nationally-representative sample in Laos, investigated the effects of socioeconomic factors at both household and community levels on the nutritional status of children. In the estimation, a multilevel linear model with random-intercepts was used for estimating the determinants of child anthropometric indices. The empirical results revealed that children from households in southern Laos and from ethnic minority groups were less-nourished. Level of education of parents, attitudes of mothers towards domestic violence, assets of household, local health services, and the condition of sanitation and water were considered to be important determinants of nutritional status of children. The pattern of growth-faltering in children by age was identified. Children aged 12-59 months were less-nourished than those aged 0-11 months. The empirical results were consistent with the collective household model which incorporates a decision-making process within the household. Since there is scarce evidence about the predictors of childhood undernutrition in Laos, the findings of this study will serve as a benchmark for future research. PMID:21957672

  20. Nutritional status of adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Cora Luiza; Dumith, Samuel C.; Menezes, Ana M. B.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Vieira, Maria de Fátima A.; Madruga, Samanta W.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the influence of demographic, socioeconomic, and maternal variables on the nutritional status of adolescents aged 11 years. We conducted a prospective cohort study including 4,452 adolescents born in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1993, accounting for 87.5% of the original cohort. Nutritional status was evaluated based on World Health Organization criteria. Subjects were classified according to nutritional status into thin, normal, overweight and obese. Independent variables analyzed included skin color, socioeconomic status, maternal schooling, and maternal body mass index (BMI). Analyses were stratified by sex, and multivariable regression was performed using the multinomial logistic approach. Overall, 7% of adolescents were classified as thin, 11.6% as overweight, and 11.6% as obese. Among boys, thinness was inversely associated with maternal schooling and maternal BMI. Among girls, thinness was directly associated with maternal BMI. Overweight and obesity were directly associated with socioeconomic status and maternal BMI, the former showing the strongest association with nutritional status among adolescents. PMID:20963286

  1. Effects of 21 days of bed rest, with or without artificial gravity, on nutritional status of humans

    PubMed Central

    Zwart, S. R.; Crawford, G. E.; Gillman, P. L.; Kala, G.; Rodgers, A. S.; Rogers, A.; Inniss, A. M.; Rice, B. L.; Ericson, K.; Coburn, S.; Bourbeau, Y.; Hudson, E.; Mathew, G.; DeKerlegand, D. E.; Sams, C. F.; Heer, M. A.; Paloski, W. H.; Smith, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Spaceflight and bed rest models of microgravity have profound effects on physiological systems, including the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and immune systems. These effects can be exacerbated by suboptimal nutrient status, and therefore it is critical to monitor nutritional status when evaluating countermeasures to mitigate negative effects of spaceflight. As part of a larger study to investigate the usefulness of artificial gravity as a countermeasure for musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deficits during bed rest, we tested the hypothesis that artificial gravity would have an effect on some aspects of nutritional status. Dietary intake was recorded daily before, during, and after 21 days of bed rest with artificial gravity (n = 8) or bed rest alone (n = 7). We examined body composition, hematology, general blood chemistry, markers of oxidative damage, and blood levels of selected vitamins and minerals before, during, and after the bed rest period. Several indicators of vitamin status changed in response to diet changes: serum α- and γ-tocopherol and urinary 4-pyridoxic acid decreased (P < 0.001) and plasma β-carotene increased (P < 0.001) in both groups during bed rest compared with before bed rest. A decrease in hematocrit (P < 0.001) after bed rest was accompanied by a decrease in transferrin (P < 0.001), but transferrin receptors were not changed. These data provide evidence that artificial gravity itself does not negatively affect nutritional status during bed rest. Likewise, artificial gravity has no protective effect on nutritional status during bed rest. PMID:19074571

  2. A survey on clinical presentation and nutritional status of infants with suspected cow' milk allergy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cow's milk is the most common food allergen in infants and the diagnosis of cow's milk allergy is difficult, even with the use of several diagnostic tests. Therefore, elimination diets and challenge tests are essential for the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder. The aim of this study is to report the clinical presentation and nutritional status of children evaluated by pediatric gastroenterologists for the assessment of symptoms suggestive of cow's milk allergy. Methods An observational cross-sectional study was performed among 9,478 patients evaluated by 30 pediatric gastroenterologists for 40 days in 5 different geographical regions in Brazil. Clinical data were collected from patients with symptoms suggestive of cow's milk allergy. The nutritional status of infants (age ≤ 24 months) seen for the first time was evaluated according to z-scores for weight-for-age, weight-for-height, and height-for-age. Epi-Info (CDC-NCHS, 2000) software was used to calculate z-scores. Results The prevalence of suspected cow's milk allergy in the study population was 5.4% (513/9,478), and the incidence was 2.2% (211/9,478). Among 159 infants seen at first evaluation, 15.1% presented with a low weight-for-age z score (< -2.0 standard deviation - SD), 8.7% with a low weight-for-height z score (< -2.0 SD), and 23.9% with a low height-for-age z score (< -2.0 SD). Conclusion The high prevalence of nutritional deficits among infants with symptoms suggestive of cow's milk allergy indicates that effective elimination diets should be prescribed to control allergy symptoms and to prevent or treat malnutrition. PMID:20416046

  3. Lower Nutritional Status and Higher Food Insufficiency in Frail Older US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Ellen; Winters-Stone, Kerrie M.; Loprinzi, Paul D.; Tang, Alice M.; Crespo, Carlos J.

    2014-01-01

    Frailty is a state of decreased physical functioning and a significant complication of aging. We examine frailty, energy and macronutrient intake, biomarkers of nutritional status, and food insufficiency in US older adult (age ≥60 years) participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n=4731). Frailty was defined as meeting ≥2 and pre-frailty as meeting 1 of the following 4 item criteria: 1) slow walking; 2) muscular weakness; 3) exhaustion, and 4) low physical activity. Intake was assessed by 24-hour dietary recall. Food insufficiency was self-reported as “sometimes” or “often” not having enough food to eat. Analyses adjusted for gender, race, age, smoking, education, income, BMI, other comorbid conditions, and complex survey design. Prevalence of frailty was highest among people who were obese (20.8%), followed by overweight (18.4%), normal weight (16.1%), and lowest among people who were underweight (13.8%). Independent of BMI, daily energy intake was lowest in people who were frail, followed by pre-frail, and highest in people who were not frail (mean kJ ± SE: 6648±130, 6966±79, 7280±84, respectively, p<0.01). Energy adjusted macronutrient intakes were similar in people with and without frailty. Frail (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)= 4.7, 95% CI 1.7-12.7) and pre-frail (AOR=2.1, 95% CI 0.8-5.8) people were more likely to report being food insufficient than not frail people. Serum albumin, carotenoids, and selenium levels were lower in frail adults than not frail adults. Research is needed on targeted interventions to improve nutritional status and food insufficiency among frail older adults, while not necessarily increasing BMI. PMID:23113895

  4. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Nutritional Status among Iranian Children.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Soudabeh Hamedi; Amirkhizi, Farshad; Amirkhizi, Behzad; Hamedi, Sousan

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine household food security status and sociodemographic factors influencing it and to examine whether food insecurity of household is a risk factor for underweight, stunting, and thinness in primary school children of Sistan and Baluchestan Province in southeastern Iran. A sample of 610 students aged 7-11 years was selected by a multistage cluster random sampling method during December 2013-May 2014. Using U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Security questionnaire, 42.3% of households showed some degree of food insecurity. Food insecurity was positively associated with household size (p = .002) and number of children per household (p = .001) and negatively associated with mother's and father's education level (p = .005 and p = .042, respectively), father's occupation status, and household income (p < .0001). Children living in food insecure with severe hunger households were 10.13, 10.07, and 4.54 times as likely to be underweight, stunted, and thin, respectively, as counterparts from food secure households. The findings showed food insecurity was prevalent and associated with sociodemographic factors among households with schoolchildren in southeastern Iran. Nutritional status of children was also associated with food security status of their households. PMID:27494152

  5. Nutritional status evaluation in patients affected by bethlem myopathy and ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Toni, Silvia; Morandi, Riccardo; Busacchi, Marcello; Tardini, Lucia; Merlini, Luciano; Battistini, Nino Carlo; Pellegrini, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Collagen VI mutations lead to disabling myopathies like Bethlem myopathy (BM) and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD). We have investigated the nutritional and metabolic status of one UCMD and seven BM patients (five female, three male, mean age 31 ± 9 years) in order to find a potential metabolic target for nutritional intervention. For this study, we used standard anthropometric tools, such as BMI evaluation and body circumference measurements. All results were compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), considered the "gold standard" method. Energy intake of each patient was evaluated through longitudinal methods (7-day food diary) while resting energy expenditure (REE) was predicted using specific equations and measured by indirect calorimetry. Clinical evaluation included general and nutritional blood and urine laboratory analyses and quantitative muscle strength measurement by hand-held dynamometry. BM and UCMD patients showed an altered body composition, characterized by low free fat mass (FFM) and high fat mass (FM), allowing us to classify them as sarcopenic, and all but one as sarcopenic-obese. Another main result was the negative correlation between REE/FFM ratio (basal energy expenditure per kilograms of fat-free mass) and the severity of the disease, as defined by the muscle megascore (correlation coefficient -0.955, P-value <0.001). We postulate that the increase of the REE/FFM ratio in relation to the severity of the disease may be due to an altered and pathophysiological loss of energetic efficiency at the expense of skeletal muscle. We show that a specific metabolic disequilibrium is related to the severity of the disease, which may represent a target for a nutritional intervention in these patients. PMID:25477818

  6. Nutritional Status Evaluation in Patients Affected by Bethlem Myopathy and Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Toni, Silvia; Morandi, Riccardo; Busacchi, Marcello; Tardini, Lucia; Merlini, Luciano; Battistini, Nino Carlo; Pellegrini, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Collagen VI mutations lead to disabling myopathies like Bethlem myopathy (BM) and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD). We have investigated the nutritional and metabolic status of one UCMD and seven BM patients (five female, three male, mean age 31 ± 9 years) in order to find a potential metabolic target for nutritional intervention. For this study, we used standard anthropometric tools, such as BMI evaluation and body circumference measurements. All results were compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), considered the “gold standard” method. Energy intake of each patient was evaluated through longitudinal methods (7-day food diary) while resting energy expenditure (REE) was predicted using specific equations and measured by indirect calorimetry. Clinical evaluation included general and nutritional blood and urine laboratory analyses and quantitative muscle strength measurement by hand-held dynamometry. BM and UCMD patients showed an altered body composition, characterized by low free fat mass (FFM) and high fat mass (FM), allowing us to classify them as sarcopenic, and all but one as sarcopenic-obese. Another main result was the negative correlation between REE/FFM ratio (basal energy expenditure per kilograms of fat-free mass) and the severity of the disease, as defined by the muscle megascore (correlation coefficient −0.955, P-value <0.001). We postulate that the increase of the REE/FFM ratio in relation to the severity of the disease may be due to an altered and pathophysiological loss of energetic efficiency at the expense of skeletal muscle. We show that a specific metabolic disequilibrium is related to the severity of the disease, which may represent a target for a nutritional intervention in these patients. PMID:25477818

  7. Nutritional status of older persons presenting in a primary care clinic in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adebusoye, L A; Ajayi, I O; Dairo, M D; Ogunniyi, A O

    2012-01-01

    The study objective was to determine the nutritional status and its association with sociodemographic characteristics and health complaints of older persons presenting at the General Outpatients Department (GOPD) Clinic of University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to select 500 consecutively presenting participants aged 60 years and older between September and December, 2009. The Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) tool and body mass index were used to assess undernutrition and overweight, respectively. The prevalence of nutritional problems was 61.9% (undernutrition = 7.8% and overweight = 54.1%). Being unmarried (P < 0.001), engagement in a job after the age of 60 years (P < 0.001), constipation (P = 0.009), rectal bleeding (P = 0.008), and oral problems (mouth, teeth, and tongue) were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with undernutrition. Younger age (P = 0.050) and female gender (P = 0.011) were significantly associated with being overweight. Logistic regression analysis showed being unmarried OR = 1.355 (95%CI 1.075-1.708) to be the most important factor for the development of undernutrition. The high prevalence of nutritional problems in this study underscores the need for intervention in this population. Correlation analysis (Pearson's) showed a positive association between BMI and MNA scores (r = 0.152, P = 0.001). PMID:22335441

  8. The impact of nutritional labels and socioeconomic status on energy intake. An experimental field study.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Rachel A; Jebb, Susan A; Hankins, Matthew; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-10-01

    There is some evidence for paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake particularly amongst restrained eaters and those with a higher body mass index (BMI) resulting in greater consumption of energy from foods with a positive health message (e.g. "low-fat") compared with the same foods, unlabelled. This study aimed to investigate, in a UK general population sample, the likelihood of paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake. Participants (n = 287) attended a London cinema and were offered a large tub of salted or toffee popcorn. Participants were randomised to receive their selected flavour with one of three labels: a green low-fat label, a red high-fat label or no label. Participants watched two film clips while completing measures of demographic characteristics, emotional state and taste of the popcorn. Following the experiment, popcorn consumption was measured. There were no main effects of nutritional labelling on consumption. Contrary to predictions neither BMI nor weight concern moderated the effect of label on consumption. There was a three-way interaction between low-fat label, weight concern and socioeconomic status (SES) such that weight-concerned participants of higher SES who saw a low-fat label consumed more than weight unconcerned participants of similar SES (t = -2.7, P = .04). By contrast, weight-concerned participants of lower SES seeing either type of label, consumed less than those seeing no label (t = -2.04, P = .04). Nutritional labelling may have different effects in different socioeconomic groups. Further studies are required to understand fully the possible contribution of food labelling to health inequalities. PMID:24879885

  9. Assessment of the Nutritional Status of Sudanese Primary School Pupils in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Khayri, Hiba O; Muneer, Siddig E; Ahmed, Saifeldeen B; Osman, Magdi A; Babiker, Elfadil E

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted in Saudi Arabia to assess the nutritional status of primary school Sudanese pupils and explore its' correlates. Anthropometric measurements of 400 (200 males and 200 females) students of age 6-12 were taken. Their daily food intake was assessed using food frequency and 24 h recall method. Data about the socio-economic characteristics of the students' families was collected through personal interview using a questionnaire. The study revealed that 31 and 8.75 % of the respondents suffer from underweight and overweight, respectively. The respondents' average daily intake of calories and fiber was significantly lower than that of the DRI, while their intake of protein, carbohydrates, unsaturated fat, some vitamins and iron was significantly higher than that of the DRI (unbalanced meals). Apart from the family monthly income none of the hypothesized predictors of the respondents' nutritional status were found to be significantly correlated with the students' nutritional status indicators. PMID:25410382

  10. Comparison of hydration and nutritional status between young and elderly hemodialysis patients through bioimpedance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Eun; Jo, In Young; Lee, Song Mi; Kim, Woo Jeong; Choi, Hoon Young; Ha, Sung Kyu; Kim, Hyung Jong; Park, Hyeong Cheon

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of elderly people on dialysis is increasing rapidly. Fluid overload and malnutrition status are serious problems in elderly dialysis patients. We aimed to compare the hydration and nutritional status through bioimpedance analysis (BIA) between young and elderly hemodialysis (HD) patients and to analyze risk factors related to fluid overload and malnutrition status in these patients. Method We conducted a cross-sectional study, in which 82 HD (males 42, mean age 58.7±12.9 years) patients were enrolled. We collected different types of data: laboratory data, such as serum creatinine, albumin, total iron-binding capacity, hemoglobin, total cholesterol; anthropometric data, such as hand grip strength (HGS); BIA data, such as intracellular water, skeletal muscle mass, body cell mass, bone mineral content, phase angle (PhA), extra cellular water (ECW)/total body water (TBW) ratio; and malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS), which is a traditional nutritional parameter for dialysis patients. All patients were stratified into two groups according to their age: young (<65 years [n=54]) and elderly (≥65 years [n=28]). Results Total iron-binding capacity and HGS were significantly lower in elderly HD patients than in young HD patients (198.9±35.6 vs 221.4±52.1 mcg/dL; and 22.4±10.3 vs 36.4±23.2 kg, respectively) (P<0.05). Also, intracellular water and PhA measured by BIA were significantly lower (18.3±4.0 vs 20.3±4.2 L [P=0.043]; and 4.0±1.0 vs 4.9±1.2° [P=0.002], respectively), and ECW/TBW were higher in elderly HD patients (0.40±0.01 vs 0.39±0.01 [P=0.001]). ECW/TBW was positively associated with age (P<0.001) and the presence of diabetes (P<0.001) and was negatively associated with sex (P=0.001), albumin (P<0.001), urine volume (P=0.042), HGS (P<0.001), and PhA by BIA (P<0.001). MIS was negatively related to sex (P=0.001), albumin (P<0.001), HGS (P=0.001), and PhA (P<0.001) in HD patients. On multivariate analysis, older age (P=0.031), the

  11. Nutritional status influences plasma fibrinogen concentration: evidence from the THUSA survey.

    PubMed

    James, S; Vorster, H H; Venter, C S; Kruger, H S; Nell, T A; Veldman, F J; Ubbink, J B

    2000-06-01

    Nutritional status and risk factors for chronic diseases, including plasma fibrinogen and its determinants, of Africans in the Northwest Province of South Africa, have been studied in a cross-sectional survey. A representative sample of 1854 "apparently healthy" African men and women volunteers aged 15 years and older was recruited from 37 randomly selected sites throughout the Province and stratified for level of urbanisation. Information was collected using validated and culture-sensitive questionnaires. Fasting blood samples were drawn, and all measurements were done with standardised methodology using appropriate equipment, procedures, and controls. Fibrinogen concentration was measured in citrated plasma with the method of Clauss, using the ACL200 automated system and the international fibrinogen standard. The results revealed a population with a high mean plasma fibrinogen (3.17+/-1.10 g/L for HIV-negative men and 3. 64+/-1.12 g/L for HIV-negative women). Factors known to influence plasma fibrinogen, such as age, gender, smoking habit, and physical activity, were also observed in this population. Young rural men and women had the lowest fibrinogen level. Nasal snuff taking and HIV infection did not influence fibrinogen concentration. Multivariate analyses revealed that lower plasma fibrinogen was associated with low to normal body mass index in women, and with dietary intakes compatible with prudent dietary guidelines in men and women (low intakes of animal protein; trans fatty acids and higher intakes of plant protein; dietary fibre, vitamin E, and iron, and a high dietary P/S ratio). Subjects in the higher quartiles of plasma fibrinogen had significantly lower iron, vitamin E, and vitamin B6 (women) status. Increases in fibrinogen were associated with significant increases in serum lipids. Both under- and overnutrition seem to be associated with high plasma fibrinogen. It is concluded that overall nutritional status, possibly in addition to specific

  12. Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Susan

    An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

  13. Nutritional Assessment of the Young Child with Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fee, Maureen A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy sometimes display nutritional inadequacy, as evaluated through anthropometric measurements and laboratory values. Causes of poor nutritional status include inadequate calories offered or adequate calories offered but not consumed. Inadequate caloric retention may be due to vomiting, rumination, or gastroesophageal…

  14. Food insecurity, health and nutritional status among sample of palm-plantation households in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohamadpour, M; Sharif, Z Mohd; Keysami, M Avakh

    2012-09-01

    Food insecurity is a worldwide problem and has been shown to contribute to poor health and nutritional outcomes. In Malaysia, poor dietary intake, overweight and obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolaemia have been reported to be more prevalent in females compared to males and in Indians compared to other ethnic groups. A cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the relationship between food insecurity and health and nutritional status among 169 Indian women (19-49 years old, non-pregnant, and non-lactating) from randomly-selected palm-plantation households in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Subjects were interviewed for socioeconomic and demographic data, and information on household food security and dietary intake. They were examined for weight, height, waist-circumference, blood pressure and lipids, and plasma glucose levels. For analysis of data, descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used. Majority (85.2%) of the households showed food insecurity as assessed using the Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity Instrument. The food-secure women had significantly higher mean years of education and lower mean number of children than food-insecure groups (p<0.05). There was a significant decrease in the mean household income and income per capita as food insecurity worsened (p<0.05). Women who reported food security had significantly higher mean diet diversity score (11.60±4.13) than child hunger (9.23±3.36). The group of subjects with higher intake of meat/fish/poultry/legumes (crude odds ratio [OR]=0.53, confidence interval [CI]=0.29-0.95) and higher diet diversity score (crude OR=0.87, CI=0.78-0.97) was more likely to have < 3 health risks. Diet diversity score remained a significant protective factor against heath risks even after adjusting for other variables. The present study showed that food insecurity is indirectly associated with poor health and nutritional status. Therefore, appropriate community

  15. Nutritional status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and a study of the effects of zinc supplementation together with antimony treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guzman-Rivero, Miguel; Rojas, Ernesto; Verduguez-Orellana, Aleida; Pardo, Henry; Torrico, Mary Cruz; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Åkesson, Björn; Sejas, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of micronutrient status for the incidence and clinical course of cutaneous leishmaniasis is not much studied. Still zinc supplementation in leishmaniasis has shown some effect on the clinical recovery, but the evidence in humans is limited. Objective To compare biochemical nutritional status in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with that in controls and to study the effects of zinc supplementation for 60 days. Design Twenty-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with antimony for 20 days. Fourteen of them got 45 mg zinc daily and 15 of them got placebo. Biomarkers of nutritional and inflammatory status and changes in size and characteristics of skin lesions were measured. Results The level of transferrin receptor was higher in patients than in controls but otherwise no differences in nutritional status were found between patients and controls. No significant effects of zinc supplementation on the clinical recovery were observed as assessed by lesion area reduction and characteristics or on biochemical parameters. Conclusions It is concluded that nutritional status was essentially unaffected in cutaneous leishmaniasis and that oral zinc supplementation administered together with intramuscular injection of antimony had no additional clinical benefit. PMID:25397995

  16. Pre-Pregnancy Weight Status Is Associated with Diet Quality and Nutritional Biomarkers during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dayeon; Lee, Kyung Won; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Although the positive association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity with excessive gestational weight gain is well known, it is not clear how pre-pregnancy weight status is associated with gestational weight gain through maternal diet during pregnancy. This study aimed to examine the relationship between pre-pregnancy weight status and diet quality and maternal nutritional biomarkers during pregnancy. Our study included 795 U.S. pregnant women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2012. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and height. The cutoff points of <18.5 (underweight), 18.5–24.9 (normal), 25.0–29.9 (overweight), and 30 kg/m2 (obese) were used to categorize pregnant women’s weight status. Diet quality during pregnancy was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 based on a 24-h recall. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For all pregnant women included in this study, the mean HEI-2010 (±standard error of the mean (SEM)) was 50.7 (±0.9). Women with obese pre-pregnancy BMI demonstrated significantly lower HEI-2010 compared to those with underweight and normal pre-pregnancy BMI, respectively. In an unadjusted model, women with pre-pregnancy obesity BMI had increased odds for being in the lowest tertile of HEI-2010 (33.4 ± 0.5) compared to those with underweight pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 5.0; 95% CI 2.2–11.4). The inverse association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity status and diet quality during pregnancy persisted even after we controlled for physical activity levels (adjusted OR (AOR) 3.8; 95% CI 1.2–11.7, AOR 5.4; 95% CI 2.0–14.5, respectively). Serum folate concentration (ng/mL) was significantly higher in underweight women compared to overweight women (23.4 ± 1.7 vs. 17.0 ± 0.8, p < 0.05). Serum iron concentration (ng/dL) was significantly higher in

  17. Assessment of nutritional status in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis: a single-center study from Iran.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Reza; Sanavi, Suzan; Izadi-Khah, Akram

    2007-09-01

    Malnutrition is a relatively common problem in patients on hemodialysis (HD) and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in affected patients. With the aid of subjective global assessment (SGA), a semi-quantitative scale for estimating nutritional status, the malnutrition score (MS), has been developed. The MS incorporates advantages of the SGA while extending the reliability and precision. This study was performed to assess the nutritional status in patients on HD at the Mostafa Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Based on the MS, which consists of seven components--weight change, dietary intake, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, functional capacity, comorbidity, subcutaneous fat, and muscle wasting--we conducted a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study on 54 HD patients (35 males, 19 females) with age range of 18 to 82 years (mean 44.2 +/- 19.8 years). Each component of the MS has a score from one (normal) to five (very severe). Anthropometric measurements including triceps skin-fold thickness (TSF), mid-arm circumference (MAC) and mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) were taken on all patients. Also, the body mass index and TSF/MAC ratio were calculated. Relevant laboratory parameters were checked. The duration of HD of the study patients ranged between 5 and 36 months (mean 19.5 +/- 1.5 months). Data analysis was carried out using the SPSS, Pearson correlation, 't' test and regression. Based on the MS, 40.7% of patients had malnutrition (mean score 13.8 +/- 2.8). There were statistically significant correlations between TSF (p < 0.01), MAC (p = 0.02), MAMC (p = 0.01), TSF/MAC ratio (p < 0.001), BMI (p = 0.028), serum albumin concentration (p = 0.021) and MS. No statistically significant correlation was found between the MS and urea reduction ratio, protein catabolic rate, age, gender, or duration of dialysis. After 1 year, 20.4% of patients died because of dialysis-related complications. The mortality rate did not show significant correlation with

  18. Nutritional Status in Nocturnal Hemodialysis Patients – A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ipema, Karin J. R.; Struijk, Simone; van der Velden, Annet; Westerhuis, Ralf; van der Schans, Cees P.; Gaillard, Carlo A. J. M.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemodialysis patients experience an elevated risk of malnutrition associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Nocturnal hemodialysis (NHD) results in more effective removal of waste products and fluids. Therefore, diet and fluid restrictions are less restricted in NHD patients. However, it is ambiguous whether transition from conventional hemodialysis (CHD) to NHD leads to improved intake and nutritional status. We studied the effect of NHD on protein intake, laboratory indices of nutritional status, and body composition. Study design Systematic review with meta-analysis. Population NHD patients. Search strategy Systematic literature search from databases, Medline, Cinahl, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library, to identify studies reporting on nutritional status post-transition from CHD to NHD. Intervention Transition from CHD to NHD. Outcomes Albumin, normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), dry body weight (DBW), body mass index (BMI), phase angle, protein intake, and energy intake. Results Systematic literature search revealed 13 studies comprising 282 patients that made the transition from CHD to NHD. Meta-analysis included nine studies in 229 patients. In control group controlled studies (n = 4), serum albumin increased significantly from baseline to 4–6 months in NHD patients compared with patients that remained on CHD (mean difference 1.3 g/l, 95% CI 0.02; 2.58, p = 0.05). In baseline controlled studies, from baseline to 4–6 months of NHD treatment, significant increases were ascertained in serum albumin (mean difference (MD) 1.63 g/l, 95% CI 0.73–2.53, p<0.001); nPCR (MD 0.16 g/kg/day; 95% CI 0.04–0.29, p = 0.01); protein intake (MD 18.9 g, 95% CI 9.7–28.2, p<0.001); and energy intake (MD 183.2 kcal, 95% CI 16.8–349.7, p = 0.03). Homogeneity was rejected only for nPCR (baseline versus 4–6 months). DBW, BMI, and phase angle did not significantly change. Similar results were obtained for comparison between baseline and 8–12 months

  19. Gender differences in nutritional behavior and weight status during early and late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Askovic, Branka; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2012-07-01

    The current study aimed to determine gender differences in nutritional habits, eating behaviour, weight status, body image and weight control practices during early and late adolescence. 677 Viennese pupils (253 boys and 424 girls) between the ages 10 and 18 years (x = 14.1 yrs; +/- 2.2) were enrolled in the study. Weight status was determined by means of body mass index percentiles. To assess eating behavior, food preferences, body image and weight control practices, a 48 item questionnaire was developed. Significant gender differences in weight status were observable during late adolescence only. Girls are significantly less satisfied with their body weight. Furthermore, girls practice dieting and weight control to avoid any weight gain more frequently than boys. Gender differences in eating behavior intensified from early to late adolescence. From early to late adolescence, meal size decreased among girls, while it remains stabile or increased among boys. Boys eat generally more than girls. Furthermore, boys preferred meat and fast food while girls consumed fruits, vegetables and healthy food significantly more frequently. These gender differences are explained by gender specific energetic demands and culture typical beauty ideals. PMID:22928352

  20. Nutritional status, brain development and scholastic achievement of Chilean high-school graduates from high and low intellectual quotient and socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, Daniza M; Leiva, Boris P; Pérez, Hernán T; Almagià, Atilio F; Toro, Triana D; Urrutia, MaríaSoledadC; Inzunza, Nélida B; Bosch, Enrique O

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the inter-relationships between nutritional status (past and current nutrition), brain development, and scholastic achievement (SA) of Chilean high-school graduates from high and low intellectual quotient (IQ) and socio-economic status (SES) (mean age 18.0 (SD 0.9) years). Results showed that independently of SES, high-school graduates with similar IQ have similar nutritional, brain development and SA variables. Multiple regression analysis between child IQ (dependent variable) and age, sex, SES, brain volume (BV), undernutrition during the first year of life, paternal and maternal IQ (independent variables) revealed that maternal IQ (P<0.0001), BV (P<00387) and severe undernutrition during the first year of life (P<0.0486), were the independent variables with the greatest explanatory power for child IQ variance (r2 0.707), without interaction with age, sex or SES. Child IQ (P<0.0001) was the only independent variable that explained both SA variance (r2 0.848) and academic aptitude test variance (r2 0.876) without interaction with age, sex or SES. These results confirm the hypotheses formulated for this study that: (1) independently of SES, high-school graduates with similar IQ have similar variables of nutritional status, brain development and SA; (2) past nutritional status, brain development, child IQ and SA are strongly and significantly inter-related. These findings are relevant in explaining the complex interactions between variables that affect IQ and SA and can be useful for nutritional and educational planning. PMID:11895316

  1. Association Between Sarcopenia and Nutritional Status in Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Eglseer, Doris; Eminovic, Sandra; Lohrmann, Christa

    2016-07-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Association Between Sarcopenia and Nutritional Status in Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review" found on pages 33-41, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until June 30, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Describe the geriatric syndrome of sarcopenia. 2. Identify the outcome of the

  2. A Study on factors influencing the Nutritional Status of Lactating Women in Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh Regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Yasmeen Majid; Khan, Asmat

    2012-09-01

    The health of women is linked to their status in the society. The demographic consequence of the women has formed expression in various forms, such as female infanticide, higher death rate, lower sex ratio, low literacy level and lower level of employment of women in the nonagricultural sector as compared to men. Generally, at household level, cultural norms and practices and socio-economic factors determine the extent of nutritional status among women. For the purpose of present investigation, the data collected during 2005-06 on diet and nutritional status of tribal rural and urban lactating women respectively in States of Jammu and Kashmir was utilized. The study revealed inadequate dietary intake, especially micronutrient deficiency (hidden hunger) during lactation. Tribal women were particularly vulnerable to under nutrition compared to women in rural and urban areas. (16.9%) women had chronic energy deficiency, (56.4%) of women from all the three regions were observed to have clinical signs of nutritional deficiency, (30% )of women had taken deficient calories Clinical signs of deficiency of nutrition were uniformly distributed among three regions (p> 0.01), whereas indicators like BMI and caloric intake showed significant difference (P< 0.01) between the three regions . 49% studied women were found to be anemic.

  3. Food security and child nutritional status among Orang Asli (Temuan) households in Hulu Langat, Selangor.

    PubMed

    Zalilah, M S; Tham, B L

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of household food insecurity and its potential risk factors and outcomes among the Orang Asli (Temuan) households. Socioeconomic, demographic and food security information of the households and anthropometric measurements and dietary intakes of preschoolers (n = 64) were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Food security was assessed using the Radimer/Cornell hunger and food insecurity instrument. Diet quality was based on 24 hour recall and analyzed according to the Malaysian RDA and Food Guide Pyramid. Majority of the households (82%) reported some kind of household food insecurity. The prevalence of significant underweight, stunting and wasting were 45.3%, 51.6% and 7.8%, respectively. Dietary intakes were less than 2/3 RDA levels for calories, calcium and iron. However, the intakes of protein, vitamin A, vitamin C and niacin exceeded the RDA and the sources for these nutrients were mainly rice, fish and green leafy vegetables. Among the five food groups, only the number of servings from cereals/cereal products/tubers group was achieved while that of the milk/diary products was the worst. Majority of the children (68.7%) had poor, 31.3% had fair and none with excellent diet quality. In general, diet quality and nutritional status of the children decreased as household food insecurity worsened. It is recommended that the nutritional problems of Orang Asli children be addressed through health, nutrition and economic programs and further studies should be carried out on determinants and consequences of household food insecurity. PMID:14569716

  4. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P < .05). A multidimensional eating style approach based on the CEBQ is needed to promote healthy eating behaviors in order to prevent excessive weight gain and obesity problems among Malaysian children. PMID:27252248

  5. Macroeconomic adjustment, food availability and nutrition status in Nigeria. A look at the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Igbedioh, S O

    1990-12-01

    Faced with balance of payment problems, declining commodity prices, and a corresponding reduction in foreign exchange earnings, Nigeria implemented a structural adjustment program in 1986. This step was taken in response to encouragement from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and was aimed to accomplish the following: find the true value of the official currency; overcome public sector inefficiency through improved public expenditure and parastatal rationalization; reschedule medium- and long-term debt to relieve debt burden; and encourage net foreign capital inflow while limiting foreign loans. Implementing and adhering to these macroeconomic adjustment policies has brought unprecedented inflation, lower real earnings, and increased malnutrition among lower income sectors of the population. The poor have suffered diminishing access to nutritious foods. Conscribed access to food and compromised nutritional status will most likely persist into the 1990s unless corrective policies are adopted. Appropriate policy would aim to increase the poor's access to food and limit population growth. PMID:12285940

  6. Water Load Test in Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain: No Relation to Food Intake and Nutritional Status.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Roberto Koity Fujihara; Soares, Ana Cristina Fontenele; Speridião, Patricia da Graça Leite; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2015-09-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the relations between the water load test in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders with food intake and nutritional status. Patients with functional dyspepsia required a lower maximum water intake to produce fullness (n = 11, median = 380 mL) than patients with irritable bowel syndrome (n = 10, median = 695 mL) or functional abdominal pain (n = 10, median = 670 mL) (P < 0.05). Among patients who ingested ≤560 mL (n = 17) or >560 mL (n = 14) in the water load test, there was no relation between the maximum drinking capacity and food intake, body mass index, or height. PMID:26317680

  7. Food habits and nutritional status assessment of adolescent soccer players. A necessary and accurate approach.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; García-Rovés, Pablo M; Rodríguez, Carmen; Braga, Socorro; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Angeles M

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the food habits and nutritional status of high level adolescent soccer players (N = 33; ages 14-16 yrs) living in their home environment. Body composition (height, mass, skinfolds), biochemical and hematological parameters, performance in soccer-specific tests (sprinting, jumping, intermittent endurance), and dietary intake (weighed food intake method) and related behaviors (nutrient supplement use, daily activity profile) were assessed. Daily energy expenditure and energy intake were 12.5 MJ and 12.6 MJ, respectively. Protein (16% of energy intake; 1.9 g/kg of body mass), lipid (38%), and cholesterol (385 mg) intake were above recommendations, while carbohydrates (45%) were below. The food intake of these adolescents was based on cereals and derivates; meat, fish, and eggs; milk and dairy products; biscuits and confectionery; and oil, butter and margarine, which provided 78% of total energy intake, 85% of proteins, 64% of carbohydrates, 90% of lipids, and 47% of fiber. Although diet provided sufficient iron, 48% of individuals showed iron deficiency without anemia. Based on these results, a well designed nutrition intervention would be advisable for optimizing performance, and especially for promoting healthy eating habits in adolescent soccer players. PMID:15855680

  8. Association between nutritional status and Modic classification in degenerative disc disease.

    PubMed

    Seyithanoglu, Hakan; Aydin, Teoman; Taşpınar, Ozgur; Camli, Adil; Kiziltan, Huriye; Eris, Ali Hikmet; Hocaoglu, Ilknur Turk; Ozder, Aclan; Denizli, Ebru; Kepekci, Muge; Keskin, Yasar; Mutluer, Ahmet Serdar

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to examine the association between Modic classification and the eating habits in patients with degenerative disc disease (DDD) and to determine the influence of nutrition on disease severity. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty patients with DDD visiting a low back pain outpatient clinic were enrolled. Through face-to-face interviews, they completed questionnaires regarding their demographics, disease activity, smoking and alcohol use, concomitant diseases, disease duration, and nutritional status.Exclusion criteria were age <20 years or >65 years, other comorbidities, missing MRI data, and inability to speak Turkish. [Results] Forty patients were finally included in the study. The frequency with which they consumed water, salt, fast food, eggs, milk, yogurt, cheese, whole wheat bread, white bread, butter, and margarine was recorded. A weak negative correlation was observed between the Modic types and fish and egg consumption. [Conclusion] Modic changes, which indicate the severity of DDD, seem to be correlated to patients' dietary habits. However, studies with comparison groups and larger samples are needed to confirm our promising results before any cause-and-effect relationship can be proposed. PMID:27190462

  9. Migration, Agribusiness and Nutritional Status of Children under Five in Northwest Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, María-Isabel; Rosales, Cecilia; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Aranda, Patricia; Castañeda, Alejandro; Saucedo, Socorro; Montaño, Cecilia; Contreras, Alma

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the nutritional status of children of Mexican migrant worker families under five years of age within the context of global food markets. The sample included 404 children less than five years old from farms and agricultural communities in northwest Mexico. Prevalence of stunting and underweight of children appeared very similar to that of indigenous children from the national sample survey (difference 0.9 and 1.6 percentage points, respectively). Compared to the national sample of Mexican children, stunting and underweight seemed higher in migrant children (difference 17.7 and 4.5 percentage points, respectively), but wasting, an indicator of both chronic and acute undernutrition, appeared to indicate a process of nutritional recuperation. Migrant children living in poverty and suffering from chronic undernutrition, poor performance and scarce education opportunities, can be expected to eventually become agricultural workers with low productivity and poor general health. Consumer’s demands on social and environmental standards of fresh food production in developed countries could be an opportunity to impact the lives of migrant agricultural workers, their families and communities. PMID:22470276

  10. Changes in stature, weight, and nutritional status with tourism-based economic development in the Yucatan.

    PubMed

    Leatherman, Thomas L; Goodman, Alan H; Stillman, Tobias

    2010-07-01

    Over the past 40 years, tourism-based economic development has transformed social and economic conditions in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We address how these changes have influenced anthropometric indicators of growth and nutritional status in Yalcoba, a Mayan farming community involved in the circular migration of labor in the tourist economy. Data are presented on stature and weight for children measured in 1938 in the Yucatan Peninsula and from 1987 to 1998 in the Mayan community of Yalcoba. In addition, stature, weight and BMI are presented for adults in Yalcoba based on clinic records. Childhood stature varied little between 1938 and 1987. Between 1987 and 1998 average male child statures increased by 2.6cm and female child statures increased by 2.7cm. Yet, 65% of children were short for their ages. Between 1987 and 1998, average child weight increased by 1.8kg. Child BMIs were similar to US reference values and 13% were considered to be above average for weight. Forty percent of adult males and 64% of females were overweight or obese. The anthropometric data from Yalcoba suggest a pattern of stunted children growing into overweight adults. This pattern is found elsewhere in the Yucatan and in much of the developing world where populations have experienced a nutrition transition toward western diets and reduced physical activity levels. PMID:20579944

  11. Association between nutritional status and Modic classification in degenerative disc disease

    PubMed Central

    Seyithanoglu, Hakan; Aydin, Teoman; Taşpınar, Ozgur; Camli, Adil; Kiziltan, Huriye; Eris, Ali Hikmet; Hocaoglu, Ilknur Turk; Ozder, Aclan; Denizli, Ebru; Kepekci, Muge; Keskin, Yasar; Mutluer, Ahmet Serdar

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to examine the association between Modic classification and the eating habits in patients with degenerative disc disease (DDD) and to determine the influence of nutrition on disease severity. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty patients with DDD visiting a low back pain outpatient clinic were enrolled. Through face-to-face interviews, they completed questionnaires regarding their demographics, disease activity, smoking and alcohol use, concomitant diseases, disease duration, and nutritional status.Exclusion criteria were age <20 years or >65 years, other comorbidities, missing MRI data, and inability to speak Turkish. [Results] Forty patients were finally included in the study. The frequency with which they consumed water, salt, fast food, eggs, milk, yogurt, cheese, whole wheat bread, white bread, butter, and margarine was recorded. A weak negative correlation was observed between the Modic types and fish and egg consumption. [Conclusion] Modic changes, which indicate the severity of DDD, seem to be correlated to patients’ dietary habits. However, studies with comparison groups and larger samples are needed to confirm our promising results before any cause-and-effect relationship can be proposed. PMID:27190462

  12. Analysis of the nutritional status of algae by Fourier transform infrared chemical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschmugl, Carol J.; Bayarri, Zuheir-El; Bunta, Maria; Holt, Justin B.; Giordano, Mario

    2006-09-01

    A new non-destructive method to study the nutritional status of algal cells and their environments is demonstrated. This approach allows rapid examination of whole cells without any or little pre-treatment providing a large amount of information on the biochemical composition of cells and growth medium. The method is based on the analysis of a collection of infrared (IR) spectra for individual cells; each spectrum describes the biochemical composition of a portion of a cell; a complete set of spectra is used to reconstruct an image of the entire cell. To obtain spatially resolved information synchrotron radiation was used as a bright IR source. We tested this method on the green flagellate Euglena gracilis; a comparison was conducted between cells grown in nutrient replete conditions (Type 1) and on cells allowed to deplete their medium (Type 2). Complete sets of spectra for individual cells of both types were analyzed with agglomerative hierarchical clustering, leading to distinct clusters representative of the two types of cells. The average spectra for the clusters confirmed the similarities between the clusters and the types of cells. The clustering analysis, therefore, allows the distinction of cells of the same species, but with different nutritional histories. In order to facilitate the application of the method and reduce manipulation (washing), we analyzed the cells in the presence of residual medium. The results obtained showed that even with residual medium the outcome of the clustering analysis is reliable. Our results demonstrate the applicability FTIR microspectroscopy for ecological and ecophysiological studies.

  13. Nutritional status and immune response in murine experimental Jorge Lobo's disease.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Adriana Sierra Assencio Almeida; Diório, Suzana Madeira; Pedrini, Silvia Cristina Barboza; Silva, Sônia Maria Uso Ruiz; Sartori, Beatriz Gomes Carreira; Calvi, Sueli Aparecida; Pereira, Paulo Câmara Marques; Vilani-Moreno, Fátima Regina

    2015-09-01

    There are no studies investigating the role of nutritional status and immunity associated with Jorge Lobo's disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of protein-calorie malnutrition on the immune response of BALB/c mice inoculated with Lacazia loboi. In this study,the animals were divided into four groups: G1: inoculated with restricted diet, G2: not inoculated with restricted diet, G3: inoculated with regular diet, G4: not inoculated with regular diet. The animals of groups G1 and G2 were submitted to malnutrition for 20 days and once installed the animals were inoculated intradermally into the footpad. After 4 months, they were euthanised for the isolation of peritoneal lavage cells and removal of the footpad. The production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ, TNF-α, H2 O2 and nitric oxide (NO) was evaluated in the peritoneal lavage cells. The footpad was evaluated regarding the size of macroscopic lesions, number of fungi and viability index. The results showed that the infection did not exert great influence on the body weight of the mice and previous malnutrition was an unfavourable factor for viability index, number of fungi, macroscopic lesion size in the footpad and production of H2 O2 , NO, IL-12, IL-10 and IFN-γ, suggesting that malnutrition significantly altered fungal activity and peritoneal cells. The results suggest considerable interaction between nutrition and immunity in Jorge Lobo's disease. PMID:26156007

  14. Long-term impact of infantile short bowel syndrome on nutritional status and growth.

    PubMed

    Olieman, Joanne F; Penning, Corine; Spoel, Marjolein; Ijsselstijn, Hanneke; van den Hoonaard, Thelma L; Escher, Johanna C; Bax, Nikolaas M A; Tibboel, Dick

    2012-05-01

    Short-term bowel adaptation has been documented, but data on long-term effects are scarce. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term consequences of infantile short bowel syndrome (SBS). A cross-sectional assessment (2005-7) of growth, nutritional status, defecation pattern and health status in individuals with a history of infantile SBS, born between 1975 and 2002, were performed. Data were compared with reference values of healthy controls and presented as means and standard deviations or median and ranges. A total of forty subjects (sixteen male and twenty-four female; mean age 14·8 (SD 6·8) years) had received parenteral nutrition during a median of 110 (range 43-2345) d, following small bowel resection. The mean standard deviation scores (SDS) for weight for height and target height (TH) of the children were normal; mean SDS for height for age was - 0·9 (SD 1·3). The median BMI adults was 19·9 (range 17-26) kg/m2; mean SDS for height for age was - 1·0 (range - 2·5 to 1·5). Height in general was significantly shorter than TH, and 53 % of children and 78 % of adults were below TH range. Most subjects had normal body fat percentage (%BF). SDS for total body bone mineral density were generally normal. The SDS for bone mineral content (BMC) of the children were - 1·0 (SD 1·1). Mean energy intake was 91 % of the estimated average requirements. The frequencies of defecation and bowel complaints of the subjects were significantly higher than in healthy controls. In conclusion, infantile SBS results in shorter stature than was expected from their calculated TH. BMC was lower than reference values, but the subjects had normal weight for height and %BF. PMID:21917192

  15. Relation of dietary fat intake perception to nutritional status and psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    Yong, H Y; Zalilah, M S; Yap, L D

    2009-09-01

    Excess dietary fat intake is associated with many chronic diseases. This cross-sectional study determines the differences in nutritional status and diet-related psychosocial factors by accuracy levels of dietary fat intake perceptions among adults. A total of 202 Universiti Putra Malaysia staff (20-55 years old) volunteered to participate in the study. Dietary fat accuracy levels (under-estimate, accurate and over-estimate) were determined by assessing actual fat intake through 24-hour diet recall and self-rated fat intake. Diet-related psychosocial factors assessed were perceived risks, intention to change, outcome expectancies and perceived barriers. About half (49.5%) of the respondents were classified as accurate estimators, while 35.6% and 14.9% were under-estimators and over-estimators, respectively. Dietary fat intake differed significantly between the dietary fat accuracy groups with under-estimators having the highest amount of dietary fat intake (F=17.10; p<0.001) and percentage of fat calories (F=103.99 + 0.533%, p<0.001). Over-estimators had the highest mean BMI (F=3.11, p<0.05) compared to other groups. Among the fat accuracy groups, under-estimators reported the least barriers to eating low fat foods (F= 3.671, p<0.05). There were no significant differences in waist circumference, energy intake, perceived disease risks, intention to change and outcome expectancies among the dietary fat accuracy groups. These findings suggest that inaccurate perceptions of dietary fat intake should not be overlooked as one of the cognitive barriers to dietary change and factors that influence nutritional status among adults. PMID:22691817

  16. Credit program outcomes: coping capacity and nutritional status in the food insecure context of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Teferra, Shimeles; Norell, Dan; Burnham, Gilbert

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents findings of a survey that was primarily intended as (1) an assessment of coping capacity in drought and food insecure conditions and (2) a microfinance program outcome study. A three group cross-sectional survey of 819 households was conducted in May 2003 in two predominantly rural sites in Ethiopia. Established clients of the WISDOM Microfinance Institution were compared with similar incoming clients and community controls. No overall pattern of enhanced prevalence of coping mechanisms was observed in any participant group, suggesting that participation in the lending program did not affect coping capacity at the household level. No significant differences in mean mid-upper arm circumference or prevalence of acute malnutrition were found in males or females when the total sample was assessed. In the primary survey site, Sodo, female clients and their children had significantly better nutritional status than other comparison groups: the odds of malnourishment in female community controls compared to established female clients was 3.2 (95% CI: 1.1-9.8) and the odds of acute malnutrition in children 6-59 months of age were 1.6 times greater in children of both male clients and community controls (95% CI: .78-3.32). Household food security among female client households in Sodo was significantly better than in other comparison groups according to a variety of indicators. As compared to female clients, male clients and community controls, respectively, were 1.94 (95% CI: 1.05-3.66) and 2.08 (95% CI: 1.10-4.00) times more likely to have received food aid during the past year. Findings of the present study suggest that microfinance programs may have an important impact on nutritional status and well-being of female clients and their families. That female clients were significantly less likely to be food aid recipients suggests that microfinance programs may be successful in reducing vulnerability to prolonged drought and food insecurity. PMID:15748684

  17. Effects of nutritional status on academic performance of Malaysian primary school children.

    PubMed

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    Numerous factors are known to affect the academic performance of students. These include prenatal conditions, birth conditions, postnatal events, nutritional, socio-economic factors and environmental factors. This paper examines the nutritional status and its relationship with academic performance of 9-10 years old primary school children recruited randomly in Selangor, Malaysia. A standard self-administered questionnaire was utilized to obtain pertinent information and a face-to-face interview was also conducted with the parents. Results of the academic performances were extracted from the students' report cards. The intellectual performance was assessed using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. Physical examination was also conducted on these students by doctors. Overall 1,405 students and 1,317 parents responded to the survey. Of these 83.6% were Malays, 11.6% Indians, and 4.2% Chinese. The majority of them (82.9%) were from urban areas. The female: male ratio was 51:49; mean age was 9.71 years. The mean height and weight were 32.3 kg and 135.2 cm respectively. Their mean BMI was 17.42 kg/cm2, with 0.9% underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight, and 6.3% obese. Academic performance was significantly correlated with breast feeding, income and educational level of their parents, BMI, and whether they have been taking breakfast. There was a weak correlation between presence of anaemia and intellectual performance. Improving the socio-economic status of the parents will lend a helping hand in the academic performance of the students. Since breast feeding is associated with better academic and intellectual performance it must be emphasized, particularly to expectant mothers in the antenatal clinics. PMID:16425650

  18. The impact of school socioeconomic status on student lunch consumption after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition policy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Students in one middle socioeconomic status (SES), and one low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002), and after (200...

  19. Home Environment, Nutritional Status, and Maternal Intelligence as Determinants of Intellectual Development in Rural Philippine Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, A. Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S.

    1991-01-01

    Relationships among home environment, nutritional status, maternal intelligence, and intellectual development were investigated for 177 5- and 6-year-old children in the Philippines using culture-relevant scales. Results support the generalizability to the Philippine cultural setting of relationships among these factors found in American settings.…

  20. Association between nutritional status and dental caries in permanent dentition among primary schoolchildren aged 12-14 years, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Narksawat, Kulaya; Tonmukayakul, Utsana; Boonthum, Angsana

    2009-03-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed associations between nutrition and dental caries in permanent dentition and identified oral hygiene indicators among older children aged 12-14 years in primary schools in Thailand. The study was comprised of 862 schoolchildren from five provinces representing five regions of Thailand, from both rural and urban areas, including Bangkok. The dental hygeine status was assessed by evaluating for decayed teeth, missing teeth due to decay, and filled teeth index (DMFT index). Weight and height were measured to evaluate the nutritional status; hygiene practices assessed by interview. The results show a negative relationship between nutritional status and the DMFT index, which increased when the nutritional status decreased (Spearman's rho correlation = -0.140, p < 0.001). The results from multiple logistic regression analysis showed normal weight and thin schoolchildren were more likely to have a DMFT of at least 1 by 1.94 times (OR = 1.94; 95%CI = 1.25-3.00, p = 0.004) and 2.22 times (OR = 2.22; 95%CI = 1.20-4.09, p = 0.001), respectively, compared to overweight and obese children. Normal and thin schoolchildren had a higher risk for dental caries than overweight and obese children aged 12-14 years in Thailand. School health promotion activities should emphasize eating habit improvement in order to reduce the incidence of caries. PMID:19323020

  1. The Impact of School Socioeconomic Status on Student Lunch Consumption after Implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathleen B.; Fithian, Ashley R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study compares the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Methods: Students in 1 middle socioeconomic status (SES) and 1 low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002) and after (2005/2006) implementation of the…

  2. Nutritional status, biological maturation and cardiorespiratory fitness in Azorean youth aged 11–15 years

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sex and individual differences in biological maturity status can influence height, weight, and body fat. Thus, the rigorous control of these variables seems necessary for estimating overweight and obesity in adolescents. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and over-fatness in Azorean adolescents and to examine the contributions of chronological age, sex, estimated maturity status, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) to the risk of overweight and obesity and over-fatness. Methods The sample comprised 1,206 youth aged 11–15 years (626 boys and 580 girls) from the Azores Islands, Portugal. Body mass, stature, and skinfolds (triceps and subscapular) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and percent fat was predicted from skinfolds. Age- and sex-specific IOTF cut-off values of the BMI defined nutritional status. Biological maturation was estimated as present height expressed as a percentage of predicted adult (mature) stature. The CRF was analyzed from the 20-m shuttle run test. Results The total prevalence rates of overweight/obesity and over-fatness were of 31% and 27%, respectively. Low CRF (unfit) and being average and advanced in maturity status were positively and significantly associated with overweight/obesity and with risk of being over-fatness in both sexes. Conclusions High prevalence rates of overweight/obesity and over-fatness were identified in Azorean youth, and low CRF and advanced biological maturation were positively associated with overweight/obesity and over-fatness in our sample of adolescents. PMID:23697718

  3. Nutritional status of toddlers and preschoolers according to household income level: overweight tendency and micronutrient deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kirang; Shin, Sam Cheol

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS/OBJECTIVES The effects of malnutrition on growth of toddlers and preschoolers by socioeconomic status are not well known. This study aimed to examine the effects of dietary intake on growth outcomes in toddlers and preschoolers by household income level. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study population was a total of 1,687 children aged 1 to 5 years that participated in the KNHANES from 2009 to 2011. Growth of children was assessed by height for age (HFA) and weight for height (WFH). Children were classified into three groups according to children's HFA and WFH compared to the 10th and 90th percentiles of the 2007 Korean Children and Adolescent Growth Standard. Average monthly household income was divided into quartile groups. Dietary intake data were obtained by using the one day 24-hr recall method. Risks of inadequate intake of nutrients and unfavorable growth were estimated by using a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for sex, age, region, and energy intake. RESULTS The low HFA group (< 10th percentile) had significantly lower intakes of energy, carbohydrate, and thiamin as compared with the high group (≥ 90th percentile). For WFH status, vitamin C intake was lower in the low group than in the high group. Household income level was related to WFH status but not HFA. Children from lower income households were more likely to have high WFH than those from higher income households (P for trend = 0.038). Household income status was also significantly related with risk of inadequate intake of micronutrients such as thiamin (P for trend = 0.032) and vitamin C (P for trend = 0.002), showing higher odds of inadequate intakes in children from lower income households. CONCLUSIONS Children from lower income households were prone to be overweight and to have inadequate intakes of micronutrients such as thiamin and vitamin C. To reduce nutritional and health disparities, collective action in the public sector is required from early life. PMID:26425286

  4. Can Nutritional Assessment Tools Predict Response to Nutritional Therapy?

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag; Omer, Endashaw; Diamond, Sarah J; McClave, Stephen A

    2016-04-01

    Traditional tools and scoring systems for nutritional assessment have focused solely on parameters of poor nutritional status in the past, in an effort to define the elusive concept of malnutrition. Such tools fail to account for the contribution of disease severity to overall nutritional risk. High nutritional risk, caused by either deterioration of nutritional status or greater disease severity (or a combination of both factors), puts the patient in a metabolic stress state characterized by adverse outcome and increased complications. Newer scoring systems for determining nutritional risk, such as the Nutric Score and the Nutritional Risk Score-2002 have created a paradigm shift connecting assessment and treatment with quality outcome measures of success. Clinicians now have the opportunity to identify high risk patients through their initial assessment, provide adequate or sufficient nutrition therapy, and expect improved patient outcomes as a result. These concepts are supported by observational and prospective interventional trials. Greater clinical experience and refinement in these scoring systems are needed in the future to optimize patient response to nutrition therapy. PMID:26936031

  5. Nutrition in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sen, D; Prakash, J

    2000-07-01

    Malnutrition is a common clinical problem in dialysis patients, which is multifactorial in origin. It is most often found in a patient of chronic renal failure (CRF) during the period when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls below 10 ml/min, but dialysis is yet to be started. The loss of proteins, aminoacids and other essential nutrients during the procedure of dialysis may further aggravate the malnutrition. Poor nutrition in dialysis patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the form of delayed wound healing, malaise, fatigue, increased susceptibility to infection and poor rehabilitation. In view of the above consequences, all patients on dialysis must undergo nutritional assessment. It is very vital to maintain good nutritional status in-patients on dialysis by adequate protein and calories intake, appropriate supplementation of iron, calcium, minerals and water-soluble vitamins and, of course, the supplementation should be individualised. Nutritional needs are enhanced in presence of stresses like infection or surgery to limit excessive tissue catabolism and therefore, these are the situations, which demand intensive nutrition therapy. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) may be required for patients on dialysis in intensive care unit, using a central venous catheter. However, enteral route is always preferred to parenteral ones, whenever possible. Even after adequate dialysis has been given, dietary counselling is often required for both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients to ensure that they ingest the recommended amount of protein, calories and essential micronutrients. PMID:11273510

  6. The impact of microbial immune enteral nutrition on the patients with acute radiation enteritis in bowel function and immune status.

    PubMed

    Shao, Feng; Xin, Fu-Ze; Yang, Cheng-Gang; Yang, Dao-Gui; Mi, Yue-Tang; Yu, Jun-Xiu; Li, Guo-Yong

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of microbial immune enteral nutrition by microecopharmaceutics and deep sea fish oil and glutamine and Peptisorb on the patients with acute radiation enteritis in bowel function and immune status. From June 2010 to January 2013, 46 acute radiation enteritis patients in Liaocheng People's Hospital were randomized into the microbial immune enteral nutrition group and the control group: 24 patients in treatment group and 22 patients in control group. The immune microbial nutrition was given to the study group, but not to the control group. The concentration of serum albumin and prealbumin and the number of CD3 (+) T cell, CD4 (+) T cell, CD8 (+) T cell, CD4 (+)/CD8 (+) and natural killer cell of the two groups were detected on the 1, 7 and 14 days after treatment. The arm muscle circumference and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) were recorded, and the tolerance of the two groups for enteral nutrition and intestinal symptoms was collected and then comparing the two indicators and get results. The tolerance of microbial immune enteral nutrition group about abdominal pain, bloating and diarrhea was better than the control group (P values were 0.018, 0.04 and 0.008 after 7 days; P values were 0.018, 0.015 and 0.002 after 14 days); and the cellular immune parameters were better than the control group((△) P = 0.008,([Symbol: see text]) P = 0.039, (☆) P = 0.032); No difference was found in nutrition indicators. To the patients with acute radiation enteritis, microbial immune enteral nutrition could improve the patient's immune status, and the tolerance of enteral nutrition could be better for the bowel function and the patients' rehabilitation. PMID:24366547

  7. FRAILTY, FOOD INSECURITY, AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV

    PubMed Central

    SMIT, E.; WANKE, C.; DONG, K.; GROTHEER, A.; HANSEN, S.; SKINNER, S.; TANG, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nutritional status and food insecurity are associated with frailty in the general U.S. population, yet little is known about this in the aging population of people living with HIV (PLWH). Objectives Given the potential importance of nutrition and the amenability to intervention, we examined the association between nutritional status, food insecurity, and frailty in PLWH. Design Cross sectional study. Setting Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Participants 50 PLWH, age ≥45 years, recruited from a cohort study examining risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Measurements Frailty, duration of HIV, use of antiretroviral therapy, disease history, food insecurity, physical function, and physical activity were assessed by questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed using 3-day food records. Blood was drawn for CD4+ cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and lipid levels. Physical measurements included height, weight, and skinfold thickness. Results The prevalence of frailty was 16% (n=8), 44% were pre-frail (n=22) and 40% were not frail (n=20). The number of reported difficulties with 20 activities of daily living was highest in frail (mean 10.4±3.9 SD), followed by pre-frail (6.5±4.6), and lowest in not frail participants (2.0±2.3). Seven (88%) of the frail PLWH lost weight with an average weight loss of 22.9 pounds; 6 (75%) reported unintentional weight loss, and all 6 of these met the frailty criteria for weight loss of 10 or more pounds. Nine (45%) of the not frail PLWH reported losing weight with an average weight loss of 6.2 pounds; 5 (23%) reported unintentional weight loss of <10 pounds. Frail PLWH were more likely to report being food insecure than not frail PLWH (63% vs. 10%, p=0.02), and tended to have lower energy intake than not frail PLWH. Conclusion Research is needed on targeted interventions to improve food security and activities of daily living in PLWH for both the prevention and improvement of frailty. PMID:26689809

  8. Nutritional Status of Under-five Children Living in an Informal Urban Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Heather; Cosmas, Leonard; Bamrah, Sapna; Dooling, Kathleen; Feikin, Daniel R.; Talley, Leisel E.; Breiman, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa contributes to high rates of childhood morbidity and mortality. However, little information on the nutritional status of children is available from informal settlements. During the period of post-election violence in Kenya during December 2007–March 2008, food shortages were widespread within informal settlements in Nairobi. To investigate whether food insecurity due to post-election violence resulted in high prevalence of acute and chronic malnutrition in children, a nutritional survey was undertaken among children aged 6-59 months within two villages in Kibera, where the Kenya Medical Research Institute/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts population-based surveillance for infectious disease syndromes. During 25 March–4 April 2008, a structured questionnaire was administered to caregivers of 1,310 children identified through surveillance system databases to obtain information on household demographics, food availability, and child-feeding practices. Anthropometric measurements were recorded on all participating children. Indices were reported in z-scores and compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) 2005 reference population to determine the nutritional status of children. Data were analyzed using the Anthro software of WHO and the SAS. Stunting was found in 47.0% of the children; 11.8% were underweight, and 2.6% were wasted. Severe stunting was found in 23.4% of the children; severe underweight in 3.1%, and severe wasting in 0.6%. Children aged 36-47 months had the highest prevalence (58.0%) of stunting while the highest prevalence (4.1%) of wasting was in children aged 6-11 months. Boys were more stunted than girls (p<0.01), and older children were significantly (p<0.0001) stunted compared to younger children. In the third year of life, girls were more likely than boys to be wasted (p<0.01). The high prevalence of chronic malnutrition suggests that stunting is a sustained problem within this urban

  9. Nutritional status of under-five children living in an informal urban settlement in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Olack, Beatrice; Burke, Heather; Cosmas, Leonard; Bamrah, Sapna; Dooling, Kathleen; Feikin, Daniel R; Talley, Leisel E; Breiman, Robert F

    2011-08-01

    Malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa contributes to high rates of childhood morbidity and mortality. However, little information on the nutritional status of children is available from informal settlements. During the period of post-election violence in Kenya during December 2007-March 2008, food shortages were widespread within informal settlements in Nairobi. To investigate whether food insecurity due to post-election violence resulted in high prevalence of acute and chronic malnutrition in children, a nutritional survey was undertaken among children aged 6-59 months within two villages in Kibera, where the Kenya Medical Research Institute/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts population-based surveillance for infectious disease syndromes. During 25 March-4 April 2008, a structured questionnaire was administered to caregivers of 1,310 children identified through surveillance system databases to obtain information on household demographics, food availability, and child-feeding practices. Anthropometric measurements were recorded on all participating children. Indices were reported in z-scores and compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) 2005 reference population to determine the nutritional status of children. Data were analyzed using the Anthro software of WHO and the SAS. Stunting was found in 47.0% of the children; 11.8% were underweight, and 2.6% were wasted. Severe stunting was found in 23.4% of the children; severe underweight in 3.1%, and severe wasting in 0.6%. Children aged 36-47 months had the highest prevalence (58.0%) of stunting while the highest prevalence (4.1%) of wasting was in children aged 6-11 months. Boys were more stunted than girls (p < 0.01), and older children were significantly (p < 0.0001) stunted compared to younger children. In the third year of life, girls were more likely than boys to be wasted (p < 0.01). The high prevalence of chronic malnutrition suggests that stunting is a sustained problem within this urban

  10. Nutrition in neurologically impaired children

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Malnutrition, either under- or overnutrition, is a common condition among neurologically impaired children. Energy needs are difficult to define in this heterogeneous population, and there is a lack of information on what normal growth should be in these children. Non-nutritional factors may influence growth, but nutritional factors such as insufficient caloric intake, excessive nutrient losses and abnormal energy metabolism also contribute to growth failure. Malnutrition is associated with significant morbidity, while nutritional rehabilitation improves overall health. Nutritional support should be an integral part of the management of neurologically impaired children, and should focus not only on improving nutritional status but also on improving quality of life for patients and their families. When considering nutritional intervention, oromotor dysfunction, gastroesophageal reflux and pulmonary aspiration must be addressed and a multidisciplinary team should be involved. Children at risk for nutrition-related problems should be identified early. An assessment of nutritional status should be performed at least yearly, and more frequently in infants and young children, or in children at risk for malnutrition. Oral intake should be optimized if safe, but enteral tube feedings should be initiated in children with oromotor dysfunction, leading to clinically significant aspiration, or in children unable to maintain an adequate nutritional status with oral intake. Nasogastric tube feeding should be used for short-term intervention, but if long-term nutritional intervention is required, a gastrostomy should be considered. Antireflux procedures should be reserved for children with significant gastroesophageal reflux. The patient’s response to nutritional intervention should be carefully monitored to avoid excessive weight gain after initiation of enteral nutrition, and paediatric formulas should be used to avoid micronutrient deficiencies. PMID:20592978

  11. The effect of nutritional status on immune capacity and immune responses in preschool children in a rural community in India*

    PubMed Central

    Kielmann, A. A.; Uberoi, I. S.; Chandra, R. K.; Mehra, V. L.

    1976-01-01

    Cell-mediated immune response (CMI) and several aspects of humoral immune status and response were measured and related to nutritional status in preschool children in north India. CMI was measured by means of postvaccinal (BCG) tuberculin sensitivity and leucocytic blast cell transformation. Humoral immune response was measured by means of tetanus antibody production following vaccination with diphtheria—pertussis—tetanus vaccine. Immunoglobulins A, G, and M and complement (C3) were also determined. CMI, serum IgA, and C3 were found to be directly correlated with weight-for-age status. PMID:1088398

  12. Nutritional status in peritoneal dialysis: studies in body composition, lipoprotein metabolism and peritoneal function.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ann-Cathrine

    2002-01-01

    This thesis is based on clinical studies including virtually all patients treated with peritoneal dialysis in Gothenburg during the 1990s. The patients had a fundamentally altered body composition compared to healthy subjects, characterised by a reduction in body cell mass and body fat already at start of dialysis. During PD treatment. a further decrease in body cell mass was observed. Energy stores tended to normalise during the first years of treatment and remained constant thereafter, or declined subsequently. Extracellular water, calculated from the four-compartment model, was increased when patients started PD treatment and increased further, in parallel to the reduction in body cell mass. These alterations were seen in combination with a normal. or slightly reduced, body weight. Standard methods of assessing nutritional status may therefore not be valid in the dialysis population. Prediction equations to estimate total body water, used in measurements of dialysis adequacy, give erroneous results in PD patients, as shown in a study on our PD population. This may have important clinical consequences, especially in wasted patients. Reduced muscle mass is a marker of protein-energy malnutrition, and therefore simple and reliable methods to measure muscle mass are warranted. When lean body mass was calculated from creatinine generation rate and compared to lean body mass estimated from measurements of total body potassium. the agreement between the two methods was low. Furthermore, when repeated measurements of creatinine generation rate were performed, the variation coefficient was unacceptably high. Thus. creatinine generation rate cannot be recommended as a method to evaluate somatic protein status in PD patients. The lipoprotein metabolic derangements are pronounced in PD patients. in which a further increase in cholesterol and cholesterol-rich apoB-containing lipoproteins are added to the already pre-existing renal dyslipidemia. characterised by increased

  13. Nutritional status of indigenous children: findings from the First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of undernutrition, which is closely associated with socioeconomic and sanitation conditions, is often higher among indigenous than non-indigenous children in many countries. In Brazil, in spite of overall reductions in the prevalence of undernutrition in recent decades, the nutritional situation of indigenous children remains worrying. The First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil, conducted in 2008–2009, was the first study to evaluate a nationwide representative sample of indigenous peoples. This paper presents findings from this study on the nutritional status of indigenous children < 5 years of age in Brazil. Methods A multi-stage sampling was employed to obtain a representative sample of the indigenous population residing in villages in four Brazilian regions (North, Northeast, Central-West, and Southeast/South). Initially, a stratified probabilistic sampling was carried out for indigenous villages located in these regions. Households in sampled villages were selected by census or systematic sampling depending on the village population. The survey evaluated the health and nutritional status of children < 5 years, in addition to interviewing mothers or caretakers. Results Height and weight measurements were taken of 6,050 and 6,075 children, respectively. Prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting were 25.7%, 5.9%, and 1.3%, respectively. Even after controlling for confounding, the prevalence rates of underweight and stunting were higher among children in the North region, in low socioeconomic status households, in households with poorer sanitary conditions, with anemic mothers, with low birthweight, and who were hospitalized during the prior 6 months. A protective effect of breastfeeding for underweight was observed for children under 12 months. Conclusions The elevated rate of stunting observed in indigenous children approximates that of non-indigenous Brazilians four

  14. Riboflavin status, MTHFR genotype and blood pressure: current evidence and implications for personalised nutrition.

    PubMed

    McAuley, E; McNulty, H; Hughes, C; Strain, J J; Ward, M

    2016-08-01

    Clinical deficiency of the B-vitamin riboflavin (vitamin B2) is largely confined to developing countries; however accumulating evidence indicates that suboptimal riboflavin status is a widespread problem across the developed world. Few international data are available on riboflavin status as measured by the functional biomarker, erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient, considered to be the gold standard index. One important role of riboflavin in the form of flavin dinucleotide is as a co-factor for the folate-metabolising enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). Homozygosity for the common C677T polymorphism in MTHFR, affecting over 10 % of the UK and Irish populations and up to 32 % of other populations worldwide, has been associated with an increased risk of CVD, and more recently with hypertension. This review will explore available studies reporting riboflavin status worldwide, the interaction of riboflavin with the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and the potential role of riboflavin in personalised nutrition. Evidence is accumulating for a novel role of riboflavin as an important modulator of blood pressure (BP) specifically in individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype, with results from a number of recent randomised controlled trials demonstrating that riboflavin supplementation can significantly reduce systolic BP by 5-13 mmHg in these genetically at risk adults. Studies are however required to investigate the BP-lowering effect of riboflavin in different populations and in response to doses higher than 1·6 mg/d. Furthermore, work focusing on the translation of this research to health professionals and patients is also required. PMID:27170501

  15. Bone metabolism and nutritional status during 30-day head-down-tilt bed rest

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Zwart, Sara R.; Heer, Martina; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ericson, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Bed rest studies provide an important tool for modeling physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. Markers of bone metabolism and nutritional status were evaluated in 12 subjects (8 men, 4 women; ages 25–49 yr) who participated in a 30-day −6° head-down-tilt diet-controlled bed rest study. Blood and urine samples were collected twice before, once a week during, and twice after bed rest. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects linear regression with a priori contrasts comparing all days to the second week of the pre-bed rest acclimation period. During bed rest, all urinary markers of bone resorption increased ∼20% (P < 0.001), and serum parathyroid hormone decreased ∼25% (P < 0.001). Unlike longer (>60 days) bed rest studies, neither markers of oxidative damage nor iron status indexes changed over the 30 days of bed rest. Urinary oxalate excretion decreased ∼20% during bed rest (P < 0.001) and correlated inversely with urinary calcium (R = −0.18, P < 0.02). These data provide a broad overview of the biochemistry associated with short-duration bed rest studies and provide an impetus for using shorter studies to save time and costs wherever possible. For some effects related to bone biochemistry, short-duration bed rest will fulfill the scientific requirements to simulate spaceflight, but other effects (antioxidants/oxidative damage, iron status) do not manifest until subjects are in bed longer, in which case longer studies or other analogs may be needed. Regardless, maximizing research funding and opportunities will be critical to enable the next steps in space exploration. PMID:22995395

  16. Bone metabolism and nutritional status during 30-day head-down-tilt bed rest.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Jennifer L L; Zwart, Sara R; Heer, Martina; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ericson, Karen; Smith, Scott M

    2012-11-01

    Bed rest studies provide an important tool for modeling physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. Markers of bone metabolism and nutritional status were evaluated in 12 subjects (8 men, 4 women; ages 25-49 yr) who participated in a 30-day -6° head-down-tilt diet-controlled bed rest study. Blood and urine samples were collected twice before, once a week during, and twice after bed rest. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects linear regression with a priori contrasts comparing all days to the second week of the pre-bed rest acclimation period. During bed rest, all urinary markers of bone resorption increased ~20% (P < 0.001), and serum parathyroid hormone decreased ~25% (P < 0.001). Unlike longer (>60 days) bed rest studies, neither markers of oxidative damage nor iron status indexes changed over the 30 days of bed rest. Urinary oxalate excretion decreased ~20% during bed rest (P < 0.001) and correlated inversely with urinary calcium (R = -0.18, P < 0.02). These data provide a broad overview of the biochemistry associated with short-duration bed rest studies and provide an impetus for using shorter studies to save time and costs wherever possible. For some effects related to bone biochemistry, short-duration bed rest will fulfill the scientific requirements to simulate spaceflight, but other effects (antioxidants/oxidative damage, iron status) do not manifest until subjects are in bed longer, in which case longer studies or other analogs may be needed. Regardless, maximizing research funding and opportunities will be critical to enable the next steps in space exploration. PMID:22995395

  17. Perioperative nutritional therapy in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Ahmed; Kaido, Toshimi; Uemoto, Shinji

    2015-03-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is frequently seen in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. This causes a deterioration of the patients' clinical condition and affects their post-transplantation survival. Accurate assessment of the nutritional status and adequate intervention are prerequisites for perioperative nutritional treatment. However, the metabolic abnormalities induced by liver failure make the traditional assessment of the nutritional status difficult. The methods that were recently developed for accurately assessing the nutritional status by body bioelectrical impedance may be implemented in pre-transplant management. Because preoperative malnutrition and the loss of skeletal muscle mass, called sarcopenia, have a significant negative impact on the post-transplantation outcome, it is essential to provide adequate nutritional support during all phases of liver transplantation. Oral nutrition is preferred, but tube enteral nutrition may be required to provide the necessary caloric intake. We herein discuss both bioelectrical impedance and the latest findings in the current perioperative nutritional interventions in liver transplant patients regarding synbiotics, micronutrients, branched-chain amino acid supplementation, the use of immune system modulating formulas, the fluid balance and the offering of nocturnal meals. PMID:24473669

  18. Elemental concentrations in scalp hair, nutritional status and health-related quality of life in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Akinobu; Ishimura, Eiji; Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro; Kakiya, Ryusuke; Tabata, Tsutomu; Mori, Katsuhito; Tahara, Hideki; Shoji, Tetsuo; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Inaba, Masaaki

    2012-04-01

    Elemental concentrations in hair from hemodialysis (HD) patients have not been well investigated. We examined the relationships between the elemental concentrations in scalp hair and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and nutritional status in HD patients. Twenty six elemental concentrations were measured in scalp hair samples from 60 male HD patients using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. To evaluate HRQOL, the Short Form 36 item health survey (SF36) was used. As indices of nutritional status, body mass index, serum parameters, and geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) were used. Phosphorus correlated positively with serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), GNRI and the physical domains of the SF36. Zinc correlated positively with serum creatinine, BUN and the physical domains of the SF36. Mercury and arsenic correlated positively with BUN. Cadmium correlated negatively with serum albumin, BUN and GNRI. Copper correlated positively with the physical domains of the SF36. Iodine correlated negatively with the physical domains of the SF36. Selenium correlated negatively with the mental domains of the SF36. In conclusion, phosphorus and zinc concentrations in scalp hair can be additional biomarkers of HRQOL and/or nutritional status in HD patients. Cadmium accumulation correlated with malnutrition. Iodine and selenium accumulation may adversely affect HRQOL. Further investigation is necessary to determine precisely how these elements affect these measures. PMID:22458390

  19. Mother's body mass index as a predictor of infant's nutritional status in the post-emergency phase of a flood.

    PubMed

    Goudet, Sophie; Griffths, Paula; Bogin, Barry A

    2011-10-01

    Maternal nutritional status is a determinant of child health. This paper studies the association between a mother's body mass index (BMI) and her infant's nutritional status over a one year time frame after the 1998 flood crisis in Bangladesh. The paper uses secondary analysis of data collected from 757 households in seven rural areas of Bangladesh affected by the 1998 flood using multiple-stage probability sampling techniques (n = 143). Logistic regression models were employed to investigate the predictive impact of maternal BMI on infant's nutritional status after controlling for a range of child and maternal factors. An underweight mother was a significant factor with regard to the risk of infants suffering stunting (odds ratio (OR) = 4.45, 95 per cent confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-18.94) and being underweight (OR = 3.51, 95 per cent CI = 1.02-12.05) a year later, but not wasting (OR = 2.09, 95 per cent CI = 0.51-8.67). The findings suggest that there is a post-emergency link between maternal and infant nutritional health. PMID:21913932

  20. Effect of nutritional status on the osmoregulation of green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris).

    PubMed

    Haller, Liran Y; Hung, Silas S O; Lee, Seunghyung; Fadel, James G; Lee, Jun-Ho; McEnroe, Maryann; Fangue, Nann A

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is linked to food web and salinity fluctuations in estuarine environments. Both decreased nutritional status and environmental salinity influence the physiological tolerance and health of fish populations; however, limited information on the interaction of these two factors and their physiological consequences is available. The green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) is a species of special concern in California, and the southern distinct population segment is listed as threatened. To test the hypothesis that poor nutrition negatively affects osmoregulation, juvenile green sturgeon (222 d posthatch) were randomly assigned to four feed restriction groups (12.5%, 25%, 50%, and 100% of the optimal feeding rate for 4 wk). Fish were then acutely exposed to 0-, 8-, 16-, or 32-ppt salinities and sampled at three time points (12, 72, or 120 h). Feed restriction significantly (P < 0.05) decreased specific growth rate, feed efficiency, condition factor, whole-body lipids, and protein content as well as plasma glucose, triglycerides, and proteins. Furthermore, feed restriction, salinity concentration, and salinity exposure time had significant effects on hematological indexes (hematocrit, hemoglobin), plasma values (osmolality, Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), glucose, lactate, cortisol), enzymatic activity (gill and pyloric ceca Na(+)/K(+) ATPase), and morphology of gill mitochondria-rich cells. The largest disturbances were observed at the highest salinity treatments across all feeding regimes. In addition, the interaction between feed restriction and acute salinity exposure at the highest salinity treatment resulted in high mortality rates during the first 72 h of salinity exposure. Evaluating the interactions of these environmental stressors and their implications on green sturgeon physiological tolerance will inform restoration and management efforts in rapidly changing estuarine environments. PMID:25590591

  1. Are visceral proteins valid markers for nutritional status in the burn intensive care unit?

    PubMed

    Shields, Beth A; Pidcoke, Heather F; Chung, Kevin K; Wade, Charles E; Martini, Wenjun Z; Renz, Evan M; Wolf, Steven E

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether visceral protein levels increase under positive nitrogen balance during times of decrease in acute-phase reactant levels in patients with burn injury. This was a post hoc analysis of a prospective, interventional study approved by the local institutional review board. A total of 10 subjects between the ages of 18 and 72 with ≥ 20% total body surface area burn were enrolled over a 14-month period. Data were collected for five subjects (average age of 28 ± 8 years and total body surface area burn of 69 ± 15%) who met the inclusion criteria. Changes in visceral protein levels were examined along with nitrogen balance and acute-phase reactants when the subjects were on enteral nutrition, and the proteins were not examined during times of acute kidney injury. Descriptive statistics were performed, and linear regression was used to analyze the association of visceral proteins and nitrogen balance during times that acute-phase reactant levels were decreasing. The subjects received an average of 3044 ± 1613 kcal/day (39 ± 20 kcal/kg), meeting 72% of caloric goals and achieving positive nitrogen balance during 68% of the 40 weekly measurements, with 174 ± 85 g of protein intake per day (2.2 ± 1.1 g/kg). There was a weak relationship between nitrogen balance and changes in visceral protein levels during times that the acute-phase reactant levels were decreasing (P > .05). Visceral proteins were found to be poor markers of nutritional status. This study is unique because the subjects were able to achieve positive nitrogen balance despite severe burns. PMID:25055006

  2. Nutritional status as a predictive marker for surgical site infection in total joint arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Alfargieny, Randa; Bodalal, Zuhir; Bendardaf, Riyad; El-Fadli, Mustafa; Langhi, Salem

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical site infection (SSI) is considered one of the most serious complications in total joint arthroplasty (TJA). This study seeks to analyze the predictive value of preoperative and postoperative nutritional biomarkers for SSI in elective TJA. Methodology: Nutritional markers were gathered retrospectively utilizing patient's records from the orthopedics department at Benghazi Medical Center (BMC). The sample spanned cases admitted during the 20-month period between January 2012 and August 2013 and had undergone either elective total hip replacement or total knee replacement. The collected lab results included a complete blood count, total lymphocyte count (TLC), and serum albumin (S. alb.) levels. The patients were then divided into two groups based on the occurrence of an SSI. Results: A total of 135 total knee (81.5%, n = 110/135) and total hip (18.5%, n = 25/135) replacements were performed at BMC during the study period. Among these cases, 57% (n = 78/135) had patient records suitable for statistical analysis. The average preoperative TLC was 2.422 ×103 cells/mm3 (range = 0.8–4.7 ×103 cells/mm3) whereas that number dropped after the surgery to 1.694 ×103 cells/mm3 (range = 0.6–3.8 ×103 cells/mm3). S. alb. levels showed a mean of 3.973 g/dl (range = 2.9–4.7 g/dl) preoperatively and 3.145 g/dl (range = 1.0–4.1 g/dl) postoperatively. The majority of TJA patients did not suffer any complication (67.4%, n = 91/135) while eight cases (5.9%) suffered from a superficial SSI. Conclusion: Preoperative S. alb. was identified as the only significant predictor for SSI (P = 0.011). Being a preventable cause of postoperative morbidity, it is recommended that the nutritional status (especially preoperative S. alb.) of TJA patients be used as a screening agent and appropriate measures be taken to avoid SSI. PMID:26629466

  3. Nutritional aspects of night eating and its association with weight status among Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Emely; Kim, Meeyoung; Kim, Won Gyoung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES A growing body of research has indicated that night eating could be associated with poor diet quality and negative health outcomes. This study examined the nutritional aspects of night eating, its related factors, and the association between night eating and body weight among Korean adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study analysed the data from a one day 24-hour dietary recall as well as a demographic survey of 1,738 Korean adolescents aged 12 to 18-years-old obtained from the 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. 'Night eating' was defined as consuming 25% or more of one's daily energy intake between 21:00 and 06:00. Subjects complying with the preceding condition were classified as 'night eaters', whereas the rest were considered 'non-night eaters'. Logistic regression analysis examined factors related to night eating. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between night eating and BMI z-scores, whereas multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between night eating and weight status. RESULTS About 21% of Korean adolescents appeared to be night eaters. Night eaters showed increased breakfast skipping (P = 0.001), higher energy intake from snacks (P < 0.001), greater proportion of energy intake from fat (P = 0.029), and lower Dietary Diversity Scores (P = 0.008) than non-night eaters. Male adolescents presented 1.9 times higher odds of being night eaters than females. Adolescents whose both parents were night eaters were 4.4 times as likely to be night eaters as those whose neither parents were. Female adolescents showed a significant relationship between night eating and BMI z-scores (β = 0.28, P = 0.004). However, night eating did not increase odds of being overweight or obese in adolescents. CONCLUSIONS Night eating in Korean adolescents was related to undesirable dietary behaviours and low diet quality in general as well as higher BMI z

  4. Can postpartum maternal urinary iodine be used to estimate iodine nutrition status of newborns?

    PubMed

    Nazeri, Pantea; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hedayati, Mehdi; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Delshad, Hossein; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-04-14

    I deficiency can lead to detrimental effects, particularly in neonates and young infants. The aim of this study was to explore whether postpartum maternal urinary I can be used to estimate the I status of newborns. In this cross-sectional study conducted in Tehran, lactating mothers and newborns, within 3-5 d postpartum, were randomly selected. Urine samples were collected from each mother and newborn, and a heel-prick blood sample was obtained from all newborns as part of the routine national newborn screening programme. According to the WHO criteria, median urinary I concentration (UIC) 5 mIU/l was considered as I insufficiency. A total of 147 postpartum women and neonates, aged 27·8 (SD 5·3) years and 4·2 (SD 0·6) d, respectively, completed this study. The median UIC was 68·0 (interquartile range (IQR) 39·4-133·5) and 212·5 (IQR 92·3-307·3) µg/l in postpartum mothers and newborns, respectively. The median neonatal TSH was 1·00 (IQR 0·50-1·70) mIU/l. There was no significant difference in the neonatal UIC and TSH of infants whose mothers had deficient and sufficient urinary I. In the multiple linear regression, neonatal UIC value was associated with maternal urinary I (P=0·048) and parity (P=0·039); a significant association was observed between neonatal TSH and infant sex (P=0·038) and birth weight (P=0·049). The findings of our study demonstrate that, despite postpartum mothers being mildly I deficient, I status of their infants was adequate as assessed by UIC and TSH values. It seems factors other than maternal urinary I may influence the I status in newborns. PMID:26857284

  5. [Nutritional status of school children in poverty conditions from urban and rural areas. Metropolitan region. Chile. 1986-1987].

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, D; Olivares, M; Castro, C; Ivanovic, R

    1995-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional status of poor children from urban and rural areas and to quantify the impact of socioeconomic, sociocultural and family variables on nutritional status. Weight/age, height/age, weight/height and head circumference percentages were measured in a representative sample of 4509 school children, 39% belonging to a low socioeconomic status and living in the Metropolitan region, chosen according to grade, type of school, sex and geographic area. Children coming from rural areas had significantly higher percentages of undernutrition than children from urban areas according to weight/age (47 vs 34%, and weight/height (7.7 vs 4.6%); likewise they had a higher proportion of height/age ratios below 90% (10.3 vs 5.2%). Head circumference was below 100% in 77 and 65% of rural and urban children. Brachial anthropometric variables were also lower in rural children. The number of siblings and family size were the independent variables with the greatest explanatory power for weight/age and height/age variations. Mother's instruction in urban areas and crowding, family alcoholism and mother's instruction in rural areas, were the independent variables with the greatest explanatory power for head circumference variation. It is concluded that the significant relationship found between socioeconomic, sociocultural and family variables ad nutritional status is relevant, considering that the sample was homogeneous in each geographic area. PMID:8525197

  6. Change of Nutritional Status Assessed Using Subjective Global Assessment Is Associated With All-Cause Mortality in Incident Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young Eun; Kee, Youn Kyung; Yoon, Chang-Yun; Han, In Mee; Han, Seung Gyu; Park, Kyoung Sook; Lee, Mi Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung H; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon Su; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam-Ho; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2016-02-01

    Subjective global assessment (SGA) is associated with mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. However, little is known whether improvement or deterioration of nutritional status after dialysis initiation influences the clinical outcome. We aimed to elucidate the association between changes in nutritional status determined by SGA during the first year of dialysis and all-cause mortality in incident ESRD patients. This was a multicenter, prospective cohort study. Incident dialysis patients with available SGA data at both baseline and 12 months after dialysis commencement (n = 914) were analyzed. Nutritional status was defined as well nourished (WN, SGA A) or malnourished (MN, SGA B or C). The patients were divided into 4 groups according to the change in nutritional status between baseline and 12 months after dialysis commencement: group 1, WN to WN; group 2, MN to WN; group 3, WN to MN; and group 4, MN to MN. Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed to clarify the association between changes in nutritional status and mortality. Being in the MN group at 12 months after dialysis initiation, but not at baseline, was a significant risk factor for mortality. There was a significant difference in the 3-year survival rates among the groups (group 1, 92.2%; group 2, 86.0%; group 3, 78.2%; and group 4, 63.5%; log-rank test, P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the mortality risk was significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1 (hazard ratio [HR] 2.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-6.03, P = 0.01) whereas the mortality risk was significantly lower in group 2 compared with group 4 (HR 0.35, 95% CI 0.17-0.71, P < 0.01) even after adjustment for confounding factors. Moreover, mortality risk of group 3 was significantly higher than in group 2 (HR 2.89, 95% CI 1.22-6.81, P = 0.02); there was no significant difference between groups 1 and 2. The changes in nutritional status assessed by SGA during the first

  7. Change of Nutritional Status Assessed Using Subjective Global Assessment Is Associated With All-Cause Mortality in Incident Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Young Eun; Kee, Youn Kyung; Yoon, Chang-Yun; Han, In Mee; Han, Seung Gyu; Park, Kyoung Sook; Lee, Mi Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung H.; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon Su; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam-Ho; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Subjective global assessment (SGA) is associated with mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. However, little is known whether improvement or deterioration of nutritional status after dialysis initiation influences the clinical outcome. We aimed to elucidate the association between changes in nutritional status determined by SGA during the first year of dialysis and all-cause mortality in incident ESRD patients. This was a multicenter, prospective cohort study. Incident dialysis patients with available SGA data at both baseline and 12 months after dialysis commencement (n = 914) were analyzed. Nutritional status was defined as well nourished (WN, SGA A) or malnourished (MN, SGA B or C). The patients were divided into 4 groups according to the change in nutritional status between baseline and 12 months after dialysis commencement: group 1, WN to WN; group 2, MN to WN; group 3, WN to MN; and group 4, MN to MN. Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed to clarify the association between changes in nutritional status and mortality. Being in the MN group at 12 months after dialysis initiation, but not at baseline, was a significant risk factor for mortality. There was a significant difference in the 3-year survival rates among the groups (group 1, 92.2%; group 2, 86.0%; group 3, 78.2%; and group 4, 63.5%; log-rank test, P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the mortality risk was significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1 (hazard ratio [HR] 2.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27–6.03, P = 0.01) whereas the mortality risk was significantly lower in group 2 compared with group 4 (HR 0.35, 95% CI 0.17–0.71, P < 0.01) even after adjustment for confounding factors. Moreover, mortality risk of group 3 was significantly higher than in group 2 (HR 2.89, 95% CI 1.22–6.81, P = 0.02); there was no significant difference between groups 1 and 2. The changes in nutritional status assessed by SGA

  8. Feeding practices and nutritional status of infants in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Safari, John G; Kimambo, Stella C; Lwelamira, James E

    2013-07-01

    Breast feeding practice especially exclusive breast feeding (EBF) is a major determinant of child growth and development. In Tanzania, most women breastfeed their infants for long periods, but many introduce alternative feeding too early in life. The objective of this study was to determine factors affecting EBF and the relationship between feeding practices and the nutritional status of infants. This cross-sectional survey, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was conducted in Morogoro Municipality in Tanzania. The study involved lactating women recruited from five randomly selected health facilities. Demographic, clinical, knowledge and practices related to infant feeding as well as infant anthropometric information were collected. Infant nutritional status was assessed based on weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight- for- height. There were wide variations in knowledge and practice of breastfeeding among women. Majority (92%) of the respondents gave colostrums to infants although more than 50% did not know its benefits. Eight percent of the respondents discarded colostrums on the account that it is not good for their neonates. Only 23.1% of the respondents thought that infants should be breastfed exclusively during the first six months of infancy. Ninety-eight percent of infants < 1 month of age received breast milk only, compared with 28.5% of infants aged 2-3 months and 22.3% among those who were above 3 months of age. No child in the ≥ 4 months old was exclusively breastfed. Over 80% of the infants had normal weights, 13% were stunted and 8% wasted. EBF was associated with higher scores for height- for- age Z (P < 0.05) and weight- for- height Z (P < 0.01). Age, education level and occupation of respondents were important predictors of EBF. Overall, breast feeding practices in the study population were largely suboptimal. As a result, considerable proportions of children had poor health indicators. Thus, correct breastfeeding practices should be

  9. Nutritional status affects fluvastatin-induced hepatotoxicity and myopathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Sugatani, Junko; Sadamitsu, Satoshi; Kurosawa, Masatoshi; Ikushiro, Shin-ichi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki; Ikari, Akira; Miwa, Masao

    2010-10-01

    Rats that consumed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet (HF diet) developed hepatic steatosis. Treatment of HF diet-fed rats with fluvastatin (8 mg/kg) was lethal, followed by an elevation in levels of plasma aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase activities and skeletal muscle toxicity. This study was conducted to determine whether nutritional status affects statin-induced adverse effects in rats. Fluvastatin treatment of rats fed the HF diet led to an increase in systemic exposure, suggesting altered metabolism and elimination. In fact, although hepatic multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp) 2 and multidrug resistance (Mdr) 1b protein levels were not significantly changed by fluvastatin treatment for 8 days of rats fed a HF diet, the organic anion-transporting protein (Oatp) 1, Mrp3, CYP1A, CYP2C, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1, and UGT1A5 protein levels were moderately decreased and the Oatp2, CYP3A, and UGT2B1 protein levels were markedly suppressed. No significant difference in the baseline level of Oatp1, Oatp2, Mrp2, Mrp3, Mdr1b, CYP1A, CYP2C, CYP3A, UGT1A1, UGT1A5, or UGT2B1 protein was found between the standard diet- and HF diet-fed groups. In addition, the mRNA levels of Oatp2, CYP2C11, and CYP3A1/2 were markedly decreased in HF diet-fed and fluvastatin-treated rats. There was no significant difference in the glucuronidation activities against fluvastatin among the four groups. In liver cell nuclei, levels of constitutive androstane receptor, pregnane X receptor, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α proteins were decreased in fluvastatin-treated HF diet-fed rats, which correlated with the decrease in Oatp2, CYP2C, and CYP3A. Taken together, these results indicate that nutritional status may influence adverse effects of fluvastatin by increasing systemic exposure through modulation of hepatic uptake and elimination. PMID:20587623

  10. Nutritional Status of under 5 Children belonging to Tribal Population Living in Riverine (Char) Areas of Dibrugarh District, Assam

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Safikul; Mahanta, Tulika Goswami; Sarma, Ratna; Hiranya, Saikia

    2014-01-01

    Context: Assam's main lifeline, the Brahmaputra river, braided nature created numerous sand bars and islands known as chars/sapories. They are home to more than 3 million people. Over 90% of the cultivated land on the river islands is flood-prone; the flood leaves the islands completely separated from mainland, preventing access to health infrastructure and services. Aims: To assess the nutritional status of under 5 children residing in the char areas of Dibrugarh district and to identify the factors influencing their nutritional status. Settings and Design: A community-based cross-sectional study conducted in the riverine areas of Dibrugarh district of Assam. Materials and Methods: Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometry. Undernutrition was classified using World Health Organization (WHO) recommended Z- score system. Data collection was done by house to house visit of all chars using proportionate allocation. Statistical Analysis Used: Rates, ratios, proportions, and chi-square test. Results: Overall prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting was 29%, 30.4%, and 21.6%, respectively. Prevalence of underweight and stunting was less than the prevalence of underweight (36.4%) and stunting (46.5%) in Assam, but the prevalence of wasting was more than that of Assam (13.7%) as observed in National Family Health Survey-3. Significant association was observed between the prevalence of undernutrition and socioeconomic status, literacy status of parents, infant, and young child feeding practices and size of the family (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Special focus is needed for nutritional improvement of under 5 living in char areas to prevent preventable morbidities and to achieve optimum development. PMID:25136158

  11. Oral Health, Obesity Status and Nutritional Habits in Turkish Children and Adolescents: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Kesim, Servet; Çiçek, Betül; Aral, Cüneyt Asım; Öztürk, Ahmet; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz Mustafa; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2016-01-01

    , significant differences between the frequencies of the BMI groups at the age of 16 (boys only) and 17 (girls only) were seen (p<0.05). Conclusion: Periodontal and dental status appears to correlate with nutritional habits and obesity. Obesity and dental/periodontal diseases are multifactorial diseases that follow similar risk patterns and develop from an interaction between chronic conditions originating early in life. It is important for all health professionals to educate patients at risk about the progression of periodontal and dental diseases and the importance of proper oral hygiene. PMID:27403385

  12. Current status of parenteral nutrition and enteral nutrition application: an assessment of nutritional prescriptions from 59 hospitals in the People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Gang; Yu, Zhenwei; Ma, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study reported here was to assess the use of parenteral nutrition (PN) and enteral nutrition (EN), and the prevalence of PN and EN formulas, in the People’s Republic of China. Methods Fifty-nine hospitals in the People’s Republic of China participated in a nutrition survey. The resulting information on nutritional support was analyzed. Results We received 379,584 nutritional-support prescriptions over 40 days in 2013. PN provided approximately 63.2% and EN provided approximately 36.8% of nitrogen intake. PN provided 63.5% and EN provided 36.5% of lipid intake. There were obvious differences in nitrogen and lipid intake between PN and EN in different regions, departments, and diseases. The percentage of nourishment provided by PN in different regions was highest in Chengdu, followed by the Beijing, Guangzhou, and Hangzhou areas. The percentage of nourishment provided by PN in different departments was highest in general surgery, followed by gastroenterology and the intensive care unit. The percentage of nourishment provided by PN in different diseases/conditions was highest in acute pancreatitis, followed by cancer, and burns. The main source of nitrogen in PN was balanced amino-acid preparations, and in EN, it was protein. The main source of lipids in PN was long- and medium-chain triglyceride lipid emulsion injection. Conclusion Despite recent improvements in the application of nutritional support in the People’s Republic of China, a much higher percentage of nitrogen and lipids is delivered through PN than through EN. Furthermore, there are marked regional, departmental, and disease-based differences in the selection of PN versus EN. The rationale for use of nutritional support needs to be improved. PMID:25709462

  13. You are what you eat: nutritional status and political participation among the elderly.

    PubMed

    Peterson, S A

    1989-01-01

    This essay explores the association between nutritional problems and political orientations and behavior among the elderly. A rural sample of 358 older Americans provides the data base. Results indicate that as nutritional problems increase, political interest, efficacy, and participation decrease. Also, nutritional problems seem to go along with less positive evaluations of the existing order. PMID:2636268

  14. Effect of germination of finger millet on nutritional value of foods and effect of food supplement on nutrition and anaemia status in Tanzanian children.

    PubMed

    Tatala, S; Ndossi, G; Ash, D; Mamiro, P

    2007-05-01

    Inadequate dietary intake, often combined with an infection can lead to malnutrition that often manifest as growth failure or deficiency of essentials nutrients including iron leading to iron deficiency anaemia. In an effort to investigate diet in relation to nutrition status of children, diet and dietary intake were investigated in rural Tanzania. The effect of germination of finger millet based food recipe on its nutritional value was evaluated. The food consisted of finger millet flour, kidney beans, ground peanuts and dried mangoes at predetermined proportions of 75:10:10:5 respectively. Dietary habits of young children were investigated and effects of a fortified food supplement and the cereal based recipe on nutrition status of children were investigated. The two diets were then supplemented to children for 6 months and changes on anaemia and anthropometrical indices of children were evaluated at follow up periods. To assess anaemia and iron status, haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and serum ferritin (SF); and weights and heights were measured to assess growth. A significant improvement in nutrient density was noted in processed cereals. Bioavailability of iron in cereal based diet increased from 0.75 +/- 18 to 1.25 +/- 41 mg/100 g (P = 008), viscosity was significantly raised by 12% and phytate concentration was reduced from 4.5 +/- 0.5 to 4.1 +/- 0.5 mg/g (P = 0.03). Significantly lower intake of iron was observed in schoolchildren with Hb < 11.5 g/dl) compared to those who were normal. Total iron intake was 22+/- 7 and 27 +/- 13 mg/day, respectively (P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between iron intake and serum ferritin (r = 0.233, P < 0.05). After six months of supplementing children with the fortified beverage a significantly larger increase in haemoglobin concentration was shown in the fortified group than in the non-fortified group (a difference of 6.2 versus 3.2 g/dl respectively). Supplementing

  15. Assessment of energy balance against the nutritional status of women carriers in the brickfields of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Bijetri; Sen, Devashish

    2016-09-01

    The Indian brick industry is an unorganized sector in which large numbers of migrant women workers are employed. A survey was conducted on 62 women workers working in different brickfields of West Bengal to assess their physiological workload, nutritional profile, total energy expenditure and energy balance. Energy intake was calculated using physiological fuel values of carbohydrate, fat and protein. From the results it is seen that 13% of the sample population falls under severe (grade III) chronic energy deficiency. The average daily consumption of the workers was comparatively lower than their daily energy expenditure, considering the nature of the job which falls under heavy to extremely heavy categories. This negative energy balance is effectively observed in the nutritional anthropometry data. Thus, an immediate ergonomics intervention with better nutrition should be implemented to improve the health status of the workers so they can safely continue to work for a longer period. PMID:27092582

  16. Wheat response to differences in water and nutritional status between zeoponic and hydroponic growth systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, S. L.; Ming, D. W.; Henderson, K. E.; Carrier, C.; Gruener, J. E.; Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Hydroponic culture has traditionally been used for controlled environment life support systems (CELSS) because the optimal environment for roots supports high growth rates. Recent developments in zeoponic substrate and microporous tube irrigation (ZPT) also offer high control of the root environment. This study compared the effect of differences in water and nutrient status of ZPT or hydroponic culture on growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. USU-Apogee). In a side-by-side test in a controlled environment, wheat was grown in ZPT and recirculating hydroponics to maturity. Water use by plants grown in both culture systems peaked at 15 to 20 L m-2 d-1 up to Day 40, after which it declined more rapidly for plants grown in ZPT culture due to earlier senescence of leaves. No consistent differences in water status were noted between plants grown in the two culture systems. Although yield was similar, harvest index was 28% lower for plants grown in ZPT than in hydroponic culture. Sterile green tillers made up 12 and 0% of the biomass of plants grown in ZPT and hydroponic culture, respectively. Differences in biomass partitioning were attributed primarily to NH4-N nutrition of plants grown in ZPT compared with NO3-N in hydroponic nutrient solution. It is probable that NH4-N-induced Ca deficiency produced excess tillering and lower harvest index for plants grown in ZPT culture. These results suggest that further refinements in zeoponic substrate would make ZPT culture a viable alternative for achieving high productivity in a CELSS.

  17. Wheat Response to Differences In Water and Nutritional Status Between Zeoponic and Hydroponic Growth Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan L.; Ming, Douglas W.; Henderson, Keith E.; Carrier, Chris; Gruener, John E.; Barta, Dan J.; Henninger, Don L.

    1999-01-01

    Hydroponic culture has traditionally been used for controlled environment life support systems (CELSS) because the optimal environment for roots supports high growth rates. Recent developments in zeoponic substrate and microporous tube irrigation (ZPT) also offer high control of the root environment. This study compared the effect of differences in water and nutrient status of ZPT or hydroponic culture on growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., CV 'USU-Apogee'). In a side-by-side test in a controlled environment, wheat was grown in ZPT and recirculating hydroponics to maturity. Water use by plants grown in both culture systems peaked at 15-20 L per square meters per d up to day 40, after which it declined more rapidly for plants grown in ZPT culture due to earlier senescence of leaves. No consistent differences were noted in water status between plants grown in the two culture systems. Although yield was similar, harvest index was 28% lower for plants grown in ZPT versus hydroponic culture. Sterile green tillers made up 12% and 0% of the biomass of plants grown in ZPT and hydroponic culture, respectively. Differences in biomass partitioning were attributed primarily to NH4 -N nutrition of plants grown in ZPT as compared with NO3-N in hydroponic nutrient solution. It was likely that NH4-N induced Ca deficiency produced excess tillering and lower harvest index for plants grown in ZPT culture. These results suggest that further refinements in zeoponic substrate would make ZPT culture a viable alternative for achieving high productivity in a CELSS.

  18. Wheat response to differences in water and nutritional status between zeoponic and hydroponic growth systems.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, S L; Ming, D W; Henderson, K E; Carrier, C; Gruener, J E; Barta, D J; Henninger, D L

    2000-01-01

    Hydroponic culture has traditionally been used for controlled environment life support systems (CELSS) because the optimal environment for roots supports high growth rates. Recent developments in zeoponic substrate and microporous tube irrigation (ZPT) also offer high control of the root environment. This study compared the effect of differences in water and nutrient status of ZPT or hydroponic culture on growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. USU-Apogee). In a side-by-side test in a controlled environment, wheat was grown in ZPT and recirculating hydroponics to maturity. Water use by plants grown in both culture systems peaked at 15 to 20 L m-2 d-1 up to Day 40, after which it declined more rapidly for plants grown in ZPT culture due to earlier senescence of leaves. No consistent differences in water status were noted between plants grown in the two culture systems. Although yield was similar, harvest index was 28% lower for plants grown in ZPT than in hydroponic culture. Sterile green tillers made up 12 and 0% of the biomass of plants grown in ZPT and hydroponic culture, respectively. Differences in biomass partitioning were attributed primarily to NH4-N nutrition of plants grown in ZPT compared with NO3-N in hydroponic nutrient solution. It is probable that NH4-N-induced Ca deficiency produced excess tillering and lower harvest index for plants grown in ZPT culture. These results suggest that further refinements in zeoponic substrate would make ZPT culture a viable alternative for achieving high productivity in a CELSS. PMID:11543523

  19. Nutritional status and socioeconomic change among Toba and Wichí populations of the Argentinean Chaco

    PubMed Central

    Valeggia, Claudia R.; Burke, Kevin M.; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is growing at an accelerated pace in disadvantaged populations. Indigenous populations all over the world, whose lifestyle is changing rapidly and drastically, seem to be particularly prone to show an increased prevalence of overweight and its co-morbidities among adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between socioeconomic and nutritional statuses in adults of two indigenous populations of the Argentine Gran Chaco: the Toba and Wichí of the province of Formosa. Originally hunter-gatherers, they are now more settled and engage in temporary wage labor and local political positions. A total of 541 adults (>20 years old) participated in the study. Almost 50% of the adult Toba and 34% of the adult Wichí were overweight and 10% of adults in both populations were obese. Socioeconomic status was positively associated with body mass index in both populations. Furthermore, political connectedness with the non-indigenous sector, as in the case of community leaders, was highly correlated with obesity. Differences within and between groups can be explained by biocultural factors that include gender, diet (foraged vs store-bought), lifestyle (sedentary vs more active), and history of political power. Our study highlights the interactions among social, cultural, and political economic variables, such as political hierarchies within the group or degree of social connectedness with community leaders. By making these variables an integral part of our analysis and interpretation, we hope to improve our understanding of the situation of indigenous populations in transition. PMID:19959406

  20. [The nutritional status of the child entering the Nuevo Hospital Civil de Guadalajara].

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Garibay, E M; Sandoval-Galindo, D M; Kumazawa-Ichikawa, M R; Romero-Velarde, E; Nápoles-Rodríguez, F

    1993-06-01

    With the purpose to evaluate the nutritional status of children hospitalized in the Nuevo Hospital Civil de Guadalajara, they were included 278 subjects that entered in the infant, preschool, schoolchildren and infectious disease clinical ward of the Division of Pediatrics. There were chosen two subjects every day during one year. It was obtained information about family and sociodemographic background. In addition, there were undertaken anthropometric measurements; weight/age, weight/height and height/age indices were also calculated. It was obtained the parameters of median, percentiles and Z-score. Undernutrition was determined by the Gómez and Waterlow classifications. Is was also compared the reference pattern of Ramos-Galván and National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Blood was drawn for total protein and hemoglobin. Mean of height/age was 95.74% (NCHS), weight/age 84.04% and weight/height 89.7%. It was not difference on weight/age between Ramos-Galván and NCHS. Weight/height and height/age had little difference. The median system identified more cases with deficit than Z-score, which seems to be more specific and conservative. There is a high prevalence of acute and chronic malnutrition identified with the median system, and maybe reflects the poor quality of life and major morbidity in this population. PMID:8517933

  1. Growth, Nutritional Status, and Pulmonary Function in Children with Chronic Recurrent Bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Umławska, Wioleta; Lipowicz, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Bronchitis is a common health problem in children. Frequent bronchitis in infancy increases the risk of developing chronic respiratory diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the level of growth and the nutritional status in children and youths with special regard to the level of body fatness assessed by measuring skin-fold thickness. Relationships between somatic development, pulmonary function and the course of the disease were also explored. The study was carried out using anthropometric and spirometric measurements and also information on the severity and course of the disease in 141 children with chronic or recurrent bronchitis. All of the subjects were patients of the Pulmonary Medicine and Allergology Center in Karpacz, Poland. The mean body height did not differ significantly between the children examined and their healthy peers. However, the infection-prone children had excessive body fatness and muscle mass deficiency. The increased level of subcutaneous adipose tissue occurred especially in children with short duration of the disease, i.e. a maximum of 1 year. The functional lung parameters were generally normal. The presence of atopic diseases such as allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis did not impair the course of the children's somatic development. Also, long-term disease or the presence of additional allergic diseases did not impair lung function in the examined children. Taking appropriate preventive measures is recommended to achieve and maintain normal body weight in children who receive therapy due to bronchitis. PMID:26801150

  2. Relation between body composition and bone mineral density in young undregraduate students with different nutritional status

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Edil de Albuquerque; dos Santos, Marcos André Moura; da Silva, Amanda Tabosa Pereira; Farah, Breno Quintella; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Camara e Siqueira; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the relationship between total and segmental body fat, bone mineral density and bone mineral content in undergraduate students stratified according to nutritional status. Methods The study included 45 male undergraduate students aged between 20 and 30 years. Total and segmental body composition, bone mineral density and bone mineral content assessments were performed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects were allocated into three groups (eutrophic, overweight and obese). Results With the exception of upper limb bone mineral content, significantly higher (p<0.05) mean bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and relative body fat values were documented in the obese group. Total body and segmental relative body fat (lower limbs and trunk) were positively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral density in the overweight group. Upper limb fat was negatively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral content in the normal and eutrophic groups. Conclusion Total body and segmental body fat were correlated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in male undergraduate students, particularly in overweight individuals. PMID:27074228

  3. Nutritional Status Parameters as Risk Factors for Mortality in Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Mauricio, Sílvia Fernandes; Ribeiro, Helem Sena; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between weight loss, handgrip strength (HGS) and phase angle (PA) before the beginning of chemotherapy with overall survival in cancer patients. Patients diagnosed with gastrointestinal and breast cancer who were over 18 years old and were scheduled to undergo adjuvant treatment at Hospital Borges da Costa/Brazil were evaluated. The exclusion criteria were neoadjuvant treatment, patients with kidney and liver disease and using diuretics. Weight, HGS and PA tests were performed by trained dietitians. The Kaplan-Meier survival method and the log-rank test, cox regression and ROC curve were used and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Two-hundred and twenty-eight patients were evaluated.The median survival time was higher among the patients who showed weight loss of less than 10% of usual body weight (p < 0.05). Regarding HGS, patients with decreased HGS had a 22.0 month survival versus 34.2 months for those with normal values (p < 0.05). 146 patients had normal PA values, and these patients had increased survival time compared to those with inappropriate values (p < 0.05). In the Cox regression, weight loss and PA were predictors of mortality, HGS wasn't significantly associated with mortality. ROC analysis revealed that weight loss was the nutritional status parameter with the most predictive power. PMID:27348185

  4. [Living conditions, nutritional status and morbidity in children in prisons and detention centers in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Ye, D; Zoma, A; Kabore, A; Yonaba, C; Savadogo, H; Ouedraogo, S A P; Dao, L; Koueta, F

    2015-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, although children are sometimes separated from adults in prisons, they still live in the same conditions of overcrowding, which can reach 180% of the capacity. The aim of our study was to describe living conditions, nutritional status, and morbidity of children in detention centers of Burkina Faso. The objective of this cross-sectional descriptive study is to describe the social and health conditions of children held in 20 detention centers in Burkina Faso. During the study period, 109 children, with a mean age of 16.3 years, were examined in 20 correction centers. The main reason for incarceration was theft (66% cases, n = 72). Detention exceeded more than one month for 76 children (70%), and 59% (N = 46) had had fewer than one visit per month since their incarceration. Of these 20 facilities, 6 had no separate quarters for children. The main symptoms and diseases encountered in these children were fever in 19% of the cases (N = 16), macroscopic hematuria in 13% (N = 11), urinary tract infection in 12% (N = 10) and diarrhea in 12% (N = 10). These results show that there is a need to take preventive measures to protect these children's health, especially by improving the quality of living conditions in detention center. PMID:26038843

  5. Relation between body composition and bone mineral density in young undregraduate students with different nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Filho, Edil de Albuquerque; Santos, Marcos André Moura Dos; Silva, Amanda Tabosa Pereira da; Farah, Breno Quintella; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Camara E Siqueira; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares

    2016-03-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between total and segmental body fat, bone mineral density and bone mineral content in undergraduate students stratified according to nutritional status. Methods The study included 45 male undergraduate students aged between 20 and 30 years. Total and segmental body composition, bone mineral density and bone mineral content assessments were performed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects were allocated into three groups (eutrophic, overweight and obese). Results With the exception of upper limb bone mineral content, significantly higher (p<0.05) mean bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and relative body fat values were documented in the obese group. Total body and segmental relative body fat (lower limbs and trunk) were positively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral density in the overweight group. Upper limb fat was negatively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral content in the normal and eutrophic groups. Conclusion Total body and segmental body fat were correlated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in male undergraduate students, particularly in overweight individuals. PMID:27074228

  6. [Relationships between biomarkers of oxidative stress and nutritional status in adults, Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Salazar-Lugo, Raquel; Barahona, Amparito; Santamaria, Manuel; Salas, Hilda; Oleas, Mariana; Bermeo, Bélgica

    2014-12-01

    In this work it was evaluated the relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers (uric acid, bilirubin and C-reactive protein) with nutritional status in 321 adults of Ecuador, belonging to administrative staff of of the Universidad Tècnica del Norte, aged 43 ± 10 years old (46 30% female and 53.61% male). Socio demographic and epidemiological information and lifestyle were obtained through a survey; The Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat and body water percentages were calculated; waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure was measured. Determinations of uric acid, bilirubin, and serum C-reactive protein (PCR) were performed. 17.9% of the populations were obese and 51.72% overweight. The highest values of uric acid were found in obese, hypertensive and physical activity groups. The total direct and indirect bilirubin were found in upper limits in abdominal obesity and physical activity groups. The CRP level was influenced by % fat and % water in the low body fat group and in females. In male, BMI and WC were associated with CRP. Uric acid showed relationship with % fat and WC in overweight, high body fat and PHT groups, uric acid was associated with the % water and BMI in obese. Finally, uric acid was associated with % water and the WC in the abdominal obesity, and HT groups'. The body water percentage is an important indicator to development of oxidative stress in this population. PMID:26336722

  7. Circulating leptin levels in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a marker of nutritional status?

    PubMed Central

    Perfetto, F; Tarquini, R; Simonini, G; Bindi, G; Mancuso, F; Guiducci, S; Matucci-Cerinic, M; Falcini, F

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess if plasma leptin is a mediator of cytokine dependent decreased food intake during inflammatory diseases and if it is increased in JIA. Methods: Leptin levels were determined in 31 patients with polyarticular disease and in 37 with oligoarticular disease; 32 healthy children served as controls. Results: Patients had significantly reduced body mass index (BMI) compared with controls (17.3 (3) v 19.1 (3) kg/m2; p<0.005). Leptin was significantly lower in patients than controls (8.1 (4.8) v 10.7 (7.3) ng/ml; p = 0.036), but leptin/BMI values were similar. Absolute (8.2 (4.8) v 8 (4.9); p>0.05) and normalised (0.45 (0.24) v 0.47 (0.24); p>0.05) leptin levels were not significantly different between patients with active and inactive disease and between patients with oligoarticular and polyarticular arthritis (7.8 (4.4) v 8.6 (5.3); p>0.05 and 0.45 (0.23) v 0.48 (0.26); p>0.05, respectively). Conclusions: Leptin production per unit of fat mass is similar in patients and controls. The hypothesis that high levels of proinflammatory cytokines that characterise JIA might induce an increase of adipocytes leptin production is not supported by the results. Leptin may be a marker of nutritional status of JIA. PMID:15608316

  8. Nutritional Status of the Cauliflower Cultivar ‘Verona’ Grown with Omission of out Added Macronutrients

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Matheus Saraiva; Cecílio Filho, Arthur Bernardes; de Carvalho, Leonardo Bianco

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of plant nutritional status allows an understanding of the physiological responses of plants to crop fertilization. A hydroponic experiment evaluated the symptoms of macronutrient deficiency in cauliflower ‘Verona’ and determined: a) the macronutrient contents of foliar tissues when visual symptoms were observed, b) macronutrients content of foliar and inflorescence tissues at harvest. The effect of nutrient deficiency on inflorescence mass was also evaluated. Nitrogen deficiency caused chlorosis followed by purple color in the old leaves, while P deficiency caused only chlorosis in old leaves. Chlorosis at the edge of old leaves progressing to the center of the leaves was observed with the omission of K, and after was observed necrosis in the chlorotic areas. Ca deficiency caused tip burn in new leaves, while Mg deficiency caused internerval chlorosis in old leaves. The omission of each macronutrient reduced inflorescence dry matter. This deleterious effect was larger for N, P, and K deficiencies, reducing inflorescence dry matter by 87, 49, and 42%, respectively. When the nutrient solutions without N, P, K, Ca, or Mg were supplied to cauliflower plants, the macronutrient contents at harvest were 8.8, 0.6, 3.5, 13.0, and 0.8 g kg-1 in the foliar tissues and 27.3, 2.2, 21.6, 1.1, and 0.7 g kg-1 in the inflorescence tissues, respectively. PMID:25856380

  9. Food advertising and television exposure: influence on eating behavior and nutritional status of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Costa, Suzane Mota Marques; Horta, Paula Martins; dos Santos, Luana Caroline

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of food advertising and television exposure on eating behaviour and nutritional status of children and adolescents. It was a cross sectional study developed among 116 students from a private school in Brazil. Socio-demographic and health conditions were evaluated. Anthropometric data, food consumption, physical activity, television viewing habits and behaviour in relation to food advertising were also investigated. Among the results, a 1:2 relationship was identified between the number of televisions and residents per household. Excessive weight was present in 25.8% of subjects and 66.4% of children watched television while eating. Children were exposed to television for a median of 3.0 hours daily (95% CI: 2.9 to 3.6). There was a direct association between attraction to foods advertised and purchasing the product (p < 0.001) and a positive relationship between the number of televisions per household and body weight (r = 0.246, p = 0.015) and the amount of liquid consumed during meals (r = 0.277, p = 0.013). Findings also highlighted the association between watching television while eating and the reduced probability of fruit consumption (p = 0.032), contrasted with a greater likelihood of daily artificial juice intake (p = 0.039). In conclusion, watching television is associated with lower probability of daily consumption of fruits and the number of television at household is positively related to BMI in children and adolescents. PMID:23477208

  10. [Dietary pattern and nutritional status of metalworkers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade de; Anjos, Luiz Antonio dos; Lourenço, Paulo Maurício

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional status, dietary and leisure-time physical activity patterns, and energy intake of 65 male metalworkers aged 19 to 58 years from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are described in the context of a surveillance build-up system. Mean body mass index was 25.0 kg/m2 (44.6% of the workers were overweight), and mean daily energy intake was 3,209.1 kcal, with a macronutrient distribution of 17.8%, 21.8%, and 60.6% of protein, lipids, and carbohydrates, respectively. The most frequently eaten foods were rice, beans, bread, coffee, sugar, butter, juice, whole milk, soda, beef, and poultry. Vegetable, fruit, meat, and egg intakes were higher than the Food Pyramid Guide suggested portions. The results show a paradox for a surveillance system: (1) high prevalence of overweight, but dietary macronutrients within internationally recommended levels; (2) a well-balanced dietary pattern; and (3) some leisure-time physical activity in half of the workers. PMID:15300284

  11. Early complementary feeding is associated with low nutritional status of young infants recovering from diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Haider, R; Islam, A; Kabir, I; Habte, D

    1996-06-01

    Young infants admitted to hospital for diarrhoea were studied to identify and understand the reasons for early complementary feeding and to examine its effect on nutritional status. Of 132 infants, 71 percent were being breastfed, 24 percent had already stopped, and 5 percent had never been breastfed. Complementary feeds were started by the mothers when infants' median age (range) was 27 (1-180) days. Mothers' perceptions regarding breastmilk being insufficient (53 per cent) or causing diarrhoea (19 percent), were the major reasons for complementary feeding. The mean weight-for-age of the infants given complementary feeds before the age of 2 months was 72 percent of the National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) standards, compared to 82 percent in those starting after 2 months of age (P = 0.01). Similarly, the mean weight-for-length in these two groups were 86 and 91 percent, respectively (P = 0.04). Initiation of early complementary feeding is associated with infant malnutrition and this alarming trend should be strongly discouraged. PMID:8699586

  12. Nutritional status of the cauliflower cultivar 'verona' grown with omission of out added macronutrients.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Matheus Saraiva; Cecílio Filho, Arthur Bernardes; de Carvalho, Leonardo Bianco

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of plant nutritional status allows an understanding of the physiological responses of plants to crop fertilization. A hydroponic experiment evaluated the symptoms of macronutrient deficiency in cauliflower 'Verona' and determined: a) the macronutrient contents of foliar tissues when visual symptoms were observed, b) macronutrients content of foliar and inflorescence tissues at harvest. The effect of nutrient deficiency on inflorescence mass was also evaluated. Nitrogen deficiency caused chlorosis followed by purple color in the old leaves, while P deficiency caused only chlorosis in old leaves. Chlorosis at the edge of old leaves progressing to the center of the leaves was observed with the omission of K, and after was observed necrosis in the chlorotic areas. Ca deficiency caused tip burn in new leaves, while Mg deficiency caused internerval chlorosis in old leaves. The omission of each macronutrient reduced inflorescence dry matter. This deleterious effect was larger for N, P, and K deficiencies, reducing inflorescence dry matter by 87, 49, and 42%, respectively. When the nutrient solutions without N, P, K, Ca, or Mg were supplied to cauliflower plants, the macronutrient contents at harvest were 8.8, 0.6, 3.5, 13.0, and 0.8 g kg-1 in the foliar tissues and 27.3, 2.2, 21.6, 1.1, and 0.7 g kg-1 in the inflorescence tissues, respectively. PMID:25856380

  13. A low bioimpedance phase angle predicts a higher mortality and lower nutritional status in chronic dialysis patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumler Md, Francis

    2010-04-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis is an established technique for body composition analysis. The phase angle parameter, an index of body cell mass, tissue hydration, and membrane integrity, makes it suitable for assessing nutritional status and survivability. We evaluated the significance of a low phase angle value on nutritional status and mortality in 285 chronic dialysis patients during a longitudinal prospective observational study. Patients in the lower phase angle tertile had decreased body weight, body mass index, fat free mass, body cell mass, and lower serum albumin concentrations than those in the higher tertile (P<001). In addition, mortality rates were significantly lower (P=0.05) in the highest tertile patients. In conclusion, the phase angle is a useful method for identifying dialysis patients at high risk for malnutrition and increased mortality.

  14. The energy intake through regular nontherapeutic meals provision in long-term care: impact on nutritional status and related Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index.

    PubMed

    Sturtzel, Baerbel; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Ohrenberger, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    To investigate how the energy intake of institutionalized long-term-care patients through the regular nontherapeutic meals provision is associated with the nutritional status and the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI). A 9 month longitudinal, observational study. Long-term-care Hospital. 66 long-term-care patients with multiple medical conditions and solely oral food-intake. 47 (71 %) patients, predominantly women (n = 39/47), with a mean age of 83.04 (±9.58) years completed study time and 19 (29 %) deceased. At week 1 and week 36 of observation time energy intake was measured by means of three-days-weighing-records. Body composition was assessed with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Serum albumin, body weight and body height were taken from the medical report. Albumin content, body weight and height were used to calculate the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index: GNRI = [1.489 × albumin (g/L)] + [41.7 × (weight/ideal body weight)]. Energy intake was significantly below 24 kcal/kg body weight per day. The GNRI of the deceased patients was significantly (p = 0.002) lower than the GNRI of the completers. During observation time energy-intake p < 0.001, body fat (p = 0.001) and phase angle (PA) of bio impedance measurement (p = 0.018) and likewise the GNRI (p = 0.021) of the completers decreased significantly. At the beginning and at the end of observation time energy intake correlated significantly with PA (p = 0.028/p < 0.001) and GNRI (p = 0.436/p = 0.004). Also GNRI and PA correlated significantly at the beginning (p = 0.001) and at the end (p < 0.001) of observation time. The energy intake through non therapeutic meals provision was too low for sustaining the nutritional status and likewise the GNRI. The malnourishment and the nutrition related clinical risk of the geriatric patients aggrevated during observation time. PMID:26933634

  15. Impact of ethnic conflict on the nutritional status and quality of life of suburban villagers in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Taro; Nakazawa, Minato; Ohmae, Hiroshi; Kamei, Kiseko; Sato, Kanae; Bakote'e, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the health and nutritional status and quality of life (QOL) of suburban villagers in the Solomon Islands 3 y after the 1998-2003 ethnic conflict. Cross-sectional data were obtained from a small community located 50 km east of the capital city (n=206, 87 adults and 119 children). A health survey involving urine analysis, anthropometry, and blood pressure measurements was conducted to assess health and nutritional status and child growth. Simultaneously, 57 non-randomly selected adults participated in the QOL questionnaire survey. Results of anthropometry show that participants had good health and nutritional status (mean BMIs: 22.8 and 21.7 for men and women, respectively) and 73% of boys and 83% of girls were judged `normal body size' based on their BMI values. Urinalysis revealed that 88% of the participants were healthy and indicated that they consumed considerable amounts of purchased food such as rice and tinned meat. These findings suggest that the population's lifestyle had essentially recovered from the ethnic conflict. However, possible consequences of the ethnic conflict on the QOL scores were observed in the environmental domain. This study found a positive association between body fat and QOL. This could be interpreted in terms of the traditionally positive view of large bodies in the South Pacific and as resulting from unstable social conditions prevailing after the ethnic conflict. PMID:20924144

  16. Leptin levels and nutritional status of indigenous Tepehuán and Mestizo subjects in Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Dealmy Delgadillo; Marchau, Laurence Annie Marchat; Reyes, José L; Castañeda, Verónica Loera; Macías, Martha Sosa; Vivas, Jessica García; Asseff, Ismael Lares

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in nutritional status and their association with circulating leptin levels in the indigenous Tepehuán people of Mezquital Durango and Mestizo populations of Durango City, Mexico. A group of 128 volunteers aged 18 through 59 years were recruited for the study: 60 indigenous Tepehuán from Mezquital and 68 Mestizo individuals from Durango City. The classification of nutritional status was through body mass index (BMI). Clinical evaluations, including anthropometry and lipid profiles, were performed to ascertain the health of the participants. Circulating leptin levels were determined in blood samples after at 08 hours of fasting. The healthy subjects were classified according to BMI: 32 Tepehuán and 30 Mestizo subjects were of normal weight (NW), and 28 Tepehuán and 38 Mestizo subjects were overweight or obese (OW/O). Both NW and OW/O Tepehuán subjects showed lower leptin concentrations than the comparable Mestizo subjects. Statistical analysis showed a negative Pearson's correlation (r = -0.5; P < 0.05) between BMI and leptin levels in NW Tepehuán subjects, but no significant correlation was found in other groups. The differences found in Tepehuán compared with Mestizo subjects might be explained by poor nutritional status, which leads to scarce adipose tissue and low levels of leptin synthesis. Leptin concentration and its relationship to BMI are associated with ethnicity. PMID:24825928

  17. Leptin Levels and Nutritional Status of Indigenous Tepehuán and Mestizo Subjects in Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Delgadillo Guzmán, Dealmy; Marchat Marchau, Laurence Annie; Reyes, José L.; Loera Castañeda, Verónica; Sosa Macías, Martha; García Vivas, Jessica; Asseff, Ismael Lares

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in nutritional status and their association with circulating leptin levels in the indigenous Tepehuán people of Mezquital Durango and Mestizo populations of Durango City, Mexico. A group of 128 volunteers aged 18 through 59 years were recruited for the study: 60 indigenous Tepehuán from Mezquital and 68 Mestizo individuals from Durango City. The classification of nutritional status was through body mass index (BMI). Clinical evaluations, including anthropometry and lipid profiles, were performed to ascertain the health of the participants. Circulating leptin levels were determined in blood samples after at 08 hours of fasting. The healthy subjects were classified according to BMI: 32 Tepehuán and 30 Mestizo subjects were of normal weight (NW), and 28 Tepehuán and 38 Mestizo subjects were overweight or obese (OW/O). Both NW and OW/O Tepehuán subjects showed lower leptin concentrations than the comparable Mestizo subjects. Statistical analysis showed a negative Pearson's correlation (r = −0.5; P < 0.05) between BMI and leptin levels in NW Tepehuán subjects, but no significant correlation was found in other groups. The differences found in Tepehuán compared with Mestizo subjects might be explained by poor nutritional status, which leads to scarce adipose tissue and low levels of leptin synthesis. Leptin concentration and its relationship to BMI are associated with ethnicity. PMID:24825928

  18. Varying coefficient function models to explore interactions between maternal nutritional status and prenatal methylmercury toxicity in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Miranda L; Huang, Li-Shan; Cox, Christopher; Strain, J J; Myers, Gary J; Bonham, Maxine P; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M W; Duffy, Emeir M; Clarkson, Thomas W; Davidson, Philip W

    2011-01-01

    Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy as a case

  19. Varying coefficient function models to explore interactions between maternal nutritional status and prenatal methylmercury toxicity in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, Miranda L.; Huang, Li-Shan; Cox, Christopher; Strain, J.J.; Myers, Gary J.; Bonham, Maxine P.; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M.W.; Duffy, Emeir M.; Clarkson, Thomas W.; Davidson, Philip W.

    2011-01-15

    Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy as a case

  20. Varying coefficient function models to explore interactions between maternal nutritional status and prenatal methylmercury toxicity in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Miranda L.; Huang, Li-Shan; Cox, Christopher; Strain, J.J.; Myers, Gary J.; Bonham, Maxine P.; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M.W.; Duffy, Emeir M.; Clarkson, Thomas W.; Davidson, Philip W.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children’s development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children’s neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy as a

  1. Association of Maternal and Child Nutritional Status in Brazil: A Population Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Villamor, Eduardo; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Background Although child undernutrition and stunting has been decreasing worldwide while obesity rates increase, these extreme conditions might coexist in families from low- and middle-income countries. We examined the association between maternal and child anthropometric indicators using a population representative sample. Methods 4,258 non-pregnant women and their children <60 months who participated in the 2006 Brazilian Demographic Health Survey. We compared the distributions of two nutritional indexes of children, height-for-age (HAZ) and body mass index-for age (BAZ) z-scores, by categories of maternal height, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Adjusted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated from linear regression, taking into account the complex survey design. We also examined the associations of maternal anthropometry with the prevalence of child stunting (HAZ<−2) and overweight/obesity (BAZ>2). Results HAZ was positively associated with maternal height and WC in a linear fashion. After adjustment, for sociodemographic characteristics, children whose mothers' height was<145 cm had 1.2 lower HAZ than children whose mothers were ≥160 cm tall (p-trend<0.0001). After further adjustment for maternal height and maternal BMI, children of mothers with a waist circumference ≥88 cm had 0.3 higher HAZ than those of mothers with WC<80 cm (p-trend<0.01). Adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% CI for stunting by the categories of maternal height (<145, 145–149, 150–154, 155–159 and ≥160 cm) were, respectively, 2.95 (1.51;5.77), 2.29 (1.33;3.93), 1.09 (0.63;1.87), and 0.89 (0.45;1.77), (p-trend = 0.001). BAZ was positively associated with maternal BMI and WC. Conclusion We observed a strong, positive association of maternal and child nutritional status. Mothers of low stature had children with lower stature, mothers with central obesity had taller children, and mothers with overall or abdominal obesity had

  2. Food subsidy programs and the health and nutritional status of disadvantaged families in high income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Less healthy diets are common in high income countries, although proportionally higher in those of low socio-economic status. Food subsidy programs are one strategy to promote healthy nutrition and to reduce socio-economic inequalities in health. This review summarises the evidence for the health and nutritional impacts of food subsidy programs among disadvantaged families from high income countries. Methods Relevant studies reporting dietary intake or health outcomes were identified through systematic searching of electronic databases. Cochrane Public Health Group guidelines informed study selection and interpretation. A narrative synthesis was undertaken due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity of study design and outcomes. Results Fourteen studies were included, with most reporting on the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in the USA. Food subsidy program participants, mostly pregnant or postnatal women, were shown to have 10–20% increased intake of targeted foods or nutrients. Evidence for the effectiveness of these programs for men or children was lacking. The main health outcome observed was a small but clinically relevant increase in mean birthweight (23–29g) in the two higher quality WIC studies. Conclusions Limited high quality evidence of the impacts of food subsidy programs on the health and nutrition of adults and children in high income countries was identified. The improved intake of targeted nutrients and foods, such as fruit and vegetables, could potentially reduce the rate of non-communicable diseases in adults, if the changes in diet are sustained. Associated improvements in perinatal outcomes were limited and most evident in women who smoked during pregnancy. Thus, food subsidy programs for pregnant women and children should aim to focus on improving nutritional status in the longer term. Further prospective studies and economic analyses are needed to confirm the health benefits and

  3. Effect of community level intervention on nutritional status and feeding practices of under five children in Ile Ife, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ogundele, Olorunfemi Akinbode; Ogundele, Tolulope

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Childhood malnutrition remains a widespread problem in developing world like Nigeria. The country ranks second among the ten countries contributing to sixty percent of the world's wasted under-five children. Community Integrated Management of Childhood illness (CIMCI) is a programme that employs the use of community based counsellors to address child health and nutritional challenges of the under-five and has the potential to reduce the morbidity and mortality resulting from poor nutritional and feeding practices. The study assessed the effect of community level intervention on nutritional status and feeding practices of children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional comparative study that employed the use of multi stage cluster sampling techniques in selecting 722 mothers of index under five children. The study was done in two Local Government Areas of Osun State, Nigeria. Quantitative techniques were used in data collection. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0. Descriptive and bivariate analyses was performed. Results The two Local Government Area (LGA) did not differ significantly in their wealth index (p = 0.344). However, more children in the non-implementing LGA (16.1%) had low weight for age compared with 3.6% in the CIMCI implementing LGA (p = 0.000). A statistically significant difference exist in the MUAC measurement of children 12-23 months between the CIMCI implementing and non-implementing communities (p = 0.007). A higher percentage of caregivers (19.3%) introduced complementary feeding earlier than 6 months in the non-implementing area (p < 0.001). Conclusion Using community level nutritional counseling can greatly improve nutritional status and feeding practices of under five children. PMID:26958118

  4. Interrelationship between lymphocytes and leptin in fat depots of obese mice revealed by changes in nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Lolmède, Karine; Zakaroff-Girard, Alexia; Dray, Cedric; Renoud, Marie-Laure; Daviaud, Danièle; Burcelin, Rémy; Lafontan, Max; Galitzky, Jean; Bouloumié, Anne

    2015-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying the relationships between nutritional status and immunity remain to be fully characterized. The present study was undertaken to analyze by flow cytometry, in the context of diet-induced obesity, the status of immune cells in subcutaneous, and epididymal fat depots in wild-type and immunodeficient Rag2-/- mice submitted to nutritional challenge, i.e., 48-h fasting and 1-week refeeding. In parallel, the responsiveness of mature adipocytes and immune cells in bone marrow, lymph node, and liver were also analyzed. The results show that fasting in obese wild-type mice induces a prominent lipolysis in epididymal AT and immunosuppression restricted to both subcutaneous and epididymal AT, characterized by reduced number of CD4+ T and B lymphocytes and M1/M2 macrophages associated with reduced leptin and increased FGF21 expression in mature adipocytes. One-week refeeding was sufficient to reverse the fasting-induced effects. Obese immunodeficient mice under nutritional challenge exhibited no changes in adipocyte leptin expression and no marked trafficking of AT macrophages or NK cells, while the fasted-induced upregulation of FGF21 expression was maintained as well as the lipolytic responses. The present results demonstrate that, in a context of diet-induced obesity, fasting-induced immunosuppression is restricted to fat depots in immunocompetent mice. Lack of adipocyte leptin regulation and fasting-induced immunosuppression in obese immunodeficient mice strongly suggests that lymphocytes are involved in the modulation of adipocyte leptin expression on one hand and on the other that leptin is involved in the immune changes in AT according to nutritional status. PMID:25670497

  5. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Nepalese Hemodialysis Patients by Anthropometric Examinations and Modified Quantitative Subjective Global Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Sedhain, Arun; Hada, Rajani; Agrawal, Rajendra Kumar; Bhattarai, Gandhi R; Baral, Anil

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the nutritional status of patients on maintenance hemodialysis by using modified quantitative subjective global assessment (MQSGA) and anthropometric measurements. METHOD We Conducted a cross sectional descriptive analytical study to assess the nutritional status of fifty four patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing maintenance hemodialysis by using MQSGA and different anthropometric and laboratory measurements like body mass index (BMI), mid-arm circumference (MAC), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), triceps skin fold (TSF) and biceps skin fold (BSF), serum albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipid profile in a government tertiary hospital at Kathmandu, Nepal. RESULTS Based on MQSGA criteria, 66.7% of the patients suffered from mild to moderate malnutrition and 33.3% were well nourished. None of the patients were severely malnourished. CRP was positive in 56.3% patients. Serum albumin, MAC and BMI were (mean + SD) 4.0 + 0.3 mg/dl, 22 + 2.6 cm and 19.6 ± 3.2 kg/m2 respectively. MQSGA showed negative correlation with MAC (r = −0.563; P = <0.001), BMI (r = −0.448; P = <0.001), MAMC (r = −0.506; P = <.0001), TSF (r = −0.483; P = <.0002), and BSF (r = −0.508; P = <0.0001). Negative correlation of MQSGA was also found with total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol without any statistical significance. CONCLUSION Mild to moderate malnutrition was found to be present in two thirds of the patients undergoing hemodialysis. Anthropometric measurements like BMI, MAC, MAMC, BSF and TSF were negatively correlated with MQSGA. Anthropometric and laboratory assessment tools could be used for nutritional assessment as they are relatively easier, cheaper and practical markers of nutritional status. PMID:26327781

  6. Nutritional status and physical inactivity in moderated asthmatics: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Andreina; Uasuf, Carina Gabriela; Insalaco, Giuseppe; Barazzoni, Rocco; Ballacchino, Antonella; Gjomarkaj, Mark; Pace, Elisabetta

    2016-08-01

    Preservation of nutritional status and of fat-free mass (FFM) and/or preventing of fat mass (FM) accumulation have a positive impact on well-being and prognosis in asthma patients. Physical inactivity is identified by World Health Organization as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Physical activity (PA) may contribute to limit FM accumulation, but little information is available on the interactions between habitual PA and body composition and their association with disease severity in asthma severity.Associations between habitual PA, FM, FFM, and pulmonary function were investigated in 42 subjects (24 patients with mild-moderate asthma and 18 matched control subjects). Sensewear Armband was used to measure PA and metabolic equivalent of tasks (METs) continuously over 4 days, while body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Respiratory functions were also assessed in all study participants.FM and FFM were comparable in mild-moderate asthmatics and controls, but PA was lower in asthmatics and it was negatively correlated with FM and positively with the FFM marker body cell mass in all study subjects (P < 0.05). Among asthmatics, treated moderate asthmatics (ICS, n = 12) had higher FM and lower PA, METs, steps number/die, and forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) than in untreated intermittent asthmatics (UA, n = 12).This pilot study assesses that in mild-moderate asthma patients, lower PA is associated with higher FM and higher disease severity. The current results support enhancement of habitual PA as a potential tool to limit FM accumulation and potentially contribute to preserve pulmonary function in moderate asthma, considering the physical inactivity a strong risk factor for asthma worsening. PMID:27495092

  7. Effects of Canned Pineapple Consumption on Nutritional Status, Immunomodulation, and Physical Health of Selected School Children

    PubMed Central

    Cervo, Mavil May C.; Llido, Luisito O.; Barrios, Erniel B.; Panlasigui, Leonora N.

    2014-01-01

    This randomized, controlled trial examined the effects of canned pineapple consumption on immunomodulation, nutritional status, and physical health of ninety-eight (98) school children with mean age of 8.44 ± 0.20. The study participants were divided into three groups: Group A (33) includes subjects who were not given canned pineapple, Group B (33) includes those who were given 140 g, and Group C (32) includes those given 280 g of canned pineapple for nine weeks. Each major group was further divided into two groups: normal (N) and underweight (U) based on 2007 WHO Growth Reference Standards. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, physical examination, dietary intake, hemoglobin level, and immunological data were analyzed. Results showed a decrease in incidence of viral and bacterial infections for both Group B and Group C (normal and underweight) after canned pineapple consumption. Granulocyte production increased by 0.77–26.61% for normal weight subjects and 14.95–34.55% for underweight. CD16+56 count augmented by 20.44–22.13% for normal weight and 3.57–15.89% for underweight subjects. Thus, intake of both one can (140 g) and two cans (280 g) of canned pineapple may shorten the duration and incidence of infection and may increase the production of granulocytes and CD16+56, but intake of two cans (280 g) demonstrated higher granulocyte and CD16+56 production. This trial is registered with Philippine Health Research Registry: PHRR140826-000225. PMID:25505983

  8. Vitamin D nutritional status in preterm infants and response to supplementation.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Roberta A; McKenna, Malachi J; Oyefeso, Oyinkansola; Uduma, Ogenna; Murray, Barbara F; Brady, Jennifer J; Kilbane, Mark T; Murphy, John F; Twomey, Anne; O' Donnell, Colm P; Murphy, Nuala P; Molloy, Eleanor J

    2013-07-14

    Little is known about vitamin D status in preterm infants and their response to supplementation. To investigate this, we assessed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels using RIA in a consecutive sample of stable preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (born ≤ 32 weeks gestation or birth weight ≤ 1·5 kg), and we explored associated factors. Serum 25OHD level was first assessed once infants were tolerating feeds (n 274). If this first 25OHD level was below 50 nmol/l (20 ng/ml), which is the level associated with covering requirements in terms of skeletal health in the majority, then we recommended prolonged augmented vitamin D intake ( ≥ 10 μg (400 IU) daily) from a combination of fortified feeds and vitamin supplements and follow-up re-assessment at approximately 6 weeks corrected age (n 148). The first assessment, conducted at a median for chronological age of 18 (interquartile range (IQR) 11-28) d, found that 78 % had serum 25OHD levels below 50 nmol/l. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that the determinants of serum 25OHD levels were duration of vitamin D supplementation and gestational age at birth (r 2 0·215; P< 0·001). At follow-up, after a median of 104 (IQR 78-127) d, 87 % achieved levels ≥ 50 nmol/l and 8 % had levels >125 nmol/l, a level associated with potential risk of harm. We conclude that low 25OHD levels are an issue for preterm VLBW infants, warranting early nutritional intervention. In infants with serum 25OHD levels < 50 nmol/l, a vitamin D intake of ≥ 10 μg (400 IU) daily achieves target levels in the majority; however, further work is needed to determine the exact dose to safely meet target levels without overcorrection. PMID:23182428

  9. Diet patterns are associated with demographic factors and nutritional status in South Indian children.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, Sarah H; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Guntupalli, Aravinda M; Margetts, Barrie M; Fall, Caroline H D; Robinson, Sian M

    2014-01-01

    The burden of non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) in India is increasing. Diet and body composition 'track' from childhood into adult life and contribute to the development of risk factors for NCD. Little is known about the diet patterns of Indian children. We aimed to identify diet patterns and study associations with body composition and socio-demographic factors in the Mysore Parthenon Study cohort. We collected anthropometric and demographic data from children aged 9.5 years (n = 538). We also administered a food frequency questionnaire and measured fasting blood concentrations of folate and vitamin B12. Using principal component analysis, we identified two diet patterns. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of snacks, fruit, sweetened drinks, rice and meat dishes and leavened breads. The 'lacto-vegetarian' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of finger millet, vegetarian rice dishes, yoghurt, vegetable dishes and infrequent meat consumption. Adherence to the 'snack and fruit' pattern was associated with season, being Muslim and urban dwelling. Adherence to the lacto-vegetarian pattern was associated with being Hindu, rural dwelling and a lower maternal body mass index. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was negatively associated with the child's adiposity. The lacto-vegetarian pattern was positively associated with blood folate concentration and negatively with vitamin B12 concentration. This study provides new information on correlates of diet patterns in Indian children and how diet relates to nutritional status. Follow-up of these children will be important to determine the role of these differences in diet in the development of risk factors for NCD including body composition. PMID:23819872

  10. Dietary intakes and nutritional status of old people with dementia living at home in Oslo.

    PubMed

    Nes, M; Sem, S W; Rousseau, B; Bjørneboe, G E; Engedal, K; Trygg, K; Pedersen, J I

    1988-07-01

    A nutritional study was carried out of 16 independent-living elderly (9 women, 7 men) suffering from dementia and a control group matched for sex and age. The study consisted of interview (with participants or relatives/home helps), a 3-d weighed dietary record and biochemical determinations of blood components. No significant difference in mean daily energy intake between demented elderly (women 7.2 +/- 2.0 MJ, men 8.6 +/- 1.2 MJ) and controls (women 6.9 +/- 0.7 MJ, men 9.4 +/- 2.0 MJ) was found. The women with dementia had lower dietary intakes of protein (P less than 0.05), thiamin (P less than 0.05) and vitamin C (P less than 0.01) than female controls. For both sexes in both groups the nutrients most lacking were vitamin D and thiamin. Dietary supplements were more frequently used among elderly with dementia (50 per cent) than among controls (13 per cent) (P less than 0.05). Except for vitamin D, supplements did not reduce the number of demented elderly with low intakes (less than two-thirds of the recommendations) because generally those in most need were non-users. The demented elderly had lower levels of haemoglobin and folic acid (blood and plasma) (P less than 0.05) but better thiamin status (alpha-transketolase) than controls (P less than 0.05). No difference in mean levels of protein, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin B12 in serum was found. Individuals with blood or serum levels of nutrients below reference values were more frequently found among the demented elderly than among controls. In the dementia group 2 individuals with low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D also had clinical evidence of osteomalacia. PMID:3265665

  11. Mg2+ as an indicator of nutritional status in marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Heldal, Mikal; Norland, Svein; Erichsen, Egil Severin; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Larsen, Aud; Thingstad, Frede; Bratbak, Gunnar

    2012-03-01

    Cells maintain an osmotic pressure essential for growth and division, using organic compatible solutes and inorganic ions. Mg(2+), which is the most abundant divalent cation in living cells, has not been considered an osmotically important solute. Here we show that under carbon limitation or dormancy native marine bacterial communities have a high cellular concentration of Mg(2+) (370-940 mM) and a low cellular concentration of Na(+) (50-170 mM). With input of organic carbon, the average cellular concentration of Mg(2+) decreased 6-12-fold, whereas that of Na(+) increased ca 3-4-fold. The concentration of chlorine, which was in the range of 330-1200 mM, and was the only inorganic counterion of quantitative significance, balanced and followed changes in the concentration of Mg(2+)+Na(+). In an osmotically stable environment, like seawater, any major shift in bacterial osmolyte composition should be related to shifts in growth conditions, and replacing organic compatible solutes with inorganic solutes is presumably a favorable strategy when growing in carbon-limited condition. A high concentration of Mg(2+) in cells may also serve to protect and stabilize macromolecules during periods of non-growth and dormancy. Our results suggest that Mg(2+) has a major role as osmolyte in marine bacteria, and that the [Mg(2+)]/[Na(+)] ratio is related to its physiological condition and nutritional status. Bacterial degradation is a main sink for dissolved organic carbon in the ocean, and understanding the mechanisms limiting bacterial activity is therefore essential for understanding the oceanic C-cycle. The [Mg(2+)]/[Na(+)]-ratio in cells may provide a physiological proxy for the transitions between C-limited and mineral nutrient-limited bacterial growth in the ocean's surface layer. PMID:21938023

  12. Nutritional Status and Nosocomial Infections among Adult Elective Surgery Patients in a Mexican Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-García, Judith; Gamiño-Iriarte, Astrid; Rodea-Montero, Edel Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Background Controversy exists as to whether obesity constitutes a risk-factor or a protective-factor for the development of nosocomial Infection (NI). According to the obesity-paradox, there is evidence that moderate obesity is a protective-factor. In Mexico few studies have focused on the nutritional status (NS) distribution in the hospital setting. Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate the distribution of NS and the prevalence of nosocomial infection NI among adult elective surgery (ES) patients and to compare the clinical and anthropometric characteristics and length of stays (LOS) between obese and non-obese patients and between patients with and without NI. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study with a sample (n = 82) adult ES patients (21–59 years old) who were recruited from a tertiary-care hospital. The prevalences of each NS category and NI were estimated, the assessments were compared between groups (Mann-Whitney, Chi-squared or the Fisher's-exact-test), and the association between preoperative risk-factors and NI was evaluated using odds ratios. Results The distribution of subjects by NS category was: underweight (3.66%), normal-weight (28.05%), overweight (35.36%), and obese (32.93%). The prevalence of NI was 14.63%. The LOS was longer (p<0.001) for the patients who developed NI. The percentages of NI were: 33.3% in underweight, 18.52% in obese, 17.39% in normal-weight, and 6.90% in overweight patients. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult ES patients is high. The highest prevalence of NI occurred in the underweight and obese patients. The presence of NI considerably increased the LOS, resulting in higher medical care costs. PMID:25803860

  13. Evaluation of Lipid Metabolism and Nutritional Status in Male Goalball Players

    PubMed Central

    Gawlik, Krystyna; Zwierzchowska, Anna; Rosołek, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Lipid disorders, obesity and overweight are considered one of the most important modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. Population surveys carried out in Poland have demonstrated a tendency for lipid disorders to occur in 70% and overweight and obesity in more than half of Poles. No such studies have been conducted in groups of people with vision impairment so far. Yet, regular involvement of visually impaired people in sports is likely to reduce cardiovascular risk. Therefore, the authors attempted to evaluate the lipid profile and nutritional status of male goalball players. Thirty two blind or visually impaired male goalball players aged 20 to 45 years participated in the study during which somatic variables (BH, BM, WC, VFR, BMI) and the lipid profile (TC, LDL, HDL, TG) were evaluated. Overweight was found in 40.6% of athletes, with obesity being at the level of 9.3%. A high correlation was found between visceral fat and the BMI (r=0.7; p<0.001), as well as between visceral fat and WC (r=0.8; p<0.001). Abnormal total cholesterol levels were recorded for LDL (22% of study participants), HDL (17%) and triglycerides (13%). Lower levels of individual components of lipid profiles (and higher levels for HDL) were found in athletes with a normal BMI. A correlation was found between the BMI and TG (r=0.4, p<0.01), WC and TG (r=0.4, p<0.01), VFR and LDL ( r=0.4, p<0.05) and TG (r=0.5, p<0.001). The percentage of overweight and obese subjects with vision impairment was lower compared to the general population of men in Poland, with a more beneficial lipid profile. Regular physical activity of the study participants is likely to have a positive effect on their health. PMID:26834882

  14. Diet patterns are associated with demographic factors and nutritional status in South Indian children

    PubMed Central

    Kehoe, Sarah H; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Guntupalli, Aravinda M; Margetts, Barrie M; Fall, Caroline HD; Robinson, Sian M

    2014-01-01

    The burden of non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) in India is increasing. Diet and body composition ‘track’ from childhood into adult life and contribute to the development of risk factors for NCD. Little is known about the diet patterns of Indian children. We aimed to identify diet patterns and study associations with body composition and socio-demographic factors in the Mysore Parthenon Study cohort. We collected anthropometric and demographic data from children aged 9.5 years (n = 538). We also administered a food frequency questionnaire and measured fasting blood concentrations of folate and vitamin B12. Using principal component analysis, we identified two diet patterns. The ‘snack and fruit’ pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of snacks, fruit, sweetened drinks, rice and meat dishes and leavened breads. The ‘lacto-vegetarian’ pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of finger millet, vegetarian rice dishes, yoghurt, vegetable dishes and infrequent meat consumption. Adherence to the ‘snack and fruit’ pattern was associated with season, being Muslim and urban dwelling. Adherence to the lacto-vegetarian pattern was associated with being Hindu, rural dwelling and a lower maternal body mass index. The ‘snack and fruit’ pattern was negatively associated with the child's adiposity. The lacto-vegetarian pattern was positively associated with blood folate concentration and negatively with vitamin B12 concentration. This study provides new information on correlates of diet patterns in Indian children and how diet relates to nutritional status. Follow-up of these children will be important to determine the role of these differences in diet in the development of risk factors for NCD including body composition. PMID:23819872

  15. Nutritional Status Associated to Skipping Breakfast in Brazilian Health Service Patients.

    PubMed

    Batista-Jorge, Gislaine Cândida; Barcala-Jorge, Antônio Sérgio; Oliveira Dias, Anderson Frederico; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; de Farias Lelis, Deborah; Oliveira Andrade, João Marcus; Claro, Rafael Moreira; de Paula, Alfredo Mauricio Batista; Guimaraes, Andre Luiz Sena; Ferreira, Adaliene Versiane; Santos, Sérgio Henrique Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that skipping breakfast is associated with an increased risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In this context, this study evaluated 400 patients from the Brazilian health service who had their nutritional status defined based on the body mass index and were classified as physically active or insufficient active. The energy intake and macronutrients was also assessed by a 24-hour dietary recall where the association of overweight/obesity with the investigated variables was evaluated using chi-square, Student's t test and multivariate analysis (p < 0.05). The main results showed that more than half of the studied population have the habit of omitting breakfast (55.8%), and among those, 81.2% were overweight/obese (p < 0.0001). Almost three-fourths of these individuals consumed no more than 4 meals a day (73.0%), and regarding this meal frequency/day, 78.8% of the individuals who reported having 4 meals or less a day were overweight/obese compared with 57.8% who reported as having 5-6 meals/day (p < 0.0001). The individuals who reported to omit breakfast had a higher chance of being overweight compared with those who had this habit (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.40-3.60) and the chance of the physically insufficient active individuals to be overweight/obese was 2.9 times higher when compared to the active individuals (p < 0.0001). Our findings suggest that regular breakfast consumption may decrease overweight and obesity risk. PMID:27434543

  16. Assessment of Arterial Stiffness, Volume, and Nutritional Status in Stable Renal Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Czyzewski, Lukasz; Wyzgal, Janusz; Czyzewska, Emilia; Kurowski, Andrzej; Sierdzinski, Janusz; Truszewski, Zenon; Szarpak, Lukasz

    2016-02-01

    Reduction of cardiovascular death might have a significant effect on the long-term survival rates of renal transplant recipients (RTRs). The aim of the study was to assess the relation between arterial stiffness and graft function, adipose tissue content, and hydration status in patients after kidney transplantation (KTx).The study included 83 RTR patients (mean age: 55 ± 13 years) who had been admitted to a nephrology-transplantation outpatient clinic 0.5 to 24 years after KTx. Clinical and laboratory data were analyzed and eGFR was calculated with the CKD-EPI formula. Arterial stiffness was assessed in all RTRs with pulse wave propagation velocity (PWV) with the use of a complior device. In addition, fluid and nutritional status was assessed with a Tanita BC 418 body composition analyzer. The control group consisted of 31 hospital workers who received no medication and had no history of cardiovascular disease.Multivariable linear regression analysis, with PWV as a dependent variable, retained the following independent predictors in the final regression model: red blood cell distribution width (RDW) (B = 0.323; P = 0.004), age (B = 0.297; P = 0.005), tacrolimus therapy (B = -0.286; P = 0.004), and central DBP (B = 0.185; P = 0.041). Multivariable linear regression analysis with eGFR as a dependent variable retained the following independent predictors in the final regression model; creatinine concentration (B = -0.632; P = 0.000), hemoglobin (B = 0.280; P = 0.000), CRP (B = -0.172; P = 0.011), tacrolimus therapy (B = 0.142; P = 0.039), and triglycerides (B = -0.142; P = 0.035).Our data indicates that: kidney transplant recipients can present modifiable CVD risk factors linked to increased arterial stiffness, DBP, waist circumference, SCr, time on dialysis, CyA therapy, and visceral fat mass; RDW is a parameter associated with arterial stiffness; and parameters such as CyA therapy, time on

  17. Assessment of Arterial Stiffness, Volume, and Nutritional Status in Stable Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Czyzewski, Lukasz; Wyzgal, Janusz; Czyzewska, Emilia; Kurowski, Andrzej; Sierdzinski, Janusz; Truszewski, Zenon; Szarpak, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Reduction of cardiovascular death might have a significant effect on the long-term survival rates of renal transplant recipients (RTRs). The aim of the study was to assess the relation between arterial stiffness and graft function, adipose tissue content, and hydration status in patients after kidney transplantation (KTx). The study included 83 RTR patients (mean age: 55 ± 13 years) who had been admitted to a nephrology-transplantation outpatient clinic 0.5 to 24 years after KTx. Clinical and laboratory data were analyzed and eGFR was calculated with the CKD-EPI formula. Arterial stiffness was assessed in all RTRs with pulse wave propagation velocity (PWV) with the use of a complior device. In addition, fluid and nutritional status was assessed with a Tanita BC 418 body composition analyzer. The control group consisted of 31 hospital workers who received no medication and had no history of cardiovascular disease. Multivariable linear regression analysis, with PWV as a dependent variable, retained the following independent predictors in the final regression model: red blood cell distribution width (RDW) (B = 0.323; P = 0.004), age (B = 0.297; P = 0.005), tacrolimus therapy (B = −0.286; P = 0.004), and central DBP (B = 0.185; P = 0.041). Multivariable linear regression analysis with eGFR as a dependent variable retained the following independent predictors in the final regression model; creatinine concentration (B = −0.632; P = 0.000), hemoglobin (B = 0.280; P = 0.000), CRP (B = −0.172; P = 0.011), tacrolimus therapy (B = 0.142; P = 0.039), and triglycerides (B = −0.142; P = 0.035). Our data indicates that: kidney transplant recipients can present modifiable CVD risk factors linked to increased arterial stiffness, DBP, waist circumference, SCr, time on dialysis, CyA therapy, and visceral fat mass; RDW is a parameter associated with arterial stiffness; and parameters such as

  18. Explaining nutritional habits and behaviors of low socioeconomic status women in Sanandaj: a qualitative content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Nasrin; Sadeghi, Roya; Zamani-alavijeh, Fereshteh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Shojaeezadeh, Davoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health and behavior are closely related subjects because disease is typically rooted in individuals’ unhealthy behaviors and habits. This study aims to identify women’s nutritional habits and behaviors in order to design interventions to promote nutritional literacy. Methods This qualitative research is part of a mixed method (quantitative-qualitative) study, conducted based on content analysis. Data were collected using semistructured interviews, group discussions, and in-depth interviews with married women, aged 18–50 years, who were referred to four health care centers in Sanandaj in 2013–2014. Results Nutritional habits and behaviors of participants were classified into two categories: representation of nutritional behavior based on consumption pattern and representation of nutritional behavior based on consumption method. For the former, eight consumption pattern subcategories were formed: meat, dairy, fast food, local foods, fruits and vegetables, soft drinks, and oils. The latter (representation of nutritional behavior based on consumption method), included two subcategories: consumption method in line with health and consumption method inconsistent with health. Conclusion Results of this qualitative study provide a solid foundation for development and designing interventions to nutritional literacy promotion based on needs. The designed intervention to healthy nutritional behavior should be based on empowering women and providing facilitator factors of a healthy diet. While designing this study, with a holistic perspective, individual and social aspects of a healthy diet should be taken into account. PMID:26955443

  19. Effect of a milk-based food supplement on maternal nutritional status and fetal growth in underweight Chilean women.

    PubMed

    Mardones-Santander, F; Rosso, P; Stekel, A; Ahumada, E; Llaguno, S; Pizarro, F; Salinas, J; Vial, I; Walter, T

    1988-03-01

    The effects on pregnancy outcome and maternal iron status of powdered milk (PUR) and a milk-based fortified product (V-N) were compared in a group of underweight gravidas. These take-home products were distributed during regular prenatal visits. Women in the V-N group had greater weight gain (12.29 vs 11.31 kg, p less than 0.05) and mean birth weights (3178 vs 3105 g, p less than 0.05) than those in the PUR group. Values for various indicators of maternal Fe status were also higher in the V-N group. Compared with self-selected noncompliers, similar in all control variables to compliers, children of women who consumed powdered milk or the milk-based fortified product had mean birth weights that were higher by 258 and 335 g, respectively. Data indicate a beneficial effect of the fortified product on both maternal nutritional status and fetal growth. PMID:3279745

  20. Effects of 12-week Vegetarian Diet on the Nutritional Status, Stress Status and Bowel Habits in Middle School Students and Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m2) in the students (p < 0.05) and reduction of TC (mg/dL) in both teachers and students (p < 0.05) were observed. Also reduction of LDL-C (mg/dL) was observed in the teachers (p < 0.05) whereas serum calcium and Vitamin B12 was increased in the students and teachers (p < 0.005). The teacher's stress level was reduced (p < 0.05) after the 12-week vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit. PMID:27152300

  1. Effects of 12-week Vegetarian Diet on the Nutritional Status, Stress Status and Bowel Habits in Middle School Students and Teachers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran; Kye, Seung Hee; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m(2)) in the students (p < 0.05) and reduction of TC (mg/dL) in both teachers and students (p < 0.05) were observed. Also reduction of LDL-C (mg/dL) was observed in the teachers (p < 0.05) whereas serum calcium and Vitamin B12 was increased in the students and teachers (p < 0.005). The teacher's stress level was reduced (p < 0.05) after the 12-week vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit. PMID:27152300

  2. Maintenance of nutritional status in patients with cystic fibrosis: new and emerging therapies

    PubMed Central

    Kalnins, Daina; Wilschanski, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Poor clinical outcomes in cystic fibrosis are often associated with undernutrition. Normal growth and development should be achieved in cystic fibrosis, and nutritional counseling is paramount at all ages. Prevention and early detection of growth failure is the key to successful nutritional intervention. The advance in nutritional management is certainly one factor that has contributed to the improved survival in recent decades. This review outlines the major nutritional parameters in the management of the patient with cystic fibrosis, including recent advances in pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy and fat-soluble vitamin therapy. There are sections on complicated clinical situations which directly affect nutrition, for example, before and after lung transplantation, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, and bone health. PMID:22787388

  3. Nutrition Surveillance. Annual Summary 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This report summarizes information, including selected indices of nutritional status, as reported from 28 states and the District of Columbia to the Nutritional Status Surveillance System. This system has two components, one addressing nutritional status among high-risk pediatric populations, and the other addressing nutritional status among…

  4. Nutritional and developmental status among 6- to 8-month-old children in southwestern Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Muhoozi, Grace K. M.; Atukunda, Prudence; Mwadime, Robert; Iversen, Per Ole; Westerberg, Ane C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Undernutrition continues to pose challenges to Uganda's children, but there is limited knowledge on its association with physical and intellectual development. Objective In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the nutritional status and milestone development of 6- to 8-month-old children and associated factors in two districts of southwestern Uganda. Design Five hundred and twelve households with mother–infant (6–8 months) pairs were randomly sampled. Data about background variables (e.g. household characteristics, poverty likelihood, and child dietary diversity scores (CDDS)) were collected using questionnaires. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID III) and Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ) were used to collect data on child development. Anthropometric measures were used to determine z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ), weight-for-length (WLZ), head circumference (HCZ), and mid-upper arm circumference. Chi-square tests, correlation coefficients, and linear regression analyses were used to relate background variables, nutritional status indicators, and infant development. Results The prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting was 12.1, 24.6, and 4.7%, respectively. Household head education, gender, sanitation, household size, maternal age and education, birth order, poverty likelihood, and CDDS were associated (p<0.05) with WAZ, LAZ, and WLZ. Regression analysis showed that gender, sanitation, CDDS, and likelihood to be below the poverty line were predictors (p<0.05) of undernutrition. BSID III indicated development delay of 1.3% in cognitive and language, and 1.6% in motor development. The ASQ indicated delayed development of 24, 9.1, 25.2, 12.2, and 15.1% in communication, fine motor, gross motor, problem solving, and personal social ability, respectively. All nutritional status indicators except HCZ were positively and significantly associated with development domains. WAZ was the main predictor for

  5. Impact of the Preoperative Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) Score on the Survival after Curative Surgery for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Iseki, Yasuhito; Shibutani, Masatsune; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Nagahara, Hisashi; Ohtani, Hiroshi; Sugano, Kenji; Ikeya, Tetsuro; Muguruma, Kazuya; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently, the preoperative immune-nutritional status has been reported to correlate with the survival rate in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). However, there have been no reports on the relationship between the controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score and the clinical outcome after curative surgery for CRC. We herein evaluated the prognostic significance of the CONUT score in patients with CRC, and then compared the accuracy of the CONUT score and the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) as a predictor of survival. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a database of 204 patients who underwent curative surgery for Stage II/III CRC. Patients were divided into two groups according to the CONUT score and the PNI. Results The five-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) rate was significantly higher at 92.7% in the low CONUT group, compared to a rate of 81.0% in the high CONUT group (p=0.0016). The five-year CSS was 71.2% in the low PNI group and 92.3% in the high PNI group, which showed a significant difference (p=0.0155). A multivariate analysis showed that lymph node metastasis and the CONUT score were independent risk factors for CSS. Conclusion This study suggested that the CONUT score is a strong independent predictor of the survival among CRC patients. PMID:26147805

  6. Association of household rice expenditure with child nutritional status indicates a role for macroeconomic food policy in combating malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Torlesse, Harriet; Kiess, Lynnda; Bloem, Martin W

    2003-05-01

    Macroeconomic food policies have the potential to reduce malnutrition by improving access to food, a determinant of nutritional status. However, very little is understood about the mechanisms and the magnitude of the effects of macroeconomic food policies such as food price policies on nutritional status. Data collected by the Nutritional Surveillance Project on a total of 81,337 children aged 6-59 mo in rural Bangladesh between 1992 and 2000 were used to examine how changes in rice price affect child underweight. Rice consumption per capita declined only slightly during the period but rice expenditure per capita varied widely due to fluctuations in rice price. Rice expenditure was positively correlated with the percentage of underweight children (r = 0.91, P = 0.001). Households were found to spend more on nonrice foods as their rice expenditure declined, and nonrice expenditure per capita was negatively correlated with the percentage of underweight children (r = -0.91, P = 0.001). Expenditure on nonrice foods per capita increased with the frequency with which nonrice foods were consumed (P < 0.05) and with the diversity of the diet (P < 0.001). The findings suggest that the percentage of underweight children declined when rice expenditure fell because households were able to spend more on nonrice foods and thereby increase the quantity and quality of their diet. We hypothesize that macroeconomic food policies that keep the price of food staples low can contribute toward reducing child underweight. PMID:12730417

  7. Environmental factors and beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism: influence on the energy expenditure and nutritional status of obese women.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Eliane Lopes; Bressan, Josefina; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2015-05-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the influence of the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRβ2) gene, fat intake and physical activity on the energy expenditure (EE) and nutritional status of obese women. Sixty obese women (30-46 years) participated in the study and were assigned to three groups depending on the genotypes: Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu. At baseline and after nutritional intervention, the anthropometric and body composition (bioelectrical impedance), dietary, EE (indirect calorimetry) and biochemical variables were measured. All women received a high-fat test meal to determine the postprandial EE (short-term) and an energy-restricted diet for 10 weeks (long term). The frequencies of Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu were 36.67, 40.0 and 23.33 %, respectively. Anthropometric and biochemical variables and EE did not differ between groups, although women who had no polymorphism demonstrated decreased carbohydrate oxidation. On the other hand, the Glu27Glu genotype showed a positive relation with EE in physical activity and fat oxidation. The environmental factors and Gln27Glu polymorphism did not influence the nutritional status and EE of obese women, but physical activity in obese women with the polymorphism in the ADRβ2 gene can promote fat oxidation. The results suggest that encouraging the practice of physical exercise is important considering the high frequency of this polymorphism in obese subjects. PMID:25893811

  8. What Effect Does International Migration Have on the Nutritional Status and Child Care Practices of Children Left Behind?

    PubMed

    Jayatissa, Renuka; Wickramage, Kolitha

    2016-02-01

    Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of "children left behind". The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6-59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families. PMID:26891313

  9. Remodelling of the hepatic epigenetic landscape of glucose-intolerant rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by nutritional status and dietary carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Marandel, Lucie; Lepais, Olivier; Arbenoits, Eva; Véron, Vincent; Dias, Karine; Zion, Marie; Panserat, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The rainbow trout, a carnivorous fish, displays a ‘glucose-intolerant’ phenotype revealed by persistent hyperglycaemia when fed a high carbohydrate diet (HighCHO). Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene activity and is closely related to environmental changes and thus to metabolism adjustments governed by nutrition. In this study we first assessed in the trout liver whether and how nutritional status affects global epigenome modifications by targeting DNA methylation and histone marks previously reported to be affected in metabolic diseases. We then examined whether dietary carbohydrates could affect the epigenetic landscape of duplicated gluconeogenic genes previously reported to display changes in mRNA levels in trout fed a high carbohydrate diet. We specifically highlighted global hypomethylation of DNA and hypoacetylation of H3K9 in trout fed a HighCHO diet, a well-described phenotype in diabetes. g6pcb2 ohnologs were also hypomethylated at specific CpG sites in these animals according to their up-regulation. Our findings demonstrated that the hepatic epigenetic landscape can be affected by both nutritional status and dietary carbohydrates in trout. The mechanism underlying the setting up of these epigenetic modifications has now to be explored in order to improve understanding of its impact on the glucose intolerant phenotype in carnivorous teleosts. PMID:27561320

  10. What Effect Does International Migration Have on the Nutritional Status and Child Care Practices of Children Left Behind?

    PubMed Central

    Jayatissa, Renuka; Wickramage, Kolitha

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of “children left behind”. The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6–59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families. PMID:26891313

  11. Remodelling of the hepatic epigenetic landscape of glucose-intolerant rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by nutritional status and dietary carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Marandel, Lucie; Lepais, Olivier; Arbenoits, Eva; Véron, Vincent; Dias, Karine; Zion, Marie; Panserat, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The rainbow trout, a carnivorous fish, displays a 'glucose-intolerant' phenotype revealed by persistent hyperglycaemia when fed a high carbohydrate diet (HighCHO). Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene activity and is closely related to environmental changes and thus to metabolism adjustments governed by nutrition. In this study we first assessed in the trout liver whether and how nutritional status affects global epigenome modifications by targeting DNA methylation and histone marks previously reported to be affected in metabolic diseases. We then examined whether dietary carbohydrates could affect the epigenetic landscape of duplicated gluconeogenic genes previously reported to display changes in mRNA levels in trout fed a high carbohydrate diet. We specifically highlighted global hypomethylation of DNA and hypoacetylation of H3K9 in trout fed a HighCHO diet, a well-described phenotype in diabetes. g6pcb2 ohnologs were also hypomethylated at specific CpG sites in these animals according to their up-regulation. Our findings demonstrated that the hepatic epigenetic landscape can be affected by both nutritional status and dietary carbohydrates in trout. The mechanism underlying the setting up of these epigenetic modifications has now to be explored in order to improve understanding of its impact on the glucose intolerant phenotype in carnivorous teleosts. PMID:27561320

  12. Nutritional Status Assessment During the Phase IIA and Phase III Lunar/Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Block, Gladys; Davis-Street, Janis E.; DeKerlegand, Diane E.; Fanselow, Stephanie A.; Fesperman, J. Vernell; Gillman, Patricia L.; Nillen, Jeannie I.; Rice, Barbara L.; Smith, Myra D.

    2000-01-01

    Nutrition is a critical concern for extended-duration space missions (Smith and Lane, 1999). Loss of body weight is a primary consequence of altered nutrition, and is frequently observed during space flight (Smith and Lane; 1999). Other existing dietary concerns for space flight include excessive intakes of sodium and iron, and insufficient intakes of water and vitamin D (Smith and Lane, 1999). Furthermore, dependence on closed or semi-closed food systems increases the likelihood of inadequate intakes of key nutrients. This is a significant concern for extended-duration space missions. Space nutrition research often necessitates detailed recording of all food consumption. While this yields extremely accurate data, it requires considerable time and effort, and thus is not suitable for routine medical monitoring during space flight. To alleviate this problem, a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was designed to provide a quick and easy, yet reasonably accurate, method for crewmembers to provide dietary intake information to the ground. We report here a study which was designed to assess nutritional status before, during, and after the 60-d and 91-d chamber stays. An additional goal of the study was to validate a food frequency questionnaire designed specifically for use with space flight food systems.

  13. Nutritional status and feeding-tube placement in patients with locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer included in an induction chemotherapy-based larynx preservation program.

    PubMed

    Bozec, Alexandre; Benezery, Karen; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Ettaiche, Marc; Vandersteen, Clair; Dassonville, Olivier; Poissonnet, Gilles; Riss, Jean-Christophe; Hannoun-Lévi, Jean-Michel; Chand, Marie-Eve; Leysalle, Axel; Saada, Esma; Sudaka, Anne; Haudebourg, Juliette; Hebert, Christophe; Falewee, Marie-Noelle; Demard, François; Santini, José; Peyrade, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the nutritional status and determine its impact on clinical outcomes in patients with locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer included in an induction chemotherapy (ICT)-based larynx preservation program without prophylactic feeding-tube placement. All patients with locally advanced (T3/4, N0-3, M0) hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, technically suitable for total pharyngolaryngectomy, treated by docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TPF)-ICT for larynx preservation at our institution between 2004 and 2013, were included in this retrospective study. Patients' nutritional status was closely monitored. Enteral nutrition was used if and when a patient was unable to sustain per-oral nutrition and hydration. The impact of nutritional status on clinical outcomes was investigated in univariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 53 patients (42 men and 11 women, mean age = 58.6 ± 8.2 years) were included in this study. Six (11.3 %) patients had lost more than 10 % of their usual body weight before therapy. Compared with patients' usual weight, the mean maximum patient weight loss during therapeutic management was 8.7 ± 4.5 kg. Enteral nutrition was required in 17 patients (32 %). We found no influence of the tested nutritional status-related factors on response to ICT, toxicity of ICT, overall, cause-specific and recurrence-free survival, and on post-therapeutic swallowing outcome. Maximum weight loss was significantly associated with a higher risk of enteral tube feeding during therapy (p = 0.03) and of complications (grade ≥3, p = 0.006) during RT. Without prophylactic feeding-tube placement, approximately one-third of the patients required enteral nutrition. There was no significant impact of nutritional status on oncologic or functional outcomes. PMID:26395117

  14. Enteral nutrition in the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers in adult critical care patients.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jill; Rasmussen, Louisa

    2014-12-01

    Prevention and healing of pressure ulcers in critically ill patients can be especially challenging because of the patients' burden of illness and degree of physiological compromise. Providing adequate nutrition may help halt the development or worsening of pressure ulcers. Optimization of nutrition can be considered an essential ingredient in prevention and healing of pressure ulcers. Understanding malnutrition in critical care patients, the effect of nutrition on wound healing, and the application of evidence-based nutritional guidelines are important aspects for patients at high risk for pressure ulcers. Appropriate screenings for nutritional status and risk for pressure ulcers, early collaboration with a registered dietician, and administration of appropriate feeding formulations and micronutrient and macronutrient supplementation to promote wound healing are practical solutions to improve the nutritional status of critical care patients. Use of nutritional management and enteral feeding protocols may provide vital elements to augment nutrition and ultimately result in improved clinical outcomes. PMID:25452406

  15. Nutrient Intake and Nutritional Status Indicators of Participant and Nonparticipant Pupils of a Parent-Supported School Lunch Program in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walingo, Mary K.; Musamali, Betty

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare nutrient intake and indicators of nutritional status of western Kenyan pupil participants and nonparticipants of a parent-supported school lunch program. Design: Pupils and their caregivers were interviewed to assess their 24-hour dietary intake and the socioeconomic status of the family. Pupils' weights and heights were…

  16. Barriers and catalysts of nutrition literacy among elderly Japanese people.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Yoko; Minai, Junko

    2011-12-01

    Improving skills for accessing and utilizing diet/nutrition information is important for preventing non-communicable diseases and frailty among elderly people. With the rapidly increasing number of elderly people in the world, promoting nutrition literacy among them is a pivotal health policy for maintaining and promoting health. This article describes the barriers and catalysts of nutrition literacy among elderly Japanese people (aged ≥75 years). A cross-sectional analysis of the responses to a questionnaire administered to 678 study participants (men = 347, women = 331) was conducted. Logistic regression analysis revealed that more men had limited nutrition literacy than did women. After stratification by gender, the limited nutrition literacy group was associated with cognitive difficulty in men and women, visual impairment in men and hearing impairment in women. Lower education level and economic status were associated with limited nutrition literacy among women. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) controlling for age, education level and economic status, as well as cognitive, visual and hearing function, indicated that informational support [OR = 5.59, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.28-24.49] and diet/nutrition information obtained from friends of the participants (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.11-4.20) were both associated with adequate nutrition literacy among men, whereas diet/nutrition information from health professionals (OR = 3.96, 95% CI = 1.97-7.95) had a significant relation with adequate nutrition literacy among women. Moreover, in the adequate nutrition literacy group, men were more likely to be overweight (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.20-3.91). These findings suggested that cognitive and sensory functions should be taken into account when diet information is provided to older adults. Enhancement of social networks is also a key point in improving nutrition literacy. An effective intervention to improve nutrition literacy in elderly people, particular old men

  17. Nutrition and nutritional issues for dancers.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Mónica; Carvalho, Pedro; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor H

    2013-09-01

    Proper nutrition, not simply adequate energetic intake, is needed to achieve optimal dance performance. However, little scientific research exists concerning nutrition in dance, and so, to propose nutritional guidelines for this field, recommendations need to be based mainly on studies done in other physically active groups. To diminish the risk of energy imbalance and associated disorders, dancers must consume at least 30 kcal/kg fat-free mass/day, plus the training energy expenditure. For macronutrients, a daily intake of 3 to 5 g carbohydrates/kg, 1.2 to 1.7 g protein/kg, and 20 to 35% of energy intake from fat can be recommended. Dancers may be at increased risk of poor micronutrient status due to their restricted energy intake; micronutrients that deserve concern are iron, calcium, and vitamin D. During training, dancers should give special attention to fluid and carbohydrate intake in order to maintain optimal cognition, motivation, and motor skill performance. For competition/stage performance preparation, it is also important to ensure that an adequate dietary intake is being achieved. Nutritional supplements that may help in achieving specific nutritional goals when dietary intake is inadequate include multivitamins and mineral, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements, sports drinks, sports bars, and liquid meal supplements. Caffeine can also be used as an ergogenic aid. It is important that dancers seek dietary advice from qualified specialists, since the pressure to maintain a low body weight and low body fat levels is high, especially in styles as ballet, and this can lead to an unbalanced diet and health problems if not correctly supervised. PMID:24013282

  18. The effect of maternal nutritional status during mid-gestation on placental characteristics in ewes.

    PubMed

    Sen, U; Sirin, E; Kuran, M

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of maternal nutritional status during mid-gestation on placental characteristics in ewes. Time of estrus of 3-5 years old Karayaka breed ewes was synchronized and mating was monitored to determine the day 0 of gestation. The ewes had similar body weights (47.8±0.7kg) and loin eye muscle values (thickness; 20.9±1.0mm and fat thickness; 4.7±0.5mm) at mating. The ewes were allocated into two treatment groups at day 30 of gestation; under-fed (UF; n=12) and well-fed (WF; n=13) groups. The ewes in UF group were fed with a diet to provide 50% of their daily requirement from day 30 to day 80 of gestation and 100% of their daily requirement during the rest of the gestation period. The ewes in WF group were fed at least 100% of their daily requirement throughout gestation. The singleton bearing ewes in the UF group had a lesser (P<0.05) placental weight (354.1 compared with 378.3g), average cotyledon weight (1.50 compared with 1.82g) and lamb birth weight (3.8 compared with 4.2kg) than singleton bearing ewes in the WF group. There were positive correlations between placental weight and lamb birth weight (r=.469; P<0.05), placental weight and average cotyledon weight (r=.695; P<0.01), average cotyledon weight and lamb birth weight (r=.742; P<0.01) and placental efficiency and cotyledon density (r=.853; P<0.01) for ewes in WF group. Additionally, the pattern of weight gain/loss was different (P<0.05) between the two groups. Ewes in UF group lost body weight progressively from day 30 of gestation until day 80. The results of present study show that under-feeding of ewes during mid-gestation may cause an insufficient placental development and hence alter fetal development resulting in a reduced birth weight from singleton pregnancies. PMID:23273533

  19. The impact of excessive maternal weight on the nutritional status of the fetus – the role of leptin

    PubMed Central

    Głowacka, Ewa; Krekora, Michał; Sobantka, Stanisław; Krokocka, Aleksandra; Krasomski, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Assessment of leptin concentration in the blood of pregnant women (leptin concentration – Lc) and in their newborns, according to their nutritional status. Material and methods Pregnant women (n = 42) were divided into normal body mass (NBM) and excessive body mass (EBM) groups. Neonates were divided into AGA (eutrophic) and LGA (macrosomic) groups. Leptin concentraction was studied in 4 subgroups: NBM/AGA, NBM/LGA, EBM/AGA, EBM/LGA. Results Mothers: A significant correlation was found between maternal Lc and body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.75, p < 0.001). Maternal Lc was 3 times higher than neonatal Lc (p < 0.00001). The NBM mothers showed lower Lc compared to EBM mothers (p = 0.000018). Leptin concentration values in NBM/LGA and NBM/AGA mothers were similar (p = 0.6775). Newborns: Correlations were found between Lc and ponderal index (PI) (r = 0.67, p < 0.001), weight (r = 0.43, p = 0.004) and placental weight (r = 0.56, p < 0.001). Girls presented higher Lc than boys (p = 0.0338). In LGA groups, newborns born to EBM mothers presented higher Lc than those born to NBM mothers (p = 0.0013). In both AGA groups, Lc was similar (AGA/EBM vs. AGA/NBM p = 0.1619). The highest Lc and the largest placentas were found in the group of LGA newborns born to EBM mothers. Conclusions Leptin concentration positively correlates with BMI in pregnant women, with PI and female sex in newborns as well as with placental weight. The nutritional status of fetuses does not affect the Lc of their non-obese mothers. The LGA neonates born to EBM women demonstrate higher Lc than LGA neonates born to NBM mothers, whereas Lc of AGA neonates is similar regardless of the nutritional status of their mothers. PMID:27186186

  20. Nutritional status and physical activity level as risk factor for traumatic dental injuries occurrence: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Goettems, Marília Leão; Schuch, Helena Silveira; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Torriani, Dione Dias; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Aim To systematically review epidemiological articles assessing traumatic dental injuries (TDI) rates according to the physical activity habits and nutritional status. Methods A search was conducted using PubMed, ISI, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS, and gray literature in Brazilian Theses Databank. We searched for dental trauma, traumatic dental injuries, tooth injuries, tooth fractures, physical activity, motor activity, exercise, sedentary lifestyle, sports, obesity, body mass index (BMI), overweight, and fatness. Databases were searched in duplicate from their earliest records until 2012. Additional studies were identified by searching bibliographies of the articles. Two reviewers performed data extraction and analyzed study procedural quality using the Newcastle–Ottawa scale. PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews were followed. Results We found 1159 articles, of whom 14 reports involving 13 studies were selected. One article was a birth cohort, one had a case–control design, and the others were cross-sectional. The quality of evidence varied across the studies and was high (9) in 3. Eleven of the studies included assessed influence of nutritional status: five show a positive association between dental trauma and overweight and six do not show any association. Regarding physical activity level, five studies assessed its effect on trauma occurrence: two detected that physical activity acts as a protective factor and two that physical active increases the risk of dental injuries, and one showed no differences in TDI occurrence. Physical activity estimated from questionnaires and BMI were the most frequently used measures, but methodological differences prevent the comparison of results. Conclusion The results suggest that no truly causal relationship exists between dental trauma and physical activity and nutritional status. Due to the relatively low level of evidence currently present, studies with more robust design, for example, prospective cohort

  1. Nutritional status is superior to the ECOG performance status in predicting the dose-intensity of the GEMOX chemotherapy regimen in patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Cessot, Anatole; Coriat, Romain; Mir, Oliver; Boudou-Rouquette, Pascaline; Giroux, Julie; Durand, Jean-Philippe; Alexandre, Jérôme; Goldwasser, Francois

    2013-01-01

    The increasing number of unfit patients calls for better risk assessment prior to initiating anti-tumor treatment. This is a major concern in the prevention and reduction of treatment-related complications. The aim of our study was to evaluate the nutritional status for the risk assessment of patients qualifying to receive the gemcitabine and oxaliplatin (GEMOX) regimen. This single-center, retrospective study examined baseline clinical and biological characteristics in a cohort of 165 unselected, consecutive cancer patients receiving GEMOX. Malnutrition was defined as either body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m(2), body weight loss >10% over 3 mo, or albuminemia <35 g/L. A total of 165 patients (median age 61 yr, PS 0-1: 71%) were studied. Malnutrition was seen in 43% of PS 0-1 patients, vs. 60% of PS 2 and 66% of PS 3 patients (P > 0.05). Median relative dose-intensity was 0.90 (0.17-1.04). GEMOX dose-intensity correlated negatively with loss of baseline weight (r = -0.24, P < 0.02). In patients who did not complete more than 2 cycles of chemotherapy, median PS (P < 0.01), mean C-reactive protein (CRP; P < 0.01), and mean albuminemia (P < 0.05) were, respectively, significantly higher, higher, and lower. Malnutrition is associated with a high risk of early discontinuance of treatment. Systematic basal evaluation of the nutritional status, including albuminemia and BMI, is recommended. PMID:24099412

  2. Iodine nutritional status and risk factors for goitre among schoolchildren in South Tajikistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Iodine deficiency affects nearly 1.9 billion people worldwide, but it can be prevented by salt iodization. This cross-sectional survey assessed current iodine status, iodized salt coverage and risk factors for goitre among schoolchildren in South Tajikistan. Methods Ten primary schools in four districts in South Tajikistan were randomly selected. In schoolchildren aged 7 to 11 years, a spot urine sample was collected for measurement of urinary iodine, dried blood spots were collected for measurement of thyroglobulin, and goitre was assessed by palpation. Iodine content of salt samples and local selling points was determined by coloration using rapid test kits and titration method. Results Of 623 schoolchildren enrolled, complete data was obtained from 589. The overall median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 51.2 μg/L indicating mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. Among all children, 46.6% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 42.4%-50.6%) of children were found to be goitrous (grade 1 goitre: 30.6%, 95% CI = 26.9%-34.5%; grade 2 goitre: 16.0%, 95% CI = 13.1%-19.2%). The risk factor for goitre remaining significant in the multivariable logistic regression model was 'buying salt once a month’ (OR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.01-8.22) and 'buying salt once every six months’ (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.01-5.04) compared to 'buying salt every one or two weeks’. The overall median thyroglobulin concentration was elevated at 13.9 μg/L. Of the salt samples from households and selling points, one third were adequately iodised, one third insufficiently and one third were not iodised. Conclusion Iodine deficiency remains a serious health issue among children in southern Tajikistan. There is a persisting high prevalence of goitre, elevated thyroglobulin and low UIC despite interventions implemented by Tajikistan and international partners. Quality control of salt iodine content needs to be improved. Continued efforts to raise awareness of the

  3. Nutrigenetics and Metabolic Disease: Current Status and Implications for Personalised Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity, particularly central adiposity, is the primary causal factor in the development of insulin resistance, the hallmark of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a common condition characterized by dyslipidaemia and hypertension, which is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Interactions between genetic and environmental factors such as diet and lifestyle, particularly over-nutrition and sedentary behavior, promote the progression and pathogenesis of these polygenic diet-related diseases. Their current prevalence is increasing dramatically to epidemic proportions. Nutrition is probably the most important environmental factor that modulates expression of genes involved in metabolic pathways and the variety of phenotypes associated with obesity, the MetS and T2DM. Furthermore, the health effects of nutrients may be modulated by genetic variants. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics require an understanding of nutrition, genetics, biochemistry and a range of “omic” technologies to investigate the complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors relevant to metabolic health and disease. These rapidly developing fields of nutritional science hold much promise in improving nutrition for optimal personal and public health. This review presents the current state of the art in nutrigenetic research illustrating the significance of gene-nutrient interactions in the context of metabolic disease. PMID:23306188

  4. [The nutritional status of Kaingang and Guarani indigenous peoples in the State of Paraná, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Boaretto, Juliana Dias; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Pimentel, Giuliano Gomes de Assis

    2015-08-01

    This study arose from the need to comprehend epidemiological aspects to establish a policy for physical activity for indigenous peoples. Although infectious diseases are still the main causes of suffering in these ethnic groups, chronic diseases have emerged due to the process of epidemiological/nutritional change in indigenous peoples subject to the policy of life on reservations. The scope of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of indigenous peoples belonging to two ethnic groups in the State of Paraná. Anthropometric data were collected on 178 adults belonging to the Kaingang (n = 117) and Guarani (n = 61) indigenous ethnic groups. The prevalence of being overweight in Guarani and Kaingang adults was 32.3% and 41%, respectively, detecting a prevalence of obesity in the order of 3.2% among the Guarani indigenous people and 12.8% among the Kaingang ethnic group. Anthropometric changes observed among the Guarani and Kaingang indigenous peoples of Paraná are of increasing concern according to some studies. Thus, the results of this study reinforce the need for integrated actions such as nutritional guidance and physical activity during leisure time for the promotion of the health of these populations. PMID:26221797

  5. Growth hormone-binding protein directly depends on serum leptin levels in adults with different nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Llopis, M A; Granada, M L; Cuatrecasas, G; Formiguera, X; Sánchez-Planell, L; Sanmartí, A; Alastrué, A; Rull, M; Corominas, A; Foz, M

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the relationship between GH-binding protein (GHBP) and leptin. Both peptides are nutritionally regulated, but the recent implication of a role for leptin in the GH axis requires further study. To avoid the sexual dimorphism in leptin values, we performed leptin standardization according to gender (SD score-leptin). The relationship between SD score-leptin and GHBP was studied in 128 adults with different nutritional status [8 groups according to body mass index (BMI)], ranging from severely underweight anorexia nervosa to highly morbid obesity. Both GHBP and SD score-leptin significantly increased according to BMI within the range from 18-27 kg/m2, whereas no significant differences were found among underweight groups (BMI, < 18 kg/m2) or among obesity grades (BMI, > 27 kg/m2). We found a strong correlation between GHBP and SD score-leptin (r = 0.8; P < 0.0001). Multiple regression analysis revealed SD score-leptin to be a significant determinant of GHBP, accounting for 64% of the variation, whereas BMI did not contribute further to explaining changes in GHBP. This suggests a physiological pathway involving both GHBP (the soluble fraction of GH receptor) and leptin. Thus, we might speculate that leptin could be the signal that induces the related nutritional changes observed in GHBP/GH receptor expression. PMID:9626132

  6. The Association between Nutritional Status and Malaria in Children from a Rural Community in the Amazonian Region: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Alexandre, Márcia Almeida Araújo; Benzecry, Silvana Gomes; Siqueira, Andre Machado; Vitor-Silva, Sheila; Melo, Gisely Cardoso; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Leite, Heitor Pons; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Alecrim, Maria das Graças Costa

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between malaria and undernutrition is controversial and complex. Synergistic associations between malnutrition and malaria morbidity and mortality have been suggested, as well as undernutrition being protective against infection, while other studies found no association. We sought to evaluate the relationship between the number of malaria episodes and nutritional statuses in a cohort of children below 15 years of age living in a rural community in the Brazilian Amazon. Methodology/Principal Findings Following a baseline survey of clinical, malaria and nutritional assessment including anthropometry measurements and hemoglobin concentration, 202 children ranging from 1 month to 14 years of age were followed for one year through passive case detection for malaria episodes. After follow-up, all children were assessed again in order to detect changes in nutritional indicators associated with malaria infection. We also examined the risk of presenting malaria episodes during follow-up according to presence of stunting at baseline. Children who suffered malaria episodes during follow-up presented worse anthropometric parameters values during this period. The main change was a reduction of the linear growth velocity, associated with both the number of episodes and how close the last or only malaria episode and the second anthropometric assessment were. Changes were also observed for indices associated with chronic changes, such as weight-for-age and BMI-for-age, which conversely, were more frequently observed in children with the last or only episode occurring between 6 and 12 months preceding the second nutritional assessment survey. Children with inadequate height-for-age at baseline (Z-score < -2) presented lower risk of suffering malaria episodes during follow-up as assessed by both the log-rank test (p =0.057) and the multivariable Cox-proportional hazards regression (Hazard Ratio = 0.31, 95%CI [0.10; 0.99] p=0.049). Conclusions Malaria was

  7. The aging gut. Nutritional issues.

    PubMed

    Saltzman, J R; Russell, R M

    1998-06-01

    With improvements in health care, living standards, and socioeconomic status, more adults are living to old age. As the population ages, it is increasingly important to understand the factors that affect the nutritional status and thus the health status of older adults. Many factors contribute to inadequate nutrition, including health status, financial capacities, mobility, exercise, and physiologic needs. This article considered only the potential changes in nutritional needs because of alterations in the gastrointestinal tract owing to aging. One of the most remarkable changes with aging is the frequent development of atrophic gastritis and the inability to secrete gastric acid. This process affects approximately a third of older adults in the United States and only recently was recognized to be due to infection by H. pylori in the majority of cases. The lack of gastric acid in atrophic gastritis may lead to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and influences the absorption of a variety of micronutrients, including iron, folate, calcium, vitamin K, and vitamin B12. Lactose maldigestion is a frequent condition in older adults and is extremely common worldwide. The intolerance of dairy products leads to avoidance of these foods and likely contributes to the development of osteopenia. Overall, the small intestine and pancreas undergo astonishingly few clinically significant changes with aging. The relative preservation of overall gastrointestinal function with aging is likely due to the large reserve capacity of this multiorgan system. Further research is needed to define the precise nutritional needs for older adults because simple extrapolation of values from younger adults is now recognized to be insufficient. In addition, it is no longer acceptable to define adequate nutriture in terms of amounts of vitamins needed to maintain serum levels of a nutrient. Further RDAs must consider the functional implications of adequate nutrition. Nutrients in the elderly will

  8. Nutritional and metabolic status of children with autism vs. neurotypical children, and the association with autism severity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The relationship between relative metabolic disturbances and developmental disorders is an emerging research focus. This study compares the nutritional and metabolic status of children with autism with that of neurotypical children and investigates the possible association of autism severity with biomarkers. Method Participants were children ages 5-16 years in Arizona with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (n = 55) compared with non-sibling, neurotypical controls (n = 44) of similar age, gender and geographical distribution. Neither group had taken any vitamin/mineral supplements in the two months prior to sample collection. Autism severity was assessed using the Pervasive Development Disorder Behavior Inventory (PDD-BI), Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC), and Severity of Autism Scale (SAS). Study measurements included: vitamins, biomarkers of vitamin status, minerals, plasma amino acids, plasma glutathione, and biomarkers of oxidative stress, methylation, sulfation and energy production. Results Biomarkers of children with autism compared to those of controls using a t-test or Wilcoxon test found the following statistically significant differences (p < 0.001): Low levels of biotin, plasma glutathione, RBC SAM, plasma uridine, plasma ATP, RBC NADH, RBC NADPH, plasma sulfate (free and total), and plasma tryptophan; also high levels of oxidative stress markers and plasma glutamate. Levels of biomarkers for the neurotypical controls were in good agreement with accessed published reference ranges. In the Autism group, mean levels of vitamins, minerals, and most amino acids commonly measured in clinical care were within published reference ranges. A stepwise, multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated significant associations between several groups of biomarkers with all three autism severity scales, including vitamins (adjusted R2 of 0.25-0.57), minerals (adj. R2 of 0.22-0.38), and plasma amino acids (adj. R2 of 0.22-0.39). Conclusion The autism

  9. A Comparative Study on Nutritional Status and Body Composition of Urban and Rural Schoolchildren from Brandsen District (Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Cesani, Maria Florencia; Garraza, Mariela; Bergel Sanchís, María Laura; Luis, María Antonia; Torres, María Fernanda; Quintero, Fabián Aníbal; Oyhenart, Evelia Edith

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze whether nutritional status and body composition varies according to the environment of residence (urban or rural) of children in the Brandsen district (Argentina). Weight, height, arm circumference and tricipital and subscapular skinfolds were performed in 1368 schoolchildren aged 3 to 14. NHANES III reference was used to estimate nutritional status -underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight, and obesity- and to evaluate body composition -deficit and excess of adipose (DA, EA) and muscular (DM, EM) tissues of the arm-. Central fat distribution (CFD) was estimated using the subscapular-tricipital index. A structured questionnaire was implemented to evaluate socio-environmental characteristics. Nutritional categories based on body size and body composition were compared between urban and rural areas of residence using Chi-squared tests (χ2). The results indicated for the total sample: 1.1% underweight, 6.9% stunting, 0.4% wasting, 12.1% overweight, 9.7% obesity, 22.0% DM, 2.5% EM, 0.1% DA, 17.6% EA, and 8.5% CFD. Significant differences between urban and rural areas were found only for CFD. The socio-environmental analysis showed that while access to public services and housing quality was significantly better in the urban area, a considerable number of city households lived under deficient conditions, lacked health insurance and had low socioeconomic level. Fifty-three percent of the undernourished children had DM without urban-rural significant differences, and none of them showed DA. In the overweight plus obesity group, 62.8% presented EA, 6.4% EM, 4.7% DM, and 22.8% CFD. The highest percentages of DM and CFD were recorded in rural areas (p = 0.00). We conclude that the child population shows the “double burden” of malnutrition. The environment of residence does not promote any differentiation in the nutritional status. Nevertheless, the increment of central adiposity and, in some cases of muscle deficit in rural

  10. Nutritional Intake and Status of Cobalamin and Folate among Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in Bhaktapur, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Chandyo, Ram K; Ulak, Manjeswori; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Schneede, Jørn; Ueland, Per M; Strand, Tor A

    2016-01-01

    Cobalamin and folate are especially important for women of childbearing age due to their ubiquitous role in fetal growth and development. Population-based data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking from Nepal, where diets are mostly vegetarian. The objectives of the study were to investigate cobalamin and folate intake and status, and to explore associations with socio-demographics, anthropometrics, anemia, and dietary habits. Following a random selection of geographical clusters, we collected blood samples from 500 non-pregnant women and 24-h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires from a subsample of 379 women. Twenty percent of the women did not consume any food containing cobalamin during the days recalled, and in 72% nutritional cobalamin intake was <1 μg/day. Eighty-four percent of the women had cobalamin intake lower than the estimated average requirement (EAR) (<2 μg/day). In contrast, only 12% of the women had a folate intake less than 100 μg per day, whereas 62% had intake between 100 and 320 μg. Low plasma cobalamin (<150 pmol/L) was found in 42% of the women, most of whom (88%) also had elevated levels of methylmalonic acid. Our results indicated a high prevalence of nutritional cobalamin deficiency, while folate deficiency was uncommon. PMID:27338469

  11. Nutritional Intake and Status of Cobalamin and Folate among Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in Bhaktapur, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Chandyo, Ram K.; Ulak, Manjeswori; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Schneede, Jørn; Ueland, Per M.; Strand, Tor A.

    2016-01-01

    Cobalamin and folate are especially important for women of childbearing age due to their ubiquitous role in fetal growth and development. Population-based data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking from Nepal, where diets are mostly vegetarian. The objectives of the study were to investigate cobalamin and folate intake and status, and to explore associations with socio-demographics, anthropometrics, anemia, and dietary habits. Following a random selection of geographical clusters, we collected blood samples from 500 non-pregnant women and 24-h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires from a subsample of 379 women. Twenty percent of the women did not consume any food containing cobalamin during the days recalled, and in 72% nutritional cobalamin intake was <1 μg/day. Eighty-four percent of the women had cobalamin intake lower than the estimated average requirement (EAR) (<2 μg/day). In contrast, only 12% of the women had a folate intake less than 100 μg per day, whereas 62% had intake between 100 and 320 μg. Low plasma cobalamin (<150 pmol/L) was found in 42% of the women, most of whom (88%) also had elevated levels of methylmalonic acid. Our results indicated a high prevalence of nutritional cobalamin deficiency, while folate deficiency was uncommon. PMID:27338469

  12. Prevalence and Association of Developmental Defects of Enamel with, Dental- Caries and Nutritional Status in Pre-School Children, Lucknow

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sabyasachi; Jagannath, G.V.; Singh, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Developmental Defects of Enamel in the primary dentition may be associated and predictors of dental caries and nutritional status. The aim of the present study was to assess the Prevalence of Developmental Defects of Enamel and its Association with, Dental-Caries and Nutritional Status in Pre-School Children of Lucknow, India. Materials and Methods Multistage Sampling was done. A total of 302 pre-school (Rural and Urban) children were examined. Type III examination was conducted with WHO Probe. Developmental Enamel Defects (DED) and Dental Caries were assessed using WHO (1997) Proforma. Results The prevalence of DED of any type was 39.9% with that of demarcated opacities being the highest, followed by hypoplasia. The most frequently affected teeth were maxillary anterior teeth, while the least affected teeth were mandibular incisors. The mean dmft was 3.5. A positive association between DED and caries was observed. Association between Dental Caries & BMI was non-significant whereas Pearson correlation showed a negative correlation between the two. Conclusion The prevalence of enamel defects and caries was high, as the enamel defects were strongly associated with caries. PMID:26557622

  13. [Essential nutrition and health status indices of schoolchildren of various heights].

    PubMed

    Smoliar, V I

    1982-01-01

    The nutrition pattern and disease incidence were studied in 9634 schoolchildren with varying body lengths. A direct correlation was established between the body length and energy value of nutrition, the content of basic food, macroelements and trace elements, vitamins A and B. Tall schoolchildren were shown to have a greater incidence of obesity, chronic tonsilitis, rheumatic fever, enuresis, abnormal posture and scoliosis. The biogeochemical provinces with endemic fluorosis and goiter were disclosed to have the increased number of children below medium height and of low height, which is accounted for by the deficient content of fluorine and iodine in the environment. PMID:7090322

  14. Relationship between cognitive impairment and nutritional assessment on functional status in Calabrian long-term-care

    PubMed Central

    Malara, Alba; Sgrò, Giovanni; Caruso, Chiara; Ceravolo, Francesco; Curinga, Giuseppe; Renda, Grazia Francesca; Spadea, Fausto; Garo, Michele; Rispoli, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Objective The interaction between dementia and nutritional state is very complex and not yet fully understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the interaction between cognitive impairment and nutritional state in a cohort of residential elderly in relationship with functional condition of patients and their load of assistance in long-term-care facilities of the National Association of Third Age Structures (ANASTE) Calabria. Methods One hundred seventy-four subjects (122 female and 52 male) were admitted to the long-term-care ANASTE Calabria study. All patients underwent multidimensional geriatric assessment. Nutritional state was assessed with the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), whereas cognitive performance was evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The functional state was assessed by Barthel Index (BI) and Activity Daily Living (ADL). The following nutritional biochemical parameters were also evaluated: albumin, cholesterol, iron, and hemoglobin. All patients were reassessed 180 days later. Results A severe cognitive impairment in MMSE performance was displayed in 49.7% patients, while 39.8% showed a moderate deficit; 6.9% had a slight deficit; and 3.4% evidenced no cognitive impairment. In MNA, 30% of patients exhibited an impairment of nutritional state; 56% were at risk of malnutrition; and 14% showed no nutritional problems. Malnutrition was present in 42% of patients with severe cognitive impairment, but only 4% of malnourished patients showed moderate cognitive deficit. The statistical analysis displayed a significant correlation between MNA and MMSE (P<0.001), as did MMSE correlated with Activity Daily Living (P<0.001) and BI (P<0.05). MNA correlated with BI (P<0.001) and albumin (P<0.001). The follow-up showed a strong correlation between cognitive deterioration and worsening of nutritional state (P<0.005) as well as with the functional state (P<0.05) and mortality (P<0.01). Conclusion The present study clearly shows that

  15. Pharmacokinetics of streptomycin in Ethiopian children with tuberculosis and of different nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Bolme, P; Eriksson, M; Habte, D; Paalzow, L

    1988-01-01

    Fifty-six malnourished Ethiopian children with tuberculosis classified in four nutritional groups (normal, underweight, marasmus and kwashiorkor), were given streptomycin 20 or 30 mg.kg-1 i.m. The plasma concentration-time data revealed an increased apparent volume of distribution in children with kwashiorkor compared to normals. The total plasma clearance was low and did not differ between the nutritional groups. Thus, the half-life was prolonged only in kwashiorkor. The results could be explained by decreased protein binding in plasma and decreased renal clearance by glomerular filtration. PMID:3259181

  16. Nutritional Knowledge and Practices, Lifestyle Characteristics and Anthropometric Status of Turks and Caicos Islands Elementary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Maitland, TE; Malcolm, S; Handfield, S

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess nutritional status, knowledge, practices and lifestyle characteristics of Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI) primary school children. Subjects and Methods: Sociodemographic, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle information were collected via an interviewer-assisted questionnaire from grade 5 to 6 participants in a cross-sectional survey; anthropometrics were collected by trained interviewers. Results: Two hundred and ninety-seven students (mean age = 10.91 ± 1.01 years; female = 162 [54.5%]; overweight/obese = 121 [40.8%]) participated. Most were born (61.8%) or resided in TCI for more than five years (76.1%). Dietary patterns of breakfast (75.8%); ≥ 2 meals/day (81.2%); ≥ 1 snack/day (65%) and consumption of vegetables (14.5%) and fruits (27.3%) ≥ 2/day were reported. Multinomial regression examined lifestyle and sociodemographic characteristics among body mass index (BMI) categories. Breakfast-eaters were 54% less likely (OR = 0.46; p = 0.025) to be obese; consumers of < 3 meals/day were approximately twice more likely to be obese (OR = 2.074; p = 0.02); participants who “ate out” < 2 times/day (including lunch) were less likely to be overweight (OR = 0.365; p = 0.02). More boys reported strenuous activity (p = 0.05) while more girls reported moderate activity (p = 0.004). No vigorous exercise for ≥ 4 days/week was associated with obesity (OR = 2.0; p = 0.03). Most (> 80%) knew the food groups and that non-communicable diseases were related to diet and obesity (> 70%). Conclusion: Findings should inform policy, via the “Health in All” policy initiatives, to develop multisectoral interventions to positively impact children's nutritional status and ultimately eliminate obesogenic environments. PMID:26035813

  17. Health Status of Migrant Farmworkers: A Literature Review and Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, George S.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the medical literature on the health status of migrant farmworkers. Finds adequate coverage of dental health, nutrition, and childhood health, as well as several disease categories. Finds that more research is needed on population estimates, basic health status indicators, and the prevalence rates of the most common causes of death. (FMW)

  18. Assistance for the prescription of nutritional support must be required in nonexperienced nutritional teams.

    PubMed

    Ouaïssi, Mehdi; Grandval, Philippe; Mege, Diane; Nedelcu, Anamaria; Hautefeuille, Gaëlle; Vanhoeve, Frédéric; Sastre, Bernard; Sielezneff, Igor; di Costanzo, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the current practices of nutritional support among hospitalized patients in nonspecialized hospital departments. Materials and Methods. During an observation period of 2 months, a surgeon and a gastroenterologist designated in each of the two departments concerned, not "specialized" in nutritional assistance, have treated patients in which nutritional support seemed necessary. Assessing the degree of malnutrition of the patient, the therapeutic decision and the type of product prescribed by the doctors were secondarily compared to the proposals of a structured computer program according to the criteria and standards established by the institutions currently recognized. Results. The study included 120 patients bearing a surgical disease in 86.7% of cases and 10% of medical cases. 50% of the patients had cancer. Nutritional status was correctly evaluated in 38.3% by the initial doctors' diagnosis-consistent with the software's evaluation. The strategy of nutrition was concordant with the proposals of the software in 79.2% of cases. Conclusions. Despite an erroneous assessment of the nutritional status in more than two-thirds of cases the strategy of nutritional management was correct in 80% of cases. Malnutrition and its consequences can be prevented in nonexperienced nutritional teams by adequate nutritional support strategies coming from modern techniques including computerized programs. PMID:24575300

  19. Assistance for the Prescription of Nutritional Support Must Be Required in Nonexperienced Nutritional Teams

    PubMed Central

    Ouaïssi, Mehdi; Grandval, Philippe; Mege, Diane; Nedelcu, Anamaria; Hautefeuille, Gaëlle; Vanhoeve, Frédéric; Sastre, Bernard; Sielezneff, Igor; di Costanzo, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the current practices of nutritional support among hospitalized patients in nonspecialized hospital departments. Materials and Methods. During an observation period of 2 months, a surgeon and a gastroenterologist designated in each of the two departments concerned, not “specialized” in nutritional assistance, have treated patients in which nutritional support seemed necessary. Assessing the degree of malnutrition of the patient, the therapeutic decision and the type of product prescribed by the doctors were secondarily compared to the proposals of a structured computer program according to the criteria and standards established by the institutions currently recognized. Results. The study included 120 patients bearing a surgical disease in 86.7% of cases and 10% of medical cases. 50% of the patients had cancer. Nutritional status was correctly evaluated in 38.3% by the initial doctors' diagnosis—consistent with the software's evaluation. The strategy of nutrition was concordant with the proposals of the software in 79.2% of cases. Conclusions. Despite an erroneous assessment of the nutritional status in more than two-thirds of cases the strategy of nutritional management was correct in 80% of cases. Malnutrition and its consequences can be prevented in nonexperienced nutritional teams by adequate nutritional support strategies coming from modern techniques including computerized programs. PMID:24575300

  20. Food Variety as a Predictor of Nutritional Status among Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Michelle H.; Hart, Laura C.; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Murray, Donna S.; Bing, Nicole M.; Summer, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    The frequency of selective eating and nutritional deficiency was studied among 22 children with autism and an age matched typically developing control group. Children with autism ate fewer foods on average than typically developing children. (33.5 vs. 54.5 foods, P less than 0.001) As compared to typical controls, children with autism had a higher…

  1. The Nutritional Status of Preschool Children in a Memphis Innercity Area. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zee, Paul; DeLeon, Marina

    Preschool children from poor families in a black Memphis community, who had shown considerable nutritional progress since a food program was introduced in 1969, lost some of these gains during the 1974-1976 recession. These losses can be attributed to inflation and the high rate of unemployment among the blacks in this community. The unfavorable…

  2. Project Renourish: A Dietary Intervention to Improve Nutritional Status in People with Multiple Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beange, H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    An intervention in Australia to improve the nutrition of 69 underweight, institutionalized persons (mean age 27) with multiple disabilities including severe intellectual disability involved an enriched diet for a year with increased energy density. Results included increased weight, improved vitamin and mineral levels, and fewer infections.…

  3. Education and Nutritional Status of Orphans and Children of HIV-Infected Parents in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Vinod; Arnold, Fred; Otieno, Fredrick; Cross, Anne; Hong, Rathavuth

    2007-01-01

    We examined whether orphaned and fostered children and children of HIV-infected parents are disadvantaged in schooling, nutrition, and health care. We analyzed data on 2,756 children aged 0-4 years and 4,172 children aged 6-14 years included in the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, with linked anonymous HIV testing, using multivariate…

  4. Current Understanding of Vitamin D Metabolism, Nutritional Status, and Role in Disease Prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D is a nutrient that, until recently, was neglected by the nutrition community. Although it was recognized in the early twentieth century as an essential nutrient, recommendations for intake were often qualified as being needed only in absence of sunlight. In theory (and in anc...

  5. Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics: Viewpoints on the Current Status and Applications in Nutrition Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Fenech, Michael; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Cahill, Leah; Ferguson, Lynnette R.; French, Tapaeru-Ariki C.; Tai, E. Shyong; Milner, John; Koh, Woon-Puay; Xie, Lin; Zucker, Michelle; Buckley, Michael; Cosgrove, Leah; Lockett, Trevor; Fung, Kim Y.C.; Head, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics hold much promise for providing better nutritional advice to the public generally, genetic subgroups and individuals. Because nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics require a deep understanding of nutrition, genetics and biochemistry and ever new ‘omic’ technologies, it is often difficult, even for educated professionals, to appreciate their relevance to the practice of preventive approaches for optimising health, delaying onset of disease and diminishing its severity. This review discusses (i) the basic concepts, technical terms and technology involved in nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics; (ii) how this emerging knowledge can be applied to optimise health, prevent and treat diseases; (iii) how to read, understand and interpret nutrigenetic and nutrigenomic research results, and (iv) how this knowledge may potentially transform nutrition and dietetic practice, and the implications of such a transformation. This is in effect an up-to-date overview of the various aspects of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics relevant to health practitioners who are seeking a better understanding of this new frontier in nutrition research and its potential application to dietetic practice. PMID:21625170

  6. How Varroa parasitism affects the immunological and nutritional status of the honey bee, Apis mellifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the effect of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor on the immunological and nutritional condition of honey bees, Apis mellifera, from the perspective of the individual bee and the colony. Pupae, newly-emerged adults and foraging adults were sampled from up to 10 colonies at one site ...

  7. Dietary Status and Impact of Risperidone on Nutritional Balance in Children with Autism: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Ronald L.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Aman, Michael G.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Posey, David J.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Pachler, Maryellen; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Bozzolo, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    Background: Risperidone may be effective in improving tantrums, aggression, or self-injurious behaviour in children with autism, but often leads to weight gain. Method: Using a quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), we prospectively examined the nutritional intake of 20 children with autism participating in a randomised…

  8. Nutritional Status of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs): A Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe-García, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have problems of food selectivity, implying risks of nutritional deficiencies. The aim was to compare intakes of macro and micronutrients and body mass index in ASD and typically developing (TD) children. In a case--control study, 3-day food diaries and anthropometric measurements were completed for ASD…

  9. Some indicators of nutritional status are associated with activity and exploration in infants at risk for vitamin and mineral deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Aburto, Nancy J; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Neufeld, Lynnette M; Flores-Ayala, Rafael

    2009-09-01

    Severe malnutrition, both protein-energy and micronutrient deficiency, results in decreased activity, but the results regarding mild-to-moderate malnutrition are equivocal. Our objective in this investigation was to describe the activity and exploratory behavior of Mexican infants and describe the relationship among nutritional status, activity, and exploration in this population at high risk for mild-to-moderate micronutrient deficiency, but at low risk for severe malnutrition. The participants were infants, 4-12 mo old, of low socioeconomic status from 3 states in southern Mexico. We measured anthropometrics using standard techniques. We measured hemoglobin (Hb) concentration in the field and adjusted values for altitude before analysis. We measured activity and exploration by direct observation during 15 min of individual play in a novel environment. Cluster analysis generated mutually exclusive activity clusters and exploration clusters based on patterns of bodily movement and exploratory behavior, respectively. We categorized the clusters as higher or lower activity or higher or lower exploration. A higher Hb concentration and height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) significantly increased the odds of being in the high-activity cluster. Iron deficiency, stunting, and wasting significantly decreased the odds of being in the high-activity cluster. Higher HAZ and weight-for-age Z-score significantly increased the odds of being in a higher exploration cluster. In Mexican infants at risk for mild-to-moderate micronutrient deficiency but at low risk of severe malnutrition, some indicators of nutritional status were related to increased activity and exploration. PMID:19640971

  10. [From the influence of genes to the influence of family and urban environment on the nutritional status, activity, and physical condition of european urban adolescents].

    PubMed

    Beghin, Laurent; Vanhelst, Jérémy; Deplanque, Dominique; Gonzales-Gross, Marcela; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis A; Gottrand, Frédéric

    HELENA was a cross-sectional study carried out from 2006 to 2007 in more than 3500 adolescents aged from 12.5 to 17.5 years old through 10 Europeans towns from 9 countries. Its objective was to assess adolescent nutritional status including: body composition, biological markers, physical activity and fitness. This study shown the high impact of socio-economic condition, life style and personal and collective environment, dietary pattern (including breastfeeding), some genetic mutations involved in adiposity and metabolism, physical activity level and fitness on adolescent nutritional status. PMID:27615183

  11. Growth status related to brain responses, nutrition, home environment, and behavior in infants and toddlers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate whether growth status in infants and toddlers affects processes involved in speech perception and discrimination, cortical event-related potentials (ERPs) to consonant-vowel syllables were recorded from 48 healthy babies: 26 low in growth status (LGS, <25th percentile in growth measur...

  12. Malnutrition in spinal cord injury: more than nutritional deficiency.

    PubMed

    Dionyssiotis, Yannis

    2012-08-01

    Denervation of the spinal cord below the level of injury leads to complications producing malnutrition. Nutritional status affects mortality and pathology of injured subjects and it has been reported that two thirds of individuals enrolled in rehabilitation units are malnourished. Therefore, the aim should be either to maintain an optimal nutritional status, or supplement these subjects in order to overcome deficiencies in nutrients or prevent obesity. This paper reviews methods of nutritional assessment and describes the physiopathological mechanisms of malnutrition based on the assumption that spinal cord injured subjects need to receive adequate nutrition to promote optimal recovery, placing nutrition as a first line treatment and not an afterthought in the rehabilitation of spinal cord injury. PMID:22870169

  13. Systemic Inflammation, Nutritional Status and Tumor Immune Microenvironment Determine Outcome of Resected Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alifano, Marco; Mansuet-Lupo, Audrey; Lococo, Filippo; Roche, Nicolas; Bobbio, Antonio; Canny, Emelyne; Schussler, Olivier; Dermine, Hervé; Régnard, Jean-François; Burroni, Barbara; Goc, Jérémy; Biton, Jérôme; Ouakrim, Hanane; Cremer, Isabelle; Dieu-Nosjean, Marie-Caroline; Damotte, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypothesizing that nutritional status, systemic inflammation and tumoral immune microenvironment play a role as determinants of lung cancer evolution, the purpose of this study was to assess their respective impact on long-term survival in resected non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Methods and Findings Clinical, pathological and laboratory data of 303 patients surgically treated for NSCLC were retrospectively analyzed. C-reactive protein (CRP) and prealbumin levels were recorded, and tumoral infiltration by CD8+ lymphocytes and mature dendritic cells was assessed. We observed that factors related to nutritional status, systemic inflammation and tumoral immune microenvironment were correlated; significant correlations were also found between these factors and other relevant clinical-pathological parameters. With respect to outcome, at univariate analysis we found statistically significant associations between survival and the following variables: Karnofsky index, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, CRP levels, prealbumin concentrations, extent of resection, pathologic stage, pT and pN parameters, presence of vascular emboli, and tumoral infiltration by either CD8+ lymphocytes or mature dendritic cells and, among adenocarcinoma type, tumor grade (all p<0.05). In multivariate analysis, prealbumin levels (Relative Risk (RR): 0.34 [0.16–0.73], p = 0.0056), CD8+ cell count in tumor tissue (RR = 0.37 [0.16–0.83], p = 0.0162), and disease stage (RR 1.73 [1.03–2.89]; 2.99[1.07–8.37], p = 0.0374- stage I vs II vs III-IV) were independent prognostic markers. When taken together, parameters related to systemic inflammation, nutrition and tumoral immune microenvironment allowed robust prognostic discrimination; indeed patients with undetectable CRP, high (>285 mg/L) prealbumin levels and high (>96/mm2) CD8+ cell count had a 5-year survival rate of 80% [60.9–91.1] as compared to 18% [7.9–35.6] in patients with an opposite

  14. Nutrition therapy: Integral part of liver transplant care

    PubMed Central

    Anastácio, Lucilene Rezende; Davisson Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson

    2016-01-01

    Managing malnutrition before liver transplantation (LTx) while on the waiting list and, excessive weight gain/metabolic disturbances in post-surgery are still a challenge in LTx care. The aim of this review is to support an interdisciplinary nutrition approach of these patients. Cirrhotic patients are frequently malnourished before LTx and this is associated with a poor prognosis. Although the relation between nutritional status versus survival, successful operation and recovery after LTx is well established, prevalence of malnutrition before the operation is still very high. Emerging research has also demonstrated that sarcopenia pre and post-transplant is highly prevalent, despite the weight gain in the postoperative period. The diagnosis of the nutritional status is the first step to address the adequate nutritional therapy. Nutritional recommendations and therapy to manage the nutritional status of LTx patients are discussed in this review, regarding counseling on adequate diets and findings of the latest research on using certain immunonutrients in these patients (branched chain amino-acids, pre and probiotics). Nutrition associated complications observed after transplantation is also described. They are commonly related to the adverse effects of immunosuppressive drugs, leading to hyperkalemia, hyperglycemia and weight gain. Excessive weight gain and post-transplant metabolic disorders have long been described in post-LTx and should be addressed in order to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. PMID:26819518

  15. Nutrition therapy: Integral part of liver transplant care.

    PubMed

    Anastácio, Lucilene Rezende; Davisson Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson

    2016-01-28

    Managing malnutrition before liver transplantation (LTx) while on the waiting list and, excessive weight gain/metabolic disturbances in post-surgery are still a challenge in LTx care. The aim of this review is to support an interdisciplinary nutrition approach of these patients. Cirrhotic patients are frequently malnourished before LTx and this is associated with a poor prognosis. Although the relation between nutritional status versus survival, successful operation and recovery after LTx is well established, prevalence of malnutrition before the operation is still very high. Emerging research has also demonstrated that sarcopenia pre and post-transplant is highly prevalent, despite the weight gain in the postoperative period. The diagnosis of the nutritional status is the first step to address the adequate nutritional therapy. Nutritional recommendations and therapy to manage the nutritional status of LTx patients are discussed in this review, regarding counseling on adequate diets and findings of the latest research on using certain immunonutrients in these patients (branched chain amino-acids, pre and probiotics). Nutrition associated complications observed after transplantation is also described. They are commonly related to the adverse effects of immunosuppressive drugs, leading to hyperkalemia, hyperglycemia and weight gain. Excessive weight gain and post-transplant metabolic disorders have long been described in post-LTx and should be addressed in order to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. PMID:26819518

  16. Neuropsychiatric features associated with nutritional and metabolic status in a gastric bypass patient.

    PubMed

    Waserman, Jessica E; Hategan, Ana; Bourgeois, James A

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric patients may present for psychiatric evaluation due to exacerbation of preexisting psychiatric disorders, new onset psychiatric disorders and/or neuropsychiatric complications associated with abnormal nutritional and metabolic states following the surgical procedure. These neuropsychiatric complications can be insidious, and clinical manifestations may vary, possibly due to the individual central nervous system (CNS) vulnerability to nutritional decline. Lack of awareness of these complications and their symptoms can result in delays in diagnosis and treatment. Identifying and correcting underlying pathophysiologic processes that lead to such neuropsychiatric syndromes can be challenging. We report a case of a patient who developed a protracted course of mood and cognitive disorder after gastric bypass surgery, which illustrates some of the complexities encountered in diagnosing and managing these patients. PMID:25459978

  17. Multivitamin Use and B Vitamin Status in a Homebound Elderly Population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homebound elderly are at increased risk for micronutrient deficiencies, and nutritional status in this population has not been adequately described. There is evidence for beneficial effects of multivitamin use and a greater understanding of their nutritional contribution could identify behaviors tha...

  18. Correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among older adults with undernourishment in residential institutions

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devinder KA; Manaf, Zahara A; Yusoff, Noor Aini M; Muhammad, Nur A; Phan, Mei Fang; Shahar, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The consequences of combined undernourishment and decreased physical performance in older adults are debilitating and increases cost of care. To date, the information regarding the association between nutritional status and physical performance does not provide a complete picture. Most studies used limited or self-reported measures to evaluate physical performance. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among undernourished older adults who reside in residential institutions. Methods Forty-seven older adults (26 males, 21 females) aged ≥60 (69.23±8.63) years who were identified as undernourished from two residential institutions participated in this study. A battery of physical performance tests (10 m gait speed test, dominant hand grip strength test, timed five-repetition sit-to-stand test, ten step test, arm curl test, scratch test, and respiratory muscle strength test), biochemical profiles (serum albumin, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and prealbumin levels), and falls risk using the short-form Physiological Profile Approach were performed. The Functional Ability Questionnaire and Geriatric Depression Scale were also administered. Results The results demonstrated that generally older adults with undernourishment scored poorly on the physical performance tests, had depression, and a high risk of falls. Biochemical results demonstrated that 10.9% of the participants were anemic, 63% had hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dL), and 21.7% were at risk of protein energy malnutrition with prealbumin level (100–170 mg/L). A significant correlation (P<0.05) was demonstrated between hand grip strength and ferritin, between self-reported mobility dependence and prealbumin levels, and between self-reported mobility tiredness and body mass index. Conclusion These results confirm that older adults with undernutrition have poor physical function, higher falls risk, and depression

  19. [Influence of urban migration on physical activity, nutritional status and growth of Senegalese adolescents of rural origin].

    PubMed

    Garnier, D; Ndiaye, G; Bénéfice, E

    2003-08-01

    In Africa, rural populations especially adolescent girls resort to urban migrations for labour in order to diversify and improve their livelihood. Their work and their living conditions may influence their health and development patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of these migrations on physical activity, nutritional and growth status of rural Senegalese adolescent girls. In 1998, within the framework of a longitudinal study of growth during puberty (n = 406), a sub-sample (n = 80, 14.4 +/- 0.5 years) was drawn in order to estimate physical activity, during three days, quantitatively by accelerometry and qualitatively by questionnaire. One part of this sample temporarily migrated to Dakar in order to work as maids (migrants, n = 40). The other part remained in the rural community of Niakhar in order to help their families in daily domestic and agricultural tasks and/or to attend school (non-migrants, n = 40). In 1999, sexual maturation of 331 adolescent girls (15.5 +/- 0.5 years) belonging to this group was based on stages of breast development and occurrence of menarche. Their growth and nutritional status were assessed with anthropometry (height, weight, mid arm circumference, six skinfolds). Adolescents were asked about their urban migratory histories and were divided into four categories according to the duration of urban migration: no migration (NM), short (S), medium (M) and long duration (L). These adolescent girls had a very high physical activity which is far higher than that of American girls. Migrants were more active than non-migrants (p < 0.0001). In 1999, as a whole, these 331 adolescent girls were smaller, thinner and less mature than adolescent girls from