Science.gov

Sample records for adequate organ function

  1. Smoke alarm tests may not adequately indicate smoke alarm function.

    PubMed

    Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Smoke alarms are one of the most promoted prevention strategies to reduce residential fire deaths, and they can reduce residential fire deaths by half. Smoke alarm function can be measured by two tests: the smoke alarm button test and the chemical smoke test. Using results from a randomized trial of smoke alarms, we compared smoke alarm response to the button test and the smoke test. The smoke alarms found in the study homes at baseline were tested, as well as study alarms placed into homes as part of the randomized trial. Study alarms were tested at 12 and 42 months postinstallation. The proportion of alarms that passed the button test but not the smoke test ranged from 0.5 to 5.8% of alarms; this result was found most frequently among ionization alarms with zinc or alkaline batteries. These alarms would indicate to the owner (through the button test) that the smoke alarm was working, but the alarm would not actually respond in the case of a fire (as demonstrated by failing the smoke test). The proportion of alarms that passed the smoke test but not the button test ranged from 1.0 to 3.0%. These alarms would appear nonfunctional to the owner (because the button test failed), even though the alarm would operate in response to a fire (as demonstrated by passing the smoke test). The general public is not aware of the potential for inaccuracy in smoke alarm tests, and burn professionals can advocate for enhanced testing methods. The optimal test to determine smoke alarm function is the chemical smoke test. PMID:21747329

  2. [Functional restoration--it depends on an adequate mixture of treatment].

    PubMed

    Pfingsten, M

    2001-12-01

    impairment as well as physical variables (mobility, strength) have limited predictive value. Return to work and pain reduction are much better predicted by length of absence from work, application for pension, and the patients' disability in daily-life activities. In the last five years another important variable of success has been identified: avoidance behavior has been suspected to be a major contributor to the initiation and maintenance of chronic low back pain. The perpetuation of avoidance behavior beyond normal healing time subsequently leads to negative consequences such as "disuse syndrome", which is associated with physical deconditioning, sick role behavior, psychosocial withdrawal and negative affect. Accordingly, fear-avoidance beliefs were strongly related to absenteeism from work due to back pain and were the best predictors of therapy outcome in 300 acute low back pain patients. In a prospective study on 87 patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) we demonstrated that fear-avoidance beliefs were the strongest predictors of return to work after a functional restoration treatment program. Although nonspecific mechanisms such as emotional disturbance, helplessness, pain anticipation, disability, and job circumstances could be identified as influencing the chronic pain process, we have to remember that long-lasting experience of pain is usually a very individual process in which several conditions may work together in a unique combination. Treatment procedures must consider this variability by focusing on general mechanisms, as well as on individual conditions and deficits. FR treatment strongly depends on behavioral principles that rule the whole therapeutic process: Adequate information is necessary to overcome unhelpful beliefs; information has to be related to the patients' daily experiences and their mental capability to understand them. Pacing, goal-setting, graded exposure with exercise quotas and permanent feedback as well as contingent motivation

  3. [Functional restoration--it depends on an adequate mixture of treatment].

    PubMed

    Pfingsten, M

    2001-12-01

    impairment as well as physical variables (mobility, strength) have limited predictive value. Return to work and pain reduction are much better predicted by length of absence from work, application for pension, and the patients' disability in daily-life activities. In the last five years another important variable of success has been identified: avoidance behavior has been suspected to be a major contributor to the initiation and maintenance of chronic low back pain. The perpetuation of avoidance behavior beyond normal healing time subsequently leads to negative consequences such as "disuse syndrome", which is associated with physical deconditioning, sick role behavior, psychosocial withdrawal and negative affect. Accordingly, fear-avoidance beliefs were strongly related to absenteeism from work due to back pain and were the best predictors of therapy outcome in 300 acute low back pain patients. In a prospective study on 87 patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) we demonstrated that fear-avoidance beliefs were the strongest predictors of return to work after a functional restoration treatment program. Although nonspecific mechanisms such as emotional disturbance, helplessness, pain anticipation, disability, and job circumstances could be identified as influencing the chronic pain process, we have to remember that long-lasting experience of pain is usually a very individual process in which several conditions may work together in a unique combination. Treatment procedures must consider this variability by focusing on general mechanisms, as well as on individual conditions and deficits. FR treatment strongly depends on behavioral principles that rule the whole therapeutic process: Adequate information is necessary to overcome unhelpful beliefs; information has to be related to the patients' daily experiences and their mental capability to understand them. Pacing, goal-setting, graded exposure with exercise quotas and permanent feedback as well as contingent motivation

  4. F-specific RNA bacteriophages are adequate model organisms for enteric viruses in fresh water.

    PubMed Central

    Havelaar, A H; van Olphen, M; Drost, Y C

    1993-01-01

    Culturable enteroviruses were detected by applying concentration techniques and by inoculating the concentrates on the BGM cell line. Samples were obtained from a wide variety of environments, including raw sewage, secondary effluent, coagulated effluent, chlorinated and UV-irradiated effluents, river water, coagulated river water, and lake water. The virus concentrations varied widely between 0.001 and 570/liter. The same cell line also supported growth of reoviruses, which were abundant in winter (up to 95% of the viruses detected) and scarce in summer (less than 15%). The concentrations of three groups of model organisms in relation to virus concentrations were also studied. The concentrations of bacteria (thermotolerant coliforms and fecal streptococci) were significantly correlated with virus concentrations in river water and coagulated secondary effluent, but were relatively low in disinfected effluents and relatively high in surface water open to nonhuman fecal pollution. The concentrations of F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNA phages) were highly correlated with virus concentrations in all environments studied except raw and biologically treated sewage. Numerical relationships were consistent over the whole range of environments; the regression equations for FRNA phages on viruses in river water and lake water were statistically equivalent. These relationships support the possibility that enteric virus concentrations can be predicted from FRNA phage data. PMID:8215367

  5. What Do Cost Functions Tell Us about the Cost of an Adequate Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costrell, Robert M.; Hanushek, Eric; Loeb, Susanna

    2008-01-01

    Econometric cost functions have begun to appear in education adequacy cases with greater frequency. Cost functions are superficially attractive because they give the impression of objectivity, holding out the promise of scientifically estimating the cost of achieving specified levels of performance from actual data on spending. By contrast, the…

  6. Misarticulation caused by abnormal lingual-palatal contact in patients with cleft palate with adequate velopharyngeal function.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Y; Michi, K

    1991-10-01

    Misarticulations produced by three patients with cleft palate (2 isolated cleft palate; 1 unilateral cleft lip, alveolus, and palate) who attained adequate velopharyngeal function and normal palatal vault by early surgical repairs were examined using electropalatography (EPG) and sound spectrography (SG). Common characteristics of lingual-palatal contact in which the contact area was broader and/or was more posterior than normal were observed. These misarticulations can be divided into three types based on the direction of the breath emission: palatalized misarticulation (in which air passes along the midline of the palate), lateral misarticulation (in which air flows laterally through the occluded dental arch), and nasopharyngeal misarticulation (in which air flows out the nose). These three are considered to be similar to intractable posterior pattern of articulation in cleft palate patients previously reported. However, these types of misarticulations can be produced by cleft patients who have achieved adequate velopharyngeal function and normal palatal vault.

  7. Electrographic correlates of adequate and erroneous responses evoked by conditioned signals of different functional signs during operant learning in dogs.

    PubMed

    Dumenko, V N; Kozlov, M K

    2006-01-01

    Power spectra over the frequency range 1-225 Hz in short-term (less than 1 sec) EEG reactions arising in different areas of the cerebral cortex in response to presentation of differential signals were investigated in dogs during operant feeding behavior in conditions of both adequate and erroneous responses. The energy levels of these reactions decreased several-fold as compared with responses to positive signals, mainly because of frequencies in the high-frequency range (90-225 Hz), where power was greater than not only the traditional range of 1-30 Hz, but also the gamma range of 30-80 Hz. The frequency composition of EEG reactions in adequate responses was determined by a series of discrete frequency subgroups belonging predominantly to the high-frequency band. In erroneous reactions, the discrete structure of the corresponding EEG reactions was lost.

  8. Functional organic nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlmeyer, Ryan R.

    focused on passive material properties such as mechanical, electrical, and thermal, there is growing interest in harnessing active material functions such as actuation, sensing, and power generation in designed CNT-polymer materials. The synergy between CNTs and the polymer matrix has been judiciously exploited to create highly desirable active material functions in smart material systems. By incorporating CNTs in a Nafion matrix, multi-shape memory healable composites capable of reversible remote, local, and chemical programming have been developed.

  9. Chromatin organization: form to function.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Carolyn A; van Steensel, Bas

    2013-04-01

    Recent developments in technology have made it possible to create high resolution genome-wide maps of histone marks, DNA binding proteins and physical interactions along genomic regions. Chromatin features are found together in different combinations, dividing the genome up into domains with distinct functional properties. Microscopy and chromatin conformation capture techniques have shown that the 3D structure of chromosomes is constrained by nuclear features and functional links between different parts of chromatin. These results provide insights about the 3D and domain organization of the genome and their connection to gene regulation and other nuclear functions. PMID:23274160

  10. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-05-26

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose &gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  11. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-05-01

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose & gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  12. Project organization, roles and functions.

    PubMed

    1986-06-01

    This discussion of the roles and functions in the integrated project which provides services in maternal and child health, family planning; nutrition, environmental sanitation, and income-generating projects in the Philippines covers the functions of the National Coordinating Committee, the Provincial Coordinating Committee, the Municipal Coordinating Committee, implementing units, the teams of development workers (TDWs), and coordinating/monitoring units. The National Coordinating Committee provides general directions and guidelines for the implementation of the project through the POPCOM/JICA central staff based at the POPCOM central office in Metro Manila. Functions of the Provincial Coordinating Committee include: resolve problems arising from issues of coordination involving members of the TDWs; ensure participation of provincial units of the various participating ministries; provide guidelines on the delivery of integrated services by TDWs; monitor the activities of TDWs, the municipal coordinating committee, and its various units; and review and endorse the city/provincial integrated project work plan to the regional office. The Municipal Coordinating Committee recommends policies to the national coordinating committee through the provincial coordinating committee to strenthen project implementation in the municipalities. Its functions include: resolve problems arising from issues involving the members of the TDWs; regularly monitor the activities of the TDWs; and provide assistance to the TDWs in the implementation of guidelines. Actual implementation of the project is carried out by the local government, represented by the barangay captain. He is assisted by the TDWs which come from various participating ministries of the government. The TDWs are in effect the task force of the municipal mayor who assist the barangay captain in the delivery of services and the conduct of information, education, and communication campaigns. 3 units assist the various

  13. Influence of chemical and mineralogical properties of organic amendments on the selection of an adequate analytical procedure for trace elements determination.

    PubMed

    García-Delgado, C; Cala, V; Eymar, E

    2012-01-15

    Six digestion procedures were tested to improve extraction methods for determination of trace elements in various organic amendments with high inorganic fractions. These procedures were tested in terms of pH, CaCO(3), organic matter, elemental analysis, BCR sequential extraction and X-ray diffraction analysis. Aqua regia extraction (ISO 11466), total digestion HF-HNO(3)-HClO(4) and four microwave-assisted digestions (i.e., HNO(3), HCl-HNO(3), HNO(3)-HF and HCl-HNO(3)-HF) were used. The effect of acid mixtures on microwave-assisted digestion of mineral fractions was assessed by Si and Al analysis and X-ray diffraction in the solid residues obtained. Microwave HF acid mixtures obtained highest trace element recoveries for all tested metals except Al. CaF(2) and CaAlF(5) precipitates were also detected using X-ray diffraction in the residues after microwave digestions with HF acid mixtures of amendments with high calcium content. A decision flowchart was suggested to determine the best acid mixture according to the amendment and the metals to be analyzed.

  14. Functional self-organization in complex systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, W. Santa Fe Inst., NM )

    1990-01-01

    A novel approach to functional self-organization is presented. It consists of a universe generated by a formal language that defines objects (=programs), their meaning (=functions), and their interactions (=composition). Results obtained so far are briefly discussed. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Organic Functional Group Playing Card Deck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, Michael J.

    2003-04-01

    The recognition and identification of organic functional groups, while essential for chemistry and biology majors, is also very useful for non-science majors in the study of molecules in art and life. In order to make this task more palatable for the non-science major (art and communications students), the images of a traditional playing deck of cards (heart, spade, diamond, and club) have been replaced with four representations of common organic functional groups. The hierarchy rules for naming two groups in a molecule is loosely incorporated to represent the sequence (King, Queen, Jack, ?, Ace) of the deck. Students practice recognizing and identifying organic groups by playing simple card games of "Old Maid" and "Go Fish". To play games like "Poker" or "Gin", a student must not only recognize the functional groups, but also master a naming hierarchy for the organic groups.

  16. Creating biomaterials with spatially organized functionality

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Jacob F

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterials for tissue engineering provide scaffolds to support cells and guide tissue regeneration. Despite significant advances in biomaterials design and fabrication techniques, engineered tissue constructs remain functionally inferior to native tissues. This is largely due to the inability to recreate the complex and dynamic hierarchical organization of the extracellular matrix components, which is intimately linked to a tissue’s biological function. This review discusses current state-of-the-art strategies to control the spatial presentation of physical and biochemical cues within a biomaterial to recapitulate native tissue organization and function. PMID:27190258

  17. 63 FR 51533 - Organization and Functions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-09-28

    ... LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE 45 CFR Part 1700 Organization and Functions AGENCY: National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This is a final rule, making... Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS). The revision incorporates changes in the...

  18. [Structural-functional organization of Golgi apparatus].

    PubMed

    Snigirevskaia, E S; Sokolova, Iu Ia; Komissarchik, Ia Iu

    2006-01-01

    This review is dedicated to the structure and function of Golgi apparatus (GA). It summarizes contemporary data published in numerous experimental papers and in several reviews. Possible ways of intra-Golgi transport of proteins, existent models of structural and functional organization of Golgi organelle, as well as the issues of its biogenesis, posttranslational modification and sorting of proteins and lipids, and mechanisms of their traffic-king are discussed. Special attention is paid to the role of coatomer proteins (COPI, COPII and clathrin), fusion proteins (SNAREs), and small GTPases (ARF, SARI) in the secretory pathway. In addition, the phenomena of ultrastructural alterations of GA due to various functional conditions and physiological stimuli are specifically accented. We included in this review our original data on a probable involvement of GA in water transport, and on the organization of atypical GA in microsporidia--intracellular parasitic protists.

  19. [Structural-functional organization of Golgi apparatus].

    PubMed

    Snigirevskaia, E S; Sokolova, Iu Ia; Komissarchik, Ia Iu

    2006-01-01

    This review is dedicated to the structure and function of Golgi apparatus (GA). It summarizes contemporary data published in numerous experimental papers and in several reviews. Possible ways of intra-Golgi transport of proteins, existent models of structural and functional organization of Golgi organelle, as well as the issues of its biogenesis, posttranslational modification and sorting of proteins and lipids, and mechanisms of their trafficking are discussed. Special attention is paid to the role of coatomer proteins (COPI, COPII and clathrin), fusion proteins (SNAREs), and small GTPases (ARF, SARI) in the secretory pathway. In addition, the phenomena of ultrastructural alterations of GA due to various functional conditions and physiological stimuli are specifically accented. We included in this review our original data on a probable involvement of GA in water transport, and on the organization of atypical GA in microsporidia--intracellular parasitic protists.

  20. Functional diversity of organic molecule enzyme cofactors.

    PubMed

    Richter, Michael

    2013-10-11

    Covering up to 2013. Cofactor-dependent enzymes which need small organic molecule cofactors to accomplish enzymatic activity are widespread. The number of newly discovered reactions within cofactor-dependent enzyme families increases continuously. A knowledge based categorization of cofactors with respect to their chemical properties shows that within enzymes they are not used for the catalysis of singular types of reactions and functionalities. Therefore, in many cases an unambiguous and narrow classification does not seem sufficient. Rather, the functional diversity of cofactors found in enzymes represents variations around specific themes with regard to a catalysed reaction and the cofactor chemistry. Furthermore, organic cofactor molecules are also used for non-enzymatic functions. Two representative cofactors are exemplarily discussed in detail, thiamin diphosphate (ThDP) as a self-sufficient cofactor and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), as both a catalytic and building-block-delivering cofactor. A further synopsis on selected examples of organic cofactors emphasizes the discovery and application of new enzymatic activities based on the cofactor-dependent chemistry and shows how bioinspired synthesis approaches expand catalytic and non-catalytic synthesis applications beyond natural solutions.

  1. Functional organization of the HIV lipid envelope

    PubMed Central

    Huarte, Nerea; Carravilla, Pablo; Cruz, Antonio; Lorizate, Maier; Nieto-Garai, Jon A.; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Pérez-Gil, Jesús; Requejo-Isidro, Jose; Nieva, José L.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) membrane is critical for fusion and entry into target cells, suggesting that preservation of a functional lipid bilayer organization may be required for efficient infection. HIV-1 acquires its envelope from the host cell plasma membrane at sites enriched in raft-type lipids. Furthermore, infectious particles display aminophospholipids on their surface, indicative of dissipation of the inter-leaflet lipid asymmetry metabolically generated at cellular membranes. By combining two-photon excited Laurdan fluorescence imaging and atomic force microscopy, we have obtained unprecedented insights into the phase state of membranes reconstituted from viral lipids (i.e., extracted from infectious HIV-1 particles), established the role played by the different specimens in the mixtures, and characterized the effects of membrane-active virucidal agents on membrane organization. In determining the molecular basis underlying lipid packing and lateral heterogeneity of the HIV-1 membrane, our results may help develop compounds with antiviral activity acting by perturbing the functional organization of the lipid envelope. PMID:27678107

  2. Functional substrates for flexible organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niggemann, M.; Ruf, D.; Bläsi, B.; Glatthaar, M.; Riede, M.; Müller, C.; Zimmermann, B.; Gombert, A.

    2005-10-01

    Along with efficiency and lifetime, costs are one of the most important aspects for the commercialization of organic solar cells. Thinking of large scale production of organic solar cells by an efficient reel-to-reel process, the materials are expected to determine the costs of the final product. Our approach is to develop functional substrates for organic solar cells which have the potential for cost effective production. The functionality is obtained by combining periodically microstructured substrates with lamellar electrode structures. Such structured substrates were fabricated by cost effective replication from masterstructures that were generated by large area interference lithography. Two cell architectures were investigated - holographic microprisms and interdigital buried nanoelectrodes. A structure period of 20 μm in combination with a 2 μm wide metal grid was chosen for the microprism cells based on the results of electrical calculations. Current-voltage curves with reasonable fill factors were measured for these devices. A significant light trapping effect was predicted from optical simulations. Interdigital buried nanoelectrodes are embedded in the photoactive layer of the solar cell. Separated interdigital metal electrodes with a sufficiently high parallel resistance were manufactured despite a small electrode distance below 400 nm. Experimental results on first photovoltaic devices will be presented. We observe an insufficient rectification of the photovoltaic device which we attribute to partial electron injection into the gold anode.

  3. 20 CFR 422.1 - Organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Organization and functions. 422.1 Section 422.1 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES Organization and Functions of the Social Security Administration § 422.1 Organization and functions. (a) General. A...

  4. 43 CFR 10000.6 - Organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Organization and functions. 10000.6 Section 10000.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 10000.6 Organization and functions....

  5. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  6. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  7. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  8. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  9. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  10. 41 CFR 105-53.150 - Organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Organization and... Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 53-STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Regional Offices § 105-53.150 Organization and functions. Regional offices have been...

  11. Functional organic materials for electronics industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibayama, K.; Ono, H.

    1982-01-01

    Topics closely related with organic, high molecular weight material synthesis are discussed. These are related to applications such as display, recording, sensors, semiconductors, and I.C. correlation. New materials are also discussed. General principles of individual application are not included. Materials discussed include color, electrochromic, thermal recording, organic photoconductors for electrophotography, and photochromic materials.

  12. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate evidence. 85.900 Section 85.900 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support...

  13. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  14. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  15. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  16. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  17. From Fayol's Mechanistic to Today's Organic Functions of Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews Fayol's original five managerial functions, demonstrates that they are still being taught in today's management courses, and offers a new set of organic management functions more applicable to today's turbulent business environment.

  18. 20 CFR 422.1 - Organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Organization and functions. 422.1 Section 422.1 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES Organization and... of July 15, 1967 (32 FR 10458), and was subsequently revised on April 16, 1968 (33 FR 5828),...

  19. 77 FR 73263 - Organization and Functions, and Seal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight 12 CFR Part 1700 RIN 2590-AA54 Organization and Functions, and Seal... (FHFA) adopts final regulations containing a description of its organization and description of its seal... organization and structure, including the Office of the Director, the Division of Enterprise Regulation,...

  20. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission organization charts and functional statements

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This document contains organization charts for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and for the five offices of the NRC. Function statements are provided delineating the major responsibilities and operations of each office. Organization and function are provided to the branch level. The head of each office, division, and branch is also listed.

  1. 5 CFR 2502.3 - Organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Organization and functions. 2502.3... AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS Production or Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. 552 § 2502.3 Organization and functions. (a) The Office of Administration (OA) was created by...

  2. Remembering: functional organization of the declarative memory system.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2006-08-22

    How do brain systems support our subjective experience of recollection and our senses of familiarity and novelty? A new functional imaging study concludes that each of these functions is accomplished by a distinct component of the medial temporal lobe, shedding new light on the functional organization of this memory system.

  3. The Structural and Functional Organization of Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes that what have been historically and contemporarily defined as different domains of human cognition are served by one of four functionally- and structurally-distinct areas of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Their contributions to human intelligence are as follows: (a) BA9, enables our emotional intelligence, engaging the psychosocial domain; (b) BA47, enables our practical intelligence, engaging the material domain; (c) BA46 (or BA46-9/46), enables our abstract intelligence, engaging the hypothetical domain; and (d) BA10, enables our temporal intelligence, engaging in planning within any of the other three domains. Given their unique contribution to human cognition, it is proposed that these areas be called the, social (BA9), material (BA47), abstract (BA46-9/46) and temporal (BA10) mind. The evidence that BA47 participates strongly in verbal and gestural communication suggests that language evolved primarily as a consequence of the extreme selective pressure for practicality; an observation supported by the functional connectivity between BA47 and orbital areas that negatively reinforce lying. It is further proposed that the abstract mind (BA46-9/46) is the primary seat of metacognition charged with creating adaptive behavioral strategies by generating higher-order concepts (hypotheses) from lower-order concepts originating from the other three domains of cognition. PMID:27799901

  4. 5 CFR 1200.10 - Staff organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... located throughout the country (See Appendix II to 5 CFR part 1201 for a list of the regional and field... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Staff organization and functions. 1200.10 Section 1200.10 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES...

  5. Biomineralization-inspired synthesis of functional organic/inorganic hybrid materials: organic molecular control of self-organization of hybrids.

    PubMed

    Arakaki, Atsushi; Shimizu, Katsuhiko; Oda, Mayumi; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Nishimura, Tatsuya; Kato, Takashi

    2015-01-28

    Organisms produce various organic/inorganic hybrid materials, which are called biominerals. They form through the self-organization of organic molecules and inorganic elements under ambient conditions. Biominerals often have highly organized and hierarchical structures from nanometer to macroscopic length scales, resulting in their remarkable physical and chemical properties that cannot be obtained by simple accumulation of their organic and inorganic constituents. These observations motivate us to create novel functional materials exhibiting properties superior to conventional materials--both synthetic and natural. Herein, we introduce recent progress in understanding biomineralization processes at the molecular level and the development of organic/inorganic hybrid materials by these processes. We specifically outline fundamental molecular studies on silica, iron oxide, and calcium carbonate biomineralization and describe material synthesis based on these mechanisms. These approaches allow us to design a variety of advanced hybrid materials with desired morphologies, sizes, compositions, and structures through environmentally friendly synthetic routes using functions of organic molecules.

  6. Approaches to organizing public relations functions in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Guy, Bonnie; Williams, David R; Aldridge, Alicia; Roggenkamp, Susan D

    2007-01-01

    This article provides health care audiences with a framework for understanding different perspectives of the role and functions of public relations in healthcare organizations and the resultant alternatives for organizing and enacting public relations functions. Using an example of a current issue receiving much attention in US healthcare (improving rates of organ donation), the article provides examples of how these different perspectives influence public relations goals and objectives, definitions of 'public', activities undertaken, who undertakes them and where they fit into the organizational hierarchy.

  7. Hierarchical Organization Unveiled by Functional Connectivity in Complex Brain Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Changsong; Zemanová, Lucia; Zamora, Gorka; Hilgetag, Claus C.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2006-12-01

    How do diverse dynamical patterns arise from the topology of complex networks? We study synchronization dynamics in the cortical brain network of the cat, which displays a hierarchically clustered organization, by modeling each node (cortical area) with a subnetwork of interacting excitable neurons. We find that in the biologically plausible regime the dynamics exhibits a hierarchical modular organization, in particular, revealing functional clusters coinciding with the anatomical communities at different scales. Our results provide insights into the relationship between network topology and functional organization of complex brain networks.

  8. Approaches to organizing public relations functions in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Guy, Bonnie; Williams, David R; Aldridge, Alicia; Roggenkamp, Susan D

    2007-01-01

    This article provides health care audiences with a framework for understanding different perspectives of the role and functions of public relations in healthcare organizations and the resultant alternatives for organizing and enacting public relations functions. Using an example of a current issue receiving much attention in US healthcare (improving rates of organ donation), the article provides examples of how these different perspectives influence public relations goals and objectives, definitions of 'public', activities undertaken, who undertakes them and where they fit into the organizational hierarchy. PMID:19042525

  9. Metal-Organic Frameworks as Platforms for Functional Materials.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuanjing; Li, Bin; He, Huajun; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Banglin; Qian, Guodong

    2016-03-15

    Discoveries of novel functional materials have played very important roles to the development of science and technologies and thus to benefit our daily life. Among the diverse materials, metal-organic framework (MOF) materials are rapidly emerging as a unique type of porous and organic/inorganic hybrid materials which can be simply self-assembled from their corresponding inorganic metal ions/clusters with organic linkers, and can be straightforwardly characterized by various analytical methods. In terms of porosity, they are superior to other well-known porous materials such as zeolites and carbon materials; exhibiting extremely high porosity with surface area up to 7000 m(2)/g, tunable pore sizes, and metrics through the interplay of both organic and inorganic components with the pore sizes ranging from 3 to 100 Å, and lowest framework density down to 0.13 g/cm(3). Such unique features have enabled metal-organic frameworks to exhibit great potentials for a broad range of applications in gas storage, gas separations, enantioselective separations, heterogeneous catalysis, chemical sensing and drug delivery. On the other hand, metal-organic frameworks can be also considered as organic/inorganic self-assembled hybrid materials, we can take advantages of the physical and chemical properties of both organic and inorganic components to develop their functional optical, photonic, and magnetic materials. Furthermore, the pores within MOFs can also be utilized to encapsulate a large number of different species of diverse functions, so a variety of functional MOF/composite materials can be readily synthesized. In this Account, we describe our recent research progress on pore and function engineering to develop functional MOF materials. We have been able to tune and optimize pore spaces, immobilize specific functional groups, and introduce chiral pore environments to target MOF materials for methane storage, light hydrocarbon separations, enantioselective recognitions

  10. Metal-Organic Frameworks as Platforms for Functional Materials.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuanjing; Li, Bin; He, Huajun; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Banglin; Qian, Guodong

    2016-03-15

    Discoveries of novel functional materials have played very important roles to the development of science and technologies and thus to benefit our daily life. Among the diverse materials, metal-organic framework (MOF) materials are rapidly emerging as a unique type of porous and organic/inorganic hybrid materials which can be simply self-assembled from their corresponding inorganic metal ions/clusters with organic linkers, and can be straightforwardly characterized by various analytical methods. In terms of porosity, they are superior to other well-known porous materials such as zeolites and carbon materials; exhibiting extremely high porosity with surface area up to 7000 m(2)/g, tunable pore sizes, and metrics through the interplay of both organic and inorganic components with the pore sizes ranging from 3 to 100 Å, and lowest framework density down to 0.13 g/cm(3). Such unique features have enabled metal-organic frameworks to exhibit great potentials for a broad range of applications in gas storage, gas separations, enantioselective separations, heterogeneous catalysis, chemical sensing and drug delivery. On the other hand, metal-organic frameworks can be also considered as organic/inorganic self-assembled hybrid materials, we can take advantages of the physical and chemical properties of both organic and inorganic components to develop their functional optical, photonic, and magnetic materials. Furthermore, the pores within MOFs can also be utilized to encapsulate a large number of different species of diverse functions, so a variety of functional MOF/composite materials can be readily synthesized. In this Account, we describe our recent research progress on pore and function engineering to develop functional MOF materials. We have been able to tune and optimize pore spaces, immobilize specific functional groups, and introduce chiral pore environments to target MOF materials for methane storage, light hydrocarbon separations, enantioselective recognitions

  11. Centrins in unicellular organisms: functional diversity and specialization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; He, Cynthia Y

    2012-07-01

    Centrins (also known as caltractins) are conserved, EF hand-containing proteins ubiquitously found in eukaryotes. Similar to calmodulins, the calcium-binding EF hands in centrins fold into two structurally similar domains separated by an alpha-helical linker region, shaping like a dumbbell. The small size (15-22 kDa) and domain organization of centrins and their functional diversity/specialization make them an ideal system to study protein structure-function relationship. Here, we review the work on centrins with a focus on their structures and functions characterized in unicellular organisms.

  12. Functional liquid-crystalline assemblies: self-organized soft materials.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takashi; Mizoshita, Norihiro; Kishimoto, Kenji

    2005-12-16

    In the 21st century, soft materials will become more important as functional materials because of their dynamic nature. Although soft materials are not as highly durable as hard materials, such as metals, ceramics, and engineering plastics, they can respond well to stimuli and the environment. The introduction of order into soft materials induces new dynamic functions. Liquid crystals are ordered soft materials consisting of self-organized molecules and can potentially be used as new functional materials for electron, ion, or molecular transporting, sensory, catalytic, optical, and bio-active materials. For this functionalization, unconventional materials design is required. Herein, we describe new approaches to the functionalization of liquid crystals and show how the design of liquid crystals formed by supramolecular assembly and nano-segregation leads to the formation of a variety of new self-organized functional materials.

  13. [On mechanism of functional changes in the organism of teenagers at different levels of locomotor activity].

    PubMed

    Mindubaeva, F A; Shukurov, F A; Salikhova, Y Y; Niyazova, Y I; Ramazanov, A K

    2015-02-01

    Comprehensive study of the cardiovascular system functional condition of 15-16 teenagers while in normal daily locomotor activity and in the mode of regular moderate physical activity was performed. The features of cerebral circulation and myocardium functional condition of teenagers are studied depending on initial tonus of the autonomic nervous system and locomotor activity level in the process of continuous step physical activity on tredmil. The condition of regulatory mechanisms, providing adaptation of teenagers in the conditions of modern school was studied. Research results showed, that elasticity of cerebrum arterial vessels, veins tone, venous outflow for teenagers not having regular physical activity, considerably mionectic. More adequate reaction of coronary blood flow in the process of physical activity is educed for the trained teenagers with the balanced autonomic regulation of cardiac rhythm. This group showed a higher level and regulation quality of organism reserve possibilities.

  14. [Study on Characteristics of Terahertz Spectra of Organic Functional Groups].

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun-qian; Xu, Xiang-dong; Zou, Rui-jiao; Liu, Yi-ke; He, Qiong; Jiang, Ya-dong; Huang, Rui; Wen, Yue-jiang; Sun, Zi-qiang

    2015-04-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was exploited to measure terahertz (THz) spectra in the wave number range of 30-300 cm(-1) for saturated straight chain organic molecules at room temperature. The results reveal that different organic functional groups exhibit different THz spectral characteristics. The absorption peaks of vibration modes of organic crystal lattice locate in high frequency range of THz, while those of vibration modes of intermolecular hydrogen (H) bonds appear in low frequency range of THz. Moreover, a typical absorption peak of intermolecular H bonds caused by saturated straight-chain monohydric alcohol hydroxyl functional groups locates at 57 cm(-1), while a characteristic absorption peak of intermolecular hydrogen bonds caused by triacontanoic acid carboxyl functional groups appears at 74 cm(-1). The intermolecular H bonds not only result in that the THz absorbing abilities of triacontanol and triacontanoic acid are significantly stronger than that of triacontane, but also cause regular red-shift and blue-shift of the THz absorption peaks of triacontanoic acid, as compared with those of triacontanol. In addition, density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) basis set was employed to simulate the THz spectra of saturated straight-chain alkane, alkanol and acid, respectively. The simulation results indicate that for the organic molecules with stronger intermolecular H bonds, lower consistent degree of the THz spectrum simulated from monomer molecule with the THz spectrum experimentally measured will occur. Moreover, the simulation results of dimer structures agree well with the measured spectra as compared to those simulated from monomer molecule structures. The results presented in this work are of great significance not only to the study of the THz spectral characteristics of other organic functional groups, but also to the clarification of the vibration modes of organic molecules. Particularly, our results are also helpful for clarifying

  15. Adequate mathematical modelling of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    In environmental observations and laboratory visualization both large scale flow components like currents, jets, vortices, waves and a fine structure are registered (different examples are given). The conventional mathematical modeling both analytical and numerical is directed mostly on description of energetically important flow components. The role of a fine structures is still remains obscured. A variety of existing models makes it difficult to choose the most adequate and to estimate mutual assessment of their degree of correspondence. The goal of the talk is to give scrutiny analysis of kinematics and dynamics of flows. A difference between the concept of "motion" as transformation of vector space into itself with a distance conservation and the concept of "flow" as displacement and rotation of deformable "fluid particles" is underlined. Basic physical quantities of the flow that are density, momentum, energy (entropy) and admixture concentration are selected as physical parameters defined by the fundamental set which includes differential D'Alembert, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations and closing equation of state. All of them are observable and independent. Calculations of continuous Lie groups shown that only the fundamental set is characterized by the ten-parametric Galilelian groups reflecting based principles of mechanics. Presented analysis demonstrates that conventionally used approximations dramatically change the symmetries of the governing equations sets which leads to their incompatibility or even degeneration. The fundamental set is analyzed taking into account condition of compatibility. A high order of the set indicated on complex structure of complete solutions corresponding to physical structure of real flows. Analytical solutions of a number problems including flows induced by diffusion on topography, generation of the periodic internal waves a compact sources in week-dissipative media as well as numerical solutions of the same

  16. Synthesis and postmodification of functionally relevant organically modified silica particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozek, Eric

    This thesis describes the synthesis and properties of organically modified silica (ORMOSIL) particles with possible applications in the field of drug delivery. Nanoparticle drug delivery methods take advantage of the unique physical properties of nanoscale architecture to deliver a large payload of drug to a targeted site. They are highly porous, contain many organic functionalities for covalent attachment, and their surfaces can be functionalized. A particle-based approach allows for the delivery of a large and localized payload in a single package. Initial study focused on the generation of submicron organically modified silica particles containing boron. This involved the synthesis of vinyl-enriched silica particles and the postmodification of the vinyl functionalities throughout the particle body. Hydroboration and bromination of the vinyl functionalities showed for the first time that the organic functionalities of ORMOSIL particles could be significantly modified. Next, new organically modified silica particle types were developed. These new particle types incorporated unique organic functionalities that may undergo additional functionalization. Organic functionalities included alkenyl-, cyano-, mercapto-, and isocyanto- throughout the particle body. The different organic functionalities were then modified to demonstrate their reactivity. Finally, a particle containing nuclei suitable for neutron capture therapy, a fluorescent tag, and targeting ligand was synthesized. Boron was the active nuclei, fluorescein was the fluorescent label, useful for in vitro studies, and folic acid is a broad field targeting ligand, useful in targeting a variety of cancer types. The particle containing the three unique motifs underwent early stages of in vitro studies against the OVCAR-3 cell line. This thesis has considerably advanced the field of ORMOSIL chemistry through the development and modification of new ORMOSIL products. While initial efforts were geared toward the

  17. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  18. Angiocrine functions of organ-specific endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Rafii, Shahin; Butler, Jason M; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Preface Endothelial cells lining blood vessel capillaries are not just passive conduits for delivering blood. Tissue-specific endothelium establish specialized vascular niches that deploy specific sets of growth factors, known as angiocrine factors, which actively participate in inducing, specifying, patterning, and guiding organ regeneration and maintaining homeostasis and metabolism. Angiocrine factors upregulated in response to injury orchestrates self-renewal and differentiation of tissue-specific repopulating resident stem and progenitor cells into functional organs. Uncovering the precise mechanisms whereby physiological-levels of angiocrine factors are spatially and temporally produced, and distributed by organotypic endothelium to repopulating cells, will lay the foundation for driving organ repair without scarring. PMID:26791722

  19. [Generation of functional organs from pluripotent stem cells].

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Tatsuyuki; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2015-10-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have played a major role in stem cell biology, providing many conceptual ideas and models. Among them is the concept of the "niche", a special bone-marrow microenvironment that by exchanging cues regulates stem-cell fate. The HSC niche also plays an important role in HSC transplantation. Successful engraftment of donor HSCs depends on myeloablative pretreatment to empty the niche. The concept of the stem-cell niche has now been extended to the generation of organs. We postulated that an empty "organ niche" exists in a developing animal when development of an organ is genetically disabled. This organ niche should be developmentally compensated by blastocyst complementation using wild-type primary stem cells (PSCs). We proved the principle of organogenesis from xenogeneic PSCs in an embryo unable to form a specific organ, demonstrating the generation of functionally normal rat pancreas by injecting rat PSCs into pancreatogenesis-disabled mouse embryos. This principle has held in pigs. When pancreatogenesis-disabled pig embryos underwent complementation with blastomeres from wild-type pig embryos to produce chimeric pigs, the chimeras had normal pancreata and survived to adulthood. Demonstration of the generation of a functional organ from PSCs in pigs is a very important step toward generation of human cells, tissues, and organs from individual patients' own PSCs in large animals. PMID:26458462

  20. Hierarchical organization of brain functional networks during visual tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Zhao; Cai, Shi-Min; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Zhang, Jie

    2011-09-01

    The functional network of the brain is known to demonstrate modular structure over different hierarchical scales. In this paper, we systematically investigated the hierarchical modular organizations of the brain functional networks that are derived from the extent of phase synchronization among high-resolution EEG time series during a visual task. In particular, we compare the modular structure of the functional network from EEG channels with that of the anatomical parcellation of the brain cortex. Our results show that the modular architectures of brain functional networks correspond well to those from the anatomical structures over different levels of hierarchy. Most importantly, we find that the consistency between the modular structures of the functional network and the anatomical network becomes more pronounced in terms of vision, sensory, vision-temporal, motor cortices during the visual task, which implies that the strong modularity in these areas forms the functional basis for the visual task. The structure-function relationship further reveals that the phase synchronization of EEG time series in the same anatomical group is much stronger than that of EEG time series from different anatomical groups during the task and that the hierarchical organization of functional brain network may be a consequence of functional segmentation of the brain cortex.

  1. Supervision of Student Teachers: How Adequate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Ken

    This study attempted to ascertain how adequately student teachers are supervised by college supervisors and supervising teachers. Questions to be answered were as follows: a) How do student teachers rate the adequacy of supervision given them by college supervisors and supervising teachers? and b) Are there significant differences between ratings…

  2. Small Rural Schools CAN Have Adequate Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Martha

    The small rural school's foremost and largest problem is providing an adequate curriculum for students in a changing world. Often the small district cannot or is not willing to pay the per-pupil cost of curriculum specialists, specialized courses using expensive equipment no more than one period a day, and remodeled rooms to accommodate new…

  3. Toward More Adequate Quantitative Instructional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1986-01-01

    Sets an agenda for improving instructional research conducted with classical quantitative experimental or quasi-experimental methodology. Includes guidelines regarding the role of a social perspective, adequate conceptual and operational definition, quality instrumentation, control of threats to internal and external validity, and the use of…

  4. An Adequate Education Defined. Fastback 476.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Donald; Davis, E. E. (Gene)

    Court decisions historically have dealt with educational equity; now they are helping to establish "adequacy" as a standard in education. Legislatures, however, have been slow to enact remedies. One debate over education adequacy, though, is settled: Schools are not financed at an adequate level. This fastback is divided into three sections.…

  5. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  6. The Anatomical and Functional Organization of the Human Visual Pulvinar

    PubMed Central

    Pinsk, Mark A.; Kastner, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The pulvinar is the largest nucleus in the primate thalamus and contains extensive, reciprocal connections with visual cortex. Although the anatomical and functional organization of the pulvinar has been extensively studied in old and new world monkeys, little is known about the organization of the human pulvinar. Using high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T, we identified two visual field maps within the ventral pulvinar, referred to as vPul1 and vPul2. Both maps contain an inversion of contralateral visual space with the upper visual field represented ventrally and the lower visual field represented dorsally. vPul1 and vPul2 border each other at the vertical meridian and share a representation of foveal space with iso-eccentricity lines extending across areal borders. Additional, coarse representations of contralateral visual space were identified within ventral medial and dorsal lateral portions of the pulvinar. Connectivity analyses on functional and diffusion imaging data revealed a strong distinction in thalamocortical connectivity between the dorsal and ventral pulvinar. The two maps in the ventral pulvinar were most strongly connected with early and extrastriate visual areas. Given the shared eccentricity representation and similarity in cortical connectivity, we propose that these two maps form a distinct visual field map cluster and perform related functions. The dorsal pulvinar was most strongly connected with parietal and frontal areas. The functional and anatomical organization observed within the human pulvinar was similar to the organization of the pulvinar in other primate species. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The anatomical organization and basic response properties of the visual pulvinar have been extensively studied in nonhuman primates. Yet, relatively little is known about the functional and anatomical organization of the human pulvinar. Using neuroimaging, we found multiple representations of visual space within the ventral

  7. Self-Organizing Maps and Parton Distribution Functions

    SciTech Connect

    K. Holcomb, Simonetta Liuti, D. Z. Perry

    2011-05-01

    We present a new method to extract parton distribution functions from high energy experimental data based on a specific type of neural networks, the Self-Organizing Maps. We illustrate the features of our new procedure that are particularly useful for an anaysis directed at extracting generalized parton distributions from data. We show quantitative results of our initial analysis of the parton distribution functions from inclusive deep inelastic scattering.

  8. Organ Function as a Modulator of Organ Formation: Lessons from Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Collins, Michelle M; Stainier, Didier Y R

    2016-01-01

    Organogenesis requires an intricate balance between cell differentiation and tissue growth to generate a complex and fully functional organ. However, organogenesis is not solely driven by genetic inputs, as the development of several organ systems requires their own functionality. This theme is particularly evident in the developing heart as progression of cardiac development is accompanied by increased and altered hemodynamic forces. In the absence or disruption of these forces, heart development is abnormal, suggesting that the heart must sense these changes and respond appropriately. Here, we discuss concepts of how embryonic heart function contributes to heart development using lessons learned mostly from studies in zebrafish. PMID:26969993

  9. Organ Function as a Modulator of Organ Formation: Lessons from Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Collins, Michelle M; Stainier, Didier Y R

    2016-01-01

    Organogenesis requires an intricate balance between cell differentiation and tissue growth to generate a complex and fully functional organ. However, organogenesis is not solely driven by genetic inputs, as the development of several organ systems requires their own functionality. This theme is particularly evident in the developing heart as progression of cardiac development is accompanied by increased and altered hemodynamic forces. In the absence or disruption of these forces, heart development is abnormal, suggesting that the heart must sense these changes and respond appropriately. Here, we discuss concepts of how embryonic heart function contributes to heart development using lessons learned mostly from studies in zebrafish.

  10. Functionalized organic nanotubes as tubular nonviral gene transfer vector.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wuxiao; Wada, Momoyo; Kameta, Naohiro; Minamikawa, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Toshimi; Masuda, Mitsutoshi

    2011-11-30

    Tubular nanomaterials are expected to represent a novel nonviral gene transfer vectors due to the unique morphology and potential biological functionalities. Here we rationally constructed functionalized organic nanotubes (ONTs) for gene delivery through the co-assembly of bipolar glycolipid, arginine-lipid and PEG-lipid. The arginine- and PEG-functionalized ONTs efficiently formed complexes with plasmid DNA without aggregation, and protect DNA from enzymatic degradation; while the arginine-functionalized ONTs aggregated with DNA as large bundles. Long ONTs exceeding 1μm in length was rarely taken up into the cells, while those with a length of 400-800nm could effectively deliver plasmid DNA into cells and induce high transgene expression of green fluorescense protein. This study demonstrated the usefulness of functionalized ONT in gene delivery, and the functionalized ONT represents a novel type of tubular nonviral gene transfer vector.

  11. Functional organization of the fusiform gyrus revealed with connectivity profiles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Wang, Jiaojian; Fan, Lingzhong; Zhang, Yuanchao; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-08-01

    Within the object recognition-related ventral visual stream, the human fusiform gyrus (FG), which topographically connects the striate cortex to the inferior temporal lobe, plays a pivotal role in high-level visual/cognitive functions. However, though there are many previous investigations of distinct functional modules within the FG, the functional organization of the whole FG in its full functional heterogeneity has not yet been established. In the current study, a replicable functional organization of the FG based on distinct anatomical connectivity patterns was identified. The FG was parcellated into medial (FGm), lateral (FGl), and anterior (FGa) regions using diffusion tensor imaging. We validated the reasonability of such an organizational scheme from the perspective of resting-state whole brain functional connectivity patterns and the involvement of functional subnetworks. We found corroborating support for these three distinct modules, and suggest that the FGm serves as a transition region that combines multiple stimuli, the FGl is responsible for categorical recognition, and the FGa is involved in semantic understanding. These findings support two organizational functional transitions of the ventral temporal gyrus, a posterior/anterior direction of visual/semantic processing, and a media/lateral direction of high-level visual processing. Our results may facilitate a more detailed study of the human FG in the future. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3003-3016, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Functional organization of the fusiform gyrus revealed with connectivity profiles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Wang, Jiaojian; Fan, Lingzhong; Zhang, Yuanchao; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-08-01

    Within the object recognition-related ventral visual stream, the human fusiform gyrus (FG), which topographically connects the striate cortex to the inferior temporal lobe, plays a pivotal role in high-level visual/cognitive functions. However, though there are many previous investigations of distinct functional modules within the FG, the functional organization of the whole FG in its full functional heterogeneity has not yet been established. In the current study, a replicable functional organization of the FG based on distinct anatomical connectivity patterns was identified. The FG was parcellated into medial (FGm), lateral (FGl), and anterior (FGa) regions using diffusion tensor imaging. We validated the reasonability of such an organizational scheme from the perspective of resting-state whole brain functional connectivity patterns and the involvement of functional subnetworks. We found corroborating support for these three distinct modules, and suggest that the FGm serves as a transition region that combines multiple stimuli, the FGl is responsible for categorical recognition, and the FGa is involved in semantic understanding. These findings support two organizational functional transitions of the ventral temporal gyrus, a posterior/anterior direction of visual/semantic processing, and a media/lateral direction of high-level visual processing. Our results may facilitate a more detailed study of the human FG in the future. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3003-3016, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27132874

  13. 49 CFR 700.2 - Organization and functioning of Amtrak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... track miles in the Northeast Corridor (Washington-New York-Boston; New Haven- Springfield; and Philadelphia-Harrisburg) and small segments of track near Albany, New York, and Kalamazoo, Michigan. In the... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Organization and functioning of Amtrak....

  14. 43 CFR 10000.6 - Organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Organization and functions. 10000.6 Section 10000.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION... conservation plans and for environmental compliance in general; (3) Public Information, through the...

  15. 43 CFR 10000.6 - Organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Organization and functions. 10000.6 Section 10000.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION... conservation plans and for environmental compliance in general; (3) Public Information, through the...

  16. 43 CFR 10000.6 - Organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Organization and functions. 10000.6 Section 10000.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION... conservation plans and for environmental compliance in general; (3) Public Information, through the...

  17. 5 CFR 1200.10 - Staff organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 1200.10 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES BOARD... Employment Opportunity. (8) Office of Financial and Administrative Management. (9) Office of Information Resources Management. (b) The principal functions of the Board's headquarters offices are as follows:...

  18. 5 CFR 1200.10 - Staff organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 1200.10 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES BOARD... Employment Opportunity. (8) Office of Financial and Administrative Management. (9) Office of Information Resources Management. (b) The principal functions of the Board's headquarters offices are as follows:...

  19. The neuroanatomical and functional organization of speech perception.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sophie K; Johnsrude, Ingrid S

    2003-02-01

    A striking property of speech perception is its resilience in the face of acoustic variability (among speech sounds produced by different speakers at different times, for example). The robustness of speech perception might, in part, result from multiple, complementary representations of the input, which operate in both acoustic-phonetic feature-based and articulatory-gestural domains. Recent studies of the anatomical and functional organization of the non-human primate auditory cortical system point to multiple, parallel, hierarchically organized processing pathways that involve the temporal, parietal and frontal cortices. Functional neuroimaging evidence indicates that a similar organization might underlie speech perception in humans. These parallel, hierarchical processing 'streams', both within and across hemispheres, might operate on distinguishable, complementary types of representations and subserve complementary types of processing. Two long-opposing views of speech perception have posited a basis either in acoustic feature processing or in gestural motor processing; the view put forward here might help reconcile these positions. PMID:12536133

  20. Molecular Ordering in Functional Blends of Organic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Jessica Brittany

    Organic semiconductors offer a convenient reason to study how blending materials affects molecular packing. For example, organic solar cells rely on phase separation between dissimilar compounds to produce the "bulk heterojunction" morphology requisite for efficient devices. X-ray scattering and atomic force microscopy reveal that functionalized pentacene acceptors, which are highly ordered in neat films, lose long-range correlation when blended with a donor. These same acceptors can form substitutionally disordered single crystals (molecular alloys) when blended with other functionalized pentacenes, which share a high degree of structural similarity. Single crystal diffraction, UV/vis spectroscopy and thin film x-ray scattering show that substitutional disorder does not lead to loss of long-range order, even with the presence of multiple polymorphs. Finally we show that blends of organic materials can also lead to stable molecular glasses. We show that these stable molecular glasses can be formed from solution casting rather than from the more commonly used vapor deposition.

  1. Toxicological Function of Adipose Tissue: Focus on Persistent Organic Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    La Merrill, Michele; Emond, Claude; Kim, Min Ji; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Clément, Karine; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Adipose tissue (AT) is involved in several physiological functions, including metabolic regulation, energy storage, and endocrine functions. Objectives: In this review we examined the evidence that an additional function of AT is to modulate persistent organic pollutant (POP) toxicity through several mechanisms. Methods: We reviewed the literature on the interaction of AT with POPs to provide a comprehensive model for this additional function of AT. Discussion: As a storage compartment for lipophilic POPs, AT plays a critical role in the toxicokinetics of a variety of drugs and pollutants, in particular, POPs. By sequestering POPs, AT can protect other organs and tissues from POPs overload. However, this protective function could prove to be a threat in the long run. The accumulation of lipophilic POPs will increase total body burden. These accumulated POPs are slowly released into the bloodstream, and more so during weight loss. Thus, AT constitutes a continual source of internal exposure to POPs. In addition to its buffering function, AT is also a target of POPs and may mediate part of their metabolic effects. This is particularly relevant because many POPs induce obesogenic effects that may lead to quantitative and qualitative alterations of AT. Some POPs also induce a proinflammatory state in AT, which may lead to detrimental metabolic effects. Conclusion: AT appears to play diverse functions both as a modulator and as a target of POPs toxicity. PMID:23221922

  2. Synaptic plasticity functions in an organic electrochemical transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkoupidenis, Paschalis; Schaefer, Nathan; Strakosas, Xenofon; Fairfield, Jessamyn A.; Malliaras, George G.

    2015-12-01

    Synaptic plasticity functions play a crucial role in the transmission of neural signals in the brain. Short-term plasticity is required for the transmission, encoding, and filtering of the neural signal, whereas long-term plasticity establishes more permanent changes in neural microcircuitry and thus underlies memory and learning. The realization of bioinspired circuits that can actually mimic signal processing in the brain demands the reproduction of both short- and long-term aspects of synaptic plasticity in a single device. Here, we demonstrate the implementation of neuromorphic functions similar to biological memory, such as short- to long-term memory transition, in non-volatile organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs). Depending on the training of the OECT, the device displays either short- or long-term plasticity, therefore, exhibiting non von Neumann characteristics with merged processing and storing functionalities. These results are a first step towards the implementation of organic-based neuromorphic circuits.

  3. Civil Society Organizations and the Functions of Global Health Governance: What Role within Intergovernmental Organizations?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley

    2016-01-01

    Amid discussion of how global health governance should and could be strengthened, the potential role of civil society organizations has been frequently raised. This paper considers the role of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in four health governance instruments under the auspices of the World Health Organization – the International Code on the Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, International Health Regulations and Codex Alimentarius - and maps the functions they have contributed to. The paper draws conclusions about the opportunities and limitations CSOs represent for strengthening global health governance (GHG). PMID:27274776

  4. Self-organization of functional materials in confinement.

    PubMed

    Gentili, Denis; Valle, Francesco; Albonetti, Cristiano; Liscio, Fabiola; Cavallini, Massimiliano

    2014-08-19

    This Account aims to describe our experience in the use of patterning techniques for addressing the self-organization processes of materials into spatially confined regions on technologically relevant surfaces. Functional properties of materials depend on their chemical structure, their assembly, and spatial distribution at the solid state; the combination of these factors determines their properties and their technological applications. In fact, by controlling the assembly processes and the spatial distribution of the resulting structures, functional materials can be guided to technological and specific applications. We considered the principal self-organizing processes, such as crystallization, dewetting and phase segregation. Usually, these phenomena produce defective molecular films, compromising their use in many technological applications. This issue can be overcome by using patterning techniques, which induce molecules to self-organize into well-defined patterned structures, by means of spatial confinement. In particular, we focus our attention on the confinement effect achieved by stamp-assisted deposition for controlling size, density, and positions of material assemblies, giving them new chemical/physical functionalities. We review the methods and principles of the stamp-assisted spatial confinement and we discuss how they can be advantageously exploited to control crystalline order/orientation, dewetting phenomena, and spontaneous phase segregation. Moreover, we highlight how physical/chemical properties of soluble functional materials can be driven in constructive ways, by integrating them into operating technological devices.

  5. Versatile Functions of p53 Protein in Multicellular Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Chumakov, P. M.

    2009-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor plays a pivotal role by controlling virtually all processes in the cell. The functions of p53 determine modes of behavior of cells in multicellular organisms and ensure priorities of interests of the organism as a whole above the interests of an individual cell. Multiple signaling pathways of the cell report signals modifying the activities of p53 through numerous connections, ensuring highly selective and gradual regulation of functions that depend on the ongoing events in the cell. The task of p53 is to control the integrity and correctness of all processes in each individual cell and in the organism as a whole. The changes in the activity of p53 depend on the degree of errors or faults, and the effect is directed either toward correction of an imbalance or damage, or, in case of severe damages, leads to the prevention of multiplication of abnormal cells or their death. The strategy of p53 ensures genetic identity of cells and prevents the selection of cells having growth or other advantages. By accomplishing these strategic tasks, p53 may use a wide spectrum of activities. The majority of the activities are due to the ability of p53 to function as a transcription factor, by inducing or repressing different genes. However, p53 can also function as an enzyme, acting as an exonuclease during DNA reparation, or as an adaptor or a regulatory protein, intervening into functions of numerous signaling pathways. It can also act as direct inducer of apoptosis by translocation into mitochondria. Loss of function of the p53 gene occurs in virtually every case of cancer, and deficiency in p53 is an unavoidable prerequisite to the development of malignancies. The functions of p53 play substantial roles in many other pathologies as well as in the aging process. This review is focused on strategies of the p53 gene, demonstrating individual mechanisms underlying its functions. The p53 tumor suppressor plays a pivotal role in multicellular organism by

  6. The restless brain: how intrinsic activity organizes brain function

    PubMed Central

    Raichle, Marcus E.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally studies of brain function have focused on task-evoked responses. By their very nature such experiments tacitly encourage a reflexive view of brain function. While such an approach has been remarkably productive at all levels of neuroscience, it ignores the alternative possibility that brain functions are mainly intrinsic and ongoing, involving information processing for interpreting, responding to and predicting environmental demands. I suggest that the latter view best captures the essence of brain function, a position that accords well with the allocation of the brain's energy resources, its limited access to sensory information and a dynamic, intrinsic functional organization. The nature of this intrinsic activity, which exhibits a surprising level of organization with dimensions of both space and time, is revealed in the ongoing activity of the brain and its metabolism. As we look to the future, understanding the nature of this intrinsic activity will require integrating knowledge from cognitive and systems neuroscience with cellular and molecular neuroscience where ion channels, receptors, components of signal transduction and metabolic pathways are all in a constant state of flux. The reward for doing so will be a much better understanding of human behaviour in health and disease. PMID:25823869

  7. The restless brain: how intrinsic activity organizes brain function.

    PubMed

    Raichle, Marcus E

    2015-05-19

    Traditionally studies of brain function have focused on task-evoked responses. By their very nature such experiments tacitly encourage a reflexive view of brain function. While such an approach has been remarkably productive at all levels of neuroscience, it ignores the alternative possibility that brain functions are mainly intrinsic and ongoing, involving information processing for interpreting, responding to and predicting environmental demands. I suggest that the latter view best captures the essence of brain function, a position that accords well with the allocation of the brain's energy resources, its limited access to sensory information and a dynamic, intrinsic functional organization. The nature of this intrinsic activity, which exhibits a surprising level of organization with dimensions of both space and time, is revealed in the ongoing activity of the brain and its metabolism. As we look to the future, understanding the nature of this intrinsic activity will require integrating knowledge from cognitive and systems neuroscience with cellular and molecular neuroscience where ion channels, receptors, components of signal transduction and metabolic pathways are all in a constant state of flux. The reward for doing so will be a much better understanding of human behaviour in health and disease.

  8. On the Evolution of New Metabolic Functions in Diploid Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Barry G.

    1980-01-01

    Evolution of lactose utilization via the ebg system of Escherichia coli requires both structural gene (ebgA) and regulatory gene (ebgR) mutations. Because evolution of new metabolic functions in diploids might be subject to constraints not present in haploid organisms, merodiploid strains carrying a wild-type and an evolved ebgA allele, or a wild-type and an evolved ebgR allele were constructed. I show that heterozygosity at ebgA does not significantly affect the selective advantage of the evolved ebgA allele; whereas heterozygosity at ebgR eliminates the selective advantage of the evolved ebgR allele. It is suggested that, in diploid organisms, evolution of new functions for systems under negative control would be very difficult. PMID:6790336

  9. Strain effects on the work function of an organic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yanfei; Chew, Annabel R.; Rojas, Geoffrey A.; Sini, Gjergji; Haugstad, Greg; Belianinov, Alex; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Li, Hong; Risko, Chad; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Salleo, Alberto; Frisbie, C. Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Establishing fundamental relationships between strain and work function (WF) in organic semiconductors is important not only for understanding electrical properties of organic thin films, which are subject to both intrinsic and extrinsic strains, but also for developing flexible electronic devices. Here we investigate tensile and compressive strain effects on the WF of rubrene single crystals. Mechanical strain induced by thermal expansion mismatch between the substrate and rubrene is quantified by X-ray diffraction. The corresponding WF change is measured by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. The WF of rubrene increases (decreases) significantly with in-plane tensile (compressive) strain, which agrees qualitatively with density functional theory calculations. An elastic-to-plastic transition, characterized by a steep rise of the WF, occurs at ~0.05% tensile strain along the rubrene π-stacking direction. The results provide the first concrete link between mechanical strain and WF of an organic semiconductor and have important implications for understanding the connection between structural and electronic disorder in soft organic electronic materials.

  10. Strain effects on the work function of an organic semiconductor

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Yanfei; Chew, Annabel R.; Rojas, Geoffrey A.; Sini, Gjergji; Haugstad, Greg; Belianinov, Alex; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Li, Hong; Risko, Chad; Brédas, Jean-Luc; et al

    2016-02-01

    Establishing fundamental relationships between strain and work function (WF) in organic semiconductors is important not only for understanding electrical properties of organic thin films, which are subject to both intrinsic and extrinsic strains, but also for developing flexible electronic devices. Here we investigate tensile and compressive strain effects on the WF of rubrene single crystals. Mechanical strain induced by thermal expansion mismatch between the substrate and rubrene is quantified by X-ray diffraction. The corresponding WF change is measured by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. The WF of rubrene increases (decreases) significantly with in-plane tensile (compressive) strain, which agrees qualitatively with densitymore » functional theory calculations. An elastic-to-plastic transition, characterized by a steep rise of the WF, occurs at ~0.05% tensile strain along the rubrene π-stacking direction. Lastly, the results provide the first concrete link between mechanical strain and WF of an organic semiconductor and have important implications for understanding the connection between structural and electronic disorder in soft organic electronic materials.« less

  11. Strain effects on the work function of an organic semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanfei; Chew, Annabel R; Rojas, Geoffrey A; Sini, Gjergji; Haugstad, Greg; Belianinov, Alex; Kalinin, Sergei V; Li, Hong; Risko, Chad; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Salleo, Alberto; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Establishing fundamental relationships between strain and work function (WF) in organic semiconductors is important not only for understanding electrical properties of organic thin films, which are subject to both intrinsic and extrinsic strains, but also for developing flexible electronic devices. Here we investigate tensile and compressive strain effects on the WF of rubrene single crystals. Mechanical strain induced by thermal expansion mismatch between the substrate and rubrene is quantified by X-ray diffraction. The corresponding WF change is measured by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. The WF of rubrene increases (decreases) significantly with in-plane tensile (compressive) strain, which agrees qualitatively with density functional theory calculations. An elastic-to-plastic transition, characterized by a steep rise of the WF, occurs at ∼0.05% tensile strain along the rubrene π-stacking direction. The results provide the first concrete link between mechanical strain and WF of an organic semiconductor and have important implications for understanding the connection between structural and electronic disorder in soft organic electronic materials. PMID:26831362

  12. Strain effects on the work function of an organic semiconductor

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanfei; Chew, Annabel R.; Rojas, Geoffrey A.; Sini, Gjergji; Haugstad, Greg; Belianinov, Alex; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Li, Hong; Risko, Chad; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Salleo, Alberto; Frisbie, C. Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Establishing fundamental relationships between strain and work function (WF) in organic semiconductors is important not only for understanding electrical properties of organic thin films, which are subject to both intrinsic and extrinsic strains, but also for developing flexible electronic devices. Here we investigate tensile and compressive strain effects on the WF of rubrene single crystals. Mechanical strain induced by thermal expansion mismatch between the substrate and rubrene is quantified by X-ray diffraction. The corresponding WF change is measured by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. The WF of rubrene increases (decreases) significantly with in-plane tensile (compressive) strain, which agrees qualitatively with density functional theory calculations. An elastic-to-plastic transition, characterized by a steep rise of the WF, occurs at ∼0.05% tensile strain along the rubrene π-stacking direction. The results provide the first concrete link between mechanical strain and WF of an organic semiconductor and have important implications for understanding the connection between structural and electronic disorder in soft organic electronic materials. PMID:26831362

  13. Functional organ preservation in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosch, Petra; Fazel, Asita

    2012-01-01

    The principles of open versus laser microsurgical approaches for partial resections of the larynx are described, oncologic as well as functional results discussed and corresponding outcomes following primary radiotherapy are opposed. Over the last decade, the endoscopic partial resection of the larynx has developed to an accepted approach in the treatment of early glottic and supraglottic carcinomas thus leading to a remarkable decline in the use of open surgery. Comparing the various surgical approaches of laryngeal partial resections, the oncological outcome of the patients, as far as survival and organ preservation are concerned, are comparable, whereas functional results of the endoscopic procedures are superior with less morbidity. The surgical procedures put together, are all superior to radiotherapy concerning organ preservation. Transoral laser microsurgery has been used successfully for vocal cord carcinomas with impaired mobility or fixation of the vocal cord, supraglottic carcinomas with infiltration of the pre- and/or paraglottic space as well as for selected hypopharyngeal carcinomas. It has been well documented that laser microsurgery achieves good oncological as well as functional results with reasonable morbidity. However, patients with those tumours have been successfully treated by open partial resections of the larynx at medical centres with appropriate expertise. The initially enthusiastic assessment of study results concerning the efficacy of various protocols of chemoradiation with the intent of organ preservation for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas are judged more cautious, today, due to recent reports of rather high rates of late toxicity complications. PMID:22558052

  14. Valganciclovir dosing according to body surface area and renal function in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Vaudry, W; Ettenger, R; Jara, P; Varela-Fascinetto, G; Bouw, M R; Ives, J; Walker, R

    2009-03-01

    Oral valganciclovir is effective prophylaxis for cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in adults receiving solid organ transplantation (SOT). However, data in pediatrics are limited. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics and safety of valganciclovir oral solution or tablets in 63 pediatric SOT recipients at risk of CMV disease, including 17 recipients < or =2 years old. Patients received up to 100 days' valganciclovir prophylaxis; dosage was calculated using the algorithm: dose (mg) = 7 x body surface area x creatinine clearance (Schwartz method; CrCLS). Ganciclovir pharmacokinetics were described using a population pharmacokinetic approach. Safety endpoints were measured up to week 26. Mean estimated ganciclovir exposures showed no clear relationship to either body size or renal function, indicating that the dosing algorithm adequately accounted for both these variables. Mean ganciclovir exposures, across age groups and organ recipient groups were: kidney 51.8 +/- 11.9 microg * h/mL; liver 61.7 +/- 29.5 microg * h/mL; heart 58.0 +/- 21.8 microg * h/mL. Treatment was well tolerated, with a safety profile similar to that in adults. Seven serious treatment-related adverse events (AEs) occurred in five patients. Two patients had CMV viremia during treatment but none experienced CMV disease. In conclusion, a valganciclovir-dosing algorithm that adjusted for body surface area and renal function provides ganciclovir exposures similar to those established as safe and effective in adults. PMID:19260840

  15. Multi-Organ toxicity demonstration in a functional human in vitro system composed of four organs.

    PubMed

    Oleaga, Carlota; Bernabini, Catia; Smith, Alec S T; Srinivasan, Balaji; Jackson, Max; McLamb, William; Platt, Vivien; Bridges, Richard; Cai, Yunqing; Santhanam, Navaneetha; Berry, Bonnie; Najjar, Sarah; Akanda, Nesar; Guo, Xiufang; Martin, Candace; Ekman, Gail; Esch, Mandy B; Langer, Jessica; Ouedraogo, Gladys; Cotovio, Jose; Breton, Lionel; Shuler, Michael L; Hickman, James J

    2016-01-01

    We report on a functional human model to evaluate multi-organ toxicity in a 4-organ system under continuous flow conditions in a serum-free defined medium utilizing a pumpless platform for 14 days. Computer simulations of the platform established flow rates and resultant shear stress within accepted ranges. Viability of the system was demonstrated for 14 days as well as functional activity of cardiac, muscle, neuronal and liver modules. The pharmacological relevance of the integrated modules were evaluated for their response at 7 days to 5 drugs with known side effects after a 48 hour drug treatment regime. The results of all drug treatments were in general agreement with published toxicity results from human and animal data. The presented phenotypic culture model exhibits a multi-organ toxicity response, representing the next generation of in vitro systems, and constitutes a step towards an in vitro "human-on-a-chip" assay for systemic toxicity screening. PMID:26837601

  16. Multi-Organ toxicity demonstration in a functional human in vitro system composed of four organs

    PubMed Central

    Oleaga, Carlota; Bernabini, Catia; Smith, Alec S.T.; Srinivasan, Balaji; Jackson, Max; McLamb, William; Platt, Vivien; Bridges, Richard; Cai, Yunqing; Santhanam, Navaneetha; Berry, Bonnie; Najjar, Sarah; Akanda, Nesar; Guo, Xiufang; Martin, Candace; Ekman, Gail; Esch, Mandy B.; Langer, Jessica; Ouedraogo, Gladys; Cotovio, Jose; Breton, Lionel; Shuler, Michael L.; Hickman, James J.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a functional human model to evaluate multi-organ toxicity in a 4-organ system under continuous flow conditions in a serum-free defined medium utilizing a pumpless platform for 14 days. Computer simulations of the platform established flow rates and resultant shear stress within accepted ranges. Viability of the system was demonstrated for 14 days as well as functional activity of cardiac, muscle, neuronal and liver modules. The pharmacological relevance of the integrated modules were evaluated for their response at 7 days to 5 drugs with known side effects after a 48 hour drug treatment regime. The results of all drug treatments were in general agreement with published toxicity results from human and animal data. The presented phenotypic culture model exhibits a multi-organ toxicity response, representing the next generation of in vitro systems, and constitutes a step towards an in vitro “human-on-a-chip” assay for systemic toxicity screening. PMID:26837601

  17. Self-organization of muscle cell structure and function.

    PubMed

    Grosberg, Anna; Kuo, Po-Ling; Guo, Chin-Lin; Geisse, Nicholas A; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Adams, William J; Sheehy, Sean P; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2011-02-01

    The organization of muscle is the product of functional adaptation over several length scales spanning from the sarcomere to the muscle bundle. One possible strategy for solving this multiscale coupling problem is to physically constrain the muscle cells in microenvironments that potentiate the organization of their intracellular space. We hypothesized that boundary conditions in the extracellular space potentiate the organization of cytoskeletal scaffolds for directed sarcomeregenesis. We developed a quantitative model of how the cytoskeleton of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes organizes with respect to geometric cues in the extracellular matrix. Numerical results and in vitro assays to control myocyte shape indicated that distinct cytoskeletal architectures arise from two temporally-ordered, organizational processes: the interaction between actin fibers, premyofibrils and focal adhesions, as well as cooperative alignment and parallel bundling of nascent myofibrils. Our results suggest that a hierarchy of mechanisms regulate the self-organization of the contractile cytoskeleton and that a positive feedback loop is responsible for initiating the break in symmetry, potentiated by extracellular boundary conditions, is required to polarize the contractile cytoskeleton.

  18. ORGANIC VS CONVENTIONAL: SOIL NEMATODE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION.

    PubMed

    Kapp, C; Storey, S G; Malan, A P

    2014-01-01

    Global increases in human population are creating an ever-greater need for food production. Poor soil management practices have degraded soil to such an extent that rapidly improved management practices is the only way to ensure future food demands. In South Africa, deciduous fruit producers are realising the need for soil health, and for an increased understanding of the benefits of soil ecology, to ensure sustainable fruit production. This depends heavily on improved orchard management. Conventional farming relies on the addition of artificial fertilizers, and the application of chemicals, to prevent or minimise, the effects of the soil stages of pest insects, and of plant-parasitic nematodes. Currently, there is resistance toward conventional farming practices, which, it is believed, diminishes biodiversity within the soil. The study aimed to establish the soil nematode community structure and function in organically, and conventionally, managed deciduous fruit orchards. This was done by determining the abundance, the diversity, and the functionality of the naturally occurring free-living, and plant-parasitic, nematodes in deciduous fruit orchards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The objective of the study was to form the basis for the use of nematodes as future indicators of soil health in deciduous fruit orchards. Orchards from neighbouring organic, and conventional, apricot farms, and from an organic apple orchard, were studied. All the nematodes were quantified, and identified, to family level. The five nematode-classified trophic groups were found at each site, while 14 families were identified in each orchard, respectively. Herbivores were dominant in all the orchards surveyed. Organic apples had the fewest herbivores and fungivores, with the highest number of carnivores. When comparing organic with conventional apricot orchards, higher numbers of plant-parasitic nematodes were found in the organic apricot orchards. The Maturity Index (MI

  19. Which Ab Initio Wave Function Methods Are Adequate for Quantitative Calculations of the Energies of Biradicals? The Performance of Coupled-Cluster and Multi-Reference Methods Along a Single-Bond Dissociation Coordinate

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ke; Jalan, Amrit; Green, William H.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2013-01-08

    We examine the accuracy of single-reference and multireference correlated wave function methods for predicting accurate energies and potential energy curves of biradicals. The biradicals considered are intermediate species along the bond dissociation coordinates for breaking the F-F bond in F2, the O-O bond in H2O2, and the C-C bond in CH3CH3. We apply a host of single-reference and multireference approximations in a consistent way to the same cases to provide a better assessment of their relative accuracies than was previously possible. The most accurate method studied is coupled cluster theory with all connected excitations through quadruples, CCSDTQ. Without explicit quadruple excitations, the most accurate potential energy curves are obtained by the single-reference RCCSDt method, followed, in order of decreasing accuracy, by UCCSDT, RCCSDT, UCCSDt, seven multireference methods, including perturbation theory, configuration interaction, and coupled-cluster methods (with MRCI+Q being the best and Mk-MR-CCSD the least accurate), four CCSD(T) methods, and then CCSD.

  20. Adsorption of volatile organic compounds in porous metal-organic frameworks functionalized by polyoxometalates

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Fengji; Liu Shuxia; Liang Dadong; Ren Guojian; Wei Feng; Chen Yaguang; Su Zhongmin

    2011-11-15

    The functionalization of porous metal-organic frameworks (Cu{sub 3}(BTC){sub 2}) was achieved by incorporating Keggin-type polyoxometalates (POMs), and further optimized via alkali metal ion-exchange. In addition to thermal gravimetric analysis, IR, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and powder X-ray diffraction, the adsorption properties were characterized by N{sub 2} and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) adsorption measurements, including short-chain alcohols (C<4), cyclohexane, benzene, and toluene. The adsorption enthalpies estimated by the modified Clausius-Clapeyron equation provided insight into the impact of POMs and alkali metal cations on the adsorption of VOCs. The introduction of POMs not only improved the stability, but also brought the increase of adsorption capacity by strengthening the interaction with gas molecules. Furthermore, the exchanged alkali metal cations acted as active sites to interact with adsorbates and enhanced the adsorption of VOCs. - Graphical Abstract: The adsorption behavior of volatile organic compounds in porous metal-organic frameworks functionalized by polyoxometalates has been systematically evaluated. Highlights: > Functionalization of MOFs was achieved by incorporating Keggin-type POMs. > Introduction of POMs improved the thermal stability and adsorption capacity. > Alkali metal ion-exchange modified the inclusion state and also enhanced the adsorption. > Adsorption enthalpies were estimated to study the impact of POMs and alkali metal cations.

  1. Modular organization of the white spruce (Picea glauca) transcriptome reveals functional organization and evolutionary signatures.

    PubMed

    Raherison, Elie S M; Giguère, Isabelle; Caron, Sébastien; Lamara, Mebarek; MacKay, John J

    2015-07-01

    Transcript profiling has shown the molecular bases of several biological processes in plants but few studies have developed an understanding of overall transcriptome variation. We investigated transcriptome structure in white spruce (Picea glauca), aiming to delineate its modular organization and associated functional and evolutionary attributes. Microarray analyses were used to: identify and functionally characterize groups of co-expressed genes; investigate expressional and functional diversity of vascular tissue preferential genes which were conserved among Picea species, and identify expression networks underlying wood formation. We classified 22 857 genes as variable (79%; 22 coexpression groups) or invariant (21%) by profiling across several vegetative tissues. Modular organization and complex transcriptome restructuring among vascular tissue preferential genes was revealed by their assignment to coexpression groups with partially overlapping profiles and partially distinct functions. Integrated analyses of tissue-based and temporally variable profiles identified secondary xylem gene networks, showed their remodelling over a growing season and identified PgNAC-7 (no apical meristerm (NAM), Arabidopsis transcription activation factor (ATAF) and cup-shaped cotyledon (CUC) transcription factor 007 in Picea glauca) as a major hub gene specific to earlywood formation. Reference profiling identified comprehensive, statistically robust coexpressed groups, revealing that modular organization underpins the evolutionary conservation of the transcriptome structure.

  2. Comparative study of dielectric functions of complex organic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordan, O. D.; Hermann, S.; Friedrich, M.; Zahn, D. R. T.

    2005-11-01

    Organic/organic heterostructures and mixed layers were prepared by organic molecular beam deposition (OMBD) in high vacuum (HV) on hydrogen passivated (111) oriented silicon. The substrates were kept at room temperature during the deposition. The organic superstructures consisting in alternative layers of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum(III) (Alq3)/N,N-Di-[(1-naphthyl)-N,N-diphenyl]-(1,1-biphenyl)-4,4-diamine (-NPD) and 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) were investigated by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry in the 0.73-5 eV spectral range. Additionally reflection infra-red (IR) measurements were performed using p- and s-polarisation.Taking into account the dielectric function of the single layers the optical response of the Alq3/-NPD superstructure can be modeled assuming sharp interfaces. However, for the PTCDA/CuPc superstructure the optical response requires a more sophisticated approach than simply superimposing the responses of the individual layers. The deviation between simulated and experimental data is assigned to the molecular interaction at the interfaces between PTCDA and CuPc. This can affect the molecular orientation and the optical properties.

  3. [Functional type of the constitution (systematic analysis of individual-typological characteristics of an organism)].

    PubMed

    Kolpakov, V V; Bespalova, T V; Tomolova, E A; Shtork, T E; Mamchits, E V; Lar'kina, N Iu; Tkachuk, A A

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the statistical distribution of feature based chi2 and lambda criteria and average data somatometric, functional and psycho-physiological indices in the total sample of individuals with low, medium and high habitual physical activity (LHPA, M H PA and HHP A) at different stages of ontogenesis (the older preschool and early school children, boys and girls) has identified a fairly wide area of different quality and physiological individuality in a healthy population and the feasibility of allocating the three typological groups--functional constitution types (FTC-1 - LHPA, FTC-2 - MHPA, FTC-3 - HHPA). Set model parameters of the first and second order for each FTC, as well as performance tests of the third order, describing the current functional state. For the full specifications of the constitutional membership (synthetic constitution) of individuals with low, medium and high-held PDA integral assessment of their properties by using the principles polythetic (multidimensional) classification. Obtained by means of multivariate statistical methods results confirmed the postulate of the concept of typological variability of physiological individuality real different quality of healthy human population on the morphofunctional and psycho-physiological grounds and conducted a comprehensive physiological and statistical analysis of results allowed us to scientifically justify the selection of three functional types of constitution (PTC-1, FTC-2, FTC-3), corresponding to three types of synthetic constitutive (K 0-1, K 00, K 01). The data obtained show that the system (constitutional) approach to the evaluation of individual-typological characteristics of the organism confirms the high information private constitution(PTC-1, FTC-2, FTC-3) in human biological organization, and the selected feature set can adequately differentiate the synthetic constitutional types in a formal basis.

  4. Functional-anatomical organization of predicate metaphor processing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Evan; Widick, Page; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2008-12-01

    The bulk of the research on the neural organization of metaphor comprehension has focused on nominal metaphors and the metaphoric relationships between word pairs. By contrast, little work has been conducted on predicate metaphors using verbs of motion such as "The man fell under her spell." We examined predicate metaphors as compared to literal sentences of motion such as "The child fell under the slide" in an event-related, functional MRI study. Our results demonstrated greater activation in the left inferior frontal cortex and left lateral temporal lobe for predicate metaphors as compared to literal sentences, while no differences were seen in homologous areas of the right hemisphere. We suggest that the results support a neural organization principle for motion processing in which greater abstraction proceeds along a posterior-to-anterior axis within the lateral portion of the left temporal cortex.

  5. Functional-Anatomical Organization of Predicate Metaphor Processing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Evan; Widick, Page; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2008-01-01

    The bulk of the research on the neural organization of metaphor comprehension has focused on nominal metaphors and the metaphoric relationships between word pairs. By contrast, little work has been conducted on predicate metaphors using verbs of motion such as “The man fell under her spell.” We examined predicate metaphors as compared to literal sentences of motion such as “The child fell under the slide” in an event-related, functional MRI study. Our results demonstrated greater activation in the left inferior frontal cortex and left lateral temporal lobe for predicate metaphors as compared to literal sentences, while no differences were seen in homologous areas of the right hemisphere. We suggest that the results support a neural organization principle for motion processing in which greater abstraction proceeds along a posterior to anterior axis within the lateral portion of the left temporal cortex. PMID:18692890

  6. The bi-functional organization of human basement membranes.

    PubMed

    Halfter, Willi; Monnier, Christophe; Müller, David; Oertle, Philipp; Uechi, Guy; Balasubramani, Manimalha; Safi, Farhad; Lim, Roderick; Loparic, Marko; Henrich, Paul Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The current basement membrane (BM) model proposes a single-layered extracellular matrix (ECM) sheet that is predominantly composed of laminins, collagen IVs and proteoglycans. The present data show that BM proteins and their domains are asymmetrically organized providing human BMs with side-specific properties: A) isolated human BMs roll up in a side-specific pattern, with the epithelial side facing outward and the stromal side inward. The rolling is independent of the curvature of the tissue from which the BMs were isolated. B) The epithelial side of BMs is twice as stiff as the stromal side, and C) epithelial cells adhere to the epithelial side of BMs only. Side-selective cell adhesion was also confirmed for BMs from mice and from chick embryos. We propose that the bi-functional organization of BMs is an inherent property of BMs and helps build the basic tissue architecture of metazoans with alternating epithelial and connective tissue layers.

  7. Alterations in cognitive and psychological functioning after organic solvent exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, L.A.; Ryan, C.M.; Hodgson, M.J.; Robin, N. )

    1990-05-01

    Exposure to organic solvents has been linked repeatedly to alterations in both personality and cognitive functioning. To assess the nature and extent of these changes more thoroughly, 32 workers with a history of exposure to mixtures of organic solvents and 32 age- and education-matched blue-collar workers with no history of exposure were assessed with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Although both groups were comparable on measures of general intelligence, significant differences were found in virtually all other cognitive domains tested (Learning and Memory, Visuospatial, Attention and Mental Flexibility, Psychomotor Speed). In addition, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories of exposed workers indicated clinically significant levels of depression, anxiety, somatic concerns and disturbances in thinking. The reported psychological distress was unrelated to degree of cognitive deficit. Finally, several exposure-related variables were associated with poorer performance on tests of memory and visuospatial ability.

  8. Bioelement effects on thyroid gland in children living in iodine-adequate territory.

    PubMed

    Gorbachev, Anatoly L; Skalny, Anatoly V; Koubassov, Roman V

    2007-01-01

    Endemic goitre is a primary pathology of thyroid gland and critical medico social problem in many countries. A dominant cause of endemic goitre is iodine deficiency. However, besides primary iodine deficiency, the goitre may probably develop due to effects of other bioelement imbalances, essential to thyroid function maintenance. Here we studied 44 cases of endemic goitre in prepubertal children (7-10 y.o.) living in iodine-adequate territory. Thyroid volume was estimated by ultrasonometry. Main bioelements (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, Mg, Mn, Pb, Se, Si, Zn) were determined in hair samples by ICP-OES/ICP-MS method. Relationships between hair content of bioelements and thyroid gland size were estimated by multiple regressions. The regression model revealed significant positive relations between thyroid volume and Cr, Si, Mn contents. However, the actual factor of thyroid gland increase was only Si excess in organism. Significant negative relations of thyroid volume were revealed with I, Mg, Zn, Se, Co and Cd. In spite of this, the actual factors of thyroid gland volume increasing were I, Co, Mg and Se deficiency. Total bioelement contribution in thyroid impairment was estimated as 24%. Thus, it was suggested that endemic goitre in iodine-adequate territory can be formed by bioelement imbalances, namely Si excess and Co, Mg, Se shortage as well as endogenous I deficiency in spite of iodine-adequate environment.

  9. Modular functional organization of cat anterior auditory field.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Kazuo; Priebe, Nicholas J; Crum, Poppy A C; Bedenbaugh, Purvis H; Cheung, Steven W; Schreiner, Christoph E

    2004-07-01

    Two tonotopic areas, the primary auditory cortex (AI) and the anterior auditory field (AAF), are the primary cortical fields in the cat auditory system. They receive largely independent, concurrent thalamocortical projections from the different thalamic divisions despite their hierarchical equivalency. The parallel streams of thalamic inputs to AAF and AI suggest that AAF neurons may differ from AI neurons in physiological properties. Although a modular functional organization in cat AI has been well documented, little is known about the internal organization of AAF beyond tonotopy. We studied how basic receptive field parameters (RFPs) are spatially organized in AAF with single- and multiunit recording techniques. A distorted tonotopicity with an underrepresentation in midfrequencies (1 and 5 kHz) and an overrepresentation in the high-frequency range was found. Spectral bandwidth (Q-values) and response threshold were significantly correlated with characteristic frequency (CF). To understand whether AAF has a modular organization of RFPs, CF dependencies were eliminated by a nonparametric, local regression model, and the residuals (difference between the model and observed values) were evaluated. In a given isofrequency domain, clusters of low or high residual RFP values were interleaved for threshold, spectral bandwidth, and latency, suggesting a modular organization. However, RFP modules in AAF were not expressed as robustly as in AI. A comparison of RFPs between AAF and AI shows that AAF neurons were more broadly tuned and had shorter latencies than AI neurons. These physiological field differences are consistent with anatomical evidence of largely independent, concurrent thalamocortical projections in AI and AAF, which strongly suggest field-specific processing.

  10. Public meetings on nuclear waste management: their function and organization

    SciTech Connect

    Duvernoy, E.G.; Marcus, A.A.; Overcast, T.; Schilling, A.H.

    1981-05-01

    This report focuses on public meetings as a vehicle for public participation in nuclear waste management. The nature of public meetings is reviewed and the functions served by meetings highlighted. The range of participants and their concerns are addressed, including a review of the participants from past nuclear waste management meetings. A sound understanding of the expected participants allows DOE to tailor elements of the meeting, such as notification, format, and agenda to accommodate the attendees. Finally, the report discusses the organization of public meetings on nuclear waste management in order to enhance the DOE's functions for such meetings. Possible structures are suggested for a variety of elements that are relevant prior to, during and after the public meeting. These suggestions are intended to supplement the DOE Public Participation Manual.

  11. Artificial cells for replacement of metabolic organ functions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Thomas Ming Swi

    2003-05-01

    Artificial cells are being actively investigated for use in the replacement of cell and organ functions, especially related to metabolic functions. The earliest routine clinical use of artificial cells is in the form of coated activated charcoal for hemoperfusion. Implantation of encapsulated cells are being studied for the treatment of diabetes, liver failure, kidney failure and the use of encapsulated genetically engineered cells for gene therapy. Blood substitutes based on modified hemoglobin are already in Phase III clinical trials in patients with as much as 20 units infused into each patient during trauma surgery. Artificial cells containing enzymes are being developed for clinical trial in hereditary enzyme deficiency diseases and other diseases. Artificial cell is also being investigated for drug delivery and for other uses in biotechnology, chemical engineering and medicine.

  12. Tritium removal from tritiated water by organic functionalized SBA-15

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, A.; Kato, Y.; Akai, R.; Torikai, Y.; Matsuyama, M.

    2015-03-15

    The recovery of tritium from tritiated water is important for reducing tritium emissions to the environment and for recycling tritium. Meso-porous silicas (SBA-15) were modified by -COOH, -SO{sub 3}H and -NH{sub 2} groups and their tritium adsorption ability from tritiated water under solid-liquid sorption was investigated. The adsorption abilities and separation factor of organic functionalized SBAs were comparable to those of bare SBA. The desorption of water from bare SBA and -COOH functionalized SBA were studied by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy using D{sub 2}O as a probe molecule. An interaction was observed for D{sub 2}O with -COOH group where the hydrogen bonds became weaker than D{sub 2}O with bare SBA. (authors)

  13. The multitasking organ: recent insights into skin immune function.

    PubMed

    Di Meglio, Paola; Perera, Gayathri K; Nestle, Frank O

    2011-12-23

    The skin provides the first line defense of the human body against injury and infection. By integrating recent findings in cutaneous immunology with fundamental concepts of skin biology, we portray the skin as a multitasking organ ensuring body homeostasis. Crosstalk between the skin and its microbial environment is also highlighted as influencing the response to injury, infection, and autoimmunity. The importance of the skin immune network is emphasized by the identification of several skin-resident cell subsets, each with its unique functions. Lessons learned from targeted therapy in inflammatory skin conditions, such as psoriasis, provide further insights into skin immune function. Finally, we look at the skin as an interacting network of immune signaling pathways exemplified by the development of a disease interactome for psoriasis.

  14. AgBase: supporting functional modeling in agricultural organisms

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Fiona M.; Gresham, Cathy R.; Buza, Teresia J.; Chouvarine, Philippe; Pillai, Lakshmi R.; Kumar, Ranjit; Ozkan, Seval; Wang, Hui; Manda, Prashanti; Arick, Tony; Bridges, Susan M.; Burgess, Shane C.

    2011-01-01

    AgBase (http://www.agbase.msstate.edu/) provides resources to facilitate modeling of functional genomics data and structural and functional annotation of agriculturally important animal, plant, microbe and parasite genomes. The website is redesigned to improve accessibility and ease of use, including improved search capabilities. Expanded capabilities include new dedicated pages for horse, cat, dog, cotton, rice and soybean. We currently provide 590 240 Gene Ontology (GO) annotations to 105 454 gene products in 64 different species, including GO annotations linked to transcripts represented on agricultural microarrays. For many of these arrays, this provides the only functional annotation available. GO annotations are available for download and we provide comprehensive, species-specific GO annotation files for 18 different organisms. The tools available at AgBase have been expanded and several existing tools improved based upon user feedback. One of seven new tools available at AgBase, GOModeler, supports hypothesis testing from functional genomics data. We host several associated databases and provide genome browsers for three agricultural pathogens. Moreover, we provide comprehensive training resources (including worked examples and tutorials) via links to Educational Resources at the AgBase website. PMID:21075795

  15. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise.

  16. Function and distribution of bilin biosynthesis enzymes in photosynthetic organisms.

    PubMed

    Dammeyer, Thorben; Frankenberg-Dinkel, Nicole

    2008-10-01

    Bilins are open-chain tetrapyrrole molecules essential for light-harvesting and/or sensing in many photosynthetic organisms. While they serve as chromophores in phytochrome-mediated light-sensing in plants, they additionally function in light-harvesting in cyanobacteria, red algae and cryptomonads. Associated to phycobiliproteins a variety of bile pigments is responsible for the specific light-absorbance properties of the organisms enabling efficient photosynthesis under different light conditions. The initial step of bilin biosynthesis is the cleavage of heme by heme oxygenases (HO) to afford the first linear molecule biliverdin. This reaction is ubiquitously found also in non-photosynthetic organisms. Biliverdin is then further reduced by site specific reductases most of them belonging to the interesting family of ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductases (FDBRs)-a new family of radical oxidoreductases. In recent years much progress has been made in the field of heme oxygenases but even more in the widespread family of FDBRs, revealing novel biochemical FDBR activities, new crystal structures and new ecological aspects, including the discovery of bilin biosynthesis genes in wild marine phage populations. The aim of this review is to summarize and discuss the recent progress in this field and to highlight the new and remaining questions.

  17. Functionalized Silicon Membranes for Selective Bio-Organisms Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Letant, S E; Hart, B R; van Buuren, A W; Terminello, L J

    2003-01-09

    Membranes with various pore size, length, morphology and density have been synthesized out of diverse materials for size exclusion-based separation. An example of application is the sterilization of intravenous lines by exclusion of bacteria and viruses using Polyvinylidene Fluoride membranes with 0.1 {micro}m diameter pores. The need for chemically specific filtration has recently been addressed, but for small molecules only. An important problem remaining to be solved is the selective capture of large bio-organisms for decontamination or analysis of air and liquids such as drinking water and body fluids. To achieve this goal, materials with controlled pore diameter, length and surface chemistry are required. In this letter, we present the first functionalized silicon membranes and demonstrate their ability to selectively capture simulated bio-organisms. These extremely versatile and rigid devices open the door on a new class of materials able to recognize the external fingerprints of bio-organisms such as size and outer membrane proteins for specific capture and detection applications.

  18. Modularity and Self-Organized Functional Architectures in the Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Laxmi; Minai, Ali A.; Doboli, Simona; Brown, Vincent R.

    It is generally believed that cognition involves the self-organization of coherent dy- namic functional networks across several brain regions in response to incoming stimulus and internal modulation. These context-dependent networks arise continually from the spatiotemporally multi-scale structural substrate of the brain configured by evolution, development and previous experience, persisting for 100-200 ms and generating re- sponses such as imagery, recall and motor action. In the current paper, we show that a system of interacting modular attractor networks can use a selective mechanism for assembling functional networks from the modular substrate. We use the approach to develop a model of idea-generation in the brain. Ideas are modeled as combinations of concepts organized in a recurrent network that reflects previous associations between them. The dynamics of this network, resulting in the transient co-activation of concept groups, is seen as a search through the space of ideas, and attractor dynamics is used to "shape" this search. The process is required to encompass both rapid retrieval of old ideas in familiar contexts and efficient search for novel ones in unfamiliar situations (or during brainstorming). The inclusion of an adaptive modulatory mechanism allows the network to balance the competing requirements of exploiting previous learning and exploring new possibilities as needed in different contexts.

  19. doublesex functions early and late in gustatory sense organ development.

    PubMed

    Mellert, David J; Robinett, Carmen C; Baker, Bruce S

    2012-01-01

    Somatic sexual dimorphisms outside of the nervous system in Drosophila melanogaster are largely controlled by the male- and female-specific Doublesex transcription factors (DSX(M) and DSX(F), respectively). The DSX proteins must act at the right times and places in development to regulate the diverse array of genes that sculpt male and female characteristics across a variety of tissues. To explore how cellular and developmental contexts integrate with doublesex (dsx) gene function, we focused on the sexually dimorphic number of gustatory sense organs (GSOs) in the foreleg. We show that DSX(M) and DSX(F) promote and repress GSO formation, respectively, and that their relative contribution to this dimorphism varies along the proximodistal axis of the foreleg. Our results suggest that the DSX proteins impact specification of the gustatory sensory organ precursors (SOPs). DSX(F) then acts later in the foreleg to regulate gustatory receptor neuron axon guidance. These results suggest that the foreleg provides a unique opportunity for examining the context-dependent functions of DSX.

  20. Functional organization of the human 4D Nucleome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haiming; Chen, Jie; Muir, Lindsey A.; Ronquist, Scott; Meixner, Walter; Ljungman, Mats; Ried, Thomas; Smale, Stephen; Rajapakse, Indika

    2015-01-01

    The 4D organization of the interphase nucleus, or the 4D Nucleome (4DN), reflects a dynamical interaction between 3D genome structure and function and its relationship to phenotype. We present initial analyses of the human 4DN, capturing genome-wide structure using chromosome conformation capture and 3D imaging, and function using RNA-sequencing. We introduce a quantitative index that measures underlying topological stability of a genomic region. Our results show that structural features of genomic regions correlate with function with surprising persistence over time. Furthermore, constructing genome-wide gene-level contact maps aided in identifying gene pairs with high potential for coregulation and colocalization in a manner consistent with expression via transcription factories. We additionally use 2D phase planes to visualize patterns in 4DN data. Finally, we evaluated gene pairs within a circadian gene module using 3D imaging, and found periodicity in the movement of clock circadian regulator and period circadian clock 2 relative to each other that followed a circadian rhythm and entrained with their expression. PMID:26080430

  1. Supramolecular organization of functional organic materials in the bulk and at organic/organic interfaces: a modeling and computer simulation approach.

    PubMed

    Muccioli, Luca; D'Avino, Gabriele; Berardi, Roberto; Orlandi, Silvia; Pizzirusso, Antonio; Ricci, Matteo; Roscioni, Otello Maria; Zannoni, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The molecular organization of functional organic materials is one of the research areas where the combination of theoretical modeling and experimental determinations is most fruitful. Here we present a brief summary of the simulation approaches used to investigate the inner structure of organic materials with semiconducting behavior, paying special attention to applications in organic photovoltaics and clarifying the often obscure jargon hindering the access of newcomers to the literature of the field. Special attention is paid to the choice of the computational "engine" (Monte Carlo or Molecular Dynamics) used to generate equilibrium configurations of the molecular system under investigation and, more importantly, to the choice of the chemical details in describing the molecular interactions. Recent literature dealing with the simulation of organic semiconductors is critically reviewed in order of increasing complexity of the system studied, from low molecular weight molecules to semiflexible polymers, including the challenging problem of determining the morphology of heterojunctions between two different materials. PMID:24322782

  2. Supramolecular organization of functional organic materials in the bulk and at organic/organic interfaces: a modeling and computer simulation approach.

    PubMed

    Muccioli, Luca; D'Avino, Gabriele; Berardi, Roberto; Orlandi, Silvia; Pizzirusso, Antonio; Ricci, Matteo; Roscioni, Otello Maria; Zannoni, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The molecular organization of functional organic materials is one of the research areas where the combination of theoretical modeling and experimental determinations is most fruitful. Here we present a brief summary of the simulation approaches used to investigate the inner structure of organic materials with semiconducting behavior, paying special attention to applications in organic photovoltaics and clarifying the often obscure jargon hindering the access of newcomers to the literature of the field. Special attention is paid to the choice of the computational "engine" (Monte Carlo or Molecular Dynamics) used to generate equilibrium configurations of the molecular system under investigation and, more importantly, to the choice of the chemical details in describing the molecular interactions. Recent literature dealing with the simulation of organic semiconductors is critically reviewed in order of increasing complexity of the system studied, from low molecular weight molecules to semiflexible polymers, including the challenging problem of determining the morphology of heterojunctions between two different materials.

  3. Adipose Tissue - Adequate, Accessible Regenerative Material

    PubMed Central

    Kolaparthy, Lakshmi Kanth.; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kutcham, Rupa Sruthi

    2015-01-01

    The potential use of stem cell based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of diseases. The use of either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells in clinical situations is limited due to cell regulations and to technical and ethical considerations involved in genetic manipulation of human ESCs, even though these cells are highly beneficial. Mesenchymal stem cells seen to be an ideal population of stem cells in particular, Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) which can be obtained in large number and easily harvested from adipose tissue. It is ubiquitously available and has several advantages compared to other sources as easily accessible in large quantities with minimal invasive harvesting procedure, and isolation of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells yield a high amount of stem cells which is essential for stem cell based therapies and tissue engineering. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using ASCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because various secreted growth factors from ASCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissues but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. This review summarizes the sources, isolation and characteristics of adipose derived stem cells and its potential role in periodontal regeneration is discussed. PMID:26634060

  4. Adipose Tissue - Adequate, Accessible Regenerative Material.

    PubMed

    Kolaparthy, Lakshmi Kanth; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kutcham, Rupa Sruthi

    2015-11-01

    The potential use of stem cell based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of diseases. The use of either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells in clinical situations is limited due to cell regulations and to technical and ethical considerations involved in genetic manipulation of human ESCs, even though these cells are highly beneficial. Mesenchymal stem cells seen to be an ideal population of stem cells in particular, Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) which can be obtained in large number and easily harvested from adipose tissue. It is ubiquitously available and has several advantages compared to other sources as easily accessible in large quantities with minimal invasive harvesting procedure, and isolation of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells yield a high amount of stem cells which is essential for stem cell based therapies and tissue engineering. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using ASCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because various secreted growth factors from ASCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissues but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. This review summarizes the sources, isolation and characteristics of adipose derived stem cells and its potential role in periodontal regeneration is discussed. PMID:26634060

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Functionalized Metal-organic Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Karagiaridi, Olga; Bury, Wojciech; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.

    2014-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks have attracted extraordinary amounts of research attention, as they are attractive candidates for numerous industrial and technological applications. Their signature property is their ultrahigh porosity, which however imparts a series of challenges when it comes to both constructing them and working with them. Securing desired MOF chemical and physical functionality by linker/node assembly into a highly porous framework of choice can pose difficulties, as less porous and more thermodynamically stable congeners (e.g., other crystalline polymorphs, catenated analogues) are often preferentially obtained by conventional synthesis methods. Once the desired product is obtained, its characterization often requires specialized techniques that address complications potentially arising from, for example, guest-molecule loss or preferential orientation of microcrystallites. Finally, accessing the large voids inside the MOFs for use in applications that involve gases can be problematic, as frameworks may be subject to collapse during removal of solvent molecules (remnants of solvothermal synthesis). In this paper, we describe synthesis and characterization methods routinely utilized in our lab either to solve or circumvent these issues. The methods include solvent-assisted linker exchange, powder X-ray diffraction in capillaries, and materials activation (cavity evacuation) by supercritical CO2 drying. Finally, we provide a protocol for determining a suitable pressure region for applying the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis to nitrogen isotherms, so as to estimate surface area of MOFs with good accuracy. PMID:25225784

  6. Organized thiol functional groups in mesoporous core shell colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Marchena, Martin H.; Granada, Mara; Bordoni, Andrea V.; Joselevich, Maria; Troiani, Horacio; Williams, Federico J.; Wolosiuk, Alejandro

    2012-03-15

    The co-condensation in situ of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template results in the synthesis of multilayered mesoporous structured SiO{sub 2} colloids with 'onion-like' chemical environments. Thiol groups were anchored to an inner selected SiO{sub 2} porous layer in a bilayered core shell particle producing different chemical regions inside the colloidal layered structure. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) shows a preferential anchoring of the -SH groups in the double layer shell system, while porosimetry and simple chemical modifications confirm that pores are accessible. We can envision the synthesis of interesting colloidal objects with defined chemical environments with highly controlled properties. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous core shell SiO{sub 2} colloids with organized thiol groups. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Double shell mesoporous silica colloids templated with CTAB. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sequential deposition of mesoporous SiO{sub 2} layers with different chemistries. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XPS shows the selective functionalization of mesoporous layers with thiol groups.

  7. Functional organization of excitatory synaptic strength in primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Dylan R.; Houlton, Rachael; Sader, Elie N.; Ko, Ho; Hofer, Sonja B.; Mrsic-Flogel, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    The strength of synaptic connections fundamentally determines how neurons influence each other’s firing. Excitatory connection amplitudes between pairs of cortical neurons vary over two orders of magnitude, comprising only very few strong connections among many weaker ones1–9. Although this highly skewed distribution of connection strengths is observed in diverse cortical areas1–9, its functional significance remains unknown: it is not clear how connection strength relates to neuronal response properties, nor how strong and weak inputs contribute to information processing in local microcircuits. Here we reveal that the strength of connections between layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) obeys a simple rule—the few strong connections occur between neurons with most correlated responses, while only weak connections link neurons with uncorrelated responses. Moreover, we show that strong and reciprocal connections occur between cells with similar spatial receptive field structure. Although weak connections far outnumber strong connections, each neuron receives the majority of its local excitation from a small number of strong inputs provided by the few neurons with similar responses to visual features. By dominating recurrent excitation, these infrequent yet powerful inputs disproportionately contribute to feature preference and selectivity. Therefore, our results show that the apparently complex organization of excitatory connection strength reflects the similarity of neuronal responses, and suggest that rare, strong connections mediate stimulus-specific response amplification in cortical microcircuits. PMID:25652823

  8. Density functional theory study of the organic functionalization of hydrogenated silicene.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Pereda, Pamela; Takeuchi, Noboru

    2013-05-21

    Silicene, the silicon analogous of graphene, is a newly synthesized two-dimensional nanomaterial, with unique features and promising potential applications. In this paper we present density functional theory calculations of the organic functionalization of hydrogenated silicene with acetylene, ethylene, and styrene. The results are compared with previous works of the adsorption on H-Si[111]. For styrene, binding energies for the intermediate and final states as well as the energy barrier for hydrogen abstraction are rather similar for the two systems. On the other hand, results for acetylene and ethylene are surprisingly different in H-silicene: the abstraction barrier is much smaller in H-silicene than in H-Si[111]. These differences can be understood by the different electrostatic potentials due to the presence of the H atoms at the bottom of the silicene bilayer that allows the delocalization of the spin density at the reaction intermediate state.

  9. The placental pursuit for an adequate oxidant balance between the mother and the fetus

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Emilio A.; Krause, Bernardo; Ebensperger, German; Reyes, Roberto V.; Casanello, Paola; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Llanos, Anibal J.

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is the exchange organ that regulates metabolic processes between the mother and her developing fetus. The adequate function of this organ is clearly vital for a physiologic gestational process and a healthy baby as final outcome. The umbilico-placental vasculature has the capacity to respond to variations in the materno-fetal milieu. Depending on the intensity and the extensity of the insult, these responses may be immediate-, mediate-, and long-lasting, deriving in potential morphostructural and functional changes later in life. These adjustments usually compensate the initial insults, but occasionally may switch to long-lasting remodeling and dysfunctional processes, arising maladaptation. One of the most challenging conditions in modern perinatology is hypoxia and oxidative stress during development, both disorders occurring in high-altitude and in low-altitude placental insufficiency. Hypoxia and oxidative stress may induce endothelial dysfunction and thus, reduction in the perfusion of the placenta and restriction in the fetal growth and development. This Review will focus on placental responses to hypoxic conditions, usually related with high-altitude and placental insufficiency, deriving in oxidative stress and vascular disorders, altering fetal and maternal health. Although day-to-day clinical practice, basic and clinical research are clearly providing evidence of the severe impact of oxygen deficiency and oxidative stress establishment during pregnancy, further research on umbilical and placental vascular function under these conditions is badly needed to clarify the myriad of questions still unsettled. PMID:25009498

  10. Global view of the functional molecular organization of the avian cerebrum: mirror images and functional columns.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Erich D; Yu, Jing; Rivas, Miriam V; Horita, Haruhito; Feenders, Gesa; Whitney, Osceola; Jarvis, Syrus C; Jarvis, Electra R; Kubikova, Lubica; Puck, Ana E P; Siang-Bakshi, Connie; Martin, Suzanne; McElroy, Michael; Hara, Erina; Howard, Jason; Pfenning, Andreas; Mouritsen, Henrik; Chen, Chun-Chun; Wada, Kazuhiro

    2013-11-01

    Based on quantitative cluster analyses of 52 constitutively expressed or behaviorally regulated genes in 23 brain regions, we present a global view of telencephalic organization of birds. The patterns of constitutively expressed genes revealed a partial mirror image organization of three major cell populations that wrap above, around, and below the ventricle and adjacent lamina through the mesopallium. The patterns of behaviorally regulated genes revealed functional columns of activation across boundaries of these cell populations, reminiscent of columns through layers of the mammalian cortex. The avian functionally regulated columns were of two types: those above the ventricle and associated mesopallial lamina, formed by our revised dorsal mesopallium, hyperpallium, and intercalated hyperpallium; and those below the ventricle, formed by our revised ventral mesopallium, nidopallium, and intercalated nidopallium. Based on these findings and known connectivity, we propose that the avian pallium has four major cell populations similar to those in mammalian cortex and some parts of the amygdala: 1) a primary sensory input population (intercalated pallium); 2) a secondary intrapallial population (nidopallium/hyperpallium); 3) a tertiary intrapallial population (mesopallium); and 4) a quaternary output population (the arcopallium). Each population contributes portions to columns that control different sensory or motor systems. We suggest that this organization of cell groups forms by expansion of contiguous developmental cell domains that wrap around the lateral ventricle and its extension through the middle of the mesopallium. We believe that the position of the lateral ventricle and its associated mesopallium lamina has resulted in a conceptual barrier to recognizing related cell groups across its border, thereby confounding our understanding of homologies with mammals.

  11. Global View of the Functional Molecular Organization of the Avian Cerebrum: Mirror Images and Functional Columns

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Erich D.; Yu, Jing; Rivas, Miriam V.; Horita, Haruhito; Feenders, Gesa; Whitney, Osceola; Jarvis, Syrus C.; Jarvis, Electra R.; Kubikova, Lubica; Puck, Ana E.P.; Siang-Bakshi, Connie; Martin, Suzanne; McElroy, Michael; Hara, Erina; Howard, Jason; Pfenning, Andreas; Mouritsen, Henrik; Chen, Chun-Chun; Wada, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Based on quantitative cluster analyses of 52 constitutively expressed or behaviorally regulated genes in 23 brain regions, we present a global view of telencephalic organization of birds. The patterns of constitutively expressed genes revealed a partial mirror image organization of three major cell populations that wrap above, around, and below the ventricle and adjacent lamina through the mesopallium. The patterns of behaviorally regulated genes revealed functional columns of activation across boundaries of these cell populations, reminiscent of columns through layers of the mammalian cortex. The avian functionally regulated columns were of two types: those above the ventricle and associated mesopallial lamina, formed by our revised dorsal mesopallium, hyperpallium, and intercalated hyperpallium; and those below the ventricle, formed by our revised ventral mesopallium, nidopallium, and intercalated nidopallium. Based on these findings and known connectivity, we propose that the avian pallium has four major cell populations similar to those in mammalian cortex and some parts of the amygdala: 1) a primary sensory input population (intercalated pallium); 2) a secondary intrapallial population (nidopallium/hyperpallium); 3) a tertiary intrapallial population (mesopallium); and 4) a quaternary output population (the arcopallium). Each population contributes portions to columns that control different sensory or motor systems. We suggest that this organization of cell groups forms by expansion of contiguous developmental cell domains that wrap around the lateral ventricle and its extension through the middle of the mesopallium. We believe that the position of the lateral ventricle and its associated mesopallium lamina has resulted in a conceptual barrier to recognizing related cell groups across its border, thereby confounding our understanding of homologies with mammals. PMID:23818122

  12. 5 CFR 2600.103 - Office of Government Ethics organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of Government Ethics organization and functions. 2600.103 Section 2600.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS OF THE OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS § 2600.103 Office...

  13. 77 FR 42740 - Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority Part F of the Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority for... (Organization) is revised as follows: Office of the Administrator (FC) Office of Equal Opportunity and...

  14. Fish Geometry and Electric Organ Discharge Determine Functional Organization of the Electrosensory Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Sanguinetti-Scheck, Juan Ignacio; Pedraja, Eduardo Federico; Cilleruelo, Esteban; Migliaro, Adriana; Aguilera, Pedro; Caputi, Angel Ariel; Budelli, Ruben

    2011-01-01

    Active electroreception in Gymnotus omarorum is a sensory modality that perceives the changes that nearby objects cause in a self generated electric field. The field is emitted as repetitive stereotyped pulses that stimulate skin electroreceptors. Differently from mormyriformes electric fish, gymnotiformes have an electric organ distributed along a large portion of the body, which fires sequentially. As a consequence shape and amplitude of both, the electric field generated and the image of objects, change during the electric pulse. To study how G. omarorum constructs a perceptual representation, we developed a computational model that allows the determination of the self-generated field and the electric image. We verify and use the model as a tool to explore image formation in diverse experimental circumstances. We show how the electric images of objects change in shape as a function of time and position, relative to the fish's body. We propose a theoretical framework about the organization of the different perceptive tasks made by electroreception: 1) At the head region, where the electrosensory mosaic presents an electric fovea, the field polarizing nearby objects is coherent and collimated. This favors the high resolution sampling of images of small objects and perception of electric color. Besides, the high sensitivity of the fovea allows the detection and tracking of large faraway objects in rostral regions. 2) In the trunk and tail region a multiplicity of sources illuminate different regions of the object, allowing the characterization of the shape and position of a large object. In this region, electroreceptors are of a unique type and capacitive detection should be based in the pattern of the afferents response. 3) Far from the fish, active electroreception is not possible but the collimated field is suitable to be used for electrocommunication and detection of large objects at the sides and caudally. PMID:22096578

  15. Assessing the Functioning of Schools as Learning Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Gary L.; Ware, William B.; Rose, Roderick A.; Powers, Joelle D.

    2007-01-01

    In the context of current efforts to increase student performance and to close the significant gaps in performance among student subgroups, school researchers and practitioners are paying increasing attention to schools as learning organizations. Unfortunately, the concept of the learning organization is generally vague, and school personnel have…

  16. Form and Function: An Organic Chemistry Module. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Bruce; Mazzocchi, Paul; Hearle, Robert

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide science teachers with the necessary guidance and suggestions for teaching organic chemistry. In this book, the diverse field of organic chemistry modules is introduced. The material in this book can be integrated with the other modules in a sequence that helps students to see that chemistry is a unified…

  17. Organic surface-grown nanowires for functional devices.

    PubMed

    Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Simbrunner, Clemens; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2013-12-01

    Discontinuous organic thin film growth on the surface of single crystals results in crystalline nanowires with extraordinary morphological and optoelectronic properties. By way of being generated at the interface of organic and inorganic materials, these nanowires combine the advantages of flexible organic films with the defectless character of inorganic crystalline substrates. The development of destruction-free transfer and direct growth methods allows one to integrate the organic nanowires into semiconductor, metallic electronic or photonic platforms. This article details the mechanisms that lead to the growth of these nanowires and exemplifies some of the linear as well as non-linear photonic properties, such as optical wave guiding, lasing and frequency conversion. The article also highlights future potential by showing that organic nanowires can be integrated into optoelectronic devices or hybrid photonic/plasmonic platforms as passive and active nanoplasmonic elements.

  18. Resolving Anatomical and Functional Structure in Human Brain Organization: Identifying Mesoscale Organization in Weighted Network Representations

    PubMed Central

    Lohse, Christian; Bassett, Danielle S.; Lim, Kelvin O.; Carlson, Jean M.

    2014-01-01

    Human brain anatomy and function display a combination of modular and hierarchical organization, suggesting the importance of both cohesive structures and variable resolutions in the facilitation of healthy cognitive processes. However, tools to simultaneously probe these features of brain architecture require further development. We propose and apply a set of methods to extract cohesive structures in network representations of brain connectivity using multi-resolution techniques. We employ a combination of soft thresholding, windowed thresholding, and resolution in community detection, that enable us to identify and isolate structures associated with different weights. One such mesoscale structure is bipartivity, which quantifies the extent to which the brain is divided into two partitions with high connectivity between partitions and low connectivity within partitions. A second, complementary mesoscale structure is modularity, which quantifies the extent to which the brain is divided into multiple communities with strong connectivity within each community and weak connectivity between communities. Our methods lead to multi-resolution curves of these network diagnostics over a range of spatial, geometric, and structural scales. For statistical comparison, we contrast our results with those obtained for several benchmark null models. Our work demonstrates that multi-resolution diagnostic curves capture complex organizational profiles in weighted graphs. We apply these methods to the identification of resolution-specific characteristics of healthy weighted graph architecture and altered connectivity profiles in psychiatric disease. PMID:25275860

  19. Metal-organic frameworks as functional, porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rood, Jeffrey A.

    networks in which the pore size was dependent on the size of the linker molecule (bipy or apyr). Additonally, the compounds [Zn2(Cam)2(bipy)⊃3DMF] and [Zn2(Cam)2(apyr)⊃2DMF] were found to be capable of guest exchange. Due to their chiral nature, these materials were screened for the enanatioselective separation of racemic alcohols. No selectivity was seen with either MOF, likely owing to factors such as large pore size and disorder in the chiral camphorate ligand. [Zn2(Cam)2(bipy)⊃3DMF] contained large voids and preliminary studies showed that free-radical polymerization of methylmethacrylate could take place within the channels of the material. The amino group of the apyr ligand in [Zn2(Cam)2(apyr)⊃2DMF] was able to be functionaled with acetaldehyde by treatment of the porous MOF with the bulk organic reagent. A further area of study detailed in this work deals with a central question in MOF chemistry, concerning the assembly process of these extended materials from solution. Chapter 3 reveals that the trimeric species Mg2(HCam) 3+, the SBU for the formation of the MOF [Mg2(Hcam) 3˙3H2O]˙NO3˙MeCN, can be identified using ESI-MS on the the reaction solution prior to crystallization. Further studies showed that the addition of chelating additives led to new solid-state structures and new ions in the mass spectrum, indicating that the Mg 2(HCam)3+ ion is likely present in solution prior to MOF formation. Chapter 4 discusses extension of these ESI-MS studies on various other MOF and organometallic systems. Finally, Chapter 7 discusses the synthesis and structures of magnesium imides. These compounds were originally investigated for use as SBUs in network synthesis. This strategy proved to be unsuccessful, as the compounds form molecular clusters in the solid state. The coordination chemistry and computational studies regarding the adopted aggregation state is detailed.

  20. 76 FR 69741 - Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority: Office of the Assistant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... certification. OGAPA fosters collaboration, innovation, and accountability in the administration and management... support staff who assist in the management and administration of the Office's functions, and facilitate... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations...

  1. RNA function and phosphorus use by photosynthetic organisms.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A

    2013-12-26

    Phosphorus (P) in RNA accounts for half or more of the total non-storage P in oxygenic photolithotrophs grown in either P-replete or P-limiting growth conditions. Since many natural environments are P-limited for photosynthetic primary productivity, and peak phosphorus fertilizer production is inevitable, the paper analyses what economies in P allocation to RNA could, in principle, increase P-use efficiency of growth (rate of dry matter production per unit organism P). The possibilities of decreasing P allocation to RNA without decreasing growth rate include (1) more widespread down-regulation of RNA production in P-limited organisms, (2) optimal allocation of P to RNA, both spatially among cell compartments and organs, and temporally depending on the stage of growth, and (3) a constant rate of protein synthesis through the diel cycle. Acting on these suggestions would, however, be technically demanding.

  2. RNA function and phosphorus use by photosynthetic organisms

    PubMed Central

    Raven, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) in RNA accounts for half or more of the total non-storage P in oxygenic photolithotrophs grown in either P-replete or P-limiting growth conditions. Since many natural environments are P-limited for photosynthetic primary productivity, and peak phosphorus fertilizer production is inevitable, the paper analyses what economies in P allocation to RNA could, in principle, increase P-use efficiency of growth (rate of dry matter production per unit organism P). The possibilities of decreasing P allocation to RNA without decreasing growth rate include (1) more widespread down-regulation of RNA production in P-limited organisms, (2) optimal allocation of P to RNA, both spatially among cell compartments and organs, and temporally depending on the stage of growth, and (3) a constant rate of protein synthesis through the diel cycle. Acting on these suggestions would, however, be technically demanding. PMID:24421782

  3. Preservation of organ function in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tschiesner, Uta

    2012-01-01

    Preservation of function is a crucial aspect for the evaluation of therapies applied in the field of head and neck cancer. However, preservation of anatomic structures cannot automatically be equated with preservation of function. Functional outcome becomes increasingly important particularly for the evaluation of alternative treatment options with equivalent oncological outcomes. As a result, present studies take into account three topic areas with varying emphasis: (1) the effects of cancer therapy on essential physiological functions, (2) additional therapy-induced side-effects and complications, and (3) health-related quality of life. The present article summarizes vital aspects of clinical research from recent years. Functional outcomes after surgical and non-surgical treatment approaches are presented according to tumor localization and staging criteria. Additional methodological aspects relating to data gathering and documentation as well as challenges in implementing the results in clinical practice are also discussed. PMID:23320059

  4. Algorithmic chemistry: A model for functional self-organization

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, W.

    1990-01-01

    We conjecture that adaptive systems are characterized by a self- referential loop in which combinatorial objects encode functions that act back on these objects. A model for this loop is presented. It uses a simple and powerful recursive language to map character strings into algorithms that symbolically manipulate strings. The interaction between algorithms, i.e. functions, can be defined in a natural way within the language. The behavior of a fixed size ensemble of functions acting on each other is studied under various conditions. The function gas,'' or Turing gas,'' evolves cooperative interaction patterns of considerable intricacy. Such patterns are observed to adapt under the influence of perturbations consisting in the addition of new random functions to the system. Completely different organizational architectures emerge depending on the availability of self-replicators.

  5. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  6. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  7. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order to... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for...

  8. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  9. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  10. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  11. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  12. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  13. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  14. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  15. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  16. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  17. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  18. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  19. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  20. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  1. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  2. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  3. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  4. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital...

  5. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  6. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  7. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  8. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  9. 5 CFR 1200.10 - Staff organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Business Services for most human resources management services. (9) Office of Information Resources... Employment Opportunity. (8) Office of Financial and Administrative Management. (9) Office of Information Resources Management. (b) The principal functions of the Board's headquarters offices are as follows:...

  10. Time scale hierarchies in the functional organization of complex behaviors.

    PubMed

    Perdikis, Dionysios; Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K

    2011-09-01

    Traditional approaches to cognitive modelling generally portray cognitive events in terms of 'discrete' states (point attractor dynamics) rather than in terms of processes, thereby neglecting the time structure of cognition. In contrast, more recent approaches explicitly address this temporal dimension, but typically provide no entry points into cognitive categorization of events and experiences. With the aim to incorporate both these aspects, we propose a framework for functional architectures. Our approach is grounded in the notion that arbitrary complex (human) behaviour is decomposable into functional modes (elementary units), which we conceptualize as low-dimensional dynamical objects (structured flows on manifolds). The ensemble of modes at an agent's disposal constitutes his/her functional repertoire. The modes may be subjected to additional dynamics (termed operational signals), in particular, instantaneous inputs, and a mechanism that sequentially selects a mode so that it temporarily dominates the functional dynamics. The inputs and selection mechanisms act on faster and slower time scales then that inherent to the modes, respectively. The dynamics across the three time scales are coupled via feedback, rendering the entire architecture autonomous. We illustrate the functional architecture in the context of serial behaviour, namely cursive handwriting. Subsequently, we investigate the possibility of recovering the contributions of functional modes and operational signals from the output, which appears to be possible only when examining the output phase flow (i.e., not from trajectories in phase space or time). PMID:21980278

  11. 78 FR 27392 - Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority Part C (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) of the Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority of the Department of Health and Human Services (45 FR...

  12. 78 FR 7436 - Statement of Organization, Functions and Delegations of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Statement of Organization, Functions and Delegations of Authority This notice amends Part R of the Statement of Organization, Functions and Delegations... Administration (HRSA) (60 FR 56605, as amended November 6, 1995; 67 FR 46519, as last amended...

  13. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  14. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  15. Comparison of the Complex Organic Functionality of the Tagish Lake and Murchison Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cody, G. D.; Alexander, C. M. O'D; Tera, F.

    2002-01-01

    The functional group distribution of the Tagish Lake meteorite organic solid is characterized with solid state 13C NMR. It is observed that the Tagish contains a broad range of other organic functionality. The Tagish Lake data are compared with Murchison data. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. 76 FR 65196 - Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority; Office of the National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... management of ONC. The Principal Deputy will oversee the activities of four offices within ONC: Office of the... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of... Organization, Functions and Delegations of Authority for the Department of Health and Human Services,...

  17. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  18. 75 FR 71714 - Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Service (CMS), 70 FR 42331, dated July 22, 2005, which is rescinded and... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Statement of Organization, Functions,...

  19. 77 FR 7594 - Statement of Organization, Functions and Delegations of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... Administration (HRSA) (60 FR 56605, as amended November 6, 1995; as last amended at 76 FR 77840-778411 dated... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Statement of Organization, Functions and Delegations of Authority This notice amends Part R of the Statement of Organization, Functions and...

  20. 75 FR 57282 - Statement of Organization, Functions and Delegations of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... Administration (HRSA) (60 FR 56605, as amended November 6, 1995; as last amended at 75 FR 51088-51091 dated... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Statement of Organization, Functions and Delegations of Authority This notice amends Part R of the Statement of Organization, Functions and...

  1. Toward engineering functional organ modules by additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Marga, Francoise; Jakab, Karoly; Khatiwala, Chirag; Shepherd, Benjamin; Dorfman, Scott; Hubbard, Bradley; Colbert, Stephen; Gabor, Forgacs

    2012-06-01

    Tissue engineering is emerging as a possible alternative to methods aimed at alleviating the growing demand for replacement tissues and organs. A major pillar of most tissue engineering approaches is the scaffold, a biocompatible network of synthetic or natural polymers, which serves as an extracellular matrix mimic for cells. When the scaffold is seeded with cells it is supposed to provide the appropriate biomechanical and biochemical conditions for cell proliferation and eventual tissue formation. Numerous approaches have been used to fabricate scaffolds with ever-growing complexity. Recently, novel approaches have been pursued that do not rely on artificial scaffolds. The most promising ones utilize matrices of decellularized organs or methods based on multicellular self-assembly, such as sheet-based and bioprinting-based technologies. We briefly overview some of the scaffold-free approaches and detail one that employs biological self-assembly and bioprinting. We describe the technology and its specific applications to engineer vascular and nerve grafts.

  2. An integrated miRNA functional screening and target validation method for organ morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rebustini, Ivan T.; Vlahos, Maryann; Packer, Trevor; Kukuruzinska, Maria A.; Maas, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    The relative ease of identifying microRNAs and their increasing recognition as important regulators of organogenesis motivate the development of methods to efficiently assess microRNA function during organ morphogenesis. In this context, embryonic organ explants provide a reliable and reproducible system that recapitulates some of the important early morphogenetic processes during organ development. Here we present a method to target microRNA function in explanted mouse embryonic organs. Our method combines the use of peptide-based nanoparticles to transfect specific microRNA inhibitors or activators into embryonic organ explants, with a microRNA pulldown assay that allows direct identification of microRNA targets. This method provides effective assessment of microRNA function during organ morphogenesis, allows prioritization of multiple microRNAs in parallel for subsequent genetic approaches, and can be applied to a variety of embryonic organs. PMID:26980315

  3. Functional Organization of Human Sensorimotor Cortex for Speech Articulation

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Kristofer E.; Mesgarani, Nima; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Speaking is one of the most complex actions we perform, yet nearly all of us learn to do it effortlessly. Production of fluent speech requires the precise, coordinated movement of multiple articulators (e.g., lips, jaw, tongue, larynx) over rapid time scales. Here, we used high-resolution, multi-electrode cortical recordings during the production of consonant-vowel syllables to determine the organization of speech sensorimotor cortex in humans. We found speech articulator representations that were somatotopically arranged on ventral pre- and post-central gyri and partially overlapping at individual electrodes. These representations were temporally coordinated as sequences during syllable production. Spatial patterns of cortical activity revealed an emergent, population-level representation, which was organized by phonetic features. Over tens of milliseconds, the spatial patterns transitioned between distinct representations for different consonants and vowels. These results reveal the dynamic organization of speech sensorimotor cortex during the generation of multi-articulator movements underlying our ability to speak. PMID:23426266

  4. HESS Opinions: Functional units: a novel framework to explore the link between spatial organization and hydrological functioning of intermediate scale catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, E.; Ehret, U.; Pfister, L.; Blume, T.; Schröder, B.; Westhoff, M.; Jackisch, C.; Schymanski, S. J.; Weiler, M.; Schulz, K.; Allroggen, N.; Tronicke, J.; Dietrich, P.; Scherer, U.; Eccard, J.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Kleidon, A.

    2014-03-01

    physics, geophysics, ecology and remote sensing which are currently conducted in replicates of candidate functional units in the Attert basin (Luxembourg), to search for typical and similar functional and structural characteristics. A second asset of this framework is that it blueprints a way towards a structurally more adequate model concept for water and energy cycles in intermediate scale catchments, which balances necessary complexity with falsifiability. This is because EFU and lead topologies are deemed to mark a hierarchy of "scale breaks" where simplicity with respect to the energy balance and stream flow generation emerges from spatially organized process-structure interactions. This offers the opportunity for simplified descriptions of these processes that are nevertheless physically and thermodynamically consistent. In this respect we reflect on a candidate model structure that (a) may accommodate distributed observations of states and especially terrestrial controls on driving gradients to constrain the space of feasible model structures and (b) allows testing the possible added value of organizing principles to understand the role of spatial organization from an optimality perspective.

  5. Functions, Organization and Etiology: A Reply to Artiga and Martinez.

    PubMed

    Mossio, Matteo; Saborido, Cristian

    2016-09-01

    We reply to Artiga and Martinez's claim according to which the organizational account of cross-generation functions implies a backward looking interpretation of etiology, just as standard etiological theories of function do. We argue that Artiga and Martinez's claim stems from a fundamental misunderstanding about the notion of "closure", on which the organizational account relies. In particular, they incorrectly assume that the system, which is relevant for ascribing cross-generation organizational function, is the lineage. In contrast, we recall that organizational closure refers to a relational description of a network of mutual dependencies, abstracted from time, in which production relations are irrelevant. From an organizational perspective, ascribing a function to an entity means locating it in the abstract system that realizes closure. In particular, the position of each entity within the relational system conveys an etiological explanation of its existence, because of its dependence on the effects exerted by other entities subject to closure. Because of the abstract relational nature of closure, we maintain that the organizational account of functions does not endorse a backward looking interpretation of etiology. As a consequence, it does not fall prey of epiphenomenalism. PMID:27457070

  6. Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism to study APP function

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, Collin Y.; Li, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The brains of Alzheimer's disease patients show an increased number of senile plaques compared with normal patients. The major component of the plaques is the β-amyloid peptide, a cleavage product of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Although the processing of APP has been well-described, the physiological functions of APP and its cleavage products remain unclear. This article reviews the multifunctional roles of an APP orthologue, the C. elegans APL-1. Understanding the function of APL-1 may provide insights into the functions and signaling pathways of human APP. In addition, the physiological effects of introducing human β-amyloid peptide into C. elegans are also reviewed. The C. elegans system provides a powerful genetic model to identify genes regulating the molecular mechanisms underlying intracellular β-amyloid peptide accumulation. PMID:22038715

  7. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission organization charts and functional statements

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-19

    This document is the organizational chart for the US NRC. It contains organizational structure and functional statements for the following: (1) the Commission, (2) committees and boards, (3) staff offices, (4) office of the Inspector General, (5) executive director for operations, (6) program offices, and (7) regional offices.

  8. Employer Perceptions of Needed Communication Functions in Business Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Bruce A.; Ventura, Paul G.

    To determine existing employer perceptions of communication needs, or functions, and of the role of the speech communication major in fulfilling these needs, a 32-item questionnaire was sent to 85 personnel managers in the Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse, New York, areas. Respondents were instructed to suppose that they were to hire a college…

  9. Functional and Regulatory Biomolecular Networks Organized by DNA Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Minghui

    DNA has recently emerged as an extremely promising material to organize molecules on nanoscale. The reliability of base recognition, self-assembling behavior, and attractive structural properties of DNA are of unparalleled value in systems of this size. DNA scaffolds have already been used to organize a variety of molecules including nanoparticles and proteins. New protein-DNA bio-conjugation chemistries make it possible to precisely position proteins and other biomolecules on underlying DNA scaffolds, generating multi-biomolecule pathways with the ability to modulate intermolecular interactions and the local environment. This dissertation focuses on studying the application of using DNA nanostructure to direct the self-assembly of other biomolecular networks to translate biochemical pathways to non-cellular environments. Presented here are a series of studies toward this application. First, a novel strategy utilized DNA origami as a scaffold to arrange spherical virus capsids into one-dimensional arrays with precise nanoscale positioning. This hierarchical self-assembly allows us to position the virus particles with unprecedented control and allows the future construction of integrated multi-component systems from biological scaffolds using the power of rationally engineered DNA nanostructures. Next, discrete glucose oxidase (GOx)/ horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme pairs were organized on DNA origami tiles with controlled interenzyme spacing and position. This study revealed two different distance-dependent kinetic processes associated with the assembled enzyme pairs. Finally, a tweezer-like DNA nanodevice was designed and constructed to actuate the activity of an enzyme/cofactor pair. Using this approach, several cycles of externally controlled enzyme inhibition and activation were successfully demonstrated. This principle of responsive enzyme nanodevices may be used to regulate other types of enzymes and to introduce feedback or feed-forward control loops.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF A SIMPLE FUNCTION TO EVALUATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MASS FLUX REDUCTION AND MASS REMOVAL FOR ORGANIC-LIQUID CONTAMINANTED SOURCE ZONES

    PubMed Central

    DiFilippo, Erica L.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of a simple mass-removal function for characterizing mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal behavior for organic-liquid contaminated source zones was evaluated using data obtained from a series of flow-cell experiments. The standard function, which employs a constant exponent, could not adequately reproduce the non-singular (multi-step) behavior exhibited by the measured data. Allowing the exponent to change as a function of mass removal (as the organic-liquid distribution and relative permeability change) produced non-singular relationships similar to those exhibited by the measured data. Four methods were developed to characterize the variability of the exponent through correlation to measurable system parameters. Key factors that mediate the magnitude of mass flux (dilution and source accessibility) were accounted for using measures of source zone cross-sectional area, ganglia-to-pool (GTP) ratio, and relative permeability. The two methods that incorporated only the ganglia-to-pool ratio produced adequate simulations of the observed behavior for early stages of mass removal, but not for later stages. The method that incorporated parameters accounting for the source zone cross-sectional area (i.e., measure of system dilution) and source accessibility (GTP ratio and relative permeability) provided the most representative simulations of the observed data. PMID:21262552

  11. Organic solar cells based on acceptor-functionalized diketopyrrolopyrrole derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sanjay S.; Serrano, Luis A.; Ebenhoch, Bernd; Rotello, Vincent M.; Cooke, Graeme; Samuel, Ifor D. W.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of three solution processable diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) derivatives featuring acceptor units attached to the core by alkyne linker units is reported. Cyclic voltammetry and density functional theory calculations indicate that the DPP derivatives possess similar HOMO and LUMO energies. Solar cells were fabricated by blending the synthesized DPP derivatives with [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyrate methyl ester. The influence of donor:acceptor blend ratio, film thickness, annealing temperature, and annealing time on device performance was studied. Differences in device performance were related to atomic force microscopy measurements of the films. The highest power conversion efficiency of 1.76% was achieved for the DPP derivative functionalized with an aldehyde electron-withdrawing group with a 1∶0.7 donor:acceptor ratio when the active layer was annealed for 10 min at 110°C.

  12. The structural, functional, and molecular organization of the brainstem.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuys, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    According to His (1891, 1893) the brainstem consists of two longitudinal zones, the dorsal alar plate (sensory in nature) and the ventral basal plate (motor in nature). Johnston and Herrick indicated that both plates can be subdivided into separate somatic and visceral zones, distinguishing somatosensory and viscerosensory zones within the alar plate, and visceromotor and somatomotor zones within the basal plate. To test the validity of this "four-functional-zones" concept, I developed a topological procedure, surveying the spatial relationships of the various cell masses in the brainstem in a single figure. Brainstems of 16 different anamniote species were analyzed, and revealed that the brainstems are clearly divisible into four morphological zones, which correspond largely with the functional zones of Johnston and Herrick. Exceptions include (1) the magnocellular vestibular nucleus situated in the viscerosensory zone; (2) the basal plate containing a number of evidently non-motor centers (superior and inferior olives). Nevertheless the "functional zonal model" has explanatory value. Thus, it is possible to interpret certain brain specializations related to particular behavioral profiles, as "local hypertrophies" of one or two functional columns. Recent developmental molecular studies on brains of birds and mammals confirmed the presence of longitudinal zones, and also showed molecularly defined transverse bands or neuromeres throughout development. The intersecting boundaries of the longitudinal zones and the transverse bands appeared to delimit radially arranged histogenetic domains. Because neuromeres have been observed in embryonic and larval stages of numerous anamniote species, it may be hypothesized that the brainstems of all vertebrates share a basic organizational plan, in which intersecting longitudinal and transverse zones form fundamental histogenetic and genoarchitectonic units. PMID:21738499

  13. The Structural, Functional, and Molecular Organization of the Brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuys, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    According to His (1891, 1893) the brainstem consists of two longitudinal zones, the dorsal alar plate (sensory in nature) and the ventral basal plate (motor in nature). Johnston and Herrick indicated that both plates can be subdivided into separate somatic and visceral zones, distinguishing somatosensory and viscerosensory zones within the alar plate, and visceromotor and somatomotor zones within the basal plate. To test the validity of this “four-functional-zones” concept, I developed a topological procedure, surveying the spatial relationships of the various cell masses in the brainstem in a single figure. Brainstems of 16 different anamniote species were analyzed, and revealed that the brainstems are clearly divisible into four morphological zones, which correspond largely with the functional zones of Johnston and Herrick. Exceptions include (1) the magnocellular vestibular nucleus situated in the viscerosensory zone; (2) the basal plate containing a number of evidently non-motor centers (superior and inferior olives). Nevertheless the “functional zonal model” has explanatory value. Thus, it is possible to interpret certain brain specializations related to particular behavioral profiles, as “local hypertrophies” of one or two functional columns. Recent developmental molecular studies on brains of birds and mammals confirmed the presence of longitudinal zones, and also showed molecularly defined transverse bands or neuromeres throughout development. The intersecting boundaries of the longitudinal zones and the transverse bands appeared to delimit radially arranged histogenetic domains. Because neuromeres have been observed in embryonic and larval stages of numerous anamniote species, it may be hypothesized that the brainstems of all vertebrates share a basic organizational plan, in which intersecting longitudinal and transverse zones form fundamental histogenetic and genoarchitectonic units. PMID:21738499

  14. Protein functionalized nanomaterials for flow control, biocatalysis and architectural organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nednoor, Pramod

    This dissertation work describes the construction of biomolecule-functionalized nanomaterials for applications in ion channel mimics, biocatalysis and supramolecular architectures. The core entrances of an aligned carbon nanotube membrane were functionalized with a desthiobiotin derivative that binds reversibly to streptavidin, thereby enabling a reversible closing/opening of the core entrance. Ionic flux through the CNT membrane was monitored using optically absorbing charged marker molecules. The flux was reduced by a factor of 24 when the desthiobiotin on the CNT was coordinated with streptavidin; release of streptavidin increased the flux, demonstrating a reversible ion-channel flow. Analysis of solutions of released streptavidin showed approximately 16 bound streptavidin molecules per CNT tip. Following on similar lines, a nine residue synthetic peptide containing a serine residue [G-R-T-G-R-R-N-S-I-NH2], which is a specific substrate of Protein Kinase A was functionalized at the tip of carbon nanotubes to obtain a biomimetic system where phosphorylation regulates ligand-gated ion channels. Phosphorylation of the serine residue with a kinase led to the binding of a monoclonal anti-phosphoserine antibody. This binding event controlled the ionic flow through the pores. Dephosphorylating the serine residue with an alkaline phosphatase prevented the antibody from binding, thereby altering the flow through the channels. The transport of oppositely charged molecules through the CNT membrane was quantified. Nanoscale materials (i.e., nanoparticles and nanorods) are an attractive platform for applications in biotransformations and biosensors. Conjugation of a fullerene derivative to a mutant subtilisin was demonstrated, and the effect of the fullerene on the enzyme activity was determined. The fullerene-conjugated enzyme had improved catalytic properties in comparison to subtilisin immobilized on nonporous silica. Further, the pH profile of free and fullerene

  15. 77 FR 60996 - Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Statement of Organization, Functions, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ..., administration and management functions for the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) Commissioned Corps in the OASH... following functions, beginning with (13) through (22): 3. Assignments and Career Management Branch (ACM23... Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority Part A, Office of the Secretary, Statement...

  16. Use of the Sequence Rule for Indexing Functional Groups in Organic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudrlik, Paul F.

    1973-01-01

    A new method of indexing functional groups in organic compounds is described, utilizing the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog sequence rule. Functional carbon atoms are first classified by functionality, a measure of the oxidation state, then ordered by means of a modified sequence rule. Substructure searching and other applications are discussed. (30…

  17. Is an organic/functional distinction psychologically meaningful in patients with dysphonia?

    PubMed

    Millar, A; Deary, I J; Wilson, J A; MacKenzie, K

    1999-06-01

    Dysphonia (hoarseness) is a common clinical condition and, if persistent, patients are referred to otolaryngology clinics for clinical examination. During the examination, a clinical distinction is often made among three types of patients: (1) those with a clear organic basis for dysphonia (cancer, vocal cord palsy): (2) those with some degree of organic pathology; and (3) those with an apparently functional etiology. Functional patients are often characterized as having a psychogenic disorder. This study assessed the psychological validity of the functional category in 204 out-patients (aged 17 to 87 years) with persistent hoarseness of types (2) and (3). Following clinical examination, a consultant otolaryngologist categorized patients as having functional or organic etiology. Subjects were then compared on measures of personality and psychological distress. Dysphonic subjects showed marked psychological distress compared with norms, and reported significantly more previous psychosomatic symptoms than norms, but there were no differences in personality or psychological distress between organic and functional subgroups of dysphonics.

  18. A Crowdsourced nucleus: Understanding nuclear organization in terms of dynamically networked protein function

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Ashley M.; Garza-Gongora, Arturo G.; Kosak, Steven T.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial organization of the nucleus results in a compartmentalized structure that affects all aspects of nuclear function. This compartmentalization involves genome organization as well as the formation of nuclear bodies and plays a role in many functions, including gene regulation, genome stability, replication, and RNA processing. Here we review the recent findings associated with the spatial organization of the nucleus and reveal that a common theme for nuclear proteins is their ability to participate in a variety of functions and pathways. We consider this multiplicity of function in terms of Crowdsourcing, a recent phenomenon in the world of information technology, and suggest that this model provides a novel way to synthesize the many intersections between nuclear organization and function. PMID:24412853

  19. Electrophysiological Modeling of Cardiac Ventricular Function: From Cell to Organ

    PubMed Central

    Winslow, R. L.; Scollan, D. F.; Holmes, A.; Yung, C. K.; Zhang, J.; Jafri, M. S.

    2005-01-01

    Three topics of importance to modeling the integrative function of the heart are reviewed. The first is modeling of the ventricular myocyte. Emphasis is placed on excitation-contraction coupling and intracellular Ca2+ handling, and the interpretation of experimental data regarding interval-force relationships. Second, data on use of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance (DTMR) imaging for measuring the anatomical structure of the cardiac ventricles are presented. A method for the semi-automated reconstruction of the ventricles using a combination of gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (GRASS) and DTMR images is described. Third, we describe how these anatomically and biophysically based models of the cardiac ventricles can be implemented on parallel computers. PMID:11701509

  20. Bilingual brain organization: a functional magnetic resonance adaptation study.

    PubMed

    Klein, Denise; Zatorre, Robert J; Chen, Jen-Kai; Milner, Brenda; Crane, Joelle; Belin, Pascal; Bouffard, Marc

    2006-05-15

    We used functional magnetic resonance adaptation (fMRA) to examine whether intra-voxel functional specificity may be present for first (L1)- and second (L2)-language processing. We examined within- and across-language adaptation for spoken words in English-French bilinguals who had acquired their L2 after the age of 4 years. Subjects listened to words presented binaurally through earphones. In two control conditions (one for each language), six identical words were presented to obtain maximal adaptation. The remaining six conditions each consisted of five words that were identical followed by a sixth word that differed. There were thus a total of eight experimental conditions: no-change (sixth word identical to first five); a change in meaning (different final word in L1); a change in language (final item translated into L2); a change in meaning and language (different final word in L2). The same four conditions were presented in L2. The study also included a silent baseline. At the neural level, within- and across-language word changes resulted in release from adaptation. This was true for separate analyses of L1 and L2. We saw no evidence for greater recovery from adaptation in across-language relative to within-language conditions. While many brain regions were common to L1 and L2, we did observe differences in adaptation for forward translation (L1 to L2) as compared to backward translation (L2 to L1). The results support the idea that, at the lexical level, the neural substrates for L1 and L2 in bilinguals are shared, but with some populations of neurons within these shared regions showing language-specific responses.

  1. Assessing the functional mechanical properties of bioengineered organs with emphasis on the lung.

    PubMed

    Suki, Béla

    2014-09-01

    Recently, an exciting new approach has emerged in regenerative medicine pushing the forefront of tissue engineering to create bioartificial organs. The basic idea is to create biological scaffolds made of extracellular matrix (ECM) that preserves the three-dimensional architecture of an entire organ. These scaffolds are then used as templates for functional tissue and organ reconstruction after re-seeding the structure with stem cells or appropriately differentiated cells. In order to make sure that these bioartificial organs will be able to function in the mechanical environment of the native tissue, it is imperative to fully characterize their mechanical properties and match them with those of the normal native organs. This mini-review briefly summarizes modern measurement techniques of mechanical function characterized mostly by the material or volumetric stiffness. Micro-scale and macro-scale techniques such as atomic force microscopy and the tissue strip stress-strain approach are discussed with emphasis on those that combine mechanical measurements with structural visualization. Proper micro-scale stiffness helps attachment and differentiation of cells in the bioartificial organ whereas macro-scale functionality is provided by the overall mechanical properties of the construct. Several approaches including failure mechanics are also described, which specifically probe the contributions of the main ECM components including collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans to organ level ECM function. Advantages, drawbacks, and possible pitfalls as well as interpretation of the data are given throughout. Finally, specific techniques to assess the functionality of the ECM of bioartificial lungs are separately discussed.

  2. A structure-function analysis of ion transport in crustacean gills and excretory organs.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carolina A; Onken, Horst; McNamara, John C

    2008-11-01

    Osmotic and ionic regulation in the Crustacea is mostly accomplished by the multifunctional gills, together with the excretory organs. In addition to their role in gas exchange, the gills constitute organs of active, transepithelial, ion transport, an activity of major importance that underlies many essential physiological functions like osmoregulation, calcium homeostasis, ammonium excretion and extracellular pH regulation. This review focuses on structure-function relationships in crustacean gills and excretory effectors, from the organ to molecular levels of organization. We address the diversity of structural architectures encountered in different crustacean gill types, and in constituent cell types, before examining the physiological mechanisms of Na(+), Cl(-), Ca(2+) and NH(4)(+) transport, and of acid-base equivalents, based on findings obtained over the last two decades employing advanced techniques. The antennal and maxillary glands constitute the principal crustacean excretory organs, which have received less attention in functional studies. We examine the diversity present in antennal and maxillary gland architecture, highlighting the structural similarities between both organ types, and we analyze the functions ascribed to each glandular segment. Emphasis is given to volume and osmoregulatory functions, capacity to produce dilute urine in freshwater crustaceans, and the effect of acclimation salinity on urine volume and composition. The microanatomy and diversity of function ascribed to gills and excretory organs are appraised from an evolutionary perspective, and suggestions made as to future avenues of investigation that may elucidate evolutionary and adaptive trends underpinning the invasion and exploitation of novel habitats.

  3. Key soil functional properties affected by soil organic matter - evidence from published literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Brian

    2015-07-01

    The effect of varying the amount of soil organic matter on a range of individual soil properties was investigated using a literature search of published information largely from Australia, but also included relevant information from overseas. Based on published pedotransfer functions, soil organic matter was shown to increase plant available water by 2 to 3 mm per 10 cm for each 1% increase in soil organic carbon, with the largest increases being associated with sandy soils. Aggregate stability increased with increasing soil organic carbon, with aggregate stability decreasing rapidly when soil organic carbon fell below 1.2 to 1.5 5%. Soil compactibility, friability and soil erodibility were favourably improved by increasing the levels of soil organic carbon. Nutrient cycling was a major function of soil organic matter. Substantial amounts of N, P and S become available to plants when the soil organic matter is mineralised. Soil organic matter also provides a food source for the microorganisms involved in the nutrient cycling of N, P, S and K. In soils with lower clay contents, and less active clays such as kaolinites, soil organic matter can supply a significant amount of the cation exchange capacity and buffering capacity against acidification. Soil organic matter can have a cation exchange capacity of 172 to 297 cmol(+)/kg. As the cation exchange capacity of soil organic matter varies with pH, the effectiveness of soil organic matter to contribute to cation exchange capacity below pH 5.5 is often minimal. Overall soil organic matter has the potential to affect a range of functional soil properties.

  4. Photoluminescent Organic Molecules from the Perspective of Density Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, Richard Douglas

    2011-12-01

    I have studied the electronic structure, vibrational modes, and photophysics of methyl salicylate (MS) isomers in detail using density functional theory (DFT) and its time-dependent (TDDFT) companion. I have confirmed that six isomers are stable in their ground states with the ketoB isomer being the global minimum structure. I have performed free energy calculations which show that other isomers may be energetically favorable at higher temperatures. The calculated vibrational modes of ketoB match well with experimental infrared spectra. Using TDDFT, I have confirmed that the ketoB isomer undergoes an energetically favorable excited-state intermolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) to an enol isomer. I found that the ESIPT has a small potential energy barrier when the proton transitions from the ketoB to the enol structure and a ten times larger barrier to accomplish a reverse ESIPT from enol to ketoB. The barrier asymmetry is responsible for the temperature dependent suppression of the far-blue fluorescence. I modeled the emission spectra for gas phase MS using Franck-Condon factors based on the calculated 0-0 transition and vibrational modes for the ground and excited states. The calculated spectra match well to gas phase experimental spectra. Finally, I performed detailed DFT studies on dipicolinic acid (DPA) and determined its stable structures, energetics, and vibrational modes. My calculations predict the existence of six stable isomers of gas phase DPA in the ground state. Three of these isomers are nearly energetically degenerate. I calculated several transition state reaction paths between these isomers. I performed similar calculations on five dimerized formations. By using periodic boundary conditions (PBC) on three dimerized DPA arrays containing hydrogen-bonding DPA monomers, I was able to predict three different crystal structures. I report the band structures of the resulting DPA crystals for the first time. All of them are insulators.

  5. Structural and functional organization of the animal fatty acid synthase.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stuart; Witkowski, Andrzej; Joshi, Anil K

    2003-07-01

    The entire pathway of palmitate synthesis from malonyl-CoA in mammals is catalyzed by a single, homodimeric, multifunctional protein, the fatty acid synthase. Each subunit contains three N-terminal domains, the beta-ketoacyl synthase, malonyl/acetyl transferase and dehydrase separated by a structural core from four C-terminal domains, the enoyl reductase, beta-ketoacyl reductase, acyl carrier protein and thiosterase. The kinetics and specificities of the substrate loading reaction catalyzed by the malonyl/acetyl transferase, the condensation reaction catalyzed by beta-ketoacyl synthase and chain-terminating reaction catalyzed by the thioesterase ensure that intermediates do not leak off the enzyme, saturated chains exclusively are elongated and palmitate is released as the major product. Only in the fatty acid synthase dimer do the subunits adopt conformations that facilitate productive coupling of the individual reactions for fatty acid synthesis at the two acyl carrier protein centers. Introduction of a double tagging and dual affinity chromatographic procedure has permitted the engineering and isolation of heterodimeric fatty acid synthases carrying different mutations on each subunit. Characterization of these heterodimers, by activity assays and chemical cross-linking, has been exploited to map the functional topology of the protein. The results reveal that the two acyl carrier protein domains engage in substrate loading and condensation reactions catalyzed by the malonyl/acetyl transferase and beta-ketoacyl synthase domains of either subunit. In contrast, the reactions involved in processing of the beta-carbon atom, following each chain elongation step, together with the release of palmitate, are catalyzed by the cooperation of the acyl carrier protein with catalytic domains of the same subunit. These findings suggest a revised model for the fatty acid synthase in which the two polypeptides are oriented such that head-to-tail contacts are formed both between

  6. 75 FR 6399 - Statement of Organization, Functions and Delegation of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Statement of Organization, Functions and... Children's Services (DUCS), the DUCS Supervisory Program Specialist, DUCS Federal Field Specialists and DUCS Case Managers, the following authority delegated to the Director, Office of Refugee...

  7. 78 FR 9802 - Payout Requirements for Type III Supporting Organizations That Are Not Functionally Integrated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ..., December 28, 2012 (77 FR 76382). The final and temporary regulations provide guidance regarding the... Organizations That Are Not Functionally Integrated; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correction to final and temporary regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains corrections...

  8. PERTURBATION OF VOLTAGE-SENSITIVE CALCIUM FUNCTION IN PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELLS BY VOLATILE ORGANIC SOLVENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volatile organic solvents such as toluene (TOL) and trichloroethylene perturb nervous system function and share characteristic effects with other central nervous system depressants such as anesthetic gasses, ethanol, benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Recently, mechanistic studies...

  9. PERTURBATION OF VOLTAGE-SENSITIVE Ca2+ CHANNEL FUNCTION BY VOLATILE ORGANIC SOLVENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanisms underlying the acute neurophysiological and behavioral effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) remain to be elucidated. However, the function of neuronal ion channels is perturbed by VOCs. The present study examined effects of toluene (TOL), trichloroethylene ...

  10. 75 FR 63186 - Administration on Developmental Disabilities; Statement of Organization, Functions, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Administration on Developmental Disabilities; Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority AGENCY: Administration for Children and... The Administration for Children and Families has reorganized the Administration on...

  11. Digestive Organ in the Female Reproductive Tract Borrows Genes from Multiple Organ Systems to Adopt Critical Functions

    PubMed Central

    Meslin, Camille; Plakke, Melissa S.; Deutsch, Aaron B.; Small, Brandon S.; Morehouse, Nathan I.; Clark, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Persistent adaptive challenges are often met with the evolution of novel physiological traits. Although there are specific examples of single genes providing new physiological functions, studies on the origin of complex organ functions are lacking. One such derived set of complex functions is found in the Lepidopteran bursa copulatrix, an organ within the female reproductive tract that digests nutrients from the male ejaculate or spermatophore. Here, we characterized bursa physiology and the evolutionary mechanisms by which it was equipped with digestive and absorptive functionality. By studying the transcriptome of the bursa and eight other tissues, we revealed a suite of highly expressed and secreted gene products providing the bursa with a combination of stomach-like traits for mechanical and enzymatic digestion of the male spermatophore. By subsequently placing these bursa genes in an evolutionary framework, we found that the vast majority of their novel digestive functions were co-opted by borrowing genes that continue to be expressed in nonreproductive tissues. However, a number of bursa-specific genes have also arisen, some of which represent unique gene families restricted to Lepidoptera and may provide novel bursa-specific functions. This pattern of promiscuous gene borrowing and relatively infrequent evolution of tissue-specific duplicates stands in contrast to studies of the evolution of novelty via single gene co-option. Our results suggest that the evolution of complex organ-level phenotypes may often be enabled (and subsequently constrained) by changes in tissue specificity that allow expression of existing genes in novel contexts, such as reproduction. The extent to which the selective pressures encountered in these novel roles require resolution via duplication and sub/neofunctionalization is likely to be determined by the need for specialized reproductive functionality. Thus, complex physiological phenotypes such as that found in the bursa offer

  12. Organization Symbols: An Analysis of Their Types and Functions in a Reborn Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Mina A.

    1995-01-01

    Examines organizational symbolism that is reflected in corporate discourse. Describes types of symbols and the functions symbols serve over time. Demonstrates how symbolic analysis can provide a better understanding of, and make contributions to, existing research on organizational concepts such as organizational change, leadership, and…

  13. Applications of the Conceptual Density Functional Theory Indices to Organic Chemistry Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Luis R; Ríos-Gutiérrez, Mar; Pérez, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical reactivity indices based on the conceptual Density Functional Theory (DFT) have become a powerful tool for the semiquantitative study of organic reactivity. A large number of reactivity indices have been proposed in the literature. Herein, global quantities like the electronic chemical potential μ, the electrophilicity ω and the nucleophilicity N indices, and local condensed indices like the electrophilic P k + and nucleophilic P k - Parr functions, as the most relevant indices for the study of organic reactivity, are discussed. PMID:27294896

  14. Organized living: formation mechanisms and functions of plasma membrane domains in yeast.

    PubMed

    Ziółkowska, Natasza E; Christiano, Romain; Walther, Tobias C

    2012-03-01

    Plasma membrane proteins and lipids organize into lateral domains of specific composition. Domain formation is achieved by a combination of lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions, membrane-binding protein scaffolds and protein fences. The resulting domains function in membrane protein turnover and homeostasis, as well as in cell signaling. We review the mechanisms generating plasma membrane domains and the functional consequences of this organization, focusing on recent findings from research on the yeast model system.

  15. Applications of the Conceptual Density Functional Theory Indices to Organic Chemistry Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Luis R; Ríos-Gutiérrez, Mar; Pérez, Patricia

    2016-06-09

    Theoretical reactivity indices based on the conceptual Density Functional Theory (DFT) have become a powerful tool for the semiquantitative study of organic reactivity. A large number of reactivity indices have been proposed in the literature. Herein, global quantities like the electronic chemical potential μ, the electrophilicity ω and the nucleophilicity N indices, and local condensed indices like the electrophilic P k + and nucleophilic P k - Parr functions, as the most relevant indices for the study of organic reactivity, are discussed.

  16. Chemkarta: A Card Game for Teaching Functional Groups in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudtson, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Students in undergraduate organic chemistry courses are frequently overwhelmed by the volume and complexity of information they are expected to learn. To aid in students' learning of organic functional groups, a novel card game "ChemKarta" is reported that can serve as a useful alternative to flashcards. This pedagogy is a simple…

  17. Value of Consensual Ratings in Differentiating Organic and Functional Low Back Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donham, Greg W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated 40 low back pain patients by a multidisciplinary team to identify the behavioral characteristics associated with functional and organic determinants of pain. Results indicated that behavioral observations of the orthopedists and the nursing staff revealed contrasting patterns of behavior for those patients classified as organic or…

  18. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development: Functional Literacy and Corporate Agendas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Margison, Judith Ann

    This paper examines the conception of functional literacy advanced by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), a 29-member organization of leading industrialized countries, as part of its 1994 International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS). The paper suggests that embedded within this conception of literacy and the discourse…

  19. Consumption of organic and functional food. A matter of well-being and health?

    PubMed

    Goetzke, Beate; Nitzko, Sina; Spiller, Achim

    2014-06-01

    Health is an important motivation for the consumption of both organic and functional foods. The aim of this study was to clarify to what extent the consumption of organic and functional foods are characterized by a healthier lifestyle and a higher level of well-being. Moreover, the influence of social desirability on the respondents' response behavior was of interest and was also analyzed. Well-being and health was measured in a sample of 555 German consumers at two levels: the cognitive-emotional and the behavioral level. The results show that although health is an important aspect for both functional food and organic food consumption, these two forms of consumption were influenced by different understandings of health: organic food consumption is influenced by an overall holistic healthy lifestyle including a healthy diet and sport, while functional food consumption is characterized by small "adjustments" to lifestyle to enhance health and to increase psychological well-being. An overlap between the consumption of organic and functional food was also observed. This study provides information which enables a better characterization of the consumption of functional food and organic food in terms of well-being and health.

  20. Branching between fragmentation and functionalization pathways in the oxidation of atmospheric organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroll, J. H.; Smith, J. D.; Wilson, K. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Ahmed, M.; Leone, S. R.

    2008-12-01

    Oxidation reactions that affect the volatility of organics are of central importance to the chemistry of the troposphere, as they lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosol, and can change the properties or loadings of existing particulate matter via oxidative processing ("aging"). Atmospheric oxidation can decrease the vapor pressure of an organic compound by adding oxygen-containing functional groups (increasing its polarity), or increase vapor pressure by breaking carbon-carbon bonds (decreasing its molecular weight). Despite being a fundamental determinant of the changes to volatilities of atmospheric organics, the functionalization/fragmentation branching ratio is not well-constrained for large atmospheric organics, especially for highly oxidized ones. Here we present laboratory measurements of this branching ratio for the heterogeneous oxidation of particulate organics. Particles of pure squalane (a branched C30 alkane) are sent into a flow reactor and are rapidly oxidized by exposure to high levels of OH; particle size and composition are measured as a function of OH exposure using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Oxidation reactions are found to decrease particle mass, indicating volatilization (from carbon-carbon bond breaking) and also to increase the oxygen/carbon (O/C) ratio of the particulate organics, indicating the addition of functional groups. The relative rates of these two processes allows for the determination of the branching ratio between fragmentation and functionalization. Functionalization is found to dominate the oxidation of the pure hydrocarbon, but the importance of fragmentation increases as the organics become increasingly oxidized. Fragmentation pathways appear to dominate for organics with O/C ratios above ~30%.

  1. What Is the Cost of an Adequate Vermont High School Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, Frank D.

    2010-01-01

    Access to an adequate education has been widely considered an undeniable right since Chief Justice Warren stated in his landmark decision that "Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments...it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an…

  2. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for Identification and Quantification of Organic Functional Groups in Aqueous Phase Secondary Organic Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, K.; Ruthenburg, T. C.; Smith, J.; Anastasio, C.; Dillner, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Particles in the atmosphere influence visibility, climate, and human health. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formed from chemical reactions in the atmosphere constitute a portion of total organic particle mass. Most research on SOA has focused on gas phase reactions; however, reactions taking place in cloud and fog drops may be significant. One group of water-soluble compounds that participate in these reactions is phenols. Phenols, emitted from biomass burning, react in the aqueous phase to form low-volatility SOA products. The products formed from these reactions are currently poorly characterized. In order to characterize laboratory-generated samples, we are developing an attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (ATR-FTIR) technique to identify and quantify organic functional groups in SOA. Aqueous SOA is made in the laboratory by illuminating solutions of phenolic compounds with an oxidant. The illuminated solution is then blown to dryness in order to determine the mass of SOA produced. The dry SOA is reconstituted in water and drops of this solution are placed onto a single-reflection ATR accessory. In order to identify and quantify functional groups in the complex SOA samples, it is necessary to calibrate with compounds and mixtures of compounds containing bond types similar to those found in the laboratory-generated SOA. Initially, focus has been placed on multiple peaks located in the region between 1800 cm-1 and 800 cm-1, including peaks for C=O and C-O. We distinguish between characteristic absorbances to begin determining the organic functional group composition of the SOA samples. This ATR-FTIR technique complements information from mass spectrometry measurements and allows us to quantify organic mass for non-volatile SOA products.

  3. Measurement of fragmentation and functionalization pathways in the multistep heterogeneous oxidation of organic aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, Jesse H.; Smith, Jared D.; Che, Dung L.; Kessler, Sean H.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2009-03-10

    The competition between the addition of polar, oxygen-containing functional groups (functionalization) and the cleavage of C-C bonds (fragmentation) has a governing influence on the change in volatility of organic species upon atmospheric oxidation, and hence on the loading of tropospheric organic aerosol. However the branching between these two channels is generally poorly constrained for oxidized organics. Here we determine functionalization/fragmentation branching ratios for organics spanning a range of oxidation levels, using the heterogeneous oxidation of squalane (C30H62) as a model system. Squalane particles are exposed to high concentrations of OH in a flow reactor, and measurements of particle mass and elemental ratios enable the determination of absolute elemental composition (number of oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen atoms) of the oxidized particles. At low OH exposures, the oxygen content of the organics increases, indicating that functionalization dominates, whereas at higher exposures the amount of carbon in the particles decreases, indicating the increasing importance of fragmentation processes. Once the organics are moderately oxidized (O/C~;;0.4), fragmentation completely dominates, and the increase in O/C ratio upon further oxidation is due to the loss of carbon rather than the addition of oxygen. These results suggest that fragmentation reactions may be key steps in the atmospheric formation and evolution of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA).

  4. 75 FR 45134 - Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... research achievements of the Human Genome Project; (10) stimulates the integration of genomic advances into..., Functions, and Delegations of Authority of the Department of Health and Human Services (45 FR 67772-76... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Statement of Organization, Functions,...

  5. 75 FR 22416 - Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ..., Functions, and Delegations of Authority of the Department of Health and Human Services (45 FR 67772-76... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Statement of Organization, Functions,...

  6. Co-functionalized organic/inorganic hybrid ZnO nanorods as electron transporting layers for inverted organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ambade, Swapnil B; Ambade, Rohan B; Eom, Seung Hun; Baek, Myung-Jin; Bagde, Sushil S; Mane, Rajaram S; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2016-03-01

    In an unprecedented attempt, we present an interesting approach of coupling solution processed ZnO planar nanorods (NRs) by an organic small molecule (SM) with a strong electron withdrawing cyano moiety and the carboxylic group as binding sites by a facile co-functionalization approach. Direct functionalization by SMs (SM-ZnO NRs) leads to higher aggregation owing to the weaker solubility of SMs in solutions of ZnO NRs dispersed in chlorobenzene (CB). A prior addition of organic 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEA) over ZnO NRs not only inhibits aggregation of SMs over ZnO NRs, but also provides enough sites for the SM to strongly couple with the ZnO NRs to yield transparent SM-MEA-ZnO NRs hybrids that exhibited excellent capability as electron transporting layers (ETLs) in inverted organic solar cells (iOSCs) of P3HT:PC60BM bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) photoactive layers. A strongly coupled SM-MEA-ZnO NR hybrid reduces the series resistance by enhancing the interfacial area and tunes the energy level alignment at the interface between the (indium-doped tin oxide, ITO) cathode and BHJ photoactive layers. A significant enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) was achieved for iOSCs comprising ETLs of SM-MEA-ZnO NRs (3.64%) advancing from 0.9% for pristine ZnO NRs, while the iOSCs of aggregated SM-ZnO NRs ETL exhibited a much lower PCE of 2.6%, thus demonstrating the potential of the co-functionalization approach. The superiority of the co-functionalized SM-MEA-ZnO NRs ETL is also evident from the highest PCE of 7.38% obtained for the iOSCs comprising BHJ of PTB7-Th:PC60BM compared with extremely poor 0.05% for non-functionalized ZnO NRs. PMID:26864170

  7. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation Rates.…

  8. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  9. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  10. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  11. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  12. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  13. Adequate Schools and Inadequate Education: An Anthropological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolcott, Harry F.

    To illustrate his claim that schools generally do a remarkably good job of schooling while the society makes inadequate use of other means to educate young people, the author presents a case history of a young American (identified pseudonymously as "Brad") whose schooling was adequate but whose education was not. Brad, jobless and homeless,…

  14. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  15. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan,...

  16. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  17. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... identifiable personal data and automated systems shall be adequately trained in the security and privacy of... records in which identifiable personal data are processed or maintained, including all reports and output... personal records or data; must minimize, to the extent practicable, the risk that skilled technicians...

  18. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  19. Expression and function of renal and hepatic organic anion transporters in extrahepatic cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Brandoni, Anabel; Hazelhoff, María Herminia; Bulacio, Romina Paula; Torres, Adriana Mónica

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive jaundice occurs in patients suffering from cholelithiasis and from neoplasms affecting the pancreas and the common bile duct. The absorption, distribution and elimination of drugs are impaired during this pathology. Prolonged cholestasis may alter both liver and kidney function. Lactam antibiotics, diuretics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, several antiviral drugs as well as endogenous compounds are classified as organic anions. The hepatic and renal organic anion transport pathways play a key role in the pharmacokinetics of these compounds. It has been demonstrated that acute extrahepatic cholestasis is associated with increased renal elimination of organic anions. The present work describes the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of the expression and function of the renal and hepatic organic anion transporters in extrahepatic cholestasis, such as multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1, organic anion transporter 3, bilitranslocase, bromosulfophthalein/bilirubin binding protein, organic anion transporter 1 and sodium dependent bile salt transporter. The modulation in the expression of renal organic anion transporters constitutes a compensatory mechanism to overcome the hepatic dysfunction in the elimination of organic anions. PMID:23197884

  20. A conceptual basis to encode and detect organic functional groups in XML.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Punnaivanam; Krief, Alain; Vijayasarathi, Durairaj

    2013-06-01

    A conceptual basis to define and detect organic functional groups is developed. The basic model of a functional group is termed as a primary functional group and is characterized by a group center composed of one or more group center atoms bonded to terminal atoms and skeletal carbon atoms. The generic group center patterns are identified from the structures of known functional groups. Accordingly, a chemical ontology 'Font' is developed to organize the existing functional groups as well as the new ones to be defined by the chemists. The basic model is extended to accommodate various combinations of primary functional groups as functional group assemblies. A concept of skeletal group is proposed to define the characteristic groups composed of only carbon atoms to be regarded as equivalent to functional groups. The combination of primary functional groups with skeletal groups is categorized as skeletal group assembly. In order to make the model suitable for reaction modeling purpose, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) is developed to define the functional groups and to encode in XML format appropriate to detect them in chemical structures. The system is capable of detecting multiple instances of primary functional groups as well as the overlapping poly-functional groups as the respective assemblies. PMID:23666030

  1. Broadband inversion of 1J(CC) responses in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra.

    PubMed

    Reibarkh, Mikhail; Williamson, R Thomas; Martin, Gary E; Bermel, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Establishing the carbon skeleton of a molecule greatly facilitates the process of structure elucidation, both manual and computer-assisted. Recent advances in the family of ADEQUATE experiments demonstrated their potential in this regard. 1,1-ADEQUATE, which provides direct (13)C-(13)C correlation via (1)J(CC), and 1,n-ADEQUATE, which typically yields (3)J(CC) and (1)J(CC) correlations, are more sensitive and more widely applicable experiments than INADEQUATE and PANACEA. A recently reported modified pulse sequence that semi-selectively inverts (1)J(CC) correlations in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra provided a significant improvement, allowing (1)J(CC) and (n)J(CC) correlations to be discerned in the same spectrum. However, the reported experiment requires a careful matching of the amplitude transfer function with (1)J(CC) coupling constants in order to achieve the inversion, and even then some (1)J(CC) correlations could still have positive intensity due to the oscillatory nature of the transfer function. Both shortcomings limit the practicality of the method. We now report a new, dual-optimized inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment, which provides more uniform inversion of (1)J(CC) correlations across the range of 29-82 Hz. Unlike the original method, the dual optimization experiment does not require fine-tuning for the molecule's (1)J(CC) coupling constant values. Even more usefully, the dual-optimized version provides up to two-fold improvement in signal-to-noise for some long-range correlations. Using modern, cryogenically-cooled probes, the experiment can be successfully applied to samples of ~1 mg under favorable circumstances. The improvements afforded by dual optimization inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment make it a useful and practical tool for NMR structure elucidation and should facilitate the implementation and utilization of the experiment.

  2. Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods

    DOE PAGES

    Petters, M. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2016-01-19

    A wealth of recent laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that organic aerosol composition evolves with time in the atmosphere, leading to changes in the influence of the organic fraction to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra. There is a need for tools that can realistically represent the evolution of CCN activity to better predict indirect effects of organic aerosol on clouds and climate. This work describes a model to predict the CCN activity of organic compounds from functional group composition. Following previous methods in the literature, we test the ability of semi-empirical group contribution methods in Köhler theory to predict themore » effective hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. However, in our approach we also account for liquid–liquid phase boundaries to simulate phase-limited activation behavior. Model evaluation against a selected database of published laboratory measurements demonstrates that kappa can be predicted within a factor of 2. Simulation of homologous series is used to identify the relative effectiveness of different functional groups in increasing the CCN activity of weakly functionalized organic compounds. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and ether moieties promote CCN activity while methylene and nitrate moieties inhibit CCN activity. The model can be incorporated into scale-bridging test beds such as the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) to evaluate the evolution of kappa for a complex mix of organic compounds and to develop suitable parameterizations of CCN evolution for larger-scale models.« less

  3. Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petters, M. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of recent laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that organic aerosol composition evolves with time in the atmosphere, leading to changes in the influence of the organic fraction to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra. There is a need for tools that can realistically represent the evolution of CCN activity to better predict indirect effects of organic aerosol on clouds and climate. This work describes a model to predict the CCN activity of organic compounds from functional group composition. Following previous methods in the literature, we test the ability of semi-empirical group contribution methods in Köhler theory to predict the effective hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. However, in our approach we also account for liquid-liquid phase boundaries to simulate phase-limited activation behavior. Model evaluation against a selected database of published laboratory measurements demonstrates that kappa can be predicted within a factor of 2. Simulation of homologous series is used to identify the relative effectiveness of different functional groups in increasing the CCN activity of weakly functionalized organic compounds. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and ether moieties promote CCN activity while methylene and nitrate moieties inhibit CCN activity. The model can be incorporated into scale-bridging test beds such as the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) to evaluate the evolution of kappa for a complex mix of organic compounds and to develop suitable parameterizations of CCN evolution for larger-scale models.

  4. Functional Connectivity-Based Parcellation of Amygdala Using Self-Organized Mapping: A Data Driven Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Arabinda; Rogers, Baxter P.; Chen, Li Min; Gore, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of this work is to demonstrate how resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals may be used to objectively parcellate functionally heterogeneous subregions of the human amygdala into structures characterized by similar patterns of functional connectivity. We hypothesize that similarity of functional connectivity of subregions with other parts of the brain can be a potential basis to segment and cluster voxels using data driven approaches. In this work, self-organizing map (SOM) was implemented to cluster the connectivity maps associated with each voxel of the human amygdala, thereby defining distinct subregions. The functional separation was optimized by evaluating the overall differences in functional connectivity between the subregions at group level. Analysis of 25 resting state fMRI data sets suggests that SOM can successfully identify functionally independent nuclei based on differences in their inter subregional functional connectivity, evaluated statistically at various confidence levels. Although amygdala contains several nuclei whose distinct roles are implicated in various functions, our objective approach discerns at least two functionally distinct volumes comparable to previous parcellation results obtained using probabilistic tractography and cytoarchitectonic analysis. Association of these nuclei with various known functions and a quantitative evaluation of their differences in overall functional connectivity with lateral orbital frontal cortex and temporal pole confirms the functional diversity of amygdala. The data driven approach adopted here may be used as a powerful indicator of structure–function relationships in the amygdala and other functionally heterogeneous structures as well. PMID:23418140

  5. Adequate iron stores and the 'Nil nocere' principle.

    PubMed

    Hollán, S; Johansen, K S

    1993-01-01

    There is a need to change the policy of unselective iron supplementation during periods of life with physiologically increased cell proliferation. Levels of iron stores to be regarded as adequate during infancy and pregnancy are still not well established. Recent data support the view that it is not justified to interfere with physiological adaptations developed through millions of years by sophisticated and precisely coordinated regulation of iron absorption, utilization and storage. Recent data suggest that the chelatable intracellular iron pool regulates the expression of proteins with central importance in cellular iron metabolism (TfR, ferritin, and erythroid 5-aminolevulinic synthetase) in a coordinately controlled way through an iron dependent cytosolic mRNA binding protein, the iron regulating factor (IRF). This factor is simultaneously a sensor and a regulator of iron levels. The reduction of ferritin levels during highly increased cell proliferation is a mirror of the increased density of TfRs. An abundance of data support the vigorous competition for growth-essential iron between microbial pathogens and their vertebrate hosts. The highly coordinated regulation of iron metabolism is probably crucial in achieving a balance between the blockade of readily accessible iron to invading organisms and yet providing sufficient iron for the immune system of the host. The most evident adverse clinical effects of excess iron have been observed in immunodeficient patients in tropical countries and in AIDS patients. Excess iron also increases the risk of initiation and promotion of malignant processes by iron binding to DNA and by the iron-catalysed release of free radicals. Oxygen radicals were shown to damage critical biomolecules leading, apart from cancer, to a variety of human disease states, including inflammation and atherosclerosis. They are also involved in processes of aging and thrombosis. Recent clinical trials have suggested that the use of iron

  6. Ultrastructure and functional morphology of the female reproductive organs in Protodrilus (Polychaeta, Annelida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Nordheim, Henning

    1991-12-01

    The morphology and function of the female reproductive organs in 6 Protodrilus species are investigated by light- and transmission electron microscopy. Possible ways in which spermatozoa may enter the female coelom after leaving the spermatophore are discussed for species with and without special female reception organs. Only female P. rubropharyngeus and P. flavocapitatus have “dorsal organs” for spermatophore reception. The structure and function of these organs are described, as well as those of the oviduct found in 3 of the species investigated. The possible phylogenetic origin of gonoducts and different modes of oviposition within the genus are discussed. Finally, the high taxonomic significance of female traits such as dorsal organs, oviducts, cocoon glands and lateral ciliary rows in this genus is stressed.

  7. Photosensitized production of functionalized and unsaturated organic compounds at the air-sea interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuraru, Raluca; Fine, Ludovic; van Pinxteren, Manuela; D'Anna, Barbara; Herrmann, Hartmut; George, Christian

    2015-08-01

    The sea-surface microlayer (SML) has different physical, chemical and biological properties compared to the subsurface water, with an enrichment of organic matter i.e., dissolved organic matter including UV absorbing humic substances, fatty acids and many others. Here we present experimental evidence that dissolved organic matter, such as humic acids, when exposed to sunlight, can photosensitize the chemical conversion of linear saturated fatty acids at the air-water interface into unsaturated functionalized gas phase products (i.e. saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and acids, alkenes and dienes,…) which are known precursors of secondary organic aerosols. These functionalized molecules have previously been thought to be of biological origin, but here we demonstrate that abiotic interfacial photochemistry has the potential to produce such molecules. As the ocean is widely covered by the SML, this new understanding will impact on our ability to describe atmospheric chemistry in the marine environment.

  8. Photosensitized production of functionalized and unsaturated organic compounds at the air-sea interface.

    PubMed

    Ciuraru, Raluca; Fine, Ludovic; van Pinxteren, Manuela; D'Anna, Barbara; Herrmann, Hartmut; George, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The sea-surface microlayer (SML) has different physical, chemical and biological properties compared to the subsurface water, with an enrichment of organic matter i.e., dissolved organic matter including UV absorbing humic substances, fatty acids and many others. Here we present experimental evidence that dissolved organic matter, such as humic acids, when exposed to sunlight, can photosensitize the chemical conversion of linear saturated fatty acids at the air-water interface into unsaturated functionalized gas phase products (i.e. saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and acids, alkenes and dienes,...) which are known precursors of secondary organic aerosols. These functionalized molecules have previously been thought to be of biological origin, but here we demonstrate that abiotic interfacial photochemistry has the potential to produce such molecules. As the ocean is widely covered by the SML, this new understanding will impact on our ability to describe atmospheric chemistry in the marine environment. PMID:26244712

  9. Photosensitized production of functionalized and unsaturated organic compounds at the air-sea interface

    PubMed Central

    Ciuraru, Raluca; Fine, Ludovic; van Pinxteren, Manuela; D’Anna, Barbara; Herrmann, Hartmut; George, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The sea-surface microlayer (SML) has different physical, chemical and biological properties compared to the subsurface water, with an enrichment of organic matter i.e., dissolved organic matter including UV absorbing humic substances, fatty acids and many others. Here we present experimental evidence that dissolved organic matter, such as humic acids, when exposed to sunlight, can photosensitize the chemical conversion of linear saturated fatty acids at the air-water interface into unsaturated functionalized gas phase products (i.e. saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and acids, alkenes and dienes,…) which are known precursors of secondary organic aerosols. These functionalized molecules have previously been thought to be of biological origin, but here we demonstrate that abiotic interfacial photochemistry has the potential to produce such molecules. As the ocean is widely covered by the SML, this new understanding will impact on our ability to describe atmospheric chemistry in the marine environment. PMID:26244712

  10. A universal method to produce low-work function electrodes for organic electronics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yinhua; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Shim, Jaewon; Meyer, Jens; Giordano, Anthony J; Li, Hong; Winget, Paul; Papadopoulos, Theodoros; Cheun, Hyeunseok; Kim, Jungbae; Fenoll, Mathieu; Dindar, Amir; Haske, Wojciech; Najafabadi, Ehsan; Khan, Talha M; Sojoudi, Hossein; Barlow, Stephen; Graham, Samuel; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Marder, Seth R; Kahn, Antoine; Kippelen, Bernard

    2012-04-20

    Organic and printed electronics technologies require conductors with a work function that is sufficiently low to facilitate the transport of electrons in and out of various optoelectronic devices. We show that surface modifiers based on polymers containing simple aliphatic amine groups substantially reduce the work function of conductors including metals, transparent conductive metal oxides, conducting polymers, and graphene. The reduction arises from physisorption of the neutral polymer, which turns the modified conductors into efficient electron-selective electrodes in organic optoelectronic devices. These polymer surface modifiers are processed in air from solution, providing an appealing alternative to chemically reactive low-work function metals. Their use can pave the way to simplified manufacturing of low-cost and large-area organic electronic technologies.

  11. Fluctuation-enhanced sensing with organically functionalized gold nanoparticle gas sensors targeting biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Lentka, Łukasz; Kotarski, Mateusz; Smulko, Janusz; Cindemir, Umut; Topalian, Zareh; Granqvist, Claes G; Calavia, Raul; Ionescu, Radu

    2016-11-01

    Detection of volatile organic compounds is a useful approach to non-invasive diagnosis of diseases through breath analysis. Our experimental study presents a newly developed prototype gas sensor, based on organically-functionalized gold nanoparticles, and results on formaldehyde detection using fluctuation-enhanced gas sensing. Formaldehyde was easily detected via intense fluctuations of the gas sensor's resistance, while the cross-influence of ethanol vapor (a confounding factor in exhaled breath, related to alcohol consumption) was negligible. PMID:27591581

  12. Anatomical and physiological studies of bigheaded carps demonstrate that the epibranchial organ functions as a pharyngeal taste organ

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Anne; Ghosal, Ratna; Caprio, John; Claus, Aaron W.; Sorensen, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    The epibranchial organ (EO) is an enigmatic tubular organ found in the pharyngeal cavity of many filter-feeding fishes. We investigated whether it might function as a taste organ that mediates aggregation and ingestion of planktonic food within the buccal cavity. The EO and associated structures of bighead and silver carps, two successful and invasive planktivorous fishes, were examined using histological and electrophysiological techniques. Both species possess finely structured gill rakers that extend directly via a series of protrusions into each of the four blind canals which are organized as the muscular EO, suggesting that the gill rakers and EO probably function in an integrated manner. Both the interior and exterior surfaces of the EOs of both species are covered with high densities of taste buds and solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) as well as mucous cells. Conversely, taste buds are scarce in both the buccal cavities and external portions of the head and mouth of both species. Electrophysiological recordings from a caudal branch of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) found to innervate the EO showed it to be sensitive to chemicals found in a planktonic diet. l-Amino acids accounted for some, but not all of the neural activity. We conclude that taste buds and SCCs located on the EO and gill rakers probably serve to chemically detect food particles, which the EO then aggregates by mucus secretion before eventually expelling them onto the floor of the pharynx for ingestion. This specialized, pharyngeal chemosensory structure may explain the feeding success of these, and perhaps other planktivorous, filter-feeding fishes. PMID:25214490

  13. Anatomical and physiological studies of bigheaded carps demonstrate that the epibranchial organ functions as a pharyngeal taste organ.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anne; Ghosal, Ratna; Caprio, John; Claus, Aaron W; Sorensen, Peter W

    2014-11-01

    The epibranchial organ (EO) is an enigmatic tubular organ found in the pharyngeal cavity of many filter-feeding fishes. We investigated whether it might function as a taste organ that mediates aggregation and ingestion of planktonic food within the buccal cavity. The EO and associated structures of bighead and silver carps, two successful and invasive planktivorous fishes, were examined using histological and electrophysiological techniques. Both species possess finely structured gill rakers that extend directly via a series of protrusions into each of the four blind canals which are organized as the muscular EO, suggesting that the gill rakers and EO probably function in an integrated manner. Both the interior and exterior surfaces of the EOs of both species are covered with high densities of taste buds and solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) as well as mucous cells. Conversely, taste buds are scarce in both the buccal cavities and external portions of the head and mouth of both species. Electrophysiological recordings from a caudal branch of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) found to innervate the EO showed it to be sensitive to chemicals found in a planktonic diet. l-Amino acids accounted for some, but not all of the neural activity. We conclude that taste buds and SCCs located on the EO and gill rakers probably serve to chemically detect food particles, which the EO then aggregates by mucus secretion before eventually expelling them onto the floor of the pharynx for ingestion. This specialized, pharyngeal chemosensory structure may explain the feeding success of these, and perhaps other planktivorous, filter-feeding fishes. PMID:25214490

  14. Anatomical and physiological studies of bigheaded carps demonstrate that the epibranchial organ functions as a pharyngeal taste organ.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anne; Ghosal, Ratna; Caprio, John; Claus, Aaron W; Sorensen, Peter W

    2014-11-01

    The epibranchial organ (EO) is an enigmatic tubular organ found in the pharyngeal cavity of many filter-feeding fishes. We investigated whether it might function as a taste organ that mediates aggregation and ingestion of planktonic food within the buccal cavity. The EO and associated structures of bighead and silver carps, two successful and invasive planktivorous fishes, were examined using histological and electrophysiological techniques. Both species possess finely structured gill rakers that extend directly via a series of protrusions into each of the four blind canals which are organized as the muscular EO, suggesting that the gill rakers and EO probably function in an integrated manner. Both the interior and exterior surfaces of the EOs of both species are covered with high densities of taste buds and solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) as well as mucous cells. Conversely, taste buds are scarce in both the buccal cavities and external portions of the head and mouth of both species. Electrophysiological recordings from a caudal branch of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) found to innervate the EO showed it to be sensitive to chemicals found in a planktonic diet. l-Amino acids accounted for some, but not all of the neural activity. We conclude that taste buds and SCCs located on the EO and gill rakers probably serve to chemically detect food particles, which the EO then aggregates by mucus secretion before eventually expelling them onto the floor of the pharynx for ingestion. This specialized, pharyngeal chemosensory structure may explain the feeding success of these, and perhaps other planktivorous, filter-feeding fishes.

  15. [Techniques for functional tissue and organ replacement using postnatal stem cells].

    PubMed

    Aigner, J; Eblenkamp, M; Wintermantel, E

    2005-05-01

    Postnatal stem cells play a decisive role in cell-based therapies due to their high proliferation activity and functional plasticity. On the one hand, basic research in cell biological processes of adult stem cells is crucial in order to establish them as therapeutic tools. On the other hand, development and enhancements of appropriate techniques are required: we need to establish defined technologies for extraction and differentiation of stem cells and to develop adequate cell carrier devices, scaffolds, and bioreactors for in vitro purposes. Furthermore, it is an interdisciplinary challenge to consider logistical aspects concerning isolation, transport, and storage of stem cells in order to use them in a wide range of activities in regenerative medicine. In this review we present the current methods of work and research on adult stem cells. We explain their therapeutic use and define requirements for future technological developments for work with postnatal stem cells.

  16. Improved Learning Performance of Hardware Self-Organizing Map Using a Novel Neighborhood Function.

    PubMed

    Hikawa, Hiroomi; Maeda, Yutaka

    2015-11-01

    Many self-organizing maps (SOMs) implemented on hardware restrict their neighborhood function values to negative powers of two. In this paper, we propose a novel hardware friendly neighborhood function that is aimed to improve the vector quantization performance of hardware SOM. The quantization performance of the hardware SOM with the proposed neighborhood function is examined by simulations. Simulation results show that the proposed function can improve the hardware SOM's vector quantization capability even though the function value is restricted to negative powers of two. Then, the hardware SOM is implemented on field-programmable gate array to find out the hardware cost and performance speed of the proposed neighborhood function. Experimental results show that the proposed neighborhood function can improve SOM's quantization performance without additional hardware cost or slowing down the operating speed. Due to fully parallel operation, the proposed SOM with 16×16 neurons achieves a performance of 25 344 million connections updates per second.

  17. The development and function of mucosal lymphoid tissues: a balancing act with micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Randall, T D; Mebius, R E

    2014-05-01

    Mucosal surfaces are constantly exposed to environmental antigens, colonized by commensal organisms and used by pathogens as points of entry. As a result, the immune system has devoted the bulk of its resources to mucosal sites to maintain symbiosis with commensal organisms, prevent pathogen entry, and avoid unnecessary inflammatory responses to innocuous antigens. These functions are facilitated by a variety of mucosal lymphoid organs that develop during embryogenesis in the absence of microbial stimulation as well as ectopic lymphoid tissues that develop in adults following microbial exposure or inflammation. Each of these lymphoid organs samples antigens from different mucosal sites and contributes to immune homeostasis, commensal containment, and immunity to pathogens. Here we discuss the mechanisms, mostly based on mouse studies, that control the development of mucosal lymphoid organs and how the various lymphoid tissues cooperate to maintain the integrity of the mucosal barrier. PMID:24569801

  18. The development and function of mucosal lymphoid tissues: a balancing act with micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Randall, T D; Mebius, R E

    2014-05-01

    Mucosal surfaces are constantly exposed to environmental antigens, colonized by commensal organisms and used by pathogens as points of entry. As a result, the immune system has devoted the bulk of its resources to mucosal sites to maintain symbiosis with commensal organisms, prevent pathogen entry, and avoid unnecessary inflammatory responses to innocuous antigens. These functions are facilitated by a variety of mucosal lymphoid organs that develop during embryogenesis in the absence of microbial stimulation as well as ectopic lymphoid tissues that develop in adults following microbial exposure or inflammation. Each of these lymphoid organs samples antigens from different mucosal sites and contributes to immune homeostasis, commensal containment, and immunity to pathogens. Here we discuss the mechanisms, mostly based on mouse studies, that control the development of mucosal lymphoid organs and how the various lymphoid tissues cooperate to maintain the integrity of the mucosal barrier.

  19. Protection of MoO{sub 3} high work function by organic thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chenggong; Irfan, Irfan; Gao, Yongli

    2014-11-03

    The effects of air exposure are investigated for molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) covered with organic thin films using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. It is found that the severe drop of the work function of MoO{sub 3} by air exposure is substantially reduced by the organic thin films. Both CuPc and C{sub 60} are used for the investigations. The results indicate that the MoO{sub 3} surface can be passivated by approximately two monolayers of organic thin films against exposure to air.

  20. Functioning of inorganic/organic battery separators in silver-zinc cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, W. H.; May, C. E.

    1976-01-01

    The results of three experimental studies related to the inorganic/organic battery separator operating mechanism are described: saponification of the plasticizer, resistivity of the simulated separators, and zincate diffusion through the separators. The inorganic/organic separator appears to be a particular example of a general class of ionic conducting films composed of inorganic fillers and/or substrates bonded together by an organic polymer containing an incompatible plasticizer that may be leached by the electrolyte. The I/O separator functions as a microporous film of varying tortuosity with essentially no specific chemical inhibition to zincate diffusion.

  1. Potential energy functions for atomic-level simulations of water and organic and biomolecular systems.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, William L; Tirado-Rives, Julian

    2005-05-10

    An overview is provided on the development and status of potential energy functions that are used in atomic-level statistical mechanics and molecular dynamics simulations of water and of organic and biomolecular systems. Some topics that are considered are the form of force fields, their parameterization and performance, simulations of organic liquids, computation of free energies of hydration, universal extension for organic molecules, and choice of atomic charges. The discussion of water models covers some history, performance issues, and special topics such as nuclear quantum effects.

  2. Tai Chi Chuan optimizes the functional organization of the intrinsic human brain architecture in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Gao-Xia; Dong, Hao-Ming; Yang, Zhi; Luo, Jing; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2014-01-01

    Whether Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) can influence the intrinsic functional architecture of the human brain remains unclear. To examine TCC-associated changes in functional connectomes, resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were acquired from 40 older individuals including 22 experienced TCC practitioners (experts) and 18 demographically matched TCC-naïve healthy controls, and their local functional homogeneities across the cortical mantle were compared. Compared to the controls, the TCC experts had significantly greater and more experience-dependent functional homogeneity in the right post-central gyrus (PosCG) and less functional homogeneity in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex. Increased functional homogeneity in the PosCG was correlated with TCC experience. Intriguingly, decreases in functional homogeneity (improved functional specialization) in the left ACC and increases in functional homogeneity (improved functional integration) in the right PosCG both predicted performance gains on attention network behavior tests. These findings provide evidence for the functional plasticity of the brain’s intrinsic architecture toward optimizing locally functional organization, with great implications for understanding the effects of TCC on cognition, behavior and health in aging population. PMID:24860494

  3. Tai Chi Chuan optimizes the functional organization of the intrinsic human brain architecture in older adults.

    PubMed

    Wei, Gao-Xia; Dong, Hao-Ming; Yang, Zhi; Luo, Jing; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2014-01-01

    Whether Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) can influence the intrinsic functional architecture of the human brain remains unclear. To examine TCC-associated changes in functional connectomes, resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were acquired from 40 older individuals including 22 experienced TCC practitioners (experts) and 18 demographically matched TCC-naïve healthy controls, and their local functional homogeneities across the cortical mantle were compared. Compared to the controls, the TCC experts had significantly greater and more experience-dependent functional homogeneity in the right post-central gyrus (PosCG) and less functional homogeneity in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex. Increased functional homogeneity in the PosCG was correlated with TCC experience. Intriguingly, decreases in functional homogeneity (improved functional specialization) in the left ACC and increases in functional homogeneity (improved functional integration) in the right PosCG both predicted performance gains on attention network behavior tests. These findings provide evidence for the functional plasticity of the brain's intrinsic architecture toward optimizing locally functional organization, with great implications for understanding the effects of TCC on cognition, behavior and health in aging population.

  4. [The end to the myth that hysterectomy has negative effects on the function of pelvic organs].

    PubMed

    Vierhout, M E

    2007-06-01

    Hysterectomy is sometimes considered the starting point of pelvic floor symptoms, such as urinary incontinence, constipation and sexual disturbances. However, it is questionable whether there is a causal relationship. Such an effect was not found in numerous prospective controlled studies. There is a striking discrepancy between prospective controlled studies and retrospective and cross-sectional studies in this regard. Retrospective and cross-sectional studies frequently report a negative effect of hysterectomy on pelvic organ function. On the basis of the recent literature it may be concluded that non-radical hysterectomy has no detrimental effect on pelvic organ functions.

  5. Development of new methods in modern selective organic synthesis: preparation of functionalized molecules with atomic precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananikov, V. P.; Khemchyan, L. L.; Ivanova, Yu V.; Bukhtiyarov, V. I.; Sorokin, A. M.; Prosvirin, I. P.; Vatsadze, S. Z.; Medved'ko, A. V.; Nuriev, V. N.; Dilman, A. D.; Levin, V. V.; Koptyug, I. V.; Kovtunov, K. V.; Zhivonitko, V. V.; Likholobov, V. A.; Romanenko, A. V.; Simonov, P. A.; Nenajdenko, V. G.; Shmatova, O. I.; Muzalevskiy, V. M.; Nechaev, M. S.; Asachenko, A. F.; Morozov, O. S.; Dzhevakov, P. B.; Osipov, S. N.; Vorobyeva, D. V.; Topchiy, M. A.; Zotova, M. A.; Ponomarenko, S. A.; Borshchev, O. V.; Luponosov, Yu N.; Rempel, A. A.; Valeeva, A. A.; Stakheev, A. Yu; Turova, O. V.; Mashkovsky, I. S.; Sysolyatin, S. V.; Malykhin, V. V.; Bukhtiyarova, G. A.; Terent'ev, A. O.; Krylov, I. B.

    2014-10-01

    The challenges of the modern society and the growing demand of high-technology sectors of industrial production bring about a new phase in the development of organic synthesis. A cutting edge of modern synthetic methods is introduction of functional groups and more complex structural units into organic molecules with unprecedented control over the course of chemical transformation. Analysis of the state-of-the-art achievements in selective organic synthesis indicates the appearance of a new trend — the synthesis of organic molecules, biologically active compounds, pharmaceutical substances and smart materials with absolute selectivity. Most advanced approaches to organic synthesis anticipated in the near future can be defined as 'atomic precision' in chemical reactions. The present review considers selective methods of organic synthesis suitable for transformation of complex functionalized molecules under mild conditions. Selected key trends in the modern organic synthesis are considered including the preparation of organofluorine compounds, catalytic cross-coupling and oxidative cross-coupling reactions, atom-economic addition reactions, methathesis processes, oxidation and reduction reactions, synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, design of new homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic systems, application of photocatalysis, scaling up synthetic procedures to industrial level and development of new approaches to investigation of mechanisms of catalytic reactions. The bibliography includes 840 references.

  6. Use of silane-functionalized graphene oxide in organic photovoltaic cells and organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Yeong; Le, Quyet Van; Kim, Cheolmin; Kim, Soo Young

    2015-04-14

    Graphene oxide (GO) and silane-functionalized GO (sGO) sheets obtained through a simple sonication exfoliation method are employed as hole transport layers to improve the efficiency of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells and organic light-emitting diodes (OLED). GO was functionalized using (3-glycidyl oxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and triethoxymethylsilane (MTES). The appearance of new peaks in the Fourier-transform infrared spectra of the sGOs indicates the formation of Si-O-C, Si-O-Si, Si-H, and Si-O-C moieties, which provide evidence of the addition of silane to the GO surface. Furthermore, the appearance of Si-O-Si bonds in the synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectra (SRPES) of the MTES-sGO and GPTMS-sGO samples suggests that silane groups were effectively functionalized onto the GO sheets. An OPV cell with GO layers showed a lower performance with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.06%; in contrast, OPV cells based on GPTMS-sGO and MTES-sGO have PCE values of 3.00 and 3.08%, respectively. The OLED devices based on GPTMS-sGO and MTES-sGO showed a higher maximum luminance efficiency of 13.91 and 12.77 cd A(-1), respectively, than PEDOT:PSS-based devices (12.34 cd A(-1)). The SRPES results revealed that the work functions of GO, GPTMS-sGO, and MTES-sGO were 4.8, 4.9, and 5.0 eV, respectively. Therefore, the increase in the PCE value is attributed to improved band-gap alignment. It is thought that sGO could be used as an interfacial layer in OPV and OLED devices.

  7. Chromatin organization in pluripotent cells: emerging approaches to study and disrupt function

    PubMed Central

    Lopes Novo, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Translating the vast amounts of genomic and epigenomic information accumulated on the linear genome into three-dimensional models of nuclear organization is a current major challenge. In response to this challenge, recent technological innovations based on chromosome conformation capture methods in combination with increasingly powerful functional approaches have revealed exciting insights into key aspects of genome regulation. These findings have led to an emerging model where the genome is folded and compartmentalized into highly conserved topological domains that are further divided into functional subdomains containing physical loops that bring cis-regulatory elements to close proximity. Targeted functional experiments, largely based on designable DNA-binding proteins, have begun to define the major architectural proteins required to establish and maintain appropriate genome regulation. Here, we focus on the accessible and well-characterized system of pluripotent cells to review the functional role of chromatin organization in regulating pluripotency, differentiation and reprogramming. PMID:26206085

  8. Highly functionalized organic nitrates in the southeast United States: Contribution to secondary organic aerosol and reactive nitrogen budgets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ben H; Mohr, Claudia; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D; Lutz, Anna; Hallquist, Mattias; Lee, Lance; Romer, Paul; Cohen, Ronald C; Iyer, Siddharth; Kurtén, Theo; Hu, Weiwei; Day, Douglas A; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Jimenez, Jose L; Xu, Lu; Ng, Nga Lee; Guo, Hongyu; Weber, Rodney J; Wild, Robert J; Brown, Steven S; Koss, Abigail; de Gouw, Joost; Olson, Kevin; Goldstein, Allen H; Seco, Roger; Kim, Saewung; McAvey, Kevin; Shepson, Paul B; Starn, Tim; Baumann, Karsten; Edgerton, Eric S; Liu, Jiumeng; Shilling, John E; Miller, David O; Brune, William; Schobesberger, Siegfried; D'Ambro, Emma L; Thornton, Joel A

    2016-02-01

    Speciated particle-phase organic nitrates (pONs) were quantified using online chemical ionization MS during June and July of 2013 in rural Alabama as part of the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study. A large fraction of pONs is highly functionalized, possessing between six and eight oxygen atoms within each carbon number group, and is not the common first generation alkyl nitrates previously reported. Using calibrations for isoprene hydroxynitrates and the measured molecular compositions, we estimate that pONs account for 3% and 8% of total submicrometer organic aerosol mass, on average, during the day and night, respectively. Each of the isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived groups exhibited a strong diel trend consistent with the emission patterns of likely biogenic hydrocarbon precursors. An observationally constrained diel box model can replicate the observed pON assuming that pONs (i) are produced in the gas phase and rapidly establish gas-particle equilibrium and (ii) have a short particle-phase lifetime (∼2-4 h). Such dynamic behavior has significant implications for the production and phase partitioning of pONs, organic aerosol mass, and reactive nitrogen speciation in a forested environment.

  9. Highly functionalized organic nitrates in the southeast United States: Contribution to secondary organic aerosol and reactive nitrogen budgets

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Claudia; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Lutz, Anna; Hallquist, Mattias; Lee, Lance; Romer, Paul; Cohen, Ronald C.; Iyer, Siddharth; Kurtén, Theo; Hu, Weiwei; Day, Douglas A.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Jimenez, Jose L.; Xu, Lu; Ng, Nga Lee; Guo, Hongyu; Weber, Rodney J.; Wild, Robert J.; Brown, Steven S.; Koss, Abigail; de Gouw, Joost; Olson, Kevin; Goldstein, Allen H.; Seco, Roger; Kim, Saewung; McAvey, Kevin; Shepson, Paul B.; Starn, Tim; Baumann, Karsten; Edgerton, Eric S.; Liu, Jiumeng; Shilling, John E.; Miller, David O.; Brune, William; Schobesberger, Siegfried; D'Ambro, Emma L.; Thornton, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    Speciated particle-phase organic nitrates (pONs) were quantified using online chemical ionization MS during June and July of 2013 in rural Alabama as part of the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study. A large fraction of pONs is highly functionalized, possessing between six and eight oxygen atoms within each carbon number group, and is not the common first generation alkyl nitrates previously reported. Using calibrations for isoprene hydroxynitrates and the measured molecular compositions, we estimate that pONs account for 3% and 8% of total submicrometer organic aerosol mass, on average, during the day and night, respectively. Each of the isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived groups exhibited a strong diel trend consistent with the emission patterns of likely biogenic hydrocarbon precursors. An observationally constrained diel box model can replicate the observed pON assuming that pONs (i) are produced in the gas phase and rapidly establish gas–particle equilibrium and (ii) have a short particle-phase lifetime (∼2–4 h). Such dynamic behavior has significant implications for the production and phase partitioning of pONs, organic aerosol mass, and reactive nitrogen speciation in a forested environment. PMID:26811465

  10. Highly functionalized organic nitrates in the southeast United States: Contribution to secondary organic aerosol and reactive nitrogen budgets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ben H; Mohr, Claudia; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D; Lutz, Anna; Hallquist, Mattias; Lee, Lance; Romer, Paul; Cohen, Ronald C; Iyer, Siddharth; Kurtén, Theo; Hu, Weiwei; Day, Douglas A; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Jimenez, Jose L; Xu, Lu; Ng, Nga Lee; Guo, Hongyu; Weber, Rodney J; Wild, Robert J; Brown, Steven S; Koss, Abigail; de Gouw, Joost; Olson, Kevin; Goldstein, Allen H; Seco, Roger; Kim, Saewung; McAvey, Kevin; Shepson, Paul B; Starn, Tim; Baumann, Karsten; Edgerton, Eric S; Liu, Jiumeng; Shilling, John E; Miller, David O; Brune, William; Schobesberger, Siegfried; D'Ambro, Emma L; Thornton, Joel A

    2016-02-01

    Speciated particle-phase organic nitrates (pONs) were quantified using online chemical ionization MS during June and July of 2013 in rural Alabama as part of the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study. A large fraction of pONs is highly functionalized, possessing between six and eight oxygen atoms within each carbon number group, and is not the common first generation alkyl nitrates previously reported. Using calibrations for isoprene hydroxynitrates and the measured molecular compositions, we estimate that pONs account for 3% and 8% of total submicrometer organic aerosol mass, on average, during the day and night, respectively. Each of the isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived groups exhibited a strong diel trend consistent with the emission patterns of likely biogenic hydrocarbon precursors. An observationally constrained diel box model can replicate the observed pON assuming that pONs (i) are produced in the gas phase and rapidly establish gas-particle equilibrium and (ii) have a short particle-phase lifetime (∼2-4 h). Such dynamic behavior has significant implications for the production and phase partitioning of pONs, organic aerosol mass, and reactive nitrogen speciation in a forested environment. PMID:26811465

  11. How the system functions. The roles of the United Network of Organ Sharing, the organ procurement and transplantation network, and the organ procurement organization in heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hobson, J E

    2000-03-01

    Have the limits for suitable recipient candidates for heart transplantation been exceeded? Does the current legislation and policy instituted at all levels, from DHHS to individual transplant programs, critically address the use of a dangerously limited resource? These and other questions must be the focus of future discussions regarding equitable and efficient heart transplantation in this country. The past has shown that many individuals working cooperatively within committees at federal and organizational levels have already made great strides in making organ transplantation a successful reality. Many factors influence the broadening gap between supply and demand. Each level of the system can make contributions that bring positive and creative solutions to old and new problems. Each team and committee must continue to demand representation from diverse, yet attentive, members to ensure that the specific needs of the thoracic organ recipients are properly reviewed and addressed. UNOS and its membership must continue to work together to meet the challenges of the growing acceptance of organ transplantation and the limited supply of donor organs. Continued efforts of politicians, health care professionals, and the general public must seek newer and more creative ways to manage the critical organ shortage and the ever-growing population of patients who seek heart transplantation as the only viable treatment option for their disease process. OPOs must continue their efforts to educate and promote organ donation and continue to work diligently toward increasing the pool of acceptable organ donors through improved patient management and the development of improved preservation and transport techniques. The transplant community must take the initiative to modify current legislation and to author new legislation to serve as better representors for the transplant patient population that desperately needs it.

  12. Structural and functional rich club organization of the brain in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Grayson, David S; Ray, Siddharth; Carpenter, Samuel; Iyer, Swathi; Dias, Taciana G Costa; Stevens, Corinne; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have proposed that the brain's white matter is organized as a rich club, whereby the most highly connected regions of the brain are also highly connected to each other. Here we use both functional and diffusion-weighted MRI in the human brain to investigate whether the rich club phenomena is present with functional connectivity, and how this organization relates to the structural phenomena. We also examine whether rich club regions serve to integrate information between distinct brain systems, and conclude with a brief investigation of the developmental trajectory of rich-club phenomena. In agreement with prior work, both adults and children showed robust structural rich club organization, comprising regions of the superior medial frontal/dACC, medial parietal/PCC, insula, and inferior temporal cortex. We also show that these regions were highly integrated across the brain's major networks. Functional brain networks were found to have rich club phenomena in a similar spatial layout, but a high level of segregation between systems. While no significant differences between adults and children were found structurally, adults showed significantly greater functional rich club organization. This difference appeared to be driven by a specific set of connections between superior parietal, insula, and supramarginal cortex. In sum, this work highlights the existence of both a structural and functional rich club in adult and child populations with some functional changes over development. It also offers a potential target in examining atypical network organization in common developmental brain disorders, such as ADHD and Autism.

  13. Functional System and Areal Organization of a Highly Sampled Individual Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Laumann, Timothy O; Gordon, Evan M; Adeyemo, Babatunde; Snyder, Abraham Z; Joo, Sung Jun; Chen, Mei-Yen; Gilmore, Adrian W; McDermott, Kathleen B; Nelson, Steven M; Dosenbach, Nico U F; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Mumford, Jeanette A; Poldrack, Russell A; Petersen, Steven E

    2015-08-01

    Resting state functional MRI (fMRI) has enabled description of group-level functional brain organization at multiple spatial scales. However, cross-subject averaging may obscure patterns of brain organization specific to each individual. Here, we characterized the brain organization of a single individual repeatedly measured over more than a year. We report a reproducible and internally valid subject-specific areal-level parcellation that corresponds with subject-specific task activations. Highly convergent correlation network estimates can be derived from this parcellation if sufficient data are collected-considerably more than typically acquired. Notably, within-subject correlation variability across sessions exhibited a heterogeneous distribution across the cortex concentrated in visual and somato-motor regions, distinct from the pattern of intersubject variability. Further, although the individual's systems-level organization is broadly similar to the group, it demonstrates distinct topological features. These results provide a foundation for studies of individual differences in cortical organization and function, especially for special or rare individuals. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:26212711

  14. [Abdominal cure procedures. Adequate use of Nobecutan Spray].

    PubMed

    López Soto, Rosa María

    2009-12-01

    Open abdominal wounds, complicated by infection and/or risk of eventration tend to become chronic and usually require frequent prolonged cure. Habitual changing of bandages develop into one of the clearest risk factors leading to the deterioration of perilesional cutaneous integrity. This brings with it new complications which draw out the evolution of the process, provoking an important deterioration in quality of life for the person who suffers this and a considerable increase in health costs. What is needed is a product and a procedure which control the risk of irritation, which protect the skin, which favor a patient's comfort and which shorten treatment requirements while lowering health care expenses. This report invites medical personnel to think seriously about the scientific rationale, and treatment practice, as to why and how to apply Nobecutan adequately, this reports concludes stating the benefits in the adequate use of this product. The objective of this report is to guarantee the adequate use of this product in treatment of complicated abdominal wounds. This product responds to the needs which are present in these clinical cases favoring skin care apt isolation and protection, while at the same time, facilitating the placement and stability of dressings and bandages used to cure wounds. In order for this to happen, the correct use of this product is essential; medical personnel must pay attention to precautions and recommendations for proper application. The author's experiences in habitual handling of this product during various years, included in the procedures for standardized cures for these wounds, corroborates its usefulness; the author considers use of this product to be highly effective while being simple to apply; furthermore, one succeeds in providing quality care and optimizes resources employed.

  15. Co-functionalized organic/inorganic hybrid ZnO nanorods as electron transporting layers for inverted organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambade, Swapnil B.; Ambade, Rohan B.; Eom, Seung Hun; Baek, Myung-Jin; Bagde, Sushil S.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2016-02-01

    In an unprecedented attempt, we present an interesting approach of coupling solution processed ZnO planar nanorods (NRs) by an organic small molecule (SM) with a strong electron withdrawing cyano moiety and the carboxylic group as binding sites by a facile co-functionalization approach. Direct functionalization by SMs (SM-ZnO NRs) leads to higher aggregation owing to the weaker solubility of SMs in solutions of ZnO NRs dispersed in chlorobenzene (CB). A prior addition of organic 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEA) over ZnO NRs not only inhibits aggregation of SMs over ZnO NRs, but also provides enough sites for the SM to strongly couple with the ZnO NRs to yield transparent SM-MEA-ZnO NRs hybrids that exhibited excellent capability as electron transporting layers (ETLs) in inverted organic solar cells (iOSCs) of P3HT:PC60BM bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) photoactive layers. A strongly coupled SM-MEA-ZnO NR hybrid reduces the series resistance by enhancing the interfacial area and tunes the energy level alignment at the interface between the (indium-doped tin oxide, ITO) cathode and BHJ photoactive layers. A significant enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) was achieved for iOSCs comprising ETLs of SM-MEA-ZnO NRs (3.64%) advancing from 0.9% for pristine ZnO NRs, while the iOSCs of aggregated SM-ZnO NRs ETL exhibited a much lower PCE of 2.6%, thus demonstrating the potential of the co-functionalization approach. The superiority of the co-functionalized SM-MEA-ZnO NRs ETL is also evident from the highest PCE of 7.38% obtained for the iOSCs comprising BHJ of PTB7-Th:PC60BM compared with extremely poor 0.05% for non-functionalized ZnO NRs.In an unprecedented attempt, we present an interesting approach of coupling solution processed ZnO planar nanorods (NRs) by an organic small molecule (SM) with a strong electron withdrawing cyano moiety and the carboxylic group as binding sites by a facile co-functionalization approach. Direct functionalization by SMs (SM

  16. Identifying organic aerosol sources by comparing functional group composition in chamber and atmospheric particles.

    PubMed

    Russell, Lynn M; Bahadur, Ranjit; Ziemann, Paul J

    2011-03-01

    Measurements of submicron particles by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in 14 campaigns in North America, Asia, South America, and Europe were used to identify characteristic organic functional group compositions of fuel combustion, terrestrial vegetation, and ocean bubble bursting sources, each of which often accounts for more than a third of organic mass (OM), and some of which is secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from gas-phase precursors. The majority of the OM consists of alkane, carboxylic acid, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups. The organic functional groups formed from combustion and vegetation emissions are similar to the secondary products identified in chamber studies. The near absence of carbonyl groups in the observed SOA associated with combustion is consistent with alkane rather than aromatic precursors, and the absence of organonitrate groups can be explained by their hydrolysis in humid ambient conditions. The remote forest observations have ratios of carboxylic acid, organic hydroxyl, and nonacid carbonyl groups similar to those observed for isoprene and monoterpene chamber studies, but in biogenic aerosols transported downwind of urban areas the formation of esters replaces the acid and hydroxyl groups and leaves only nonacid carbonyl groups. The carbonyl groups in SOA associated with vegetation emissions provides striking evidence for the mechanism of esterification as the pathway for possible oligomerization reactions in the atmosphere. Forest fires include biogenic emissions that produce SOA with organic components similar to isoprene and monoterpene chamber studies, also resulting in nonacid carbonyl groups in SOA.

  17. Fine structure of uterus and non-functioning paruterine organ in Orthoskrjabinia junlanae (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea).

    PubMed

    Korneva, Janetta V; Kornienko, Svetlana A; Jones, Malcolm K

    2016-06-01

    Some cyclophyllidean cestodes provide protection for their eggs in the external environment by providing them with additional protective layers around the egg membranes. In attempting to examine such adaptations, the microanatomy and fine structure of the uterus of pregravid and gravid proglottids of the cyclophyllidean cestode Orthoskrjabinia junlanae, a parasite of mammals that inhabit a terrestrial but moist environment, were studied. In the initial stages of uterine development, developing embryos locate freely in the lumen of a saccate uterus that later partitions into chambers. Each chamber that forms encloses several embryos. The chambers are surrounded by muscle cells that synthesize extracellular matrix actively. The paruterine organs consist of stacks of flattened long outgrowths of muscular cells, interspersed with small lipid droplets. In the gravid proglottids, the size of paruterine organ increases and consists of flattened basal and small rounded apical parts separated by constrictions. The fine structure of the organ wall remains the same: sparse nuclei and stacks of flattened cytoplasmic outgrowths but internal invaginations or lumen in the paruterine organ are absent. Completely developed eggs remain localized in the uterus. Based on the comparative morpho-functional analysis of uterine and paruterine organs and uterine capsules in cestodes, we conclude that these non-functioning paruterine organ in O. junlanae is an example of an atavism. We postulate that the life cycle of the parasite, which infects mammals living in wet habitats, where threats of desiccation of parasite ova is reduced, has favoured a reversion to a more ancestral form of uterine development. PMID:26997340

  18. Identifying organic aerosol sources by comparing functional group composition in chamber and atmospheric particles

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Lynn M.; Bahadur, Ranjit; Ziemann, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of submicron particles by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in 14 campaigns in North America, Asia, South America, and Europe were used to identify characteristic organic functional group compositions of fuel combustion, terrestrial vegetation, and ocean bubble bursting sources, each of which often accounts for more than a third of organic mass (OM), and some of which is secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from gas-phase precursors. The majority of the OM consists of alkane, carboxylic acid, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups. The organic functional groups formed from combustion and vegetation emissions are similar to the secondary products identified in chamber studies. The near absence of carbonyl groups in the observed SOA associated with combustion is consistent with alkane rather than aromatic precursors, and the absence of organonitrate groups can be explained by their hydrolysis in humid ambient conditions. The remote forest observations have ratios of carboxylic acid, organic hydroxyl, and nonacid carbonyl groups similar to those observed for isoprene and monoterpene chamber studies, but in biogenic aerosols transported downwind of urban areas the formation of esters replaces the acid and hydroxyl groups and leaves only nonacid carbonyl groups. The carbonyl groups in SOA associated with vegetation emissions provides striking evidence for the mechanism of esterification as the pathway for possible oligomerization reactions in the atmosphere. Forest fires include biogenic emissions that produce SOA with organic components similar to isoprene and monoterpene chamber studies, also resulting in nonacid carbonyl groups in SOA. PMID:21317360

  19. Direct Patterning of Organic Functional Polymers through Conventional Photolithography and Noninvasive Cross-Link Agents.

    PubMed

    Squillaci, Marco A; Qiu, Feng; Aliprandi, Alessandro; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang; Samorì, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    A new technique for direct patterning of functional organic polymers using commercial photolithography setups with a minimal loss of the materials' performances is reported. This result is achieved through novel cross-link agents made by boron- and fluorine-containing heterocycles that can react between themselves upon UV- and white-light exposure.

  20. 75 FR 22413 - Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... ] Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority of the Department of Health and Human Services (45 FR 67772-76, dated October 14, 1980, and corrected at 45 FR 69296, October 20, 1980, as amended most recently at 75 FR 14608, dated March 26, 2010) is amended to reflect the reorganization of the Office...

  1. An Epistemological Inquiry into Organic Chemistry Education: Exploration of Undergraduate Students' Conceptual Understanding of Functional Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkuzu, Nalan; Uyulgan, Melis Arzu

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine the levels of conceptual understanding of undergraduate students regarding organic compounds within different functional groups. A total of 60 students who were enrolled in the Department of Secondary Science and Mathematics Education of a Faculty of Education at a state university in Turkey and who had followed an…

  2. 75 FR 7489 - Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... (ONDIEH) is to reduce the burden of noncommunicable diseases, injuries, disabilities and environmental... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority Part C (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) of the Statement of...

  3. Using Grunig's "Indices for Models of Public Relations" To Differentiate Job Functions within Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reagan, Joey; And Others

    A study was conducted to determine the function of a firm within the context of public relations practice. The assessment of James E. Grunig's "Indices for Models of Public Relations" (an instrument for measuring the type of public relations practiced by an organization) was of primary concern. This instrument places public relations practice into…

  4. A FUNCTIONAL GROUP CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC PM 2.5 EXPOSURE: RESULTS FROM THE RIOPA STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The functional group (FG) composition of urban residential outdoor, indoor, and personal fine particle (PM2.5) samples is presented and used to provide insights relevant to organic PM2.5 exposure. PM2.5 samples (48 h) were collected during the Rel...

  5. 76 FR 81505 - Administration on Children, Youth and Families; Statement of Organization, Functions, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... follows: Chapter KB, Administration on Children, Youth and Families (ACYF), as last amended 72 FR 24314... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children And Families Administration on Children, Youth and Families; Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority AGENCY: Administration for Children...

  6. Removal of chlorine gas by an amine functionalized metal-organic framework via electrophilic aromatic substitution.

    PubMed

    DeCoste, Jared B; Browe, Matthew A; Wagner, George W; Rossin, Joseph A; Peterson, Gregory W

    2015-08-11

    Here we report the removal of chlorine gas from air via a reaction with an amine functionalized metal-organic framework (MOF). It is found that UiO-66-NH2 has the ability to remove 1.24 g of Cl2 per g of MOF via an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction producing HCl, which is subsequently neutralized by the MOF.

  7. 75 FR 53304 - Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health; Statement of Organization, Functions, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health; Statement of... Organizations, Functions and Delegations of Authority for the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)...

  8. 76 FR 59408 - Statement of Organizations, Functions, and Delegations of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    .... Introduction The Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority for CDER (35 FR 3685, February 25, 1970; 60 FR 56605, November 9, 1995; 64 FR 36361, July 6, 1999; 72 FR 50112, August 30, 2007; 76 FR 19376, April 7, 2011; and 76 FR 51039, August 17, 2011) is amended to reflect the...

  9. 75 FR 38112 - Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority; Part G; Indian Health Service; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... corrective and remedial actions to correct improprieties; (3) directs and provides leadership in the... (OIG); (6) develops and implements IHS directives and training for Standards of Ethical Conduct, the..., delegations of authority, and organizations and functions development; (2) provides leadership, on behalf...

  10. Shared and Distinctive Origins and Correlates of Adult Attachment Representations: The Developmental Organization of Romantic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Katherine C.; Collins, W. A.; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    To test proposals regarding the hierarchical organization of adult attachment, this study examined developmental origins of generalized and romantic attachment representations and their concurrent associations with romantic functioning. Participants (N = 112) in a 35-year prospective study completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Current…

  11. Plant-microbe interactions as drivers of ecosystem functions relevant for the biodegradation of organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Fester, Thomas; Giebler, Julia; Wick, Lukas Y; Schlosser, Dietmar; Kästner, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    The plant organism and associated microbial communities can be seen as a sunlight driven hotspot for the turnover of organic chemicals. In such environments the fate of a chemical will not only depend on its intrinsic structural stability toward (bio-)chemical reactions and its bioavailability but also on the functional effectiveness and stability of natural microbial communities as main drivers of natural attenuation of chemicals. Recent research demonstrates that interactions between plants and microorganisms are crucial for the biotransformation of organic chemicals, for various processes affecting the bioavailability of such compounds, and for the stability of the affected ecosystem. Practical bioremediation approaches, therefore, should encompass integrated measures targeting functional vegetation as well as functional microbial communities. Good examples for a successful practical approach are constructed wetlands, where an artificial, simplified ecosystem is used for the detoxification of organic contaminants. While such systems have considerable practical success, they are often treated as a black box and a sound mechanistic understanding of functional resilience and of the 'reactive power' of such plant-microbe ecosystems is poor. This situation has to change, if progress in the application of bioremediation is to be made.

  12. Functional and nutritional characteristics of wheat grown in organic and conventional cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of organic vs. conventional farming practices on wheat functional and nutritional characteristics were compared. Soft white winter wheat and hard red spring wheat were obtained from long-term replicated field plots near Pullman, Washington and Bozeman, Montana. Test weight, kernel weight...

  13. 76 FR 21908 - Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... oversees beneficiary services provided by the beneficiary call centers. Serves as CMS' focal point for telephone services to beneficiaries, and provides leadership for CMS in the area of call center operations... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Statement of Organization, Functions,...

  14. 78 FR 38981 - Statement of Organization Functions, and Delegations of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority for the Department of Health and Human Services (61 FR... Office provides leadership, oversight, and executive support for human capital management; contracts... extramural funds in support of healthcare research. (6) Division of Human Capital and Resources...

  15. Neurology of Affective Prosody and Its Functional-Anatomic Organization in Right Hemisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Elliott D.; Monnot, Marilee

    2008-01-01

    Unlike the aphasic syndromes, the organization of affective prosody in brain has remained controversial because affective-prosodic deficits may occur after left or right brain damage. However, different patterns of deficits are observed following left and right brain damage that suggest affective prosody is a dominant and lateralized function of…

  16. 76 FR 51039 - Statement of Organizations, Functions, and Delegations of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... Division of Bioequivalence II, Division of Microbiology, Division of Clinical Review, and Division of.... Summary The Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority ] for CDER (35 FR 3685, February 25, 1970; 60 FR 56605, November 9, 1995; 64 FR 36361, July 6, 1999; 72 FR 50112, August 30,...

  17. Health-related quality of life in pediatric patients with functional and organic gastrointestinal diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of our study was to compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) and organic gastrointestinal (GI) diseases with an age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-matched healthy sample across GI diagnostic groups and with one ...

  18. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission organization charts and functional statements. Revision 18

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-23

    This document (NUREG-0325) is the current US NRC organization chart, listing all NRC offices and regions and their components down through the branch level as of July 23, 1995. Functional statements of each position are given, as is the name of the individual holding the position.

  19. 77 FR 61002 - Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Families (ACF) as follows: Chapter KA, Office of the Assistant Secretary (OAS) last amended, 76 FR 72418-72420, November 23, 2011, and Chapter KN, Office of Public Affairs (OPA) last amended, 72 FR 31072... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Statement of Organization, Functions,...

  20. 78 FR 64520 - Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... Delegations of Authority for the Department of Health and Human Services (40 FR 22859, May 27, 1975, as amended most recently at 77 FR 1941, January 12, 2012, and redesignated from Part HN as Part N at 60 FR... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations...

  1. 76 FR 59399 - Statement of Organization, Functions and Delegations of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE), as last amended at 66 FR 61341-42 dated September 30, 2002 and most recently at 73 FR 19977, dated April 16, 2010 and at 76 FR 19361-62, dated April 7, 2011... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Statement of Organization, Functions and Delegations of...

  2. 76 FR 37131 - Statement of Organizations, Functions, and Delegations of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... CDER (35 FR 3685, February 25, 1970, 60 FR 56605, November 9, 1995, 64 FR 36361, July 6, 1999, 72 FR 50112, ] August 30, 2007, and 76 FR 19376, April 7, 2011) is amended to reflect the restructuring of... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Statement of Organizations, Functions, and Delegations...

  3. 76 FR 65519 - Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority Part M of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services... behavioral health needs and foster health improvements, many partners and allies exist within other...

  4. 75 FR 55582 - National Institutes of Health Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... Delegations of Authority for the Department of Health and Human Services (40 FR 22859, May 27, 1975, as... and Health Disparities (NCMHD) as the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities..., Organization and Functions, under the heading National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities...

  5. Encapsulation of functional organic compounds in nanoglass for optically anisotropic coatings.

    PubMed

    Stöter, Matthias; Biersack, Bernhard; Rosenfeldt, Sabine; Leitl, Markus J; Kalo, Hussein; Schobert, Rainer; Yersin, Hartmut; Ozin, Geoffrey A; Förster, Stephan; Breu, Josef

    2015-04-13

    A novel approach is presented for the encapsulation of organic functional molecules between two sheets of 1 nm thin silicate layers, which like glass are transparent and chemically stable. An ordered heterostructure with organic interlayers strictly alternating with osmotically swelling sodium interlayers can be spontaneously delaminated into double stacks with the organic interlayers sandwiched between two silicate layers. The double stacks show high aspect ratios of >1000 (typical lateral extension 5000 nm, thickness 4.5 nm). This newly developed technique can be used to mask hydrophobic functional molecules and render them completely dispersible in water. The combination of the structural anisotropy of the silicate layers and a preferred orientation of molecules confined in the interlayer space allows polymer nanocomposite films to be cast with a well-defined orientation of the encapsulated molecules, thus rendering the optical properties of the nanocoatings anisotropic. PMID:25703020

  6. Chlorinated Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes with High Work Function for Organic Device Compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helander, M. G.; Wang, Z. B.; Qiu, J.; Greiner, M. T.; Puzzo, D. P.; Liu, Z. W.; Lu, Z. H.

    2011-05-01

    In organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), a stack of multiple organic layers facilitates charge flow from the low work function [~4.7 electron volts (eV)] of the transparent electrode (tin-doped indium oxide, ITO) to the deep energy levels (~6 eV) of the active light-emitting organic materials. We demonstrate a chlorinated ITO transparent electrode with a work function of >6.1 eV that provides a direct match to the energy levels of the active light-emitting materials in state-of-the art OLEDs. A highly simplified green OLED with a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 54% and power efficiency of 230 lumens per watt using outcoupling enhancement was demonstrated, as were EQE of 50% and power efficiency of 110 lumens per watt at 10,000 candelas per square meter.

  7. Engineering functional epithelium for regenerative medicine and in vitro organ models: a review.

    PubMed

    Vrana, Nihal E; Lavalle, Philippe; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Dehghani, Fariba; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in the fields of microfabrication, biomaterials, and tissue engineering have provided new opportunities for developing biomimetic and functional tissues with potential applications in disease modeling, drug discovery, and replacing damaged tissues. An intact epithelium plays an indispensable role in the functionality of several organs such as the trachea, esophagus, and cornea. Furthermore, the integrity of the epithelial barrier and its degree of differentiation would define the level of success in tissue engineering of other organs such as the bladder and the skin. In this review, we focus on the challenges and requirements associated with engineering of epithelial layers in different tissues. Functional epithelial layers can be achieved by methods such as cell sheets, cell homing, and in situ epithelialization. However, for organs composed of several tissues, other important factors such as (1) in vivo epithelial cell migration, (2) multicell-type differentiation within the epithelium, and (3) epithelial cell interactions with the underlying mesenchymal cells should also be considered. Recent successful clinical trials in tissue engineering of the trachea have highlighted the importance of a functional epithelium for long-term success and survival of tissue replacements. Hence, using the trachea as a model tissue in clinical use, we describe the optimal structure of an artificial epithelium as well as challenges of obtaining a fully functional epithelium in macroscale. One of the possible remedies to address such challenges is the use of bottom-up fabrication methods to obtain a functional epithelium. Modular approaches for the generation of functional epithelial layers are reviewed and other emerging applications of microscale epithelial tissue models for studying epithelial/mesenchymal interactions in healthy and diseased (e.g., cancer) tissues are described. These models can elucidate the epithelial/mesenchymal tissue interactions at the

  8. Oxygenated organic functional groups and their sources in single and submicron organic particles in MILAGRO 2006 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Takahama, S.; Russell, L. M.; Gilardoni, S.; Baumgardner, D.

    2009-02-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) were used to measure organic functional groups and elements of submicron particles collected during MILAGRO in March 2006 on three platforms: the Mexico City urban area (SIMAT), the high altitude site at 4010 m (Altzomoni), and the NCAR C130 aircraft. Scanning transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) and Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) were applied to single particle organic functional group abundance analysis of particles simultaneously collected at SIMAT and C130. Correlations of elemental concentrations showed different groups of source related elements at SIMAT, Altzomoni, and C130, suggesting different processes affecting the air masses sampled at the three platforms. Cluster analysis resulted in seven distinct Clusters of FTIR spectra, with the last three clusters consisting of spectra collected almost exclusively on the C130 platform, reflecting the variety of sources contributing to C130 samples. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) of NEXAFS-STXM spectra identified three main factors representing soot, secondary, and biomass burning type spectra. PMF of FTIR spectra resulted in three fossil fuel combustion type factors, one biomass burning factor, and one mixed or processed factor. The fossil fuel combustion type factors were found to have the largest contributions to OM, while the processed factor has the largest O/C among all factors. Alkane, carboxylic acid, and amine functional groups were mainly associated with combustion related sources, while alcohol groups were likely from atmospheric processing of mixed sources. While the processed factor has the highest O/C, half of the OM and O/C measured could be attributed directly to fossil fuel combustion sources. Both PMF of NEXAFS-STXM spectra and PMF of FTIR spectra indicate that the combustion type factors are more affected by fluctuations in local sources, while the processed factors are more consistent during the sampling

  9. Oxygenated organic functional groups and their sources in single and submicron organic particles in MILAGRO 2006 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Takahama, S.; Russell, L. M.; Gilardoni, S.; Baumgardner, D.

    2009-09-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) were used to measure organic functional groups and elements of submicron particles collected during MILAGRO in March 2006 on three platforms: the Mexico City urban area (SIMAT), the high altitude site at 4010 m (Altzomoni), and the NCAR C130 aircraft. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) and Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) were applied to single particle organic functional group abundance analysis of particles simultaneously collected at SIMAT and C130. Correlations of elemental concentrations showed different groups of source-related elements at SIMAT, Altzomoni, and C130, suggesting different processes affecting the air masses sampled at the three platforms. Cluster analysis resulted in seven distinct clusters of FTIR spectra, with the last three clusters consisting of spectra collected almost exclusively on the C130 platform, reflecting the variety of sources contributing to C130 samples. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) of STXM-NEXAFS spectra identified three main factors representing soot, secondary, and biomass burning type spectra. PMF of FTIR spectra resulted in two fossil fuel combustion factors and one biomass burning factor, the former representative of source regions to the northeast and southwest of SIMAT. Alkane, carboxylic acid, amine, and alcohol functional groups were mainly associated with combustion related sources, while non-acid carbonyl groups were likely from biomass burning events. The majority of OM and O/C was attributed to combustion sources, although no distinction between direct emissions and atmospherically processed OM could be identified.

  10. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  11. Organ growth functions in maturing male Sprague-Dawley rats based on a collective database.

    PubMed

    Mirfazaelian, Ahmad; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2007-06-01

    Ten different organ weights (liver, spleen, kidneys, heart, lungs, brain, adrenals, testes, epididymes, and seminal vesicles) of male Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats of different ages (1-280 d) were extracted based on a thorough literature survey database. A generalized Michaelis-Menten (GMM) model, used to fit organ weights versus age in a previous study (Schoeffner et al., 1999) based on a limited data, was used to find the best fit model for the present expanded data compilation. The GMM model has the functional form: Wt = (Wt(o).K(gamma) + Wt(max).Age(gamma))/(K(gamma) + Age(gamma)) where Wt is organ/tissue weight at a specified age, Wt(o) and Wt(max) are weight at birth and maximal growth, respectively, and K and gamma are constants. Organ weights were significantly correlated with their respective ages for all organs and tissues. GMM-derived organ growth and percent body weight (%BW) fractions of different tissues were plotted against animal age and compared with experimental values as well as previously published models. The GMM-based organ growth and %BW fraction profiles were in general agreement with our empirical data as well as with previous studies. The present model was compared with the GMM model developed previously for six organs--liver, spleen, kidneys, heart, lungs, and brain--based on a limited data, and no significant difference was noticed between the two sets of predictions. It was concluded that the GMM models presented herein for different male S-D rats organs (liver, spleen, kidneys, heart, lungs, brain, adrenals, testes, epididymes, and seminal vesicles) are capable of predicting organ weights and %BW ratios accurately at different ages. PMID:17497417

  12. Covalent organic frameworks: a materials platform for structural and functional designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ning; Wang, Ping; Jiang, Donglin

    2016-10-01

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a class of crystalline porous polymer that allows the atomically precise integration of organic units into extended structures with periodic skeletons and ordered nanopores. One important feature of COFs is that they are designable; that is, the geometry and dimensions of the building blocks can be controlled to direct the topological evolution of structural periodicity. The diversity of building blocks and covalent linkage topology schemes make COFs an emerging materials platform for structural control and functional design. Indeed, COF architectures offer confined molecular spaces for the interplay of photons, excitons, electrons, holes, ions and guest molecules, thereby exhibiting unique properties and functions. In this Review, we summarize the major progress in the field of COFs and recent achievements in developing new design principles and synthetic strategies. We highlight cutting-edge functional designs and identify fundamental issues that need to be addressed in conjunction with future research directions from chemistry, physics and materials perspectives.

  13. A new method to position and functionalize metal-organic framework crystals

    PubMed Central

    Falcaro, Paolo; Hill, Anita J.; Nairn, Kate M.; Jasieniak, Jacek; Mardel, James I.; Bastow, Timothy J.; Mayo, Sheridan C.; Gimona, Michele; Gomez, Daniel; Whitfield, Harold J.; Riccò, Raffaele; Patelli, Alessandro; Marmiroli, Benedetta; Amenitsch, Heinz; Colson, Tobias; Villanova, Laura; Buso, Dario

    2011-01-01

    With controlled nanometre-sized pores and surface areas of thousands of square metres per gram, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) may have an integral role in future catalysis, filtration and sensing applications. In general, for MOF-based device fabrication, well-organized or patterned MOF growth is required, and thus conventional synthetic routes are not suitable. Moreover, to expand their applicability, the introduction of additional functionality into MOFs is desirable. Here, we explore the use of nanostructured poly-hydrate zinc phosphate (α-hopeite) microparticles as nucleation seeds for MOFs that simultaneously address all these issues. Affording spatial control of nucleation and significantly accelerating MOF growth, these α-hopeite microparticles are found to act as nucleation agents both in solution and on solid surfaces. In addition, the introduction of functional nanoparticles (metallic, semiconducting, polymeric) into these nucleating seeds translates directly to the fabrication of functional MOFs suitable for molecular size-selective applications. PMID:21407203

  14. Functional profiles reveal unique ecological roles of various biological soil crust organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, M.A.; Mau, R.L.; Maestre, F.T.; Escolar, C.; Castillo-Monroy, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    1. At the heart of the body of research on biodiversity effects on ecosystem function is the debate over whether different species tend to be functionally singular or redundant. When we consider ecosystem multi-function, the provision of multiple ecosystem functions simultaneously, we may find that seemingly redundant species may in fact play unique roles in ecosystems. 2. Over the last few decades, the significance of biological soil crusts (BSCs) as ecological boundaries and ecosystem engineers, and their multi-functional nature, has become increasingly well documented. We compiled 'functional profiles' of the organisms in this understudied community, to determine whether functional singularity emerges when multiple ecosystem functions are considered. 3. In two data sets, one representing multiple sites around the semi-arid regions of Spain (regional scale), and another from a single site in central Spain (local scale), we examined correlations between the abundance or frequency of BSC species in a community, and multiple surrogates of ecosystem functioning. There was a wide array of apparent effects of species on specific functions. 4. Notably, in gypsiferous soils and at regional scale, we found that indicators of carbon (C) and phosphorus cycling were apparently suppressed and promoted by the lichens Diploschistes diacapsis and Squamarina lentigera, respectively. The moss Pleurochaete squarrosa appears to promote C cycling in calcareous soils at this spatial scale. At the local scale in gypsiferous soils, D. diacapsis positively correlated with carbon cycling, but negatively with nitrogen cycling, whereas numerous lichens exhibited the opposite profile. 5. We found a high degree of functional singularity, i.e. that species were highly individualistic in their effects on multiple functions. Many functional attributes were not easily predictable from existing functional grouping systems based primarily on morphology. 6. Our results suggest that maintaining

  15. Integrating Organic Matter Structure with Ecosystem Function using Advanced Analytical Chemistry Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boot, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Microorganisms are the primary transformers of organic matter in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The structure of organic matter controls its bioavailability and researchers have long sought to link the chemical characteristics of the organic matter pool to its lability. To date this effort has been primarily attempted using low resolution descriptive characteristics (e.g. organic matter content, carbon to nitrogen ratio, aromaticity, etc .). However, recent progress in linking these two important ecosystem components has been advanced using advanced high resolution tools (e.g. nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and mass spectroscopy (MS)-based techniques). A series of experiments will be presented that highlight the application of high resolution techniques in a variety of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with the focus on how these data explicitly provide the foundation for integrating organic matter structure into our concept of ecosystem function. The talk will highlight results from a series of experiments including: an MS-based metabolomics and fluorescence excitation emission matrix approach evaluating seasonal and vegetation based changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition from arctic soils; Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS and MS metabolomics analysis of DOM from three lakes in an alpine watershed; and the transformation of 13C labeled glucose track with NMR during a rewetting experiment from Colorado grassland soils. These data will be synthesized to illustrate how the application of advanced analytical techniques provides novel insight into our understanding of organic matter processing in a wide range of ecosystems.

  16. Engineering interfacial properties of organic semiconductors through soft-contact lamination and surface functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Andrew Leo

    phenylphosphonic acid SAM molecules with various molecular dipoles is then used to functionalize the surface of an organic film and found to modify the work function depending on the molecular dipole across the molecule. This in turn is found to modify the energy level alignment between the underlying organic film with an organic film deposited on top.

  17. Developmental Changes in the Organization of Functional Connections between the Basal Ganglia and Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Laumann, Timothy O.; Dubis, Joseph W.; Ihnen, S. Katie; Neta, Maital; Power, Jonathan D.; Pruett, John R.; Black, Kevin J.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2014-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) comprise a set of subcortical nuclei with sensorimotor, cognitive, and limbic subdivisions, indicative of functional organization. BG dysfunction in several developmental disorders suggests the importance of the healthy maturation of these structures. However, few studies have investigated the development of BG functional organization. Using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI), we compared human child and adult functional connectivity of the BG with rs-fcMRI-defined cortical systems. Because children move more than adults, customized preprocessing, including volume censoring, was used to minimize motion-induced rs-fcMRI artifact. Our results demonstrated functional organization in the adult BG consistent with subdivisions previously identified in anatomical tracing studies. Group comparisons revealed a developmental shift in bilateral posterior putamen/pallidum clusters from preferential connectivity with the somatomotor “face” system in childhood to preferential connectivity with control/attention systems (frontoparietal, ventral attention) in adulthood. This shift was due to a decline in the functional connectivity of these clusters with the somatomotor face system over development, and no change with control/attention systems. Applying multivariate pattern analysis, we were able to reliably classify individuals as children or adults based on BG–cortical system functional connectivity. Interrogation of the features driving this classification revealed, in addition to the somatomotor face system, contributions by the orbitofrontal, auditory, and somatomotor hand systems. These results demonstrate that BG–cortical functional connectivity evolves over development, and may lend insight into developmental disorders that involve BG dysfunction, particularly those involving motor systems (e.g., Tourette syndrome). PMID:24760844

  18. Organic functional group transformations in water at elevated temperature and pressure: Reversibility, reactivity, and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipp, Jessie; Gould, Ian R.; Herckes, Pierre; Shock, Everett L.; Williams, Lynda B.; Hartnett, Hilairy E.

    2013-03-01

    Many transformation reactions involving hydrocarbons occur in the presence of H2O in hydrothermal systems and deep sedimentary systems. We investigate these reactions using laboratory-based organic chemistry experiments at high temperature and pressure (300 °C and 100 MPa). Organic functional group transformation reactions using model organic compounds based on cyclohexane with one or two methyl groups provided regio- and stereochemical markers that yield information about reversibility and reaction mechanisms. We found rapidly reversible interconversion between alkanes, alkenes, dienes, alcohols, ketones, and enones. The alkane-to-ketone reactions were not only completely reversible, but also exhibited such extensive reversibility that any of the functional groups along the reaction path (alcohol, ketone, and even the diene) could be used as the reactant and form all the other groups as products. There was also a propensity for these ring-based structures to dehydrogenate; presumably from the alkene, through a diene, to an aromatic ring. The product suites provide strong evidence that water behaved as a reactant and the various functional groups showed differing degrees of reactivity. Mechanistically-revealing products indicated reaction mechanisms that involve carbon-centered cation intermediates. This work therefore demonstrates that a wide range of organic compound types can be generated by abiotic reactions at hydrothermal conditions.

  19. Organic amendments enhance microbial diversity and abundance of functional genes in Australian Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldorri, Sind; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Food and cash crops play important roles in Australia's economy with black, grey and red clay soil, widely use for growing cotton, wheat, corn and other crops in rotation. While the majority of cotton growers use nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers only in the form of agrochemicals, a few experiment with the addition of manure or composted plant material before planting. We hypothesized that the use of such organic amendments would enhance the soil microbial function through increased microbial diversity and abundance, thus contribute to improved soil sustainability. To test the hypothesis we collected soil samples from two cotton-growing farms in close geographical proximity and with mostly similar production practices other than one grower has been using composted plants as organic amendment and the second farmer uses only agrochemicals. We applied the Biolog Ecoplate system to study the metabolic signature of microbial communities and used qPCR to estimate the abundance of functional genes in the soil. The soil treated with organic amendments clearly showed higher metabolic activity of a more diverse range of carbon sources as well as higher abundance of genes involved in the nitrogen and phosphorous cycles. Since microbes undertake a large number of soil functions, the use of organic amendments can contribute to the sustainability of agricultural soils.

  20. Evolution of form and function in a model of differentiated multicellular organisms with gene regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Daniel; Vico, Francisco J

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of novelties, as a generator of diversity, in the form and function of the organisms have long puzzled biologists. The study of the developmental process and the anatomical properties of an organism provides scarce information into the means by which its morphology evolved. Some have argued that the very nature of novelty is believed to be linked to the evolution of gene regulation, rather than to the emergence of new structural genes. In order to gain further insight into the evolution of novelty and diversity, we describe a simple computational model of gene regulation that controls the development of locomotive multicellular organisms through a fixed set of simple structural genes. Organisms, modeled as two-dimensional spring networks, are simulated in a virtual environment to evaluate their steering skills for path-following. Proposed as a behavior-finding problem, this fitness function guides an evolutionary algorithm that produces structures whose function is well-adapted to the environment (i.e., good path-followers). We show that, despite the fixed simple set of structural genes, the evolution of gene regulation yields a rich variety of body plans, including symmetries, body segments, and modularity, resulting in a diversity of original behaviors to follow a simple path. These results suggest that the sole variation in the regulation of gene expression is a sufficient condition for the emergence of novelty and diversity.

  1. Functional salivary gland regeneration as the next generation of organ replacement regenerative therapy.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Miho; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    Oral health is maintained by the coordinated function of many organs including the teeth and salivary glands. Dysfunction of these organs causes many problems, such as dental caries, swallowing dysfunction and periodontal disease. Regenerative therapy for salivary gland tissue repair and whole-salivary gland replacement is currently considered a novel therapeutic concept that may have potential for the full recovery of salivary gland function. Salivary gland tissue stem cells are thought to be candidate cell sources for salivary gland tissue repair therapies. In addition, whole-salivary gland replacement therapy may become a novel next-generation organ regenerative therapy. Almost all organs arise from reciprocal epithelial and mesenchymal interactions of the germ layers. We developed a novel bioengineering method, an organ germ method that can reproduce organogenesis through the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. A bioengineered salivary gland germ can regenerate a structurally correct salivary gland in vitro, and bioengineered salivary glands successfully secrete saliva into the oral cavity from ducts in the recipient through the reestablishment of the afferent-efferent neural network. The bioengineered salivary gland can also improve the symptoms of xerostomia, such as bacterial infection and swallowing dysfunction. In this review, we describe recent findings and technological developments of salivary gland regenerative therapy.

  2. The effect of non-covalent functionalization on the thermal conductance of graphene/organic interfaces.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shangchao; Buehler, Markus J

    2013-04-26

    The intrinsic interfacial thermal resistance at graphene/organic interfaces, as a result of mismatches in the phonon vibrational spectra of the two materials, diminishes the overall heat transfer performance of graphene/organic nanocomposites. In this paper, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to design alkyl-pyrene molecules that can non-covalently functionalize graphene surfaces in contact with a model organic phase composed of octane. The alkyl-pyrene molecules possess phonon-spectra features of both graphene and octane and, therefore, can serve as phonon-spectra linkers to bridge the vibrational mismatch at the graphene/octane interface. In support of this hypothesis, we find that the best linker candidate can enhance the out-of-plane graphene/organic interfacial thermal conductance by ~22%, attributed to its capability to compensate the low-frequency phonon mode of graphene. We also find that the length of the alkyl chain indirectly affects the interfacial thermal conductance through different orientations of these chains because they dictate the contribution of the out-of-plane high-frequency carbon-hydrogen bond vibrations to the overall phonon transport. This study advances our understanding of the less destructive non-covalent functionalization method and design principles of suitable linker molecules to enhance the thermal performance of graphene/organic nanocomposites while retaining the intrinsic chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties of pristine graphene.

  3. Transference of function shapes organ identity in the dove tree inflorescence.

    PubMed

    Vekemans, Dries; Viaene, Tom; Caris, Pieter; Geuten, Koen

    2012-01-01

    • An important evolutionary mechanism shaping the biodiversity of flowering plants is the transfer of function from one plant organ to another. To investigate whether and how transference of function is associated with the remodeling of the floral organ identity program we studied Davidia involucrata, a species with conspicuous, petaloid bracts subtending a contracted inflorescence with reduced flowers. • A detailed ontogeny enabled the interpretation of expression patterns of B-, C- and E-class homeotic MADS-box genes using qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization techniques. We investigated protein-protein interactions using yeast two-hybrid assays. • Although loss of organs does not appear to have affected organ identity in the retained organs of the reduced flowers of D. involucrata, the bracts express the B-class TM6 (Tomato MADS box gene 6) and GLOBOSA homologs, but not DEFICIENS, and the C-class AGAMOUS homolog, representing a subset of genes also involved in stamen identity. • Our results may illustrate how petal identity can be partially transferred outside the flower by expressing a subset of stamen identity genes. This adds to the molecular mechanisms explaining the diversity of plant reproductive morphology.

  4. Dynamic contrast-enhanced optical imaging of in vivo organ function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoozegar, Cyrus B.; Wang, Tracy; Bouchard, Matthew B.; McCaslin, Addason F. H.; Blaner, William S.; Levenson, Richard M.; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.

    2012-09-01

    Conventional approaches to optical small animal molecular imaging suffer from poor resolution, limited sensitivity, and unreliable quantitation, often reducing their utility in practice. We previously demonstrated that the in vivo dynamics of an injected contrast agent could be exploited to provide high-contrast anatomical registration, owing to the temporal differences in each organ's response to the circulating fluorophore. This study extends this approach to explore whether dynamic contrast-enhanced optical imaging (DyCE) can allow noninvasive, in vivo assessment of organ function by quantifying the differing cellular uptake or wash-out dynamics of an agent in healthy and damaged organs. Specifically, we used DyCE to visualize and measure the organ-specific uptake dynamics of indocyanine green before and after induction of transient liver damage. DyCE imaging was performed longitudinally over nine days, and blood samples collected at each imaging session were analyzed for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a liver enzyme assessed clinically as a measure of liver damage. We show that changes in DyCE-derived dynamics of liver and kidney dye uptake caused by liver damage correlate linearly with ALT concentrations, with an r2 value of 0.91. Our results demonstrate that DyCE can provide quantitative, in vivo, longitudinal measures of organ function with inexpensive and simple data acquisition.

  5. Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid

  6. Internal organization of large protein families: relationship between the sequence, structure and function based clustering

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiao-hui; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Wooley, John; Godzik, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The protein universe can be organized in families that group proteins sharing common ancestry. Such families display variable levels of structural and functional divergence, from homogenous families, where all members have the same function and very similar structure, to very divergent families, where large variations in function and structure are observed. For practical purposes of structure and function prediction, it would be beneficial to identify sub-groups of proteins with highly similar structures (iso-structural) and/or functions (iso-functional) within divergent protein families. We compared three algorithms in their ability to cluster large protein families and discuss whether any of these methods could reliably identify such iso-structural or iso-functional groups. We show that clustering using profile-sequence and profile-profile comparison methods closely reproduces clusters based on similarities between 3D structures or clusters of proteins with similar biological functions. In contrast, the still commonly used sequence-based methods with fixed thresholds result in vast overestimates of structural and functional diversity in protein families. As a result, these methods also overestimate the number of protein structures that have to be determined to fully characterize structural space of such families. The fact that one can build reliable models based on apparently distantly related templates is crucial for extracting maximal amount of information from new sequencing projects. PMID:21671455

  7. Précis of Neural organization: structure, function, and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Arbib, M A; Erdi, P

    2000-08-01

    NEURAL ORGANIZATION: Structure, function, and dynamics shows how theory and experiment can supplement each other in an integrated, evolving account of the brain's structure, function, and dynamics. (1) STRUCTURE: Studies of brain function and dynamics build on and contribute to an understanding of many brain regions, the neural circuits that constitute them, and their spatial relations. We emphasize Szentágothai's modular architectonics principle, but also stress the importance of the microcomplexes of cerebellar circuitry and the lamellae of hippocampus. (2) FUNCTION: Control of eye movements, reaching and grasping, cognitive maps, and the roles of vision receive a functional decomposition in terms of schemas. Hypotheses as to how each schema is implemented through the interaction of specific brain regions provide the basis for modeling the overall function by neural networks constrained by neural data. Synthetic PET integrates modeling of primate circuitry with data from human brain imaging. (3) DYNAMICS: Dynamic system theory analyzes spatiotemporal neural phenomena, such as oscillatory and chaotic activity in both single neurons and (often synchronized) neural networks, the self-organizing development and plasticity of ordered neural structures, and learning and memory phenomena associated with synaptic modification. Rhythm generation involves multiple levels of analysis, from intrinsic cellular processes to loops involving multiple brain regions. A variety of rhythms are related to memory functions. The Précis presents a multifaceted case study of the hippocampus. We conclude with the claim that language and other cognitive processes can be fruitfully studied within the framework of neural organization that the authors have charted with John Szentágothai.

  8. Functional Brain Networks Develop from a “Local to Distributed” Organization

    PubMed Central

    Power, Jonathan D.; Dosenbach, Nico U. F.; Church, Jessica A.; Miezin, Francis M.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Petersen, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    The mature human brain is organized into a collection of specialized functional networks that flexibly interact to support various cognitive functions. Studies of development often attempt to identify the organizing principles that guide the maturation of these functional networks. In this report, we combine resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI), graph analysis, community detection, and spring-embedding visualization techniques to analyze four separate networks defined in earlier studies. As we have previously reported, we find, across development, a trend toward ‘segregation’ (a general decrease in correlation strength) between regions close in anatomical space and ‘integration’ (an increased correlation strength) between selected regions distant in space. The generalization of these earlier trends across multiple networks suggests that this is a general developmental principle for changes in functional connectivity that would extend to large-scale graph theoretic analyses of large-scale brain networks. Communities in children are predominantly arranged by anatomical proximity, while communities in adults predominantly reflect functional relationships, as defined from adult fMRI studies. In sum, over development, the organization of multiple functional networks shifts from a local anatomical emphasis in children to a more “distributed” architecture in young adults. We argue that this “local to distributed” developmental characterization has important implications for understanding the development of neural systems underlying cognition. Further, graph metrics (e.g., clustering coefficients and average path lengths) are similar in child and adult graphs, with both showing “small-world”-like properties, while community detection by modularity optimization reveals stable communities within the graphs that are clearly different between young children and young adults. These observations suggest that early school age children and

  9. Total-scattering pair-distribution function of organic material from powder electron diffraction data.

    PubMed

    Gorelik, Tatiana E; Schmidt, Martin U; Kolb, Ute; Billinge, Simon J L

    2015-04-01

    This paper shows that pair-distribution function (PDF) analyses can be carried out on organic and organometallic compounds from powder electron diffraction data. Different experimental setups are demonstrated, including selected area electron diffraction and nanodiffraction in transmission electron microscopy or nanodiffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy modes. The methods were demonstrated on organometallic complexes (chlorinated and unchlorinated copper phthalocyanine) and on purely organic compounds (quinacridone). The PDF curves from powder electron diffraction data, called ePDF, are in good agreement with PDF curves determined from X-ray powder data demonstrating that the problems of obtaining kinematical scattering data and avoiding beam damage of the sample are possible to resolve.

  10. Lowering the density of electronic defects on organic-functionalized Si(100) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Weina DeBenedetti, William J. I.; Kim, Seonjae; Chabal, Yves J.; Hines, Melissa A.

    2014-06-16

    The electrical quality of functionalized, oxide-free silicon surfaces is critical for chemical sensing, photovoltaics, and molecular electronics applications. In contrast to Si/SiO{sub 2} interfaces, the density of interface states (D{sub it}) cannot be reduced by high temperature annealing because organic layers decompose above 300 °C. While a reasonable D{sub it} is achieved on functionalized atomically flat Si(111) surfaces, it has been challenging to develop successful chemical treatments for the technologically relevant Si(100) surfaces. We demonstrate here that recent advances in the chemical preparation of quasi-atomically-flat, H-terminated Si(100) surfaces lead to a marked suppression of electronic states of functionalized surfaces. Using a non-invasive conductance-voltage method to study functionalized Si(100) surfaces with varying roughness, a D{sub it} as low as 2.5 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}eV{sup −1} is obtained for the quasi-atomically-flat surfaces, in contrast to >7 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}eV{sup −1} on atomically rough Si(100) surfaces. The interfacial quality of the organic/quasi-atomically-flat Si(100) interface is very close to that obtained on organic/atomically flat Si(111) surfaces, opening the door to applications previously thought to be restricted to Si(111)

  11. Spatio-temporal Remodeling of Functional Membrane Microdomains Organizes the Signaling Networks of a Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Johannes; Klein, Teresa; Mielich-Süss, Benjamin; Koch, Gudrun; Franke, Christian; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kovács, Ákos T.; Sauer, Markus; Lopez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains specialized in the regulation of numerous cellular processes related to membrane organization, as diverse as signal transduction, protein sorting, membrane trafficking or pathogen invasion. It has been proposed that this functional diversity would require a heterogeneous population of raft domains with varying compositions. However, a mechanism for such diversification is not known. We recently discovered that bacterial membranes organize their signal transduction pathways in functional membrane microdomains (FMMs) that are structurally and functionally similar to the eukaryotic lipid rafts. In this report, we took advantage of the tractability of the prokaryotic model Bacillus subtilis to provide evidence for the coexistence of two distinct families of FMMs in bacterial membranes, displaying a distinctive distribution of proteins specialized in different biological processes. One family of microdomains harbors the scaffolding flotillin protein FloA that selectively tethers proteins specialized in regulating cell envelope turnover and primary metabolism. A second population of microdomains containing the two scaffolding flotillins, FloA and FloT, arises exclusively at later stages of cell growth and specializes in adaptation of cells to stationary phase. Importantly, the diversification of membrane microdomains does not occur arbitrarily. We discovered that bacterial cells control the spatio-temporal remodeling of microdomains by restricting the activation of FloT expression to stationary phase. This regulation ensures a sequential assembly of functionally specialized membrane microdomains to strategically organize signaling networks at the right time during the lifespan of a bacterium. PMID:25909364

  12. Choices for achieving adequate dietary calcium with a vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C M; Proulx, W R; Heaney, R

    1999-09-01

    To achieve adequate dietary calcium intake, several choices are available that accommodate a variety of lifestyles and tastes. Liberal consumption of dairy products in the diet is the approach of most Americans. Some plants provide absorbable calcium, but the quantity of vegetables required to reach sufficient calcium intake make an exclusively plant-based diet impractical for most individuals unless fortified foods or supplements are included. Also, dietary constituents that decrease calcium retention, such as salt, protein, and caffeine, can be high in the vegetarian diet. Although it is possible to obtain calcium balance from a plant-based diet in a Western lifestyle, it may be more convenient to achieve calcium balance by increasing calcium consumption than by limiting other dietary factors.

  13. Genetic Modification of Preimplantation Embryos: Toward Adequate Human Research Policies

    PubMed Central

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects. PMID:15016248

  14. Lateralized Resting-State Functional Brain Network Organization Changes in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bumhee; Roy, Bhaswati; Woo, Mary A.; Palomares, Jose A.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Harper, Ronald M.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) patients show brain injury in autonomic, affective, and cognitive sites, which can change resting-state functional connectivity (FC), potentially altering overall functional brain network organization. However, the status of such connectivity or functional organization is unknown in HF. Determination of that status was the aim here, and we examined region-to-region FC and brain network topological properties across the whole-brain in 27 HF patients compared to 53 controls with resting-state functional MRI procedures. Decreased FC in HF appeared between the caudate and cerebellar regions, olfactory and cerebellar sites, vermis and medial frontal regions, and precentral gyri and cerebellar areas. However, increased FC emerged between the middle frontal gyrus and sensorimotor areas, superior parietal gyrus and orbito/medial frontal regions, inferior temporal gyrus and lingual gyrus/cerebellar lobe/pallidum, fusiform gyrus and superior orbitofrontal gyrus and cerebellar sites, and within vermis and cerebellar areas; these connections were largely in the right hemisphere (p<0.005; 10,000 permutations). The topology of functional integration and specialized characteristics in HF are significantly changed in regions showing altered FC, an outcome which would interfere with brain network organization (p<0.05; 10,000 permutations). Brain dysfunction in HF extends to resting conditions, and autonomic, cognitive, and affective deficits may stem from altered FC and brain network organization that may contribute to higher morbidity and mortality in the condition. Our findings likely result from the prominent axonal and nuclear structural changes reported earlier in HF; protecting neural tissue may improve FC integrity, and thus, increase quality of life and reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:27203600

  15. A survey of commonalities relevant to function and dysfunction in pelvic and sexual organs.

    PubMed

    Brading, A F; Heaton, J P W; Hashitani, H

    2008-01-01

    Micturition, defecation and sexual function are all programmed through spinal reflexes that are under descending control from higher centres. Interaction between these reflexes can clearly be perceived, and evidence is accumulating the dysfunction in one reflex is often associated with dysfunction in another. In this article, we describe some of the basic properties and neural control of the smooth muscles mediating the reflexes, reviewing the common features that underlie these reflex functions, and what changes may be responsible for dysfunction. We propose that autonomic control within the pelvis predisposes pelvic and sexual organs to crosstalk, with the consequence that diseases and conditions of the pelvis are subject to convergence on a functional level. It should be expected that disturbance of the function of one system will inevitably impact adjacent systems.

  16. CaMKII: Claiming Center Stage in Postsynaptic Function and Organization

    PubMed Central

    Hell, Johannes W.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY While CaMKII has long been known to be essential for synaptic plasticity and learning, recent work points to new dimensions of CaMKII function in the nervous system, revealing that CaMKII also plays an important role in synaptic organization. Ca2+-triggered autophosphorylation of CaMKII not only provides molecular memory by prolonging CaMKII activity during long-term plasticity (LTP) and learning but also represents a mechanism for autoactivation of CaMKII’s multifaceted protein docking functions. New details are also emerging about the distinct roles of CaMKIIα and CaMKIIβ in synaptic homeostasis, further illustrating the multilayered and complex nature of CaMKII’s involvement in synaptic regulation. Here, I review novel molecular and functional insight into how CaMKII supports synaptic function. PMID:24462093

  17. CaMKII: claiming center stage in postsynaptic function and organization.

    PubMed

    Hell, Johannes W

    2014-01-22

    While CaMKII has long been known to be essential for synaptic plasticity and learning, recent work points to new dimensions of CaMKII function in the nervous system, revealing that CaMKII also plays an important role in synaptic organization. Ca(2+)-triggered autophosphorylation of CaMKII not only provides molecular memory by prolonging CaMKII activity during long-term plasticity (LTP) and learning but also represents a mechanism for autoactivation of CaMKII's multifaceted protein-docking functions. New details are also emerging about the distinct roles of CaMKIIα and CaMKIIβ in synaptic homeostasis, further illustrating the multilayered and complex nature of CaMKII's involvement in synaptic regulation. Here, I review novel molecular and functional insight into how CaMKII supports synaptic function.

  18. Three-dimensional eukaryotic genomic organization is strongly correlated with codon usage expression and function.

    PubMed

    Diament, Alon; Pinter, Ron Y; Tuller, Tamir

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that the distribution of genes in eukaryotic genomes is not random; however, formerly reported relations between gene function and genomic organization were relatively weak. Previous studies have demonstrated that codon usage bias is related to all stages of gene expression and to protein function. Here we apply a novel tool for assessing functional relatedness, codon usage frequency similarity (CUFS), which measures similarity between genes in terms of codon and amino acid usage. By analyzing chromosome conformation capture data, describing the three-dimensional (3D) conformation of the DNA, we show that the functional similarity between genes captured by CUFS is directly and very strongly correlated with their 3D distance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Arabidopsis thaliana, mouse and human. This emphasizes the importance of three-dimensional genomic localization in eukaryotes and indicates that codon usage is tightly linked to genome architecture. PMID:25510862

  19. Measurement of neutron dose with an organic liquid scintillator coupled with a spectrum weight function.

    PubMed

    Kim, E; Endo, A; Yamaguchi, Y; Yoshizawa, M; Nakamura, T

    2002-01-01

    A dose evaluation method for neutrons in the energy range of a few MeV to 100 MeV has been developed using a spectrum weight function (G-function), which is applied to an organic liquid scintillator of 12.7 cm in diameter and 12.7 cm in length. The G-function that converts the pulse height spectrum of the scintillator into the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), was calculated by an unfolding method using successive approximation of the response function of the scintillator and the ambient dose equivalent per unit neutron fluence (H*(10) conversion coefficients) of ICRP 74. To verify the response function of the scintillator and the value of H*(10) evaluated by the G-function. pulse height spectra of the scintillator were measured in some different neutron fields, which have continuous energy, monoenergetic and quasi-monoenergetic spectra. Values of H*(10) estimated using the G-function and pulse height spectra of the scintillator were compared with those calculated using neutron energy spectra. These doses agreed with each other. From the results, it was concluded that H*(10) can be evaluated directly from the pulse height spectrum of the scintillator by applying the G-function proposed in this study. PMID:12212900

  20. Organic-modified and biological silica studied by synchrotron x-ray pair distribution function measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimasi, Elaine; Jeffryes, Clayton; Rorrer, Gregory; Belton, David; Perry, Carole

    2007-03-01

    Biomineralization is a process by which living organisms create composite organic/mineral tissues which have hierarchical structures on micron and submicron scales. Fine control over mineral phase and morphology make biomineralization an important inspiration for materials science. It is often not appreciated that even amorphous minerals such as silica can exhibit hierarchical structure and special properties. One difficulty is that the molecular structures of amorphous phases can be hard to elucidate. We are exploring the use of pair distribution function measurements from synchrotron x-ray scattering to study silica structures, comparing both synthetic organic-modifed silicas and germanium-containing biosilica from diatoms. The raw scattering patterns show clear differences. We will discuss how these data can be scrutinized to determine what differences may be created at the molecular level by different silicification processes.

  1. Positron Emission Tomography Reveals Abnormal Topological Organization in Functional Brain Network in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xiangzhe; Zhang, Yanjun; Feng, Hongbo; Jiang, Donglang

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated alterations in the topological organization of structural brain networks in diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the DM-related changes in the topological properties in functional brain networks are unexplored so far. We therefore used fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) data to construct functional brain networks of 73 DM patients and 91 sex- and age-matched normal controls (NCs), followed by a graph theoretical analysis. We found that both DM patients and NCs had a small-world topology in functional brain network. In comparison to the NC group, the DM group was found to have significantly lower small-world index, lower normalized clustering coefficients and higher normalized characteristic path length. Moreover, for diabetic patients, the nodal centrality was significantly reduced in the right rectus, the right cuneus, the left middle occipital gyrus, and the left postcentral gyrus, and it was significantly increased in the orbitofrontal region of the left middle frontal gyrus, the left olfactory region, and the right paracentral lobule. Our results demonstrated that the diabetic brain was associated with disrupted topological organization in the functional PET network, thus providing functional evidence for the abnormalities of brain networks in DM. PMID:27303259

  2. RNA-Guided RNA modification: functional organization of the archaeal H/ACA RNP

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Daniel L.; Youssef, Osama A.; Chastkofsky, Michael I.R.; Dy, David A.; Terns, Rebecca M.; Terns, Michael P.

    2005-01-01

    In eukaryotes and archaea, uridines in various RNAs are converted to pseudouridines by RNA-guided RNA modification complexes termed H/ACA RNPs. Guide RNAs within the complexes base-pair with target RNAs to direct modification of specific ribonucleotides. Cbf5, a protein component of the complex, likely catalyzes the modification. However, little is known about the organization of H/ACA RNPs and the roles of the multiple proteins thought to comprise the complexes. We have reconstituted functional archaeal H/ACA RNPs from recombinant components, defined the components necessary and sufficient for function, and determined the direct RNA–protein and protein–protein interactions that occur between the components. The results provide substantial insight into the functional organization of this RNP. The functional complex requires a guide RNA and each of four proteins: Cbf5, Gar1, L7Ae, and Nop10. Two proteins interact directly with the guide RNA: L7Ae and Cbf5. L7Ae does not interact with other H/ACA RNP proteins in the absence of the RNA. We have defined two novel functions for Cbf5. Cbf5 is the protein that specifically recognizes and binds H/ACA guide RNAs. In addition, Cbf5 recruits the two other essential proteins, Gar1 and Nop10, to the pseudouridylation guide complex. PMID:15870259

  3. Study of the Inorganic Substitution in a Functionalized UiO-66 Metal-Organic Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasin, Alhassan Salman

    Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) have received considerable attention and fast development in the past few years. These materials have demonstrated a wide range of applications due to their porosity, tailorability of optical properties, and chemical selectivity. This report catalogs common MOF designs based on application and diversity in various fields, as well as conduct an in-depth study of inorganic substitution in a functionalized MOF. This study investigates the band gap modulation in response to inorganic ion substitution within a thermally stable UiO-66 Metal-Organic Framework (MOF). A combination of density functional theory (DFT) predictions in conjunction with experimental predictions were used to map out the complete composition space for three inorganic ions (Zr, Hf, Ti) and three functional groups. The three functional groups include an amino group (NH2), a nitro group (NO2), and a hydrogenated case (H). The smallest determined band gap was for a partially substituted UiO-66(Ti5Zr1)-NH2 resulting in 2.60eV. Theoretical findings sup-port that Ti can be fully substituted within the lattice resulting in a predicted band gap as low as 1.62(2.77)eV. Band gap modulation was reasoned to be a result of a mid gap state introduced through the amino functionalization and HOMO shifting as a result of increased binding of the Ti-O-C bonds.

  4. Positron Emission Tomography Reveals Abnormal Topological Organization in Functional Brain Network in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xiangzhe; Zhang, Yanjun; Feng, Hongbo; Jiang, Donglang

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated alterations in the topological organization of structural brain networks in diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the DM-related changes in the topological properties in functional brain networks are unexplored so far. We therefore used fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) data to construct functional brain networks of 73 DM patients and 91 sex- and age-matched normal controls (NCs), followed by a graph theoretical analysis. We found that both DM patients and NCs had a small-world topology in functional brain network. In comparison to the NC group, the DM group was found to have significantly lower small-world index, lower normalized clustering coefficients and higher normalized characteristic path length. Moreover, for diabetic patients, the nodal centrality was significantly reduced in the right rectus, the right cuneus, the left middle occipital gyrus, and the left postcentral gyrus, and it was significantly increased in the orbitofrontal region of the left middle frontal gyrus, the left olfactory region, and the right paracentral lobule. Our results demonstrated that the diabetic brain was associated with disrupted topological organization in the functional PET network, thus providing functional evidence for the abnormalities of brain networks in DM. PMID:27303259

  5. A Theory for the Function of the Spermaceti Organ of the Sperm Whale (Physeter Catodon L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, K. S.; Harvey, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    The function of the spermaceti organ of the sperm whale is studied using a model of its acoustic system. Suggested functions of the system include: (1) action as an acoustic resonating and sound focussing chamber to form and process burst-pulsed clicks; (2) use of nasal passages in forehead for repeated recycling of air for phonation during dives and to provide mirrors for sound reflection and signal processing; and (3) use of the entire system to allow sound signal production especially useful for long range echolocofion in the deep sea.

  6. Intermediate Filaments as Organizers of Cellular Space: How They Affect Mitochondrial Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Nicole; Leube, Rudolf E.

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate filaments together with actin filaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton, which is a complex and highly dynamic 3D network. Intermediate filaments are the major mechanical stress protectors but also affect cell growth, differentiation, signal transduction, and migration. Using intermediate filament-mitochondrial crosstalk as a prominent example, this review emphasizes the importance of intermediate filaments as crucial organizers of cytoplasmic space to support these functions. We summarize observations in different mammalian cell types which demonstrate how intermediate filaments influence mitochondrial morphology, subcellular localization, and function through direct and indirect interactions and how perturbations of these interactions may lead to human diseases. PMID:27399781

  7. Assessment of the ΔSCF density functional theory approach for electronic excitations in organic dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalczyk, T.; Yost, S. R.; Van Voorhis, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the accuracy of the ΔSCF method for computing low-lying HOMO→LUMO transitions in organic dye molecules. For a test set of vertical excitation energies of 16 chromophores, surprisingly similar accuracy is observed for time-dependent density functional theory and for ΔSCF density functional theory. In light of this performance, we reconsider the ad hoc ΔSCF prescription and demonstrate that it formally obtains the exact stationary density within the adiabatic approximation, partially justifying its use. The relative merits and future prospects of ΔSCF for simulating individual excited states are discussed.

  8. On the stabilization mechanisms of organic functional groups on ZnO surfaces.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ney Henrique; Domıinguez, Adriel; Frauenheim, Thomas; da Rosa, Andreia Luisa

    2012-11-28

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been employed to investigate the interaction between ZnO-(101[combining macron]0) and (12[combining macron]10) surfaces and organic functional groups. We analyze the influence of the surface coverage on the geometries and binding energies under a dry environment. Our calculations show that coverages θ = 1 ML are favored under ligand-rich conditions and a dry environment. However, based on thermodynamic considerations we suggest that these ligands may not be stable against adsorption of liquid water and water vapor. PMID:23073244

  9. Structural, functional and evolutionary relationships between homing endonucleases and proteins from their host organisms

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Gregory K.; Stoddard, Barry L.

    2012-01-01

    Homing endonucleases (HEs) are highly specific DNA-cleaving enzymes that are encoded by invasive DNA elements (usually mobile introns or inteins) within the genomes of phage, bacteria, archea, protista and eukaryotic organelles. Six unique structural HE families, that collectively span four distinct nuclease catalytic motifs, have been characterized to date. Members of each family display structural homology and functional relationships to a wide variety of proteins from various organisms. The biological functions of those proteins are highly disparate and include non-specific DNA-degradation enzymes, restriction endonucleases, DNA-repair enzymes, resolvases, intron splicing factors and transcription factors. These relationships suggest that modern day HEs share common ancestors with proteins involved in genome fidelity, maintenance and gene expression. This review summarizes the results of structural studies of HEs and corresponding proteins from host organisms that have illustrated the manner in which these factors are related. PMID:22406833

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the functional content of organic aerosols: a review.

    PubMed

    Chalbot, Marie-Cecile G; Kavouras, Ilias G

    2014-08-01

    The knowledge deficit of organic aerosol (OA) composition has been identified as the most important factor limiting our understanding of the atmospheric fate and implications of aerosol. The efforts to chemically characterize OA include the increasing utilization of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Since 1998, the functional composition of different types, sizes and fractions of OA has been studied with one-dimensional, two-dimensional and solid state proton and carbon-13 NMR. This led to the use of functional group ratios to reconcile the most important sources of OA, including secondary organic aerosol and initial source apportionment using positive matrix factorization. Future research efforts may be directed towards the optimization of experimental parameters, detailed NMR experiments and analysis by pattern recognition methods to identify the chemical components, determination of the NMR fingerprints of OA sources and solid state NMR to study the content of OA as a whole.

  11. Stitching Organelles: Organization and Function of Specialized Membrane Contact Sites in Plants.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sancho, Jessica; Tilsner, Jens; Samuels, A Lacey; Botella, Miguel A; Bayer, Emmanuelle M; Rosado, Abel

    2016-09-01

    The coordination of multiple metabolic activities in plants relies on an interorganelle communication network established through membrane contact sites (MCS). The MCS are maintained in transient or durable configurations by tethering structures which keep the two membranes in close proximity, and create chemical microdomains that allow localized and targeted exchange of small molecules and possibly proteins. The past few years have witnessed a dramatic increase in our understanding of the structural and molecular organization of plant interorganelle MCS, and their crucial roles in plant specialized functions including stress responses, cell to cell communication, and lipid transport. In this review we summarize recent advances in understanding the molecular components, structural organization, and functions of different plant-specific MCS architectures. PMID:27318776

  12. Heterogeneity of functional groups in a metal-organic framework displays magic number ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Sue, Andrew C.-H.; Mannige, Ranjan V.; Deng, Hexiang; Cao, Dennis; Wang, Cheng; Gándara, Felipe; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Whitelam, Stephen; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2015-05-20

    Multiple organic functionalities can now be apportioned into nanoscale domains within a metal-coordinated framework, posing the following question: how do we control the resulting combination of “heterogeneity and order”? Here, we report the creation of a metal–organic framework, MOF-2000, whose two component types are incorporated in a 2:1 ratio, even when the ratio of component types in the starting solution is varied by an order of magnitude. Statistical mechanical modeling suggests that this robust 2:1 ratio has a nonequilibrium origin, resulting from kinetic trapping of component types during framework growth. Our simulations show how other “magic number” ratios of components can be obtained by modulating the topology of a framework and the noncovalent interactions between component types, a finding that may aid the rational design of functional multicomponent materials.

  13. The past 10 years-new hormones, new functions, new endocrine organs.

    PubMed

    Bouillon, Roger; Drucker, Daniel J; Ferrannini, Ele; Grinspoon, Steven; Rosen, Clifford J; Zimmet, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Since the publication of the first issue of this journal in November 2005, our understanding of the endocrine system has evolved, with the identification of novel hormones and novel endocrine roles for previously identified molecules. Here, we have asked six of our Advisory Board Members to comment on how these insights have led to the recognition that many organs and tissues that were not widely considered part of the classic endocrine system in the past have important endocrine functions.

  14. Functional Organization of Social Perception and Cognition in the Superior Temporal Sulcus.

    PubMed

    Deen, Ben; Koldewyn, Kami; Kanwisher, Nancy; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-11-01

    The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is considered a hub for social perception and cognition, including the perception of faces and human motion, as well as understanding others' actions, mental states, and language. However, the functional organization of the STS remains debated: Is this broad region composed of multiple functionally distinct modules, each specialized for a different process, or are STS subregions multifunctional, contributing to multiple processes? Is the STS spatially organized, and if so, what are the dominant features of this organization? We address these questions by measuring STS responses to a range of social and linguistic stimuli in the same set of human participants, using fMRI. We find a number of STS subregions that respond selectively to certain types of social input, organized along a posterior-to-anterior axis. We also identify regions of overlapping response to multiple contrasts, including regions responsive to both language and theory of mind, faces and voices, and faces and biological motion. Thus, the human STS contains both relatively domain-specific areas, and regions that respond to multiple types of social information. PMID:26048954

  15. The functional and anatomical organization of marsupial neocortex: Evidence for parallel evolution across mammals

    PubMed Central

    Karlen, Sarah J.; Krubitzer, Leah

    2007-01-01

    Marsupials are a diverse group of mammals that occupy a large range of habitats and have evolved a wide array of unique adaptations. Although they are as diverse as placental mammals, our understanding of marsupial brain organization is more limited. Like placental mammals, marsupials have striking similarities in neocortical organization, such as a constellation of cortical fields including S1, S2, V1, V2, and A1, that are functionally, architectonically, and connectionally distinct. In this review, we describe the general lifestyle and morphological characteristics of all marsupials and the organization of somatosensory, motor, visual, and auditory cortex. For each sensory system, we compare the functional organization and the corticocortical and thalamocortical connections of the neocortex across species. Differences between placental and marsupial species are discussed and the theories on neocortical evolution that have been derived from studying marsupials, particularly the idea of a sensorimotor amalgam, are evaluated. Overall, marsupials inhabit a variety of niches and assume many different lifestyles. For example, marsupials occupy terrestrial, arboreal, burrowing, and aquatic environments; some animals are highly social while others are solitary; and different species are carnivorous, herbivorous, or omnivorous. For each of these adaptations, marsupials have evolved an array of morphological, behavioral, and cortical specializations that are strikingly similar to those observed in placental mammals occupying similar habitats, which indicate that there are constraints imposed on evolving nervous systems that result in recurrent solutions to similar environmental challenges. PMID:17507143

  16. Functional expression of pig renal organic anion transporter 3 (pOAT3).

    PubMed

    Hagos, Yohannes; Braun, Isabella M; Krick, Wolfgang; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Bahn, Andrew

    2005-05-01

    With the cloning of pig renal organic anion transporter 1 (pOAT1) (Biochimie 84 (2002) 1219) we set up a model system for comparative studies of cloned and natively isolated membrane located transport proteins. Meanwhile, another transport protein involved in p-aminohippurate (PAH) uptake on the basolateral side of the proximal tubule cells was identified, designated organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3). To explore the contribution of pOAT1 to the PAH clearance in comparison to OAT3, it was the aim of this study to extend our model by cloning of the pig ortholog of OAT3. Sequence comparisons of human organic anion transporter 3 (hOAT3) with the expressed sequence tag (EST) database revealed a clone and partial sequence of the pig renal organic anion transporter 3 (pOAT3) ortholog. Sequencing of the entire open reading frame resulted in a protein of 543 amino acid residues encoded by 1632 base pairs (EMBL Acc. No. AJ587003). It showed high homologies of 81%, 80%, 76%, and 77% to the human, rabbit, rat, and mouse OAT3, respectively. A functional characterization of pOAT3 in Xenopus laevis oocytes yielded an apparent Km (Kt) for [3H]estrone sulfate of 7.8 +/- 1.3 microM. Moreover, pOAT3 mediated [3H]estrone sulfate uptake was almost abolished by 0.5 mM of glutarate, dehydroepiandosterone sulfate, or probenecid consistent with the hallmarks of OAT3 function.

  17. Organic Composition and Morphology of Sea Spray Aerosols as a Function of Biological Life during IMPACTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, D.; Moffet, R.; Fraund, M. W.; O'Brien, R.; Laskina, O.; Prather, K. A.; Grassian, V. H.; Beall, C.; Wang, X.; Forestieri, S.; Cappa, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosols influence climate by directly reflecting or absorbing sunlight, or indirectly by affecting clouds. A major source of aerosols is from oceanic wave breaking. Due to their complexity, the effects of marine aerosol on climate are uncertain. To provide more detailed measurements of the chemical composition of marine aerosols, Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopy coupled with Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (SXTM-NEXAFS) was used to give spatially resolved molecular information for carbon and oxygen. Application of STXM/NEXAFS to particles collected during a mesocosm study using a unique wave channel facility to generate aerosols shows that the organic volume fraction of aerosols at the aerodynamic diameter size range of 0.18-0.32 μm are a direct function of the biological activity in the sea water. Aerosol organic volume fraction increased from 0.32 for particles generated from seawater containing low biolife to 0.49 and 0.40 for particles produced during phytoplankton blooms. However, the organic volume fraction of aerosols at the aerodynamic diameter size range of 0.56-1 μm did not change with biological activity. Measurements also show that different types of organics can concentrate into aerosols depending on the enzyme activity expressed at the time. Enhanced spectral signatures for aliphatic hydrocarbons were observed during the first phytoplankton bloom compared to a second phytoplankton bloom occurring directly thereafter. The decreased signature of aliphatic organics in the second phytoplankton bloom was correlated with increased lipase activity from heterobacteria. Organic aggregates having similar morphology also differ in composition from their carbon spectra from the two blooms. For July 17, organic aggregates were much richer in hydrocarbons, which showed a remarkably intense C-H absorbance and a broad C-C absorbance. Organic aggregates observed for July 26-27, did not have the C-H and C-C signatures, but contained more polar

  18. Hypothesis: NDL proteins function in stress responses by regulating microtubule organization

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Nisha; Mudgil, Yashwanti

    2015-01-01

    N-MYC DOWNREGULATED-LIKE proteins (NDL), members of the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily were recently rediscovered as interactors of G-protein signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. Although the precise molecular function of NDL proteins is still elusive, in animals these proteins play protective role in hypoxia and expression is induced by hypoxia and nickel, indicating role in stress. Homology of NDL1 with animal counterpart N-MYC DOWNREGULATED GENE (NDRG) suggests similar functions in animals and plants. It is well established that stress responses leads to the microtubule depolymerization and reorganization which is crucial for stress tolerance. NDRG is a microtubule-associated protein which mediates the microtubule organization in animals by causing acetylation and increases the stability of α-tubulin. As NDL1 is highly homologous to NDRG, involvement of NDL1 in the microtubule organization during plant stress can also be expected. Discovery of interaction of NDL with protein kinesin light chain- related 1, enodomembrane family protein 70, syntaxin-23, tubulin alpha-2 chain, as a part of G protein interactome initiative encourages us to postulate microtubule stabilizing functions for NDL family in plants. Our search for NDL interactors in G protein interactome also predicts the role of NDL proteins in abiotic stress tolerance management. Based on published report in animals and predicted interacting partners for NDL in G protein interactome lead us to hypothesize involvement of NDL in the microtubule organization during abiotic stress management in plants. PMID:26583023

  19. New organic-inorganic hybrid material based on functional cellulose nanowhisker, polypseudorotaxane and Au nanorods.

    PubMed

    Garavand, Ali; Dadkhah Tehrani, Abbas

    2016-11-01

    Organic-inorganic functional hybrid materials play a major role in the development of advanced functional materials and recently have gained growing interest of the worldwide community. In this context, new hybrid organic-inorganic gel consisting of cellulose nanowhisker xanthate (CNWX) and S-H functionalized polypseudorotaxane (PPR) as organic parts of gel and gold nanorods (GNRs) as inorganic cross-linking agent were prepared. Firstly, thiolated α-cyclodextrin (α-CD-SH) was threaded onto poly-(ethylene glycol) bis (mercaptoethanoate ester) (PEG-SH) to give polypseudorotaxane (PPR) and then it reacted with GNRs in the presence of CNWX to give the new hybrid gel material. The new synthesized gel and its components characterized by spectroscopic measurement methods such as FT-IR, UV-vis and NMR spectroscopy. Interestingly, hybrid gel showed new polygonal plate like morphology with 45-60nm thickness and 400-600nm width. The obtained gel may have potential application in many fields especially in biomedical applications. PMID:27516265

  20. Soil restoration with organic amendments: linking cellular functionality and ecosystem processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastida, F.; Selevsek, N.; Torres, I. F.; Hernández, T.; García, C.

    2015-10-01

    A hot topic in recent decades, the application of organic amendments to arid-degraded soils has been shown to benefit microbially-mediated processes. However, despite the importance of soils for global sustainability, a gap has not been addressed yet in soil science: is there any connection between ecosystem-community processes, cellular functionality, and microbial lifestyles (i.e. oligotrophy-copiotrophy) in restored soils? Together with classical ecosystem indicators (fatty-acids, extracellular-enzyme activities, basal respiration), state-of-the-art metaproteomics was applied to fill this gap in a model-restoration experiment initiated 10-years ago by the addition of sewage-sludge and compost. Organic amendment strongly impacted ecosystem processes. Furthermore, the type of material used induced differences in the cellular functionalities through variations in the percentages of proteins involved in translation, transcription, energy production and C-fixation. We conclude that the long-term impact of organic restoration goes beyond ecosystem processes and affects cellular functionalities and phyla-lifestyles coupled with differences in microbial-community structures.

  1. Soil restoration with organic amendments: linking cellular functionality and ecosystem processes.

    PubMed

    Bastida, F; Selevsek, N; Torres, I F; Hernández, T; García, C

    2015-10-27

    A hot topic in recent decades, the application of organic amendments to arid-degraded soils has been shown to benefit microbially-mediated processes. However, despite the importance of soils for global sustainability, a gap has not been addressed yet in soil science: is there any connection between ecosystem-community processes, cellular functionality, and microbial lifestyles (i.e. oligotrophy-copiotrophy) in restored soils? Together with classical ecosystem indicators (fatty-acids, extracellular-enzyme activities, basal respiration), state-of-the-art metaproteomics was applied to fill this gap in a model-restoration experiment initiated 10-years ago by the addition of sewage-sludge and compost. Organic amendment strongly impacted ecosystem processes. Furthermore, the type of material used induced differences in the cellular functionalities through variations in the percentages of proteins involved in translation, transcription, energy production and C-fixation. We conclude that the long-term impact of organic restoration goes beyond ecosystem processes and affects cellular functionalities and phyla-lifestyles coupled with differences in microbial-community structures.

  2. Soil restoration with organic amendments: linking cellular functionality and ecosystem processes

    PubMed Central

    Bastida, F.; Selevsek, N.; Torres, I. F.; Hernández, T.; García, C.

    2015-01-01

    A hot topic in recent decades, the application of organic amendments to arid-degraded soils has been shown to benefit microbially-mediated processes. However, despite the importance of soils for global sustainability, a gap has not been addressed yet in soil science: is there any connection between ecosystem-community processes, cellular functionality, and microbial lifestyles (i.e. oligotrophy-copiotrophy) in restored soils? Together with classical ecosystem indicators (fatty-acids, extracellular-enzyme activities, basal respiration), state-of-the-art metaproteomics was applied to fill this gap in a model-restoration experiment initiated 10-years ago by the addition of sewage-sludge and compost. Organic amendment strongly impacted ecosystem processes. Furthermore, the type of material used induced differences in the cellular functionalities through variations in the percentages of proteins involved in translation, transcription, energy production and C-fixation. We conclude that the long-term impact of organic restoration goes beyond ecosystem processes and affects cellular functionalities and phyla-lifestyles coupled with differences in microbial-community structures. PMID:26503516

  3. Soil restoration with organic amendments: linking cellular functionality and ecosystem processes.

    PubMed

    Bastida, F; Selevsek, N; Torres, I F; Hernández, T; García, C

    2015-01-01

    A hot topic in recent decades, the application of organic amendments to arid-degraded soils has been shown to benefit microbially-mediated processes. However, despite the importance of soils for global sustainability, a gap has not been addressed yet in soil science: is there any connection between ecosystem-community processes, cellular functionality, and microbial lifestyles (i.e. oligotrophy-copiotrophy) in restored soils? Together with classical ecosystem indicators (fatty-acids, extracellular-enzyme activities, basal respiration), state-of-the-art metaproteomics was applied to fill this gap in a model-restoration experiment initiated 10-years ago by the addition of sewage-sludge and compost. Organic amendment strongly impacted ecosystem processes. Furthermore, the type of material used induced differences in the cellular functionalities through variations in the percentages of proteins involved in translation, transcription, energy production and C-fixation. We conclude that the long-term impact of organic restoration goes beyond ecosystem processes and affects cellular functionalities and phyla-lifestyles coupled with differences in microbial-community structures. PMID:26503516

  4. Functional and Structural Responses of Hyporheic Biofilms to Varying Sources of Dissolved Organic Matter

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karoline; Bengtsson, Mia M.; Besemer, Katharina; Sieczko, Anna; Burns, Nancy R.; Herberg, Erik R.

    2014-01-01

    Headwater streams are tightly connected with the terrestrial milieu from which they receive deliveries of organic matter, often through the hyporheic zone, the transition between groundwater and streamwater. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) from terrestrial sources (that is, allochthonous) enters the hyporheic zone, where it may mix with DOM from in situ production (that is, autochthonous) and where most of the microbial activity takes place. Allochthonous DOM is typically considered resistant to microbial metabolism compared to autochthonous DOM. The composition and functioning of microbial biofilm communities in the hyporheic zone may therefore be controlled by the relative availability of allochthonous and autochthonous DOM, which can have implications for organic matter processing in stream ecosystems. Experimenting with hyporheic biofilms exposed to model allochthonous and autochthonous DOM and using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA (targeting the “active” community composition) and of the 16S rRNA gene (targeting the “bulk” community composition), we found that allochthonous DOM may drive shifts in community composition whereas autochthonous DOM seems to affect community composition only transiently. Our results suggest that priority effects based on resource-driven stochasticity shape the community composition in the hyporheic zone. Furthermore, measurements of extracellular enzymatic activities suggest that the additions of allochthonous and autochthonous DOM had no clear effect on the function of the hyporheic biofilms, indicative of functional redundancy. Our findings unravel possible microbial mechanisms that underlie the buffering capacity of the hyporheic zone and that may confer stability to stream ecosystems. PMID:25063654

  5. New organic-inorganic hybrid material based on functional cellulose nanowhisker, polypseudorotaxane and Au nanorods.

    PubMed

    Garavand, Ali; Dadkhah Tehrani, Abbas

    2016-11-01

    Organic-inorganic functional hybrid materials play a major role in the development of advanced functional materials and recently have gained growing interest of the worldwide community. In this context, new hybrid organic-inorganic gel consisting of cellulose nanowhisker xanthate (CNWX) and S-H functionalized polypseudorotaxane (PPR) as organic parts of gel and gold nanorods (GNRs) as inorganic cross-linking agent were prepared. Firstly, thiolated α-cyclodextrin (α-CD-SH) was threaded onto poly-(ethylene glycol) bis (mercaptoethanoate ester) (PEG-SH) to give polypseudorotaxane (PPR) and then it reacted with GNRs in the presence of CNWX to give the new hybrid gel material. The new synthesized gel and its components characterized by spectroscopic measurement methods such as FT-IR, UV-vis and NMR spectroscopy. Interestingly, hybrid gel showed new polygonal plate like morphology with 45-60nm thickness and 400-600nm width. The obtained gel may have potential application in many fields especially in biomedical applications.

  6. Hypothesis: NDL proteins function in stress responses by regulating microtubule organization.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Nisha; Mudgil, Yashwanti

    2015-01-01

    N-MYC DOWNREGULATED-LIKE proteins (NDL), members of the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily were recently rediscovered as interactors of G-protein signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. Although the precise molecular function of NDL proteins is still elusive, in animals these proteins play protective role in hypoxia and expression is induced by hypoxia and nickel, indicating role in stress. Homology of NDL1 with animal counterpart N-MYC DOWNREGULATED GENE (NDRG) suggests similar functions in animals and plants. It is well established that stress responses leads to the microtubule depolymerization and reorganization which is crucial for stress tolerance. NDRG is a microtubule-associated protein which mediates the microtubule organization in animals by causing acetylation and increases the stability of α-tubulin. As NDL1 is highly homologous to NDRG, involvement of NDL1 in the microtubule organization during plant stress can also be expected. Discovery of interaction of NDL with protein kinesin light chain- related 1, enodomembrane family protein 70, syntaxin-23, tubulin alpha-2 chain, as a part of G protein interactome initiative encourages us to postulate microtubule stabilizing functions for NDL family in plants. Our search for NDL interactors in G protein interactome also predicts the role of NDL proteins in abiotic stress tolerance management. Based on published report in animals and predicted interacting partners for NDL in G protein interactome lead us to hypothesize involvement of NDL in the microtubule organization during abiotic stress management in plants.

  7. Hypothesis: NDL proteins function in stress responses by regulating microtubule organization.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Nisha; Mudgil, Yashwanti

    2015-01-01

    N-MYC DOWNREGULATED-LIKE proteins (NDL), members of the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily were recently rediscovered as interactors of G-protein signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. Although the precise molecular function of NDL proteins is still elusive, in animals these proteins play protective role in hypoxia and expression is induced by hypoxia and nickel, indicating role in stress. Homology of NDL1 with animal counterpart N-MYC DOWNREGULATED GENE (NDRG) suggests similar functions in animals and plants. It is well established that stress responses leads to the microtubule depolymerization and reorganization which is crucial for stress tolerance. NDRG is a microtubule-associated protein which mediates the microtubule organization in animals by causing acetylation and increases the stability of α-tubulin. As NDL1 is highly homologous to NDRG, involvement of NDL1 in the microtubule organization during plant stress can also be expected. Discovery of interaction of NDL with protein kinesin light chain- related 1, enodomembrane family protein 70, syntaxin-23, tubulin alpha-2 chain, as a part of G protein interactome initiative encourages us to postulate microtubule stabilizing functions for NDL family in plants. Our search for NDL interactors in G protein interactome also predicts the role of NDL proteins in abiotic stress tolerance management. Based on published report in animals and predicted interacting partners for NDL in G protein interactome lead us to hypothesize involvement of NDL in the microtubule organization during abiotic stress management in plants. PMID:26583023

  8. Submicron Organic Aerosol Function Groups during the International Chemistry Experiment in the Arctic LOwer Troposphere (ICEALOT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, L. M.; Shaw, P. M.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.

    2008-12-01

    Aerosol organic mass (OM) components are expected to have significant direct and indirect impacts on Arctic climate, especially during springtime Arctic haze. The chemical and physical properties of OM in Arctic aerosol remain largely unconstrained. The R/V Knorr traveled between Iceland and the Barents Sea during the ice-free months of March and April of 2008 and collected submicron particles on teflon filters for Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to identify and quantify organic functional groups. Time series and composition are presented along with air mass back trajectories to indicate source regions. Early findings identify alcohols, alkanes, and carboxylic acids, with smaller amounts of amines, aromatics, alkenes and carbonyls. These data show the important contributions of organic oxygen and nitrogen in the Arctic region. Single particle analysis by Near-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) Scanning Transmission X- ray Microscopy (STXM) provides additional information about the distribution and morphology of the types of organic particles. Comparison to collocated simultaneous measurements by other techniques showed good agreement for OM and oxygenated organic fractions.

  9. 25th anniversary article: progress in chemistry and applications of functional indigos for organic electronics.

    PubMed

    Głowacki, Eric Daniel; Voss, Gundula; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2013-12-17

    Indigo and its derivatives are dyes and pigments with a long and distinguished history in organic chemistry. Recently, applications of this 'old' structure as a functional organic building block for organic electronics applications have renewed interest in these molecules and their remarkable chemical and physical properties. Natural-origin indigos have been processed in fully bio-compatible field effect transistors, operating with ambipolar mobilities up to 0.5 cm(2) /Vs and air-stability. The synthetic derivative isoindigo has emerged as one of the most successful building-blocks for semiconducting polymers for plastic solar cells with efficiencies > 5%. Another isomer of indigo, epindolidione, has also been shown to be one of the best reported organic transistor materials in terms of mobility (∼2 cm(2) /Vs) and stability. This progress report aims to review very recent applications of indigoids in organic electronics, but especially to logically bridge together the hereto independent research directions on indigo, isoindigo, and other materials inspired by historical dye chemistry: a field which was the root of the development of modern chemistry in the first place.

  10. Solution-Processable Organic Semiconductors and Conductors: Viable Materials for Functional Thin-Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2006-03-01

    Large-area displays based on organic materials promise low-cost fabrication, lightweight construction, mechanical flexibility and durability. To truly realize the low-cost aspects of organic electronics, however, conventional high-vacuum deposition technologies will have to be replaced by solution processing methodologies. This need has in turn driven the development of solution-processable organic semiconductors and conductors. We have focused on fabricating thin-film transistors with triethynylsilyl antradithiophene (TES ADT), a solution-processable p-type organic semiconductor. Subjecting the as-cast thin films of TES ADT to short solvent vapor annealing dramatically increases the device characteristics: we observe three orders of magnitude increase in carrier mobility and current on/off ratio, and a decrease in current hysteresis and threshold voltage. The improvement in the electrical characteristics can be directly correlated with morphological transformations during solvent vapor annealing. Our efforts in solution-processable organic conductors focus on water-dispersible polyaniline (PANI). We have fabricated bottom-contact thin-film transistors with PANI electrodes, which function as effectively as gold electrodes, when on-characteristics are concerned. Examination of the linear source-drain voltage regime suggests that PANI devices exhibit markedly less contact resistance than gold devices.

  11. DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.

  12. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  13. Quantifying variability within water samples: the need for adequate subsampling.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Ian; Irvine, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and precise determination of the concentration of nutrients and other substances in waterbodies is an essential requirement for supporting effective management and legislation. Owing primarily to logistic and financial constraints, however, national and regional agencies responsible for monitoring surface waters tend to quantify chemical indicators of water quality using a single sample from each waterbody, thus largely ignoring spatial variability. We show here that total sample variability, which comprises both analytical variability and within-sample heterogeneity, of a number of important chemical indicators of water quality (chlorophyll a, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, soluble molybdate-reactive phosphorus and dissolved inorganic nitrogen) varies significantly both over time and among determinands, and can be extremely high. Within-sample heterogeneity, whose mean contribution to total sample variability ranged between 62% and 100%, was significantly higher in samples taken from rivers compared with those from lakes, and was shown to be reduced by filtration. Our results show clearly that neither a single sample, nor even two sub-samples from that sample is adequate for the reliable, and statistically robust, detection of changes in the quality of surface waters. We recommend strongly that, in situations where it is practicable to take only a single sample from a waterbody, a minimum of three sub-samples are analysed from that sample for robust quantification of both the concentrations of determinands and total sample variability. PMID:17706740

  14. Exposure to Organic Solvents Used in Dry Cleaning Reduces Low and High Level Visual Function

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez Barbosa, Ingrid Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether exposure to occupational levels of organic solvents in the dry cleaning industry is associated with neurotoxic symptoms and visual deficits in the perception of basic visual features such as luminance contrast and colour, higher level processing of global motion and form (Experiment 1), and cognitive function as measured in a visual search task (Experiment 2). Methods The Q16 neurotoxic questionnaire, a commonly used measure of neurotoxicity (by the World Health Organization), was administered to assess the neurotoxic status of a group of 33 dry cleaners exposed to occupational levels of organic solvents (OS) and 35 age-matched non dry-cleaners who had never worked in the dry cleaning industry. In Experiment 1, to assess visual function, contrast sensitivity, colour/hue discrimination (Munsell Hue 100 test), global motion and form thresholds were assessed using computerised psychophysical tests. Sensitivity to global motion or form structure was quantified by varying the pattern coherence of global dot motion (GDM) and Glass pattern (oriented dot pairs) respectively (i.e., the percentage of dots/dot pairs that contribute to the perception of global structure). In Experiment 2, a letter visual-search task was used to measure reaction times (as a function of the number of elements: 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 100) in both parallel and serial search conditions. Results Dry cleaners exposed to organic solvents had significantly higher scores on the Q16 compared to non dry-cleaners indicating that dry cleaners experienced more neurotoxic symptoms on average. The contrast sensitivity function for dry cleaners was significantly lower at all spatial frequencies relative to non dry-cleaners, which is consistent with previous studies. Poorer colour discrimination performance was also noted in dry cleaners than non dry-cleaners, particularly along the blue/yellow axis. In a new finding, we report that global form and motion thresholds for dry cleaners

  15. Functional connectivity of visual cortex in the blind follows retinotopic organization principles

    PubMed Central

    Ovadia-Caro, Smadar; Caramazza, Alfonso; Margulies, Daniel S.; Villringer, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Is visual input during critical periods of development crucial for the emergence of the fundamental topographical mapping of the visual cortex? And would this structure be retained throughout life-long blindness or would it fade as a result of plastic, use-based reorganization? We used functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging based on intrinsic blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations to investigate whether significant traces of topographical mapping of the visual scene in the form of retinotopic organization, could be found in congenitally blind adults. A group of 11 fully and congenitally blind subjects and 18 sighted controls were studied. The blind demonstrated an intact functional connectivity network structural organization of the three main retinotopic mapping axes: eccentricity (centre-periphery), laterality (left-right), and elevation (upper-lower) throughout the retinotopic cortex extending to high-level ventral and dorsal streams, including characteristic eccentricity biases in face- and house-selective areas. Functional connectivity-based topographic organization in the visual cortex was indistinguishable from the normally sighted retinotopic functional connectivity structure as indicated by clustering analysis, and was found even in participants who did not have a typical retinal development in utero (microphthalmics). While the internal structural organization of the visual cortex was strikingly similar, the blind exhibited profound differences in functional connectivity to other (non-visual) brain regions as compared to the sighted, which were specific to portions of V1. Central V1 was more connected to language areas but peripheral V1 to spatial attention and control networks. These findings suggest that current accounts of critical periods and experience-dependent development should be revisited even for primary sensory areas, in that the connectivity basis for visual cortex large-scale topographical organization can develop without any

  16. Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/ sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain s ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable providing imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improves homeostatic function in the human blood pressure regulatory system; improves noise-enhanced muscle spindle function; and improves detection of weak tactile stimuli using mechanical or electrical stimulation. SR noise has been shown to improve postural control when applied as mechanical noise to the soles of the feet, or when applied as electrical noise at the knee and to the back muscles.

  17. Use of anodes with tunable work function for improving organic light-emitting diode performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meng-Chi; Lo, Yen-Ming; Liao, Shih-Fang; Chen, Hsi-Chao; Chang, Hsin-Hua; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Kuo, Chien-Cheng

    2015-12-01

    The effect of reactive gases-oxygen and hydrogen-on the tunable work function of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films was studied. An increase in the work function with an increase in the oxygen flow rate was mainly interpreted as reflecting a decrease in the carrier concentration, which was attributed to the filling of oxygen vacancies. However, a decrease in the carrier concentration would result in the resistivity increasing sharply. This article presents a new concept for improving the performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) through easy and effective hole injection from a multilayer AZO anode to the organic layer. A bilayer AZO film prepared using a tunable work function technique was used to modify the surface of AZO anodes and to ensure that the anodes had low resistivity. The AZO anode stacked with high-work-function AZO films, similar to hole transport buffer layers, had a low turn-on voltage of 2.89 V, and its luminance efficiency and power efficiency were 5.01% and 6.1% greater than those of tin-doped indium oxide anodes used in OLEDs.

  18. Expanding the roles of chromatin insulators in nuclear architecture, chromatin organization and genome function.

    PubMed

    Schoborg, Todd; Labrador, Mariano

    2014-11-01

    Of the numerous classes of elements involved in modulating eukaryotic chromosome structure and function, chromatin insulators arguably remain the most poorly understood in their contribution to these processes in vivo. Indeed, our view of chromatin insulators has evolved dramatically since their chromatin boundary and enhancer blocking properties were elucidated roughly a quarter of a century ago as a result of recent genome-wide, high-throughput methods better suited to probing the role of these elements in their native genomic contexts. The overall theme that has emerged from these studies is that chromatin insulators function as general facilitators of higher-order chromatin loop structures that exert both physical and functional constraints on the genome. In this review, we summarize the result of recent work that supports this idea as well as a number of other studies linking these elements to a diverse array of nuclear processes, suggesting that chromatin insulators exert master control over genome organization and behavior.

  19. Beta-globin locus activation regions: conservation of organization, structure, and function.

    PubMed

    Li, Q L; Zhou, B; Powers, P; Enver, T; Stamatoyannopoulos, G

    1990-11-01

    The human beta-globin locus activation region (LAR) comprises four erythroid-specific DNase I hypersensitive sites (I-IV) thought to be largely responsible for activating the beta-globin domain and facilitating high-level erythroid-specific globin gene expression. We identified the goat beta-globin LAR, determined 10.2 kilobases of its sequence, and demonstrated its function in transgenic mice. The human and goat LARs share 6.5 kilobases of homologous sequences that are as highly conserved as the epsilon-globin gene promoters. Furthermore, the overall spatial organization of the two LARs has been conserved. These results suggest that the functionally relevant regions of the LAR are large and that in addition to their primary structure, the spatial relationship of the conserved elements is important for LAR function.

  20. Neural Systems Approaches to Understanding Major Depressive Disorder: An Intrinsic Functional Organization Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, J. Paul; Chen, Michael C.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research detailing the intrinsic functional organization of the brain provides a unique and useful framework to gain a better understanding of the neural bases of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). In this review, we first present a brief history of neuroimaging research that has increased our understanding of the functional macro-architecture of the brain. From this macro-architectural perspective, we examine the extant body of functional neuroimaging research assessing MDD with a specific emphasis on the contributions of default-mode, executive, and salience networks in this debilitating disorder. Next, we describe recent investigations conducted in our laboratory in which we explicitly adopt a neural-systems perspective in examining the relations among these networks in MDD. Finally, we offer directions for future research that we believe will facilitate the development of more detailed and integrative models of neural dysfunction in depression. PMID:23477309

  1. Metal-organic Frameworks as A Tunable Platform for Designing Functional Molecular Materials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Liu, Demin

    2013-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), also known as coordination polymers, represent an interesting class of crystalline molecular materials that are synthesized by combining metal-connecting points and bridging ligands. The modular nature of and mild conditions for MOF synthesis have permitted the rational structural design of numerous MOFs and the incorporation of various functionalities via constituent building blocks. The resulting designer MOFs have shown promise for applications in a number of areas, including gas storage/separation, nonlinear optics/ferroelectricity, catalysis, energy conversion/storage, chemical sensing, biomedical imaging, and drug delivery. The structure-property relationships of MOFs can also be readily established by taking advantage of the knowledge of their detailed atomic structures, which enables fine-tuning of their functionalities for desired applications. Through the combination of molecular synthesis and crystal engineering MOFs thus present an unprecedented opportunity for the rational and precise design of functional materials. PMID:23944646

  2. Benchmarking Density Functionals on Structural Parameters of Small-/Medium-Sized Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Brémond, Éric; Savarese, Marika; Su, Neil Qiang; Pérez-Jiménez, Ángel José; Xu, Xin; Sancho-García, Juan Carlos; Adamo, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    In this Letter we report the error analysis of 59 exchange-correlation functionals in evaluating the structural parameters of small- and medium-sized organic molecules. From this analysis, recently developed double hybrids, such as xDH-PBE0, emerge as the most reliable methods, while global hybrids confirm their robustness in reproducing molecular structures. Notably the M06-L density functional is the only semilocal method reaching an accuracy comparable to hybrids'. A comparison with errors obtained on energetic databases (including thermochemistry, reaction barriers, and interaction energies) indicate that most of the functionals have a coherent behavior, showing low (or high) deviations on both energy and structure data sets. Only a few of them are more prone toward one of these two properties. PMID:26730741

  3. Two-Dimensional Covalent Organic Frameworks for Carbon Dioxide Capture through Channel-Wall Functionalization

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ning; Chen, Xiong; Krishna, Rajamani; Jiang, Donglin

    2015-01-01

    Ordered open channels found in two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (2D COFs) could enable them to adsorb carbon dioxide. However, the frameworks’ dense layer architecture results in low porosity that has thus far restricted their potential for carbon dioxide adsorption. Here we report a strategy for converting a conventional 2D COF into an outstanding platform for carbon dioxide capture through channel-wall functionalization. The dense layer structure enables the dense integration of functional groups on the channel walls, creating a new version of COFs with high capacity, reusability, selectivity, and separation productivity for flue gas. These results suggest that channel-wall functional engineering could be a facile and powerful strategy to develop 2D COFs for high-performance gas storage and separation. PMID:25613010

  4. Wetting properties of model interphases coated with defined organic functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woche, Susanne K.; Goebel, Marc-O.; Guggenberger, Georg; Tunega, Daniel; Bachmann, Joerg

    2013-04-01

    Surface properties of soil particles are of particular interest regarding transport of water and sorption of solutes, especially hazardous xenobiotic species. Wetting properties (e.g. determined by contact angle, CA), governed by the functional groups exposed, are crucial to understand sorption processes in water repellent soils as well as for the geometry of water films sustaining microbial processes on the pore scale. Natural soil particle surfaces are characterized by a wide variety of mineralogical and chemical compounds. Their composition is almost impossible to identify in full. Hence, in order to get a better understanding about surface properties, an option is the usage of defined model surfaces, whereas the created surface should be comparable to natural soil interphases. We exposed smooth glass surfaces to different silane compounds, resulting in a coating covalently bound to the surface and exhibiting defined organic functional groups towards the pore space. The wetting properties as evaluated by CA and the surface free energy (SFE), calculated according to the Acid-Base Theory, were found to be a function of the specific functional group. Specifically, the treated surfaces showed a large variation of CA and SFE as function of chain length and polarity of the organic functional group. The study of wetting properties was accompanied by XPS analysis for selective detection of chemical compounds of the interphase. As the reaction mechanism of the coating process is known, the resulting interphase structure can be modeled based on energetic considerations. A next step is to use same coatings for the defined modification of the pore surfaces of porous media to study transport and sorption processes in complex three phase systems.

  5. Some problems for representations of brain organization based on activation in functional imaging.

    PubMed

    Sidtis, John J

    2007-08-01

    Functional brain imaging has overshadowed traditional lesion studies in becoming the dominant approach to the study of brain-behavior relationships. The proponents of functional imaging studies frequently argue that this approach provides an advantage over lesion studies by observing normal brain activity in vivo without the disruptive effects of brain damage. However, the enthusiastic onslaught of brain images, frequently presented as veridical representations of mental function, has sometimes overwhelmed some basic facts about brain organization repeatedly observed over more than a century. In particular, the lateralization of speech and language to the left cerebral hemisphere in over 90% of the right-handed population does not appear to have been taken as a serious constraint in the interpretation of imaging results in studies of these functions. This paper reviews a number of areas in which standard activation assumptions yield results that are at odds with clinical experience. The activation approach will be contrasted with a performance-based analysis of functional image data, which, at least in the case of speech production, yields results in better agreement with lesion data. Functional imaging represents enormous opportunities for understanding brain-behavior relationships, but at the present level of understanding of what is being represented in such images, it is premature to adhere to a single approach based on the strong but questionable assumptions inherent in most activation studies. PMID:16938343

  6. Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    This is a list of aerospace organizations and other groups that provides educators with assistance and information in specific areas. Both government and nongovernment organizations are included. (Author/SA)

  7. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  8. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment.

  9. Are women with psychosis receiving adequate cervical cancer screening?

    PubMed Central

    Tilbrook, Devon; Polsky, Jane; Lofters, Aisha

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the rates of cervical cancer screening among female patients with psychosis compared with similar patients without psychosis, as an indicator of the quality of primary preventive health care. DESIGN A retrospective cohort study using medical records between November 1, 2004, and November 1, 2007. SETTING Two urban family medicine clinics associated with an academic hospital in Toronto, Ont. PARTICIPANTS A random sample of female patients with and without psychosis between the ages of 20 and 69 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Number of Papanicolaou tests in a 3-year period. RESULTS Charts for 51 female patients with psychosis and 118 female patients without psychosis were reviewed. Of those women with psychosis, 62.7% were diagnosed with schizophrenia, 19.6% with bipolar disorder, 17.6% with schizoaffective disorder, and 29.4% with other psychotic disorders. Women in both groups were similar in age, rate of comorbidities, and number of full physical examinations. Women with psychosis were significantly more likely to smoke (P < .0001), to have more primary care appointments (P = .035), and to miss appointments (P = .0002) than women without psychosis. After adjustment for age, other psychiatric illnesses, number of physical examinations, number of missed appointments, and having a gynecologist, women with psychosis were significantly less likely to have had a Pap test in the previous 3 years compared with women without psychosis (47.1% vs 73.7%, respectively; odds ratio 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.58). CONCLUSION Women with psychosis are more than 5 times less likely to receive adequate Pap screening compared with the general population despite their increased rates of smoking and increased number of primary care visits. PMID:20393098

  10. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. PMID:26068436

  11. Vapor pressure predictions of multi-functional oxygen-containing organic compounds with COSMO-RS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Bernd; Fulem, Michal; Martins, Mónia A. R.

    2016-05-01

    Given the recent interest in multi-functional oxygen-containing organic compounds and the need of accurate and consistent data, a complete review and systematic analysis of available experimental vapor pressure data, as published in the original work of (Asher et al., 2002), was performed with the ThermoData Engine (TDE). A revised set of critical evaluated vapor pressure data, including their uncertainties based on the principles of dynamic data evaluation, is here recommended for a total of 58 compounds. COSMO-RS was further used for vapor pressure estimations for these compounds. The quality of the results is discussed in terms of the chemical functionalities of the molecules. To illustrate the partition behaviour of the title compounds under ambient conditions, a simple comparison of volatility binning between estimates and measurements was performed. Since the encountered vapor pressures are rather high, with respect to pressure range of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC), a large fraction is expected to stay in the atmosphere rather than to form secondary organic aerosol.

  12. Relationship between organization and function of ribosomal genes in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Karpen, G.H.

    1987-01-01

    In most eukaryotic organisms, the genes that encode the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNAs (rDNA genes) are tandemly repeated, and are located in constitutive heterochromatin and/or centromeric or telomeric regions. P-element mediated transformation was used to investigate the relationship between rDNA organization and function in Drosophila melanogaster. Tritiated-uridine incorporation under heat shock conditions and in situ hybridization to rRNA were used to demonstrate that a single rDNA gene inserted into euchromatin can be transcribed at a high rate, in polytene nuclei. P-element-mediated transformation of a single Drosophila rDNA gene was also utilized to investigate the ability of ribosomal DNA to organize a nucleolus. Cytological approaches demonstrated that structures resembling the endogenous nucleoli were preferentially associated with four different sites of rDNA insertion, in polytene nuclei. These mini-nucleoli also contained components specific to the nucleolus, as shown by in situ hybridization to rRNA and indirect immunofluorescence with an antibody that binds to Drosophila nucleoli. The transformed genes were able to partially rescue mutant phenotypes due to a deficiency of rDNA, indicating that the mini-nucleoli were functional.

  13. RTTN Mutations Link Primary Cilia Function to Organization of the Human Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kheradmand Kia, Sima; Verbeek, Elly; Engelen, Erik; Schot, Rachel; Poot, Raymond A.; de Coo, Irenaeus F.M.; Lequin, Maarten H.; Poulton, Cathryn J.; Pourfarzad, Farzin; Grosveld, Frank G.; Brehm, António; de Wit, Marie Claire Y.; Oegema, Renske; Dobyns, William B.; Verheijen, Frans W.; Mancini, Grazia M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Polymicrogyria is a malformation of the developing cerebral cortex caused by abnormal organization and characterized by many small gyri and fusion of the outer molecular layer. We have identified autosomal-recessive mutations in RTTN, encoding Rotatin, in individuals with bilateral diffuse polymicrogyria from two separate families. Rotatin determines early embryonic axial rotation, as well as anteroposterior and dorsoventral patterning in the mouse. Human Rotatin has recently been identified as a centrosome-associated protein. The Drosophila melanogaster homolog of Rotatin, Ana3, is needed for structural integrity of centrioles and basal bodies and maintenance of sensory neurons. We show that Rotatin colocalizes with the basal bodies at the primary cilium. Cultured fibroblasts from affected individuals have structural abnormalities of the cilia and exhibit downregulation of BMP4, WNT5A, and WNT2B, which are key regulators of cortical patterning and are expressed at the cortical hem, the cortex-organizing center that gives rise to Cajal-Retzius (CR) neurons. Interestingly, we have shown that in mouse embryos, Rotatin colocalizes with CR neurons at the subpial marginal zone. Knockdown experiments in human fibroblasts and neural stem cells confirm a role for RTTN in cilia structure and function. RTTN mutations therefore link aberrant ciliary function to abnormal development and organization of the cortex in human individuals. PMID:22939636

  14. Dynamic OCT for physiological functions of micro organs in human fingers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruna, Masamitsu; Ohmi, Masato; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Fuji, Toshie; Yamada, Akihiro; Saigusa, Hiroyuki; Kuwabara, Mitsuo

    2007-11-01

    OCT is a powerful tool for detection of physiological functions of micro organs underneath the human skin surface, besides the clinical application to ophthalmology, as recently demonstrated by the authors' group. In particular, dynamics of peripheral vessels and eccrin sweat glands can be observed clearly in the time-sequential OCT images. The physiological functions of these micro organs, sweating and blood circulation, are controlled by the skin sympathetic nerve in response to externally applied stress. In this paper, we present microscopically analytical results based on the dynamic OCT of the micro organs in human fingers. In sweating dynamics, it is found that a spiral sweat duct is expanded by abrupt increase of sweat due to application of stress to a volunteer, resulting in remarkable increase of the reflection light intensity of the spiral duct in OCT. Mental-stress-induced sweating in each eccrin sweat gland, therefore, is analyzed quantitatively. Furthermore, dynamic OCT observation of peripheral vessels is interesting. A small vein of a human finger is observed clearly by the TD-OCT, where the vein expands and contracts repeatedly even in the resting state for temperature control on the fingertip. A change in the cross-sectional area of the vein exceeds 80 % for a young volunteer. The dynamic OCT will allow us to propose novel diagnoses of excessive sweating and diseases related to the sympathetic nerve.

  15. 77 FR 76426 - Payout Requirements for Type III Supporting Organizations That Are Not Functionally Integrated

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... affect Type III supporting organizations and their supported organizations. The text of those temporary...), which are known as supporting organizations. The final and temporary regulations provide requirements to... Type III supporting organizations and their supported organizations. The text of those...

  16. Anatase TiO2 nanowires functionalized by organic sensitizers for solar cells: A screened Coulomb hybrid density functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünal, Hatice; Gunceler, Deniz; Gülseren, Oǧuz; Ellialtioǧlu, Şinasi; Mete, Ersen

    2015-11-01

    The adsorption of two different organic molecules cyanidin glucoside (C21O11H20) and TA-St-CA on anatase (101) and (001) nanowires has been investigated using the standard and the range separated hybrid density functional theory calculations. The electronic structures and optical spectra of resulting dye-nanowire combined systems show distinct features for these types of photochromophores. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the natural dye cyanidin glucoside is located below the conduction band of the semiconductor while, in the case of TA-St-CA, it resonates with the states inside the conduction band. The wide-bandgap anatase nanowires can be functionalized for solar cells through electron-hole generation and subsequent charge injection by these dye sensitizers. The intermolecular charge transfer character of Donor-π-Acceptor type dye TA-St-CA is substantially modified by its adsorption on TiO2 surfaces. Cyanidin glucoside exhibits relatively stronger anchoring on the nanowires through its hydroxyl groups. The atomic structures of dye-nanowire systems re-optimized with the inclusion of nonlinear solvation effects showed that the binding strengths of both dyes remain moderate even in ionic solutions.

  17. Organically functionalized mesoporous silica as a support for synthesis and catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEleney, Kevin Andrew

    Mesoporous silicates are excellent materials for supported catalysis due to their ease of functionalization, tunable pore size and high surface areas. Mesoporous silicates have been utilized in a variety of applications such as drug delivery scaffolds and catalyst supports. Functionalization of the surface can be achieved by either grafting of alkoxy silanes or co-condensation of the organosilane with the inorganic silica source. My research in this area can be divided into two components. In the first, we address the significant issue of metal contamination after reactions that are catalyzed by transition metals. In the second, we examine the design of new catalysts based on organic/inorganic composites. Ruthenium catalyzed processes such as olefin metathesis or asymmetric hydrogenation, are often underutilized due to the difficulty of removing the ruthenium by-products. Attempts to remove ruthenium involve treating the solution with a scavenging reagent followed by silica chromatography. Often these scavenging agents are expensive phosphines or toxic agents like lead tetra-acetate. SBA-15 functionalized with aminopropyl triethoxysilane displays a high affinity for ruthenium. Furthermore, it can be utilized to remove ruthenium by-products from olefin metathesis or hydrogenation reactions without the need for silica chromatography. We have also prepared sulfur-functionalized mesoporous silicates that have a high affinity for palladium. The materials after loading prove to be active catalysts for a variety of palladium catalyzed processes such as Suzuki-Miyaura and Sonogashira couplings. The catalysts are recyclable with moderate loss of activity and structure, depending on the method of incorporation of the thiol. We have characterized the as-synthesized and used catalysts by nitrogen sorption, TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and a variety of homogeneity tests were performed on the catalysts. Periodic mesoporous organosilicates (PMOs) are a well known

  18. The face that sank the Essex: potential function of the spermaceti organ in aggression.

    PubMed

    Carrier, David R; Deban, Stephen M; Otterstrom, Jason

    2002-06-01

    'Forehead to forehead I meet thee, this third time, Moby Dick!' [Ahab (Melville, 1851)] Herman Melville's fictional portrayal of the sinking of the Pequod was inspired by instances in which large sperm whales sank whaling ships by ramming the ships with their heads. Observations of aggression in species of the four major clades of cetacean and the artiodactyl outgroup suggest that head-butting during male-male aggression is a basal behavior for cetaceans. We hypothesize that the ability of sperm whales to destroy stout wooden ships, 3-5 times their body mass, is a product of specialization for male-male aggression. Specifically, we suggest that the greatly enlarged and derived melon of sperm whales, the spermaceti organ, evolved as a battering ram to injure an opponent. To address this hypothesis, we examined the correlation between relative melon size and the level of sexual dimorphism in body size among cetaceans. We also modeled impacts between two equal-sized sperm whales to determine whether it is physically possible for the spermaceti organ to function as an effective battering ram. We found (i) that the evolution of relative melon size in cetaceans is positively correlated with the evolution of sexual dimorphism in body size and (ii) that the spermaceti organ of a charging sperm whale has enough momentum to seriously injure an opponent. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the spermaceti organ has evolved to be a weapon used in male-male aggression. PMID:12042334

  19. Expression and function of the empty spiracles gene in olfactory sense organ development of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sonia; Hartmann, Beate; Reichert, Heinrich; Rodrigues, Veronica

    2010-11-01

    In Drosophila, the cephalic gap gene empty spiracles plays key roles in embryonic patterning of the peripheral and central nervous system. During postembryonic development, it is involved in the development of central olfactory circuitry in the antennal lobe of the adult. However, its possible role in the postembryonic development of peripheral olfactory sense organs has not been investigated. Here, we show that empty spiracles acts in a subset of precursors that generate the olfactory sense organs of the adult antenna. All empty spiracles-expressing precursor cells co-express the proneural gene amos and the early patterning gene lozenge. Moreover, the expression of empty spiracles in these precursor cells is dependent on both amos and lozenge. Functional analysis reveals two distinct roles of empty spiracles in the development of olfactory sense organs. Genetic interaction studies in a lozenge-sensitized background uncover a requirement of empty spiracles in the formation of trichoid and basiconic olfactory sensilla. MARCM-based clonal mutant analysis reveals an additional role during axonal targeting of olfactory sensory neurons to glomeruli within the antennal lobe. Our findings on empty spiracles action in olfactory sense organ development complement previous studies that demonstrate its requirement in olfactory interneurons and, taken together with studies on the murine homologs of empty spiracles, suggest that conserved molecular genetic programs might be responsible for the formation of both peripheral and central olfactory circuitry in insects and mammals.

  20. Structural and functional shifts in zoobenthos induced by organic enrichment — Implications for community recovery potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villnäs, A.; Perus, J.; Bonsdorff, E.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat change induced by organic enrichment is a growing concern for the sustainability of benthic communities in coastal aquatic environments. This case study describes the spatial and temporal response patterns and the recovery potential of low-diversity benthic communities to organic enrichment at two fish farm locations, during the rearing periods (15 and 20 years, respectively) and the following recovery periods (2 years). The spatial extent of disturbance differed depending on the hydromorphological characteristics of the rearing sites, but degraded macrobenthic communities close to both fish farms were recorded soon after the activity started. Continued organic enrichment resulted in high species turnover-rates and in an altered benthic community composition at both locations. After fish farm abatement, a partial recovery was detected in species richness, but abundance and biomass values were reduced and changes in structural composition remained. Alterations in benthic biological traits were observed at both fish farm locations, implying that organic enrichment might cause changes in benthic community function within low-diversity benthic communities.

  1. The face that sank the Essex: potential function of the spermaceti organ in aggression.

    PubMed

    Carrier, David R; Deban, Stephen M; Otterstrom, Jason

    2002-06-01

    'Forehead to forehead I meet thee, this third time, Moby Dick!' [Ahab (Melville, 1851)] Herman Melville's fictional portrayal of the sinking of the Pequod was inspired by instances in which large sperm whales sank whaling ships by ramming the ships with their heads. Observations of aggression in species of the four major clades of cetacean and the artiodactyl outgroup suggest that head-butting during male-male aggression is a basal behavior for cetaceans. We hypothesize that the ability of sperm whales to destroy stout wooden ships, 3-5 times their body mass, is a product of specialization for male-male aggression. Specifically, we suggest that the greatly enlarged and derived melon of sperm whales, the spermaceti organ, evolved as a battering ram to injure an opponent. To address this hypothesis, we examined the correlation between relative melon size and the level of sexual dimorphism in body size among cetaceans. We also modeled impacts between two equal-sized sperm whales to determine whether it is physically possible for the spermaceti organ to function as an effective battering ram. We found (i) that the evolution of relative melon size in cetaceans is positively correlated with the evolution of sexual dimorphism in body size and (ii) that the spermaceti organ of a charging sperm whale has enough momentum to seriously injure an opponent. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the spermaceti organ has evolved to be a weapon used in male-male aggression.

  2. Expression and function of the empty spiracles gene in olfactory sense organ development of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sonia; Hartmann, Beate; Reichert, Heinrich; Rodrigues, Veronica

    2010-11-01

    In Drosophila, the cephalic gap gene empty spiracles plays key roles in embryonic patterning of the peripheral and central nervous system. During postembryonic development, it is involved in the development of central olfactory circuitry in the antennal lobe of the adult. However, its possible role in the postembryonic development of peripheral olfactory sense organs has not been investigated. Here, we show that empty spiracles acts in a subset of precursors that generate the olfactory sense organs of the adult antenna. All empty spiracles-expressing precursor cells co-express the proneural gene amos and the early patterning gene lozenge. Moreover, the expression of empty spiracles in these precursor cells is dependent on both amos and lozenge. Functional analysis reveals two distinct roles of empty spiracles in the development of olfactory sense organs. Genetic interaction studies in a lozenge-sensitized background uncover a requirement of empty spiracles in the formation of trichoid and basiconic olfactory sensilla. MARCM-based clonal mutant analysis reveals an additional role during axonal targeting of olfactory sensory neurons to glomeruli within the antennal lobe. Our findings on empty spiracles action in olfactory sense organ development complement previous studies that demonstrate its requirement in olfactory interneurons and, taken together with studies on the murine homologs of empty spiracles, suggest that conserved molecular genetic programs might be responsible for the formation of both peripheral and central olfactory circuitry in insects and mammals. PMID:20940227

  3. Functional Analysis and Discovery of Microbial Genes Transforming Metallic and Organic Pollutants: Database and Experimental Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence P. Wackett; Lynda B.M. Ellis

    2004-12-09

    Microbial functional genomics is faced with a burgeoning list of genes which are denoted as unknown or hypothetical for lack of any knowledge about their function. The majority of microbial genes encode enzymes. Enzymes are the catalysts of metabolism; catabolism, anabolism, stress responses, and many other cell functions. A major problem facing microbial functional genomics is proposed here to derive from the breadth of microbial metabolism, much of which remains undiscovered. The breadth of microbial metabolism has been surveyed by the PIs and represented according to reaction types on the University of Minnesota Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database (UM-BBD): http://umbbd.ahc.umn.edu/search/FuncGrps.html The database depicts metabolism of 49 chemical functional groups, representing most of current knowledge. Twice that number of chemical groups are proposed here to be metabolized by microbes. Thus, at least 50% of the unique biochemical reactions catalyzed by microbes remain undiscovered. This further suggests that many unknown and hypothetical genes encode functions yet undiscovered. This gap will be partly filled by the current proposal. The UM-BBD will be greatly expanded as a resource for microbial functional genomics. Computational methods will be developed to predict microbial metabolism which is not yet discovered. Moreover, a concentrated effort to discover new microbial metabolism will be conducted. The research will focus on metabolism of direct interest to DOE, dealing with the transformation of metals, metalloids, organometallics and toxic organics. This is precisely the type of metabolism which has been characterized most poorly to date. Moreover, these studies will directly impact functional genomic analysis of DOE-relevant genomes.

  4. An indium-free low work function window electrode for organic photovoltaics which improves with in-situ oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Oliver S; Stec, Helena M; Hatton, Ross A

    2013-01-11

    A low-cost window electrode for organic photovoltaics that simultaneously removes the requirement for conducting oxide and conventional low work function electrodes and functions as a sink for oxygen/water in the heart of the device. Remarkably the functionality of this electrode, which is based on a 7.8 nm nanostructured Cu:Al film, improves upon in situ oxidation as demonstrated in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics. PMID:23108998

  5. Metabolic activity and functional diversity changes in sediment prokaryotic communities organically enriched with mussel biodeposits.

    PubMed

    Pollet, Thomas; Cloutier, Olivier; Nozais, Christian; McKindsey, Christopher W; Archambault, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This experimental microcosm study reports the influence of organic enrichments by mussel biodeposits on the metabolic activity and functional diversity of benthic prokaryotic communities. The different biodeposit enrichment regimes created, which mimicked the quantity of faeces and pseudo-faeces potentially deposited below mussel farms, show a clear stimulatory effect of this organic enrichment on prokaryotic metabolic activity. This effect was detected once a certain level of biodeposition was attained with a tipping point estimated between 3.25 and 10 g day-1 m-2. Prokaryotic communities recovered their initial metabolic activity by 11 days after the cessation of biodeposit additions. However, their functional diversity remained greater than prior to the disturbance suggesting that mussel biodeposit enrichment may disturb the functioning and perhaps the role of prokaryotic communities in benthic ecosystems. This manipulative approach provided new information on the influence of mussel biodeposition on benthic prokaryotic communities and dose-response relationships and may support the development of carrying capacity models for bivalve culture.

  6. Metabolic Activity and Functional Diversity Changes in Sediment Prokaryotic Communities Organically Enriched with Mussel Biodeposits

    PubMed Central

    Pollet, Thomas; Cloutier, Olivier; Nozais, Christian; McKindsey, Christopher W.; Archambault, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This experimental microcosm study reports the influence of organic enrichments by mussel biodeposits on the metabolic activity and functional diversity of benthic prokaryotic communities. The different biodeposit enrichment regimes created, which mimicked the quantity of faeces and pseudo-faeces potentially deposited below mussel farms, show a clear stimulatory effect of this organic enrichment on prokaryotic metabolic activity. This effect was detected once a certain level of biodeposition was attained with a tipping point estimated between 3.25 and 10 g day-1 m-2. Prokaryotic communities recovered their initial metabolic activity by 11 days after the cessation of biodeposit additions. However, their functional diversity remained greater than prior to the disturbance suggesting that mussel biodeposit enrichment may disturb the functioning and perhaps the role of prokaryotic communities in benthic ecosystems. This manipulative approach provided new information on the influence of mussel biodeposition on benthic prokaryotic communities and dose-response relationships and may support the development of carrying capacity models for bivalve culture. PMID:25923715

  7. Functions of tocopherols in the cells of plants and other photosynthetic organisms.

    PubMed

    Mokrosnop, V M

    2014-01-01

    Tocopherol synthesis has only been observed in photosynthetic organisms (plants, algae and some cyanobacteria). Tocopherol is synthesized in the inner membrane of chloroplasts and distributed between chloroplast membranes, thylakoids and plastoglobules. Physiological significance of tocopherols for human and animal is well-studied, but relatively little is known about their function in plant organisms. Among the best characterized functions oftocopherols in cells is their ability to scavenge and quench reactive oxygen species and fat-soluble by-products of oxidative stress. There are the data on the participation of different mechanisms of α-tocopherol action in protecting photosystem II (PS II) from photoinhibition both by deactivation of singlet oxygen produced by PSII and by reduction of proton permeability of thylakoid membranes, leading to acidification of lumen under high light conditions and activation of violaxanthin de-epoxidase. Additional biological activity of tocopherols, independent of its antioxidant functions have been demonstrated. Basic mechanisms for these effects are connected with the modulation of signal transduction pathways by specific tocopherols and, in some instances, by transcriptional activation of gene expression.

  8. POPCORN functions in the auxin pathway to regulate embryonic body plan and meristem organization in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Daoquan; Yang, Hui; Venglat, Prakash; Cao, Yongguo; Wen, Rui; Ren, Maozhi; Stone, Sandra; Wang, Edwin; Wang, Hong; Xiao, Wei; Weijers, Dolf; Berleth, Thomas; Laux, Thomas; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Datla, Raju

    2011-12-01

    The shoot and root apical meristems (SAM and RAM) formed during embryogenesis are crucial for postembryonic plant development. We report the identification of POPCORN (PCN), a gene required for embryo development and meristem organization in Arabidopsis thaliana. Map-based cloning revealed that PCN encodes a WD-40 protein expressed both during embryo development and postembryonically in the SAM and RAM. The two pcn alleles identified in this study are temperature sensitive, showing defective embryo development when grown at 22°C that is rescued when grown at 29°C. In pcn mutants, meristem-specific expression of WUSCHEL (WUS), CLAVATA3, and WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX5 is not maintained; SHOOTMERISTEMLESS, BODENLOS (BDL) and MONOPTEROS (MP) are misexpressed. Several findings link PCN to auxin signaling and meristem function: ectopic expression of DR5(rev):green fluorescent protein (GFP), pBDL:BDL-GFP, and pMP:MP-β-glucuronidase in the meristem; altered polarity and expression of pPIN1:PIN1-GFP in the apical domain of the developing embryo; and resistance to auxin in the pcn mutants. The bdl mutation rescued embryo lethality of pcn, suggesting that improper auxin response is involved in pcn defects. Furthermore, WUS, PINFORMED1, PINOID, and TOPLESS are dosage sensitive in pcn, suggesting functional interaction. Together, our results suggest that PCN functions in the auxin pathway, integrating auxin signaling in the organization and maintenance of the SAM and RAM.

  9. Mineral and organic growing media have distinct community structure, stability and functionality in soilless culture systems

    PubMed Central

    Grunert, Oliver; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Jauregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar H.; Perneel, Maaike; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Reheul, Dirk; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The choice of soilless growing medium for plant nutrition, growth and support is crucial for improving the eco-sustainability of the production in horticultural systems. As our current understanding of the functional microbial communities inhabiting this ecosystem is still limited, we examined the microbial community development of the two most important growing media (organic and mineral) used in open soilless horticultural systems. We aimed to identify factors that influence community composition over time, and to compare the distribution of individual taxa across growing media, and their potential functionality. High throughput sequencing analysis revealed a distinctive and stable microbial community in the organic growing medium. Humidity, pH, nitrate-N, ammonium-N and conductivity were uncovered as the main factors associated with the resident bacterial communities. Ammonium-N was correlated with Rhizobiaceae abundance, while potential competitive interactions among both Methylophilaceae and Actinobacteridae with Rhizobiaceae were suggested. Our results revealed that soilless growing media are unique niches for diverse bacterial communities with temporal functional stability, which may possibly impact the resistance to external forces. These differences in communities can be used to develop strategies to move towards a sustainable horticulture with increased productivity and quality. PMID:26728128

  10. The functional micro-organization of grid cells revealed by cellular-resolution imaging

    PubMed Central

    Heys, James G.; Rangarajan, Krsna V.; Dombeck, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Establishing how grid cells are anatomically arranged, on a microscopic scale, in relation to their firing patterns in the environment would facilitate a greater micro-circuit level understanding of the brain’s representation of space. However, all previous grid cell recordings used electrode techniques that provide limited descriptions of fine-scale organization. We therefore developed a technique for cellular-resolution functional imaging of medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) neurons in mice navigating a virtual linear track, enabling a new experimental approach to study MEC. Using these methods, we show that grid cells are physically clustered in MEC compared to non-grid cells. Additionally, we demonstrate that grid cells are functionally micro-organized: The similarity between the environment firing locations of grid cell pairs varies as a function of the distance between them according to a “Mexican Hat” shaped profile. This suggests that, on average, nearby grid cells have more similar spatial firing phases than those further apart. PMID:25467986

  11. Affect and the Brain's Functional Organization: A Resting-State Connectivity Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rohr, Christiane S.; Okon-Singer, Hadas; Craddock, R. Cameron; Villringer, Arno; Margulies, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    The question of how affective processing is organized in the brain is still a matter of controversial discussions. Based on previous initial evidence, several suggestions have been put forward regarding the involved brain areas: (a) right-lateralized dominance in emotional processing, (b) hemispheric dominance according to positive or negative valence, (c) one network for all emotional processing and (d) region-specific discrete emotion matching. We examined these hypotheses by investigating intrinsic functional connectivity patterns that covary with results of the Positive and Negative Affective Schedule (PANAS) from 65 participants. This approach has the advantage of being able to test connectivity rather than activation, and not requiring a potentially confounding task. Voxelwise functional connectivity from 200 regions-of-interest covering the whole brain was assessed. Positive and negative affect covaried with functional connectivity involving a shared set of regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate, the visual cortex and the cerebellum. In addition, each affective domain had unique connectivity patterns, and the lateralization index showed a right hemispheric dominance for negative affect. Therefore, our results suggest a predominantly right-hemispheric network with affect-specific elements as the underlying organization of emotional processes. PMID:23935850

  12. [Anesthesia for geriatric patients. Part 1: age, organ function and typical diseases].

    PubMed

    Herminghaus, A; Löser, S; Wilhelm, W

    2012-02-01

    Due to demographic changes in the population of industrial nations the number of elderly patients undergoing elective or emergency procedures will rise significantly in the coming years. Anesthesia for geriatric patients is challenging for the anesthesiologist in many ways: with increasing age numerous physiological changes occur which all lead to a subsequent reduction of physical performance and compensatory capacity of the organism, in many cases additionally aggravated by chronic illness. Subsequently, these age-dependent changes (with or without chronic illness) increase the risk for admission to intensive care units, perioperative death, treatment costs and a prolonged length of hospital stay. Therefore, subtle preoperative assessment and tailored anesthetic management are essential in elderly patients. Part 1 of this continuous education article covers the influence of age on organ functions and describes typical comorbidities which are of high relevance for the perioperative care of geriatric patients. The special features of anesthetic agents and anesthesia management in the elderly will be presented in part 2.

  13. Functional dissociation in sweet taste receptor neurons between and within taste organs of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Vladimiros; Knapek, Stephan; Arai, Shogo; Hartl, Marion; Kohsaka, Hiroshi; Sirigrivatanawong, Pudith; Abe, Ayako; Hashimoto, Koichi; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2016-02-19

    Finding food sources is essential for survival. Insects detect nutrients with external taste receptor neurons. Drosophila possesses multiple taste organs that are distributed throughout its body. However, the role of different taste organs in feeding remains poorly understood. By blocking subsets of sweet taste receptor neurons, we show that receptor neurons in the legs are required for immediate sugar choice. Furthermore, we identify two anatomically distinct classes of sweet taste receptor neurons in the leg. The axonal projections of one class terminate in the thoracic ganglia, whereas the other projects directly to the brain. These two classes are functionally distinct: the brain-projecting neurons are involved in feeding initiation, whereas the thoracic ganglia-projecting neurons play a role in sugar-dependent suppression of locomotion. Distinct receptor neurons for the same taste quality may coordinate early appetitive responses, taking advantage of the legs as the first appendages to contact food.

  14. Immunogenicity and functional evaluation of iPSC-derived organs for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Libin; Cao, Jiani; Wang, Yukai; Lan, Tianshu; Liu, Lei; Wang, Weixu; Jin, Ning; Gong, Jiaqi; Zhang, Chao; Teng, Fei; Yan, Guoliang; Li, Chun; Li, Jiali; Wan, Haifeng; Hu, Baoyang; Li, Wei; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Qi, Zhongquan; Zhao, Tongbiao; Zhou, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Whether physiologically induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived organs are immunogenic and can be used for transplantation is unclear. Here, we generated iPSC-derived skin, islet, and heart representing three germ layers of the body through 4n complementation and evaluated their immunogenicity and therapeutic efficacy. Upon transplantation into recipient mice, iPSC-derived skin successfully survived and repaired local tissue wounds. In diabetic mouse models, explanted iPSC-derived islets effectively produced insulin and lowered blood glucose to basal levels. iPSC-derived heart grafts maintained normal beating for more than 3 months in syngeneic recipients. Importantly, no obvious immune rejection responses against iPSC-derived organs were detected long after transplantation. Our study not only demonstrates the fundamental immunogenicity and function of iPSC derivatives, but also provides preclinical evidence to support the feasibility of using iPSC-derived skin, islet, and heart for therapeutic use.

  15. Total-scattering pair-distribution function of organic material from powder electron diffraction data

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelik, Tatiana E.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.; Kolb, Ute

    2015-04-01

    This paper shows for the first time that pair-distribution function analyses can be carried out on organic and organo-metallic compounds from powder electron diffraction data. Different experimental setups are demonstrated, including selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nanodiffraction in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or nanodiffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) modes. The methods were demonstrated on organo-metallic complexes (chlorinated and unchlorinated copper-phthalocyanine) and on purely organic compounds (quinacridone). The PDF curves from powder electron diffraction data, called ePDF, are in good agreement with PDF curves determined from X-ray powder data demonstrating that the problems of obtaining kinematical scattering data and avoiding beam-damage of the sample are possible to resolve.

  16. Total-scattering pair-distribution function of organic material from powder electron diffraction data.

    PubMed

    Gorelik, Tatiana E; Schmidt, Martin U; Kolb, Ute; Billinge, Simon J L

    2015-04-01

    This paper shows that pair-distribution function (PDF) analyses can be carried out on organic and organometallic compounds from powder electron diffraction data. Different experimental setups are demonstrated, including selected area electron diffraction and nanodiffraction in transmission electron microscopy or nanodiffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy modes. The methods were demonstrated on organometallic complexes (chlorinated and unchlorinated copper phthalocyanine) and on purely organic compounds (quinacridone). The PDF curves from powder electron diffraction data, called ePDF, are in good agreement with PDF curves determined from X-ray powder data demonstrating that the problems of obtaining kinematical scattering data and avoiding beam damage of the sample are possible to resolve. PMID:25510245

  17. Total-scattering pair-distribution function of organic material from powder electron diffraction data

    DOE PAGES

    Gorelik, Tatiana E.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.; Kolb, Ute

    2015-04-01

    This paper shows for the first time that pair-distribution function analyses can be carried out on organic and organo-metallic compounds from powder electron diffraction data. Different experimental setups are demonstrated, including selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nanodiffraction in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or nanodiffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) modes. The methods were demonstrated on organo-metallic complexes (chlorinated and unchlorinated copper-phthalocyanine) and on purely organic compounds (quinacridone). The PDF curves from powder electron diffraction data, called ePDF, are in good agreement with PDF curves determined from X-ray powder data demonstrating that the problems of obtaining kinematical scattering datamore » and avoiding beam-damage of the sample are possible to resolve.« less

  18. Functional dissociation in sweet taste receptor neurons between and within taste organs of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Vladimiros; Knapek, Stephan; Arai, Shogo; Hartl, Marion; Kohsaka, Hiroshi; Sirigrivatanawong, Pudith; Abe, Ayako; Hashimoto, Koichi; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    Finding food sources is essential for survival. Insects detect nutrients with external taste receptor neurons. Drosophila possesses multiple taste organs that are distributed throughout its body. However, the role of different taste organs in feeding remains poorly understood. By blocking subsets of sweet taste receptor neurons, we show that receptor neurons in the legs are required for immediate sugar choice. Furthermore, we identify two anatomically distinct classes of sweet taste receptor neurons in the leg. The axonal projections of one class terminate in the thoracic ganglia, whereas the other projects directly to the brain. These two classes are functionally distinct: the brain-projecting neurons are involved in feeding initiation, whereas the thoracic ganglia-projecting neurons play a role in sugar-dependent suppression of locomotion. Distinct receptor neurons for the same taste quality may coordinate early appetitive responses, taking advantage of the legs as the first appendages to contact food. PMID:26893070

  19. Functional dissociation in sweet taste receptor neurons between and within taste organs of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Vladimiros; Knapek, Stephan; Arai, Shogo; Hartl, Marion; Kohsaka, Hiroshi; Sirigrivatanawong, Pudith; Abe, Ayako; Hashimoto, Koichi; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    Finding food sources is essential for survival. Insects detect nutrients with external taste receptor neurons. Drosophila possesses multiple taste organs that are distributed throughout its body. However, the role of different taste organs in feeding remains poorly understood. By blocking subsets of sweet taste receptor neurons, we show that receptor neurons in the legs are required for immediate sugar choice. Furthermore, we identify two anatomically distinct classes of sweet taste receptor neurons in the leg. The axonal projections of one class terminate in the thoracic ganglia, whereas the other projects directly to the brain. These two classes are functionally distinct: the brain-projecting neurons are involved in feeding initiation, whereas the thoracic ganglia-projecting neurons play a role in sugar-dependent suppression of locomotion. Distinct receptor neurons for the same taste quality may coordinate early appetitive responses, taking advantage of the legs as the first appendages to contact food. PMID:26893070

  20. The Relationship of Liver Function Tests to Mixed Exposure to Lead and Organic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aims to compare liver function indices (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], and gamma glutamyl transferase [GGT]) among males who work with lead, organic solvents, or both lead and organic solvents, under the permissible exposure limit (PEL). Methods A total of 593 (out of 2,218) male workers who agreed to share their personal health information for medical research were selected for this study. Those excluded were hepatitis B carriers, individuals exposed to occupational risk factors other than lead and organic solvents, and individuals without liver function results. The 593 were divided into five groups: a lead-exposed group, an organic solvent-exposed group exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE co-exposed solvent group), an organic solvent-exposed group not exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE non-exposed solvent group), a lead and organic solvent-exposed group (mixed exposure group), and a non-exposed group (control group). We performed a one way-analysis of variance (one way-ANOVA) test to compare the geometric means of liver function indices among the groups, using a general linear model (GLM) to adjust for age, work duration, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol intake. In addition, we performed a binary logistic regression analysis to compare the odds ratios among groups with an abnormal liver function index, according to a cut-off value. Results The ALT and AST of the mixed exposure group were higher than those of the other groups. The GGT of the mixed exposure group was higher than the TCE co-exposed solvent group, but there was no difference among the control group, TCE non-exposed solvent group, lead-exposed group, and mixed exposure group. The same result was evident after adjusting by GLM for age, work duration, BMI, smoking, and alcohol intake, except that ALT from the mixed exposure group showed no difference from the TCE co-exposed solvent group. When the cut-off values of the AST, ALT, and GGT

  1. Bridging Between Proline Structure, Functions, Metabolism, and Involvement in Organism Physiology.

    PubMed

    Saibi, Walid; Feki, Kaouthar; Yacoubi, Ines; Brini, Faiçal

    2015-08-01

    Much is now known about proline multifunctionality and metabolism; some aspects of its biological functions are still unclear. Here, we discuss some cases in the proline, structure, definition, metabolism, compartmentalization, accumulation, plausible functions and also its implication in homeostasis and organism physiology. Indeed, we report the role of proline in cellular homeostasis, including redox balance and energy status and their implication as biocatalyst for aldolase activity. Proline can act as a signaling molecule to modulate mitochondrial functions, influence cell proliferation or cell death, and trigger specific gene expression, which can be essential for plant recovery from stresses. Although, the regulation and the function of proline accumulation, during abiotic stresses, are not yet completely understood. The engineering of proline metabolism could lead to new opportunities to improve plant tolerance against environmental stresses. This atypical amino acid has a potential role in the toxicity during growth of some microorganism, vegetal, and mammalian species. Furthermore, we note that the purpose through the work is to provide a rich, concise, and mostly cohesive source on proline, considered as a platform and an anchor between several disciplines and biological functions.

  2. [Thyroid function in organic lesions of the hypothalamo-pituitary area].

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Jadwiga; Bohdanowicz-Pawlak, Anna; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Gratyna; Bidzińska, Bozena; Dunajska, Katarzyna

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our work was the retrospective evaluation of thyroid function in patients with organic lesions of hypothalamo-pituitary system. In the group of 57 examined patients (31 females and 26 males), 43 were affected by pituitary adenomas, in the other patients organic lesions were caused by other tumors of central nervous system (2), tuberculosis (3) developmental or vascular disorders (5), nonspecific inflammation (1). Pituitary tumors (predominantly macroadenomas) were the cause of acromegaly in 14 cases, Cushing's disease in 9 and hyperprolactinaemia in 5. Next 14 subjects, were affected by nonsecreting pituitary tumors with a visual-field defects or different level of hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus hypothalamo-hypophyseal. In 6 persons clinical manifestations of hypothyroidism with a low level of free thyroxin and normal TSH were observed. Surgical cure with transsphenoidal or transcranial operation was performed in 54 patients. Next 23 of the patients had lowered thyroxine level as a consequence of surgery. Considering the whole 57 person group with organic lesions of the hypothalamo-pituitary system, 29 patients (50.8%) were affected by secondary or tertiary hypothyroidism as a result of sellar and parasellar area illness or their surgical treatment. We didn't observe any correlation between TSH and FT4 in the patients with normal or low plasma FT4 levels. (1) secondary or tertiary hypothyroidism is a common consequence of organic lesions of the sellar and parasellar area or is due by their surgical treatment; (2) laboratory examination of thyroid function in these patients can not be evaluated only by TSH assessment, but also by thyroid hormone plasma level estimation because of the disturbances in thyroid an hypothalamo-pituitary system feedback. PMID:16238121

  3. Ultrafast charge-transfer in organic photovoltaic interfaces: geometrical and functionalization effects.

    PubMed

    Santos, Elton J G; Wang, W L

    2016-09-21

    Understanding the microscopic mechanisms of electronic excitation in organic photovoltaic cells is a challenging problem in the design of efficient devices capable of performing sunlight harvesting. Here we develop and apply an ab initio approach based on time-dependent density functional theory and Ehrenfest dynamics to investigate photoinduced charge transfer in small organic molecules. Our calculations include mixed quantum-classical dynamics with ions moving classically and electrons quantum mechanically, where no experimental external parameter other than the material geometry is required. We show that the behavior of photocarriers in zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and C60 systems, an effective prototype system for organic solar cells, is sensitive to the atomic orientation of the donor and the acceptor units as well as the functionalization of covalent molecules at the interface. In particular, configurations with the ZnPc molecules facing on C60 facilitate charge transfer between substrate and molecules that occurs within 200 fs. In contrast, configurations where ZnPc is tilted above C60 present extremely low carrier injection efficiency even at longer times as an effect of the larger interfacial potential level offset and higher energetic barrier between the donor and acceptor molecules. An enhancement of charge injection into C60 at shorter times is observed as binding groups connect ZnPc and C60 in a dyad system. Our results demonstrate a promising way of designing and controlling photoinduced charge transfer on the atomic level in organic devices that would lead to efficient carrier separation and maximize device performance. PMID:27314747

  4. Ultrafast charge-transfer in organic photovoltaic interfaces: geometrical and functionalization effects.

    PubMed

    Santos, Elton J G; Wang, W L

    2016-09-21

    Understanding the microscopic mechanisms of electronic excitation in organic photovoltaic cells is a challenging problem in the design of efficient devices capable of performing sunlight harvesting. Here we develop and apply an ab initio approach based on time-dependent density functional theory and Ehrenfest dynamics to investigate photoinduced charge transfer in small organic molecules. Our calculations include mixed quantum-classical dynamics with ions moving classically and electrons quantum mechanically, where no experimental external parameter other than the material geometry is required. We show that the behavior of photocarriers in zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and C60 systems, an effective prototype system for organic solar cells, is sensitive to the atomic orientation of the donor and the acceptor units as well as the functionalization of covalent molecules at the interface. In particular, configurations with the ZnPc molecules facing on C60 facilitate charge transfer between substrate and molecules that occurs within 200 fs. In contrast, configurations where ZnPc is tilted above C60 present extremely low carrier injection efficiency even at longer times as an effect of the larger interfacial potential level offset and higher energetic barrier between the donor and acceptor molecules. An enhancement of charge injection into C60 at shorter times is observed as binding groups connect ZnPc and C60 in a dyad system. Our results demonstrate a promising way of designing and controlling photoinduced charge transfer on the atomic level in organic devices that would lead to efficient carrier separation and maximize device performance.

  5. Expression and function of organic cation and anion transporters (SLC22 family) in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Farthing, Christine A; Sweet, Douglas H

    2014-01-01

    A major function of the blood brain barrier (BBB) and blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) is to exert selective control over the flux of organic cations and anions into and out of the CNS compartment. These barriers are dynamic tissues that accomplish this task by expressing dozens of transporter proteins representing numerous transporter families. One such family, belonging to the Solute Carrier (SLC) superfamily, is the organic cation/anion/zwitterion (SLC22) family of transporters, which includes the organic cation transporters (OCTs/OCTNs) and organic anion transporters (OATs). SLC22 transporters interact with a broad range of compounds that include drugs of abuse, environmental toxins/toxicants, opioid analgesics, antidepressant and anxiolytic agents and neurotransmitters and their metabolites. Defining the transport mechanisms controlling the CNS penetration, disposition and clearance of such compounds is fundamental to advancing our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that regulate CNS homeostasis and impact neuronal health. Such information might help direct efforts to improve the efficacy and clinical outcomes of current and future therapeutic agents used in the treatment of CNS disorders. This review focuses on highlighting the identification of the SLC22 transporter family, current knowledge of OCT and OAT expression within the CNS (including brain capillaries, choroid plexus and brain regions relevant to monoaminergic neuronal signaling), and recent data regarding behavioral changes related to mood and anxiety disorders and altered responses to stimulants and antidepressants in SLC22 loss of functions models (knockout/knockdown). In vitro and in vivo evidence of SLC22 localization and transport characteristics within the CNS compartment are summarized.

  6. The impact of off-pump surgery in end-organ function: practical end-points.

    PubMed

    Parissis, Haralabos; Mbarushimana, Simon; Ramesh, Bandigowdanapalya C; Parissis, Mondrian; Lampridis, Savvas; Mhandu, Peter; Al-Alao, Bassel

    2015-01-01

    Most surgeons perform coronary bypass surgery with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass, which inflicts a massive systemic inflammatory response to the body leading to adverse clinical outcome. In an attempt to make CABG less invasive, interest have been diverted to the off pump technique.The current review attempts to bring an insight onto the last ten years knowledge on the off-pump impact in end organ function, with an aim to draw some clear conclusions in order to allow practitioners to reflect on the subject. PMID:26555853

  7. Intermixing forms of memory processing within the functional organization of the medial temporal lobe memory system.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Voss et al. discuss evidence indicating an intermixing of implicit and explicit memory processing, and of familiarity and recollection, in tests of memory. Here I support this view, and add that the anatomy of cortical-medial temporal lobe pathways indicates a hierarchical and bidirectional functional organization of memory in which implicit memory processing contributes to familiarity, and implicit memory and familiarity processing inherently contribute to recollection. Rather than look for new ways to separate these processes, it may be as important to understand how they are integrated.

  8. Reversible proton-switchable fluorescence controlled by conjugation effect in an organically-functionalized polyoxometalate

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Chunlin; Chen, Kun; Hu, Junjie; Zhang, Jin; Khan, Rao Naumaan Nasim; Wei, Yongge

    2016-01-01

    A novel monosubstituted organoimido hexamolybdate containing 6-nitroquinoline moiety has been successfully synthesized. This organically-functionalized polyoxometalate exhibits proton-induced switchable fluorescence property in aqueous acetonitrile solution at room temperature. Experimental and theoretical investigations of this reversible “on” and “off” switching mechanism have been carried out, and it is found that the protonation and deprotonation at the heterocyclic nitrogen atom within quinoline fragment leads to the breaking and reformation of the conjugation through strong d-π interaction between the hexamolybdate anionic cluster and the quinoline moiety, resulting in “on” and “off” luminescence signal. PMID:27321576

  9. Metal-organic frameworks with functional pores for recognition of small molecules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Banglin; Xiang, Shengchang; Qian, Guodong

    2010-08-17

    Molecular recognition, an important process in biological and chemical systems, governs the diverse functions of a variety of enzymes and unique properties of some synthetic receptors. Because molecular recognition is based on weak interactions between receptors and substrates, the design and assembly of synthetic receptors to mimic biological systems and the development of novel materials to discriminate different substrates for selective recognition of specific molecules has proved challenging. The extensive research on synthetic receptors for molecular recognition, particularly on noncovalent complexes self-assembled by hydrogen bonding and metal-organic coordination, has revealed some underlying principles. In particular, these studies have demonstrated that the shapes of the supramolecular receptors play significant roles in their specific and selective recognition of substrates: receptors can offer concave surfaces that complement their convex targets. This Account describes our research to develop a synthetic molecular recognition platform using porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). These materials contain functional pores to direct their specific and unique recognition of small molecules through several types of interactions: van der Waals interactions of the framework surface with the substrate, metal-substrate interactions, and hydrogen bonding of the framework surface with the substrate. These materials have potential applications for gas storage, separation, and sensing. We demonstrate a simple strategy to construct a primitive cubic net of interpenetrated microporous MOFs from the self-assembly of the paddle-wheel clusters M(2)(CO(2))(4) (M = Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Co(2+)) with two types of organic dicarboxylic acid and pillar bidentate linkers. This efficient method allows us to rationally tune the micropores to size-exclusively sort different small gas molecules, leading to the highly selective separation and purification of gases. By optimizing the

  10. Organization of Artificial Superlattices Utilizing Nanosheets as a Building Block and Exploration of Their Advanced Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Renzhi; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2015-07-01

    This review covers some of the latest developments in the organization of artificial superlattice assemblies utilizing colloidal oxide or hydroxide nanosheets bearing a negative or positive charge, respectively. Various solution-based procedures, e.g., flocculation, electrostatic sequential adsorption, and Langmuir-Blodgett deposition, have been introduced for the self-assembly of 2D nanosheets. Superlattice composites or films integrated with different nanosheets may yield concerted or synergistic modulation, e.g., soft coupling or new electronic states at interfaces. This behavior offers an unprecedented opportunity for the exploration of high-performance devices, as well as advanced or novel functions that cannot be achieved with a single-component material.

  11. Decacyclene Trianhydride at Functional Interfaces: An Ideal Electron Acceptor Material for Organic Electronics.

    PubMed

    de Oteyza, Dimas G; Garcia-Lastra, Juan M; Toma, Francesca M; Borghetti, Patrizia; Floreano, Luca; Verdini, Alberto; Cossaro, Albano; Pho, Toan V; Wudl, Fred; Ortega, J Enrique

    2016-01-01

    We report the interface energetics of decacyclene trianhydride (DTA) monolayers on top of two distinct model surfaces, namely, Au(111) and Ag(111). On the latter, combined valence band photoemission and X-ray absorption measurements that access the occupied and unoccupied molecular orbitals, respectively, reveal that electron transfer from substrate to surface sets in. Density functional theory calculations confirm our experimental findings and provide an understanding not only of the photoemission and X-ray absorption spectral features of this promising organic semiconductor but also of the fingerprints associated with the interface charge transfer.

  12. Organic field-effect transistor-based biosensors functionalized with protein receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddalena, Francesco; Kuiper, Marjon J.; Poolman, Bert; Brouwer, Frank; Hummelen, Jan C.; de Leeuw, Dago M.; De Boer, Bert; Blom, Paul W. M.

    2010-12-01

    An organic field-effect transistor with integrated proteins (Bio-FET) for sensing of sulfate ions is presented. A sulfate receptor was engineered to contain a thiol group for surface-anchoring without affecting its binding activity. The modified receptor was covalently coupled to a maleimide-functionalized polystyrene layer, and integrated as gate dielectric in a dual-gate transducer. The binding of sulfate ions in dry conditions was detected by a shift in the threshold voltage. Combined with surface density measurements by atomic force microscopy , an effective charge of -1.7q per protein was found, as expected from the Bio-FET operation model.

  13. Decacyclene Trianhydride at Functional Interfaces: An Ideal Electron Acceptor Material for Organic Electronics.

    PubMed

    de Oteyza, Dimas G; Garcia-Lastra, Juan M; Toma, Francesca M; Borghetti, Patrizia; Floreano, Luca; Verdini, Alberto; Cossaro, Albano; Pho, Toan V; Wudl, Fred; Ortega, J Enrique

    2016-01-01

    We report the interface energetics of decacyclene trianhydride (DTA) monolayers on top of two distinct model surfaces, namely, Au(111) and Ag(111). On the latter, combined valence band photoemission and X-ray absorption measurements that access the occupied and unoccupied molecular orbitals, respectively, reveal that electron transfer from substrate to surface sets in. Density functional theory calculations confirm our experimental findings and provide an understanding not only of the photoemission and X-ray absorption spectral features of this promising organic semiconductor but also of the fingerprints associated with the interface charge transfer. PMID:26651535

  14. Organization of postural coordination patterns as a function of scaling the surface of support dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ji-Hyun; Newell, Karl M

    2015-01-01

    The number and nature of the dynamical degrees of freedom (DFs) in postural coordination patterns was investigated as a function of practice over the continuously scaled frequency of the support surface dynamics. The modal number of dynamical DFs of the coordination pattern was reduced with practice particularly in the higher frequency conditions. The ankle-knee and knee-hip couplings were highly variable across the platform frequencies and practice. The findings show that practice and higher platform frequency both contribute to reducing the number of dynamical DFs of movement organization in compensatory postural control and that this is related to an increase in the strength of particularly the ankle and hip synergy.

  15. Vital functions of organisms in infra-low frequency magnetic fields 3. The embryogeny of mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Khizhenkov, P.K.; Bilobrov, V.M.; Zinkevich, I.I.; Zyablitsev, S.V.

    1994-10-01

    Results are presented of the experimental studies of the effect of variable (rotary) magnetic fields H at f = 6.5 Hz on the reproduction function of rats. It is shown that a pregnancy does not occur when mating takes place under the action of the field H. In the second quarter of pregnancy, the effect of the field is characterized by an increase of the mass of the body and of the internal organs of the new-born rats, among which, the growth of gemmae, spleen and of the thymus gland are particularly significant. The relative composition of the white blood cells changes as well.

  16. From single genes to entire genomes: the search for a function of nuclear organization.

    PubMed

    Pueschel, Ringo; Coraggio, Francesca; Meister, Peter

    2016-03-15

    The existence of different domains within the nucleus has been clear from the time, in the late 1920s, that heterochromatin and euchromatin were discovered. The observation that heterochromatin is less transcribed than euchromatin suggested that microscopically identifiable structures might correspond to functionally different domains of the nucleus. Until 15 years ago, studies linking gene expression and subnuclear localization were limited to a few genes. As we discuss in this Review, new genome-wide techniques have now radically changed the way nuclear organization is analyzed. These have provided a much more detailed view of functional nuclear architecture, leading to the emergence of a number of new paradigms of chromatin folding and how this folding evolves during development. PMID:26980791

  17. From single genes to entire genomes: the search for a function of nuclear organization.

    PubMed

    Pueschel, Ringo; Coraggio, Francesca; Meister, Peter

    2016-03-15

    The existence of different domains within the nucleus has been clear from the time, in the late 1920s, that heterochromatin and euchromatin were discovered. The observation that heterochromatin is less transcribed than euchromatin suggested that microscopically identifiable structures might correspond to functionally different domains of the nucleus. Until 15 years ago, studies linking gene expression and subnuclear localization were limited to a few genes. As we discuss in this Review, new genome-wide techniques have now radically changed the way nuclear organization is analyzed. These have provided a much more detailed view of functional nuclear architecture, leading to the emergence of a number of new paradigms of chromatin folding and how this folding evolves during development.

  18. Solubility studies of inorganic-organic hybrid nanoparticle photoresists with different surface functional groups.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Chakrabarty, Souvik; Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Ben; Ober, Christopher; Giannelis, Emmanuel P

    2016-01-21

    The solubility behavior of Hf and Zr based hybrid nanoparticles with different surface ligands in different concentrations of photoacid generator as potential EUV photoresists was investigated in detail. The nanoparticles regardless of core or ligand chemistry have a hydrodynamic diameter of 2-3 nm and a very narrow size distribution in organic solvents. The Hansen solubility parameters for nanoparticles functionalized with IBA and 2MBA have the highest contribution from the dispersion interaction than those with tDMA and MAA, which show more polar character. The nanoparticles functionalized with unsaturated surface ligands showed more apparent solubility changes after exposure to DUV than those with saturated ones. The solubility differences after exposure are more pronounced for films containing a higher amount of photoacid generator. The work reported here provides material selection criteria and processing strategies for the design of high performance EUV photoresists. PMID:26695121

  19. Functional organization of human intraparietal and frontal cortex for attending, looking, and pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Astafiev, Serguei V.; Shulman, Gordon L.; Stanley, Christine M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Van Essen, David C.; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    We studied the functional organization of human posterior parietal and frontal cortex using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map preparatory signals for attending, looking, and pointing to a peripheral visual location. The human frontal eye field and two separate regions in the intraparietal sulcus were similarly recruited in all conditions, suggesting an attentional role that generalizes across response effectors. However, the preparation of a pointing movement selectively activated a different group of regions, suggesting a stronger role in motor planning. These regions were lateralized to the left hemisphere, activated by preparation of movements of either hand, and included the inferior and superior parietal lobule, precuneus, and posterior superior temporal sulcus, plus the dorsal premotor and anterior cingulate cortex anteriorly. Surface-based registration of macaque cortical areas onto the map of fMRI responses suggests a relatively good spatial correspondence between human and macaque parietal areas. In contrast, large interspecies differences were noted in the topography of frontal areas.

  20. Functional organization and visual representations of human ventral lateral prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Annie W.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies in both human and non-human primates have identified face selective activation in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) even in the absence of working memory (WM) demands. Further, research has suggested that this face-selective response is largely driven by the presence of the eyes. However, the nature and origin of visual category responses in the VLPFC remain unclear. In a broader sense, how do these findings relate to our current understandings of lateral prefrontal cortex? What do these findings tell us about the underlying function and organization principles of the VLPFC? What is the future direction for investigating visual representations in this cortex? This review focuses on the function, topography, and circuitry of the VLPFC to enhance our understanding of the evolution and development of this cortex. PMID:23847558

  1. Functional lacrimal gland regeneration by transplantation of a bioengineered organ germ.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Miho; Oshima, Masamitsu; Sekine, Yurie; Ishida, Kentaro; Yamashita, Kentaro; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Shimmura, Shigeto; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Tsubota, Kazuo; Tsuji, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The lacrimal gland has a multifaceted role in maintaining a homeostatic microenvironment for a healthy ocular surface via tear secretion. Dry-eye disease, which is caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction, is one of the most prevalent eye diseases that cause corneal epithelial damage and results in significant loss of vision and a reduction in the quality of life. Here we demonstrate orthotopic transplantation of bioengineered lacrimal gland germs into adult mice with an extra-orbital lacrimal gland defect, a mouse model that mimics the corneal epithelial damage caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction. The bioengineered lacrimal gland germs and harderian gland germs both develop in vivo and achieve sufficient physiological functionality, including tear production in response to nervous stimulation and ocular surface protection. This study demonstrates the potential for bioengineered organ replacement to functionally restore the lacrimal gland. PMID:24084941

  2. Distal-less homeobox genes of insects and spiders: genomic organization, function, regulation and evolution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Piel, William H; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-06-01

    The Distal-less (Dll) genes are homeodomain transcription factors that are present in most Metazoa and in representatives of all investigated arthropod groups. In Drosophila, the best studied insect, Dll plays an essential role in forming the proximodistal axis of the legs, antennae and analia, and in specifying antennal identity. The initiation of Dll expression in clusters of cells in mid-lateral regions of the Drosophila embryo represents the earliest genetic marker of limbs. Dll genes are involved in the development of the peripheral nervous system and sensitive organs, and they also function as master regulators of black pigmentation in some insect lineages. Here we analyze the complete genomes of six insects, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and Homo sapiens, as well as multiple Dll sequences available in databases in order to examine the structure and protein features of these genes. We also review the function, expression, regulation and evolution of arthropod Dll genes with emphasis on insects and spiders. PMID:26898323

  3. The oriented and patterned growth of fluorescent metal–organic frameworks onto functionalized surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jinliang; Friedel, Jasmin

    2012-01-01

    Summary A metal–organic framework (MOF) material, [Zn2(adc)2(dabco)] (adc = anthracene-9,10-dicarboxylate, dabco = 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]­octane), the fluorescence of which depends on the loading of its nanopores, was synthesized in two forms: as free-flowing nanocrystals with different shapes and as surface-attached MOFs (SURMOFs). For the latter, we used self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) bearing functional groups, such as carboxylate and pyridyl groups, capable of coordinating to the constituents of the MOF. It could be demonstrated that this directed coordination also orients the nanocrystals deposited at the surface. Using two different patterning methods, i.e., microcontact printing and electron-beam lithography, the lateral distribution of the functional groups could be determined in such a way that the highly localized deposition of the SURMOF films became possible. PMID:23019553

  4. Perceptions of women's power as a function of position within an organization.

    PubMed

    Ledet, L M; Henley, T B

    2000-09-01

    In the present study the authors investigated how people perceive women as a function of position within an organization. Introductory psychology students (N = 456) were given 1 of 6 vignettes depicting people in various occupations, along with an adjective checklist adapted from the Bem Sex Role Inventory (S. L. Bem, 1974). The students indicated on a Likert-type scale the adjectives they believed described the character in the paragraph they received. They were also given a power style scale by T. R. Hinkin and C. A. Schriesheim (1989) and were asked to rate the vignette characters' ability to use each different style (e.g., reward, expertise, referent, legitimate, coercive). The students rated women in high positions as more masculine than men and women in low positions and as masculine as men in high positions. There was little difference in power styles as a function of either the sex or the position level of the vignette character.

  5. Research on an online self-organizing radial basis function neural network

    PubMed Central

    Han, Honggui; Chen, Qili

    2010-01-01

    A new growing and pruning algorithm is proposed for radial basis function (RBF) neural network structure design in this paper, which is named as self-organizing RBF (SORBF). The structure of the RBF neural network is introduced in this paper first, and then the growing and pruning algorithm is used to design the structure of the RBF neural network automatically. The growing and pruning approach is based on the radius of the receptive field of the RBF nodes. Meanwhile, the parameters adjusting algorithms are proposed for the whole RBF neural network. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated through functions approximation and dynamic system identification. Then, the method is used to capture the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentration in a wastewater treatment system. Experimental results show that the proposed method is efficient for network structure optimization, and it achieves better performance than some of the existing algorithms. PMID:20651904

  6. Functional group composition of organic aerosol from combustion emissions and secondary processes at two contrasted urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Haddad, Imad; Marchand, Nicolas; D'Anna, Barbara; Jaffrezo, Jean Luc; Wortham, Henri

    2013-08-01

    The quantification of major functional groups in atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) provides a constraint on the types of compounds emitted and formed in atmospheric conditions. This paper presents functional group composition of organic aerosol from two contrasted urban environments: Marseille during summer and Grenoble during winter. Functional groups were determined using a tandem mass spectrometry approach, enabling the quantification of carboxylic (RCOOH), carbonyl (RCOR‧), and nitro (RNO2) functional groups. Using a multiple regression analysis, absolute concentrations of functional groups were combined with those of organic carbon derived from different sources in order to infer the functional group contents of different organic aerosol fractions. These fractions include fossil fuel combustion emissions, biomass burning emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Results clearly highlight the differences between functional group fingerprints of primary and secondary OA fractions. OA emitted from primary sources is found to be moderately functionalized, as about 20 carbons per 1000 bear one of the functional groups determined here, whereas SOA is much more functionalized, as in average 94 carbons per 1000 bear a functional group under study. Aging processes appear to increase both RCOOH and RCOR‧ functional group contents by nearly one order of magnitude. Conversely, RNO2 content is found to decrease with photochemical processes. Finally, our results also suggest that other functional groups significantly contribute to biomass smoke and SOA. In particular, for SOA, the overall oxygen content, assessed using aerosol mass spectrometer measurements by an O:C ratio of 0.63, is significantly higher than the apparent O:C* ratio of 0.17 estimated based on functional groups measured here. A thorough examination of our data suggests that this remaining unexplained oxygen content can be most probably assigned to alcohol (ROH), organic peroxides (ROOH

  7. Are the current Australian sun exposure guidelines effective in maintaining adequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D?

    PubMed

    Kimlin, Michael; Sun, Jiandong; Sinclair, Craig; Heward, Sue; Hill, Jane; Dunstone, Kimberley; Brodie, Alison

    2016-01-01

    An adequate vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, is important in humans for maintenance of healthy bones and muscle function. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed in participants from Melbourne, Australia (37.81S, 144.96E), who were provided with the current Australian guidelines on sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy (25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L). Participants were interviewed in February (summer, n=104) and August (winter, n=99) of 2013. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was examined as a function of measures of sun exposure and sun protection habits with control of key characteristics such as dietary intake of vitamin D, body mass index (BMI) and skin colour, that may modify this relationship. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in participants who complied with the current sun exposure guidelines was 67.3 nmol/L in summer and 41.9 nmol/L in winter. At the end of the study, 69.3% of participants who complied with the summer sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate, while only 27.6% of participants who complied with the winter sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate at the end of the study. The results suggest that the current Australian guidelines for sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy are effective for most in summer and ineffective for most in winter. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  8. Functionalization of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Enhanced Stability under Humid Carbon Dioxide Capture Conditions.

    PubMed

    Andirova, Dinara; Lei, Yu; Zhao, Xiaodan; Choi, Sunho

    2015-10-26

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been highlighted recently as promising materials for CO2 capture. However, in practical CO2 capture processes, such as capture from flue gas or ambient air, the adsorption properties of MOFs tend to be harmed by the presence of moisture possibly because of the hydrophilic nature of the coordinatively unsaturated sites (CUSs) within their framework. In this work, the CUSs of the MOF framework are functionalized with amine-containing molecules to prevent structural degradation in a humid environment. Specifically, the framework of the magnesium dioxybenzenedicarboxylate (Mg/DOBDC) MOF was functionalized with ethylenediamine (ED) molecules to make the overall structure less hydrophilic. Structural analysis after exposure to high-temperature steam showed that the ED-functionalized Mg/DOBDC (ED-Mg/DOBDC) is more stable under humid conditions, than Mg/DOBDC, which underwent drastic structural changes. ED-Mg/DOBDC recovered its CO2 adsorption capacity and initial adsorption rate quite well as opposed to the original Mg/DOBDC, which revealed a significant reduction in its capture capacity and kinetics. These results suggest that the amine-functionalization of the CUSs is an effective way to enhance the structural stability of MOFs as well as their capture of humid CO2 . PMID:26367016

  9. The central role of ketones in reversible and irreversible hydrothermal organic functional group transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ziming; Gould, Ian R.; Williams, Lynda B.; Hartnett, Hilairy E.; Shock, Everett L.

    2012-12-01

    Studies of hydrothermal reactions involving organic compounds suggest complex, possibly reversible, reaction pathways that link functional groups from reduced alkanes all the way to oxidized carboxylic acids. Ketones represent a critical functional group because they occupy a central position in the reaction pathway, at the point where Csbnd C bond cleavage is required for the formation of the more oxidized carboxylic acids. The mechanisms for the critical bond cleavage reactions in ketones, and how they compete with other reactions are the focus of this experimental study. We studied a model ketone, dibenzylketone (DBK), in H2O at 300 °C and 70 MPa for up to 528 h. Product analysis was performed as a function of time at low DBK conversions to reveal the primary reaction pathways. Reversible interconversion between ketone, alcohol, alkene and alkane functional groups is observed in addition to formation of radical coupling products derived from irreversible Csbnd C and Csbnd H homolytic bond cleavage. The product distributions are time-dependent but the bond cleavage products dominate. The major products that accumulate at longer reaction times are toluene and larger, dehydrogenated structures that are initially formed by radical coupling. The hydrogen atoms generated by dehydrogenation of the coupling products are predominantly consumed in the formation of toluene. Even though bond cleavage products dominate, no carboxylic acids were observed on the timescale of the reactions under the chosen experimental conditions.

  10. Research on effect of ginkgo aglucone flavone to human body organs and immune function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiong

    2014-07-01

    Ginkgo aglucone flavone is a kind of effective natural antioxidant. Lots of researches show that ginkgo aglucone flavone has various biological activities and it is of great importance to antioxidant, anti-aging, free radial scavenging and immunoregulation. However, researches on effect of ginkgo aglucone flavone to immune function are rare so far. Thus, it is important to go into the effect of ginkgo aglucone flavone to immune function. We can find out more effective measurement that resist immunosuppression through research and provide referable science activity form and suggestion of sports nutrition supplements. It can guide people to improve habitus through supports and establish important basis for new area development of folium ginkgo extract. This paper aims to discuss the effect of ginkgo aglucone flavone to human body organs and immune function. Patients with ginkgo aglucone flavone indications are selected for experiment. Their peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets and content of serum immunoglobin is detected before and two weeks after drug use. The result shows that specific ratio of T lymphocyte subsets CD3 and CD4 and the content of serum IgG significantly increase after pharmacy of patients. It can be concluded that ginkgo aglucone flavone have acceleration on immune system function.

  11. Study on gamma response function of EJ301 organic liquid scintillator with GEANT4 and FLUKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Su-Ya-La-Tu; Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Han, Rui; Liu, Xing-Quan; Wada, R.; Lin, Wei-Ping; Jin, Zeng-Xue; Xi, Yin-Yin; Liu, Jian-Li; Shi, Fu-Dong

    2013-12-01

    The gamma response function is required for energy calibration of EJ301 (5 cm in diameter and 20 cm in height) organic liquid scintillator detector by means of gamma sources. The GEANT4 and FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation packages were used to simulate the response function of the detector for standard 22Na, 60Co, 137Cs gamma sources. The simulated results showed a good agreement with experimental data by incorporating the energy resolution function to simulation codes. The energy resolution and the position of the maximum Compton electron energy were obtained by comparing measured light output distribution with simulated one. The energy resolution of the detector varied from 21.2% to 12.4% for electrons in the energy region from 0.341 MeV to 1.12 MeV. The accurate position of the maximum Compton electron energy was determined at the position 81% of maximum height of Compton edges distribution. In addition, the relation of the electron energy calibration and the effective neutron detection thresholds were described in detail. The present results indicated that both packages were suited for studying the gamma response function of EJ301 detector.

  12. Functionalization of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Enhanced Stability under Humid Carbon Dioxide Capture Conditions.

    PubMed

    Andirova, Dinara; Lei, Yu; Zhao, Xiaodan; Choi, Sunho

    2015-10-26

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been highlighted recently as promising materials for CO2 capture. However, in practical CO2 capture processes, such as capture from flue gas or ambient air, the adsorption properties of MOFs tend to be harmed by the presence of moisture possibly because of the hydrophilic nature of the coordinatively unsaturated sites (CUSs) within their framework. In this work, the CUSs of the MOF framework are functionalized with amine-containing molecules to prevent structural degradation in a humid environment. Specifically, the framework of the magnesium dioxybenzenedicarboxylate (Mg/DOBDC) MOF was functionalized with ethylenediamine (ED) molecules to make the overall structure less hydrophilic. Structural analysis after exposure to high-temperature steam showed that the ED-functionalized Mg/DOBDC (ED-Mg/DOBDC) is more stable under humid conditions, than Mg/DOBDC, which underwent drastic structural changes. ED-Mg/DOBDC recovered its CO2 adsorption capacity and initial adsorption rate quite well as opposed to the original Mg/DOBDC, which revealed a significant reduction in its capture capacity and kinetics. These results suggest that the amine-functionalization of the CUSs is an effective way to enhance the structural stability of MOFs as well as their capture of humid CO2 .

  13. Comparative organization of the claustrum: what does structure tell us about function?

    PubMed Central

    Baizer, Joan S.; Sherwood, Chet C.; Noonan, Michael; Hof, Patrick R.

    2014-01-01

    The claustrum is a subcortical nucleus present in all placental mammals. Many anatomical studies have shown that its inputs are predominantly from the cerebral cortex and its outputs are back to the cortex. This connectivity thus suggests that the claustrum serves to amplify or facilitate information processing in the cerebral cortex. The size and the complexity of the cerebral cortex varies dramatically across species. Some species have lissencephalic brains, with few cortical areas, while others have a greatly expanded cortex and many cortical areas. This evolutionary diversity in the cerebral cortex raises several questions about the claustrum. Does its volume expand in coordination with the expansion of cortex and does it acquire new functions related to the new cortical functions? Here we survey the organization of the claustrum in animals with large brains, including great apes and cetaceans. Our data suggest that the claustrum is not always a continuous structure. In monkeys and gorillas there are a few isolated islands of cells near the main body of the nucleus. In cetaceans, however, there are many isolated cell islands. These data suggest constraints on the possible function of the claustrum. Some authors propose that the claustrum has a more global role in perception or consciousness that requires intraclaustral integration of information. These theories postulate mechanisms like gap junctions between claustral cells or a “syncytium” to mediate intraclaustral processing. The presence of discontinuities in the structure of the claustrum, present but minimal in some primates, but dramatically clear in cetaceans, argues against the proposed mechanisms of intraclaustral processing of information. The best interpretation of function, then, is that each functional subdivision of the claustrum simply contributes to the function of its cortical partner. PMID:25071474

  14. Functional network organizations of two contrasting temperament groups in dimensions of novelty seeking and harm avoidance.

    PubMed

    Kyeong, Sunghyon; Kim, Eunjoo; Park, Hae-Jeong; Hwang, Dong-Uk

    2014-08-01

    Novelty seeking (NS) and harm avoidance (HA) are two major dimensions of temperament in Cloninger׳s neurobiological model of personality. Previous neurofunctional and biological studies on temperament dimensions of HA and NS suggested that the temperamental traits have significant correlations with cortical and subcortical brain regions. However, no study to date has investigated the functional network modular organization as a function of the temperament dimension. The temperament dimensions were originally proposed to be independent of one another. However, a meta-analysis based on 16 published articles found a significant negative correlation between HA and NS (Miettunen et al., 2008). Based on this negative correlation, the current study revealed the whole-brain connectivity modular architecture for two contrasting temperament groups. The k-means clustering algorithm, with the temperamental traits of HA and NS as an input, was applied to divide the 40 subjects into two temperament groups: 'high HA and low NS' versus 'low HA and high NS'. Using the graph theoretical framework, we found a functional segregation of whole brain network architectures derived from resting-state functional MRI. In the 'high HA and low NS' group, the regulatory brain regions, such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), are clustered together with the limbic system. In the 'low HA and high NS' group, however, brain regions lying on the dopaminergic pathways, such as the PFC and basal ganglia, are partitioned together. These findings suggest that the neural basis of inhibited, passive, and inactive behaviors in the 'high HA and low NS' group was derived from the increased network associations between the PFC and limbic clusters. In addition, supporting evidence of topological differences between the two temperament groups was found by analyzing the functional connectivity density and gray matter volume, and by computing the relationships between the morphometry and function of the brain.

  15. Organics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Organizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a specific…

  17. Intracellular distributions and putative functions of calcium-binding proteins in the bullfrog vestibular otolith organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, R. A.; Steyger, P. S.; Schuff, N. R.

    1997-01-01

    Hair cells in the bullfrog vestibular otolith organs were immunolabeled by monoclonal and polyclonal antisera against calbindin (CaB), calmodulin (CaM), calretinin (CaR), and parvalbumin (PA). S-100, previously shown to immunolabel striolar hair cells in fish vestibular organs, only weakly immunolabeled hair cells in the bullfrog vestibular otolith organs. Immunolabeling was not detected in supporting cells. With the exception of CaR, myelinated axons and unmyelinated nerve terminals were immunolabeled by all of the above antisera. Immunolabeling was seen in all saccular hair cells, although hair cells at the macular margins were immunolabeled more intensely for CaB, CaM, and PA than more centrally located hair cells. As the macula margins are known to be a growth zone, this labeling pattern suggests that marginal hair cells up-regulate their calcium-binding proteins during hair cell development. In the utriculus, immunolabeling for CaM and PA was generally restricted to striolar hair cells. CaR immunolabeling was restricted to the stereociliary array. Immunolabeling for other calcium-binding proteins was generally seen in both the cell body and hair bundles of hair cells, although this labeling was often localized to the stereociliary array and the apical portion of the cell body. CaM and PA immunolabeling in the stereociliary array in saccular and utricular striolar cells suggests a functional role for these proteins in mechanoelectric transduction and adaptation.

  18. Scaffolds and tissue regeneration: An overview of the functional properties of selected organic tissues.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, Márcia A; Alves, Thais F R; de Lima, Renata; Oliveira, José M; Vila, Marta M D C; Balcão, Victor M; Severino, Patrícia; Chaud, Marco V

    2016-10-01

    Tissue engineering plays a significant role both in the re-establishment of functions and regeneration of organic tissues. Success in manufacturing projects for biological scaffolds, for the purpose of tissue regeneration, is conditioned by the selection of parameters such as the biomaterial, the device architecture, and the specificities of the cells making up the organic tissue to create, in vivo, a microenvironment that preserves and further enhances the proliferation of a specific cell phenotype. To support this approach, we have screened scientific publications that show biomedical applications of scaffolds, biomechanical, morphological, biochemical, and hemodynamic characteristics of the target organic tissues, and the possible interactions between different cell matrices and biological scaffolds. This review article provides an overview on the biomedical application of scaffolds and on the characteristics of the (bio)materials commonly used for manufacturing these biological devices used in tissue engineering, taking into consideration the cellular specificity of the target tissue. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1483-1494, 2016.

  19. Adsorptive desulfurization with metal-organic frameworks: A density functional theory investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiping; Ling, Lixia; Wang, Baojun; Fan, Huiling; Shangguan, Ju; Mi, Jie

    2016-11-01

    The contribution of each fragment of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to the adsorption of sulfur compounds were investigated using density functional theory (DFT). The involved sulfur compounds are dimethyl sulfide (CH3SCH3), ethyl mercaptan (CH3CH2SH) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). MOFs with different organic ligands (NH2-BDC, BDC and NDC), metal centers structures (M, M-M and M3O) and metal ions (Zn, Cu and Fe) were used to study their effects on sulfur species adsorption. The results revealed that, MOFs with coordinatively unsaturated sites (CUS) have the strongest binding strength with sulfur compounds, MOFs with NH2-BDC substituent group ligand comes second, followed by that with saturated metal center, and the organic ligands without substituent group has the weakest adsorption strength. Moreover, it was also found that, among different metal ions (Fe, Zn and Cu), MOFs with unsaturated Fe has the strongest adsorption strength for sulfur compounds. These results are consistent with our previous experimental observations, and therefore provide insights on the better design of MOFs for desulfurization application.

  20. Lung function and bronchial reactivity in asthmatics during exposure to volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Harving, H.; Dahl, R.; Molhave, L. )

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether vapors of organic solvents at low concentrations could exert an adverse effect in the lower airways. Under controlled conditions in a climate chamber, 11 persons with bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine and bronchial asthma were exposed for 90 min to a mixture of organic solvents at levels of zero, 2.5, and 25 mg/m3. During exposure to 25 mg/m3 a decrease in FEV1 to 90.7% of baseline value was measured. This was significantly different from the initial value (p less than 0.05), but not significantly different from the value found after sham exposure (FEV1, 97.4% of initial value). The decline in FEV1 during exposure to 25 mg/m3 was most pronounced in persons with high bronchial sensitivity. No changes were found in histamine reactivity after exposure, and no late reactions were registered. Ratings of discomfort showed different individual patterns ranging from no response to reactions towards both of the concentrations. The ratings indicated development of tolerance during exposure. Volatile organic compounds in concentrations found in both the work and the home environments may influence lung function and are probably of importance as bronchial irritants.

  1. Removal of total organic carbon from sewage wastewater using poly(ethylenimine)-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Ramnath; Sanchez-Dominguez, Margarita; Matutes-Aquino, Jose A; Wennmalm, Stefan; Kuttuva Rajarao, Gunaratna

    2014-02-01

    The increased levels of organic carbon in sewage wastewater during recent years impose a great challenge to the existing wastewater treatment process (WWTP). Technological innovations are therefore sought that can reduce the release of organic carbon into lakes and seas. In the present study, magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized, functionalized with poly(ethylenimine) (PEI), and characterized using TEM (transmission electron microscopy), X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), CCS (confocal correlation spectroscopy), SICS (scattering interference correlation spectroscopy), magnetism studies, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The removal of total organic carbon (TOC) and other contaminants using PEI-coated magnetic nanoparticles (PEI-NPs) was tested in wastewater obtained from the Hammarby Sjöstadsverk sewage plant, Sweden. The synthesized NPs were about 12 nm in diameter and showed a homogeneous particle size distribution in dispersion by TEM and CCS analyses, respectively. The magnetization curve reveals superparamagnetic behavior, and the NPs do not reach saturation because of surface anisotropy effects. A 50% reduction in TOC was obtained in 60 min when using 20 mg/L PEI-NPs in 0.5 L of wastewater. Along with TOC, other contaminants such as turbidity (89%), color (86%), total nitrogen (24%), and microbial content (90%) were also removed without significant changes in the mineral ion composition of wastewater. We conclude that the application of PEI-NPs has the potential to reduce the processing time, complexity, sludge production, and use of additional chemicals in the WWTP.

  2. High light induced changes in organization, protein profile and function of photosynthetic machinery in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Nama, Srilatha; Madireddi, Sai Kiran; Devadasu, Elsin Raju; Subramanyam, Rajagopal

    2015-11-01

    The green alga Chlamydomonas (C.) reinhardtii is used as a model organism to understand the efficiency of photosynthesis along with the organization and protein profile of photosynthetic apparatus under various intensities of high light exposure for 1h. Chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence induction, OJIPSMT transient was decreased with increase in light intensity indicating the reduction in photochemical efficiency. Further, circular dichroism studies of isolated thylakoids from high light exposed cells showed considerable change in the pigment-pigment interactions and pigment-proteins interactions. Furthermore, the organization of supercomplexes from thylakoids is studied, in which, one of the hetero-trimer of light harvesting complex (LHC) II is affected significantly in comparison to other complexes of LHC's monomers. Also, other supercomplexes, photosystem (PS)II reaction center dimer and PSI complexes are reduced. Additionally, immunoblot analysis of thylakoid proteins revealed that PSII core proteins D1 and D2 were significantly decreased during high light treatment. Similarly, the PSI core proteins PsaC, PsaD and PsaG were drastically changed. Further, the LHC antenna proteins of PSI and PSII were differentially affected. From our results it is clear that LHCs are damaged significantly, consequently the excitation energy is not efficiently transferred to the reaction center. Thus, the photochemical energy transfer from PSII to PSI is reduced. The inference of the study deciphers the structural and functional changes driven by light may therefore provide plants/alga to regulate the light harvesting capacity in excess light conditions.

  3. Circumventricular organs: definition and role in the regulation of endocrine and autonomic function.

    PubMed

    Ganong, W F

    2000-01-01

    1. The circumventricular organs (CVO) are structures that permit polypeptide hypothalamic hormones to leave the brain without disrupting the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and permit substances that do not cross the BBB to trigger changes in brain function. 2. In mammals, CVO include only the median eminence and adjacent neurohypophysis, organum vasculosum lamina terminalis, subfornical organ and the area postrema. 3. The CVO are characterized by their small size, high permeability and fenestrated capillaries. The subcommissural organ is not highly permeable and does not have fenestrated capillaries, but new evidence indicates that it may be involved in the hypertension produced by aldosterone acting on the brain. 4. Feedback control of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) secretion is exerted by free steroids diffusing into the brain, but substances such as cytokines and angiotensin II act on CVO to produce increases in CRH secretion. Gonadal steroids also diffuse into the brain to regulate gonadotrophin-releasing hormone secretion. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone secretion is regulated by thyroid hormones transported across cerebral capillaries. However, CVO may be involved in the negative feedback control of growth hormone and prolactin secretion.

  4. Perylenediimide functionalized bridged-siloxane nanoparticles for bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Rathnayake, Hemali; Binion, Jenna; McKee, Aaron; Scardino, Debra Jo; Hammer, Nathan I

    2012-08-01

    Perylenediimide functionalized bridged siloxane nanoparticles were prepared by direct hydrolysis and condensation of a perylenediimide silane precursor in the presence of a catalytic amount of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). The sizes of the particles were controlled by adjusting organotrialkoxysilane, base, and TEOS concentrations. Using this modified Stöber method, we were able to incorporate a higher load of organic content (∼70%) into the siloxane core compared to typical organically modified Stöber silica nanoparticles. The size, shape, and surface morphology of these functionalized particles were visualized using transmission electron microscopy. Their compositions were confirmed by FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis, and elemental analysis. The photovoltaic performance of these nanohybrids in the poly(3-hexylthiophene) polymer matrix was evaluated. The device made from a sample annealed at 150 °C showed reasonably good photovoltaic performance with a power conversion efficiency of 1.56% under standard test conditions of AM 1.5G spectra at an illumination intensity of 100 mW cm(-2).

  5. Stable learning of functional maps in self-organizing spiking neural networks with continuous synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa, Narayan; Jiang, Qin

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a spiking model that self-organizes for stable formation and maintenance of orientation and ocular dominance maps in the visual cortex (V1). This self-organization process simulates three development phases: an early experience-independent phase, a late experience-independent phase and a subsequent refinement phase during which experience acts to shape the map properties. The ocular dominance maps that emerge accommodate the two sets of monocular inputs that arise from the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) to layer 4 of V1. The orientation selectivity maps that emerge feature well-developed iso-orientation domains and fractures. During the last two phases of development the orientation preferences at some locations appear to rotate continuously through ±180° along circular paths and referred to as pinwheel-like patterns but without any corresponding point discontinuities in the orientation gradient maps. The formation of these functional maps is driven by balanced excitatory and inhibitory currents that are established via synaptic plasticity based on spike timing for both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. The stability and maintenance of the formed maps with continuous synaptic plasticity is enabled by homeostasis caused by inhibitory plasticity. However, a prolonged exposure to repeated stimuli does alter the formed maps over time due to plasticity. The results from this study suggest that continuous synaptic plasticity in both excitatory neurons and interneurons could play a critical role in the formation, stability, and maintenance of functional maps in the cortex. PMID:23450808

  6. Congenital Heart Disease Genetics Uncovers Context-Dependent Organization and Function of Nucleoporins at Cilia.

    PubMed

    Del Viso, Florencia; Huang, Fang; Myers, Jordan; Chalfant, Madeleine; Zhang, Yongdeng; Reza, Nooreen; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Lusk, C Patrick; Khokha, Mustafa K

    2016-09-12

    Human genomics is identifying candidate genes for congenital heart disease (CHD), but discovering the underlying mechanisms remains challenging. In a patient with CHD and heterotaxy (Htx), a disorder of left-right patterning, we previously identified a duplication in Nup188. However, a mechanism to explain how a component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) could cause Htx/CHD was undefined. Here, we show that knockdown of Nup188 or its binding partner Nup93 leads to a loss of cilia during embryonic development while leaving NPC function largely intact. Many data, including the localization of endogenous Nup188/93 at cilia bases, support their direct role at cilia. Super-resolution imaging of Nup188 shows two barrel-like structures with dimensions and organization incompatible with an NPC-like ring, arguing against a proposed "ciliary pore complex." We suggest that the nanoscale organization and function of nucleoporins are context dependent in a way that is required for the structure of the heart. PMID:27593162

  7. Xanthohumol feeding does not impair organ function and homoeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Christoph; Bataille, Frauke; Gaebele, Erwin; Heilmann, Jörg; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2010-07-01

    Xanthohumol, the major prenylated chalcone found in hops, is known to exert several beneficial effects but only few studies evaluated the safety profile of this natural compound with in part discrepant results. Here, we fed female BALB/c mice with a standard diet supplemented with xanthohumol for 3 weeks, and thus, achieved a daily dose of approximately 1000 mg xanthohumol/kg body weight. There were no significant differences in body weight or food intake between mice on standard diet and animals receiving the same diet supplemented with xanthohumol. Histopathological examination of liver, kidney, colon, lung, heart, spleen and thymus revealed no signs of xanthohumol-toxicity, and biochemical serum analysis confirmed normal organ function. Further, xanthohumol treatment did not affect hepatic glycogen content CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 expression levels, but CYP3A11 mRNA was approximately 30% reduced. Expression of several genes indicative of early hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, a hallmark of chronic liver injury, did not differ between xanthohumol treated and control mice. In summary, these results indicate that oral administration of xanthohumol exhibits no adverse effects on major organ function and homoeostasis in mice. Particularly, hepatotoxic effects could be ruled out confirming a good safety profile of xanthohumol as prerequisite for further studies in humans.

  8. Macromolecular scaffolding: the relationship between nanoscale architecture and function in multichromophoric arrays for organic electronics.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Vincenzo; Schwartz, Erik; Finlayson, Chris E; Liscio, Andrea; Otten, Matthijs B J; Trapani, Sara; Müllen, Klaus; Beljonne, David; Friend, Richard H; Nolte, Roeland J M; Rowan, Alan E; Samorì, Paolo

    2010-02-23

    The optimization of the electronic properties of molecular materials based on optically or electrically active organic building blocks requires a fine-tuning of their self-assembly properties at surfaces. Such a fine-tuning can be obtained on a scale up to 10 nm by mastering principles of supramolecular chemistry, i.e., by using suitably designed molecules interacting via pre-programmed noncovalent forces. The control and fine-tuning on a greater length scale is more difficult and challenging. This Research News highlights recent results we obtained on a new class of macromolecules that possess a very rigid backbone and side chains that point away from this backbone. Each side chain contains an organic semiconducting moiety, whose position and electronic interaction with neighboring moieties are dictated by the central macromolecular scaffold. A combined experimental and theoretical approach has made it possible to unravel the physical and chemical properties of this system across multiple length scales. The (opto)electronic properties of the new functional architectures have been explored by constructing prototypes of field-effect transistors and solar cells, thereby providing direct insight into the relationship between architecture and function.

  9. Endotoxin and gender modify lung function recovery after occupational organic dust exposure: a 30 year study

    PubMed Central

    Valeri, Linda; Zhang, Feng-ying; Zheng, Bu-Yong; Mehta, Amar J.; Shi, Jing; Su, Li; Brown, Dan; Eisen, Ellen A; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to determine the trajectory of lung function change after exposure cessation to occupational organic dust exposure, and to identify factors that modify improvement. METHODS The Shanghai Textile Worker Study is a longitudinal study of 447 cotton workers exposed to endotoxin-containing dust and 472 silk workers exposed to non-endotoxin-containing dust. Spirometry was performed at 5 year intervals. Air sampling was performed to estimate individual cumulative exposures. The effect of work cessation on FEV1 was modeled using generalized additive mixed effects models to identify the trajectory of FEV1 recovery. Linear mixed effects models incorporating interaction terms were used to identify modifiers of FEV1 recovery. Loss to follow-up was accounted for with inverse probability of censoring weights. RESULTS 74.2% of the original cohort still alive participated in 2011. Generalized additive mixed models identified a non-linear improvement in FEV1 for all workers after exposure cessation, with no plateau noted 25 years after retirement. Linear mixed effects models incorporating interaction terms identified prior endotoxin exposure (p=0.01) and male gender (p=0.002) as risk factors for impaired FEV1 improvement after exposure cessation. After adjusting for gender, smoking delayed the onset of FEV1 gain but did not affect the overall magnitude of change. CONCLUSIONS Lung function improvement after cessation of exposure to organic dust is sustained. Endotoxin exposure and male gender are risk factors for less FEV1 improvement. PMID:25666844

  10. Water transport and functional dynamics of aquaporins in osmoregulatory organs of fishes.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Steffen S; Engelund, Morten B; Cutler, Christopher P

    2015-08-01

    Aquaporins play distinct roles for water transport in fishes as they do in mammals-both at the cellular, organ, and organismal levels. However, with over 32,000 known species of fishes inhabiting almost every aquatic environment, from tidal pools, small mountain streams, to the oceans and extreme salty desert lakes, the challenge to obtain consensus as well as specific knowledge about aquaporin physiology in these vertebrate clades is overwhelming. Because the integumental surfaces of these animals are in intimate contact with the surrounding milieu, passive water loss and uptake represent two of the major osmoregulatory challenges that need compensation. However, neither obligatory nor regulatory water transport nor their mechanisms have been elucidated to the same degree as, for example, ion transport in fishes. Currently fewer than 60 papers address fish aquaporins. Most of these papers identify "what is present" and describe tissue expression patterns in various teleosts. The agnathans, chondrichthyans, and functionality of fish aquaporins generally have received little attention. This review emphasizes the functional physiology of aquaporins in fishes, focusing on transepithelial water transport in osmoregulatory organs in euryhaline species - primarily teleosts, but covering other taxonomic groups as well. Most current knowledge comes from teleosts, and there is a strong need for related information on older fish clades. Our survey aims to stimulate new, original research in this area and to bring together new collaborations across disciplines.

  11. Synthesis and functionalization of gold nanorods for probing plasmonic enhancement mechanisms in organic photovoltaic active layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadams, Robert Christopher

    DNA nanotechnology is one of the most flourishing interdisciplinary research fields. Through the features of programmability and predictability, DNA nanostructures can be designed to self-assemble into a variety of periodic or aperiodic patterns of different shapes and length scales, and more importantly, they can be used as scaffolds for organizing other nanoparticles, proteins and chemical groups. By leveraging these molecules, DNA nanostructures can be used to direct the organization of complex bio-inspired materials that may serve as smart drug delivery systems and in vitro or in vivo bio-molecular computing and diagnostic devices. In this dissertation I describe a systematic study of the thermodynamic properties of complex DNA nanostructures, including 2D and 3D DNA origami, in order to understand their assembly, stability and functionality and inform future design endeavors. It is conceivable that a more thorough understanding of DNA self-assembly can be used to guide the structural design process and optimize the conditions for assembly, manipulation, and functionalization, thus benefiting both upstream design and downstream applications. As a biocompatible nanoscale motif, the successful integration, stabilization and separation of DNA nanostructures from cells/cell lysate suggests its potential to serve as a diagnostic platform at the cellular level. Here, DNA origami was used to capture and identify multiple T cell receptor mRNA species from single cells within a mixed cell population. This demonstrates the potential of DNA nanostructure as an ideal nano scale tool for biological applications.

  12. Unusual genetic organization of a functional type I protein secretion system in Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Karl G; Kizil, Murat; Wells, Damien B; Ala'aldeen, Dlawer A A

    2005-09-01

    Proteins secreted by Neisseria meningitidis are thought to play important roles in the pathogenesis of meningococcal disease. These proteins include the iron-repressible repeat-in-toxin (RTX) exoprotein FrpC. Related proteins in other pathogens are secreted via a type I secretion system (TOSS), but such a system has not been demonstrated in N. meningitidis. An in silico search of the group B meningococcal genome suggested the presence of a uniquely organized TOSS. Genes encoding homologs of the Escherichia coli HlyB (ATP-binding), HlyD (membrane fusion), and TolC (outer membrane channel) proteins were identified. In contrast to the cistronic organization of the secretion genes in most other rtx operons, the hlyD and tolC genes were adjacent but unlinked to hlyB; neither locus was part of an operon containing genes encoding putative TOSS substrates. Both loci were flanked by genes normally associated with mobile genetic elements. The three genes were shown to be expressed independently. Mutation at either locus resulted in an inability to secrete FrpC and a related protein, here called FrpC2. Successful complementation of these mutations at an ectopic site confirmed the observed phenotypes were caused by loss of function of the putative TOSS genes. We show that genes scattered in the meningococcal genome encode a functional TOSS required for secretion of the meningococcal RTX proteins.

  13. The secretory pathway of protists: spatial and functional organization and evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, B; Melkonian, M

    1996-01-01

    All cells secrete a diversity of macromolecules to modify their environment or to protect themselves. Eukaryotic cells have evolved a complex secretory pathway consisting of several membrane-bound compartments which contain specific sets of proteins. Experimental work on the secretory pathway has focused mainly on mammalian cell lines or on yeasts. Now, some general principles of the secretory pathway have become clear, and most components of the secretory pathway are conserved between yeast cells and mammalian cells. However, the structure and function of the secretory system in protists have been less extensively studied. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the secretory pathway of five different groups of protists: Giardia lamblia, one of the earliest lines of eukaryotic evolution, kinetoplastids, the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, and two lineages within the "crown" of eukaryotic cell evolution, the alveolates (ciliates and Plasmodium species) and the green algae. Comparison of these systems with the mammalian and yeast system shows that most elements of the secretory pathway were presumably present in the earliest eukaryotic organisms. However, one element of the secretory pathway shows considerable variation: the presence of a Golgi stack and the number of cisternae within a stack. We suggest that the functional separation of the plasma membrane from the nucleus-endoplasmic reticulum system during evolution required a sorting compartment, which became the Golgi apparatus. Once a Golgi apparatus was established, it was adapted to the various needs of the different organisms. PMID:8987360

  14. Downregulation of Protein 4.1R impairs centrosome function,bipolar spindle organization and anaphase

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, Jeffrey R.; Go, Minjoung M.; Bahmanyar, S.; Barth,A.I.M.; Krauss, Sharon Wald

    2006-03-17

    Centrosomes nucleate and organize interphase MTs and areinstrumental in the assembly of the mitotic bipolar spindle. Here wereport that two members of the multifunctional protein 4.1 family havedistinct distributions at centrosomes. Protein 4.1R localizes to maturecentrioles whereas 4.1G is a component of the pericentriolar matrixsurrounding centrioles. To selectively probe 4.1R function, we used RNAinterference-mediated depletion of 4.1R without decreasing 4.1Gexpression. 4.1R downregulation reduces MT anchoring and organization atinterphase and impairs centrosome separation during prometaphase.Metaphase chromosomes fail to properly condense/align and spindleorganization is aberrant. Notably 4.1R depletion causes mislocalizationof its binding partner NuMA (Nuclear Mitotic Apparatus Protein),essential for spindle pole focusing, and disrupts ninein. Duringanaphase/telophase, 4.1R-depleted cells have lagging chromosomes andaberrant MT bridges. Our data provide functional evidence that 4.1R makescrucial contributions to centrosome integrity and to mitotic spindlestructure enabling mitosis and anaphase to proceed with the coordinatedprecision required to avoid pathological events.

  15. Congenital Heart Disease Genetics Uncovers Context-Dependent Organization and Function of Nucleoporins at Cilia.

    PubMed

    Del Viso, Florencia; Huang, Fang; Myers, Jordan; Chalfant, Madeleine; Zhang, Yongdeng; Reza, Nooreen; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Lusk, C Patrick; Khokha, Mustafa K

    2016-09-12

    Human genomics is identifying candidate genes for congenital heart disease (CHD), but discovering the underlying mechanisms remains challenging. In a patient with CHD and heterotaxy (Htx), a disorder of left-right patterning, we previously identified a duplication in Nup188. However, a mechanism to explain how a component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) could cause Htx/CHD was undefined. Here, we show that knockdown of Nup188 or its binding partner Nup93 leads to a loss of cilia during embryonic development while leaving NPC function largely intact. Many data, including the localization of endogenous Nup188/93 at cilia bases, support their direct role at cilia. Super-resolution imaging of Nup188 shows two barrel-like structures with dimensions and organization incompatible with an NPC-like ring, arguing against a proposed "ciliary pore complex." We suggest that the nanoscale organization and function of nucleoporins are context dependent in a way that is required for the structure of the heart.

  16. The secretory pathway of protists: spatial and functional organization and evolution.

    PubMed

    Becker, B; Melkonian, M

    1996-12-01

    All cells secrete a diversity of macromolecules to modify their environment or to protect themselves. Eukaryotic cells have evolved a complex secretory pathway consisting of several membrane-bound compartments which contain specific sets of proteins. Experimental work on the secretory pathway has focused mainly on mammalian cell lines or on yeasts. Now, some general principles of the secretory pathway have become clear, and most components of the secretory pathway are conserved between yeast cells and mammalian cells. However, the structure and function of the secretory system in protists have been less extensively studied. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the secretory pathway of five different groups of protists: Giardia lamblia, one of the earliest lines of eukaryotic evolution, kinetoplastids, the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, and two lineages within the "crown" of eukaryotic cell evolution, the alveolates (ciliates and Plasmodium species) and the green algae. Comparison of these systems with the mammalian and yeast system shows that most elements of the secretory pathway were presumably present in the earliest eukaryotic organisms. However, one element of the secretory pathway shows considerable variation: the presence of a Golgi stack and the number of cisternae within a stack. We suggest that the functional separation of the plasma membrane from the nucleus-endoplasmic reticulum system during evolution required a sorting compartment, which became the Golgi apparatus. Once a Golgi apparatus was established, it was adapted to the various needs of the different organisms.

  17. Macromolecular scaffolding: the relationship between nanoscale architecture and function in multichromophoric arrays for organic electronics.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Vincenzo; Schwartz, Erik; Finlayson, Chris E; Liscio, Andrea; Otten, Matthijs B J; Trapani, Sara; Müllen, Klaus; Beljonne, David; Friend, Richard H; Nolte, Roeland J M; Rowan, Alan E; Samorì, Paolo

    2010-02-23

    The optimization of the electronic properties of molecular materials based on optically or electrically active organic building blocks requires a fine-tuning of their self-assembly properties at surfaces. Such a fine-tuning can be obtained on a scale up to 10 nm by mastering principles of supramolecular chemistry, i.e., by using suitably designed molecules interacting via pre-programmed noncovalent forces. The control and fine-tuning on a greater length scale is more difficult and challenging. This Research News highlights recent results we obtained on a new class of macromolecules that possess a very rigid backbone and side chains that point away from this backbone. Each side chain contains an organic semiconducting moiety, whose position and electronic interaction with neighboring moieties are dictated by the central macromolecular scaffold. A combined experimental and theoretical approach has made it possible to unravel the physical and chemical properties of this system across multiple length scales. The (opto)electronic properties of the new functional architectures have been explored by constructing prototypes of field-effect transistors and solar cells, thereby providing direct insight into the relationship between architecture and function. PMID:20217805

  18. Functional Organization of Locomotor Interneurons in the Ventral Lumbar Spinal Cord of the Newborn Rat

    PubMed Central

    Antri, Myriam; Mellen, Nicholas; Cazalets, Jean-René

    2011-01-01

    Although the mammalian locomotor CPG has been localized to the lumbar spinal cord, the functional-anatomical organization of flexor and extensor interneurons has not been characterized. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flexor and extensor interneuronal networks for walking are physically segregated in the lumbar spinal cord. For this purpose, we performed optical recordings and lesion experiments from a horizontally sectioned lumbar spinal cord isolated from neonate rats. This ventral hemi spinal cord preparation produces well-organized fictive locomotion when superfused with 5-HT/NMDA. The dorsal surface of the preparation was visualized using the Ca2+ indicator fluo-4 AM, while simultaneously monitoring motor output at ventral roots L2 and L5. Using calcium imaging, we provided a general mapping view of the interneurons that maintained a stable phase relationship with motor output. We showed that the dorsal surface of L1 segment contains a higher density of locomotor rhythmic cells than the other segments. Moreover, L1 segment lesioning induced the most important changes in the locomotor activity in comparison with lesions at the T13 or L2 segments. However, no lesions led to selective disruption of either flexor or extensor output. In addition, this study found no evidence of functional parcellation of locomotor interneurons into flexor and extensor pools at the dorsal-ventral midline of the lumbar spinal cord of the rat. PMID:21698092

  19. Unusual Genetic Organization of a Functional Type I Protein Secretion System in Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    Wooldridge, Karl G.; Kizil, Murat; Wells, Damien B.; Ala'Aldeen, Dlawer A. A.

    2005-01-01

    Proteins secreted by Neisseria meningitidis are thought to play important roles in the pathogenesis of meningococcal disease. These proteins include the iron-repressible repeat-in-toxin (RTX) exoprotein FrpC. Related proteins in other pathogens are secreted via a type I secretion system (TOSS), but such a system has not been demonstrated in N. meningitidis. An in silico search of the group B meningococcal genome suggested the presence of a uniquely organized TOSS. Genes encoding homologs of the Escherichia coli HlyB (ATP-binding), HlyD (membrane fusion), and TolC (outer membrane channel) proteins were identified. In contrast to the cistronic organization of the secretion genes in most other rtx operons, the hlyD and tolC genes were adjacent but unlinked to hlyB; neither locus was part of an operon containing genes encoding putative TOSS substrates. Both loci were flanked by genes normally associated with mobile genetic elements. The three genes were shown to be expressed independently. Mutation at either locus resulted in an inability to secrete FrpC and a related protein, here called FrpC2. Successful complementation of these mutations at an ectopic site confirmed the observed phenotypes were caused by loss of function of the putative TOSS genes. We show that genes scattered in the meningococcal genome encode a functional TOSS required for secretion of the meningococcal RTX proteins. PMID:16113272

  20. Life-like functionality and self-organization in a system of communicating polymeric microcapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmakov, German; Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Yashin, Victor; Balazs, Anna

    2010-03-01

    We report the results of computational study of self- organization and life-like functionality in a system of polymeric microcapsules in a fluid-filled microchannel. We consider the case where motion of the nanoparticle-filled microcapsules is controlled by adhesion at the channel’s wall and hydrodynamic coupling between the capsules. Using the hybrid Lattice Boltzmann method for fluid dynamics and Lattice spring model for the micromechanics of elastic solid, we determined how the characteristics of the substrate, the polymeric shell, encapsulated fluid and the surrounding solution affect the capsule's velocity and ``gait'' of the capsule within the system. In numerical computations we locate the conditions, under which microcapsules communicating through modification of the microchannel surface by released nanoparticles exhibit self-organization, thereby mimicking behavior of the colony of living cells. In particular, we show that this system demonstrates collective, directional motion where a group of target microcapsules is led by a single signaling microcapsule. The results of computations provide guidelines for engineering artificial systems with life-like functionality.

  1. Evolution of an ancient protein function involved in organized multicellularity in animals

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Douglas P; Whitney, Dustin S; Hanson-Smith, Victor; Woznica, Arielle; Campodonico-Burnett, William; Volkman, Brian F; King, Nicole; Thornton, Joseph W; Prehoda, Kenneth E

    2016-01-01

    To form and maintain organized tissues, multicellular organisms orient their mitotic spindles relative to neighboring cells. A molecular complex scaffolded by the GK protein-interaction domain (GKPID) mediates spindle orientation in diverse animal taxa by linking microtubule motor proteins to a marker protein on the cell cortex localized by external cues. Here we illuminate how this complex evolved and commandeered control of spindle orientation from a more ancient mechanism. The complex was assembled through a series of molecular exploitation events, one of which – the evolution of GKPID’s capacity to bind the cortical marker protein – can be recapitulated by reintroducing a single historical substitution into the reconstructed ancestral GKPID. This change revealed and repurposed an ancient molecular surface that previously had a radically different function. We show how the physical simplicity of this binding interface enabled the evolution of a new protein function now essential to the biological complexity of many animals. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10147.001 PMID:26740169

  2. Tuning the Topology and Functionality of Metal–Organic Frameworks by Ligand Design

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Dan; Timmons, Daren J; Yuan, Daqiang; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2011-02-15

    Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs)—highly crystalline hybrid materials that combine metal ions with rigid organic ligands—have emerged as an important class of porous materials. The organic ligands add flexibility and diversity to the chemical structures and functions of these materials. In this Account, we summarize our laboratory’s experience in tuning the topology and functionality of MOFs by ligand design. These investigations have led to new materials with interesting properties. By using a ligand that can adopt different symmetry conformations through free internal bond rotation, we have obtained two MOFs that are supramolecular stereoisomers of each other at different reaction temperatures. In another case, where the dimerized ligands function as a D₃-Piedfort unit spacer, we achieve chiral (10,3)-a networks. In the design of MOF-based materials for hydrogen and methane storage, we focused on increasing the gas affinity of frameworks by using ligands with different geometries to control the pore size and effectively introduce unsaturated metal centers (UMCs) into the framework. Framework interpenetration in PCN-6 (PCN stands for porous coordination network) can lead to higher hydrogen uptake. Because of the proper alignment of the UMCs, PCN-12 holds the record for uptake of hydrogen at 77 K/760 Torr. In the case of methane storage, PCN-14 with anthracene-derived ligand achieves breakthrough storage capacity, at a level 28% higher than the U.S. Department of Energy target. Selective gas adsorption requires a pore size comparable to that of the target gas molecules; therefore, we use bulky ligands and network interpenetration to reduce the pore size. In addition, with the help of an amphiphilic ligand, we were able to use temperature to continuously change pore size in a 2D layer MOF. Adding charge to an organic ligand can also stabilize frameworks. By ionizing the amine group within mesoMOF-1, the resulting electronic repulsion keeps the network from

  3. Quantification of functional soil organic carbon pools in a chronosequence of land abandonment in southern Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigalet, Sylvain; Gabarrón-Galeote, Miguel A.; Van Oost, Kristof; van Wesemael, Bas

    2015-04-01

    Land abandonment is the dominant land use change in the Mediterranean, and determines the soil organic carbon (SOC) as the vegetation recovers during secondary succession. The rate of SOC recovery is influenced by environmental factors such as precipitation, soil properties or other local factors. Using aerial photographs taken in 1956, 1977, 1984, 1998, 2001 and 2009, a chronosequence of crop land abandonment was designed and topsoil samples were taken at each stage of recovery in a region North of Málaga. As SOC is a mixture of functional pools, it is important to isolate organic carbon with distinct functional properties to better understand the overall dynamic over decades. Using fractionation scheme introduced by Zimmermann et al. (2007), five fractions were isolated based on particle size, density and resistance: particulate organic matter (POM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), SOC linked to silt and clay (s & c), SOC attached to sand particles or occluded in aggregates (S+A) and a chemically resistant fraction obtained by NaOCl oxidation (rSOC). Although there were no significant changes in particle-size distribution between the recovery stages (except for the croplands), there was a significant increase of S+A fraction over time (16 to 38%) at the expense of the s & c fraction (84 to 58%), indicating aggregation processes. Carbon concentrations within fractions S+A or rSOC did not change over time. Rather, carbon associated with silt and clay particles (s &c) was significantly affected after a few decades of abandonment. It increased from 5.7 gC.kg-1 in croplands to 10.3 gC.kg-1 in semi-natural plots. The chronosequence showed that carbon can be stored in more stable fractions. Taking into account active carbon (DOC + POM) and intermediate carbon (s & c, S+A) as indicators for carbon dynamics, we showed that the proportion of active carbon increased from 11% to 34% within the chronosequence. On the other hand, the proportion of slow cycling carbon

  4. Using multidimensional gas chromatography to group secondary organic aerosol species by functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Rosa M.; Doskey, Paul V.

    2014-10-01

    A carbon number-functionality grid (CNFG) for a complex mixture of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors and oxidation products was developed from the theoretical retention index diagram of a multidimensional gas chromatographic (GC × 2GC) analysis of a mixture of SOA precursors and derivatized oxidation products. In the GC × 2GC analysis, comprehensive separation of the complex mixture was achieved by diverting the modulated effluent from a polar primary column into 2 polar secondary columns. Column stationary phases spanned the widest range of selectivity of commercially available GC analytic columns. In general, separation of the species by the polar primary column was by the number of carbon atoms in the molecule (when the homologous series of reference compounds was selected to have molecular volumes and functionalities similar to the target analytes) and the polar secondary columns provided additional separation according to functionality. An algebraic transformation of the Abraham solvation parameter model was used to estimate linear retention indices of solutes relative to elution of a homologous series of methyl diesters on the primary and secondary columns to develop the theoretical GC × 2GC retention diagram. Retention indices of many of the oxidation products of SOA precursors were estimated for derivatized forms of the solutes. The GC stationary phases selected for the primary column [(50%-Trifluoropropyl)-methylpolysiloxane] and secondary columns (90% Cyanopropyl Polysilphenylene-siloxane and Polyethylene Glycol in a Sol-Gel matrix) provided a theoretical separation of 33 SOA precursors and 98 derivatized oxidation products into 35 groups by molecular volume and functionality. Comprehensive analysis of extracts of vapor and aerosol samples containing semivolatile SOA precursors and oxidation products, respectively, is best accomplished by (1) separating the complex mixture of the vapor and underivatized aerosol extracts with a (50

  5. Adequate iodine levels in healthy pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey of dietary intake in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kasap, Burcu; Akbaba, Gülhan; Yeniçeri, Emine N.; Akın, Melike N.; Akbaba, Eren; Öner, Gökalp; Turhan, Nilgün Ö.; Duru, Mehmet E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess current iodine levels and related factors among healthy pregnant women. Methods: In this cross-sectional, hospital-based study, healthy pregnant women (n=135) were scanned for thyroid volume, provided urine samples for urinary iodine concentration and completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics and dietary habits targeted for iodine consumption at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Muğla, Turkey, between August 2014 and February 2015. Sociodemographic data were analyzed by simple descriptive statistics. Results: Median urinary iodine concentration was 222.0 µg/L, indicating adequate iodine intake during pregnancy. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 28.1% of subjects had iodine deficiency, 34.1% had adequate iodine intake, 34.8% had more than adequate iodine intake, and 3.0% had excessive iodine intake during pregnancy. Education level, higher monthly income, current employment, consuming iodized salt, and adding salt to food during, or after cooking were associated with higher urinary iodine concentration. Conclusion: Iodine status of healthy pregnant women was adequate, although the percentage of women with more than adequate iodine intake was higher than the reported literature. PMID:27279519

  6. An Organic Dyad Composed of Diathiafulvalene-Functionalized Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Fullerene for Single-Component High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Narayanaswamy, K; Venkateswararao, A; Nagarjuna, P; Bishnoi, Swati; Gupta, Vinay; Chand, Suresh; Singh, Surya Prakash

    2016-09-26

    A new low-band gap dyad DPP-Ful, which consists of covalently linked dithiafulvalene-functionalized diketopyrrolopyrrole as donor and fullerene (C60 ) as the acceptor, has been designed and synthesized. Organic solar cells were successfully constructed using the DPP-Ful dyad as an active layer. This system has a record power-conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.2 %, which is the highest value when compared to reported single-component organic solar cells.

  7. An Organic Dyad Composed of Diathiafulvalene-Functionalized Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Fullerene for Single-Component High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Narayanaswamy, K; Venkateswararao, A; Nagarjuna, P; Bishnoi, Swati; Gupta, Vinay; Chand, Suresh; Singh, Surya Prakash

    2016-09-26

    A new low-band gap dyad DPP-Ful, which consists of covalently linked dithiafulvalene-functionalized diketopyrrolopyrrole as donor and fullerene (C60 ) as the acceptor, has been designed and synthesized. Organic solar cells were successfully constructed using the DPP-Ful dyad as an active layer. This system has a record power-conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.2 %, which is the highest value when compared to reported single-component organic solar cells. PMID:27573022

  8. Functional organization of squirrel monkey primary auditory cortex: responses to pure tones.

    PubMed

    Cheung, S W; Bedenbaugh, P H; Nagarajan, S S; Schreiner, C E

    2001-04-01

    The spatial organization of response parameters in squirrel monkey primary auditory cortex (AI) accessible on the temporal gyrus was determined with the excitatory receptive field to pure tone stimuli. Dense, microelectrode mapping of the temporal gyrus in four animals revealed that characteristic frequency (CF) had a smooth, monotonic gradient that systematically changed from lower values (0.5 kHz) in the caudoventral quadrant to higher values (5--6 kHz) in the rostrodorsal quadrant. The extent of AI on the temporal gyrus was approximately 4 mm in the rostrocaudal axis and 2--3 mm in the dorsoventral axis. The entire length of isofrequency contours below 6 kHz was accessible for study. Several independent, spatially organized functional response parameters were demonstrated for the squirrel monkey AI. Latency, the asymptotic minimum arrival time for spikes with increasing sound pressure levels at CF, was topographically organized as a monotonic gradient across AI nearly orthogonal to the CF gradient. Rostral AI had longer latencies (range = 4 ms). Threshold and bandwidth co-varied with the CF. Factoring out the contribution of the CF on threshold variance, residual threshold showed a monotonic gradient across AI that had higher values (range = 10 dB) caudally. The orientation of the threshold gradient was significantly different from the CF gradient. CF-corrected bandwidth, residual Q10, was spatially organized in local patches of coherent values whose loci were specific for each monkey. These data support the existence of multiple, overlying receptive field gradients within AI and form the basis to develop a conceptual framework to understand simple and complex sound coding in mammals.

  9. Anion Binding in Metal-Organic Frameworks Functionalized with Urea Hydrogen-Bonding Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Custelcean, Radu; Moyer, Bruce A; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.; Hay, Benjamin P.

    2006-01-01

    A series of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) functionalized with urea hydrogen-bonding groups has been synthesized and structurally analyzed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction to evaluate the efficacy of anion coordination by urea within the structural constraints of the MOFs. We found that urea-based functionalities may be used for anion binding within metal-organic frameworks when the tendency for urea{hor_ellipsis}urea self-association is decreased by strengthening the intramolecular CH{hor_ellipsis}O hydrogen bonding of N-phenyl substituents to the carbonyl oxygen atom. Theoretical calculations indicate that N,N'-bis(m-pyridyl)urea (BPU) and N,N'-bis(m-cyanophenyl)urea (BCPU) should have enhanced hydrogen-bonding donor abilities toward anions and decreased tendencies to self-associate into hydrogen-bonded tapes compared to other disubstituted ureas. Accordingly, BPU and BCPU were incorporated in MOFs as linkers through coordination of various Zn, Cu, and Ag transition metal salts, including Zn(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}, ZnSO{sub 4}, Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, Cu(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2}, AgNO{sub 3}, and AgSO{sub 3}CH{sub 3}. Structural analysis by single-crystal X-ray diffraction showed that these linkers are versatile anion binders, capable of chelate hydrogen bonding to all of the oxoanions explored. Anion coordination by the urea functionalities was found to successfully compete with urea self-association in all cases except for that of charge-diffuse perchlorate.

  10. [The correlation between subjective and objective voice evaluation in organic and functional larynx disorders].

    PubMed

    Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bozena; Pruszewicz, Antoni; Obrebowski, Andrzej; Swidziński, Piotr

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop and introduce into phoniatric diagnostic procedures the complex methodology of vocal function assessment, on the basis of comparison of subjective and objective voice estimation. The set of complex voice evaluation ought to include perceptual examination of the voice quality with quantitative GRBAS scale as a subjective method, vocal folds vibrations in videostroboscopy as a quasi-objective method and acoustic voice estimation in Multi Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) as an objective method. The basic assumption of this report is to prove correlation existence for vocal folds vibration quality in videostroboscopy, parameters describing acoustic wave generating by vibration system in larynx (MDVP) and perceptual subjective voice assessment (GRBAS scale) in organic and functional voice disorders. Research was conducted on 100 subjects (65 with organic and 35 with functional voice disorder), aged 7-74 years randomly chosen from population of patients treated at the Department of Phoniatrics and Audiology, Karol Marcinkowski University School of Medical Sciences in Poznań in 1996-2001 and 60 subjects as a control group without any voice disorders according to phoniatric examination. The research methodology include perceptual voice evaluation based on Japanese (Hirano) GRBAS scale adapted to Polish language, in scale 0 to 3 as well as the vibrations of vocal folds in videostroboscopy with attempt at quantification (scale 1 to 3) of selected measure and for acoustic analysis of Multi Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) for 17 estimated parameters. Due to results and statistic analysis the own, new scale of dysphonia severity was introduced.

  11. Organization of intrinsic functional brain connectivity predicts decisions to reciprocate social behavior.

    PubMed

    Cáceda, Ricardo; James, G Andrew; Gutman, David A; Kilts, Clinton D

    2015-10-01

    Reciprocation of trust exchanges is central to the development of interpersonal relationships and societal well-being. Understanding how humans make pro-social and self-centered decisions in dyadic interactions and how to predict these choices has been an area of great interest in social neuroscience. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based technology with potential clinical application is the study of resting state brain connectivity. We tested if resting state connectivity may predict choice behavior in a social context. Twenty-nine healthy adults underwent resting state fMRI before performing the Trust Game, a two person monetary exchange game. We assessed the ability of patterns of resting-state functional brain organization, demographic characteristics and a measure of moral development, the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2), to predict individuals' decisions to reciprocate money during the Trust Game. Subjects reciprocated in 74.9% of the trials. Independent component analysis identified canonical resting-state networks. Increased functional connectivity between the salience (bilateral insula/anterior cingulate) and central executive (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex/ posterior parietal cortex) networks significantly predicted the choice to reciprocate pro-social behavior (R(2) = 0.20, p = 0.015). Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that functional connectivity between these two networks (p = 0.002), age (p = 0.007) and DIT-2 personal interest schema score (p = 0.032) significantly predicted reciprocity behavior (R(2) = 0.498, p = 0.001). Intrinsic functional connectivity between neural networks in conjunction with other individual characteristics may be a valuable tool for predicting performance during social interactions. Future replication and temporal extension of these findings may bolster the understanding of decision making in clinical, financial and marketing settings.

  12. Organization of intrinsic functional brain connectivity predicts decisions to reciprocate social behavior.

    PubMed

    Cáceda, Ricardo; James, G Andrew; Gutman, David A; Kilts, Clinton D

    2015-10-01

    Reciprocation of trust exchanges is central to the development of interpersonal relationships and societal well-being. Understanding how humans make pro-social and self-centered decisions in dyadic interactions and how to predict these choices has been an area of great interest in social neuroscience. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based technology with potential clinical application is the study of resting state brain connectivity. We tested if resting state connectivity may predict choice behavior in a social context. Twenty-nine healthy adults underwent resting state fMRI before performing the Trust Game, a two person monetary exchange game. We assessed the ability of patterns of resting-state functional brain organization, demographic characteristics and a measure of moral development, the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2), to predict individuals' decisions to reciprocate money during the Trust Game. Subjects reciprocated in 74.9% of the trials. Independent component analysis identified canonical resting-state networks. Increased functional connectivity between the salience (bilateral insula/anterior cingulate) and central executive (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex/ posterior parietal cortex) networks significantly predicted the choice to reciprocate pro-social behavior (R(2) = 0.20, p = 0.015). Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that functional connectivity between these two networks (p = 0.002), age (p = 0.007) and DIT-2 personal interest schema score (p = 0.032) significantly predicted reciprocity behavior (R(2) = 0.498, p = 0.001). Intrinsic functional connectivity between neural networks in conjunction with other individual characteristics may be a valuable tool for predicting performance during social interactions. Future replication and temporal extension of these findings may bolster the understanding of decision making in clinical, financial and marketing settings. PMID:26166191

  13. Human subject protection in India - is it adequate?

    PubMed

    Mahaluxmivala, Narges

    2010-01-01

    India's experience in clinical trials is shorter in time than that of the developed countries but as in everything else in the current globalizing environment, business compulsions characterized by compressed timelines are strong persuaders to catch up. Most global pharmaceutical and biotechnology organizations include India in their strategic plans, Immediate implementation of aspects that attract benefit are an urgent necessity. Technical and ethical issues that remain unresolved constrain India from reaching its deserved potential. To take fullest advantage of the current inflow of clinical trials, India must adopt, without delay, an all-inclusive approach and invest in a widespread and comprehensive GCP-compliance programme taking into account India-related cultural and socioeconomic issues. The initiative should not be allowed to flag. Government, the pharmaceutical and biotechnological research industries, the medical and pharmacy profession including relevant training institutes, the media and the public have a stake in such investment. The programme should involve assessing gaps in current clinical trial compliance measures and possible solutions, set the field for rectification and ensure implementation through mandate and penalty as feasible.

  14. Human subject protection in India - is it adequate?

    PubMed

    Mahaluxmivala, Narges

    2010-01-01

    India's experience in clinical trials is shorter in time than that of the developed countries but as in everything else in the current globalizing environment, business compulsions characterized by compressed timelines are strong persuaders to catch up. Most global pharmaceutical and biotechnology organizations include India in their strategic plans, Immediate implementation of aspects that attract benefit are an urgent necessity. Technical and ethical issues that remain unresolved constrain India from reaching its deserved potential. To take fullest advantage of the current inflow of clinical trials, India must adopt, without delay, an all-inclusive approach and invest in a widespread and comprehensive GCP-compliance programme taking into account India-related cultural and socioeconomic issues. The initiative should not be allowed to flag. Government, the pharmaceutical and biotechnological research industries, the medical and pharmacy profession including relevant training institutes, the media and the public have a stake in such investment. The programme should involve assessing gaps in current clinical trial compliance measures and possible solutions, set the field for rectification and ensure implementation through mandate and penalty as feasible. PMID:21829776

  15. Asymmetric neighborhood functions accelerate ordering process of self-organizing maps

    SciTech Connect

    Ota, Kaiichiro; Aoki, Takaaki; Kurata, Koji; Aoyagi, Toshio

    2011-02-15

    A self-organizing map (SOM) algorithm can generate a topographic map from a high-dimensional stimulus space to a low-dimensional array of units. Because a topographic map preserves neighborhood relationships between the stimuli, the SOM can be applied to certain types of information processing such as data visualization. During the learning process, however, topological defects frequently emerge in the map. The presence of defects tends to drastically slow down the formation of a globally ordered topographic map. To remove such topological defects, it has been reported that an asymmetric neighborhood function is effective, but only in the simple case of mapping one-dimensional stimuli to a chain of units. In this paper, we demonstrate that even when high-dimensional stimuli are used, the asymmetric neighborhood function is effective for both artificial and real-world data. Our results suggest that applying the asymmetric neighborhood function to the SOM algorithm improves the reliability of the algorithm. In addition, it enables processing of complicated, high-dimensional data by using this algorithm.

  16. Control of Organization and Function of Muscle and Tendon by Thrombospondin-4

    PubMed Central

    Frolova, Ella G.; Drazba, Judith; Krukovets, Irene; Kostenko, Volodymyr; Blech, Lauren; Harry, Christy; Vasanji, Amit; Drumm, Carla; Sul, Pavel; Jenniskens, Guido J.; Plow, Edward F.; Stenina-Adognravi, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Thrombospondins (TSP) are multifunctional proteins that are deposited in the extracellular matrix where they directly affect the function of vascular and other cell types. TSP-4, one of the 5 TSP family members, is expressed abundantly in tendon and muscle. We have examined the effect of TSP-4 deficiency on tendon collagen and skeletal muscle morphology and function. In Thbs4−/− mice, tendon collagen fibrils are significantly larger than in wild-type mice, and there is no compensatory over-expression of TSP-3 and TSP-5, the two TSPs most highly homologous to TSP-4, in the deficient mice. TSP-4 is expressed in skeletal muscle, and higher levels of TSP-4 protein are associated with the microvasculature of red skeletal muscle with high oxidative metabolism. Lack of TSP-4 in Medial soleus, red skeletal muscle with predominant oxidative metabolism, is associated with decreased levels of several specific glycosaminoglycan modifications, decreased expression of a TGFβ receptor beta-glycan, decreased activity of lipoprotein lipase, which associates with vascular cell surfaces by binding to glycosaminoglycans, and decreased uptake of VLDL. The soleus muscle is smaller and hind- and fore-limb grip strength is reduced in Thbs4−/− mice compared to wild-type mice. These observations suggest that TSP-4 regulates the composition of the ECM at major sites of its deposition, tendon and muscle, and the absence of TSP-4 alters the organization, composition and physiological functions of these tissues. PMID:24589453

  17. The Importance of Adequate Iodine during Pregnancy and Infancy.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased ≥50% during pregnancy. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy can cause maternal and fetal hypothyroidism and impair neurological development of the fetus. The consequences depend upon the timing and severity of the hypothyroidism; the most severe manifestation is cretinism. In iodine-deficient areas, controlled studies have demonstrated that iodine supplementation before or during early pregnancy eliminates new cases of cretinism, increases birth weight, reduces rates of perinatal and infant mortality and generally increases developmental scores in young children by 10-20%. Mild-to-moderate maternal iodine deficiency can cause thyroid dysfunction, but whether it impairs cognitive and/or neurological function in the offspring remains uncertain. In nearly all regions affected by iodine deficiency, salt iodization is the most cost-effective way of delivering iodine and improving maternal and infant health. PMID:27198746

  18. Hypogenic origin, geologic controls and functional organization of a giant cave system in Precambrian carbonates, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimchouk, Alexander; Auler, Augusto S.; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Cazarin, Caroline L.; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Dublyansky, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    This study is focused on speleogenesis of the Toca da Boa Vista (TBV) and Toca da Barriguda (TBR), the longest caves in South America occurring in the Neoproterozoic Salitre Formation in the São Francisco Craton, NE Brazil. We employ a multidisciplinary approach integrating detailed speleomorphogenetic, lithostratigraphic and geological structure studies in order to reveal the origin of the caves, their functional organization and geologic controls on their development. The caves developed in deep-seated confined conditions by rising flow. The overall fields of passages of TBV and TBR caves represent a speleogenetically exploited large NE-SW-trending fracture corridor associated with a major thrust. This corridor vertically extends across the Salitre Formation allowing the rise of deep fluids. In the overall ascending flow system, the formation of the cave pattern was controlled by a system of sub-parallel anticlines and troughs with NNE-SSW dominant orientation, and by vertical and lateral heterogeneities in fracture distribution. Three cave-stratigraphic stories reflect the actual hydrostratigraphy during the main phase of speleogenesis. Cavities at different stories are distinct in morphology and functioning. The gross tree-dimensional pattern of the system is effectively organized to conduct rising flow in deep-seated confined conditions. Cavities in the lower story developed as recharge components to the system. A laterally extensive conduit network in the middle story formed because the vertical flow from numerous recharge points has been redirected laterally along the highly conductive unit, occurring below the major seal - a scarcely fractured unit. Rift-like and shaft-like conduits in the upper story developed along fracture-controlled outflow paths, breaching the integrity of the major seal, and served as outlets for the cave system. The cave system represents a series of vertically organized, functionally largely independent clusters of cavities

  19. Synthesis of nine-atom deltahedral Zintl ions of germanium and their functionalization with organic groups.

    PubMed

    Gillett-Kunnath, Miriam M; Sevov, Slavi C

    2012-01-01

    Although the first studies of Zintl ions date between the late 1890's and early 1930's they were not structurally characterized until many years later. Their redox chemistry is even younger, just about ten years old, but despite this short history these deltahedral clusters ions E9(n-) (E = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb; n = 2, 3, 4) have already shown interesting and diverse reactivity and have been at the forefront of rapidly developing and exciting new chemistry. Notable milestones are the oxidative coupling of Ge9(4-) clusters to oligomers and infinite chains, their metallation, capping by transition-metal organometallic fragments, insertion of a transition-metal atom at the center of the cluster which is sometimes combined with capping and oligomerization, addition of main-group organometallic fragments as exo-bonded substituents, and functionalization with various organic residues by reactions with organic halides and alkynes. This latter development of attaching organic fragments directly to the clusters has opened up a new field, namely organo-Zintl chemistry, that is potentially fertile for further synthetic explorations, and it is the step-by-step procedure for the synthesis of germanium-divinyl clusters described herein. The initial steps outline the synthesis of an intermetallic precursor of K4Ge9 from which the Ge9(4-) clusters are extracted later in solution. This involves fused-silica glass blowing, arc-welding of niobium containers, and handling of highly air-sensitive materials in a glove box. The air-sensitive K4Ge9 is then dissolved in ethylenediamine in the box and then alkenylated by a reaction with Me3SiC≡CSiMe3. The reaction is followed by electrospray mass spectrometry while the resulting solution is used for obtaining single crystals containing the functionalized clusters [H2C=CH-Ge9-CH=CH2](2-). For this purpose the solution is centrifuged, filtered, and carefully layered with a toluene solution of 18-crown-6. Left undisturbed for a few days, the so

  20. Synthesis of Nine-atom Deltahedral Zintl Ions of Germanium and their Functionalization with Organic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Gillett-Kunnath, Miriam M.; Sevov, Slavi C.

    2012-01-01

    Although the first studies of Zintl ions date between the late 1890's and early 1930's they were not structurally characterized until many years later.1,2 Their redox chemistry is even younger, just about ten years old, but despite this short history these deltahedral clusters ions E9n- (E = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb; n = 2, 3, 4) have already shown interesting and diverse reactivity and have been at the forefront of rapidly developing and exciting new chemistry.3-6 Notable milestones are the oxidative coupling of Ge94- clusters to oligomers and infinite chains,7-19 their metallation,14-16,20-25 capping by transition-metal organometallic fragments,26-34 insertion of a transition-metal atom at the center of the cluster which is sometimes combined with capping and oligomerization,35-47 addition of main-group organometallic fragments as exo-bonded substituents,48-50 and functionalization with various organic residues by reactions with organic halides and alkynes.51-58 This latter development of attaching organic fragments directly to the clusters has opened up a new field, namely organo-Zintl chemistry, that is potentially fertile for further synthetic explorations, and it is the step-by-step procedure for the synthesis of germanium-divinyl clusters described herein. The initial steps outline the synthesis of an intermetallic precursor of K4Ge9 from which the Ge94- clusters are extracted later in solution. This involves fused-silica glass blowing, arc-welding of niobium containers, and handling of highly air-sensitive materials in a glove box. The air-sensitive K4Ge9 is then dissolved in ethylenediamine in the box and then alkenylated by a reaction with Me3SiC≡CSiMe3. The reaction is followed by electrospray mass spectrometry while the resulting solution is used for obtaining single crystals containing the functionalized clusters [H2C=CH-Ge9-CH=CH2]2-. For this purpose the solution is centrifuged, filtered, and carefully layered with a toluene solution of 18-crown-6. Left