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Sample records for adequate prenatal care

  1. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; P<0.01) and improved adequacy of received services (95.04% versus 83.8%; P=0.02). Conclusion The poor prenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  2. Prenatal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Child Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Initially published by the Children's Bureau in 1913, this pamphlet has been revised frequently. Its purpose is to point out the importance of medical care during pregnancy. Comfortable pregnancies, easy labor, and better care for their new infants are the usual concerns of prospective mothers. Consequently, this 1962 edition of "Prenatal Care"…

  3. Prenatal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Maternal and Child Health Services.

    This booklet is the first in a series of publications designed to provide parents with useful information about childrearing. Contents are organized into three parts. Part I focuses on the pregnancy, prenatal care, development of the baby, pregnant lifestyles, nutrition, common discomforts, and problems of pregnancy. Part II provides information…

  4. Medicaid reimbursement, prenatal care and infant health.

    PubMed

    Sonchak, Lyudmyla

    2015-12-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of state-level Medicaid reimbursement rates for obstetric care on prenatal care utilization across demographic groups. It also uses these rates as an instrumental variable to assess the importance of prenatal care on birth weight. The analysis is conducted using a unique dataset of Medicaid reimbursement rates and 2001-2010 Vital Statistics Natality data. Conditional on county fixed effects, the study finds a modest, but statistically significant positive relationship between Medicaid reimbursement rates and the number of prenatal visits obtained by pregnant women. Additionally, higher rates are associated with an increase in the probability of obtaining adequate care, as well as a reduction in the incidence of going without any prenatal care. However, the effect of an additional prenatal visit on birth weight is virtually zero for black disadvantaged mothers, while an additional visit yields a substantial increase in birth weight of over 20 g for white disadvantaged mothers.

  5. Prenatal Care: Third Trimester Visits

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week During the third trimester, prenatal care might include vaginal exams to check the baby's ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-care/art- ...

  6. [Prenatal care in Germany].

    PubMed

    Vetter, K; Goeckenjan, M

    2013-12-01

    Prenatal care in Germany is based on a nationwide standardized program of care for pregnant women. Besides support and health counseling, it comprises prevention or early detection of diseases or unfavorable circumstances with risks for mother and child. Prenatal care is regulated by law and structured by directives and standard procedures in maternity guidelines (Mutterschafts-Richtlinien). This includes information and counseling of future mothers on offers of psychosocial and medical assistance in normal pregnancies as well as in unplanned or unwanted pregnancies. Further aspects are clinical examinations and risk determinations for genetic variations or direct genetic analysis. During pregnancy, medical history, clinical examination, and blood testing are part of the sophisticated program, which includes at least three standardized sonographic examinations at 10, 20, and 30 weeks of gestation. The maternity passport allows a pregnant woman to carry the most relevant information on her pregnancy and her personal risks with her. For 45 years now, women in Germany are used to carrying their Mutterpass. Societal changes have influenced the central goals of maternity care: In the beginning, the mortality of mother and child had to be reduced. Today, maternal morbidity and impaired development of the child are the center of interest, with expansion to familial satisfaction. The reduction in the mortality and morbidity of both the mother and the child during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum can be attributed to prenatal care. Thus, investment in a program of nationwide structured prenatal care seems to be worthwhile-despite the lack of evidence concerning its effectiveness.

  7. [Access to dental care during prenatal assistance].

    PubMed

    dos Santos Neto, Edson Theodoro; Oliveira, Adauto Emmerich; Zandonade, Eliana; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2012-11-01

    This study sought to evaluate the self-perceived response to dental care during prenatal assistance in the Unified Health System (SUS) in the Metropolitan Region of Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil. 1032 postpartum women were interviewed and 1006 prenatal records copied. Postpartum women's self-perceived response was measured by the Oral Health Index Profile-14. When an impact was identified, dental care rendered in educational, preventive and curative terms was considered adequate. When there was no impact, assistance was considered adequate in educational and preventive terms. The Chi-square test revealed an association between prenatal care and dental care. Oral health impact on quality of life was 14.7%. Dental care received by mothers in educational terms was rated at 41.3%, while in preventive terms it was 21% and in curative terms it was 16.6%. Six or more prenatal appointments coupled with educational activities was closely associated with adequate dental care (p < 0.05). Access to dental care is facilitated when pregnant women attend health services and become involved in educational activities during the prenatal period. Consequently, educational measures appear to indicate an improvement in prenatal care in the SUS.

  8. The Prenatal Care at School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Carol H.; Nasso, Jacqueline T.; Swider, Susan; Ellison, Brenda R.; Griswold, Daniel L.; Brooks, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    School absenteeism and poor compliance with prenatal appointments are concerns for pregnant teens. The Prenatal Care at School (PAS) program is a new model of prenatal care involving local health care providers and school personnel to reduce the need for students to leave school for prenatal care. The program combines prenatal care and education…

  9. Prenatal Care: First Trimester Visits

    MedlinePlus

    ... your partner in the appointment as well. Medical history Your health care provider will ask many questions, ... pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-care/art-20044882 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  10. How prenatal care can improve maternal health.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Prenatal care aims to preserve the health of the fetus and mother. It screens for indications of illness or pregnancy-related complications and tries to prevent them from becoming emergencies. Sufficient referral services are needed for prenatal screening to be effective. Women and their families must be motivated to go to them promptly. Often prenatal care is the first time women receive any medical care. Thus, quality care is imperative so women will again request medical care when necessary. Prenatal care providers must ask women about signs and symptoms of placenta previa and placental abruptio. They should also tell them about the gravity of hemorrhaging in late pregnancy. Referral facilities must have operative capabilities and be able to provide adequate transfusion to treat severe hemorrhage. Health workers must prevent and treat anemia in pregnant women to improve their chances of recovery from blood loss; they must also measure blood pressure and periodically test for proteinuria and edema to diagnose preeclampsia, eclampsia, and hypertension. Health workers must screen women at high risk for cephalopelvic disproportion (e.g. by assessing, height, foot size, and age) and for a malpositioned fetus and multiple pregnancies (e.g. via abdominal examination). They must also educate mothers about the importance of hygienic delivery and provide sanitary delivery kits. Unhygienic delivery conditions and untreated sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can cause puerperal sepsis. STDs can also have other adverse effects such as ectopic pregnancy and blindness, death, or retardation of the fetus/ infant. STD screening could prevent needless suffering in many women; 5-15% of pregnant women in some developing countries have syphilis. Prenatal care should include screening for urinary tract infections which can cause preterm delivery and low birth weight. Antibiotics can treat these infections. Some pregnant women have infectious diseases which may undetected without

  11. Associations of government health expenditures, the supply of health care professionals, and country literacy with prenatal care use in ten West African countries.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Yhenneko J; Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N; Brunner Huber, Larissa R; Racine, Elizabeth F

    2017-03-01

    Social and health care context may influence prenatal care use. We studied associations of government health expenditures, supply of health care professionals, and country literacy rates with prenatal care use in ten West African countries, controlling for individual factors. We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys (n = 58,512) and random effect logistic regression models to estimate the likelihood of having any prenatal care and adequate prenatal care. Each percentage increase in the literacy rate was associated with 4% higher odds of having adequate prenatal care (p = .029). Higher literacy rates among women may help to promote adequate prenatal care.

  12. Prenatal Care Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Michael

    Described is the development and evaluation of a prenatal instructional program designed to prevent birth defects. It is explained that the program, composed of five slide tape units on such topics as nutrition and environmental factors, was field tested and found effective with 97 participants (pregnant high school students, nursing students, and…

  13. Child Health USA 2013: Prenatal Care Utilization

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessed: on 7/31/13 ↑ Back to top Graphs This image is described in the Data section. ... this! Email Print-Friendly Downloads Prenatal Care Utilization Graphs (56k zipped folder of 2 GIFs) Prenatal Care ...

  14. Effects of Prenatal Care on Child Health at Age 5

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Kelly; Corman, Hope; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The broad goal of contemporary prenatal care is to promote the health of the mother, child, and family through the pregnancy, delivery, and the child’s development. Although the vast majority of mothers giving birth in developed countries receive prenatal care, past research has not found compelling evidence that early or adequate prenatal care has favorable effects on birth outcomes. It is possible that prenatal care confers health benefits to the child that do not become apparent until after the perinatal period. Methods Using data from a national urban birth cohort study in the U.S., we estimate the effects of prenatal care on four markers of child health at age 5—maternal-reported health status, asthma diagnosis, overweight, and height. We implement a number of different strategies to address the issue of potential omitted variables bias as well as a large number of specification checks to validate the findings. Results and Conclusions Prenatal care, defined a number of different ways, does not appear to have any effect on the outcomes examined. The findings are robust and suggest that routine health care encounters during the prenatal period could potentially be used more effectively to enhance children’s health trajectories. However, future research is needed to explore the effects of prenatal care on additional child health and developmental outcomes as well as the effects of preconceptional and maternal lifetime helathcare on child health. PMID:22374319

  15. Effects of prenatal care on child health at age 5.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Kelly; Corman, Hope; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Reichman, Nancy E

    2013-02-01

    The broad goal of contemporary prenatal care is to promote the health of the mother, child, and family through the pregnancy, delivery, and the child's development. Although the vast majority of mothers giving birth in developed countries receive prenatal care, past research has not found compelling evidence that early or adequate prenatal care has favorable effects on birth outcomes. It is possible that prenatal care confers health benefits to the child that do not become apparent until after the perinatal period. Using data from a national urban birth cohort study in the US, we estimate the effects of prenatal care on four markers of child health at age 5-maternal-reported health status, asthma diagnosis, overweight, and height. Prenatal care, defined a number of different ways, does not appear to have any effect on the outcomes examined. The findings are robust and suggest that routine health care encounters during the prenatal period could potentially be used more effectively to enhance children's health trajectories. However, future research is needed to explore the effects of prenatal care on additional child health and developmental outcomes as well as the effects of preconceptional and maternal lifetime healthcare on child health.

  16. Determinants of the use of prenatal care in rural China: the role of care content.

    PubMed

    Nwaru, Bright I; Wu, Zhuochun; Hemminki, Elina

    2012-01-01

    Several maternal demographic factors have been identified to influence the timing of starting prenatal care and its adequate use. However, how the content of prenatal care modifies these factors has not been studied previously. Using a representative sample collected for other purposes in rural China, we examined the factors predicting the uptake of prenatal care by taking into account the content of care (advice: on nutrition during pregnancy, diseases and pregnancy-related problems, and on child care after birth; and routine tests: blood pressure, blood tests, and ultrasound). We studied 1,479 women who answered a house-hold KAP (knowledge, attitude, and practice) survey (97% response rate) collected after a prenatal care intervention from 2001 to 2003 in 20 townships located in a county in Anhui Province. A multinomial logistic regression was used for the analysis. The most prominent factors that predicted late start of prenatal care and inadequate care were younger age, low maternal income, and having more than one child. When we adjusted for the content of care, the influence of these factors on the use of prenatal care attenuated to varying degrees: in some cases there was up to 20% reduction in the values of the risk estimates, while in other cases the statistical significance of the estimates were lost. It is important to take into account the content of prenatal care when assessing the factors predicting women's use of prenatal care.

  17. Regulatory requirements for providing adequate veterinary care to research animals.

    PubMed

    Pinson, David M

    2013-09-01

    Provision of adequate veterinary care is a required component of animal care and use programs in the United States. Program participants other than veterinarians, including non-medically trained research personnel and technicians, also provide veterinary care to animals, and administrators are responsible for assuring compliance with federal mandates regarding adequate veterinary care. All program participants therefore should understand the regulatory requirements for providing such care. The author provides a training primer on the US regulatory requirements for the provision of veterinary care to research animals. Understanding the legal basis and conditions of a program of veterinary care will help program participants to meet the requirements advanced in the laws and policies.

  18. Family structure and use of prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Alves, Elisabete; Silva, Susana; Martins, Simone; Barros, Henrique

    2015-06-01

    This cross-sectional study intended to assess the use of prenatal care according to the family structure in a population with free universal access to prenatal care. In 2005-2006, the Portuguese birth cohort was assembled by the recruitment of puerperae at public maternity wards in Porto, Portugal. In the current analysis, 7,211 were included. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, and prenatal care were self-reported. Single mothers were considered as those whose household composition did not include a partner at delivery. Approximately 6% of the puerperae were single mothers. These women were more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy (OR = 6.30; 95%CI: 4.94-8.04), an inadequate prenatal care (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.32-4.02), and to miss the ultrasound and the intake of folic acid supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.30-2.27; and OR = 1.67; 95%CI: 1.32-2.13, respectively). The adequacy and use of prenatal care was less frequent in single mothers. Educational interventions should reinforce the use and early initiation of prenatal care.

  19. Prenatal care disparities and the migrant farm worker community.

    PubMed

    Bircher, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    The pregnant migrant farm worker faces many barriers to accessing healthcare in the United States due to poverty, language/literacy issues, transportation difficulties, and geographic isolation. The advanced practice nurse has the opportunity to contribute solutions to the problems of lack of adequate prenatal care among the migrant farm worker community, if he/she is aware of the need and can institute novel models of care. This article describes the problem of migrant farm worker health and suggests ways that advanced practice nurses can provide cost effective, competent professional care to reduce or eliminate the obstacles to care for this population.

  20. Access Barriers to Prenatal Care in Emerging Adult Latinas.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rosamar

    2016-03-01

    Despite efforts to improve access to prenatal care, emerging adult Latinas in the United States continue to enter care late in their pregnancies and/or underutilize these services. Since little is known about emerging adult Latinas and their prenatal care experiences, the purpose of this study was to identify actual and perceived prenatal care barriers in a sample of 54 emerging adult Latinas between 18 and 21 years of age. More than 95% of the sample experienced personal and institutional barriers when attempting to access prenatal care. Results from this study lend support for policy changes for time away from school or work to attend prenatal care and for group prenatal care.

  1. Participation in prenatal care in the Paso del Norte border region: the influence of acculturation.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Judith T; Bader, Julia; Nelson, Carlene; Shannon, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    Women who resided on the El Paso, Texas/Juarez, Mexico border (the Paso del Norte region) were surveyed to determine the barriers and facilitators to receiving early and adequate prenatal care. Postpartum interviews and medical chart abstractions were conducted among 493 Hispanic women. Primary facilitators were all factors that made prenatal care services more accessible to women and a priority among other issues competing for time and resources. The factors reported by these women as barriers to timely entry and sustaining enrollment in prenatal care were related to the availability of social support networks and affiliation with the Mexican/Hispanic culture (acculturation).

  2. Piecing together the crazy quilt of prenatal care.

    PubMed Central

    Machala, M; Miner, M W

    1991-01-01

    The failure to provide adequate prenatal care for low-income pregnant women in the United States and the effects of this failure on infant mortality are well known. Many studies have identified institutional barriers against access to care as a major cause. To overcome these barriers, Public Health District V, South Central Idaho, has created a comprehensive prenatal health care model that has almost tripled participation in its program during the first year of implementation and increased it again significantly during the second year. This decentralized pregnancy program has succeeded in getting all of the physicians offering obstetrical care in the district to serve low-income pregnant clients on a rotating basis. The new program provides pregnancy testing as well as financial screening services. Also, it has combined support services into one-stop-shopping clinics that include an innovative expansion of the Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Program of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. WIC food vouchers help attract clients into the prenatal care system and keep them coming. Enrichment of the duties of the public health nurse provides case coordination that pulls together the patchwork of medical and support services for the pregnant client. PMID:1908585

  3. Prenatal care in your second trimester

    MedlinePlus

    ... MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Prenatal care in your second trimester URL of this page: // ...

  4. Infant mortality and prenatal care: contributions of the clinic in the light of Canguilhem and Foucault.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Paula Pereira de; Lunardi Filho, Wilson Danilo; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Pimpão, Fernanda Demutti

    2012-01-01

    This review study aimed to verify how studies conducted in Brazil have related infant mortality to prenatal care and to present contributions of the clinic in the light of Canguilhem and Foucault for qualification of the care. An integrative literature review was conducted from searches in the databases SciELO, LILACS, MEDLINE and BDENF for the period 2000 to 2009. The relationship between infant mortality and prenatal care is related to the insufficient number of consultations or to the quality of the care provided. Even when the number of and routine consultations in the prenatal care were adequate, avoidable deaths were present. For the qualification of prenatal care, it is suggested that the clinical knowledge and other elements that comprise the process of human living are considered, in order that the clinical view is enlarged and articulated to the technologies available in the health system and, together, they are able to contribute to the reduction of infant mortality in Brazil.

  5. Black/white differences in prenatal care utilization: an assessment of predisposing and enabling factors.

    PubMed Central

    LaVeist, T A; Keith, V M; Gutierrez, M L

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This article reports on analysis of the predisposing and enabling factors that affect black/white differences in utilization of prenatal care services. DATA SOURCES. We use a secondary data source from a survey conducted by the Michigan Department of Public Health. STUDY DESIGN. The study uses multivariate analysis methods to examine black/white differences in (1) total number of prenatal care visits, (2) timing of start of prenatal care, and (3) adequacy of care received. We use the model advanced by Aday, Andersen, and Fleming (1980) to examine the effect of enabling and predisposing factors on black/white differences in prenatal care utilization. DATA COLLECTION. A questionnaire was administered to all women who delivered in Michigan hospitals with an obstetrical unit. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Enabling factors fully accounted for black/white differences in timing of start of prenatal care; however, the model could not fully account for black/white differences in the total number or the adequacy of prenatal care received. CONCLUSION. Although there are no black/white differences in the initiation of prenatal care, black women are still less likely to receive adequate care as measured by the Kessner index, or to have as many total prenatal care contacts as white women. It is possible that barriers within the health care system that could not be assessed in this study may account for the differences we observed. Future research should consider the characteristics of the health care system that may account for the unwillingness or inability of black women to continue to receive care once they initiate prenatal care. PMID:7721584

  6. Access to prenatal care: assessment of the adequacy of different indices.

    PubMed

    Santos Neto, Edson Theodoro dos; Oliveira, Adauto Emmerich; Zandonade, Eliana; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to compare the evaluation of adequate access to prenatal care according to different indices. Data to construct the indices were obtained from 1,006 patient interviews, prenatal cards, and medical charts for postpartum women who had been admitted for childbirth at maternity hospitals in Greater Metropolitan Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, from April to September 2010. The various indices for the evaluation of prenatal care were compared to the Kotelchuck index (1994) as the standard reference. Prevalence rates for adequacy were calculated, as were agreement, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, accuracy, and likelihood ratios. The Takeda index showed the highest prevalence of adequacy (55.8%). The highest agreement was between the indices proposed by Villar et al. and Rosen et al. (adjusted kappa = 0.84). The study concludes that the Carvalho & Novaes index and the Brazilian Ministry of Health index are relevant for assessing adequate access to prenatal care.

  7. Choosing Your Prenatal Care Provider

    MedlinePlus

    ... on midwives. A family nurse practitioner (also called FNP) is a nurse with special education and training ... care of every member of your family. An FNP can take care of you during pregnancy and ...

  8. Prenatal Care: Second Trimester Visits

    MedlinePlus

    ... growth. By measuring the distance from the pubic bone to the top of your uterus, your health care provider can gauge your baby's growth. This measurement in centimeters often equals the number of weeks ...

  9. The Motivation-Facilitation Theory of Prenatal Care Access.

    PubMed

    Phillippi, Julia C; Roman, Marian W

    2013-01-01

    Despite the availability of services, accessing health care remains a problem in the United States and other developed countries. Prenatal care has the potential to improve perinatal outcomes and decrease health disparities, yet many women struggle with access to care. Current theories addressing access to prenatal care focus on barriers, although such knowledge is minimally useful for clinicians. We propose a middle-range theory, the motivation-facilitation theory of prenatal care access, which condenses the prenatal care access process into 2 interacting components: motivation and facilitation. Maternal motivation is the mother's desire to begin and maintain care. Facilitation represents the goal of the clinic to create easy, open access to person-centered beneficial care. This simple model directs the focus of research and change to the interface of the woman and the clinic and encourages practice-level interventions that facilitate women entering and maintaining prenatal care.

  10. Culturally sensitive prenatal care for Southeast Asians.

    PubMed

    Mattson, S; Lew, L

    1992-01-01

    The outreach program for Southeast Asian immigrants, chiefly Cambodians who arrived after 1980, begun by St. Mary Medical CEnter of Long Beach California, called the Southeast Asian Health Project (SEAHP) was evaluated by structured interviews of 199 women. The obstacles to full participation by these Asian immigrants in health care are described at length. They range from illiteracy and abuse in refugee camps to the immense cultural barrier involving philosophy of health to language barriers. The SEAHP Outreach services began with door-to-door canvassing, ads in refugee papers, and meetings in temples. Special educational resource materials were printed covering prenatal care, nutrition, child development, and feeding. Oral classes were held in CAmbodian and Lao with Vietnamese translators, as well as babysitters, transportation, and snacks. Class topics were nutrition, parenting skills, labor and delivery, child development, hygiene, and breast feeding. Training was also given to professional staff. 600 clients in prenatal clinics since 1987, 119 were interviewed by 4 workers fluent in Cambodian and Lao. The women were typical of refugees, only 1/2 were literate in native languages. 49% had delivered babies at home in Asia; 39% had delivered in refugee camp clinics. Women cited several different behaviors as a result of SEAHP classes: intake of milk products, use of food substitutes, food preparation, attendance at regular medical care, child care, and bathing. They said that they felt more comfortable at the clinic, and would recommend that friends go to the clinic for prenatal care. The concept of culture broker, and the role of nurses as culture brokers are discussed.

  11. Prenatal care through the eyes of Canadian Aboriginal women.

    PubMed

    Di Lallo, Sherri

    2014-01-01

    The Aboriginal Prenatal Wellness Program (APWP) in Canada represents a culturally safe approach to prenatal care. By understanding the history of colonization and residential schools and how this history has contributed to health disparities, a multidisciplinary team provides culturally competent and integrated prenatal care to Aboriginal women and their families. This article describes the APWP and discusses how increased participation in health care by historically marginalized populations can lead to better maternal and neonatal health outcomes.

  12. Nonuse of Prenatal Care: Implications for Social Work Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedics, Bonnie C.

    1994-01-01

    Interviewed 44 women who did not obtain prenatal care. Identified four categories of reasons for nonuse: women's lifestyles differed from mainstream; stressful events took priority over prenatal care; women attempted to receive care but were discouraged, turned away, or given poor information by service delivery system personnel; and women did not…

  13. Caring for Our Future: The Content of Prenatal Care. A Report of the Public Health Service Expert Panel on the Content of Prenatal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This report describes effective approaches for enhancing maternal, infant, and family outcomes based on the scientific and systematic assessment of the content of prenatal care conducted by the Public Health Service's Expert Panel on the Content of Prenatal Care. The range of risks, both medical and psychosocial, that the prenatal care provider…

  14. Does Rural Residence Affect Access to Prenatal Care in Oregon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Beth; Grant, Therese; Schiff, Melissa; Kasehagen, Laurin

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying how maternal residential location affects late initiation of prenatal care is important for policy planning and allocation of resources for intervention. Purpose: To determine how rural residence and other social and demographic characteristics affect late initiation of prenatal care, and how residence status is associated…

  15. Prenatal Care: A Content-Based ESL Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassel, Elissa Anne

    A content-based curriculum in English as a Second Language (ESL) focusing on prenatal self-care is presented. The course was designed as a solution to the problem of inadequate prenatal care for limited-English-proficient Mexican immigrant women. The first three sections offer background information on and discussion of (1) content-based ESL…

  16. Korean women's attitudes toward pregnancy and prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Pritham, U A; Sammons, L N

    1993-01-01

    A convenience sample of 40 native-born pregnant Korean women receiving prenatal care at a U.S. military facility in a major metropolitan area in Korea completed a questionnaire about attitudes toward pregnancy and prenatal care. Responses revealed a family life characterized by positive maternal and paternal perceptions of the pregnancy and less preference for a male child than we had anticipated. Traditional beliefs in Tae Mong, a conception dream, and Tae Kyo, rituals for safe childbirth, were followed. Food taboos, including protein sources, were reported. Attitudes toward prenatal care services, care providers, and maternal health habits are described.

  17. [Prenatal genetic diagnosis and related nursing care].

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Chiu, Tsan-Hung

    2009-12-01

    Prenatal genetic diagnosis plays an important role in eugenics. Early detection of embryo and fetus abnormalities allows preventive precautions to be taken and treatment to begin early in order to reduce the severity and extent of congenital deformities. Advancements in genetic diagnostic techniques infer that nurses are increasingly likely to deal with prenatal genetic diagnosis cases. This essay introduces a few prevalent prenatal genetic diagnosis methods used at different stages of pregnancy; describes in a comprehensive manner the potential physical and psychological responses of the client; and introduces principles of administering prenatal genetic diagnosis to healthcare clients. Ethical issues related to prenatal genetic diagnosis are also discussed.

  18. Factors associated with birthweight: an exploration of the roles of prenatal care and length of gestation.

    PubMed

    Showstack, J A; Budetti, P P; Minkler, D

    1984-09-01

    To assess the association with birthweight of prenatal medical care, length of gestation, and other prenatal factors, birth certificate data were studied for babies born in 1978 to mothers who were residents of Alameda or Contra Costa counties, California. Using multiple regression data analytic techniques, adequate prenatal care (defined by the number of prenatal care visits compared to length of gestation and month of start of care) was found to be associated with an increase of 197 grams in average birthweight. This effect was even greater for Black infants and infants of short length of gestation. Adding length of gestation to the equation increased significantly the proportion of the variance in birthweight accounted for. For babies of short gestation (less than or equal to 280 days), the addition of length of gestation was associated with a halving of the association of prenatal care with birthweight. The results suggest that researchers need to take into account the nonlinear relationship between length of gestation and birthweight when assessing factors that affect birthweight.

  19. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... and Adequate Veterinary Care § 2.40 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and... veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section. (1) Each dealer and exhibitor shall employ...

  20. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  1. Evidence-based prenatal care: Part I. General prenatal care and counseling issues.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Colleen; Harris, Susan; Grzybowski, Stefan

    2005-04-01

    Effective prenatal care should integrate the best available evidence into a model of shared decision making. Pregnant women should be counseled about the risks of smoking and alcohol and drug use. Structured educational programs to promote breastfeeding are effective. Routine fetal heart auscultation, urinalysis, and assessment of maternal weight, blood pressure, and fundal height generally are recommended, although the evidence for these interventions is variable. Women should be offered ABO and Rh blood typing and screening for anemia during the first prenatal visit. Genetic counseling and testing should be offered to couples with a family history of genetic disorders, a previously affected fetus or child, or a history of recurrent miscarriage. All women should be offered prenatal serum marker screening for neural tube defects and aneuploidy. Women at increased risk for aneuploidy should be offered amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Counseling about the limitations and risks of these tests, as well as their psychologic implications, is necessary. Folic acid supplementation beginning in the preconception period reduces the incidence of neural tube defects. There is limited evidence that routine use of other dietary supplements may improve outcomes for the mother and infant.

  2. The comparative effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial outcomes.

    PubMed

    Heberlein, Emily C; Picklesimer, Amy H; Billings, Deborah L; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Farber, Naomi; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-04-01

    To compare the psychosocial outcomes of the CenteringPregnancy (CP) model of group prenatal care to individual prenatal care, we conducted a prospective cohort study of women who chose CP group (N = 124) or individual prenatal care (N = 124). Study participants completed the first survey at study recruitment (mean gestational age 12.5 weeks), with 89% completing the second survey (mean gestational age 32.7 weeks) and 84% completing the third survey (6 weeks' postpartum). Multiple linear regression models compared changes by prenatal care model in pregnancy-specific distress, prenatal planning-preparation and avoidance coping, perceived stress, affect and depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related empowerment, and postpartum maternal-infant attachment and maternal functioning. Using intention-to-treat models, group prenatal care participants demonstrated a 3.2 point greater increase (p < 0.05) in their use of prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies. While group participants did not demonstrate significantly greater positive outcomes in other measures, women who were at greater psychosocial risk benefitted from participation in group prenatal care. Among women reporting inadequate social support in early pregnancy, group participants demonstrated a 2.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.03) in pregnancy-specific distress in late pregnancy and 5.6 point higher mean maternal functioning scores postpartum (p = 0.03). Among women with high pregnancy-specific distress in early pregnancy, group participants had an 8.3 point greater increase (p < 0.01) in prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies in late pregnancy and a 4.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.02) in postpartum depressive symptom scores. This study provides further evidence that group prenatal care positively impacts the psychosocial well-being of women with greater stress or lower personal coping resources. Large randomized studies are needed to establish conclusively the

  3. Immigrant mothers and access to prenatal care: evidence from a regional population study in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Chiavarini, Manuela; Lanari, Donatella; Minelli, Liliana; Pieroni, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We addressed the question of whether use of adequate prenatal care differs between foreign-born and Italian mothers and estimated the extent to which unobservable characteristics bias results. Setting This study is on primary care and especially on adequate access to prenatal healthcare services by immigrant mothers. Participants Approximately 37 000 mothers of both Italian and foreign nationality were studied. Data were obtained from the Standard Certificate of Live Birth between 2005 and 2010 in Umbria. Results Estimates from the bivariate probit model indicate that immigrant mothers are three times more likely to make fewer than four prenatal visits (OR=3.35) and 1.66 times more likely to make a late first visit (OR=1.66). The effect is found to be strongest for Asian women. Conclusions Standard probit models lead to underestimation of the probability of inadequate use of prenatal care services by immigrant women, whereas bivariate probit models, which allow us to consider immigrant status as an endogenous variable, estimated ORs to be three times larger than those obtained with univariate models. PMID:26861935

  4. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  5. Caring for an Ageing Population: Are Physiotherapy Graduates Adequately Prepared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramklass, Serela S.; Butau, Anne; Ntinga, Nomusa; Cele, Nozipho

    2010-01-01

    In view of South African policy developments related to the care of older persons, it was necessary to examine the nature of the geriatrics content within physiotherapy curricula. A survey was conducted amongst final-year student physiotherapists at South African universities, together with content analysis of physiotherapy curricula. Very little…

  6. Relationship between Revised Graduated Index (R-GINDEX) of prenatal care utilization & preterm labor and low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Tayebi, Tahereh; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Ahmad Shirvani, Marjan; Dayhimi, Marjaneh; Danesh, Mahmonir

    2014-02-28

    Prenatal care refers to accurate and consistent performance of the principles important to maintain healthy pregnancy outcomes and also for mother and child health. One of the new indices to assess the adequacy of care is Revised Graduated Index of Prenatal Care Utilization (R-GINDEX).The study aims to assess the relationship between quantitative prenatal care factors and preterm labor and low birth weight using R-GINDEX. This historical cohort study has been conducted on 420 mothers during the first two years after delivery in 2010. The adequacy of care was calculated by R-GINDEX. Based on this index, participants have been divided into three care groups including inadequate, adequate and intensive care groups. A significant relationship has been found between R-GINDEX and preterm birth and low birth weight (P<0.05). Thus the probability of premature labor in inadequate care group (RR=3.93) and low birth weight (RR= 2.53) was higher than that of the adequate and intensive care group. The results showed that the quantity of prenatal care is effective in reducing preterm birth and low birth weight.

  7. The effect of family planning participation on prenatal care use and low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, D J; Buescher, P A

    1992-01-01

    Data on approximately 45,000 North Carolina women who gave birth in 1989 and 1990 and received prenatal care in public health facilities were studied to assess the effects in a low-income population of prior family planning services on low birth weight and adequacy of prenatal care. Women who had used family planning services in the two years before conception were significantly more likely than those who had not used such services to have a birth-to-conception interval of greater than six months. They were also more likely to receive early and adequate prenatal care and to be involved in a food supplement program and maternity care coordination. In addition, the family planning participants were less likely than the nonparticipants to be younger than 18 and were somewhat less likely to deliver a low-birth-weight infant. Though the results of this retrospective study must be interpreted with caution because of such factors as self-selection into family planning programs, they suggest that family planning services may improve birth weight and use of prenatal health services among low-income women.

  8. [Missed opportunities for cervical cancer prevention during prenatal care].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Carla Vitola; Duarte, Geraldo; da Costa, Juvenal Soares Dias; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Marcolin, Alessandra Cristina

    2011-05-01

    Pregnancy constitutes an excellent opportunity for the prevention of cervical carcinoma since the gynecological examination is part of routine prenatal care. A transversal study was conducted in which a total of 445 postnatal women were interviewed using standardized questionnaires. The prevalence of an up-to-date cytopathological exam was 38.9% at the beginning of pregnancy, reaching 59.1% during the postnatal period (p>0.001). Postnatal women aged 19 years or less, non-white, with less than 11 years schooling, family income of less than one minimum wage, sexually active at 15 years of age or less, with the beginning of prenatal care after the 1st trimester, and receiving prenatal care at healthcare units of the Unified Health System had a lower prevalence of cytopathological examination. Adjusted analysis revealed that the variables under study were not significantly associated with cytopathological coverage, though the incidence of prenatal care showed a prevalence ratio of 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98-1.42). The local health service proved ineffective, recvealing the need to increase cytopathological coverage and train health professionals regarding the importance of routine prenatal procedures.

  9. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  10. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  11. The Relationship between Prenatal Care, Personal Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Abuse in the Home Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grekin, Emily R.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been…

  12. [State of the art prenatal care from the Swiss viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Hüsler, M; Krähenmann, F; Streicher, A; Zimmermann, R

    2002-12-01

    Prenatal care has significantly reduced perinatal and maternal mortality. Screening for maternal disease allows us to reduce or to prevent an unfavourable fetal or obstetrical outcome. Prenatal care should start with a first preconceptional visit. Folic acid intake is recommended for all reproductive-age women who are capable of becoming pregnant. The fetal nuchal translucency measurement has revolutionized prenatal care as a non-invasive, effective screening for chromosomal abnormalities and other diseases of the fetus. Vertical transmission of infections has to be prevented if possible. As an example caesarean section in combination with antiretroviral therapy reduces the transmission of HIV significantly. Screening for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) remains important as at present the incidence of STD is increasing again. In this short review on prenatal care as it is done in Switzerland, we try to enlighten its most important aspects. For the patients and your own benefit as a physician it is important to follow guidelines, although of course each patient has to be treated individually.

  13. Designing prenatal care messages for low-income Mexican women.

    PubMed Central

    Alcalay, R; Ghee, A; Scrimshaw, S

    1993-01-01

    Communication theories and research data were used to design cross-cultural health education messages. A University of California Los Angeles-Universidad Autonoma in Tijuana, Mexico, research team used the methods of ethnographic and survey research to study behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge concerning prenatal care of a sample of pregnant low-income women living in Tijuana. This audience provided information that served as a framework for a series of messages to increase awareness and change prenatal care behaviors. The message design process was guided by persuasion theories that included Petty and Caccioppo's elaboration likelihood model, McGuire's persuasion matrix, and Bandura's social learning theory. The results from the research showed that poor women in Tijuana tend to delay or not seek prenatal care. They were not aware of symptoms that could warn of pregnancy complications. Their responses also revealed pregnant women's culturally specific beliefs and behaviors regarding pregnancy. After examination of these and other results from the study, prenatal care messages about four topics were identified as the most relevant to communicate to this audience: health services use, the mother's weight gain, nutrition and anemia, and symptoms of high-risk complications during pregnancy. A poster, a calendar, a brochure, and two radio songs were produced and pretested in focus groups with low-income women in Tijuana. Each medium included one or more messages addressing informational, attitudinal, or behavioral needs, or all three, of the target population. PMID:8497574

  14. Barriers related to prenatal care utilization among women

    PubMed Central

    Roozbeh, Nasibeh; Nahidi, Fatemeh; Hajiyan, Sepideh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate barriers related to prenatal care utilization among women. Methods Data was collected in both English and Persian databases. English databases included: the International Medical Sciences, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar. The Persian databases included: the Iranmedex, the State Inpatient Databases (SID) with the use of related keywords, and on the basis of inclusion-exclusion criteria. The keywords included are barrier, prenatal care, women, access, and preventive factors. OR and AND were Boolean operators. After the study, articles were summarized, unrelated articles were rejected, and related articles were identified. Inclusion criteria were all published articles from 1990 to 2015, written in English and Persian languages. The titles and abstracts are related, and addressed all subjects about barriers related to prenatal care utilization. At the end, all duplicated articles were excluded. There were no restrictions for exclusion or inclusion of articles. Exclusion criteria were failure in reporting in studies, case studies, and lack of access to the full text. Results After searching various databases, 112 related articles were included. After reviewing articles’ titles, 67 unrelated articles and abstracts were rejected, 45 articles were evaluated, 20 of them were duplicated. Then, the qualities of 25 articles were analyzed. Therefore, 5 articles were excluded due to not mentioning the sample size, mismatches between method and data, or results. Total of 20 articles were selected for final analysis. Prenatal care utilization barrier can be divided into various domains such as individual barriers, financial barriers, organizational barriers, social, and cultural barriers. Conclusion To increase prenatal care coverage, it is necessary to pay attention to all domains, especially individual and financial barriers.

  15. Prenatal care and the prevention of preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Papiernik, E; Maine, D; Rush, D; Richard, A

    1985-10-01

    This paper reports the methods and results of an innovative program of prenatal care, designed to prevent preterm delivery in Clamart, France, during 1976-1981. Rates of preterm delivery among women who entered the prenatal care program early in pregnancy (and, thus, could derive full benefit of the program) were compared with those among two comparison groups: (1) women who entered the same program later in pregnancy; and (2) women who delivered in Paris. In the first comparison, women who entered the program early had significantly lower rates of preterm delivery than did women who entered later, even when stratified by various risk factors, and when high-risk women were eliminated altogether. In the second comparison, the early care group in Clamart did not exhibit the usual inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and rates of preterm delivery. The usual significant inverse relationship was found in the Clamart population as a whole, and in the Paris series.

  16. 'New parenting', psychotherapy, prenatal and perinatal care.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Terence

    2007-01-01

    The health of future generations, both physical and psychological, depends upon good parental and early environment, free particularly from malnutrition, toxins and undue stress. Education about these negative influences is urgent, especially to encourage childbearing women in a healthy diet and lifestyle. The detrimental effects of cigarette smoking in pregnancy have been known since the 1970s, yet in Germany, for example, 60% of all children are conceived, carried, born into a household where at least one adult smokes. Even if the father desists from smoking at home, the nicotine in his body tissues is transmitted to anyone near him, for example his wife when they sleep near each other. More than one glass of beer, wine or spirits per week during the pregnancy can be detected at birth. Alcohol in early in the pregnancy--just when many mothers are unaware they are pregnant--an produce significant physical malformation, especially in the face. Prenatal exposure to alcohol has signilfcant effects on the intelligence and behaviour of the child. Many of these children are very restless. Even slight amounts of poisoning during the pregnancy are related to the development of a negative self-image and the compensatory behaviour of the Narcissistic Personality Disorder in later life. The Prenatal Deprivation and Poisoning Syndromes have not only been related to heart disease and eating disorders in the area of general health but also in the area of psychological health to the Borderline Personality Disorder. Undue stress of any kind during the pregnancy leads to problems for the developing child.

  17. The effect of social health insurance on prenatal care: the case of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Abrokwah, Stephen O; Moser, Christine M; Norton, Edward C

    2014-12-01

    Many developing countries have introduced social health insurance programs to help address two of the United Nations' millennium development goals-reducing infant mortality and improving maternal health outcomes. By making modern health care more accessible and affordable, policymakers hope that more women will seek prenatal care and thereby improve health outcomes. This paper studies how Ghana's social health insurance program affects prenatal care use and out-of-pocket expenditures, using the two-part model to model prenatal care expenditures. We test whether Ghana's social health insurance improved prenatal care use, reduced out-of-pocket expenditures, and increased the number of prenatal care visits. District-level differences in the timing of implementation provide exogenous variation in access to health insurance, and therefore strong identification. Those with access to social health insurance have a higher probability of receiving care, a higher number of prenatal care visits, and lower out-of-pocket expenditures conditional on spending on care.

  18. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall...

  19. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall...

  20. Impact of a mobile van on prenatal care utilization and birth outcomes in Miami-Dade County.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Erin; Zhang, Guoyan; Leguen, Fermin; Prince, Jennifer

    2010-07-01

    The study aimed to determine if there was a difference in prenatal care utilization and birth outcomes among demographically similar women who used or did not use a mobile van for prenatal care. Mothers who utilized the mobile van at least one time for their prenatal care and delivered between August 2007 through September 2008 were considered the Mobile group (n = 182) and a Comparison group of the same size who delivered within the same time period was randomly matched by sociodemographic characteristics. Birth data was obtained from Florida Department of Health Office of Vital Statistics and from the mobile clinic's Health Management System (HMS) database. Nearly 95% of mothers in both groups were foreign born, with the majority from Mexico. The evaluation of prenatal care showed that there was a significant difference (P = 0.0006) in the trimester in which mothers began care. Both the Kessner (P = 0.0003) and Kotelchuck (<0.0001) Indices demonstrated a statistically significant difference in that more mothers in the Mobile group had adequate care. Birth weight distribution did not reveal a statistically significant difference (P = 0.0911) however the Mobile group did have a lower percentage of low birth weight infants (4.4% vs. 8.8%). There was a statistically significant difference in the amount of pre-term births (P = 0.0492) between the groups. The results suggest that a mobile van can be used to improve both early access to adequate prenatal care as well as birth outcomes such as prematurity.

  1. Congenital toxoplasmosis and prenatal care state programs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Control programs have been executed in an attempt to reduce vertical transmission and the severity of congenital infection in regions with a high incidence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. We aimed to evaluate whether treatment of pregnant women with spiramycin associated with a lack of monitoring for toxoplasmosis seroconversion affects the prognosis of patients. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study with 246 newborns (NB) at risk for congenital toxoplasmosis in Goiânia (Brazil) between October 2003 and October 2011. We analyzed the efficacy of maternal treatment with spiramycin. Results A total of 40.7% (66/162) of the neonates were born seriously infected. Vertical transmission associated with reactivation during pregnancy occurred in 5.5% (9/162) of the NB, with one showing severe infection (systemic). The presence of specific immunoglobulins (fetal IgM and NB IgA) suggested the worst prognosis. Treatment of pregnant women by spiramycin resulted in reduced vertical transmission. When infected pregnant women did not undergo proper treatment, the risk of severe infection (neural-optical) in NB was significantly increased. Fetal IgM was associated with ocular impairment in 48.0% (12/25) of the fetuses and neonatal IgA-specific was related to the neuro-ophthalmologic and systemic forms of the disease. When acute toxoplasmosis was identified in the postpartum period, a lack of monitoring of seronegative pregnant women resulted in a higher risk of severe congenital infection. Conclusion Treatment of pregnant women with spiramycin reduces the possibility of transmission of infection to the fetus. However, a lack of proper treatment is associated with the onset of the neural-optical form of congenital infection. Primary preventive measures should be increased for all pregnant women during the prenatal period and secondary prophylaxis through surveillance of seroconversion in seronegative pregnant woman should be introduced to reduce the

  2. The Nigerian health care system: Need for integrating adequate medical intelligence and surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Menizibeya Osain

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods: Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe) health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results: Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion: The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine surveillance and medical

  3. Assessing the role and effectiveness of prenatal care: history, challenges, and directions for future research.

    PubMed

    Alexander, G R; Kotelchuck, M

    2001-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of prenatal care, the evidence for its effectiveness remains equivocal and its primary purpose and effects continue to be a subject of debate. To provide some perspective on why the effectiveness and organization of prenatal care continue to be debated, the authors (a) briefly review the history of the development of prenatal care in the US; (b) attempt to conceptually define prenatal care in terms of its utilization, content, and quality; and, (c) highlight some of the research controversies and challenges facing investigators and advocates who seek to establish the value of prenatal care. In addition, the authors recommend directions for future research to address persistent questions regarding the function, structure, and significance of prenatal care in improving US perinatal outcomes.

  4. Analyzing the effect of prenatal care on pregnancy outcome: a conditional approach.

    PubMed Central

    Malloy, M H; Kao, T C; Lee, Y J

    1992-01-01

    We used vital statistics data to examine the effect of the time of entry into prenatal care relative to the gestational age of delivery on pregnancy outcome. Early entry into prenatal care was associated with better outcomes only in women who delivered at 37 through 42 weeks of gestation. We are concerned that the evaluation of the effect of prenatal care using vital statistics data may be questionable because of the problems inherent in the data. PMID:1536367

  5. Individual and contextual determinants of adequate maternal health care services in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Achia, Thomas N O; Mageto, Lillian E

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine individual and community level factors associated with adequate use of maternal antenatal health services in Kenya. Individual and community level factors associated with adequate use of maternal health care (MHC) services were obtained from the 2008-09 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey data set. Multilevel partial-proportional odds logit models were fitted using STATA 13.0 to quantify the relations of the selected covariates to adequate MHC use, defined as a three-category ordinal variable. The sample consisted of 3,621 women who had at least one live birth in the five-year period preceding this survey. Only 18 percent of the women had adequate use of MHC services. Greater educational attainment by the woman or her partner, higher socioeconomic status, access to medical insurance coverage, and greater media exposure were the individual-level factors associated with adequate use of MHC services. Greater community ethnic diversity, higher community-level socioeconomic status, and greater community-level health facility deliveries were the contextual-level factors associated with adequate use of MHC. To improve the use of MHC services in Kenya, the government needs to design and implement programs that target underlying individual and community level factors, providing focused and sustained health education to promote the use of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care.

  6. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  7. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  8. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  9. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  10. Understanding prenatal health care for American Indian women in a Northern Plains tribe.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jessica D

    2012-01-01

    Early and regular prenatal care appointments are imperative for the health of both the mother and baby to help prevent complications associated with pregnancy and birth. American Indian women are especially at risk for health disparities related to pregnancy and lack of prenatal health care. Previous research has outlined a basic understanding of the reasons for lack of prenatal care for women in general; however, little is known about care received by pregnant women at Indian Health Service hospitals. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 58 women to better understand the prenatal health experiences of American Indian women from one tribe in the Northern Plains. Several themes related to American Indian women's prenatal health care experiences were noted, including communication barriers with physicians, institutional barriers such as lack of continuity of care, and sociodemographic barriers. Solutions to these barriers, such as a nurse midwife program, are discussed.

  11. Child maltreatment and foster care: unpacking the effects of prenatal and postnatal parental substance use.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dana K; Johnson, Amber B; Pears, Katherine C; Fisher, Philip A; DeGarmo, David S

    2007-05-01

    Parental substance use is a well-documented risk for children. However, little is known about specific effects of prenatal and postnatal substance use on child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions. In this study, the authors unpacked unique effects of (a) prenatal and postnatal parental alcohol and drug use and (b) maternal and paternal substance use as predictors of child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions in a sample of 117 maltreated foster care children. Models were tested with structural equation path modeling. Results indicated that prenatal maternal alcohol use predicted child maltreatment and that combined prenatal maternal alcohol and drug use predicted foster care placement transitions. Prenatal maternal alcohol and drug use also predicted postnatal paternal alcohol and drug use, which in turn predicted foster care placement transitions. Findings highlight the potential integrative role that maternal and paternal substance use has on the risk for child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions.

  12. Delayed Prenatal Care and the Risk of Low Birth Weight Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hueston, William J.; Gilbert, Gregory E.; Davis, Lucy; Sturgill, Vanessa

    2003-01-01

    Assessed whether the timing of prenatal care related to low birth weight delivery, adjusting for sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. Data on births to white and African American women showed no benefits for early initiation of prenatal care in reducing the risk of low birth weight.(SM)

  13. Disposition and Health Outcomes among Infants Born to Mothers with No Prenatal Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Heneghan, Amy; Rosenthal, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed infant disposition and health outcomes among offspring born to mothers without prenatal care, based on maternal characteristics and the reason for lack of prenatal care (i.e., denial of pregnancy, concealment of pregnancy, primary substance use, financial barriers and multiparity). Methods: A retrospective record…

  14. Factors Associated with the Utilization and Quality of Prenatal Care in Western Rural Regions of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dongxu, Wang; Yuhui, Shi; Stewart, Donald; Chun, Chang; Chaoyang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to identify key features of prenatal care utilization and quality in western regions of China and to determine the factors affecting the quality of prenatal care. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. The instrument for the study was a 10-stem respondent-administered, structured…

  15. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure: A Comparison of 2-Year-Old Children in Parental and Nonparental Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Josephine V.; Bakeman, Roger; Coles, Claire D.; Platzman, Kathleen A.; Lynch, Mary Ellen

    2004-01-01

    Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure and parental versus nonparental care on outcome at 2 years of age were examined. The sample included 83 cocaine-exposed and 63 nonexposed children and their caregivers; 49 and 34 of the cocaine-exposed children experienced parental and nonparental care, respectively. Prenatal drug exposure was not related…

  16. Exploring the focus of prenatal information offered to pregnant mothers regarding newborn care in rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neonatal death accounts for one fifth of all under-five mortality in Uganda. Suboptimal newborn care practices resulting from hypothermia, poor hygiene and delayed initiation of breastfeeding are leading predisposing factors. Evidence suggests focused educational prenatal care messages to mitigate these problems. However, there is a paucity of data on the interaction between the service provider and the prenatal service user. This study aims to understand the scope of educational information and current practices on newborn care from the perspectives of prenatal mothers and health workers. Methods A qualitative descriptive methodology was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with lactating mothers (n = 31) of babies younger than five months old across Masindi in western Uganda. Additional interviews with health workers (n = 17) and their employers or trainers (n = 5) were conducted to strengthen our findings. Data were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis was performed using NVivo 8. Results Vertical programmes received more attention than education for newborn care during prenatal sessions. In addition, attitudinal and communication problems existed among health workers thereby largely ignoring the fundamental principles of patient autonomy and patient-centred care. The current newborn care practices were largely influenced by relatives’ cultural beliefs rather than by information provided during prenatal sessions. There is a variation in the training curriculum for health workers deployed to offer recommended prenatal and immediate newborn care in the different tiers of health care. Conclusions Findings revealed serious deficiencies in prenatal care organisations in Masindi. Pregnant mothers remain inadequately prepared for childbirth and newborn care, despite their initiative to follow prenatal sessions. These findings call for realignment of prenatal care by integrating education on newborn care

  17. Fetal programming of adult disease: implications for prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Lau, Christopher; Rogers, John M; Desai, Mina; Ross, Michael G

    2011-04-01

    The obesity epidemic, including a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity among pregnant women, represents a critical public health problem in the United States and throughout the world. Over the past two decades, it has been increasingly recognized that the risk of adult health disorders, particularly metabolic syndrome, can be markedly influenced by prenatal and infant environmental exposures (ie, developmental programming). Low birth weight, together with infant catch-up growth, is associated with a significant risk of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, as well as adverse effects on pulmonary, renal, and cerebral function. Conversely, exposure to maternal obesity or high birth weight also represents an increased risk for childhood and adult obesity. In addition, fetal exposure to select chemicals (eg, phytoestrogens) or environmental pollutants (eg, tobacco smoke) may affect the predisposition to adult disease. Animal models have confirmed human epidemiologic findings and provided insight into putative programming mechanisms, including altered organ development, cellular signaling responses, and epigenetic modifications (ie, control of gene expression without modification of DNA sequence). Prenatal care is transitioning to incorporate goals of optimizing maternal, fetal, and neonatal health to prevent or reduce adult-onset diseases. Guidelines regarding optimal pregnancy nutrition and weight gain, management of low- and high-fetal-weight pregnancies, use of maternal glucocorticoids, and newborn feeding strategies, among others, have yet to fully integrate long-term consequences on adult health.

  18. Caring for opioid dependent pregnant women: prenatal and postpartum care considerations

    PubMed Central

    Krans, Elizabeth E.; Cochran, Gerald; Bogen, Debra L.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is an opportune time to identify opioid dependence, facilitate conversion to opioid maintenance treatment, and coordinate care with specialists in addiction medicine, behavioral health and social services. Comprehensive prenatal care for opioid dependent women involves the evaluation and management of co-occurring psychiatric disorders, polysubstance use, infectious diseases, social stressors and counseling regarding the importance of breastfeeding, contraception and neonatal abstinence syndrome. While the complex psychiatric, social and environmental factors faced by this population pose significant challenges to obstetric care providers, the development of strong patient-provider relationships can facilitate the ability to deliver efficient and effective health care during pregnancy. PMID:25775440

  19. Caring for Opioid-dependent Pregnant Women: Prenatal and Postpartum Care Considerations.

    PubMed

    Krans, Elizabeth E; Cochran, Gerald; Bogen, Debra L

    2015-06-01

    Pregnancy is an opportune time to identify opioid dependence, facilitate conversion to opioid maintenance treatment, and coordinate care with specialists in addiction medicine, behavioral health, and social services. Comprehensive prenatal care for opioid-dependent women involves the evaluation and the management of co-occurring psychiatric disorders, polysubstance use, infectious diseases, social stressors, and counseling regarding the importance of breastfeeding, contraception, and neonatal abstinence syndrome. Although the complex psychiatric, social, and environmental factors faced by this population pose significant challenges to obstetric care providers, the development of strong patient-provider relationships can facilitate the ability to deliver efficient and effective health care during pregnancy.

  20. Prenatal care and child growth and schooling in four low- and medium-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Behrman, Jere R.; Stein, Aryeh D.; Adair, Linda S.; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Borja, Judith B.; da Silveira, Mariangela Freitas; Horta, Bernardo L.; Martorell, Reynaldo; Norris, Shane A.; Richter, Linda M.; Sachdev, Harshpal S.

    2017-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of prenatal care for improving birth and subsequent child outcomes in low-income countries remains controversial, with much of the evidence to date coming from high-income countries and focused on early-life outcomes. We examined associations between prenatal care visits and birth weight, height-for-age at 24 months and attained schooling in four low- and middle-income countries. Methods We pooled data from prospective birth-cohort studies from Brazil, Guatemala, Philippines and South Africa. We created a prenatal care utilization index based on the number and timing of prenatal visits. Associations were examined between this index and birth weight, height-for-age at 24 months, and highest attained schooling grade until adulthood. Results Among 7203 individuals in the analysis, 68.9% (Philippines) to 96.7% (South Africa) had at least one prenatal care visit, with most having at least four visits. Over 40% of Brazilians and Guatemalans had their first prenatal visit in the first trimester, but fewer Filipinos (13.9%) and South Africans (19.8%) did so. Prenatal care utilization was not significantly associated with birth weight (p>0.05 in pooled data). Each unit increase in the prenatal care utilization index was associated with 0.09 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.15) higher height-for-age z-score at 24 months and with 0.26 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.35) higher schooling grades attained. Although there was some heterogeneity and greater imprecision across sites, the results were qualitatively similar among the four different populations. Conclusions While not related to birth weight, prenatal care utilization was associated with important outcomes later in life, specifically higher height-for-age at 24 months and higher attained school grades. These results suggest the relevance of prenatal care visits for human capital outcomes important over the lifecycle. PMID:28158229

  1. Conceptualizing prenatal care: recent research and the application of Tae-Kyo, Korean traditional beliefs and practices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yanghee

    2015-01-01

    The value of prenatal care has long been recognized by various cultures. The author's purpose in this article is to propose a framework to conceptualize prenatal care using the traditional Korean practice of prenatal care called Tae-Kyo, which means education for the fetus. The philosophy of Tae-Kyo shows the importance of children's development from the very beginning of life and indicates the moral and social responsibilities of pregnant women, family members, and communities in delivering healthy babies. This comprehensive view implies a framework for conceptualizing prenatal care that encompasses multidimensional aspects of prenatal care.

  2. Comparative Effectiveness of Group and Individual Prenatal Care on Gestational Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    STEINKA-FRY, Katarzyna T.; GESELL, Sabina B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study examined differences in gestational weight gain for women in CenteringPregnancy (CP) group prenatal care versus individually delivered prenatal care. METHODS We conducted a retrospective chart review and used propensity scores to form a matched sample of 393 women (76% African-American, 13% Latina, 11% White; average age 22 years) receiving prenatal care at a community health center in the South. Women were matched on a wide range of demographic and medical background characteristics RESULTS Compared to the matched group of women receiving standard individual prenatal care, CP participants were less likely to have excessive gestational weight gain, regardless of their pre-pregnancy weight (b = −.99, 95% CI [−1.92, −.06], RRR = .37). CP reduced the risk of excessive weight gain during pregnancy to 54% of what it would have been in the standard model of prenatal care (NNT = 5). The beneficial effect of CP was largest for women who were overweight or obese prior to their pregnancy. Effects did not vary by gestational age at delivery. Post-hoc analyses provided no evidence of adverse effects on newborn birth weight outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Group prenatal care had statistically and clinically significant beneficial effects on reducing excessive gestational weight gain relative to traditional individual prenatal care. PMID:24343309

  3. Comparative effectiveness of group and individual prenatal care on gestational weight gain.

    PubMed

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Steinka-Fry, Katarzyna T; Gesell, Sabina B

    2014-09-01

    This study examined differences in gestational weight gain for women in CenteringPregnancy (CP) group prenatal care versus individually delivered prenatal care. We conducted a retrospective chart review and used propensity scores to form a matched sample of 393 women (76 % African-American, 13 % Latina, 11 % White; average age 22 years) receiving prenatal care at a community health center in the South. Women were matched on a wide range of demographic and medical background characteristics. Compared to the matched group of women receiving standard individual prenatal care, CP participants were less likely to have excessive gestational weight gain, regardless of their pre-pregnancy weight (b = -.99, 95 % CI [-1.92, -.06], RRR = .37). CP reduced the risk of excessive weight gain during pregnancy to 54 % of what it would have been in the standard model of prenatal care (NNT = 5). The beneficial effect of CP was largest for women who were overweight or obese prior to their pregnancy. Effects did not vary by gestational age at delivery. Post-hoc analyses provided no evidence of adverse effects on newborn birth weight outcomes. Group prenatal care had statistically and clinically significant beneficial effects on reducing excessive gestational weight gain relative to traditional individual prenatal care.

  4. Prenatal care utilization in Mississippi: racial disparities and implications for unfavorable birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cox, Reagan G; Zhang, Lei; Zotti, Marianne E; Graham, Juanita

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the study is to identify racial disparities in prenatal care (PNC) utilization and to examine the relationship between PNC and preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW) and infant mortality in Mississippi. Retrospective cohort from 1996 to 2003 linked Mississippi birth and infant death files was used. Analysis was limited to live-born singleton infants born to non-Hispanic white and black women (n = 292,776). PNC was classified by Kotelchuck's Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index. Factors associated with PTB, LBW and infant death were identified using multiple logistic regression after controlling for maternal age, education, marital status, place of residence, tobacco use and medical risk. About one in five Mississippi women had less than adequate PNC, and racial disparities in PNC utilization were observed. Black women delayed PNC, received too few visits, and were more likely to have either "inadequate PNC" (P < 0.0001) or "no care" (P < 0.0001) compared to white women. Furthermore, among women with medical conditions, black women were twice as likely to receive inadequate PNC compared to white women. Regardless of race, "no care" and "inadequate PNC" were strong risk factors for PTB, LBW and infant death. We provide empirical evidence to support the existence of racial disparities in PNC utilization and infant birth outcomes in Mississippi. Further study is needed to explain racial differences in PNC utilization. However, this study suggests that public health interventions designed to improve PNC utilization among women might reduce unfavorable birth outcomes especially infant mortality.

  5. Exploration of facilitators and barriers to prenatal care among military women.

    PubMed

    Sylvia, B M; McMullen, P; Schmelz, J; Runzel, A; Stevens, V; Jackson, H L

    2000-09-01

    Early and regular prenatal care has been shown to decrease the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes; however, little research has examined it experientially from the mother's perspective. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experience of prenatal care from the military mother's perspective. Using purposive sampling, 16 women who had recently given birth were interviewed. The data were analyzed using a qualitative descriptive research methodology to elicit categories of substantive concepts, ideas, or themes. Data explored in this study included availability, use and satisfaction with prenatal care services, and barriers, preferences, and recommendations.

  6. Are primary care residents adequately prepared to care for women of reproductive age?

    PubMed

    Conway, T; Hu, T C; Mason, E; Mueller, C

    1995-01-01

    A 1991 study of 115 internal medicine and 28 family practice residents at a large inner-city public hospital finds that both groups would perform poorly in providing preconception counseling to women of reproductive age. More than 40% of residents failed to indicate that they would provide a healthy woman with information on rubella immunization and family planning or counseling on sexually transmitted diseases and safer sex. When counseling a diabetic woman seeking pregnancy, 74% would not have discussed congenital anomalies with her and 45% would not have considered discontinuing oral hypoglycemics if she became pregnant. Furthermore, 58% would have neglected to review or change hypertension medications in a newly diagnosed pregnant woman. Although both internal medicine and family practice residents had positive attitudes toward offering preconception care, family practice residents had significantly higher attitude scores. No clear improvement was found in patient management, attitude or knowledge scores as residents progressed from their first to their third year of training.

  7. Individual and Area Level Factors Associated with Prenatal, Delivery, and Postnatal Care in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine Ria; Harbison, Hanne

    2015-10-01

    This research examines individual and area level factors associated with maternal health care utilization in Pakistan. The 2012-2013 Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys data was used to model five outcomes: prenatal care within the first trimester, four plus prenatal visits, birth attendance by a skilled attendant, birth in a medical facility, and receipt of postnatal care. Less than half of births were to mothers receiving prenatal care in the first trimester, and approximately 57 % had trained personnel at delivery. Over half were born to mothers who received postnatal care. Evidence was found to support the positive effect of individual level variables, education and wealth, on the utilization of maternal health care across all five measures. Although, this study did not find unilateral differences between women residing in rural and urban settings, rural women were found to have lower odds of utilizing prenatal services as compared to mothers in urban environments. Additionally, women who cited distance as a barrier, had lower odds of receiving postnatal health care, but still engaged in prenatal services and often had a skilled attendant present at delivery. The odds of utilizing prenatal care increased when women resided in an area where prenatal utilization was high, and this variability was found across measures across provinces. The results found in this paper highlight the uneven progress made around improving prenatal, delivery, and postnatal care in Pakistan; disparities persist which may be attributed to factors both at the individual and community level, but may be addressed through a consorted effort to change national policy around women's health which should include the promotion of evidence based interventions such as incentivizing health care workers, promoting girls' education, and improving transportation options for pregnant women and recent mothers with the intent of ultimately lowering the Maternal Mortality Rate as recommended in the U

  8. Impact of prenatal care provider on the use of ancillary health services during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent declines in the provision of prenatal care by family physicians and the integration of midwives into the Canadian health care system have led to a shift in the pattern of prenatal care provision; however it is unknown if this also impacts use of other health services during pregnancy. This study aimed to assess the impact of the type of prenatal care provider on the self-reported use of ancillary services during pregnancy. Methods Data for this study was obtained from the All Our Babies study, a community-based prospective cohort study of women’s experiences during pregnancy and the post-partum period. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to assess the association between type of prenatal care provider and use of ancillary health services in pregnancy. Results During pregnancy, 85.8% of women reported accessing ancillary health services. Compared to women who received prenatal care from a family physician, women who saw a midwife were less likely to call a nurse telephone advice line (OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.18-0.50) and visit the emergency department (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.24-0.89), but were more likely receive chiropractic care (OR = 4.07, 95% CI: 2.49-6.67). Women who received their prenatal care from an obstetrician were more likely to visit a walk-in clinic (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.11-2.05) than those who were cared for by a family physician. Conclusions Prenatal care is a complex entity and referral pathways between care providers and services are not always clear. This can lead to the provision of fragmented care and create opportunities for errors and loss of information. All types of care providers have a role in addressing the full range of health needs that pregnant women experience. PMID:23497179

  9. The Intersection of Everyday Life and Group Prenatal Care for Women in Two Urban Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Gina; Sadler, Lois S.; Knafl, Kathleen A.; Groce, Nora Ellen; Kennedy, Holly Powell

    2013-01-01

    Women from vulnerable populations encounter challenging circumstances that generate stress and may adversely affect their health. Group prenatal care (GPNC) incorporates features which address social stressors, and has been demonstrated to improve pregnancy outcomes and prenatal care experiences. In this qualitative study, we describe the complex circumstances in the lives of women receiving care in two urban clinics and how GPNC attenuated them. Stressors included problems with transportation and child care, demanding jobs, poverty, homelessness, difficult relationships with partners, limited family support, and frustrating health care experiences. Receiving prenatal care in groups allowed women to strengthen relationships with significant others, gain social support, and develop meaningful relationships with group leaders. By eliminating waits and providing the opportunity to participate in care, GPNC also offered sanctuary from frustrations encountered in receiving individual care. Reducing such stressors may help improve pregnancy outcomes; however, more evidence is needed on mechanisms underlying these effects. PMID:22643609

  10. Social networks and the communication of norms about prenatal care in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Cruz, Shannon; Lapine, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Many normative beliefs are shared and learned through interpersonal communication, yet research on norms typically focuses on their effects rather than the communication that shapes them. This study focused on interpersonal communication during pregnancy to uncover (a) the nature of pregnancy-related communication and (b) normative information transmitted through such communication. Results from interviews with pregnant women living in rural Mexico revealed limited social networks; often, only a woman's mother or the baby's father were consulted about prenatal care decisions. However, women also indicated that communication with others during pregnancy provided important normative information regarding prenatal care. First, most referents believed that women should receive prenatal care (injunctive norm), which was conceptualized by participants as biomedical, nonmedical, or a blend of both. Second, family members often received prenatal care, whereas friends did not (descriptive norms). These findings highlight the key role of personal and social networks in shaping personal pregnancy-related beliefs and behaviors.

  11. Factors associated with lack of prenatal care in a large municipality

    PubMed Central

    da Rosa, Cristiane Quadrado; da Silveira, Denise Silva; da Costa, Juvenal Soares Dias

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with a lack of prenatal care in a large municipality in southern Brazil. METHODS In this case-control age-matched study, 716 women were evaluated; of these, 179 did not receive prenatal care and 537 received prenatal care (controls). These women were identified using the Sistema Nacional de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos (Live Birth Information System) of Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, between 2009 and 2010. Multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (OR). RESULTS In the final model, the variables associated with a lack of prenatal care were the level of education, particularly when it was lesser than four years [OR 4.46; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.92;10.36], being single (OR 3.61; 95%CI 1.85;7.04), and multiparity (OR 2.89; 95%CI 1.72;4.85). The prevalence of a lack of prenatal care among administrative regions varied between 0.7% and 3.9%. CONCLUSIONS The risk factors identified must be considered when planning actions for the inclusion of women in prenatal care by both the central management and healthcare teams. These indicated the municipal areas with greater deficits in prenatal care. The reorganization of the actions to identify women with risk factors in the community can be considered to be a starting point of this process. In addition, the integration of the activities of local programs that target the mother and child is essential to constantly identify pregnant women without prenatal care. PMID:26039401

  12. Screening and brief intervention in prenatal care settings.

    PubMed

    Chang, Grace

    Pregnant women continue to drink despite evidence that prenatal alcohol consumption can negatively affect fetal growth and development. Because no universally safe level of prenatal alcohol use has been established, it is beneficial to identify and modify a woman's prenatal alcohol use early in her pregnancy, particularly as her past drinking habits can predict her drinking levels during pregnancy. Some women may voluntarily disclose the extent of their prenatal alcohol consumption. If not, the T-ACE, a four-item screening questionnaire based on the CAGE assessment tool, has been demonstrated to be a valuable and efficient method for identifying a range of alcohol use. Studies have shown that combined with brief interventions, early identification of a woman's prenatal alcohol use could avert its more severe adverse consequences and may be the logical first-line approach.

  13. Pregnant at work: time for prenatal care providers to act.

    PubMed

    Karkowsky, Chavi Eve; Morris, Liz

    2016-09-01

    Fifty years ago, when a woman became pregnant, she was expected to stop working. Today, however, most women who work are the primary, sole, or co-breadwinner for their families, and their earnings during pregnancy are often essential to their families' economic well-being. Medical data about working during pregnancy are sparse but generally show that both low-risk and high-risk women can tolerate work-related duties well, although some work accommodations (eg, providing a chair for sitting, allowing snacks, or modifying the work schedule) may be necessary. However, some employers refuse to accommodate pregnant women who need adjustments. This can result in a woman being forced to make the choice between working without accommodations and losing her income and health insurance or even her job. Prenatal care providers can play an important role by implementing changes in their own practice, shaping public policy, and conducting research to increase protections for pregnant women and to ensure that they receive medically recommended accommodations while continuing to earn income for their growing families.

  14. Migrant women's utilization of prenatal care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Heaman, M; Bayrampour, H; Kingston, D; Blondel, B; Gissler, M; Roth, C; Alexander, S; Gagnon, A

    2013-07-01

    Our objectives were to determine whether migrant women in Western industrialized countries have higher odds of inadequate prenatal care (PNC) compared to receiving-country women and to summarize factors that are associated with inadequate PNC among migrant women in these countries. We conducted searches of electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO), reference lists, known experts, and an existing database of the Reproductive Outcomes And Migration international research collaboration for articles published between January, 1995 and April, 2010. Title and abstract review and quality appraisal were conducted independently by 2 reviewers using established criteria, with consensus achieved through discussion. In this systematic review of 29 studies, the majority of studies demonstrated that migrant women were more likely to receive inadequate PNC than receiving-country women, with most reporting moderate to large effect sizes. Rates of inadequate PNC among migrant women varied widely by country of birth. Only three studies explored predictors of inadequate PNC among migrant women. These studies found that inadequate PNC among migrant women was associated with being less than 20 years of age, multiparous, single, having poor or fair language proficiency, education less than 5 years, an unplanned pregnancy, and not having health insurance. We concluded that migrant women as a whole were more likely to have inadequate PNC and the magnitude of this risk differed by country of origin. Few studies addressed predictors of PNC utilization in migrant women and this limits our ability to provide effective PNC in this population.

  15. The impact of group prenatal care on pregnancy and postpartum weight trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Magriples, Urania; Boynton, Marcella H.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Lewis, Jessica; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Epel, Elissa; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to investigate whether group prenatal care (Centering Pregnancy Plus [CP+]) has an impact on pregnancy weight gain and postpartum weight loss trajectories and to determine whether prenatal depression and distress might moderate these trajectories. STUDY DESIGN This was a secondary analysis of a cluster-randomized trial of CP+ in 14 Community Health Centers and hospitals in New York City. Participants were pregnant women aged 14–21 years (n = 984). Medical record review and 4 structured interviews were conducted: in the second and third trimesters and 6 and 12 months postpartum. Longitudinal mixed modeling was utilized to evaluate the weight change trajectories in the control and intervention groups. Prenatal distress and depression were also assessed to examine their impact on weight change. RESULTS There were no significant differences between the intervention and control groups in baseline demographics. Thirty-five percent of the participants were overweight or obese, and more than 50% had excessive weight gain by Institute of Medicine standards. CP+ was associated with improved weight trajectories compared with controls (P < .0001): women at clinical sites randomized to group prenatal care gained less weight during pregnancy and lost more weight postpartum. This effect was sustained among women who were categorized as obese based on prepregnancy body mass index (P < .01). Prenatal depression and distress were significantly associated with higher antepartum weight gain and postpartum weight retention. Women with the highest levels of depression and prenatal distress exhibited the greatest positive impact of group prenatal care on weight trajectories during pregnancy and through 12 months postpartum. CONCLUSION Group prenatal care has a significant impact on weight gain trajectories in pregnancy and postpartum. The intervention also appeared to mitigate the effects of depression and prenatal distress on antepartum weight

  16. Rethinking prenatal care within a social model of health: an exploratory study in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Jenny A; Reiger, Kerreen M

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of maternity reform agendas remains limited by the dominance of a medical rather than social model of health. This article considers group prenatal care as a complex health intervention and explores its potential in the socially divided, postconflict communities of Northern Ireland. Using qualitative inquiry strategies, we sought key informants' views on existing prenatal care provision and on an innovative group care model (CenteringPregnancy®) as a social health initiative. We argue that taking account of the locally specific context is critical to introducing maternity care interventions to improve the health of women and their families and to contribute to community development.

  17. A comparison of prenatal care use in the United States and Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Buekens, P; Kotelchuck, M; Blondel, B; Kristensen, F B; Chen, J H; Masuy-Stroobant, G

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. We sought to describe prenatal care use in the United States and in three European countries where accessibility to prenatal care has been reported to be better than it is in the United States. METHODS. We analyzed the 1980 US National Natality Survey, the 1981 French National Natality Survey, a 1979 sample of Danish births, and a survey performed from 1979 to 1980 in one Belgian province. RESULTS. The proportion of women who began prenatal care late (after 15 weeks) is highest in the United States (21.2%) and lowest in France (4.0%). This contrasts with the median number of visits, which is greater in the United States (11) than in Denmark (10) or in France (7). Across all maternal ages, parities, and educational levels, late initiation of prenatal care is more frequent in the United States, and median number of visits in the United States is equal to or higher than that in the other countries. CONCLUSIONS. In countries that offer nearly universal access to prenatal care, women begin care earlier during pregnancy and have fewer visits than women in the United States. PMID:8417603

  18. [Prenatal and childbirth care equity in an area in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, 1996].

    PubMed

    Puccini, Rosana Fiorini; Pedroso, Glaura César; da Silva, Edina Mariko Koga; de Araújo, Norma Sueli; da Silva, Nilza Nunes

    2003-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate prenatal and childbirth care interviewing mothers of infants in the municipality of Embu (Greater Metropolitan São Paulo) in 1996, according to four socioeconomic strata. A door-to-door survey included a probabilistic sample consisting of 483 infants. In all strata more than 90% of the mothers had received prenatal care, but with late access in stratum 4 (residents of favelas, or slums). Breast examination during prenatal care, reported by only 60.8% of the mothers, was the worst single indicator of quality of prenatal care in the municipality. The outcome indicator - first prenatal consultation after the first trimester and total number of consultations less than six - was associated with maternal age (less than 20 years), low per capita family income (less than one minimum wage), and lack of private health plan. As for deliveries, 97.7% occurred in hospital, of which 32.5% by cesarean section, with the latter more frequent in private health care facilities (63.2%). No population segments were identified as being excluded from the health care system, but some indicators suggest greater deficiencies in socioeconomic stratum 4. These results have supported local health system managers in redefining health measures for the municipality.

  19. Infant born with Robert's syndrome without prenatal care in a developing nation.

    PubMed

    Benardete, Denise; Chandrasekaran, Neeraja; Cariello, Lisa; Meraz, Diego

    2016-10-25

    Maternal and child well-being during pregnancy can be attributed to receiving optimal prenatal care. However, in developing nations, there are many barriers to receiving this. We present a primigravid female aged 29 years with severe abdominal pain. She was in active labour at 40 weeks and completely unaware of her pregnancy; hence, she did not receive any prenatal care. The baby was born with significant birth deformities that were consistent with Robert's syndrome. Although early detection could not preclude the development of this disorder, proper care would have facilitated in receiving genetic counselling and proper understanding of the prognosis. In this case, we discuss the various barriers to receiving prenatal care and measures taken for improvement in developing nations.

  20. Nutritional guidance during prenatal care in public health services in Ribeirão Preto: discourse and care practice.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Luzia Aparecida; Mamede, Fabiana Villela; Clapis, Maria José; Bernardi, Juliana Villela Bueno

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to verify if pregnant women attended in prenatal care services at Basic Health Units in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil, received nutritional guidance and if this guidance was pertinent to their nutritional status. Ninety-one pregnant women participated. The pregnant women were classified according to their nutritional condition, using a weight, height and pregnancy stage table established by the Brazilian Health Ministry's technical prenatal care manual. We found pregnant women with weight under (13.19%) and exceeding normal levels (37.36%). Independently of their nutritional condition, most of them (60.43%) declared they did not receive nutrition guidance. The mean number of prenatal visits did not influence the nutritional status. The results reveal deficiencies in the contents and quality of nutritional care. This suggests the need for care changes so as to turn discourse into practice.

  1. Pregnancy, prenatal care, and delivery of mothers with disabilities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Nam Gu; Lee, Jin Yong; Park, Ju Ok; Lee, Jung-A; Oh, Juhwan

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the whole picture regarding pregnancy, prenatal care, obstetrical complications, and delivery among disabled pregnant women in Korea. Using the data of National Health Insurance Corporation, we extracted the data of women who terminated pregnancy including delivery and abortion from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010. Pearson's chi-square test and Student-t test were conducted to examine the difference between disabled women and non-disabled women. Also, to define the factors affecting inadequate prenatal care, logistic regression was performed. The total number of pregnancy were 463,847; disabled women was 2,968 (0.6%) and 460,879 (99.4%) were by non-disabled women. Abortion rates (27.6%), Cesarean section rate (54.5%), and the rate of receiving inadequate prenatal care (17.0%), and the rate of being experienced at least one obstetrical complication (11.3%) among disabled women were higher than those among non-disabled women (P < 0.001). Beneficiaries of Medical Aid (OR, 2.21) (P < 0.001) and severe disabled women (OR, 1.46) (P = 0.002) were more likely to receive inadequate prenatal care. In conclusion, disabled women are more vulnerable in pregnancy, prenatal care and delivery. Therefore, the government and society should pay more attention to disabled pregnant women to ensure they have a safe pregnancy period up until the delivery.

  2. [Severe hypoplastic left heart syndrome: palliative care after prenatal diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Noseda, C; Mialet-Marty, T; Basquin, A; Letourneur, I; Bertorello, I; Charlot, F; Le Bouar, G; Bétrémieux, P

    2012-04-01

    We analyzed 16 cases of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) submitted to the multidisciplinary center at Rennes Teaching Hospital from 2006 to 2010 for prenatal diagnosis. The information given to parents at the moment of choice is capital for them to make their own decision: in our team the real choice for parents stands between termination of pregnancy (TOP) and palliative care (PC). The Norwood procedure is rarely proposed to parents in France and it is performed in very few centers. Heart transplant is never proposed nor done at this age. The objectives of our study were to understand the reasons for the choice of PC, take stock of our experience of PC, and relate the benefits but also the disadvantages of PC. Over the 16 patients whose fetus had HLHS, 9 requested TOP, while 7 others wanted to live their pregnancy and meet their child at birth, therefore requesting neonatal PC. No family asked for the Norwood procedure. Four children died within the first days (D1, D2, D4, D9), 2 others died at 5 and 7 months, 1 child was operated on for coarctation of the aorta (unknown before birth) and is still alive 1.5 years later. Maternal motivations to continue the pregnancy were clearly described for 2 of the 7 cases: religious prohibition of TOP in 1 case, negative experiences of previous abortions in the second case. In another case, the parents hesitated between PC and Norwood surgery. For the other women, the reasons were less clearly expressed. In our series, HLHS is the first indication for PC from prenatal diagnosis (7/16 cases in the same period) while in the literature, heart diseases are the second cause of TOP after the neurological causes. The overrepresentation of this pathology in the families who opt for PC may be due to the unconscious image that both professionals and families have of HLHS: severity of an inevitably fatal disease, rapid postnatal death, and no suffering. Our study may change this view: a child was in fact carrying a

  3. Special Issues in Child Care: Supporting Infants Prenatally Exposed to Drugs and Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Ginger L.; Mullins, Sharon M.

    2007-01-01

    Infants and children with prenatal drug exposure and/or a caregiver with a substance abuse problem participate in child care centers and homes throughout the United States. Thus, child care providers are in a position to monitor not only the need for physical, cognitive, or behavioral early intervention, but also to collaborate with parents on…

  4. [Providing vulnerable populations in subSaharan Africa access to obstetrical care: strategy for improving prenatal services].

    PubMed

    Dugas, M

    2011-12-01

    The outlook for reaching key Millennium Development goals in Africa in 2015 is mostly positive. However, two critical indicators, i.e., maternal and neonatal mortality, show lagging progress. The purpose of this report is to underline the importance of prenatal care in efforts to reduce maternal mortality. It describes the minimum prenatal care package recommended by WHO and propses strategies for increasing access to prenatal examination. Health education, improvement of care quality and outreach services are promising avenues to increasing the use of prenatal services.

  5. Insurance-based discrimination during prenatal care, labor, and delivery: perceptions of Oregon mothers.

    PubMed

    Thorburn, Sheryl; De Marco, Molly

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of who experiences insurance-based discrimination during prenatal care, labor, and delivery and how their health care may differ from that of other women. We pooled data from the 1998-1999, 2000, and 2001 Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System and conducted univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses. The women who perceived that they had been treated differently by health care providers during prenatal care, labor, or delivery based on their insurance status were largely a lower income group. Insurance-based discrimination was significantly associated with lower annual household incomes, being unable to pay bills during pregnancy, and being without employer-sponsored insurance for their baby's delivery, when adjusted for other factors. Insurance-based discrimination was less likely among Hispanic mothers. With respect to the relationship between insurance-based discrimination and receipt of health care, our findings were mixed. Insurance-based discrimination was not significantly associated with the number of topics covered by providers during prenatal care. In contrast, insurance-based discrimination was significantly associated with fewer breastfeeding support actions taken at the hospital and with having had a provider discuss birth control after delivery among women with employer sponsored insurance. These findings draw attention to the need to better understand women's experiences and perceptions of insurance-based discrimination during prenatal care, labor, and delivery.

  6. Women's perceptions of access to prenatal care in the United States: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Phillippi, Julia C

    2009-01-01

    Women report many barriers to accessing prenatal care. This article reviews the literature from 1990 to the present on women's perceptions of access to prenatal care within the United States. Barriers can be classified into societal, maternal, and structural dimensions. Women may not be motivated to seek care, especially for unintended pregnancies. Societal and maternal reasons cited for poor motivation include a fear of medical procedures or disclosing the pregnancy to others, depression, and a belief that prenatal care is unnecessary. Structural barriers include long wait times, the location and hours of the clinic, language and attitude of the clinic staff and provider, the cost of services, and a lack of child-friendly facilities. Knowledge of women's views of access can help in development of policies to decrease barriers. Structural barriers could be reduced through changes in clinic policy and prenatal care format, and the creation of child-friendly waiting and examination rooms. Maternal and societal barriers can be addressed through community education. A focus in future research on facilitators of access can assist in creating open pathways to perinatal care for all women.

  7. Prenatal genetic care: debates and considerations of the past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Faas, Brigitte H W

    2015-01-01

    After karyotyping invasively obtained fetal material for decades, the field of prenatal genetic care has changed tremendously since the turn of the century. The introduction of novel technologies and strategies went along with concerns and debates, in which key issues were costs, the finding of variants of unknown or uncertain clinical relevance, commercialization and ethical and social issues. At present, there is an explosion of new genomic technologies, which need critical assessment prior to implementation, especially in the prenatal field. The key issues of the debates we had in the past will again play a major role in guiding us toward careful implementation of these new techniques in future.

  8. Hepatitis and the Need for Adequate Standards in Federally Supported Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    This article examines findings in three epidemiological studies of day care centers and concludes that higher standards of care can reduce the incidence of hepatitis among parents and staff. (Author/DB)

  9. A qualitative study of the experience of CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care for physicians

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study sought to understand the central meaning of the experience of group prenatal care for physicians who were involved in providing CenteringPregnancy through a maternity clinic in Calgary, Canada. Method The study followed the phenomenological qualitative tradition. Three physicians involved in group prenatal care participated in a one-on-one interview between November and December 2009. Two physicians participated in verification sessions. Interviews followed an open ended general guide and were audio recorded and transcribed. The purpose of the analysis was to identify meaning themes and the core meaning experienced by the physicians. Results Six themes emerged: (1) having a greater exchange of information, (2) getting to knowing, (3) seeing women get to know and support each other, (4) sharing ownership of care, (5) having more time, and (6) experiencing enjoyment and satisfaction in providing care. These themes contributed to the core meaning for physicians of “providing richer care.” Conclusions Physicians perceived providing better care and a better professional experience through CenteringPregnancy compared to their experience of individual prenatal care. Thus, CenteringPregnancy could improve work place satisfaction, increase retention of providers in maternity care, and improve health care for women. PMID:23445867

  10. Changes in Public Prenatal Care Coverage Options for Noncitizens Since Welfare Reform: Wide State Variation Remains.

    PubMed

    Green, Tiffany; Hochhalter, Stephanie; Dereszowska, Krystyna; Sabik, Lindsay

    2016-10-01

    Before 1996, most lawfully present noncitizens were eligible for the same prenatal Medicaid benefits as U.S. citizens. However, the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA)-welfare reform-restricted benefits for certain lawful noncitizens for the first time. Welfare reform also gave states unprecedented authority to determine Medicaid eligibility. More recent federal policy changes have allowed states to cover some noncitizen pregnant women initially excluded under welfare reform. However, there are few comprehensive studies examining state implementation of these policy options. This study documents state-level trends in prenatal Medicaid and state-funded coverage options for low-income noncitizens just prior to and since welfare reform. While some states have substantially expanded prenatal coverage since PRWORA, wide variation remains. These findings have important implications for understanding the potential effects of the Affordable Care Act and Medicaid expansion on health care utilization and birth outcomes among pregnant noncitizens.

  11. Anguish, Yearning, and Identity: Toward a Better Understanding of the Pregnant Hispanic Woman's Prenatal Care Experience.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Elizabeth Moran; Cronin, Sherill Nones; Boccella, Sarah Hess

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to seek a better understanding of needs and access issues among pregnant, low-income Hispanic women. Hispanic women who attended a community prenatal education program participated in follow-up focus groups to explore their experiences regarding prenatal education, pregnancy resources, access to, and satisfaction with, the care available to them. Focus groups were facilitated by a leader, bilingual in English and Spanish, with knowledge of the Hispanic culture. Sessions were audiotaped, then translated into English for transcription. Data were analyzed according to guidelines by Colaizzi and three themes emerged: pregnant Hispanic women experienced a sense of anguish (la angustia) from questions and unknowns rampant during pregnancy, leading to a yearning (el anhelo) to learn and understand more, but with a desire to do so without sacrificing native identity (la identidad). Implications of these themes for improving prenatal care for this population are explored.

  12. Prenatal Care Initiation in Low-Income Hispanic Women: Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luecken, Linda J.; Purdom, Catherine L.; Howe, Rose

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the psychosocial risk (distress, stress, unintended pregnancy) and protective factors (social support, mastery, familism) associated with entry into prenatal care among low-income Hispanic women. Methods: Between April and September 2005, 483 postpartum Medicaid-eligible Hispanic women completed a survey at the hospital.…

  13. Self-Selection, Prenatal Care, and Birthweight among Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Theodore

    1994-01-01

    A two-stage selectivity correction model was applied to race- and ethnic-specific data from 1984 New York City birth certificates. Ordinary least squares underestimated the effects of prenatal care on birth weight by at least 80% for whites and Hispanics. (Author/SK)

  14. Prenatal Care and Pregnancy Outcomes during the Recession: The Washington State Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Elliott S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    During a period of increasing unemployment and decreased Medicaid eligibility, more women residents of low-income census tracts in Washington State received delayed prenatal care or none at all and delivered proportionately more infants of low birthweight. The incidence of maternal anemia also may have increased. (Author/GC)

  15. The Role of Prenatal Care and Social Risk Factors in the Relationship between Immigrant Status and Neonatal Morbidity: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sarabia-Lavín, Raquel; Bolumar, Francisco; Rioja, Luis; Delgado, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Literature evaluating association between neonatal morbidity and immigrant status presents contradictory results. Poorer compliance with prenatal care and greater social risk factors among immigrants could play roles as major confounding variables, thus explaining contradictions. We examined whether prenatal care and social risk factors are confounding variables in the relationship between immigrant status and neonatal morbidity. Methods Retrospective cohort study: 231 pregnant African immigrant women were recruited from 2007–2010 in northern Spain. A Spanish population sample was obtained by simple random sampling at 1:3 ratio. Immigrant status (Spanish, Sub-Saharan and Northern African), prenatal care (Kessner Index adequate, intermediate or inadequate), and social risk factors were treated as independent variables. Low birth weight (LBW < 2500 grams) and preterm birth (< 37 weeks) were collected as neonatal morbidity variables. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results Positive associations between immigrant women and higher risk of neonatal morbidity were obtained. Crude OR for preterm births in Northern Africans with respect to nonimmigrants was 2.28 (95% CI: 1.04–5.00), and crude OR for LBW was 1.77 (95% CI: 0.74–4.22). However, after adjusting for prenatal care and social risk factors, associations became protective: adjusted OR for preterm birth = 0.42 (95% CI: 0.14–1.32); LBW = 0.48 (95% CI: 0.15–1.52). Poor compliance with prenatal care was the main independent risk factor associated with both preterm birth (adjusted OR inadequate care = 17.05; 95% CI: 3.92–74.24) and LBW (adjusted OR inadequate care = 6.25; 95% CI: 1.28–30.46). Social risk was an important independent risk factor associated with LBW (adjusted OR = 5.42; 95% CI: 1.58–18.62). Conclusions Prenatal care and social risk factors were major confounding variables in

  16. Barriers to help-seeking, detection, and adequate treatment for anxiety and mood disorders: implications for health care policy.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, David

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the focus of health policies and initiatives has been directed toward mental health. More precisely, depressive and anxiety disorders have received particular attention because of their disabling outcomes and prevalence among most populations. Despite this increased interest, numerous issues regarding patients' willingness to seek treatment and the adequate recognition and treatment of these disorders by clinicians remain to be addressed. This article considers the factors that influence patients and physicians in their reticence to acknowledge and adequately treat depression and anxiety disorders. It also reviews the impact of society and the media, together with other factors relating to health care organization and administration that affect the treatment of depression and anxiety. In view of the multifaceted challenge involved, efforts to achieve a consensus in determining treatment for those with depressive and anxiety disorders are essential. A consensus will require easy, measurable, and reliable disability indicators; evidence that treatment of patients with varying levels of need is cost effective; and that persons who most need and would benefit from care can be reliably identified among the highly prevalent population of persons with more transient symptoms. Governments and other policymakers should be encouraged to provide appropriate coverage for access to primary and secondary care, the treatments required, and sufficient resources so that care is available when necessary. An important aspect of the challenge is to incorporate these efforts within the realistic constraints of primary care.

  17. Representing and intervening: 'doing' good care in first trimester prenatal knowledge production and decision-making.

    PubMed

    Schwennesen, Nete; Koch, Lene

    2012-02-01

    This article investigates processes of knowledge production and decision-making in the practice of the first trimester prenatal risk assessment (FTPRA) at an ultrasound clinic in Denmark. On the basis of ethnographic material and interviews with professionals facilitating FTPRAs in Denmark, we draw attention to the active engagement of health professionals in this process. Current professional and policy debate over the use of prenatal testing emphasises the need for informed choice making and for services that provide prospective parents with what is referred to as 'non-directive counselling'. Studies focusing on professional practice of prenatal counselling tend to deal mainly with how professionals fail to live up to such ideals in practice. In this article we extend such studies by drawing attention to practices of care in prenatal testing and counselling. In doing so, we identify three modes of 'doing' good care: attuning expectations and knowledge, allowing resistance and providing situated influence in the relationship between the pregnant woman and the professional. Such practices may not be seen as immediately compatible with the non-directive ethos, but they express ways of reducing emotional suffering and supporting a pregnant woman's ability to make meaningful choices on the basis of uncertain knowledge. As such, these practices can be seen as representing another (caring) solution to the problem of paternalism and authoritarian power. In opposition to an ethics aiming at non-interference (non-directiveness) such modes of doing good care express an ethics of being locally accountable for the ways in which programmes of prenatal testing intervene in pregnant women's lives and of taking responsibility for the entities and phenomena that emerge through such knowledge production.

  18. The relationship between prenatal care and subsequent modern contraceptive use in Bolivia, Egypt and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Zerai, A; Tsui, A O

    2001-08-01

    Determinants of modern contraceptive use are usually examined in isolation of the effect of exposure to other aspects of health care systems. Maternal interaction with organised health service provision during post-conception and postpartum stages of reproduction can provide an opportunity to transfer contraceptive service information and counselling. We found that living in a community in which women have widespread health service contact is related to both prenatal care use and subsequent modern contraceptive use. After controlling for effects of living in high health service contact areas and various demographic and background factors, our results suggest that prior use of prenatal care has a strong influence on subsequent use of modern contraception in Bolivia, Egypt and Thailand.

  19. [Potential role of prenatal care in reducing maternal and perinatal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa].

    PubMed

    Prual, A; De Bernis, L; El Joud, D Ould

    2002-02-01

    Prenatal care has been implemented in developing countries according to the same mode as applied in industrialized countries without considering its real effectiveness in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality. Several recent studies suggest that the goals should be revisited in order to implement a program of prenatal care based on real scientific evidence. Based on the current literature, we propose a potentially effective content for prenatal care adapted to the context of developing countries. Four antenatal consultations would be enough if appropriately timed at 12, 26, 32 and 36 weeks pregnancy. The purpose of these consultations would be: 1) to screen for three major risk factors, which, when recognized, lead to specific action: uterine, scare, malpresentation, premature rupture of the membranes; 2) to prevent and/or detect (and treat) specific complications of pregnancy: hypertension, infection (malaria, venereal disease, HIV, tetanus, urinary tract infection); anemia and trace element deficiencies, gestational diabetes mellitus; 3) to provide counseling, support and information for pregnant women and their families (including the partner) concerning: severe signs and symptoms of pregnancy and delivery, community organization of emergency transfer, delivery planning. These potentially effective actions can only have a real public health impact if implemented within an organized maternal health system with a functional network of delivery units, if truly quality care is given, and if the relationships between health care providers and the population are based on mutual respect. Sub-Saharan African women use prenatal care extensively when it is accessible; this opportunity must be used to implement evidence-based actions with appropriate and realistic goals.

  20. Adequate health literacy is associated with higher heart failure knowledge and self-care confidence in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Cheryl R; McEntee, Mindy L; Samuel, Laura; Johnson, Brandon J; Rotman, Stacey; Kielty, Alexandra; Russell, Stuart D

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) patients with inadequate health literacy are at increased risk for poor self-care and negative health outcomes such as hospital readmission. The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of inadequate health literacy, the reliability of the Dutch HF Knowledge Scale (DHFKS) and the Self-care of Heart Failure Index (SCHFI), and the differences in HF knowledge, HF self-care, and 30-day readmission rate by health literacy level among patients hospitalized with HF. The convenience sample included adults (n = 95) admitted to a large, urban, teaching hospital whose primary diagnosis was HF. Measures included the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, the DHFKS, the SCHFI, and readmission at 30 days after discharge. The sample was 59 ± 14 years in age, 51% male, and 67% African American; 35% had less than a high school education, 35% were employed, 73% lived with someone who helps with their HF care, and 16% were readmitted within 30 days of index admission. Health literacy was inadequate for 42%, marginal for 19%, and adequate for 39%. Reliability of the DHFKS and SCHFI scales was comparable to prior reports. Mean knowledge score was 11.43 ± 2.26; SCHFI subscale scores were 56.82 ± 17.12 for maintenance, 63.64 ± 18.29 for management, and 65.02 ± 16.34 for confidence. Those with adequate health literacy were younger and had higher education level, HF knowledge scores, and HF self-care confidence compared with those with marginal or inadequate health literacy. Self-care maintenance and management scores and 30-day readmission rate did not differ by health literacy level. These findings demonstrate the high prevalence of inadequate and marginal health literacy and that health literacy is an important consideration in promoting HF knowledge and confidence in self-care behaviors, particularly among older adults and those with less than a high school education.

  1. Exploring group composition among young, urban women of color in prenatal care: Implications for satisfaction, engagement, and group attendance

    PubMed Central

    Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Rosenthal, Lisa; Cunningham, Shayna D.; Kershaw, Trace; Lewis, Jessica; Rising, Sharon; Stasko, Emily; Tobin, Jonathan; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Group models of prenatal care continue to grow in popularity. Yet, little is known about how group composition (similarity or diversity between members of groups) relates to care-related outcomes. The current investigation aimed to explore associations between prenatal care group composition with patient satisfaction, engagement, and group attendance among young, urban women of color. Methods Data were drawn from two studies conducted in New Haven and Atlanta (2001–2004; n=557) and New York City (2008–2011; n=375), designed to evaluate group prenatal care among young, urban women of color. Women aged 14–25 were assigned to group prenatal care and completed surveys during their second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Group attendance was recorded. Data were merged and analyzed guided by the Group Actor-Partner Interdependence Model using multilevel regression. Analyses explored composition in terms of age, race, ethnicity, and language. Main findings Women in groups with others more diverse in age reported greater patient engagement and, in turn, attended more group sessions [b(se)= −0.01(0.01), p=0.04]. Conclusion The composition of prenatal care groups appears to be associated with young women’s engagement in care, ultimately relating to the number of group prenatal care sessions they attend. Creating groups diverse in age may be particularly beneficial for young, urban women of color, who have unique pregnancy needs and experiences. Future research is needed to test the generalizability of these exploratory findings. PMID:26542382

  2. Socio-demographic determinants and access to prenatal care in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many governments have made commitments to examine inequalities in healthcare access based on studies assessing the association between several socio-demographic factors and late initiation or fewer prenatal examinations. This study addressed the question of whether socio-demographic determinants were significant in explaining differences in prenatal care in one administrative region of Italy, Umbria. Methods Data were obtained from the administrative source of the regional Standard Certificate of Live Births between 2005 and 2010, and were merged with Census data to include a socio-economic deprivation index. Standard and multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the magnitude of various individual-level maternal characteristics and socio-demographic indicators, such as nationality, employment status, education with respect to late access to the first examination, and low number of medical visits. Results The study involved approximately 37,000 women. The heterogeneous effects of socio-demographic variables were documented on the prenatal care indicators analyzed. A multivariate model showed that women born outside Italy had a higher probability of making their first visit later than the 12th week of pregnancy and low numbers of prenatal medical visits; the estimated odds ratio for the analyzed indicators range from 2.25 to 3.05. Inadequate prenatal healthcare use was also observed in younger and pluriparous women and those with low education; in addition, having a job improved the use of services, possibly through transmission of information of negative consequences due to delayed or few prenatal visits. Interestingly, this study found a substantial reduction in the number of pregnant women who do not use prenatal healthcare services properly. Conclusions The aim of this research is to provide more accurate knowledge about the inadequate use of prenatal healthcare in Italy. Results highlight the existence of differences in healthcare

  3. Satisfaction Level of New Mothers with Prenatal Care and the Healthcare Professionals Who Provide It

    PubMed Central

    Pozo-Cano, MD; Castillo, RF; Guillen, J Francisco; Florido, J; García García, I

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Prenatal care is a key strategy to reduce maternal mortality. The aims of this work were to ascertain the level of satisfaction of new mothers with their pregnancy monitoring and with the medical professionals who provided prenatal care. Subject and methods: A descriptive study was conducted on 265 new mothers, 18-43 years of age, who had given birth at the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital and the San Cecilio University Hospital in Granada (Spain) in April and May 2012. The data were collected with a questionnaire consisting of 28 items that elicited information from the subjects about their pregnancy, prenatal care activities, the healthcare professionals that provided the care, and those that they would like to monitor future pregnancies. There were also two open questions. The first was about the perceived needs of the participants and the second asked them to suggest ways that prenatal care could be improved. Results: The majority of the subjects (59.6%) had given birth for the first time. The midwife was the healthcare professional who performed most of the monitoring activities and resolved their doubts and problems (32.74%), gave the subjects tranquillity and security (37.86%) and listened to their worries (34.53%). The subjects' satisfaction with the healthcare professionals was generally high. This was particularly true of the midwife (90.75%). Half of the subjects surveyed said that they wanted the midwife, obstetrician and general practitioner to monitor their pregnancy. They also underlined the need for longer and more visits with the midwife as well as more consultations with the obstetrician and higher number of ultrasounds. Conclusions: The subjects were very satisfied with the work of the healthcare professionals that monitored their pregnancy, particularly with the midwife. However, they also highlighted expectations and needs that, if met, would increase their satisfaction. PMID:25867581

  4. Physical Accessibility of Routine Prenatal Care for Women with Mobility Disability

    PubMed Central

    Wint, Amy J.; Smeltzer, Suzanne C.; Ecker, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Routine prenatal care includes physical examinations and weight measurement. Little is known about whether access barriers to medical diagnostic equipment, such as examination tables and weight scales, affect prenatal care among pregnant women with physical disabilities. Methods: We conducted 2-hour, in-depth telephone interviews with 22 women using a semistructured, open-ended interview protocol. All women had significant mobility difficulties before pregnancy and had delivered babies within the prior 10 years. We recruited most participants through social networks. We sorted interview transcript texts using used NVivo software and conducted conventional content analyses to identify major themes. Results: Interviewee's mean (standard deviation) age was 34.8 (5.3) years. Most were white, well-educated, and higher income; 8 women had spinal cord injuries, 4 cerebral palsy, and 10 had other conditions; 18 used wheeled mobility aids. Some women's obstetricians had height adjustable examination tables, which facilitated transfers for physical examinations. Other women had difficulty transferring onto fixed height examination tables and were examined while sitting in their wheelchairs. Family members and/or clinical staff sometimes assisted with transfers; some women reported concerns about transfer safety. No women reported being routinely weighed on an accessible weight scale by their prenatal care clinicians. A few were never weighed during their pregnancies. Conclusions: Inaccessible examination tables and weight scales impede some pregnant women with physical disabilities from getting routine prenatal physical examinations and weight measurement. This represents substandard care. Adjustable height examination tables and wheelchair accessible weight scales could significantly improve care and comfort for pregnant women with physical disabilities. PMID:26484689

  5. State And Federal Coverage For Pregnant Immigrants: Prenatal Care Increased, No Change Detected For Infant Health.

    PubMed

    Wherry, Laura R; Fabi, Rachel; Schickedanz, Adam; Saloner, Brendan

    2017-04-01

    Expanded health insurance coverage for pregnant immigrant women who are in the United States lawfully as well as those who are in the country without documentation may address barriers in access to pregnancy-related care. We present new evidence on the impact of states' public health insurance expansions for pregnant immigrant women (both state-funded and expansions under the Children's Health Insurance Program) on their prenatal care use, mode of delivery, and infant health. Our quasi-experimental design compared changes in immigrant women's outcomes in states expanding coverage to changes in outcomes for nonimmigrant women in the same state and to women in nonexpanding states. We found that prenatal care use increased among all immigrant women following coverage expansion and that cesarean section increased among immigrant women with less than a high school diploma. We found no effects on the incidence of low birthweight, preterm birth, being small for gestational age, or infant death. State public insurance programs that cover pregnant immigrant women appear to have improved prenatal care utilization without observable changes in infant health or mortality.

  6. Sex differences in the association between prenatal smoking and decreased birthweight, and intensive health care of the neonate.

    PubMed

    Tayie, Francis A; Powell, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Gender-specific associations between prenatal smoking and birthweight, and neonate intensive health care were studied. Cross-sectional data from 11,583 newborns in the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2008 early childhood data sets were used. Change in infant birthweight and likelihood of receiving neonatal intensive care by prenatal smoking exposure were assessed. Multivariable regression models were used to assess the influence of prenatal smoking on birthweight and likelihood of receiving intensive neonatal health care. Compared with infants from nonsmoking mothers, prenatal smoking associated with significant decrease in infant birthweight, -203.0 g ± 32.5, P < 0.001. The change in birthweight differed between infant boys, -220.2 g ± 44.5, and girls, -184.1 g ± 38.8. Newborns exposed to prenatal smoking were more likely to have low birthweight, odds ratio 1.46, P < 0.03, and to receive neonatal intensive health care, odds ratio 1.20; P < 0.04. It is imperative that prenatal counseling emphasizes prenatal maternal smoking.

  7. CenteringPregnancySmiles: implementation of a small group prenatal care model with oral health.

    PubMed

    Skelton, Judith; Mullins, Raynor; Langston, LeAnn Todd; Womack, Sara; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Kovarik, Robert

    2009-05-01

    Preterm/low birth weights are the leading perinatal problem in the U.S., and an association between preterm/low birth weight outcomes and oral health has been identified. In response to this, a group prenatal care program--CenteringPregnancySmiles--was implemented in rural Kentucky in 2006. This report describes the model and preliminary outcomes of the CenteringPregnancySmiles program.

  8. Influenza vaccination of pregnant women: attitudes and behaviors of Oregon physician prenatal care providers.

    PubMed

    Arao, Robert F; Rosenberg, Kenneth D; McWeeney, Shannon; Hedberg, Katrina

    2015-04-01

    In spite of increased risk of influenza complications during pregnancy, only half of US pregnant women get influenza vaccination. We surveyed physician prenatal care providers in Oregon to assess their knowledge and behaviors regarding vaccination of pregnant women. From September through November 2011, a state-wide survey was mailed to a simple random sample (n = 1,114) of Oregon obstetricians and family physicians. The response rate was 44.5 %. Of 496 survey respondents, 187 (37.7 %) had provided prenatal care within the last 12 months. Of these, 88.5 % reported that they routinely recommended influenza vaccine to healthy pregnant patients. No significant differences in vaccine recommendation were found by specialty, practice location, number of providers in their practice, physician gender or years in practice. In multivariable regression analysis, routinely recommending influenza vaccine was significantly associated with younger physician age [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.01, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.29-3.13] and greater number of pregnant patients seen per week (AOR 1.95, 95 % CI 1.25-3.06). Among rural physicians, fewer obstetricians (90.3 %) than family physicians (98.5 %) had vaccine-appropriate storage units (p = 0.001). Most physician prenatal care providers understand the importance of influenza vaccination during pregnancy. To increase influenza vaccine coverage among pregnant women, it will be necessary to identify and address patient barriers to receiving influenza vaccination during pregnancy.

  9. Getting more than they realized they needed: a qualitative study of women's experience of group prenatal care

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pregnant women in Canada have traditionally received prenatal care individually from their physicians, with some women attending prenatal education classes. Group prenatal care is a departure from these practices providing a forum for women to experience medical care and child birth education simultaneously and in a group setting. Although other qualitative studies have described the experience of group prenatal care, this is the first which sought to understand the central meaning or core of the experience. The purpose of this study was to understand the central meaning of the experience of group prenatal care for women who participated in CenteringPregnancy through a maternity clinic in Calgary, Canada. Methods The study used a phenomenological approach. Twelve women participated postpartum in a one-on-one interview and/or a group validation session between June 2009 and July 2010. Results Six themes emerged: (1) "getting more in one place at one time"; (2) "feeling supported"; (3) "learning and gaining meaningful information"; (4) "not feeling alone in the experience"; (5) "connecting"; and (6) "actively participating and taking on ownership of care". These themes contributed to the core phenomenon of women "getting more than they realized they needed". The active sharing among those in the group allowed women to have both their known and subconscious needs met. Conclusions Women's experience of group prenatal care reflected strong elements of social support in that women had different types of needs met and felt supported. The findings also broadened the understanding of some aspects of social support beyond current theories. In a contemporary North American society, the results of this study indicate that women gain from group prenatal care in terms of empowerment, efficiency, social support and education in ways not routinely available through individual care. This model of care could play a key role in addressing women's needs and improving health

  10. Assessment of urinary infection management during prenatal care in pregnant women attending public health care units in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vettore, Marcelo Vianna; Dias, Marcos; Vettore, Mario Vianna; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the sociodemographic risk factors for urinary tract infection and the inadequacy of antenatal care, according to the Kotelchuck index, in pregnant women in the city of Rio de Janeiro. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,091 pregnant women, 501 with urinary tract infection, in the public health antenatal care units in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2007-2008. Demographic and socioeconomic data, obstetric history and adequacy of antenatal care were collected by interviews and antenatal care card. Inadequacy management of urinary tract infection was evaluated by professional performance, health services and women dimensions. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression were used to compare groups and to identify associated factors with management of urinary tract infection. Pregnant teenagers, anemic and diabetic pregnant women and quality of prenatal partially adequate or inadequate were those with higher odds of urinary tract infection. In the overall assessment, 72% had inadequate management of urinary tract infection. Inadequate management of urinary tract infection was associated with brown skin color compared to white skin color. In the assessment of health professional performance, inadequacy management of urinary tract infection was more common in pregnant women with low weight and overweight and obesity. According to pregnant women evaluation, primiparous women have lower odds of inadequacy management of urinary tract infection compared to those with one or more children.

  11. Vigorous cleaning and adequate ventilation are necessary to control an outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Shimono, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Jun; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Miyake, Noriko; Uchida, Yujiro; Shimoda, Shinji; Furusyo, Norihiro; Akashi, Koichi

    2012-06-01

    An outbreak of Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) bacteremia occurred in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in July 2005. Many strains of B. cereus were cultured from patient specimens, as well as from environmental samples such as the surfaces of instruments and air in the NICU. Some of these strains were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, and several were confirmed to be identical. We speculated that the bacterial load in the environment had initially increased and then possibly spread throughout the NICU facility via the airflow of the ventilation system. For this reason, besides maintaining standard precautions, we performed a vigorous clean of the NICU, and covered the vents to prevent dust falling from them. These protective measures ended the outbreak. In the hospital environment, adequate ventilation is important, especially in single-occupancy isolation rooms and operating theaters. However, the criteria for the adequate ventilation of multioccupancy rooms for acute care environments such as the NICU have not yet been defined. We need to pay more attention to these environmental factors in order to avoid cross contamination and infectious outbreaks.

  12. Experiences of opioid-dependent women in their prenatal and postpartum care: Implications for social workers in health care.

    PubMed

    Howard, Heather

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of prescription opioid abuse has increased nationally in the last decade with increased incidence rates reported among pregnant women. This was a qualitative study designed to understand the role of pregnant women with an opioid use disorder participating in medical decision making regarding their prenatal care while addressing their addiction. Group interviews were conducted with postpartum women who self-identified as opioid dependent during their pregnancy, and the data were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Social workers in the health care setting are an integral part of the interdisciplinary team in caring for pregnant and postpartum opioid-dependent women. Social workers are ideal in creating stigma reduction strategies, peer and professional supports, and comprehensive coordinated care. A social justice-based practice may be a framework to utilize when caring for this unique population.

  13. Validation of Minimum Data of Archetyped Telehealth Clinical Report for Monitoring Prenatal Care.

    PubMed

    Santos Alves, Danielle; Times, Valéria Cesário; de Araújo Novaes, Magdala

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the validation of minimum data sets from international information standards have drawn the attention of the academic community to the identification of necessary requirements for the development of Electronic Health Records (EHRs). The primary motivation of such studies is the development of systems using archetypes. The aim of this study was to validate the minimum data set that should be used when constructing an archetyped EHR for prenatal care applications in telehealth. In order to achieve this, a data validation tool was built and used by nine expert obstetricians. The statistical analysis employed was the percentage of agreement and the content validity index. The study was conducted in three steps: 1) Literature review, 2)Instrument development, and 3) Validation of the minimum data set. Of the 179 evaluated pieces of data, 157 of them were validated to be included in the archetyped record of the first prenatal consultation, while 56 of them were allocated for the subsequent consultation record. The benefit of this research is the standardization (data validation for an archetyped system) of prenatal care, with the perspective of employing, both nationally and internationally, an archtyped telehealth system.

  14. Fetal programming and environmental exposures: implications for prenatal care and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Schug, Thaddeus T; Erlebacher, Adrian; Leibowitz, Sarah; Ma, Liang; Muglia, Louis J; Rando, Oliver J; Rogers, John M; Romero, Roberto; vom Saal, Frederick S; Wise, David L

    2012-12-01

    Sponsored by the New York Academy of Sciences and Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, with support from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and Life Technologies, "Fetal Programming and Environmental Exposures: Implications for Prenatal Care and Preterm Birth" was held on June 11-12, 2012 at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City. The meeting, comprising individual talks and panel discussions, highlighted basic, clinical, and translational research approaches, and highlighted the need for specialized testing of drugs, consumer products, and industrial chemicals, with a view to the unique impacts these can have during gestation. Speakers went on to discuss many other factors that affect prenatal development, from genetics to parental diet, revealing the extraordinary sensitivity of the developing fetus.

  15. Schizencephaly: association with young maternal age, alcohol use, and lack of prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Dies, Kira A; Bodell, Adria; Hisama, Fuki M; Guo, Chao-Yu; Barry, Brenda; Chang, Bernard S; Barkovich, A James; Walsh, Christopher A

    2013-02-01

    Schizencephaly is a rare malformation of cortical development characterized by congenital clefts extending from the pial surface to the lateral ventricle that are lined by heterotopic gray matter. The clinical presentation is variable and can include motor or cognitive impairment and epilepsy. The causes of schizencephaly are heterogeneous and can include teratogens, prenatal infection, or maternal trauma. Reported genetic causes include chromosomal aneuploidy, EMX2 mutations, and possible autosomal recessive familial cases based on recurrence in siblings. In an effort to identify risk factors for schizencephaly, we conducted a survey of 48 parents or primary caretakers of patients with schizencephaly born between 1983 and 2004. We discovered that young maternal age, lack of prenatal care, and alcohol use were all significantly associated with risk of schizencephaly. Our results suggest that there are important nongenetic, intrauterine events that predispose to schizencephaly.

  16. Barriers and promoters of an evidenced-based smoking cessation counseling during prenatal care in Argentina and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Colomar, Mercedes; Tong, Van T; Morello, Paola; Farr, Sherry L; Lawsin, Catalina; Dietz, Patricia M; Aleman, Alicia; Berrueta, Mabel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Becu, Ana; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    In Argentina and Uruguay, 10.3 and 18.3 %, respectively, of pregnant women smoked in 2005. Brief cessation counseling, based on the 5A's model, has been effective in different settings. This qualitative study aims to improve the understanding of factors influencing the provision of smoking cessation counseling during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay. In 2010, we obtained prenatal care providers', clinic directors', and pregnant smokers' opinions regarding barriers and promoters to brief smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay. We interviewed six prenatal clinic directors, conducted focus groups with 46 health professionals and 24 pregnant smokers. Themes emerged from three issue areas: health professionals, health system, and patients. Health professional barriers to cessation counseling included inadequate knowledge and motivation, perceived low self-efficacy, and concerns about inadequate time and large workload. They expressed interest in obtaining a counseling script. Health system barriers included low prioritization of smoking cessation and a lack of clinic protocols to implement interventions. Pregnant smokers lacked information on the risks of prenatal smoking and underestimated the difficulty of smoking cessation. Having access to written materials and receiving cessation services during clinic waiting times were mentioned as promoters for the intervention. Women also were receptive to non-physician office staff delivering intervention components. Implementing smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Argentina and Uruguay may require integrating counseling into routine prenatal care and educating and training providers on best-practices approaches.

  17. Karyotyping or rapid aneuploidy detection in prenatal diagnosis? The different views of users and providers of prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Boormans, E M A; Birnie, E; Bilardo, C M; Oepkes, D; Bonsel, G J; van Lith, J M M

    2009-09-01

    Developments in prenatal diagnosis raise the question which test strategy should be implemented. However, preferences of women and caregivers are underexposed. This study investigates what kind of prenatal test pregnant women and caregivers prefer and if differences between the groups exist, using self-report questionnaires. Women preferred either karyotyping (50%) or rapid aneuploidy detection (43%). Caregivers opted for the latter (78%). A test targeted on Down syndrome was the least preferred in both groups. We recommend the use of individualised choice for genetic test in prenatal diagnosis, overcoming the existing differences in preferences between women and caregivers.

  18. "You learn to go last": perceptions of prenatal care experiences among African-American women with limited incomes.

    PubMed

    Salm Ward, Trina C; Mazul, Mary; Ngui, Emmanuel M; Bridgewater, Farrin D; Harley, Amy E

    2013-12-01

    African American infants die at higher rates and are at greater risk of adverse birth outcomes than White infants in Milwaukee. Though self-reported experiences of racism have been linked to adverse health outcomes, limited research exists on the impact of racism on women's prenatal care experiences. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of racial discrimination during prenatal care from the perspectives of African American women in a low income Milwaukee neighborhood. Transcripts from six focus groups with twenty-nine women and two individual interviews were analyzed to identify important emergent themes. Validity was maintained using an audit trail, peer debriefing, and two individual member validation sessions. Participants identified three areas of perceived discrimination based on: (1) insurance or income status, (2) race, and (3) lifetime experiences of racial discrimination. Women described being treated differently by support staff and providers based on type of insurance (public versus private), including perceiving a lower quality of care at clinics that accepted public insurance. While some described personally-mediated racism, the majority of women described experiences that fit within a definition of institutionalized racism-in which the system was designed in a way that worked against their attempts to get quality prenatal care. Women also described lifetime experiences of racial discrimination. Our findings suggest that African American women with limited incomes perceive many provider practices and personal interactions during prenatal care as discriminatory. Future studies could explore the relationship between perceptions of discrimination and utilization of prenatal care.

  19. Welfare and immigration reform and use of prenatal care among women of Mexican ethnicity in San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Loue, Sana; Cooper, Marlene; Lloyd, Linda S

    2005-01-01

    Foreign-born women and, in particular, Hispanic foreign-born women, are less likely to have insurance, are less likely to have insurance that covers prenatal care, and are less likely to utilize prenatal care compared with US-born Hispanic women. Significant concern has been raised regarding the ability of immigrant women to access prenatal care services because of severe restrictions imposed on immigrants' eligibility for Medicaid-funded services following the passage in 1996 of the federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reform Act (PRWORA) and the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRAIRA). We conducted an interview-based study of prenatal care utilization with women of Mexican ethnicity and diverse immigration statuses in San Diego County, California. Our findings indicate that, despite increased levels of fear associated with recent immigration and with undocumented status, there were no statistically significant differences across immigration statuses in length of time to receipt of medical care for gynecological events and for prenatal care.

  20. Acceptability of prenatal HIV screening at the primary care level in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Daniel, O J; Oladapo, O T

    2006-04-01

    A survey of 333 pregnant women receiving antenatal care at the primary healthcare centres in Sagamu Local Government Area of Ogun State, southwest Nigeria was conducted between January and March 2005 to assess the acceptability of prenatal HIV screening among them. A total of 325 (97.8%) of the respondents were aware of HIV/AIDS but only 181 (54.3%) of them believed it is a problem in Nigeria. A total of 257 (77.2%) respondents agreed to undergo voluntary counselling and HIV testing (VCT). Multivariate logistic regression analysis of associated factors indicated that being married, self-perception of no risk of HIV infection, awareness of benefits of prenatal HIV testing and Christianity are independent predictors of acceptance of prenatal HIV testing in this population. Most of the respondents (78.9%) who were unwilling to take the test cited fear of being infected with its consequences of stigma and discrimination as the reason for their attitude. The survey suggests that a successful integration of VCT programme into the existing primary healthcare services for prevention of vertical HIV transmission is feasible in this part of Nigeria.

  1. What is patient-centered care really? Voices of Hispanic prenatal patients.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Alicia A; Connaughton, Stacey L

    2013-01-01

    Variations in patient-centered care (PCC) models and approaches contribute to ambiguity in how PCC is understood and defined, especially with regard to meeting the needs of diverse patient populations. One of the biggest challenges of putting PCC into practice is knowing what elements are the most important to patients. This qualitative study privileges patients' voices and adds a cultural dimension to existing health communication research on PCC through an empirical investigation of 48 Hispanic prenatal care patients' understandings and expectations of PCC. Semistructured interviews with 48 patients revealed five key themes in order of frequency: (a) una relación amable (a friendly relationship), (b) la atencion médica efectiva (effective medical care), (c) Español hablado (the Spanish language spoken), (d) comprensión de la información (understanding of information), and (e) eliminación del racismo (elimination of racism). The themes reflected several different assumptions and expectations with regard to PCC as compared to those espoused in many of the existing models and frameworks, such as the extent to which friendly interpersonal behaviors (e.g., smiling, making eye contact, displaying patience, and engaging in formal greetings, introductions, and farewells) were critical to patient satisfaction with the health care experience. Not only did patients feel better understood, but accompanied by friendly behaviors, information was viewed as more believable and accurate, and thus more patient-centered. The findings suggest that implementing culturally sensitive PCC approaches to caring for Hispanic prenatal care patients can include training health care staff on the importance of displaying friendly communicative behaviors such as smiling.

  2. Delivery Complications Associated With Prenatal Care Access for Medicaid-Insured Mothers in Rural and Urban Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Bennett, Kevin J.; Probst, Janice C.

    2005-01-01

    Pregnancy complications affect many women. It is likely that some complications can be avoided through routine primary and prenatal care of reasonable quality. The authors examined access to health care during pregnancy for mothers insured by Medicaid. The access indicator is potentially avoidable maternity complications (PAMCs). Potentially…

  3. Using focus groups and social marketing to strengthen promotion of group prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Vonderheid, Susan C; Carrie, S Klima; Norr, Kathleen F; Grady, Mary Alice; Westdahl, Claire M

    2013-01-01

    Centering Pregnancy, an innovative group model of prenatal care, shows promise to reduce persistent adverse maternal-infant outcomes and contain costs. Because this innovation requires systemwide change, clinics reported needing support enrolling women into groups and obtaining organizational buy-in. This study used the 3-step social marketing communication strategy to help clinic staff identify key customers and customer-specific barriers to adopting or supporting Centering Pregnancy. They developed targeted information to reduce barriers and built skills in communicating with different customers through role-playing. Findings provide practical information for others to use this communication strategy to improve implementation of Centering Pregnancy.

  4. The Role of Standardized Risk Assessment in the Provision of Prenatal Care

    PubMed Central

    Parboosingh, I.J.

    1986-01-01

    Errors in the provision of prenatal care are more likely to be the result of mental saturation than of inadequacies in the physician's fund of knowledge. To eliminate medical errors the physician should commit more time to the processing of clinical data. There are, however, limits to the physician's ability to handle large amounts of information in a busy clinic. This article outlines the benefits and limitations of risk scoring, and recommends the use of standardized risk assessment as a screening device to detect those pregnancies in need of further investigation or consultation with a specialist. PMID:21267311

  5. Increasing use of rapid HIV testing in labor and delivery among women with no prenatal care: a local initiative.

    PubMed

    Levison, Judy; Williams, Lena T; Moore, Anna; McFarlane, Jenny; Davila, Jessica A

    2011-08-01

    Pregnant women who do not receive prenatal care and may not be aware of their HIV status are at greatest risk of transmitting HIV to their newborn. A multi-component intervention was designed and implemented to increase the use of rapid HIV testing among pregnant women with no prenatal care at labor and delivery in two county hospitals in Houston/Harris County, Texas. The intervention involved establishing a local task force including representatives from each hospital, assessing each hospital's readiness to implement rapid testing, providing educational presentations and materials, and offering individualized follow-up. Outcomes data were obtained and included the number of patients presenting with no prenatal care who received rapid HIV testing on admission. Before the intervention, both hospitals had rapid test kits available but were not using them consistently. Following the intervention, we observed a significant increase in the use of rapid HIV testing at both institutions (P < 0.001). In the 3 months immediately following the intervention, use of rapid testing at Hospital 1 increased from 7.4 to 35.3% and at Hospital 2 from 27.4 to 41.5%. At 1 year, almost 100% of women with no prenatal care at both hospitals received rapid testing. Educating staff and clinicians and implementing system-wide changes may facilitate behavior change regarding prenatal HIV testing.

  6. Maternal care interacts with prenatal stress in altering sexual dimorphism in male rats.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Laso, C; Ortega, E; Martín, J L R; Pérez-Izquierdo, M A; Gómez, F; Segovia, S; Del Cerro, M C R

    2013-09-01

    The present study analyzes the interaction between prenatal stress and mother's behavior on brain, hormonal, and behavioral development of male offspring in rats. It extends to males our previous findings, in females, that maternal care can alter behavioral dimorphism that becomes evident in the neonates when they mature. Experiment 1 compares the maternal behavior of foster mothers toward cross-fostered pups versus mothers rearing their own litters. Experiment 2 ascertains the induced "maternal" behavior of the male pups, derived from Experiment 1 when they reached maturity. The most striking effect was that the males non-exposed to the stress as fetuses and raised by stressed foster mothers showed the highest levels of "maternal" behavior of all the groups (i.e., induction of maternal behavior and retrieving behavior), not differing from the control, unstressed, female groups. Furthermore, those males showed significantly fewer olfactory bulb mitral cells than the control males that were non-stressed as fetuses and raised by their own non-stressed mothers. They also presented the lowest levels of plasma testosterone of all the male groups. The present findings provide evidence that prenatal environmental stress can "demasculinize" the behavior, brain anatomy and hormone secretion in the male fetuses expressed when they reach maturity. Moreover, the nature of the maternal care received by neonates can affect the behavior and physiology that they express at maturity.

  7. Brazilian public policies for reproductive health: family planning, abortion and prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Guilhem, Dirce; Azevedo, Anamaria Ferreira

    2007-08-01

    This study is an ethical reflection on the formulation and application of public policies regarding reproductive health in Brazil. The Integral Assistance Program for Women's Health (PAISM) can be considered advanced for a country in development. Universal access for family planning is foreseen in the Brazilian legislation, but the services do not offer contraceptive methods for the population in a regular and consistent manner. Abortion is restricted by law to two cases: risk to the woman's life and rape. This reality favors the practice of unsafe abortion, which is the third largest cause of maternal death in Brazil. Legal abortion is regulated by the State and the procedure is performed in public health centers. However, there is resistance on the part of professionals to attend these women. Prenatal care is a priority strategy for promoting the quality of life of these women and of future generations. Nonetheless, it is still difficult for these women to access the prenatal care services and to have the required number of consultations. Moreover, managers and health professionals need to be made aware of the importance of implementing the actions indicated by the public policies in the area of sexual and reproductive health, favoring respect for autonomy in a context of personal freedom.

  8. Prenatal Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... harmful. Stay away from chemicals and cat or rodent feces. Return to top I'm pregnant. What ... and wearing gloves when gardening. Avoid contact with rodents, including pet rodents, and with their urine, droppings, ...

  9. Prenatal Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are over 35 years old or your pregnancy is high risk because of health problems like diabetes or high blood pressure, your doctor or midwife will probably want to see you more ... closer. Dept. of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health

  10. [Investment of time resource in prenatal care by family health staff].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Sayuri Tanaka; Ciosak, Suely Itsuko

    2005-01-01

    This study is about low-risk pregnant women attended by a family health unit. It aims to describe the time resource the health staff invested and to analyze its configuration in the prenatal monitoring process. Data were collected from 47 women between 20 and 29 years old, who were attended from 2001 to 2003, in the eastside of São Paulo City. The pregnant women were classified according to the health care they received: a first group without health problems, a second with early expert intervention and a third with patients needing dental treatment. In the three groups, more time was invested by health professionals with higher education, followed by community health agents during home visits. Average total time per pregnant woman was 10 hours for the first group and 12 hours for the second and the third group. The time invested in direct care ranged from 59.40% to 80.51%.

  11. Impact of two scheduling systems on early enrollment in a group prenatal care program.

    PubMed

    Hackley, Barbara; Applebaum, Jo; Wilcox, Wendy C; Arevalo, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Group care is an effective approach to prenatal care. Yet difficulties in recruiting, enrolling, and scheduling women into group care present obstacles to optimal program delivery. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of a scheduling system based on women's estimated date of delivery (EDD) decreased gestational age at entry to group care, increased attendance, and improved continuity of care. A total of 13 groups were held; seven groups used a scheduling system based on appointment availability and six groups used a scheduling system based on women's EDD. Compared with the availability-based scheduling system, the EDD-based system decreased mean gestational age (23.2 vs. 21.8 weeks; P = .058) and significantly decreased mean maximum gestational age (31.0 vs. 26.3 weeks; P = .002) at entry to group care. The EDD-based system increased the mean number of sessions offered per group (6.7 vs. 8.2 sessions; P < .001); however, attendance rates were similar across systems. The EDD-based system also increased the percentage of women who had the same initial visit and group provider (78.0% vs. 85.5%; P = .303). The use of this system by other health care facilities could ease the task of enrolling a sufficient number of participants into group care, minimize the need for women to change care providers if they desire group care, and allow more time for educational activities and the development of social networks for women by offering more sessions per group.

  12. [Adherence to prenatal care by HIV-positive women who failed to receive prophylaxis for mother-to-child transmission: social and behavioral factors and healthcare access issues].

    PubMed

    Darmont, Mariana de Queiroz Rocha; Martins, Helena Santos; Calvet, Guilherme Amaral; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira; Menezes, Jacqueline Anita de

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the social and behavioral factors and public health system characteristics that influenced pregnant women's adherence to prenatal care. Forty women diagnosed as HIV-positive by rapid test at delivery were included. Socioeconomic data were collected and a semi-structured interview was conducted. Eight women had > 6 prenatal visits and 12 had no visits. Interviews were submitted to qualitative content analysis. The themes fit into two blocks: those seen as hindering adherence, like unwanted pregnancy, lack of family support, prior knowledge of serological status, adverse social context, negative experiences with prenatal care, and disbelief towards prenatal care, and those facilitating adherence, like family support, valuing healthcare, wanting a tubal ligation, receptiveness by the healthcare team, and positive previous experience with prenatal care. Improving our understanding of the socio-cultural context should help promote strategies to reach such women and include them in better quality care.

  13. Social class, prenatal care, maternal age and parity: a study of their interrelation in six Italian centres.

    PubMed

    Cortinovis, I; Boracchi, P; De Scrilli, A; Milani, S; Bertulessi, C; Zuliani, G; Bevilacqua, G; Corchia, C; Davanzo, R; Selvaggi, L

    1986-01-01

    "Multiple Correspondence Analysis was used to describe the complex structure formed by those sociodemographic variables, whose association with the occurrence of prenatal and neonatal deaths and diseases has been most frequently stressed in literature: social class, prenatal care, maternal age and parity. The study regards 41,537 women included in a multicentre survey of perinatal preventive medicine, which was carried out, between 1973 and 1979, in six Italian centres...." It is found that "in all centres there are distinct groups of women characterized by a set of unfavourable factors closely interrelated: low social class implies lower prenatal care, higher occurrence of precocious or belated childbearing and higher number of pregnancies, often unintended." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND ITA)

  14. Pregnant Women's Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Receipt of Screening and Brief Advice by Prenatal Care Providers in Argentina and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Van T.; Morello, Paola; Alemán, Alicia; Johnson, Carolyn; Dietz, Patricia M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Mazzoni, Agustina; Berrueta, Mabel; Colomar, Mercedes; Ciganda, Alvaro; Becú, Ana; Gonzalez, Maria G. Bittar; Llambi, Laura; Gibbons, Luz; Smith, Ruben A.; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José M.; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure has negative effects on maternal and infant health. SHS exposure among pregnant women in Argentina and Uruguay has not been previously described, nor has the proportion of those who have received screening and advice to avoid SHS during prenatal care. Women who attended one of 21 clusters of publicly-funded prenatal care clinics were interviewed regarding SHS exposure during pregnancy at their delivery hospitalization during 2011–2012. Analyses were conducted using SURVEYFREQ procedure in SAS version 9.3 to account for prenatal clinic clusters. Of 3,427 pregnant women, 43.4 % had a partner who smoked, 52.3 % lived with household members who smoked cigarettes, and 34.4 % had no or partial smoke-free home rule. Of 528 pregnant women who worked outside of the home, 21.6 % reported past month SHS exposure at work and 38.1 % reported no or partial smoke-free work policy. Overall, 35.9 % of women were exposed to SHS at home or work. In at least one prenatal care visit, 67.2 % of women were screened for SHS exposure, and 56.6 % received advice to avoid SHS. Also, 52.6 % of women always avoided SHS for their unborn baby's health. In summary, a third of pregnant women attending publicly-funded prenatal clinics were exposed to SHS, and only half of pregnant women always avoided SHS for their unborn baby's health. Provider screening and advice rates can be improved in these prenatal care settings, as all pregnant women should be screened and advised of the harms of SHS and how to avoid it. PMID:25427876

  15. Barriers and Promoters of an Evidenced-Based Smoking Cessation Counseling During Prenatal Care in Argentina and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Van T.; Morello, Paola; Farr, Sherry L.; Lawsin, Catalina; Dietz, Patricia M.; Aleman, Alicia; Berrueta, Mabel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Becu, Ana; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    In Argentina and Uruguay, 10.3 and 18.3 %, respectively, of pregnant women smoked in 2005. Brief cessation counseling, based on the 5A’s model, has been effective in different settings. This qualitative study aims to improve the understanding of factors influencing the provision of smoking cessation counseling during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay. In 2010, we obtained prenatal care providers’, clinic directors’, and pregnant smokers’ opinions regarding barriers and promoters to brief smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay. We interviewed six prenatal clinic directors, conducted focus groups with 46 health professionals and 24 pregnant smokers. Themes emerged from three issue areas: health professionals, health system, and patients. Health professional barriers to cessation counseling included inadequate knowledge and motivation, perceived low self-efficacy, and concerns about inadequate time and large workload. They expressed interest in obtaining a counseling script. Health system barriers included low prioritization of smoking cessation and a lack of clinic protocols to implement interventions. Pregnant smokers lacked information on the risks of prenatal smoking and underestimated the difficulty of smoking cessation. Having access to written materials and receiving cessation services during clinic waiting times were mentioned as promoters for the intervention. Women also were receptive to non-physician office staff delivering intervention components. Implementing smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Argentina and Uruguay may require integrating counseling into routine prenatal care and educating and training providers on best-practices approaches. PMID:25500989

  16. [Inadequacy of the content of prenatal care and associated factors in a cohort in the northeast of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Goudard, Marivanda Julia Furtado; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Souza; Alves, Maria Tereza Seabra Soares de Brito E; Coimbra, Liberata Campos; Martins, Marília da Glória; Barbieri, Marco Antônio; Nathasje, Ian Favero

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this study was to analyze the content of prenatal care in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, and the factors associated with its inadequacy. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on data from the birth cohort of São Luís in 2010. The content of prenatal care was defined as inadequate when it did not meet the criteria of the Program for Humanization of Prenatal and Delivery Care, which establishes early initiation of prenatal care, minimum number of medical consultations, basic laboratory tests, tetanus vaccination and obstetric procedures. Poisson regression was used to observe associations of the variables with the outcome. The inadequacy rate was high (60.2%). The variables associated with inadequacy were: class C socioeconomic status (PR = 1.39; CI = 1.26-1.55); class D/E socioeconomic status (PR = 1.60; CI = 1.43-1.79); unqualified/unemployed mother (PR = 1.24; CI = 1.11-1.37); 5-8 years of schooling (PR = 1.12; CI = 1.06-1.19); 0-4 years of schooling (PR = 1.13; CI = 1.01-1.26); not being religious (PR = 1.10; CI = 1.04-1.17); alcohol use during pregnancy (PR = 1.13; CI = 1.06-1.20), and being attended by the public service (PR = 1.75; CI = 1.54-2.00). The results showed inadequacy and inequality of prenatal care, revealing that women of lower socioeconomic status received lower quality care.

  17. Factors associated with zidovudine receipt and prenatal care among HIV-infected pregnant women in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Abatemarco, Diane J; Catov, Janet M; Cross, Helene; Delnevo, Cristine; Hausman, Alice

    2008-08-01

    Despite reductions in perinatal HIV transmission, cases continue to occur. To determine factors associated with zidovudine (ZDV) receipt among HIV-infected pregnant women we merged three data sets for women in New Jersey in 1995-1997, identifying 395 HIV-infected pregnant women. Half received two arms of ZDV prophylaxis. Attendance at five or more prenatal visits was the strongest independent factor related to ZDV receipt (OR 6.37, 95% CI 3.84, 10.57). Half (49.0%) had limited prenatal care. AIDS diagnosis, race/ethnicity, and drug use were also independently related to ZDV receipt. Post hoc analysis revealed that being unmarried, Black, multiparous, having no insurance, and illegal drug use were associated with limited prenatal care. Although the U.S. has seen reductions in HIV perinatal transmission, our research showed that HIV-infected women who did not get prenatal care were less likely to receive two arms of ZDV prophylaxis. A wide public health net that brings all women into care is necessary to reduce perinatal transmission further.

  18. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen among women receiving prenatal care at the Palm Beach County Health Department.

    PubMed

    Malecki, J M; Guarin, O; Hulbert, A; Brumback, C L

    1986-03-01

    Pregnant women receiving prenatal care at the maternity clinics of the Palm Beach County Health Department were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen. Routine screening of pregnant women for the antigen is discussed. The results of this study indicate the need for routine screening of our medically indigent pregnant population.

  19. Determinants of prenatal care use: evidence from 32 low-income countries across Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.

    PubMed

    Guliani, Harminder; Sepehri, Ardeshir; Serieux, John

    2014-08-01

    While much has been written on the determinants of prenatal care attendance in low-income countries, comparatively little is known about the determinants of the frequency of prenatal visits in general and whether there are separate processes generating the decisions to use prenatal care and the frequency of use. Using the Demographic and Health Surveys data for 32 low-income countries (across Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America) and appropriate two-part and multilevel models, this article empirically assesses the influence of a wide array of observed individual-, household- and community-level characteristics on a woman's decision to use prenatal care and the frequency of that use, while controlling for unobserved community level factors. The results suggest that, though both the decision to use care and the number of prenatal visits are influenced by a range of observed individual-, household- and community-level characteristics, the influence of these determinants vary in magnitude for prenatal care attendance and the frequency of prenatal visits. Despite remarkable consistency among regions in the association of individual, household and community indicators with prenatal care utilization, the estimated coefficients of the risk factors vary greatly across the three world regions. The strong influence of household wealth, education and regional poverty on the use of prenatal care suggests that safe motherhood programmes should be linked with the objectives of social development programmes such as poverty reduction, enhancing the status of women and increasing primary and secondary school enrolment rate among girls. Finally, the finding that teenage mothers and unmarried women and those with unintended pregnancies are less likely to use prenatal care and have fewer visits suggests that safe mother programmes need to pay particular attention to the disadvantaged and vulnerable subgroups of population whose reproductive health issues are often fraught with

  20. Knowledge of toxoplasmosis among doctors and nurses who provide prenatal care in an endemic region.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Laura Berriel; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcelos Carvalhaes; da Silva, Marizete Pereira; Bueno, Wendy Fernandes; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis; de Souza Neves, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is a potentially severe infection and its prevention is most often based on serological screening in pregnant women. Many cases could be prevented by simple precautions during pregnancy. Aiming to assess the knowledge about toxoplasmosis among professionals working in antenatal care in a high prevalent region, a questionnaire was administered to 118 obstetric nurses and physicians attending at primary care units and hospitals. The questionnaire was self-completed and included questions on diagnosis, clinical issues, and prevention. Only 44% of total answers were corrected. Lower scores were observed among those with over 10 years of graduation, working in primary care units, and nurses. Errors were mainly observed in questions of prevention and diagnosis. As congenital toxoplasmosis is a mother-to-child (MTC) transmitted disease, early diagnosis and treatment can prevent serious and irreversible fetal damage. Thus, doctors and nurses who provide prenatal care must be appropriately trained on prophylactic, diagnostic, and clinical aspects of toxoplasmosis. The authors suggest that measures should be taken for continuing education regarding toxoplasmosis in pregnancy.

  1. Analyzing strategies for developing a prenatal health care outreach program to reduce social and cultural barriers.

    PubMed

    Andrus, N C; Partner, S F; Leppert, P C

    1997-01-01

    Beginning in March, 1994, a multi-cultural, interdisciplinary team of health care providers at Rochester General Hospital in Rochester, New York, planned and implemented a prenatal outreach program in partnership with the Rochester YWCA. The purpose of the project is to increase access to obstetric and gynecological services for low-income African-Americans, Hispanic, and white women. The processes involved in developing an outreach intervention program, Opening Doors, are described and the conflicts that surfaced during the initial stages of program development are analyzed. The problems which occurred can be attributed to role boundary conflict and differences in philosophy regarding ethnicity and health behavior. Through interviews with the anthropologist on the management team and some changes in the overall structure of the program administration, resolution of the conflicts became possible.

  2. Association between prenatal care and small for gestational age birth: an ecological study in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Savard, N.; Levallois, P.; Rivest, LP.; Gingras, S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: In Quebec, women living on low income receive a number of additional prenatal care visits, determined by their area of residence, of both multi-component and food supplementation programs. We investigated whether increasing the number of visits reduces the odds of the main outcome of small for gestational age (SGA) birth (weight < 10th percentile on the Canadian scale). Methods: In this ecological study, births were identified from Quebec’s registry of demographic events between 2006 and 2008 (n  =  156 404; 134 areas). Individual characteristics were extracted from the registry, and portraits of the general population were deduced from data on multi-component and food supplement interventions, the Canadian census and the Canadian Community Health Survey. Mothers without a high school diploma were eligible for the programs. Multilevel logistic regression models were fitted using generalized estimating equations to account for the correlation between individuals on the same territory. Potential confounders included sedentary behaviour and cigarette smoking. The odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for mother’s age, marital status, parity, program coverage and mean income in the area. Results: Mothers eligible for the programs remain at a higher odds of SGA than non-eligible mothers (OR =  1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30–1.51). Further, areas that provide more visits to eligible mothers (4–6 food supplementation visits) seem more successful at reducing the frequency of SGA birth than those that provide 1–2 or 3 visits (OR  =  0.86; 95% CI: 0.75–0.99). Conclusions: Further studies that validate whether an increase in the number of prenatal care interventions reduces the odds of SGA birth in different populations and evaluate other potential benefits for the children should be done. PMID:27409987

  3. Perceived discrimination during prenatal care, labor, and delivery: an examination of data from the Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, 1998-1999, 2000, and 2001.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Molly; Thorburn, Sheryl; Zhao, Weiyi

    2008-10-01

    Although recent research has examined discrimination in health care, no studies have investigated women's experiences during prenatal or obstetrical care. Analyses of data from the Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System showed that 18.53% of mothers reported discrimination by providers during prenatal care, labor, or delivery, most commonly because of age or insurance status. Perceived discrimination was associated with maternal characteristics such as age, marital status, and type of insurance, but not with number of subsequent well-baby visits.

  4. Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of Group Prenatal Care: Perinatal Outcomes Among Adolescents in New York City Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Earnshaw, Valerie; Lewis, Jessica B.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Magriples, Urania; Stasko, Emily; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Cassells, Andrea; Cunningham, Shayna; Bernstein, Peter; Tobin, Jonathan N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We compared an evidence-based model of group prenatal care to traditional individual prenatal care on birth, neonatal, and reproductive health outcomes. Methods. We performed a multisite cluster randomized controlled trial in 14 health centers in New York City (2008–2012). We analyzed 1148 pregnant women aged 14 to 21 years, at less than 24 weeks of gestation, and not at high obstetrical risk. We assessed outcomes via medical records and surveys. Results. In intention-to-treat analyses, women at intervention sites were significantly less likely to have infants small for gestational age (< 10th percentile; 11.0% vs 15.8%; odds ratio = 0.66; 95% confidence interval = 0.44, 0.99). In as-treated analyses, women with more group visits had better outcomes, including small for gestational age, gestational age, birth weight, days in neonatal intensive care unit, rapid repeat pregnancy, condom use, and unprotected sex (P = .030 to < .001). There were no associated risks. Conclusions. CenteringPregnancy Plus group prenatal care resulted in more favorable birth, neonatal, and reproductive outcomes. Successful translation of clinical innovations to enhance care, improve outcomes, and reduce cost requires strategies that facilitate patient adherence and support organizational change. PMID:26691105

  5. Handle with Care: Helping Children Prenatally Exposed to Drugs and Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Sylvia Fernandez; And Others

    Intended for teachers and caregivers who deal with children exposed prenatally to substance abuse, this book gives a general overview of the problem of prenatal substance exposure, describes some of the common issues for children living in drug and alcohol involved families, and offers some practical suggestions for helping these children and…

  6. Are Brief Alcohol Interventions Adequately Embedded in UK Primary Care? A Qualitative Study Utilising Normalisation Process Theory.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Amy; Kaner, Eileen

    2017-03-28

    Despite substantial evidence for their effectiveness, the adoption of alcohol screening and brief interventions (ASBI) in routine primary care remains inconsistent. Financial incentive schemes were introduced in England between 2008 and 2015 to encourage their delivery. We used Normalisation Process Theory-informed interviews to understand the barriers and facilitators experienced by 14 general practitioners (GPs) as they implemented ASBI during this period. We found multiple factors shaped provision. GPs were broadly cognisant and supportive of preventative alcohol interventions (coherence) but this did not necessarily translate into personal investment in their delivery (cognitive participation). This lack of investment shaped how GPs operationalised such "work" in day-to-day practice (collective action), with ASBI mostly delegated to nurses, and GPs reverting to "business as usual" in their management and treatment of problem drinking (reflexive monitoring). We conclude there has been limited progress towards the goal of an effectively embedded preventative alcohol care pathway in English primary care. Future policy should consider screening strategies that prioritise patients with conditions with a recognised link with excessive alcohol consumption, and which promote more efficient identification of the most problematic drinkers. Improved GP training to build skills and awareness of evidence-based ASBI tools could also help embed best practice over time.

  7. Perceptions of Barriers and Facilitators During Implementation of a Complex Model of Group Prenatal Care in Six Urban Sites.

    PubMed

    Novick, Gina; Womack, Julie A; Lewis, Jessica; Stasko, Emily C; Rising, Sharon S; Sadler, Lois S; Cunningham, Shayna C; Tobin, Jonathan N; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2015-12-01

    Group prenatal care improves perinatal outcomes, but implementing this complex model places substantial demands on settings designed for individual care. To describe perceived barriers and facilitators to implementing and sustaining CenteringPregnancy Plus (CP+) group prenatal care, 24 in-depth interviews were conducted with 22 clinicians, staff, administrators, and study personnel in six of the 14 sites of a randomized trial of the model. All sites served low-income, minority women. Sites for the present evaluation were selected for variation in location, study arm, and initial implementation response. Implementing CP+ was challenging in all sites, requiring substantial adaptations of clinical systems. All sites had barriers to meeting the model's demands, but how sites responded to these barriers affected whether implementation thrived or struggled. Thriving sites had organizational cultures that supported innovation, champions who advocated for CP+, and staff who viewed logistical demands as manageable hurdles. Struggling sites had bureaucratic organizational structures and lacked buy-in and financial resources, and staff were overwhelmed by the model's challenges. Findings suggested that implementing and sustaining health care innovation requires new practices and different ways of thinking, and health systems may not fully recognize the magnitude of change required. Consequently, evidence-based practices are modified or discontinued, and outcomes may differ from those in the original controlled studies. Before implementing new models of care, clinical settings should anticipate model demands and assess capacity for adapting to the disruptions of innovation.

  8. Perceptions of Barriers and Facilitators During Implementation of a Complex Model of Group Prenatal Care in Six Urban Sites

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Gina; Womack, Julie A.; Lewis, Jessica; Stasko, Emily C.; Rising, Sharon S.; Sadler, Lois S.; Cunningham, Shayna C.; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2016-01-01

    Group prenatal care improves perinatal outcomes, but implementing this complex model places substantial demands on settings designed for individual care. To describe perceived barriers and facilitators to implementing and sustaining Centering Pregnancy Plus (CP+) group prenatal care, 24 in-depth interviews were conducted with 22 clinicians, staff, administrators, and study personnel in six of the 14 sites of a randomized trial of the model. All sites served low-income, minority women. Sites for the present evaluation were selected for variation in location, study arm, and initial implementation response. Implementing CP+ was challenging in all sites, requiring substantial adaptations of clinical systems. All sites had barriers to meeting the model’s demands, but how sites responded to these barriers affected whether implementation thrived or struggled. Thriving sites had organizational cultures that supported innovation, champions who advocated for CP+, and staff who viewed logistical demands as manageable hurdles. Struggling sites had bureaucratic organizational structures and lacked buy-in and financial resources, and staff were overwhelmed by the model’s challenges. Findings suggested that implementing and sustaining health care innovation requires new practices and different ways of thinking, and health systems may not fully recognize the magnitude of change required. Consequently, evidence-based practices are modified or discontinued, and outcomes may differ from those in the original controlled studies. Before implementing new models of care, clinical settings should anticipate model demands and assess capacity for adapting to the disruptions of innovation. PMID:26340483

  9. External Ventricular Catheters: Is It Appropriate to Use an Open/Monitor Position to Adequately Trend Intracranial Pressure in a Neuroscience Critical Care Environment?

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Nicole E; Villanueva, Nancy E; Pazuchanics, Susan J

    2016-10-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring can be an important assessment tool in critically and acutely ill patients. An external ventricular drain offers a comprehensive way to monitor ICP and drain cerebrospinal fluid. The Monro-Kellie hypothesis, Pascal's principle, and fluid dynamics were used to formulate an assumption that an open/monitor position on the stopcock is an adequate trending measure for ICP monitoring while concurrently draining cerebrospinal fluid. Data were collected from 50 patients and totaled 1053 separate number sets. The open/monitor position was compared with the clamped position every hour. An order for "open to drain" was needed for appropriate measurement and nursing care. Results showed the absolute average differences between open/monitor and clamped positions at 1.6268 mm Hg. This finding suggests that it is appropriate to use an open/monitor position via an external ventricular drain for adequate trending of patients' ICP.

  10. "Women come here on their own when they need to": prenatal care, authoritative knowledge, and maternal health in Oaxaca.

    PubMed

    Sesia, P M

    1996-06-01

    Physiological and anatomical concepts about reproduction held by traditional midwives in Southern Oaxaca differ considerably from those of biomedicine. Government training courses for traditional midwives disregard these deep-seated differences, and also the underlying conceptual rationale of ethno-obstetrics. These courses constantly reinforce and actively promote the biomedical model of care. But rural midwives, despite these training courses, do not substantially change their obstetrical vision and ways. The strength of their own authoritative knowledge, fully shared by the women and men of their communities, allows them to continue their traditional style of care, despite pressures to conform to biomedical values, beliefs, and practices. Suggestions for a mutual accommodation of biomedical and midwifery approaches to prenatal care include training medical personnel in ethno-obstetric techniques and rationales, teaching midwives basic medical interventions, addressing in intervention programs all social actors participating in reproductive decision making, and adopting an interdisciplinary approach that includes nonmedical aspects of maternal care.

  11. The impact of prenatal care quality on neonatal, infant and child mortality in Zimbabwe: evidence from the demographic and health surveys.

    PubMed

    Makate, Marshall; Makate, Clifton

    2016-12-19

    The impact of the quality of prenatal care on child mortality outcomes has received less attention in sub-Saharan Africa. This study endeavoured to explore the effect of the quality of prenatal care and its individual components on neonatal, infant and under-five mortality. The empirical analysis uses data from the three most recent waves of the nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey for Zimbabwe conducted in 1999, 2005/06 and 2010/11. The results indicate that a one-unit increase in the quality of prenatal care lowers the prospect of neonatal, infant and under-five mortality by approximately 42.33, 30.86 and 28.65%, respectively. These findings remained roughly the same even after adjusting for potential mediating factors. Examining the effect of individual prenatal care components on child mortality revealed that women who receive information on possible complications arising during pregnancy are less liable to experience a neonatal death. Similarly, women who had blood pressure checks and tetanus immunizations were less likely to experience an infant or under-five death. We did not find any statistically meaningful impact on child mortality outcomes of blood and urine sample checks, iron tablet consumption, and the receipt of malarial tablets. Overall, our results suggest the need for public health policymakers to focus on ensuring high-quality prenatal care to enhance the survival prospects of Zimbabwe's infants.

  12. Staffing in postnatal units: is it adequate for the provision of quality care? Staff perspectives from a state-wide review of postnatal care in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Della A; McLachlan, Helen L; Yelland, Jane; Rayner, Jo; Lumley, Judith; Davey, Mary-Ann

    2006-01-01

    Background State-wide surveys of recent mothers conducted over the past decade in Victoria, one state of Australia, have identified that women are consistently less satisfied with the care they received in hospital following birth compared with other aspects of maternity care. Little is known of caregivers' perspectives on the provision ofhospital postnatal care: how care is organised and provided in different hospitals; what constrains the provision of postnatal care (apart from funding) and what initiatives are being undertaken to improve service delivery. A state-widereview of organisational structures and processes in relation to the provision of hospital postnatal care in Victoria was undertaken. This paper focuses on the impact of staffing issues on the provision of quality postnatal care from the perspective of care providers. Methods A study of care providers from Victorian public hospitals that provide maternity services was undertaken. Datawere collected in two stages. Stage one: a structured questionnaire was sent to all public hospitals in Victoria that provided postnatal care (n = 73), exploring the structure and organisation of care (e.g. staffing, routine observations, policy framework and discharge planning). Stage two: 14 maternity units were selected and invited to participate in a more in-depth exploration of postnatal care. Thirty-eight key informant interviews were undertaken with midwives (including unit managers, associate unit managers and clinical midwives) and a medical practitioner from eachselected hospital. Results Staffing was highlighted as a major factor impacting on the provision of quality postnatal care. There were significant issues associated with inadequate staff/patient ratios; staffing mix; patient mix; prioritisation of birth suites over postnatal units; and the use of non-permanent staff. Forty-three percent of hospitals reported having only midwives (i.e. no non-midwives) providing postnatal care. Staffing issues impact on

  13. Maternal depression screening during prenatal and postpartum care at a Navy and Marine Corps military treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Spooner, Shawn; Rastle, Marsha; Elmore, Kelly

    2012-10-01

    Maternal depression in the prenatal and postpartum periods is an important concern for women, infants, and families. Military family life may create some unique stressors, including operational deployment of an active duty husband, which increase perinatal depression challenges for women. This study examined depression screening scores, based on a modified Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, among women receiving obstetric care at a military hospital serving a Navy and Marine Corps community. Among 3,882 surveys collected between 2007 and 2009 from women at various points in their prenatal or postpartum care, the proportion with scores indicative of high risk for clinical depression was relatively low at 4.6%. However, scores were significantly higher at the initial obstetric visit among women who reported their husband as currently deployed, and scores were significantly higher at the postpartum visit among women who reported their husband as currently deployed or planning to deploy. These results underscore the importance of evaluating all aspects of the military family life experience when providing perinatal care to women in military families.

  14. Determining unmet, adequately met, and overly met needs for health care and services for persons living with HIV/AIDS in Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Krause, Denise D; May, Warren L; Butler, Kenneth R

    2013-08-01

    A statewide needs assessment of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) was conducted to determine what is known about access to care, utilization of services, and perceived barriers to receiving care and services. Our objective was to determine which needs were being met or unmet among PLWHA in Mississippi to provide a better understanding of how effectively to allocate funding to provide for the needs of that group. In this cross-sectional study, a true random sample of PLWHA in Mississippi was interviewed in 2005-2006. Questions were asked to identify opinions about respondents' experiences with 23 health care services and 30 public or private assistance services. The kappa statistic was used to measure agreement between level of services needed and level of services provided. Services with the lowest kappa scores revealed which services were being either mostly unmet, or even overly met. Greatest service needs were HIV viral load test, Pap smear, CD4/T-cell count test, and medication for HIV/AIDS, which were reasonably well met. The most significantly unmet needs were dental care and dental exams, eye care and eye exams, help paying for housing, subsidized housing assistance, mental health therapy or counseling, access to emotional support groups, and job placement or employment. Overly met services included medical care at a physician's office or clinic and free condoms. This study identified needs perceived to be significantly unmet by PLWHA, as well as areas that were perceived to be adequately or overly met. This information may be used to target areas with the greatest impact for improvement and provide insight into how to effectively allocate health care resources and public/private assistance.

  15. A Pilot Test of the Everyday Stressors Index–Spanish Version in a Sample of Hispanic Women Attending Prenatal Care

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, María L.; Ashford, Kristin; Linares, Ana M.; Hall, Lynne A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Prenatal and postpartum psychosocial stress are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Hispanic women experience higher levels of stress during pregnancy. This pilot study assessed the psychometric characteristics of the Everyday Stressors Index-Spanish (ESI-S) version. Methods Secondary analysis in a convenience sample, n = 51 women. Results The ESI-S showed adequate internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = .86). Two factors accounted for 40% of the item variance. The greatest sources of stress were “having too many responsibilities” and “not enough money for basics”. Higher levels of stressors were associated with older age, living without a partner, and working part or full time. The ESI-S was positively correlated with measures of perinatal depression. Conclusions Findings support the reliability and validity of the newly translated ESI-S. PMID:26673774

  16. [Eugenics' extension in the Spanish health care system through the prenatal diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Martín, Esteban

    2012-01-01

    The wide implantation of strategies of sifted or prenatal selection close to laws that protect the destruction of the human life before the childbirth in the whole world, they are giving place to an increasing number of eugenic abortions. In Spain, the law 2/2010 of the sexual and reproductive health and voluntary interruption of pregnancy there has supposed the liberalization of the eugenic abortion without term limit. In we make concrete, the sanitary national and international policies of prenatal selection of Down's Syndrome, which they chase to facilitate the total or partial destruction before the childbirth of this human group, submitting it to a few particular conditions of existence during his prenatal life in those who will be an object of a series of technologies of selection, they might be qualified of genocidal policies if we consider the definition of genocide given by United Nations. In consequence, the sanitary agent who takes part without objection in the above mentioned programs promoted by the principal agents, meets turned into a necessary cooperator of the abortion who justifies itself in the supposition of "foetal risk". We can conclude that we are present at an eugenic drift of the prenatal diagnosis that is opposite to the ethical beginning of the medical profession.

  17. Routine Prenatal Care Visits by Provider Specialty in the United States, 2009-2010

    MedlinePlus

    ... Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) ( 10 ) diagnosis code of V22 (supervision of normal pregnancy) or V23 ( ... high-risk pregnancy) or a reason for visit code of 3205.0 (prenatal examination, routine) ( 11 – ...

  18. Do patient characteristics, prenatal care setting, and method of payment matter when it comes to provider-patient conversations on perinatal mood?

    PubMed

    Liu, Cindy H; Tronick, Ed

    2012-07-01

    To examine factors associated with provider-patient conversations regarding prenatal and postpartum depressed mood. This study included 3,597 White, African American, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander NYC resident women who completed the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey from 2004-2007, a population-based assessment of patient and health care characteristics. Social determinants including race, nativity, maternal age, prenatal health care setting, and payment type were associated with patient report of having had a conversation about perinatal mood with their provider. Compared to Whites, Asian/Pacific Islanders were less likely to have this conversation (OR = 0.7, CI = 0.5-0.9). Older (OR = 0.6, CI = 0.4-0.9), non-US born (OR = 0.6, CI = 0.5-0.8), and women receiving care from a private doctor or HMO clinic (OR = 0.7, CI = 0.6-0.9) were less likely to have this conversation compared to their respective counterparts. Those who paid for their prenatal care primarily through personal income or through an expanded Medicaid program for prenatal care compared to those who did not were more likely to have had a conversation about mood with their providers. Health care providers and public health advocates should be aware that non-US born women were less likely to have conversations about mood than US born women. However, young mothers shown to be at risk for perinatal depression were more likely to have these conversations compared to older women. Protocols for assessing and educating patients about perinatal mood should be evaluated to improve conversation rates for those receiving care through private doctors and managed care organizations. Income and prenatal care assistance funds may play separate and important roles in provider-patient conversations.

  19. PRENATAL DENTAL CARE: EVALUATION OF PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE OF OBSTETRICIANS AND DENTISTS IN THE CITIES OF LONDRINA/PR AND BAURU/SP, BRAZIL, 2004

    PubMed Central

    Zanata, Régia Luzia; Fernandes, Karen Barros Parron; Navarro, Patrícia Silva Lopes

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current knowledge and recommendations of obstetricians and dentists as to the dental care to pregnant patients in the cities of Londrina/PR and Bauru/SP, Brazil. Questionnaires were distributed to professionals of both cities, arguing on the following issues: oral health during pregnancy; contact between prenatal care and dental care providers; prenatal fluoride supplementation; selection of therapeutic agents for local anesthesia, pain control and treatment of infection; and dental procedures that can be performed during each trimester. Data were analyzed by frequency of responses and statistical analyses were carried out using X2 (type of workplace/service) and t test (time since graduation), significant if p<0.05. Seventy-nine obstetricians and 37 dentists responded the questionnaires. Most physicians referred the patient to dental care only when a source of dental problem was mentioned, limiting the adoption of a preventive approach. Forty-three percent of dentists and 34% of obstetricians did not know the potential contribution of periodontal infection as a risk factor for preterm low birth-weight babies. There was divergence from scientific literature as to the recommendation of local anesthetics (dentists and obstetricians), prenatal fluoride supplementation (obstetricians) and dental radiographs (dentists). The findings of this survey with dentists and obstetricians showed that dental management during pregnancy still presents some deviations from scientific literature recommendations, indicating the need to update these health care professionals in order to establish guidelines for prenatal dental care. PMID:19089217

  20. [Characteristics of pregnant women cared for in a visit to the prenatal outpatient nursing service: comparison of four decades].

    PubMed

    Marques, Ana Gabriela B; Záchia, Suzana A; Schmidt, Maria Luiza S; Heldt, Elizeth

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the work was to identify characteristics of pregnant women cared for by an obstetric nurse in a visit to the prenatal outpatient nursing service and compare these over the period from 1972 to 2009. Sociodemographic and obstetric data were collected from the forms completed by the pregnant patients during their visit to the nursing service. A total of 1245 forms were analyzed 208 (16.7%) being from the 1970s, 323 (25.9%) from the 1980s, 329 (26.4%) from the 1990s, and 385 (30.0%) from year 2000. A significant difference was found between the previous decades and year 9000 in relation to the greater number of high-risk pregnancies, number of nursing consultations and obstetric ultrasounds performed during the prenatal exam. The characteristics of pregnant women were observed to change over time, as well as the care provided by the obstetric nurse during visits to the outpatient nursing service, remaining associated with the demands of patients and legal resolutions.

  1. Prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide impaired the maternal care and the physical and behavioral development of offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Sandini, Thaísa M; Udo, Mariana S B; Reis-Silva, Thiago M; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Spinosa, Helenice de S

    2014-08-01

    Plants that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) have been reported as contaminants of pastures and food, as well as being used in herbal medicine. PAs are responsible for poisoning events in livestock and human beings. The aim of this present study was to evaluate effects of prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide, the main PA found in the butanolic residue (BR) of Senecio brasiliensis, on both physical and behavioral parameters of Wistar rat offspring. The toxicity and maternal behavior were also evaluated. For this, pregnant Wistar rats received integerrimine N-oxide from the BR of Senecio brasiliensis, by gavage, on gestational days 6-20 (during organogenesis and fetal development period) at doses of 3, 6 and 9 mg/kg. During treatment, maternal body weight gain, and food and water intake were evaluated. After parturition, maternal behavior and aggressive maternal behavior were analyzed. In addition, physical development and behavioral assessments were observed in both male and female pups. Results showed that prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide of S. brasiliensis induced maternal toxicity, impairment in maternal behavior and aggressive maternal behavior, mainly in the highest dose group. Between sexes comparison of pups showed loss of body weight, delayed physical development such as pinna detachment, hair growth, eruption of incisor teeth, eye and vaginal openings. These pups also showed a delay of palmar grasp, surface righting reflex, negative geotaxis and auditory startle reflexes. Thus, prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide induces maternal toxicity, impairment of maternal care and delayed in physical and behavioral development of the offspring.

  2. The Place of Prenatal Clases

    PubMed Central

    Enkin, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    The past 20 years has shown an exponential rise in both obstetrical intervention and family centred maternity care. Prenatal classes, although not as yet fully integrated into prenatal care, fill a vital role in teaching couples the information, skills, and attitudes required to participate actively in their reproductive care, and to recognize both their rights and their responsibilities. PMID:21301557

  3. Prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia-not standard of care.

    PubMed

    Witchel, Selma Feldman; Miller, Walter L

    2012-10-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive disorder due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene. Since genetic counselors play a crucial role in educating families about inherited disorders, they need to have thorough knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of CAH especially the effects on the fetus, the complex genetics of this disorder, and the controversies surrounding experimental prenatal dexamethasone treatment. Affected female fetuses may have varying degree of virilization of the external genitalia. Starting in the 1980's, supraphysiologic glucocorticoid treatment was used to decrease the virilization of the external genitalia of affected female fetuses. However, recent clinical observations, animal studies and greater awareness of the details of human fetal adrenal physiology raise concerns regarding the safety of this prenatal treatment. We review the pathophysiology of CAH, the safety and ethical considerations of prenatal dexamethasone treatment and the views of multiple medical societies that conclude that this experimental therapy should only be done in prospective trials approved by ethical review boards.

  4. Does CenteringPregnancy Group Prenatal Care Affect the Birth Experience of Underserved Women? A Mixed Methods Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rhianon; Chao, Maria T; Jostad-Laswell, Ariana; Duncan, Larissa G

    2017-04-01

    We examined the birth experience of immigrant and minority women and how CenteringPregnancy (Centering), a model of group prenatal care and childbirth education, influenced that experience. In-depth interviews and surveys were conducted with a sample of racially diverse Centering participants about their birth experiences. Interview transcripts were analyzed thematically. Study participants (n = 34) were primarily low-income, Spanish-speaking immigrants with an average age of 29.7. On a scale from 1 (not satisfied) to 10 (very satisfied), women reported high satisfaction with birth (9.0) and care (9.3). In interviews, they expressed appreciation for the choice to labor with minimal medical intervention. Difficulties with communication arose from fragmented labor and delivery care by multiple providers. Centering provided women with pain coping skills, a familiar birth attendant, and knowledge to advocate for themselves. High reported satisfaction may obscure challenges to providing high quality childbirth care for marginalized women. Further study should examine the potential of Centering to positively impact underserved women's birth experiences.

  5. The impact of the State Children's Health Insurance Program's unborn child ruling expansions on foreign-born Latina prenatal care and birth outcomes, 2000-2007.

    PubMed

    Drewry, Jonathan; Sen, Bisakha; Wingate, Martha; Bronstein, Janet; Foster, E Michael; Kotelchuck, Milton

    2015-07-01

    The 2002 "unborn child ruling" resulted in State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) expansion for states to cover prenatal care for low-income women without health insurance. Foreign-born Latinas who do not qualify for Medicaid coverage theoretically should have benefited most from the policy ruling given their documented low rates of prenatal care utilization. This study compares prenatal care utilization and subsequent birth outcomes among foreign-born Latinas in six states that used the unborn child ruling to expand coverage to those in ten states that did not implement the expansion. This policy analysis examines cross-sectional pooled US natality data from the pre-enactment years (2000-2003) versus post-enactment years (2004-2007) to estimate the effect of the UCR on prenatal care utilization and birth outcome measures for foreign-born Latinas. Then using a difference-in-difference estimator, we assessed these differences across time for states that did or did not enact the unborn child ruling. Analyses were then replicated on a high-risk subset of the population (single foreign-born Latinas with lower levels of education). The SCHIP unborn child ruling policy expansion increased PNCU over time in the six enacting states. Foreign-born Latinas in expansion enacting states experienced increases in prenatal care utilization though only the high-risk subset were statistically significant. Birth outcomes did not change. The SCHIP unborn child ruling policy was associated with enhanced PNC for a subset of high-risk foreign-born Latinas.

  6. Money isn't everything: rural physicians identify other factors that facilitate providing prenatal care for low-income women.

    PubMed Central

    Machala, M; Miner, M W

    1994-01-01

    The problem of physicians dropping the practice of obstetrics is becoming more serious each year in the United States. Those who remain in practice are increasingly reluctant to serve women who receive Medicaid assistance. Previous research has tended to focus on low reimbursement and liability as barriers that physicians perceive to providing prenatal care to low-income clients. In a 1992 survey in rural Idaho, however, physicians who have been serving these clients for at least 4 years rated other factors equally or more important in treating low-income women. These other factors, discussed in this paper, have to do with the administrative and psychosocial support coordinated by public health nurses for their internal clients, the physicians, as well as for their external clients, pregnant women. PMID:8190869

  7. Adequate Wound Care and Use of Bed Nets as Protective Factors against Buruli Ulcer: Results from a Case Control Study in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Landier, Jordi; Boisier, Pascal; Fotso Piam, Félix; Noumen-Djeunga, Blanbin; Simé, Joseph; Wantong, Fidèle Gaetan; Marsollier, Laurent; Fontanet, Arnaud; Eyangoh, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease involving the skin, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Its exact transmission mechanism remains unknown. Several arguments indicate a possible role for insects in its transmission. A previous case-control study in the Nyong valley region in central Cameroon showed an unexpected association between bed net use and protection against Buruli ulcer. We investigated whether this association persisted in a newly discovered endemic Buruli ulcer focus in Bankim, northwestern Cameroon. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a case-control study on 77 Buruli ulcer cases and 153 age-, gender- and village-matched controls. Participants were interviewed about their activities and habits. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis identified systematic use of a bed net (Odds-Ratio (OR) = 0.4, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI] = [0.2–0.9], p-value (p) = 0.04), cleansing wounds with soap (OR [95%CI] = 0.1 [0.03–0.3], p<0.0001) and growing cassava (OR [95%CI] = 0.3 [0.2–0.7], p = 0.005) as independent protective factors. Independent risk factors were bathing in the Mbam River (OR [95%CI] = 6.9 [1.4–35], p = 0.02) and reporting scratch lesions after insect bites (OR [95%CI] = 2.7 [1.4–5.4], p = 0.004). The proportion of cases that could be prevented by systematic bed net use was 32%, and by adequate wound care was 34%. Conclusions/Significance Our study confirms that two previously identified factors, adequate wound care and bed net use, significantly decreased the risk of Buruli ulcer. These associations withstand generalization to different geographic, climatic and epidemiologic settings. Involvement of insects in the household environment, and the relationship between wound hygiene and M. ulcerans infection should now be investigated. PMID:22087346

  8. [Precariousness of records of prenatal care in a basic health unit in the city of Ribeirao Preto-SP].

    PubMed

    do Oba M das, D; Tavares, M S

    1998-01-01

    This survey aimed at characterizing the population of pregnant women utilizing prenatal care services of a Basic Health Unit in the city of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil in July 1995 and analyzing the records of the service given to pregnant women who went to this Unit in terms of general and specific anamnesis, general and tocogynecological physical examination and the diagnostic procedures used in this service. The records showed a lack of information about patients' general and specific anamnesis, general and tocogynecological physical examination and clinical condition, characterizing a more ritualistic procedure. Therefore, records did not meet the objectives proposed by the Program for Comprehensive Women Health Care of the Ribeirão Preto City Health Department with the São Paulo State Health Department and the Health Ministry: to ensure good quality in women's care service regarding their clinical, gynecological, obstetric and mental needs; to identify, prevent, and control risk factors which may affect women's health; to diagnose and treat women's pathologies as soon as possible, among others.

  9. What impact does contact with the prenatal care system have on women's use of facility delivery? Evidence from low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Guliani, Harminder; Sepehri, Ardeshir; Serieux, John

    2012-06-01

    Prenatal and delivery care are critical both for maternal and newborn health. Using the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data for thirty-two low-income countries across Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, and employing a two-level random-intercept model, this paper empirically assesses the influence of prenatal attendance and a wide array of observed individual-, household- and community-level characteristics on a woman's decision to give birth at a health facility or at home. The results show that prenatal attendance does appreciably influence the use of facility delivery in all three geographical regions, with women having four visits being 7.3 times more likely than those with no prenatal care to deliver at a health facility. These variations are more pronounced for Sub-Saharan Africa. The influence of the number of prenatal visits, maternal age and education, parity level, and economic status of the birthing women on the place of delivery is found to vary across the three geographical regions. The results also indicate that obstetrics care is geographically and economically more accessible to urban and rural women from the non-poor households than those from the poor households. The strong influence of number of visits, household wealth, education and regional poverty on the site of delivery setting suggests that policies aimed at increasing the use of obstetric care programs should be linked with the objectives of social development programs such as poverty reduction, enhancing the status of women, and increasing primary and secondary school enrollment rate among girls.

  10. [The Millennium project of the United Nations, focusing on adequate postpartum care to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality world-wide].

    PubMed

    Lagro, M G P; Stekelenburg, J

    2006-05-20

    One of the goals of the Millennium project of the United Nations is to reduce maternal and infant mortality. This includes adequate care for mothers and newborns during childbirth. Most maternal deaths occur during the post-partum period. Postpartum haemorrhage, eclampsia and sepsis are the main causes of maternal death. Preventive measures include active management of the third stage of labour, use of magnesium sulphate in pre-eclampsia, and implementing hygienic birth practices and the use of antibiotics, respectively. Major causes of neonatal mortality are pre- and dysmaturity, infections, congenital abnormalities and birth trauma, including asphyxia. The kangaroo-method can reduce morbidity in premature infants. The use of hygienic practices and antibiotics decreases the number of newborn deaths due to infection. Antiretroviral therapy is effective in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV. In many resource poor countries formula feeding is not feasible and the WHO advises exclusive breastfeeding for HIV positive women in these settings. A formula of 6 hours, 6 days, 6 weeks and 6 months after birth is recommended by the WHO to check the condition of mother and baby. This should be integrated in mother and child health clinics and also includes child vaccinations and counselling the mother on family planning and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.

  11. [SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AND ADEQUACY OF PRENATAL CARE ASSOCIATED PERINATAL MORTALITY IN COLOMBIAN PREGNANT WOMEN].

    PubMed

    Flores Navarro-Pérez, Carmen; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; Meneses-Echávez, José Francisco; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: el adecuado seguimiento clínico y el cumplimiento de los requerimientos nutricionales, son aspectos esenciales para el adecuado desarrollo fetal y la culminación exitosa del embarazo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la asociación entre los factores sociodemográficos y el seguimiento prenatal asociados a la mortalidad perinatal en gestantes de Colombia. Material y métodos: estudio descriptivo y transversal secundario a la información obtenida en la Encuesta Nacional de la Situación Nutricional 2010 (ENSIN 2010) y la Encuesta Nacional de Demografía y Salud (ENDS 2010), en 14.754 mujeres gestantes de entre 13 y 44 años de edad. Los factores sociodemográficos: sexo del recién nacido, región geográfica (atlántica, oriental, central, pacífica, Bogotá, territorios nacionales), nivel socioeconómico- Sisbén (I al VI) y área geográfica (cabecera municipal, centro poblado, población dispersa), el seguimiento prenatal (control de peso, altura uterina, presión arterial, fetocardia, bioquímica sanguínea, análisis de orina) y la suplementación con hierro, calcio y ácido fólico se recogieron a través de una encuesta estructurada. Se establecieron asociaciones mediante la construcción de modelos de regresión logística binaria simple y multivariable. Resultados: de las variables sociodemográficas, residir en centros poblados, región oriental o pacífica, y pertenecer al nivel Sisbén I, son las que mostraron mayor frecuencia de muerte perinatal, con valores de 1,7%, 1,5%, 1,4% y 1,4%, respectivamente. Tras ajustar por sexo del recién nacido, área, región geográfica y puntaje de Sisbén, se encontró que un inadecuado seguimiento en el control del peso (OR 5,12), la presión arterial (OR 5,18), la bioquímica sanguínea (OR 2,19) y la suplementación con hierro (OR 2,09), calcio (OR 1,73) y ácido fólico (OR 2,73) se asociaron como factores predisponentes a la mortalidad perinatal. Conclusiones: la mortalidad perinatal

  12. Do active patients seek higher quality prenatal care?: A panel data analysis from Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jessica; Golub, Ginger; Kruk, Margaret E; McConnell, Margaret

    2016-11-01

    Despite poverty and limited access to health care, evidence is growing that patients in low-income countries are taking a more active role in their selection of health care providers. Urban areas such as Nairobi, Kenya offer a rich context for studying these "active" patients because of the large number of heterogeneous providers available. We use a unique panel dataset from 2015 in which 402 pregnant women from peri-urban (the "slums" of) Nairobi, Kenya were interviewed three times over the course of their pregnancy and delivery, allowing us to follow women's care decisions and their perceptions of the quality of care they received. We define active antenatal care (ANC) patients as those women who switch ANC providers and explore the prevalence, characteristics and care-seeking behavior of these patients. We analyze whether active ANC patients appear to be seeking out higher quality facilities and whether they are more satisfied with their care. Women in our sample visit over 150 different public and private ANC facilities. Active patients are more educated and more likely to have high risk pregnancies, but have otherwise similar characteristics to non-active patients. We find that active patients are increasingly likely to pay for private care (despite public care being free) and to receive a higher quality of care over the course of their pregnancy. We find that active patients appear more satisfied with their care over the course of pregnancy, as they are increasingly likely to choose to deliver at the facility providing their ANC.

  13. The perceptions of Lutheran pastors toward prenatal genetic counseling and pastoral care.

    PubMed

    Stuck, J; Faine, J; Boldt, A

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore a theological perspective toward genetic counseling. A survey was sent to 207 ministers within the Evangelical Lutheran Church of America (ELCA), to determine their perspectives toward four different scenarios in a prenatal genetic counseling setting. The four different scenarios included situations involving Huntington disease, Down syndrome, trisomy 18, and anencephaly. Nearly all ELCA Lutheran pastors perceived genetic counseling as beneficial and useful and wanted to be involved in the decision-making process for whether or not to terminate pregnancy. Their views toward termination of pregnancy varied depending on the severity of the genetic abnormality. Severity in this study was based upon life compatibility. As the severity of the genetic abnormality increased, the percentage of Lutheran pastors who viewed termination as an option increased from 23% (Down syndrome) to 62% (anencephaly). A better understanding of how spiritual leaders view genetic counseling would provide an insight into how genetics and religious beliefs together play a significant role in shaping the decisions of those faced with abnormal pregnancies.

  14. Prenatal HIV tests. Routine testing or informed choice?

    PubMed Central

    Guenter, Dale; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Carroll, June; Sellors, John

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine how prenatal care providers responded to a new provincial policy of offering HIV testing to all prenatal patients, and to determine factors associated with self-reported high testing rates. DESIGN: Cross-sectional mailed survey. SETTING: Outpatient practices in three Ontario health-planning regions. PARTICIPANTS: Prenatal care providers: 784 family physicians, 200 obstetricians, and 103 midwives were sent questionnaires and were eligible to participate. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported testing of 80% or more prenatal patients ("high testers") and associated practice characteristics, attitudes, and counseling practices. RESULTS: Response rate was 57% (622/1087): 43% of respondents were high testers. Family physicians were most likely and midwives least likely to be high testers. High testers tended to report that they had adequate knowledge of HIV testing, that HIV risk among their patients warranted testing all of them, and that testing should be routine. Encouraging women to test and not providing written information or choice were independently associated with high testing rates. CONCLUSION: Strongest predictors of high prenatal HIV testing rates were attitudes and practices that favoured a routine approach to testing and that placed little emphasis on informed consent. PMID:14594102

  15. Increasing access to prenatal care: disease prevention and sound business practice.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Mitchell, Karline

    2014-02-01

    Following our study of birth outcomes for uninsured new immigrant and refugee women in Toronto, we discovered clinically significant numbers of women with hypertension and diabetes. As this population ages and prevalence increases, the expense of treating uncontrolled chronic illness increases. Prudent health policy change, a reduction in treatment delays, and equitable access to care will decrease clinical risk and limit the financial burden on the health care system. This unanticipated finding supports the argument for establishing government-funded maternity care insurance for all women. Such policies could prevent perinatal complications and decrease the rate of uncontrolled chronic illness later in life.

  16. Standards of care for high-risk prenatal clients: the community nurse case management approach.

    PubMed

    Mawn, B; Bradley, J

    1993-06-01

    The New Mexico Families FIRST project seeks to reduce maternal and infant morbidity and mortality through a nursing case management approach. The responsibilities of this community nurse include outreach, education, and care coordination of Medicaid-eligible high-risk pregnant women and their children. The standards of care for these families are derived from a screening tool that identifies medical, demographic, environmental, and psychosocial risks. Although evaluation of the nurse role and the tools used to identify and care for these women and children has not been completed, sharing the developmental stages of the process should facilitate similar endeavors.

  17. Differences in pregnancy outcomes, prenatal care utilization, and maternal complications between teenagers and adult women in Korea: A nationwide epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hyung; Lee, Seung Mi; Lim, Nam Gu; Kim, Hyun Joo; Bae, Sung-Hee; Ock, Minsu; Kim, Un-Na; Lee, Jin Yong; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Teenage mothers are at high risk for maternal and neonatal complications. This study aimed to evaluate the socioeconomic circumstances of teenage pregnancy, and determine whether these increased risks remained after adjustment for socioeconomic circumstances in Korea. Using the National Health Insurance Corporation database, we selected women who terminated pregnancy, by delivery or abortion, from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010. Abortion, delivery type, and maternal complications were defined based on the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision. We compared teenagers (13-19 years at the time of pregnancy termination) with other age groups and investigated differences based on socioeconomic status, reflected by Medical Aid (MA) and National Health Insurance (NHI) beneficiaries. We used multivariate analysis to define the factors associated with preterm delivery. Among 463,847 pregnancies, 2267 (0.49%) involved teenagers. Teenage mothers were more likely to have an abortion (33.4%) than deliver a baby when compared with other age groups (20.8%; P < 0.001). About 14.4% of teenage mothers had never received prenatal care throughout pregnancy. Among teenage mothers, 61.7% of MA recipients made fewer than 4 prenatal care visits (vs 38.8% of NHI beneficiaries) (P < 0.001). Teenage mothers more often experienced preterm delivery and perineal laceration (P < 0.001). Teenage mothers (<20 years) were 2.47 times more likely to have preterm delivery than older mothers (20-34 years; P < 0.001). Teenage mothers had higher risk of inadequate prenatal care and subsequently of preterm delivery, which remained significantly higher after adjusting for socioeconomic confounding variables and adequacy of prenatal care in Korean teenagers (P < 0.001).

  18. Study protocol for a randomized, controlled, superiority trial comparing the clinical and cost- effectiveness of integrated online mental health assessment-referral-care in pregnancy to usual prenatal care on prenatal and postnatal mental health and infant health and development: the Integrated Maternal Psychosocial Assessment to Care Trial (IMPACT)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress, depression, and anxiety affect 15 to 25% of pregnant women. However, fewer than 20% of prenatal care providers assess and treat mental health problems and fewer than 20% of pregnant women seek mental healthcare. For those who seek treatment, the lack of health system integration and existing barriers frequently prevent treatment access. Without treatment, poor prenatal mental health can persist for years and impact future maternal, child, and family well-being. Methods/Design The purpose of this randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of an integrated process of online psychosocial assessment, referral, and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for pregnant women compared to usual prenatal care (no formal screening or specialized care). The primary outcome is self-reported prenatal depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms at 6 to 8 weeks postrandomization. Secondary outcomes are postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms; self-efficacy; mastery; self-esteem; sleep; relationship quality; coping; resilience; Apgar score; gestational age; birth weight; maternal-infant attachment; infant behavior and development; parenting stress/competence; and intervention cost-effectiveness, efficiency, feasibility, and acceptability. Pregnant women are eligible if they: 1) are <28 weeks gestation; 2) speak/read English; 3) are willing to complete email questionnaires; 4) have no, low, or moderate psychosocial risk on screening at recruitment; and 5) are eligible for CBT. A sample of 816 women will be recruited from large, urban primary care clinics and allocation is by computer-generated randomization. Women in the intervention group will complete an online psychosocial assessment, and those with mild or moderate depression, anxiety, or stress symptoms then complete six interactive cognitive behavior therapy modules. All women will complete email questionnaires at 6 to 8 weeks postrandomization and at 3, 6, and 12 months postpartum

  19. Admission to a dedicated cardiac intensive care unit is associated with decreased resource use for infants with prenatally diagnosed congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joyce T; Tani, Lloyd Y; Puchalski, Michael D; Bardsley, Tyler R; Byrne, Janice L B; Minich, L LuAnn; Pinto, Nelangi M

    2014-12-01

    Many factors in the delivery and perinatal care of infants with a prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) have an impact on outcome and costs. This study sought to determine the modifiable factors in perinatal management that have an impact on postnatal resource use for infants with CHD. The medical records of infants with prenatally diagnosed CHD (August 2006-December 2011) who underwent cardiac surgery before discharge were reviewed. The exclusion criteria ruled out prematurity and intervention or transplantation evaluation before surgery. Clinical characteristics, outcomes, and cost data were collected. Multivariate linear regression models were used to determine the impact of perinatal decisions on hospitalization cost and surrogates of resource use after adjustment for demographic and other risk factors. For the 126 patients who met the study criteria, the median hospital stay was 22 days (range 4-122 days), and the median inflation-adjusted total hospital cost was $107,357 (range $9,746-602,320). The initial admission to the neonatal versus the cardiac intensive care unit (NICU vs. CICU) was independently associated with a 19 % longer hospital stay, a 26 % longer ICU stay, and 47 % more mechanical ventilation days after adjustment for Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery, version 1 score, gestation age, genetic abnormality, birth weight, mode of delivery, and postsurgical complications. Weekend versus weekday delivery was not associated with hospital cost or length of hospital stay. For term infants with prenatally diagnosed CHD undergoing surgery before discharge, preoperative admission to the NICU (vs. the CICU) resulted in a longer hospital stay and greater intensive care use. Prenatal planning for infants with CHD should consider the initial place of admission as a modifiable factor for potential lowering of resource use.

  20. Culture in Prenatal Development: Parental Attitudes, Availability of Care, Expectations, Values, and Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bravo, Irene M.; Noya, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Culture is a universal phenomenon, but most interest about culture during pregnancy has focused on medical care, neglecting psychological aspects of normative development. Objective: The purpose of this article was to examine normative gestational experiences using the framework of a broaden and build model of culture, positive…

  1. [Current prenatal care with reference to state of the art knowledge].

    PubMed

    Vogt, H P

    1998-10-24

    Every physician taking care of pregnant women believes to be well acquainted with the state-of-the-art requirements. However, changes imposed by the new Swiss health insurance legislation (KVG) and by the pressure of Evidence Based Medicine brought these into a new scope. In Switzerland there is no general agreement on optimal pregnancy-care. We propose a care-standard, based on rational and efficient clinical, laboratory and sonographic checks, which allow a timely diagnosis of pregnancy-at-risk. Targeted laboratory investigations as well as the anti-D-immunoprophylaxis, and screening for diabetes mellitus efficiently help to avoid long-term sequelae for mother and child. Screening for toxoplasmosis, HIV, and hepatitis B are compulsory. A vaginal pH below 4.5 prevents premature birth. Diagnosis and treatment of vaginal chlamydial and candida infection are also very important in this respect. The number of sonographies to be performed during pregnancy is a highly political issue, and we have to comply with our dirigistic governmental regulations. However, sonography including search for increased nuchal translucency done early in pregnancy is a key procedure for quality assurance. Supplementation of folic acid started before conception, almost entirely prevents neural tube defects. Hence women need appropriate advice before conception. A new information brochure is available for future parents in Switzerland, and makes all former self-made guidelines unnecessary. UNICEF declared 1998 as the year of safe motherhood. Worldwide still too many women die from pregnancy and delivery. Care for normal pregnancy, and not only for at-risk-pregnancy will therefore continue to make sense.

  2. Patterns of compliance with prenatal iron supplementation among Peruvian women.

    PubMed

    Zavaleta, Nelly; Caulfield, Laura E; Figueroa, Alberto; Chen, Ping

    2014-04-01

    Prenatal iron supplementation is recommended to control anaemia during pregnancy. Low compliance and side effects have been claimed as the main obstacles for adequate impact of the supplementation. As part of a double-blind supplementation study carried out in a hospital located in a shantytown in Lima, Peru, we monitored compliance throughout pregnancy and evaluated factors associated with variation in compliance over time. Overall, 985 pregnant women were enrolled in a supplementation study that was administered through their prenatal care from 10 to 24 weeks of gestation until 4 weeks postpartum. They received 60 mg iron and 250 µg folate with or without 15 mg zinc. Women had monthly care visits and were also visited weekly to query regarding compliance, overall health status, and potential positive and negative effects of supplement consumption. Median compliance was 79% (inter-quartile range: 65-89%) over pregnancy, and the median number of tablets consumed was 106 (81-133). Primpara had lower average compliance; positive health reports were associated with greater compliance, and negative reports were associated with lower compliance. There was no difference by type of supplement. Women with low initial compliance did achieve high compliance by the end of pregnancy, and women who reported forgetting to take the supplements did have lower compliance. Compliance was positively associated with haemoglobin concentration at the end of pregnancy. In conclusion, women comply highly with prenatal supplementation within a prenatal care model in which supplies are maintained and reinforcing messages are provided.

  3. [Prenatal origin of parent-infant bonding: 2: Implications for obstetric care].

    PubMed

    Morris, N D; Wertheim, E S

    1987-01-01

    Modern Western obstetric care has concentrated mainly on the physical well-being of mother and fetus. In recent years, increasing awareness of psycho-social issues has led to changes in labour ward practices. It is suggested that changes in antenatal practice are now necessary in order to bring preventive measures to bear on many areas of potential developmental, marital and parenting difficulties. Building on the framework proposed in the preceding paper, we offer concrete systematic guidelines for extending the antenatal obstetric agenda to cover those additional and important aspects of pregnancy.

  4. The Impact of Welfare Reform on Insurance Coverage before Pregnancy and the Timing of Prenatal Care Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Norma I; Kathleen Adams, E; Manning, Willard G; Raskind-Hood, Cheryl; Urato, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the impact of welfare reform on insurance coverage before pregnancy and on first-trimester initiation of prenatal care (PNC) among pregnant women eligible for Medicaid under welfare-related eligibility criteria. Data Sources We used pooled data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System for eight states (AL, FL, ME, NY, OK, SC, WA, and WV) from 1996 through 1999. Study Design We estimated a two-part logistic model of insurance coverage before pregnancy and first-trimester PNC initiation. The impact of welfare reform on insurance coverage before pregnancy was measured by marginal effects computed from coefficients of an interaction term for the postreform period and welfare-related eligibility and on PNC initiation by the same interaction term and the coefficients of insurance coverage adjusted for potential simultaneous equation bias. We compared the estimates from this model with results from simple logistic, ordinary least squares, and two-stage least squares models. Principal Findings Welfare reform had a significant negative impact on Medicaid coverage before pregnancy among welfare-related Medicaid eligibles. This drop resulted in a small decline in their first-trimester PNC initiation. Enrollment in Medicaid before pregnancy was independent of the decision to initiate PNC, and estimates of the effect of a reduction in Medicaid coverage before pregnancy on PNC initiation were consistent over the single- and two-stage models. Effects of private coverage were mixed. Welfare reform had no impact on first-trimester PNC beyond that from reduced Medicaid coverage in the pooled regression but separate state-specific regressions suggest additional effects from time and income constraints induced by welfare reform may have occurred in some states. Conclusions Welfare reform had significant adverse effects on insurance coverage and first-trimester PNC initiation among our nation's poorest women of childbearing age. Improved

  5. Does additional prenatal care in the home improve birth outcomes for women with a prior preterm delivery? A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lutenbacher, Melanie; Gabbe, Patricia Temple; Karp, Sharon M; Dietrich, Mary S; Narrigan, Deborah; Carpenter, Lavenia; Walsh, William

    2014-07-01

    Women with a history of a prior preterm birth (PTB) have a high probability of a recurrent preterm birth. Some risk factors and health behaviors that contribute to PTB may be amenable to intervention. Home visitation is a promising method to deliver evidence based interventions. We evaluated a system of care designed to reduce preterm births and hospital length of stay in a sample of pregnant women with a history of a PTB. Single site randomized clinical trial. Eligibility: >18 years with prior live birth ≥20-<37 weeks gestation; <24 weeks gestation at enrollment; spoke and read English; received care at regional medical center. All participants (N = 211) received standard prenatal care. Intervention participants (N = 109) also received home visits by certified nurse-midwives guided by protocols for specific risk factors (e.g., depressive symptoms, abuse, smoking). Data was collected via multiple methods and sources including intervention fidelity assessments. Average age 27.8 years; mean gestational age at enrollment was 15 weeks. Racial breakdown mirrored local demographics. Most had a partner, high school education, and 62% had Medicaid. No statistically significant group differences were found in gestational age at birth. Intervention participants had a shorter intrapartum length of stay. Enhanced prenatal care by nurse-midwife home visits may limit some risk factors and shorten intrapartum length of stay for women with a prior PTB. This study contributes to knowledge about evidence-based home visit interventions directed at risk factors associated with PTB.

  6. Testing the Feasibility of Remote Patient Monitoring in Prenatal Care Using a Mobile App and Connected Devices: A Prospective Observational Trial

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Anjali G

    2016-01-01

    Background Excessive weight gain and elevated blood pressure are significant risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes such as gestational diabetes, premature birth, and preeclampsia. More effective strategies to facilitate adherence to gestational weight gain goals and monitor blood pressure may have a positive health benefit for pregnant women and their babies. The impact of utilizing a remote patient monitoring system to monitor blood pressure and weight gain as a component of prenatal care has not been previously assessed. Objective The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility of monitoring patients remotely in prenatal care using a mobile phone app and connected digital devices. Methods In this prospective observational study, 8 women with low risk pregnancy in the first trimester were recruited at an urban academic medical center. Participants received a mobile phone app with a connected digital weight scale and blood pressure cuff for at-home data collection for the duration of pregnancy. At-home data was assessed for abnormal values of blood pressure or weight to generate clinical alerts to the patient and provider. As measures of the feasibility of the system, participants were studied for engagement with the app, accuracy of remote data, efficacy of alert system, and patient satisfaction. Results Patient engagement with the mobile app averaged 5.5 times per week over the 6-month study period. Weight data collection and blood pressure data collection averaged 1.5 times and 1.1 times per week, respectively. At-home measurements of weight and blood pressure were highly accurate compared to in-office measurements. Automatic clinical alerts identified two episodes of abnormal weight gain with no false triggers. Patients demonstrated high satisfaction with the system. Conclusions In this pilot study, we demonstrated that a system using a mobile phone app coupled to remote monitoring devices is feasible for prenatal care. PMID:27864167

  7. Unhappiness with the Fetal Gender is associated with Depression in Adult Pregnant Women Attending Prenatal Care in a Public Hospital in Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy has been scantily studied in Mexican women. We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression in adult pregnant women attending a public hospital in the northern Mexican city of Durango, Mexico. Through a cross-sectional study design, we assessed depression in 270 adult pregnant women attended for prenatal care in a public hospital using a validated Mexican version of the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale in pregnancy and further confirmation by a psychiatric evaluation using the DSM-IV criteria for depression. Prevalence association with socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant women was also investigated. Of the 270 pregnant women studied, 101 (37.4%) had EPDS scores equal to or higher than nine. Depression was confirmed in 56 (20.7%) women. Of them, 42 suffered from minor depression and 14 from major depression. Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the women showed that depression was associated with depression before pregnancy (OR = 3.36; 95% CI: 1.20-9.40; P=0.02), anxiety during pregnancy (OR = 9.38; 95% CI: 1.87-46.96; P=0.006), smoking (OR = 25.05; 95% CI: 1.77-353.07; P=0.01), unhappy with the fetal sex (OR = 8.53; 95% CI: 2.46-29.48; P<0.001), and unintended pregnancy (OR = 2.90; 95% CI: 1.07-7.86; P=0.03). Results indicate that about one fifth of the pregnant women studied had confirmed depression. This is the first report of an association of prenatal depression with unhappiness with the fetal sex. Factors associated with prenatal depression found in this study may help for the optimal design of preventive measures against prenatal depression. PMID:27127452

  8. Childhood Learning Disabilities and Prenatal Risk: An Interdisciplinary Data Review for Health Care Professionals and Parents. Pediatric Round Table: 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Catherine Caldwell, Ed.

    The booklet summarizes proceedings from a conference on prenatal and perinatal factors associated with learning disabilities and neurological problems. Many of the papers report data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project of the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke, a longitudinal study of pregnancy…

  9. [Quality of prenatal services in primary healthcare in Brazil: indicators and social inequalities].

    PubMed

    Tomasi, Elaine; Fernandes, Pedro Agner Aguiar; Fischer, Talita; Siqueira, Fernando Carlos Vinholes; Silveira, Denise Silva da; Thumé, Elaine; Duro, Suele Manjourany Silva; Saes, Mirelle de Oliveira; Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2017-04-03

    The aim of this study was to describe quality indicators for prenatal care in Brazil as part of the Program for the Improvement of Access and Quality (PMAQ-AB). The study analyzed number of prenatal visits, vaccination status, prescription of ferrous sulfate, physical examination, orientation, and laboratory tests, based on which a summary quality indicator was constructed. Data were collected in 2012-2013 during interviews conducted by External Evaluators of the PMAQ-AB, with 6,125 users who had done their last prenatal follow-up in Family Health units. During prenatal follow-up, 89% reported six or more visits, more than 95% received a tetanus booster and prescription of ferrous sulfate, 24% reported having received all the procedures in the physical examination, 60% received all the orientation, and 69% had all the recommended laboratory tests. Only 15% of interviewees had received adequate prenatal care, including all the recommended measures, and there was a significantly higher proportion of "complete" care in pregnant women that were older, with higher income, in the Southeast region of Brazil, in municipalities with more than 300,000 inhabitants, and in those with (HDI) in the upper quartile. There are persist social and individual inequalities that can be targeted by measures to upgrade the teams' work processes.

  10. Preconception Care and Prenatal Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Who is at risk for complications? How does stress affect pregnancy? NICHD Research Information Research Goals Activities and Advances ... Who is at risk for complications? How does stress affect pregnancy? NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications ...

  11. Challenging the rhetoric of choice in prenatal screening.

    PubMed

    Seavilleklein, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal screening, consisting of maternal serum screening and nuchal translucency screening, is on the verge of expansion, both by being offered to more pregnant women and by screening for more conditions. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have each recently recommended that screening be extended to all pregnant women regardless of age, disease history, or risk status. This screening is commonly justified by appeal to the value of autonomy, or women's choice. In this paper, I critically examine the value of autonomy in the context of prenatal screening to determine whether it justifies the routine offer of screening and the expansion of screening services. I argue that in the vast majority of cases the option of prenatal screening does not promote or protect women's autonomy. Both a narrow conception of choice as informed consent and a broad conception of choice as relational reveal difficulties in achieving adequate standards of free informed choice. While there are reasons to worry that women's autonomy is not being protected or promoted within the limited scope of current practice, we should hesitate before normalizing it as part of standard prenatal care for all.

  12. Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Home For Patients Search FAQs Prenatal ... Screening Tests FAQ165, September 2016 PDF Format Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Pregnancy What is prenatal genetic testing? ...

  13. Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests Home For Patients Search FAQs Prenatal ... Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ164, September 2016 PDF Format Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests Pregnancy What is prenatal genetic testing? ...

  14. [Prenatal medicine and prenatal diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Valero de Bernabé Martín de Eugenio, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis universalization allows knowing the prognostic possibilities in a situation of limited therapeutical resources. Therefore, besides permitting the peace of a normal fetal development, in other circumstances it can provoke parent's requirement to interrupt pregnancy in cases of malformation or chromosomal alteration, situations that parents may conceive as difficult for child's life and family environment. Diagnostic tests reliability and risks, information given to the parents, conversion in an eugenic practice of prenatal diagnosis and OMS recommendations in relation to the optional and voluntary character that this diagnosis should have are analysed.

  15. EVALUATION OF EFFICACY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF PRENATAL NUTRITIONAL CARE ON PERINATAL OUTCOME OF PREGNANT WOMEN; RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Padilha, Patricia; Mello de Oliveira, Larissa; Queiróz Caldeiras Neves, Elisabete; Ghedini, Anna Carolina; Costa, Thaísa; Saunders, Cláudia

    2015-08-01

    Objetivo: evaluar el impacto de una propuesta de asistencia nutricional prenatal (ANP) para las mujeres embarazadas adultas. Métodos: estudio del impacto de una intervención nutricional prenatal en los resultados perinatales, adecuación de la ganancia total de peso durante la gestación, frecuencia de anemia gestacional y complicaciones en el embarazo en una maternidad pública de Río de Janeiro. Los datos representan tres grupos de mujeres embarazadas adultas, durante 10 años: GI (1999-2001, n = 225), GII (2005-2006, n = 208) y GIII (2007-2008, n = 394). Resultados: en el GII (grupo de referencia) se incluyó una evaluación nutricional detallada, un plan de alimentación individualizado y una asistencia de por lo menos cuatro citas programadas con un nutricionista. La cobertura PNA se produjo en solo el 20,4% en el GI, el 100% en el GII y el 42,1% en el GIII (p < 0,001). Las mujeres del GI tenían una mayor proporción de ganancia total de peso insuficiente (OR 1,82; IC 95%: 1,20 -2,75), anemia (OR 2,18; IC 95%: 1,35-3,55) y complicaciones del embarazo (OR 1.57, IC 95%: 1,04 - 2,36), así como aquellas que se unieron al GIII, - OR 1,68 (IC 95%: 1.16 - 2.44), OR 2,45 (IC 95%: 1,56-3,84), OR 2,07 (IC 95%:1,42- 3,00), en comparación con las mujeres del GII. Conclusiones: el modelo probado en el GII PNA demostró ser eficaz según los resultados estudiados.

  16. Prevalence of prenatal zinc deficiency and its association with socio-demographic, dietary and health care related factors in Rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies witnessed that prenatal zinc deficiency (ZD) predisposes to diverse pregnancy complications. However, scientific evidences on the determinants of prenatal ZD are scanty and inconclusive. The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of prenatal ZD in Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in Sidama zone in January and February 2011. Randomly selected 700 pregnant women were included in the study. Data on potential determinants of ZD were gathered using a structured questionnaire. Serum zinc concentration was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Statistical analysis was done using logistic regression and linear regression. Results The mean serum zinc concentration was 52.4 (+/-9.9) μg/dl (95% CI: 51.6-53.1 μg/dl). About 53.0% (95% CI: 49.3-56.7%) of the subjects were zinc deficient. The majority of the explained variability of serum zinc was due to dietary factors like household food insecurity level, dietary diversity and consumption of animal source foods. The risk of ZD was 1.65 (95% CI: 1.02-2.67) times higher among women from maize staple diet category compared to Enset staple diet category. Compared to pregnant women aged 15-24 years, those aged 25-34 and 35-49 years had 1.57 (95% CI: 1.04-2.34) and 2.18 (95% CI: 1.25-3.63) times higher risk of ZD, respectively. Women devoid of self income had 1.74 (95% CI: 1.11-2.74) time increased risk than their counterparts. Maternal education was positively associated to zinc status. Grand multiparas were 1.74 (95% CI: 1.09-3.23) times more likely to be zinc deficient than nulliparas. Frequency of coffee intake was negatively association to serum zinc level. Positive association was noted between serum zinc and hemoglobin concentrations. Altitude, history of iron supplementation, maternal workload, physical access to health service, antenatal care and nutrition education were not associated to

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of a giant foetal lymphangioma and haemangiolymphoma in the second trimester using 2D and 3D ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Mittermayer, C; Blaicher, W; Deutinger, J; Bernaschek, G; Lee, A

    2003-12-01

    Lymphangiomas are benign tumours of the lymphatic system. Early prenatal diagnosis is important to permit a planned delivery and provide adequate postnatal care. It thereby improves prognosis and allows the option of terminating the pregnancy if poor outcome is predicted. We report two cases, a giant haemangiolymphoma and a lymphangioma. 2D and 3D US findings are presented and differential diagnosis, therapeutic options and prognosis are discussed.

  18. Human prenatal diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Filkins, K.; Russo, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The multiauthor text is written as a ''guide to rationalize and clarify certain aspects of diagnosis, general counseling and intervention'' for ''health professionals who provide care to pregnant women.'' The text is not aimed at the ultrasonographer but rather at the physicians who are clinically responsible for patient management. Chapters of relevance to radiologists include an overview of prenatal screening and counseling, diagnosis of neural tube defects, ultrasonographic (US) scanning of fetal disorders in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, US scanning in the third trimester, multiple gestation and selective termination, fetal echo and Doppler studies, and fetal therapy. Also included are overviews of virtually all currently utilized prenatal diagnostic techniques including amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling, fetoscopy, recombinant DNA detection of hemoglobinopathies, chorionic villus sampling, embryoscopy, legal issues, and diagnosis of Mendelian disorders by DNA analysis.

  19. [Communication skills for prenatal counselling].

    PubMed

    Bitzer, J; Tschudin, S; Holzgreve, W; Tercanli, S

    2007-04-18

    Prenatal counselling is characterized by specific characteristics: A):The communication is about the values of the pregnant woman and her relationship with the child to be. B) The communication deals with patient's images and emotions. C) It is a communication about risks, numbers and statistics. D) Physician and patient deal with important ethical issues. In this specific setting of prenatal diagnosis and care physicians should therefore learn to apply basic principles of patient-centred communication with elements of non directive counselling, patient education and shared decision making. These elements are integrated into a process which comprises the following "steps": 1. Clarification of the patient's objectives and the obstetrician's mandate. 2. The providing of individualized information and education about prenatal tests and investigations. 3. Shared decision making regarding tests and investigations 4. Eventually Breaking (bad, ambivalent) news. 5. Caring for patients with an affected child.

  20. Prenatal diagnosis of persistent cloaca.

    PubMed

    Suzumori, Nobuhiro; Obayashi, Shintaro; Hattori, Yukio; Kaneko, Saori; Suzuki, Yoshikatsu; Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi

    2009-09-01

    We report four cases of persistent cloaca diagnosed at 32-33 weeks of gestation. In cases of persistent cloaca, serial prenatal ultrasonography shows transient fetal ascites, enlarged cystic structures arising from the fetal pelvis. Our four cases of persistent cloaca were diagnosed prenatally. Persistent cloaca should be considered in any female fetus presenting with hydronephrosis and a large cystic lesion arising from the pelvis as assessed by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Neither pulmonary hypoplasia nor severe oligohydramnios were found in any of our four cases, and they each had a good prognosis. Prenatal diagnosis allows time for parental counseling and delivery planning at a tertiary care center for neonatal intensive care and pediatric surgery.

  1. Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ka Po

    2014-11-01

    Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (p<0.01) indicates positive health status of the newborns verifies that prenatal meditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (p<0.05) at fifth month reflects the importance of prenatal meditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women.

  2. Scoping Review on Maternal Health among Immigrant and Refugee Women in Canada: Prenatal, Intrapartum, and Postnatal Care

    PubMed Central

    Haque, N.; Skinner, A.; Mantini, A.; Kurtz Landy, C.

    2017-01-01

    The last fifteen years have seen a dramatic increase in both the childbearing age and diversity of women migrating to Canada. The resulting health impact underscores the need to explore access to health services and the related maternal health outcome. This article reports on the results of a scoping review focused on migrant maternal health within the context of accessible and effective health services during pregnancy and following delivery. One hundred and twenty-six articles published between 2000 and 2016 that met our inclusion criteria and related to this group of migrant women, with pregnancy/motherhood status, who were living in Canada, were identified. This review points at complex health outcomes among immigrant and refugee women that occur within the compelling gaps in our knowledge of maternal health during all phases of maternity. Throughout the prenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal periods of maternity, barriers to accessing healthcare services were found to disadvantage immigrant and refugee women putting them at risk for challenging maternal health outcomes. Interactions between the uptake of health information and factors related to the process of immigrant settlement were identified as major barriers. Availability of appropriate services in a country that provides universal healthcare is discussed. PMID:28210508

  3. The Photo Essay: A Visual Research Method for Educating Obstetricians and Other Health Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Albrecht, Terrance L.; Mahan, Charles; Bell-Ellison, Bethany A.; Akintobi, Tabia Henry; Reynolds, Beth; Jeffers, Delores

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to issues related to low-income women seeking early, adequate, or continuous prenatal care, the public health and medical communities continue to tell women to take responsibility for their actions. Rarely are messages aimed at providers. To help physicians see how factors in their offices and clinics can affect service utilization,…

  4. Psychological violence against pregnant women in a prenatal care cohort: rates and associated factors in São Luís, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    ,40 - 3,71) and having had six or more intimate partners in life (PR: 1.47 95% CI: 1.06 – 2.03). Conclusions Psychological violence was a common phenomenon in this population of pregnant women that was associated with gender inequalities, inadequate social support and illicit drug use and should be routinely investigated during prenatal visits at health care services. PMID:24521235

  5. Prenatal omega-3 fatty acids: review and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Robin G

    2010-01-01

    The influence of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on health outcomes is widely recognized. The adequate intake of omega-3 fatty acids docasahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in particular can increase gestation length and improve infant cognitive and visual performance. Adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids have also been shown to reduce the incidence of preterm birth in some populations. Research on prenatal omega-3 intake and other outcomes, such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction, is inconclusive. Women in the United States consume low levels of omega-3 fatty acids compared to omega-6 fatty acids; this dietary pattern is associated with poor health outcomes. Omega-3 fatty acids are found primarily in fish, yet many pregnant women avoid fish because of concerns about potential mercury and polychlorinated biphenyl contamination. It is important for prenatal care providers to assess women's diets for omega-3 fatty acid intake and ensure that pregnant women are consuming between 200 and 300 mg daily from safe food sources. Purified fish, algal oil supplements, and DHA-enriched eggs are alternative sources for pregnant women who do not eat fish.

  6. Prenatal management of disorders of sex development.

    PubMed

    Chitty, Lyn S; Chatelain, Pierre; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P; Aigrain, Yves

    2012-12-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) rarely present prenatally but, as they are very complex conditions, management should be directed by highly specialised medical teams to allow consideration of all aspects of diagnosis, treatment and ethical issues. In this brief review, we present an overview of the prenatal presentation and management of DSD, including the sonographic appearance of normal genitalia and methods of determining genetic sex, the prenatal management of pregnancies with the unexpected finding of genital ambiguity on prenatal ultrasound and a review of the prenatal management of pregnancies at high risk of DSD. As this is a rapidly developing field, management options will change over time, making the involvement of clinical geneticists, paediatric endocrinologists and urologists, as well as fetal medicine specialists, essential in the care of these complex pregnancies. The reader should also bear in mind that local social, ethical and legal aspects may also influence management.

  7. Implementation of health information technology to maximize efficiency of resource utilization in a geographically dispersed prenatal care delivery system.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Marlo Baker; Snyder, Russell R; Thomas, Elizabeth; Freeman, Daniel H; Hankins, Gary D V

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the utilization of health information technology (HIT) to enhance resource utilization in a geographically dispersed tertiary care system with extensive outpatient and delivery services. It was initiated as a result of a systems change implemented after Hurricane Ike devastated southeast Texas. A retrospective database and electronic medical record review was performed, which included data collection from all patients evaluated 18 months prior (epoch I) and 18 months following (epoch II) the landfall of Hurricane Ike. The months immediately following the storm were omitted from the analysis, allowing time to establish a new baseline. We analyzed a total of 21,201 patients evaluated in triage at the University of Texas Medical Branch. Epoch I consisted of 11,280 patients and epoch II consisted of 9922 patients. Using HIT, we were able to decrease the number of visits to triage while simultaneously managing more complex patients in the outpatient setting with no clinically significant change in maternal or fetal outcome. This study developed an innovated model of care using constrained resources while providing quality and safety to our patients without additional cost to the health care delivery system.

  8. A cost-savings analysis of prenatal interventions.

    PubMed

    Bonifield, S L

    1998-01-01

    Proper prenatal care has long been established as the single most important factor in improving both maternal and infant health (Henderson 1994) yet the United States remains one of only two industrialized nations that have yet to ensure universal healthcare for pregnant women (National Center for Farmworker Health, Inc. 1997). Through clinical innovations, many progressive interventions now available are not only medically effective but also financially prudent. This study addresses the efficacy and feasibility and discusses the policy implications of the following four prenatal programs: universal prenatal screening for the human immunodeficiency virus, prenatal carrier screening for cystic fibrosis, condition-specific care for pregnant diabetics, and prenatal nutrition counseling. The healthcare community is challenged to expand the breadth of routine prenatal care to include those services that are both financially sensible and clinically imperative.

  9. A genetic history questionnaire-based system in primary prenatal care to screen for selected fetal disorders.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Linda A; Kloza, Edward M; Haddow, Paula K; Beauregard, Laurent J; Johnson, Judith L; Haddow, James E

    2007-01-01

    DNA (and other) diagnostic tests are now available for a number of serious, but uncommon, fetal disorders. We designed and evaluated a screening system for this purpose in primary care, coupled with targeted information for practitioners and patients. We developed a 15-question family history form for completion by office staff or patients, addressing conditions for which definitive diagnosis was available, linked to secondary questionnaires to follow up on "yes" answers. Guidelines for assessing risk, follow-up recommendations, and information resources were also linked. Following pilot testing, this screening system was introduced throughout Maine. We enrolled 212 providers (85-90% of the state's pregnancies). In a subsequent survey, 85% of the practices were screening all new patients and 3% some; 12% did not use the system. Time for form completion averaged 7 min. Overall, provider satisfaction was 4.4 on a five-point scale. Patients responded favorably; a minority was anxious or overwhelmed. Total referral calls to Maine's genetic/perinatal centers did not increase, but calls about family history of genetic disorders or maternal conditions increased significantly. This screening system for guiding appropriate use of DNA (and other) testing in pregnancy can be used successfully in primary care.

  10. Prenatal and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Voet, Thierry; Devriendt, Koenraad

    2016-09-15

    The past decade has seen the development of technologies that have revolutionized prenatal genetic testing; that is, genetic testing from conception until birth. Genome-wide single-cell arrays and high-throughput sequencing analyses are dramatically increasing our ability to detect embryonic and fetal genetic lesions, and have substantially improved embryo selection for in vitro fertilization (IVF). Moreover, both invasive and non-invasive mutation scanning of the genome are helping to identify the genetic causes of prenatal developmental disorders. These advances are changing clinical practice and pose novel challenges for genetic counselling and prenatal care.

  11. Prenatal education in the work place.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, H R

    1993-01-01

    Advances in neonatal care have improved survival rates among premature and low-birth-weight (LBW) infants, but highly technical care for these infants costs more than $2 billion a year in the United States. The incidence of premature and LBW infants can be reduced by prenatal education programs that focus on nutrition, obtaining prenatal care, avoiding dangerous substances, and recognizing preterm labor. In an effort to contain health care costs, many companies self-insure employee health benefits and offer health promotion programs designed to improve life style behaviors. This article examines providing a prenatal education program in the work place as a way of reducing the incidence and costs of prematurity and low birth weight.

  12. A rare case of fetal spondylocostal dysostosis - prenatal diagnosis and perinatal care in a patient with multiple large leiomyomas.

    PubMed

    Cirstoiu, M; Munteanu, O; Bodean, O; Cirstoiu, C

    2013-03-15

    The spondylocostal dysostosis (SCD) is one of the two major clinico-radiological subtypes of the Jarcho-Levin syndrome (JLS). The JLS is a rare heterogeneous entity characterized by facial dysmorphism, short-neck, short-trunk, normal sizes limbs, with multiple vertebral anomalies at all levels of the vertebral column and costal defects. The JLS has been classified into 2 major clinical phenotypes, based on the extent and distribution of skeletal anomalies, the pattern of inheritance and the prognosis. We report the case of a non-consanguineous 35-year-old female patient, with a history of multiple large leiomyomas gravida 1, para 1. A three-dimensional ultrasound at 18 weeks of gestation revealed: thoracic and lumbar hemivertebrae with abnormal alignment of the vertebral bodies and kypho-scoliosis, also the absence of two right ribs and abnormal shaped ribs. The biometric measurement was appropriate for gestational age and no other malformations were found. Although there was no previous history, based on the three-dimensional ultrasound findings a mild subtype of JLS was suspected. At term, the patient gave birth, by Cesarean section, to a male fetus, with a weight of 2700g, a length of 50cm and a calculated Apgar score of 9. The postpartum examination of the fetus confirmed the diagnose of SCD. The evolution of the newborn was good - he had no respiratory difficulty; he will benefit from an experimental surgery involving expandable titanium ribs. Our case illustrates the importance of an accurate ultrasound examination, which can be hindered by multiple large leyomiomas, in order to diagnose and to differentiate the two subtypes of JLS. The SCD can have a favorable evolution with the appropriate perinatal and postpartum care.

  13. A rare case of fetal spondylocostal dysostosis - prenatal diagnosis and perinatal care in a patient with multiple large leiomyomas

    PubMed Central

    Cirstoiu, M; Munteanu, O; Bodean, O; Cirstoiu, C

    2013-01-01

    The spondylocostal dysostosis (SCD) is one of the two major clinico-radiological subtypes of the Jarcho-Levin syndrome (JLS). The JLS is a rare heterogeneous entity characterized by facial dysmorphism, short-neck, short-trunk, normal sizes limbs, with multiple vertebral anomalies at all levels of the vertebral column and costal defects. The JLS has been classified into 2 major clinical phenotypes, based on the extent and distribution of skeletal anomalies, the pattern of inheritance and the prognosis. We report the case of a non-consanguineous 35-year-old female patient, with a history of multiple large leiomyomas gravida 1, para 1. A three-dimensional ultrasound at 18 weeks of gestation revealed: thoracic and lumbar hemivertebrae with abnormal alignment of the vertebral bodies and kypho-scoliosis, also the absence of two right ribs and abnormal shaped ribs. The biometric measurement was appropriate for gestational age and no other malformations were found. Although there was no previous history, based on the three-dimensional ultrasound findings a mild subtype of JLS was suspected. At term, the patient gave birth, by Cesarean section, to a male fetus, with a weight of 2700g, a length of 50cm and a calculated Apgar score of 9. The postpartum examination of the fetus confirmed the diagnose of SCD. The evolution of the newborn was good - he had no respiratory difficulty; he will benefit from an experimental surgery involving expandable titanium ribs. Our case illustrates the importance of an accurate ultrasound examination, which can be hindered by multiple large leyomiomas, in order to diagnose and to differentiate the two subtypes of JLS. The SCD can have a favorable evolution with the appropriate perinatal and postpartum care. PMID:23599829

  14. Prenatal ultrasound - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100197.htm Prenatal ultrasound - series—Procedure, part 1 To use the sharing ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Prenatal Testing Ultrasound A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  15. Prenatal Genetic Testing Chart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Prenatal Genetic Testing Chart (Infographic) Home For Patients Search FAQs Prenatal Genetic Testing Chart (Infographic) PFSI010 ››› Weeks 1–4 Weeks ...

  16. Postnatal Depression Prevention Through Prenatal Intervention: A Literature Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-17

    postpartum depression. Despite this knowledge, the prevalence rates of depression are high and prenatal depression (PND) may go unrecognized by the healthcare...depression has a prevalence rate of 20%, while postpartum depression affects 11% of previously pregnant women (Tycbey et al., 2005). One of the goals of...on prenatal care and postpartum depression, however, the issue of prenatal depression is often overlooked and the majority of the studies reviewed

  17. Sacrococcygeal teratoma: prenatal diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Gross, S J; Benzie, R J; Sermer, M; Skidmore, M B; Wilson, S R

    1987-02-01

    Although sacrococcygeal teratoma is a rare and potentially malignant tumor, 10 cases were documented during a 5-year period at the University of Toronto Perinatal Complex. Diagnosis was made in the six cases in which prenatal ultrasound examination was performed. One patient with twins elected to terminate the pregnancy at 19 weeks. In three of the cases diagnosed prenatally, serial ultrasound was performed. There was a 75% cesarean section rate. In all cases diagnosed prenatally, the large tumor size affected the mode of delivery. In the four cases without prenatal diagnosis, two infants were delivered vaginally, and two were delivered abdominally for obstetric reasons. There was one case of neonatal morbidity where tumor vascularity and rupture resulted in hypovolemic shock. All tumors were resected and found to be benign. A plan of management is recommended and, with appropriate obstetric and pediatric care, a good outcome can be anticipated in most cases.

  18. An Evaluation of an Adolescent Prenatal Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, Deborah L.; Peoples-Sheps, Mary D.; Buescher, Paul A.; Bennett, Trude A.; Paul, Melanie V.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of a prenatal-education program in increasing prenatal care utilization, improving maternal weight gain, and reducing low-birthweight births among adolescents. Data from weekly program reports and state vital statistics and health services information indicated that program participants were less likely to have…

  19. Your First Prenatal Care Checkup

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Our mission Fighting premature birth About us Annual report Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need ... Cause Our mission Fighting premature birth About us Annual report Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need ...

  20. Uptake, outcomes, and costs of implementing non-invasive prenatal testing for Down’s syndrome into NHS maternity care: prospective cohort study in eight diverse maternity units

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David; Hill, Melissa; Verhoef, Talitha I; Daley, Rebecca; Lewis, Celine; Mason, Sarah; McKay, Fiona; Jenkins, Lucy; Howarth, Abigail; Cameron, Louise; McEwan, Alec; Fisher, Jane; Kroese, Mark; Morris, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the benefits and costs of implementing non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for Down’s syndrome into the NHS maternity care pathway. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Eight maternity units across the United Kingdom between 1 November 2013 and 28 February 2015. Participants All pregnant women with a current Down’s syndrome risk on screening of at least 1/1000. Main outcome measures Outcomes were uptake of NIPT, number of cases of Down’s syndrome detected, invasive tests performed, and miscarriages avoided. Pregnancy outcomes and costs associated with implementation of NIPT, compared with current screening, were determined using study data on NIPT uptake and invasive testing in combination with national datasets. Results NIPT was prospectively offered to 3175 pregnant women. In 934 women with a Down’s syndrome risk greater than 1/150, 695 (74.4%) chose NIPT, 166 (17.8%) chose invasive testing, and 73 (7.8%) declined further testing. Of 2241 women with risks between 1/151 and 1/1000, 1799 (80.3%) chose NIPT. Of 71 pregnancies with a confirmed diagnosis of Down’s syndrome, 13/42 (31%) with the diagnosis after NIPT and 2/29 (7%) after direct invasive testing continued, resulting in 12 live births. In an annual screening population of 698 500, offering NIPT as a contingent test to women with a Down’s syndrome screening risk of at least 1/150 would increase detection by 195 (95% uncertainty interval −34 to 480) cases with 3368 (2279 to 4027) fewer invasive tests and 17 (7 to 30) fewer procedure related miscarriages, for a non-significant difference in total costs (£−46 000, £−1 802 000 to £2 661 000). The marginal cost of NIPT testing strategies versus current screening is very sensitive to NIPT costs; at a screening threshold of 1/150, NIPT would be cheaper than current screening if it cost less than £256. Lowering the risk threshold increases the number of Down’s syndrome cases detected and

  1. Prenatal Screening Methods for Aneuploidies

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Madhusudan; Sharma, Sumedha; Aggarwal, Sumita

    2013-01-01

    Aneuploidies are a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is the most common indication for invasive prenatal diagnosis. Initially, screening for aneuploidies started with maternal age risk estimation. Later on, serum testing for biochemical markers and ultrasound markers were added. Women detected to be at high-risk for aneuploidies were offered invasive testing. New research is now focusing on non-invasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal circulation. The advantage of this technique is the ability to reduce the risk of miscarriage associated with invasive diagnostic procedures. However, this new technique has its own set of technical limitations and ethical issues at present and careful consideration is required before broad implementation PMID:23626953

  2. An update on current prenatal testing options: first trimester and noninvasive prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Latendresse, Gwen; Deneris, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal genetic testing is rapidly evolving and requires that prenatal care providers stay up-to-date with accurate, evidence-based knowledge. Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT), first trimester maternal serum markers, and fetal nuchal translucency are the most recently developed screening tests added to the testing repertoire for detection of chromosomal disorders such as trisomy 21 (Down syndrome). NIPT is a new, highly accurate technique that uses maternal serum and is rapidly being introduced as a first trimester screening tool and increasingly being requested by pregnant women. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that all pregnant women be offered first and second trimester screening options, regardless of risk status, but does not yet recommend NIPT. It is important for prenatal care providers to be aware of and understand these testing options in order to assist women and their families in making well-informed decisions during pregnancy. The purpose of this article is to update midwives and other prenatal care providers on the current prenatal genetic testing options available and how to appropriately offer and discuss them with their clients. We discuss how these tests work; what to do with the results; and most importantly, how to support and communicate accurate information to women and families as they navigate through an increasingly complicated array of testing choices.

  3. Medical Care during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Medical Care During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care During ... médica durante el embarazo The Importance of Prenatal Care Millions of American women give birth every year, ...

  4. Pregnancy care

    MedlinePlus

    ... with you about how to manage common pregnancy complaints such as: Morning sickness Backaches, leg pain, and ... getting prenatal care You cannot manage common pregnancy complaints without medicines You might have been exposed to ...

  5. Invasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Zhi; Yang, Yan-Dong

    2017-02-01

    Thalassemia is the most common monogenic inherited disease worldwide, affecting individuals originating from many countries to various extents. As the disease requires long-term care, prevention of the homozygous state presents a substantial global disease burden. The comprehensively preventive programs involve carrier detections, molecular diagnostics, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis. Invasive prenatal diagnosis refers to obtaining fetal material by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) at the first trimester, and by amniocentesis or cordocentesis at the second trimester. Molecular diagnosis, which includes multiple techniques that are aimed at the detection of mutations in the α- or β-globin genes, facilitates prenatal diagnosis and definitive diagnosis of the fetus. These are valuable procedures for couples at risk, so that they can be offered options to have healthy offspring. According to local practices and legislation, genetic counseling should accompany the invasive diagnostic procedures, DNA testing, and disclosure of the results. The most critical issue in any type of prenatal molecular testing is maternal cell contamination (MCC), especially when a fetus is found to inherit a particular mutation from the mother. The best practice is to perform MCC studies on all prenatal samples. The recent successful studies of fetal DNA in maternal plasma may allow future prenatal testing that is non-invasive for the fetus and result in significant reduction of invasive diagnostic procedures.

  6. Callosal agenesis followed postnatally after prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Imataka, George; Nakagawa, Eiji; Kuwashima, Shigeko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hideo; Arisaka, Osamu

    2006-09-01

    Callosal agenesis is a congenital brain anomaly caused by embryonal hypogenesis of the corpus callosum. Concerning the neurological prognosis, epilepsy and motor disturbance are noted in some cases, while many cases are asymptomatic and the prognosis is good. We report a fetus tentatively diagnosed with hydrocephaly on prenatal echo-encephalography, which was performed without adequate explanation to and understanding of the parents. The parents had not expected an abnormality before the screening, and were subsequently not psychologically prepared for the discovery of the congenital brain anomaly on imaging. Moreover, they received no guidance on how to deal with any possible abnormalities. The pregnant mother was referred to our hospital. Prenatal MRI was performed after informed consent was obtained, and the fetus was diagnosed with callosal agenesis. The patient was followed for 5 years, and neurological development was normal. However, the parents have remained anxious while raising the child. Thus, the prenatal diagnosis of callosal agenesis in this case caused unnecessary mental burden to the parents. Here, we report the course of the case, and discuss the way prenatal ultrasonography should be used as a prenatal screening method, and the importance of counseling before the test.

  7. Medicaid coverage of maternity care for aliens in California.

    PubMed

    Norton, S A; Kenney, G M; Ellwood, M R

    1996-01-01

    The quantity and cost-effectiveness of prenatal care is a critical reproductive health issue as federal and state legislators consider reducing publicly funded services to aliens. An analysis of data from medi-Cal, California's Medicaid program, shows that undocumented and legalized aliens who qualified for coverage under the provisions of federal legislation or the state's expansion of eligibility criteria accounted for 45% of deliveries financed by Medi-Cal in 1991; outlays for these deliveries are estimated at less than 2% of all Medi-Cal payments for that year. Most of these women also received prenatal care covered by Medi-Cal, but more than half were not enrolled in the program until after the first trimester of pregnancy (and thus may not have received adequate prenatal care). Alien women were enrolled for an average of 5-6 months of their pregnancy, whereas nonalien women who qualified for coverage were enrolled for about seven months. California's Proposition 187 would eliminate funding for prenatal care for undocumented aliens, but public outlays for labor and delivery could grow as a result of an increase in poor birth outcomes.

  8. Access, quality and costs of prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Luis A; Berkshire, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The background risk of birth defects ranges from 2 to 5%. These birth defects are responsible for 30% of all admissions to pediatric hospitals and are responsible for a large proportion of neonatal and infant deaths. Medicine and Genetics have taken giant steps in their ability to detect and treat genetic disorders in utero. Screening tests for prenatal diagnosis should be offered to all pregnant women to assess their risk of having a baby with a birth defect or genetic disorder. Psychosocial and financial factors, inadequate insurance coverage, and the inability to pay for health care services are some of the known barriers to healthcare. These barriers are particularly magnified when there is a language barrier. From an economical standpoint it has been demonstrated that prenatal diagnosis has the potential of saving millions of dollars to our healthcare system. But when patients do not have the resources to access prenatal care and prenatal diagnosis cost shifting occurs, escalating healthcare costs. Our current healthcare system promotes inequalities in its delivery. With the existing barriers to access, quality, and costs of prenatal diagnosis we are confronted with an inefficient and flawed system.

  9. Prenatal Diagnosis of Non-Syndromic Congenital Heart Defects

    PubMed Central

    Ailes, Elizabeth C.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Johnson, Candice Y.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Correa, Adolfo; Honein, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Congenital heart defects (CHDs) occur in nearly 1% of live births. We sought to assess factors associated with prenatal CHD diagnosis in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS). Methods We analyzed data from mothers with CHD-affected pregnancies from 1998–2005. Prenatal CHD diagnosis was defined as affirmative responses to questions about abnormal prenatal ultrasounds and/or fetal echocardiography obtained during a structured telephone interview. Results Fifteen percent (1,097/7,299) of women with CHD-affected pregnancies (excluding recognized syndromes and single-gene disorders) reported receiving a prenatal CHD diagnosis. Prenatal CHD diagnosis was positively associated with advanced maternal age, family history of CHD, type 1 or type 2 diabetes, twin or higher order gestation, CHD complexity and presence of extracardiac defects. Prenatal CHD diagnosis was inversely associated with maternal Hispanic race/ethnicity, prepregnancy overweight or obesity, and pre-existing hypertension. Prenatal CHD diagnosis varied by time to NBDPS interview and NBDPS study site. Conclusions Further work is warranted to identify reasons for the observed variability in maternal reports of prenatal CHD diagnosis and the extent to which differences in health literacy or health system factors such as access to specialized prenatal care and/or fetal echocardiography may account for such variability. PMID:24222433

  10. [Introduction of the psychoprophylactic method and its influence on the prenatal care program for institutional parturition in Japan: the practice in the Central Hospital of Maternity of the Japanese Red Cross Society and Oomori Red Cross Hospital, 1953-1964].

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Satoko; Tsukisawa, Miyoko

    2014-03-01

    The psychoprophylactic method is one of the methods for providing 'painless childbirth without drugs' and was invented by applying I. Pavlov's theory of higher nervous activity. In 1951, it was adopted as a national policy in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. This method was then introduced in the People's Republic of China in 1952. In 1953, it was brought to Japan by Masatomo SUGAI, an obstetrician, and was introduced into the Central Hospital of Maternity of the Japanese Red Cross Society with the support of the director, Naotarou KUJI. The practice of this method by the research team, which consisted of the obstetricians and midwives of the Central Hospital of Maternity of the Japanese Red Cross Society and Oomori Red Cross Hospital, resulted in the initiation and characterization of the prenatal care program to encourage the autonomy of the pregnant women for normal parturition in the institutions of Japan.

  11. Prenatal Genetic Counselling

    PubMed Central

    McGillivray, Barbara C.

    1986-01-01

    Genetic concerns and indications for prenatal diagnosis are first recognized by the family physician. Review of personal, pregnancy and family history may indicate concerns beyond that of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis is still the most frequently used modality for prenatal diagnosis, but detailed ultrasound is valuable for structural abnormalities, and chorionic villus sampling is now being tested as an alternative to amniocentesis. PMID:21267316

  12. Prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis: contemporary practices in light of the past.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S

    2016-06-01

    The 20th century eugenics movement in the USA and contemporary practices involving prenatal screening (PNS), prenatal diagnosis (PND), abortion and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) share important morally relevant similarities. I summarise some features of the 20th century eugenics movement; describe the contemporary standard of care in the USA regarding PNS, PND, abortion and PGD; and demonstrate that the 'old eugenics' the contemporary standard of care share the underlying view that social resources should be invested to prevent the birth of people with certain characteristics. This comparison makes evident the difficulty of crafting moral arguments that treat some uses of PNS, PND, abortion and PGD as licit and others as illicit.

  13. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  14. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  15. [Normative prenatal evaluation at a philanthropic maternity hospital in São Paulo].

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Claudia Regina Hostim; Bonadio, Isabel Cristina; Tsunechiro, Maria Alice

    2011-12-01

    This cross-sectional study counted with the participation of 301 pregnant women seen in 2009 at a philanthropic maternity hospital in the city of São Paulo (a prenatal support program named Pré-Natal do Amparo Maternal - PN-AM). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prenatal care according to the initial gestational age, the number of appointments that were held, the continuity of the assistance, and relate the appropriateness with the socio-demographic, obstetric and local variables of the initial prenatal care. The analysis criteria used was initiating prenatal care before 120 days of gestation and attending at least six appointments. The relationship between the variables was analyzed using the Chi-Square Test. Results showed that 41.5% of the pregnant women initiated prenatal care at another health care service and transferred spontaneously to the PN-AM; 74.1% initiated the prenatal care early and 80.4% attended at least six appointments; 63.1% met both criteria simultaneously. Appropriate prenatal care showed a statistically significant difference for mother's age, steady partner, employment, place of residence, having a companion during the appointment and place where prenatal care was initiated.

  16. The California Prenatal Screening Program: "options and choices" not "coercion and eugenics".

    PubMed

    Flessel, Monica C; Lorey, Fred W

    2011-08-01

    The California Prenatal Screening Program is designed to make prenatal screening available to the state's large and diverse population. The Program provides information to women which will allow them to make informed choices regarding prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis. Since the Program's inception in 1986, women in California have had the option to participate in prenatal screening or to decline prenatal screening. The California Program offers prenatal diagnostic services to women whose screening tests indicate an increased risk for birth defects, including Down syndrome. Women can decline any or all of these follow-up services. Genetic counseling, diagnostic services, and the presentation of diagnostic results are performed by medical professionals (not State staff) who follow established guidelines for nondirective counseling. Program data clearly demonstrate that women in California have a wide range of options and make a wide range of choices regarding prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis. California's comprehensive Prenatal Screening Program promotes optimal care for all women within all options and choices. The important and necessary communication among organizations and stakeholders involved in prenatal screening and diagnosis, and in related care for pregnant women and for people with Down syndrome, is not served by misrepresentation and inflammatory rhetoric.

  17. Gestational diabetes - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Pregnancy - gestational diabetes; Prenatal care - gestational diabetes ... Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar (glucose) that happens during pregnancy. There are no symptoms in most cases. But ...

  18. Understanding Prenatal Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... several things, particularly the risk of Down Syndrome. Rh Incompatibility This test determines whether the mother and ... at the first prenatal visit. If there is Rh incompatibility, treatments can help prevent later complications. Ultrasound ...

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of achondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Golbus, M S; Hall, B D; Filly, R A; Poskanzer, L B

    1977-09-01

    Severe rhizomelic and mesomelic dwarfism was demonstrated in a 20-week gestation fetus by amniography. A systematic progressive approach to prenatal diagnosis in the absence of a definitive diagnosis and the use of contrast radiography is discussed.

  20. Prenatal office practices regarding infant feeding choices.

    PubMed

    Dusdieker, Lois B; Dungy, Claibourne I; Losch, Mary E

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the obstetric care providers' roles in breast-feeding promotion during prenatal care. A questionnaire addressing breast-feeding issues was sent to family practitioners (FP), obstetric-gynecologists (OB/GYN), and nurse midwives (NM) in Iowa, USA. All NM, 97% of FP, and 85% of OB/GYN reported asking infant feeding preference-usually only at the first prenatal visit. NM (73%) were most likely to provide extensive breast-feeding counseling. OB/GYN (68%) and FP physicians (90%) reported doing their own breast-feeding counseling. Breast examinations targeting future breast-feeding problems were done in 82% to 84% of patients. NM practices shared more information supportive of breast-feeding. Nearly all providers offered prenatal classes, but only 41% of FP offered breast-feeding classes. Free formula samples were available in 73% of FP, 54% of OB/GYN, and 36% NM offices. Pamphlets on formula feeding and also breast-feeding were readily available. Overall NM (64%) reported being strong breast-feeding advocates compared to only 13% of FP and 7% of OB/GYN. In conclusion, little promotion of breast-feeding occurs in most prenatal practice settings.

  1. Yoga and massage therapy reduce prenatal depression and prematurity.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Medina, Lissette; Delgado, Jeannette; Hernandez, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    Eighty-four prenatally depressed women were randomly assigned to yoga, massage therapy or standard prenatal care control groups to determine the relative effects of yoga and massage therapy on prenatal depression and neonatal outcomes. Following 12 weeks of twice weekly yoga or massage therapy sessions (20 min each) both therapy groups versus the control group had a greater decrease on depression, anxiety and back and leg pain scales and a greater increase on a relationship scale. In addition, the yoga and massage therapy groups did not differ on neonatal outcomes including gestational age and birthweight, and those groups, in turn, had greater gestational age and birthweight than the control group.

  2. Nurse managed prenatal programs affect outcomes for corporations.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P E; Bitowski, B E; Bell, P L

    1997-09-01

    Faced with higher medical costs and increased insurance premiums, corporations are focusing on health promotion and wellness. With increasing numbers of women in the workforce, corporations have identified the need for prenatal programs. By developing, initiating, and evaluating outcome-based prenatal programs nurses can target the health care needs of this select population. One such program documented several outcomes including improved employee health and an 86% reduction in maternal/newborn costs.

  3. 5 CFR 919.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate evidence. 919.900 Section 919.900 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.900 Adequate...

  4. Do recent US Supreme Court rulings on patenting of genes and genetic diagnostics affect the practice of genetic screening and diagnosis in prenatal and reproductive care?

    PubMed

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; McGuire, Amy L; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B

    2014-10-01

    Thousands of patents have been awarded that claim human gene sequences and their uses, and some have been challenged in court. In a recent high-profile case, Association for Molecular Pathology, et al. v. Myriad Genetics, Inc., et al., the US Supreme Court ruled that genes are natural occurring substances and therefore not patentable through 'composition of matter' claims. The consequences of this ruling will extend well beyond ending Myriad's monopoly over BRCA testing and may affect similar monopolies of other commercial laboratories for tests involving other genes. It could also simplify intellectual property issues surrounding genome-wide clinical sequencing, which can generate results for genes covered by intellectual property. Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for common aneuploidies using cell-free fetal (cff) DNA in maternal blood is currently offered through commercial laboratories and is also the subject of ongoing patent litigation. The recent Supreme Court decision in the Myriad case has already been invoked by a lower district court in NIPT litigation and resulted in invalidation of primary claims in a patent on currently marketed cffDNA-based testing for chromosomal aneuploidies.

  5. Do recent US Supreme Court rulings on patenting of genes and genetic diagnostics affect the practice of genetic screening and diagnosis in prenatal and reproductive care?

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; McGuire, Amy L.; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B.

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of patents have been awarded that claim human gene sequences and their uses, and some have been challenged in court. In a recent high-profile case, Association for Molecular Pathology, et al. vs. Myriad Genetics, Inc., et al., the United States Supreme Court ruled that genes are natural occurring substances and therefore not patentable through “composition of matter” claims. The consequences of this ruling will extend well beyond ending Myriad's monopoly over BRCA testing, and may affect similar monopolies of other commercial laboratories for tests involving other genes. It could also simplify intellectual property issues surrounding genome-wide clinical sequencing, which can generate results for genes covered by intellectual property. Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for common aneuploidies using cell-free fetal (cff) DNA in maternal blood is currently offered through commercial laboratories and is also the subject of ongoing patent litigation. The recent Supreme Court decision in the Myriad case has already been invoked by a lower district court in NIPT litigation and resulted in invalidation of primary claims in a patent on currently marketed cffDNA-based testing for chromosomal aneuploidies. PMID:24989832

  6. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening

    PubMed Central

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  7. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening.

    PubMed

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-11-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  8. Prenatal Influences on the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Lise

    2002-01-01

    Gives an overview of embryology and prenatal brain, sensory, and motor development. Includes discussion of maternal nutrition, chemical exposure, prenatal drug and alcohol hazards, cigarette smoking, and some causes of neural tube defects and premature birth. (Author/KB)

  9. Prenatal Genetic Counseling (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Prenatal Genetic Counseling KidsHealth > For Parents > Prenatal Genetic Counseling Print ... how can they help your family? What Is Genetic Counseling? Genetic counseling is the process of: evaluating ...

  10. Prenatal Tests for Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    PRENATAL TESTS FOR DOWN SYNDROME S HARE W ITH W OMEN PRENATAL TESTS FOR DOWN SYNDROME What Is Down Syndrome? Down syndrome is a common birth defect that includes mental retardation and— often— heart ...

  11. Prenatal Intuitive Coparenting Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Darwiche, Joëlle; Fivaz-Depeursinge, Elisabeth; Corboz-Warnery, Antoinette

    2016-01-01

    Micro-analytic research on intuitive parenting behaviors has shed light on the temporal dynamics of parent and child interactions. Observations have shown that parents possess remarkable implicit communicative abilities allowing them to adapt to the clues infants give and therefore stimulate the development of many of the infants’ abilities, such as communication skills. This work focused on observing intuitive parenting behaviors that were synchronized and coordinated between the parents. We call them “prenatal intuitive coparenting behaviors” and used an observation task – the Prenatal Lausanne Trilogue Play procedure – to observe them. For this task, the parents role-play their first encounter with their future baby, represented by a doll. Two cases from a study on pregnancy after assisted reproductive technology are provided to illustrate how these behaviors manifest themselves. The observations from the first case suggest that expectant parents can offer the baby a coparental framework, whereas the observations from the second case show that opportunities for episodes of prenatal intuitive coparenting can be missed due to certain relationship dynamics. These kinds of observations deepen our knowledge of the prenatal emergence of the coparenting relationship and allow us to hone our strategies for intervening during pregnancy with couples who experience coparenting difficulties. Furthermore, these observations provide a novel and complementary perspective on prenatal intuitive parenting and coparenting behaviors. PMID:27833576

  12. Prenatal substance abuse: short- and long-term effects on the exposed fetus.

    PubMed

    Behnke, Marylou; Smith, Vincent C

    2013-03-01

    Prenatal substance abuse continues to be a significant problem in this country and poses important health risks for the developing fetus. The primary care pediatrician's role in addressing prenatal substance exposure includes prevention, identification of exposure, recognition of medical issues for the exposed newborn infant, protection of the infant, and follow-up of the exposed infant. This report will provide information for the most common drugs involved in prenatal exposure: nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, opiates, cocaine, and methamphetamine.

  13. Elements for adequate informed consent in the surgical context.

    PubMed

    Abaunza, Hernando; Romero, Klaus

    2014-07-01

    Given a history of atrocities and violations of ethical principles, several documents and regulations have been issued by a wide variety of organizations. They aim at ensuring that health care and clinical research adhere to defined ethical principles. A fundamental component was devised to ensure that the individual has been provided the necessary information to make an informed decision regarding health care or participation in clinical research. This article summarizes the history and regulations for informed consent and discusses suggested components for adequate consent forms for daily clinical practice in surgery as well as clinical research.

  14. Human prenatal diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Filkins, K.; Russo, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Advances in the field of prenatal diagnosis have been rapid during the past decade. Moreover, liberal use of birth control methods and restriction of family size have placed greater emphasis on optimum outcome of each pregnancy. There are many prenatal diagnostic techniques of proven value; the risks, including false negatives and false positives, are known. With the rapid proliferation of new and experimental techniques, many disorders are potential diagnosable or even treatable; however, risk factors are unknown and issues relating to quality control have not been resolved. These problems are readily appreciated in the dramatic new techniques involving recombinant DNA, chorion villus sampling, and fetal surgery. Unfortunately, clinicians may not appreciate the difficulties that may also be encountered in the more mundane prenatal diagnostic tests such as ultrasonography or enzymatic testing. The aim of this volume is to clarify and rationalize certain aspects of diagnosis, genetic counseling, and intervention. New and experimental techniques are presented in the light of current knowledge.

  15. Improving Access to Maternity Care for Women with Opioid Use Disorders: Colocation of Midwifery Services at an Addiction Treatment Program.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal drug and alcohol use is associated with serious medical and psychiatric morbidity for pregnant and postpartum women and their newborns. Participation in prenatal care has been shown to improve outcomes, even in the absence of treatment for substance use disorders. Unfortunately, women with substance use disorders often do not receive adequate prenatal care. Barriers to accessing care for pregnant women with substance use disorders include medical and psychiatric comorbidities, transportation, caring for existing children, housing and food insecurity, and overall lack of resources. In a health care system where care is delivered by each discipline separately, lack of communication between providers causes poorly coordinated services and missed opportunities. The integration of mental health and substance use treatment services in medical settings is a goal of health care reform. However, this approach has not been widely promoted in the context of maternity care. The Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center Perinatal Addiction Treatment Program provides an integrated model of care for pregnant and postpartum women with substance use disorders, including the colocation of midwifery services in the context of a dedicated addiction treatment program. A structured approach to screening and intervention for drug and alcohol use in the outpatient prenatal clinic facilitates referral to treatment at the appropriate level. Providing midwifery care within the context of a substance use treatment program improves access to prenatal care, continuity of care throughout pregnancy and the postpartum, and availability of family planning services. The evolution of this innovative approach is described. This article is part of a special series of articles that address midwifery innovations in clinical practice, education, interprofessional collaboration, health policy, and global health.

  16. Offering prenatal diagnostic tests: European guidelines for clinical practice [corrected].

    PubMed

    Skirton, Heather; Goldsmith, Lesley; Jackson, Leigh; Lewis, Celine; Chitty, Lyn

    2014-05-01

    For over four decades, it has been possible to offer prenatal diagnostic testing for fetal abnormalities. Prenatal testing is now available for a wide range of monogenic disorders as well as chromosomal abnormalities and should be provided within the ethical framework of informed consent and autonomous choice. However, there are no published guidelines for health professionals from varied disciplines who offer prenatal diagnosis (PND) in a range of possible settings including departments of maternity, obstetrics and clinical genetics. We used an Expert Group technique to develop a set of guidelines for provision of prenatal diagnostic services. Thirteen European health professionals, all experts in PND, participated in a workshop to develop the guidelines, which were then subjected to a wide consultation process. The objective of PND was defined as providing prenatal diagnostic testing services (for genetic conditions) that enable families to make informed choices consistent with their individual needs and values and which support them in dealing with the outcome of such testing. General principles, logistical considerations, clinical care and counselling topics are all described and are equally applicable to invasive and non-invasive testing. These guidelines provide a framework for ethical clinical care; however, they are flexible enough to enable practitioners to adapt them to their particular setting. Ideally, an individualised approach to each family is required to ensure autonomous choice and informed consent regarding prenatal diagnostic testing within the local ethical and legal framework.

  17. Where It All Begins: The Impact of Preconceptional and Prenatal Care on Early Childhood Development. Building Community Systems for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Michael C.; Bragonier, Robert; Silver, Ellen R.; Bemis-Heys, Rose

    In 1998, California voters approved Proposition 10, the Children and Families First Act, which placed an additional tax on cigarette sales; monies generated will be used to improve early childhood development for birth to five. In terms of early childhood development, the starting point is not birth but long before; care of women of reproductive…

  18. The Effects of Prenatal Drug-Exposure on Toddlers' Temperament, Development and Play Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storkamp, Barbara J.; And Others

    This study compared 17 toddlers identified as prenatally exposed to cocaine (along with marijuana, alcohol, or nicotine), with another group of 10 toddlers with no prenatal exposure. All subjects were African-American, 1-3 years of age, and in foster care. Toddlers were age- and gender-matched and compared on measures of temperament, development,…

  19. Just Kids: A Practical Guide for Working with Children Prenatally Substance-Exposed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Publications.

    This guide was developed to provide effective and practical strategies to meet the needs of prenatally substance-exposed children in preschool or day care settings. Techniques are based on good child development practices and are equally effective for both teachers and parents. The first chapter outlines information about prenatal substance…

  20. Prenatal diagnosis: whose right?

    PubMed Central

    Heyd, D

    1995-01-01

    The question who is the subject of the right to prenatal diagnosis may be answered in four ways: the parents, the child, society, or no one. This article investigates the philosophical issues involved in each of these answers, which touch upon the conditions of personal identity, the principle of privacy, the scope of social responsibility, and the debate about impersonalism in ethics. PMID:8558544

  1. Prenatal Whole Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Donley, Greer; Hull, Sara Chandros; Berkman, Benjamin E.

    2014-01-01

    With whole genome sequencing set to become the preferred method of prenatal screening, we need to pay more attention to the massive amount of information it will deliver to parents—and the fact that we don't yet understand what most of it means. PMID:22777977

  2. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  3. Commentary: how individual and profession-level factors influence discussion of disability in prenatal genetic counseling.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jan; Weil, Jon

    2012-02-01

    Hodgson and Weil (Journal of Genetic Counseling, 2011) reports on two interactive workshops in which genetic counselors identified a broad set of counseling issues that may be impediments to promoting an adequate discussion of disability in prenatal genetic counseling. The present commentary discusses two factors that we infer underlie these counseling issues. First, countertransference concerning disability, which is normal and expected, may influence genetic counselors' decisions about raising and exploring the complex topic of disability in prenatal genetic counseling. Second, the limited involvement of the profession of genetic counseling in the complex social and ethical issues of disability provide little guidance to the individual genetic counselor with respect to discussing disability in prenatal diagnosis counseling. We suggest both factors must be acknowledged and addressed in order to adequately implement the recommendations presented in Hodgson and Weil (Journal of Genetic Counseling, 2011) as well as other efforts to increase discussion of disability in prenatal diagnosis counseling in the service of informed decision making.

  4. [Technical quality of prenatal visits in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Tal-Dia, A; Garnier, P; Toure, K; Mbow, E H; Wone, I

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the quality of antenatal care in Senegal. A survey was conducted in 49 health centers near 70 health workers practising antenatal cares for pregnant women. The quality of cares was assessed on 13 essential actions, which were classified in 4 components. The global score of quality and the specific score of each component were calculated and analysed according to the qualification and the duration of time in the work of the health workers, the location and the equipment of the centers. Global quality of prenatal cares was linked with the qualification of agents. The component "screening for risk factors" had low and worse score and "reception of pregnant women" also. These 2 components were not linked with the qualification of agents, contrary to the 2 others, pregnancy and mother health surveillance. The duration of time in service and the equipment had no influence in global and specific scores. The health workers qualification was linked with many components of quality, but a good basic training is not sufficient to provide prenatal care of high quality. It must be define a framework with screening for unfavorable ends of pregnancy.

  5. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  6. Religious Traditions and Prenatal Genetic Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rebecca Rae

    2009-01-01

    Members of organized religious groups may look to their faith traditions for guidance regarding the moral implications of prenatal diagnosis and intervention. Many denominations have doctrinal statements relevant to these deliberations. In this paper, common spiritual issues arising in the genetic counseling encounter are described. Representative doctrinal positions, derived from the responses of 31 U.S. religious denominations to a survey relating to prenatal genetic counseling, are given. Because the long-term adjustment of patients may be dependent in part on their ability to reconcile their actions with their faith traditions, genetic counselors best serve their patients when they invite discussion of matters of faith. Unless invited, patients may assume these topics are ‘off limits’ or that care providers are indifferent to their beliefs. Although genetics professionals ought not assume the role of spiritual advisor, a working knowledge of doctrinal approaches should help counselors frame the issues, and avoid missteps. PMID:19170093

  7. Prenatal investments, breastfeeding, and birth order.

    PubMed

    Buckles, Kasey; Kolka, Shawna

    2014-10-01

    Mothers have many opportunities to invest in their own or their child's health and well-being during pregnancy and immediately after birth. These investments include seeking prenatal care, taking prenatal vitamins, and breastfeeding. In this paper, we investigate a potential determinant of mothers' investments that has been largely overlooked by previous research-birth order. Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) Child and Young Adult Survey, which provides detailed information on pre- and post-natal behaviors of women from the NLSY79. These women were between the ages of 14 and 22 in 1979, and form a nationally representative sample of youth in the United States. Our sample includes births to these women between 1973 and 2010 (10,328 births to 3755 mothers). We use fixed effects regression models to estimate within-mother differences in pre- and post-natal behaviors across births. We find that mothers are 6.6 percent less likely to take prenatal vitamins in a fourth or higher-order birth than in a first and are 10.6 percent less likely to receive early prenatal care. Remarkably, mothers are 15.4 percent less likely to breastfeed a second-born child than a first, and are 20.9 percent less likely to breastfeed a fourth or higher-order child. These results are not explained by changing attitudes toward investments over time. These findings suggest that providers may want to increase efforts to encourage these behaviors at women with higher parity. The results also identify a potential mechanism for the emergence of differences in health and other outcomes across birth orders.

  8. Prospective and Dyadic Associations between Expectant Parents’ Prenatal Hormone Changes and Postpartum Parenting Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, Robin S.; Chopik, William J.; Saxbe, Darby E.; Wardecker, Britney M.; Moors, Amy C.; LaBelle, Onawa P.

    2017-01-01

    During the transition to parenthood, both men and women experience hormone changes that are thought to promote parental care. Yet very few studies have explicitly tested the hypothesis that prenatal hormone changes are associated with postpartum parenting behavior. In a longitudinal study of 27 first-time expectant couples, we assessed whether prenatal hormone changes predicted self and partner-reported parenting outcomes at three months postpartum. Expectant fathers showed prenatal declines in testosterone and estradiol, and larger declines in these hormones predicted larger contributions to household and infant care tasks postpartum. Women whose partners showed larger testosterone declines also reported receiving more support and more help with household tasks. Expectant mothers showed prenatal increases in testosterone and estradiol, and larger increases predicted lower partner-rated support. Together, our findings provide some of first evidence that prenatal hormone changes may indeed be functional and that behaviors associated with these changes may be detectable by co-parents. PMID:27604815

  9. Unfair discrimination in prenatal aneuploidy screening using cell-free DNA?

    PubMed

    Rolfes, Vasilija; Schmitz, Dagmar

    2016-03-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing on the basis of cell-free DNA of placental origin (NIPT) changed the landscape of prenatal care and is seen as superior to all other up to now implemented prenatal screening procedures - at least in the high-risk population. NIPT has spread almost worldwide commercially, but only in a few countries the costs of NIPT are covered by insurance companies. Such financial barriers in prenatal testing can lead to significant restrictions to the average range of opportunities of pregnant women and couples, which on an intersubjective level can be defined as unfair discrimination and on an individual level weakens reproductive autonomy. Given that enabling reproductive autonomy is the main ethical justification for offering prenatal (genetic) testing, these barriers are not only an issue of justice in health care, but are potentially counteracting the primary purpose of these testing procedures.

  10. Prenatal findings of holoprosencephaly.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yuko; Suzumori, Nobuhiro; Sugiura, Tokio; Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi

    2015-08-01

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a rare brain abnormality characterized by an incomplete cleavage of the primitive prosencephalon of forebrain during early embryogenesis. To determine the clinical characteristics and outcome of fetuses with HPE, we retrospectively analyzed nine patients who were prenatally diagnosed as fetal HPE by ultrasounds. The mean diagnostic weeks were 20 weeks of gestation. Two cases died within one day after birth. The chromosomal examinations were performed in seven cases (trisomy 18: n = 2; trisomy 13: n = 2; 45,XX,der(18)t(18;21)(p10;p10)mat: n = 1; normal karyotype: n = 2). In our HPE cases, most cases had serious facial anomalies and poor prognosis. Our data suggested that the early prenatal diagnosis of HPE allowed time for parental counseling and delivery planning.

  11. Variation in Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Heart Disease in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Quartermain, Michael D.; Pasquali, Sara K.; Hill, Kevin D.; Goldberg, David J.; Huhta, James C.; Jacobs, Jeffrey P.; Jacobs, Marshall L.; Kim, Sunghee; Ungerleider, Ross M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prenatal diagnosis allows for improved peri-operative outcomes of fetuses with certain forms of congenital heart disease (CHD). Variability in prenatal diagnosis has been demonstrated in other countries, leading to efforts to improve fetal imaging protocols and access to care, but has not been examined across the United States. Objective To evaluate national variation in prenatal detection across geographic region and defect type in neonates and infants with CHD undergoing heart surgery. Methods Cardiovascular operations performed in patients ≤ 6 months of age within the United States and included in the STS-CHS Surgical Database (2006–2012) were eligible for inclusion. Centers with >15% missing prenatal diagnosis data were excluded from the study. Prenatal diagnosis rates were compared across geographic location of residence and defect type using the Chi-square test. Results Overall, the study included 31,374 patients from 91 STS-CHS participating centers across the United States. Prenatal detection occurred in 34% and increased every year from 26% (2006) to 42% (2012). There was significant geographic variation in rates of prenatal diagnosis across states (range 11.8 – 53.4%, p < 0.0001). Significant variability by defect type was also observed with higher rates for lesions identifiable on 4-chamber view versus those requiring outflow tract visualization (57% versus 32%, p < 0.0001). Conclusions Rates of prenatal CHD detection in the United States remain low for patients undergoing surgical intervention, with significant variability between states and across defect type. Further studies are needed to identify reasons for this variation and the potential impact on patient outcomes. PMID:26216324

  12. Getting to Know Your Baby and Yourself: Prenatal to Birth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Grace C.

    This illustrated booklet on prenatal care and birth is part of a related curriculum on parenting and child development designed for school-age mothers. Conception, embryonic and fetal development, the birth process, nutrition during pregnancy, and emotional and physical characteristics of pregnant women are explained. Short quizzes and answers are…

  13. Prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy and prenatal syphilis testing in Brazil: Birth in Brazil study

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann; Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Determine the coverage rate of syphilis testing during prenatal care and the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women in Brazil. METHODS This is a national hospital-based cohort study conducted in Brazil with 23,894 postpartum women between 2011 and 2012. Data were obtained using interviews with postpartum women, hospital records, and prenatal care cards. All postpartum women with a reactive serological test result recorded in the prenatal care card or syphilis diagnosis during hospitalization for childbirth were considered cases of syphilis in pregnancy. The Chi-square test was used for determining the disease prevalence and testing coverage rate by region of residence, self-reported skin color, maternal age, and type of prenatal and child delivery care units. RESULTS Prenatal care covered 98.7% postpartum women. Syphilis testing coverage rate was 89.1% (one test) and 41.2% (two tests), and syphilis prevalence in pregnancy was 1.02% (95%CI 0.84;1.25). A lower prenatal coverage rate was observed among women in the North region, indigenous women, those with less education, and those who received prenatal care in public health care units. A lower testing coverage rate was observed among residents in the North, Northeast, and Midwest regions, among younger and non-white skin-color women, among those with lower education, and those who received prenatal care in public health care units. An increased prevalence of syphilis was observed among women with < 8 years of education (1.74%), who self-reported as black (1.8%) or mixed (1.2%), those who did not receive prenatal care (2.5%), and those attending public (1.37%) or mixed (0.93%) health care units. CONCLUSIONS The estimated prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy was similar to that reported in the last sentinel surveillance study conducted in 2006. There was an improvement in prenatal care and testing coverage rate, and the goals suggested by the World Health Organization were achieved in two regions. Regional

  14. Selective abortion after prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Schubert-Lehnhardt, V

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the main arguments in Europe against selective abortion after prenatal diagnoses and against using prenatal diagnoses as a whole from an ethical point of view. The different experiences from the Eastern and the Western parts of Germany are used as examples. The paper suggests that using ethics could promote multicultural experiences and different strategies of decision-making.

  15. Practice Bulletin No. 162: Prenatal Diagnostic Testing for Genetic Disorders.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    Prenatal genetic diagnostic testing is intended to determine, with as much certainty as possible, whether a specific genetic disorder or condition is present in the fetus. In contrast, prenatal genetic screening is designed to assess whether a patient is at increased risk of having a fetus affected by a genetic disorder. Originally, prenatal genetic testing focused primarily on Down syndrome (trisomy 21), but now it is able to detect a broad range of genetic disorders. Although it is necessary to perform amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) to definitively diagnose most genetic disorders, in some circumstances, fetal imaging with ultrasonography, echocardiography, or magnetic resonance imaging may be diagnostic of a particular structural fetal abnormality that is suggestive of an underlying genetic condition.The objective of prenatal genetic testing is to detect health problems that could affect the woman, fetus, or newborn and provide the patient and her obstetrician-gynecologist or other obstetric care provider with enough information to allow a fully informed decision about pregnancy management. Prenatal genetic testing cannot identify all abnormalities or problems in a fetus, and any testing should be focused on the individual patient's risks, reproductive goals, and preferences. It is important that patients understand the benefits and limitations of all prenatal screening and diagnostic testing, including the conditions for which tests are available and the conditions that will not be detected by testing. It also is important that patients realize that there is a broad range of clinical presentations, or phenotypes, for many genetic disorders and that results of genetic testing cannot predict all outcomes. Prenatal genetic testing has many benefits, including reassuring patients when results are normal, identifying disorders for which prenatal treatment may provide benefit, optimizing neonatal outcomes by ensuring the appropriate location for

  16. Prenatal screening for cystic fibrosis carriers: an economic evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, P T; Loader, S; Kaplan, R M

    1998-01-01

    The cloning of the CFTR gene has made it technically possible to avert the unwanted birth of a child with cystic fibrosis (CF). Several large trials offering prenatal CF carrier screening suggest that such screening is practical and that identified carriers generally use the information obtained. Therefore, a critical question is whether the cost of such screening is justified. Decision analysis was performed that used information about choices that pregnant women were observed to make at each stage in the Rochester prenatal carrier-screening trial. The cost of screening per CF birth voluntarily averted was estimated to be $1,320,000-$1,400,000. However, the lifetime medical cost of the care of a CF child in today's dollars was estimated to be slightly>$1,000,000. Therefore, despite both the high cost of carrier testing and the relative infrequency of CF conceptions in the general population, the averted medical-care cost resulting from choices freely made are estimated to offset approximately 74%-78% of the costs of a screening program. At present, if it is assumed that a pregnancy terminated because of CF is replaced, the marginal cost for prenatal CF carrier screening is estimated to be $8,290 per quality-adjusted life-year. This value compares favorably with that of many accepted medical services. The cost of prenatal CF carrier screening could fall to equal the averted costs of CF patient care if the cost of carrier testing were to fall to $100. PMID:9758600

  17. Prenatal Cell-Free DNA Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Prenatal cell-free DNA screening Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Prenatal cell-free DNA (cfDNA) screening, also known as noninvasive prenatal screening, is ... in a developing baby. During prenatal cell-free DNA screening, DNA from the mother and fetus is ...

  18. Prenatal vitamins: what is in the bottle?

    PubMed

    Duerbeck, Norman B; Dowling, David D; Duerbeck, Jillinda M

    2014-12-01

    Nearly all obstetricians routinely prescribe prenatal vitamins to their pregnant patients at the time of the first prenatal visit. Many times, patients' understanding of the health benefits of prenatal vitamins differs substantially from that of the prescribing physician. The following is a review of the most common ingredients found in prenatal vitamins and their purported health benefits.

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of limb abnormalities: role of fetal ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Ermito, Santina; Dinatale, Angela; Carrara, Sabina; Cavaliere, Alessandro; Imbruglia, Laura; Recupero, Stefania

    2009-01-01

    Fetal ultrasonografy is the most important tool to provide prenatal diagnosis of fetal anomalies. The detection of limb abnormalities may be a complex problem if the correct diagnostic approch is not established. A careful description of the abnormality using the rigth nomenclature is the first step. Looking for other associated abnormalities is the threshold to suspect chromosomal abnormalities or single gene disorder. According to the patogenic point of view, limb abnormalities may be the result of malformation, deformation, or disruption. The prenatal diagnosis and the management of limb abnormalities involve a multidisciplinary team of ostetrician, radiologist/sonologist, clinical geneticist, neonatologist, and orthopedic surgeons to provide the parents with the information regarding etiology of the disorder, prognosis, option related to the pregnancy and recurrence risk for future pregnancies. The aim of this review is to describe the importance of detailed fetal ultrasonography in prenatal diagnosis of limb abnormalities. PMID:22439035

  20. Physician liability and non-invasive prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Toews, Maeghan; Caulfield, Timothy

    2014-10-01

    Although non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) marks a notable development in the field of prenatal genetic testing, there are some physician liability considerations raised by this technology. As NIPT is still emerging as the standard of care and is just starting to receive provincial funding, the question arises of whether physicians are obligated to disclose the availability of NIPT to eligible patients as part of the physician-patient discussion about prenatal screening and diagnosis. If NIPT is discussed with patients, it is important to disclose the limitations of this technology with respect to its accuracy and the number of disorders that it can detect when compared with invasive diagnostic options. A failure to sufficiently disclose these limitations could leave patients with false assurances about the health of their fetuses and could raise informed consent and liability issues, particularly if a child is born with a disability as a result.

  1. Is a prenatal diagnosis detrimental to the survival of a fetus with trisomy 18?

    PubMed

    Morris, Joan K

    2016-04-01

    As trisomy 18 is so rare any individual study is unlikely to have a sufficient number of cases to examine whether a prenatal diagnosis is advantageous or detrimental to the survival of these infants. Estimates of survival in prenatally diagnosed live births have been obtained by combining data from individual hospitals, whereas estimates of survival in postnatally diagnosed live births have been obtained from large population studies linking cytogenetic registers to national mortality registers. The estimates of survival are often lower in the prenatally diagnosed series. However, comparing estimates from these two different sources is not valid; both sources are subject to different biases. At present, there is insufficient information available to indicate that receiving a prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 18 is detrimental to the survival of a foetus with trisomy 18. A prenatal diagnosis does enable the parents and clinicians time to reach a consensus on how best to care for the baby.

  2. Preconception care for women with diabetes and prevention of major congenital malformations.

    PubMed

    Kitzmiller, John L; Wallerstein, Robert; Correa, Adolfo; Kwan, Saiyin

    2010-10-01

    This article provides an overview of the rationale for diabetes preconception care interventions for women with diabetes and the efficacy in reducing the excess occurrence of major congenital malformations. The problems with broad use of individualized preconception care are considered. In addition, suggestions are made for the implementation of more comprehensive interventions in the community and usual diabetes care settings, to address the multiple ongoing challenges in the prevention of structural anomalies associated with preexisting diabetes. Based on the published evidence, successful preconception care can be considered to include: achievement of individualized target standardized glycosylated hemoglobin levels, adequate nutrition, and minimizing hypoglycemia before and after discontinuing effective contraception and during the transition to early prenatal care.

  3. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors.A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L.The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg.In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L.

  4. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors. A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L. The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg. In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L. PMID:27902589

  5. Prenatal care in your third trimester

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heartburn and low back pain are also common complaints at this time in pregnancy. When you're ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  6. Comprehensive Prenatal Care for Pregnant Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isberner, Fred; Wright, W. Russell

    1987-01-01

    This article describes a rural teenage pregnancy program and compares the pregnancy outcomes to 60 matched nonparticipants. The study determined a relationship existed between program participation and maternal complications, birth weight, gestational age, Apgar score, and perinatal morbidity. (Author/MT)

  7. Prenatal Care - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional ( ... Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Arabic (العربية) Fetal Movement Count (Arabic) حساب حرآات الجنين - ...

  8. Prenatal care in your first trimester

    MedlinePlus

    ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , editorial process and privacy policy . A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of ... The information provided herein should not be used during any ...

  9. A survey on awareness of genetic counseling for non-invasive prenatal testing: the first year experience in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yotsumoto, Junko; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Suzumori, Nobuhiro; Yamada, Takahiro; Samura, Osamu; Nishiyama, Miyuki; Miura, Kiyonori; Sawai, Hideaki; Murotsuki, Jun; Kitagawa, Michihiro; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Masuzaki, Hideaki; Hirahara, Fumiki; Endo, Toshiaki; Fukushima, Akimune; Namba, Akira; Osada, Hisao; Kasai, Yasuyo; Watanabe, Atsushi; Katagiri, Yukiko; Takeshita, Naoki; Ogawa, Masaki; Okai, Takashi; Izumi, Shunichiro; Hamanoue, Haruka; Inuzuka, Mayuko; Haino, Kazufumi; Hamajima, Naoki; Nishizawa, Haruki; Okamoto, Yoko; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Kanegawa, Takeshi; Yoshimatsu, Jun; Tairaku, Shinya; Naruse, Katsuhiko; Masuyama, Hisashi; Hyodo, Maki; Kaji, Takashi; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Matsubara, Keiichi; Ogawa, Masanobu; Yoshizato, Toshiyuki; Ohba, Takashi; Kawano, Yukie; Sago, Haruhiko

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to summarize the results from a survey on awareness of genetic counseling for pregnant women who wish to receive non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in Japan. As a component of a clinical study by the Japan NIPT Consortium, genetic counseling was conducted for women who wished to receive NIPT, and a questionnaire concerning both NIPT and genetic counseling was given twice: once after pre-test counseling and again when test results were reported. The responses of 7292 women were analyzed. They expressed high satisfaction with the genetic counseling system of the NIPT Consortium (94%). The number of respondents who indicated that genetic counseling is necessary for NIPT increased over time. Furthermore, they highly valued genetic counseling provided by skilled clinicians, such as clinical geneticists or genetic counselors. The vast majority (90%) responded that there was sufficient opportunity to consider the test ahead of time. Meanwhile, women who received positive test results had a poor opinion and expressed a low-degree satisfaction. We confirmed that the pre-test genetic counseling that we conducted creates an opportunity for pregnant women to sufficiently consider prenatal testing, promotes its understanding and has possibilities to effectively facilitate informed decision making after adequate consideration. A more careful and thorough approach is considered to be necessary for women who received positive test results.

  10. Attitude of Reproductive Healthcare Providers to Prenatal Diagnosis in a Low Resource Nigerian Setting

    PubMed Central

    Nwali, Silas Alegu; Amah, Christopher Chim; Nwankwo, Theophilus Ogochukwu; Lawani, Lucky Osaheni; Ozumba, Benjamin Chukwuma

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Prenatal diagnosis comprises all diagnostic modalities aimed at gaining information about the embryo or fetal wellbeing. It enables antenatal care tailored to the individual need(s) of the fetus. Aim To determine the knowledge, practice and prospect of prenatal diagnosis among reproductive health care providers in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive study in which completely filled self-administered semi-structured questionnaires were retrieved from 182 reproductive healthcare providers at Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki (FETHA). The questionnaires contained 17 items covering the socio-demographic data, knowledge, practice and prospects of prenatal diagnosis among the respondents. Result A total of 179 respondents (98.4%) were aware of the prenatal diagnosis. One hundred and sixty four (90.1%) of the respondents agreed that, prenatal diagnostic services is offered in the study centre and 97% of these respondents cited ultrasound scan as the prenatal diagnostic investigation. While 133 respondents (73.1%) would allow parents to decide the next line of action after due counseling for the diagnosis of a condition not compatible with extrauterine life was made, 23(12.6%) of the respondents would offer termination of the pregnancy. Among the respondents, 173(95.1%) would encourage prenatal diagnosis at the study centre and 153(88.4%) of the 173 respondents would do so by educating the populace on the benefits of the procedure. However, 2(1.1%) of the respondent would not encourage the practice of prenatal diagnosis in FETHA citing adverse effects on the woman and her fetus. Conclusion Reproductive healthcare providers in Abakaliki have a high level of awareness and favorable disposition to prenatal diagnosis. However, prenatal diagnosis is still rudimentary in this environment. PMID:28384937

  11. Cytogenetic analysis in prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Schonberg, S A

    1993-01-01

    Chromosome analysis is the single most frequent test used in laboratory prenatal diagnostic studies. I summarize the current status of the field, including diagnostic problems in the laboratory and the clinical problems associated with communicating unexpected laboratory findings. I explore the effect of molecular genetics on these issues and its possible future effects on the entire practice of prenatal diagnosis as it relates to the risk for chromosome nondisjunction (trisomy). I also discuss the use of cytogenetic analysis in the prenatal diagnosis of certain inherited genetic diseases. Images PMID:8236978

  12. Prenatal management of anencephaly.

    PubMed

    Cook, Rebecca J; Erdman, Joanna N; Hevia, Martin; Dickens, Bernard M

    2008-09-01

    About a third of anencephalic fetuses are born alive, but they are not conscious or viable, and soon die. This neural tube defect can be limited by dietary consumption of foliates, and detected prenatally by ultrasound and other means. Many laws permit abortion, on this indication or on the effects of pregnancy and prospects of delivery on a woman's physical or mental health. However, abortion is limited under some legal systems, particularly in South America. To avoid criminal liability, physicians will not terminate pregnancies, by induced birth or abortion, without prior judicial approval. Argentinian courts have developed means to resolve these cases, but responses of Brazilian courts are less clear. Ethical concerns relate to late-term abortion, meaning after the point of fetal viability, but since anencephalic fetuses are nonviable, many ethical concerns are overcome. Professional guidance is provided by several professional and institutional codes on management of anencephalic pregnancies.

  13. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders-- implications for child neurology, part 1: prenatal exposure and dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Paintner, Ashley; Williams, Andrew D; Burd, Larry

    2012-02-01

    In the United States, approximately 80 000 women consume ethanol through all 3 trimesters of pregnancy each year. In this article, we review prevalence rates of prenatal alcohol exposure in the United States and discuss the mechanisms of prenatal alcohol exposure and placental-umbilical effects. Cigarette smoking and delayed prenatal care are often associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. In addition, increased risk for postnatal adversity is common, including maternal depression, foster care placement, and developmental delay. In part 2, we review prevalence rates and the diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and the implications for child neurologists. We discuss management strategies and the importance of a long-term management plan and anticipatory management to prevent the development of secondary disabilities in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Child neurologists play a key role in diagnosis and the development of appropriate intervention programs for affected children and their families.

  14. Adequate mathematical modelling of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    In environmental observations and laboratory visualization both large scale flow components like currents, jets, vortices, waves and a fine structure are registered (different examples are given). The conventional mathematical modeling both analytical and numerical is directed mostly on description of energetically important flow components. The role of a fine structures is still remains obscured. A variety of existing models makes it difficult to choose the most adequate and to estimate mutual assessment of their degree of correspondence. The goal of the talk is to give scrutiny analysis of kinematics and dynamics of flows. A difference between the concept of "motion" as transformation of vector space into itself with a distance conservation and the concept of "flow" as displacement and rotation of deformable "fluid particles" is underlined. Basic physical quantities of the flow that are density, momentum, energy (entropy) and admixture concentration are selected as physical parameters defined by the fundamental set which includes differential D'Alembert, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations and closing equation of state. All of them are observable and independent. Calculations of continuous Lie groups shown that only the fundamental set is characterized by the ten-parametric Galilelian groups reflecting based principles of mechanics. Presented analysis demonstrates that conventionally used approximations dramatically change the symmetries of the governing equations sets which leads to their incompatibility or even degeneration. The fundamental set is analyzed taking into account condition of compatibility. A high order of the set indicated on complex structure of complete solutions corresponding to physical structure of real flows. Analytical solutions of a number problems including flows induced by diffusion on topography, generation of the periodic internal waves a compact sources in week-dissipative media as well as numerical solutions of the same

  15. Prenatal screening for clubfoot: What factors predict prenatal detection?

    PubMed Central

    Mahan, Susan T.; Yazdy, Mahsa M.; Kasser, James R.; Werler, Martha M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Routine prenatal ultrasound has often resulted in the early detection of musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine which socioeconomic factors are associated with prenatal detection of clubfoot. Methods The Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University identified infants in three states (MA, NY, NC) who were reported as having a clubfoot. Mothers of these children were contacted, interviewed, and medical records obtained. Data were analyzed by using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Overall detection of the clubfoot prenatally was 62.3% (421/676) but this varied considerably by state: 81.1% in Massachusetts (154/190), 58.5% in New York (124/212), and 52.2% in North Carolina (143/274). Multivariate analysis revealed the strongest predictors for prenatal detection were maternal age ≥ 35 years (OR: 3.54), non-Hispanic black race (OR: 0.49), the presence of another birth defect (OR: 2.61), residing in Massachusetts (OR: 2.64) and the presence of a bilateral clubfoot (OR: 1.90). Conclusions We found a statistically significantly increase higher rate of prenatal detection of clubfoot in Massachusetts and decrease lower rate in younger mothers (age<35) and black mothers, even after adjustment for other sociodemographic variables. PMID:24395154

  16. Prenatal exercise research.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise.

  17. [Prenatal discovery of Joubert syndrome associated with small bowel volvulus].

    PubMed

    Aurégan, C; Donciu, V; Millischer, A-E; Khen-Dunlop, N; Deloison, B; Sonigo, P; Magny, J-F

    2016-03-01

    Joubert syndrome and prenatal volvulus are difficult to diagnose during pregnancy. Joubert syndrome and related diseases should be considered in case of prenatal abnormal features of the fourth ventricle. Small bowel volvulus is also a surgical emergency because of the risk of intestinal necrosis before or after delivery. This type of condition justifies the transfer of pregnant women to a specialized hospital where the newborn may receive appropriate care. We report the case of a 31-week and 4-day gestational-age fetus in whom intrauterine growth retardation and small-bowel volvulus were diagnosed. Additional imaging revealed associated Joubert syndrome. This highlights the need for regular ultrasound monitoring during pregnancy and the comanagement of obstetricians and pediatricians to provide appropriate care before and after delivery.

  18. DOD Health Care: Domestic Health Care for Female Servicemembers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    delivery, benign gynecological disorders, postpartum care, and surgical, medical, and radiation treatment of breast, ovarian, cervical, and uterine...installations reported offering female- specific programs or activities, such as a post-deployment group for female servicemembers or a postpartum ...specialized services, such as obstetric care (which includes prenatal, labor and delivery, and postpartum care) and the treatment of reproductive

  19. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  20. [Prenatal diagnosis using chorionic villi].

    PubMed

    Vega Hernández, M E; Hicks, J J; González-Angulo, J

    1991-07-01

    Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) has a promising future about early detection of fetal abnormalities. It has the potential to become a major tool in the prenatal diagnosis and therapy of genetic disorders. Villus samples can be analyzed by means of cytogenetic, biochemical or molecular technics. Information available at present indicates fetal loss rate should be in the same proportion than amniocentesis. CVS appears to be a reasonably safe and reliable method of prenatal diagnosis in the first trimester of pregnancy. This procedure is setting as fast as it is possible like an excellent alternative to amniocentesis.

  1. Prenatal prediction of pulmonary hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Triebwasser, Jourdan E; Treadwell, Marjorie C

    2017-03-15

    Pulmonary hypoplasia, although rare, is associated with significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. Conditions associated with pulmonary hypoplasia include those which limit normal thoracic capacity or movement, including skeletal dysplasias and abdominal wall defects; those with mass effect, including congenital diaphragmatic hernia and pleural effusions; and those with decreased amniotic fluid, including preterm, premature rupture of membranes, and genitourinary anomalies. The ability to predict severe pulmonary hypoplasia prenatally aids in family counseling, as well as obstetric and neonatal management. The objective of this review is to outline the imaging techniques that are widely used prenatally to assess pulmonary hypoplasia and to discuss the limitations of these methods.

  2. Prenatal maternal stress and prematurity: a prospective study of socioeconomically disadvantaged women.

    PubMed

    Lobel, M; Dunkel-Schetter, C; Scrimshaw, S C

    1992-01-01

    Developed and tested a biopsychosocial model of birthweight and gestational age at delivery using structural equation modeling procedures. The model tested the effects of medical risk and prenatal stress on these indicators of prematurity after controlling for whether a woman had ever given birth (parity). Subjects were 130 women of low socioeconomic status interviewed throughout pregnancy in conjunction with prenatal care visits to a public clinic. The majority of women were Latino or African-American. Half were interviewed in Spanish. Lower birthweight was predicted by earlier delivery and by prenatal stress. Earlier delivery was predicted by medical risk and by prenatal stress. Parity was not related to time of delivery or to birthweight. Implications of results for the development of biopsychosocial research on pregnancy and on stress are discussed.

  3. Evaluation of exclusion prenatal and exclusion preimplantation genetic diagnosis for Huntington's disease in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Rij, M C; de Die-Smulders, C E M; Bijlsma, E K; de Wert, G M W R; Geraedts, J P; Roos, R A C; Tibben, A

    2013-02-01

    Individuals at 50% risk of Huntington's disease (HD) who prefer not to know their carrier status, might opt for exclusion prenatal diagnosis (ePND) or exclusion preimplantation genetic diagnosis (ePGD). This study aims to provide a better understanding of couples' motives for choosing ePND or ePND, and surveys couples' experiences in order to make recommendations for the improvement of counselling for exclusion testing. This qualitative retrospective interview study focussed on couples who underwent ePND or ePGD for HD in the period 1996-2010. Seventeen couples were included of which 13 had experienced ePND and 6 ePGD. Mean time-interval since exclusion-testing was 3.9 years. Couples' moral reservations regarding termination of pregnancy (TOP) or discarding healthy embryos were counterbalanced by the wish to protect their future child against HD. Seven couples had terminated a total of 11 pregnancies with a 50% HD risk, none showed regret. ePGD was used by couples who wanted to avoid (another) TOP. ePND and ePGD are acceptable reproductive options for a specific group of counsellees. To guarantee sound standards of care, it is imperative that candidate couples be given in-depth non-directive counselling about all possible scenarios, and adequate professional and psychological support prior to, during and after ePND/ePGD.

  4. Prenatal diagnosis of 47,XXX.

    PubMed

    Khoury-Collado, Fady; Wehbeh, Ammar N; Fisher, Allan J; Bombard, Allan T; Weiner, Zeev

    2005-05-01

    We report 2 cases of 47,XXX that were diagnosed prenatally and were screened positive for trisomy 21 by biochemical and ultrasound markers. These cases underline the importance of discussing the sex chromosome abnormalities during the genetic counseling after an abnormal triple screen test or ultrasound examination.

  5. Prenatal Nutrition and Later Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, T. N.

    1972-01-01

    Text of an affidavit in the case, Kennedy v. Detroit Board of Education. Reports on a study which established that prenatal nutrition is directly related to brain size and volume determined at 48 hours of infancy and at eight months of age. Pinpoints the relationship between inadequate nutrition in pregnancy, infant brain size, and intellectual…

  6. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Melody S; Gaskin, Darrell J; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2012-09-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent's race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth.

  7. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy

    PubMed Central

    Gaskin, Darrell J.; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D.; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent’s race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth. PMID:22658579

  8. Implementing a prenatal oral health program through interprofessional collaboration.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jeffrey T; Quinonez, Rocio B; Kerns, Amanda K; Chuang, Alice; Eidson, R Scott; Boggess, Kim A; Weintraub, Jane A

    2015-03-01

    Interprofessional collaboration has become a critical component of accreditation standards in dentistry and medicine. This article reports on implementation in an academic setting of a prenatal oral health program (pOHP) that addresses coordinated care, accreditation standards, and new clinical practice guidelines. The pOHP is an educational intervention for third-year medical students, residents, and faculty members to deliver preventive oral health information and referral to a dental home for pregnant women. At the same time, senior dental students and faculty members are introduced to prenatal oral health principles and delivery of comprehensive oral health care to pregnant women. A systems-based approach was used to guide the pOHP implementation during the 2012-13 academic year. Participants were 96 third-year medical students (50% of the total in an obstetrics and gynecology clerkship) and all 81 fourth-year dental students. During that academic year, 126 dental referrals were made to the School of Dentistry, and 55 women presented for care, resulting in 50% (n=40) of dental students participating in the clinical experience and delivery of simple to complex oral health procedures. The prenatal period is a frequently missed opportunity to address oral health care. The pOHP is an interprofessional collaboration model designed to educate dental and medical providers and provide a system of referral for comprehensive clinical care of pregnant patients, including educating women about their oral health and that of their children. Such programs can help meet interprofessional accreditation standards and encourage implementation of practice guidelines.

  9. Recent advances in prenatal genetic screening and testing

    PubMed Central

    Van den Veyver, Ignatia B.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of new technologies has dramatically changed the current practice of prenatal screening and testing for genetic abnormalities in the fetus. Expanded carrier screening panels and non-invasive cell-free fetal DNA-based screening for aneuploidy and single-gene disorders, and more recently for subchromosomal abnormalities, have been introduced into prenatal care. More recently introduced technologies such as chromosomal microarray analysis and whole-exome sequencing can diagnose more genetic conditions on samples obtained through amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, including many disorders that cannot be screened for non-invasively. All of these options have benefits and limitations, and genetic counseling has become increasingly complex for providers who are responsible for guiding patients in their decisions about screening and testing before and during pregnancy. PMID:27853526

  10. [Non-invasive prenatal testing: challenges for future implementation].

    PubMed

    Henneman, Lidewij; Page-Chrisiaens, G C M L Lieve; Oepkes, Dick

    2015-01-01

    The non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) is an accurate and safe test in which blood from the pregnant woman is used to investigate if the unborn child possibly has trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome), trisomy 18 (Edwards' syndrome) or trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome). Since April 2014 the NIPT has been available in the Netherlands as part of the TRIDENT implementation project for those in whom the first trimester combined test showed an elevated risk (> 1:200) of trisomy, or on medical indication, as an alternative to chorionic villous sampling or amniocentesis. Since the introduction of the NIPT the use of these invasive tests, which are associated with a risk of miscarriage, has fallen steeply. The NIPT may replace the combined test. Also the number of conditions that is tested for can be increased. Modification of current prenatal screening will require extensive discussion, but whatever the modification, careful counseling remains essential to facilitate pregnant women's autonomous reproductive decision making.

  11. Recent advances in prenatal genetic screening and testing.

    PubMed

    Van den Veyver, Ignatia B

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of new technologies has dramatically changed the current practice of prenatal screening and testing for genetic abnormalities in the fetus. Expanded carrier screening panels and non-invasive cell-free fetal DNA-based screening for aneuploidy and single-gene disorders, and more recently for subchromosomal abnormalities, have been introduced into prenatal care. More recently introduced technologies such as chromosomal microarray analysis and whole-exome sequencing can diagnose more genetic conditions on samples obtained through amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, including many disorders that cannot be screened for non-invasively. All of these options have benefits and limitations, and genetic counseling has become increasingly complex for providers who are responsible for guiding patients in their decisions about screening and testing before and during pregnancy.

  12. Fetal tumors: prenatal ultrasonographic findings and clinical characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of fetal tumors has been increased due to generalization of prenatal evaluation and improvement of imaging techniques. The early detection of a fetal tumor and understanding of its imaging features are very important for fetal, maternal, and neonatal care. Ultrasonography is usually used for the detection and differential diagnosis of fetal tumors, and magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly being used as a complementary study. Many fetal tumors have different clinical and imaging features compared with pediatric tumors. Although several fetal tumors may mimic other common anomalies, some specific imaging features may carry early accurate diagnosis of fetal tumors, which may alter the prenatal management of a pregnancy and the mode of delivery, and facilitate immediate postnatal treatment. PMID:25116458

  13. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Osteogenesis Imperfecta?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How do health care providers diagnose osteogenesis imperfecta (OI)? Skip sharing on ... Page Content If OI is moderate or severe, health care providers usually diagnose it during prenatal ultrasound at ...

  14. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Birth Defects?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How do health care providers diagnose birth defects? Skip sharing on social ... to begin before health problems occur. Prenatal Screening Health care providers recommend that certain pregnant women, including those ...

  15. [Prenatal diagnosis. I: Prenatal diagnosis program at the Medical Genetics Unit of the Universidad de Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Prieto-Carrasquero, M; Molero, A; Carrasquero, N; Paz, V; González, S; Pineda-Del Villar, L; Del Villar, A; Rojas-Atencio, A; Quintero, M; Fulcado, W; Mena, R; Morales-Machin, A

    1998-06-01

    The Prenatal Diagnosis Program of the Medical Genetic Unit of University of Zulia has the following objectives: Identification of Genetic Risk Factors (GRF) in those couples who attend to the Prenatal Genetic Clinic, application of different prenatal diagnostic procedures (PDP), and providing adequate genetic counseling. The goal of this paper is to show preliminary results obtained between January 1993 and December 1996. Three hundred and twenty one pregnant women were analyzed by determining the GRF and taking into account the genetic clinical history. The GRF analyzed were: Advanced maternal age (AMA), congenital malformation history (CMH), previous child with chromosomic anomalies (PCCA), defects of neural tube history (DNTH), congenital heart disease history (CHDH), any parent carrier of chromosomic anomaly (PCA), habitual abortion (HA), abnormal fetal echography (AFE), altered maternal serum levels of alpha-feto-protein (AMSAFP) and OTHERS: exposure to teratogenic agents, history of Mendelian diseases, maternal systemic diseases and anxiety in the mother or in her partner. The PDP was designed according to the GRF, which included fetal echography (FE), fetal echocardiography (FEc), amniocentesis (AMN), chordocentesis (CCT) and AMSAFP. Results showed that 58.4% of the expectant mothers asked for counseling during the 2nd trimester, 70% of the total showed only one GRF, and AMA was the most frequent GRF found (40.3%), followed by PCCA, AFE, CHDH, HA, DNTH, PCA, and OTHERS in that order. The specific PDP applied to the identified GRF allowed a health evaluation of the fetus. The GRF identification gave the opportunity of establishing a Prenatal Diagnostic Program producing a response to the couple's needs and showed the utility of an integral and multidisciplinary management directed to any expecting mother in order to identify any high GRF.

  16. Disparities in intimate partner violence prenatal counseling: setting a baseline for the implementation of the Guidelines for Women's Preventive Services.

    PubMed

    Ta Park, Van M; Hayes, Donald K; Humphreys, Janice

    2014-05-01

    Prenatal health care counseling is associated with positive health outcomes for mothers and infants. Moreover, pregnant women are considered a vulnerable population at risk of being victims of intimate partner violence. Pregnancy provides a unique opportunity to identify and refer women experiencing intimate partner violence to community resources; however, in prior research, most women reported that their prenatal care providers did not talk to them about intimate partner violence. Given the importance for providers to offer prenatal health care counseling on intimate partner violence, it is concerning that there is scant knowledge on Asian, Native Hawaiian, and other Pacific Islander mothers' experiences in this area. The study's objectives were (a) to determine the proportion of mothers who received prenatal health care counseling on intimate partner violence; and, (b) to examine racial differences of those who received prenatal health care counseling on intimate partner violence. Hawai'i's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data from 2004-08 were analyzed for 8,120 mothers with information on receipt of intimate partner violence prenatal health care counseling. Overall, 47.7% of mothers were counseled on intimate partner violence. Compared to Whites, Native Hawaiians, Japanese, Chinese, and Koreans were significantly less likely to report receiving prenatal health care counseling in intimate partner violence, but the opposite association was observed for Samoans. Intimate partner violence continues to be a significant problem for women, thus, this study's findings may be used as important baseline data to measure the progress made given the implementation of the new Guidelines for Women's Preventive Services in intimate partner violence screening and counseling.

  17. Prenatal counselling and the role of the paediatric surgeon.

    PubMed

    Benachi, Alexandra; Sarnacki, Sabine

    2014-10-01

    With the development of prenatal ultrasound and of foetal medicine, the paediatric surgeon has extended his knowledge of the natural history of surgical malformations. He is a part of the prenatal team and parents should always be referred to him when a surgical malformation is suspected, even when termination of pregnancy is planned because of an expected poor prognosis. Direct contact between the prenatal medicine specialist and the paediatric surgeon is also highly recommended to ensure continuity in the messages delivered to the parents. Postnatal counselling does not compare with prenatal counselling, and the paediatric surgeon has learned from the obstetrician to modulate his talk by including other conditions that might affect the outcome of the foetus, especially genetically determined syndromes. When the foetal malformation is diagnosed very early, especially in the first trimester, it therefore seems important for the consultation with the paediatric surgeon to be scheduled when the complementary exams required by the anomalies diagnosed are done, in order to avoid later contradictory messages. Repeated consultations should be favoured as they allow provision of more precise information regarding changes in ultrasound and/or MRI images and so decrease parents׳ anxiety and help them to take their decision. Foetal surgery, which has reached various stages of development in different countries, requires paediatric surgeons and obstetricians to join forces to optimise procedures and evaluate their benefit/risk ratio. Since 2004, the National Rare Disease Plan in France has allowed the creation of Rare Disease Centres, which deal with congenital malformations and produce recommendations for the health care pathway of these patients by means of a multidisciplinary approach. This greatly enhances interdisciplinary communication and ensures that best care is provided to the parents-to-be and to their child.

  18. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  19. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  20. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo Ndebele's…

  1. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  2. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  3. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  4. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  5. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  6. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  7. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  8. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  9. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  10. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  11. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  12. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  13. [Prenatal Information System: critical analysis of register in a municipality of São Paulo State].

    PubMed

    Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Garbin, Artênio José Isper; Zina, Lívia Guimarães; Yarid, Sérgio Donha; Francisco, Kléryson Martins Soares

    2010-01-01

    The prenatal assistance is one of the health care pillars. This study aimed to conduct a critical evaluation of the SIS Prenatal in a city of São Paulo State, to compare its data with the local assistance and to verify the registry of pregnant women attended at Health Care Centers. It was analyzed the pregnant women records through consultation at Health Regional Unit and municipal health service. There were inconsistencies between the system and local registry. The failures were related to the inadequate filling of attendance files, besides scarce control of pregnant women files and scheduling on health centers. The results suggest the need for better planning of actions for the improvement of prenatal service quality.

  14. Disentangling Genetic and Prenatal Maternal Effects on Offspring Size and Survival.

    PubMed

    Pick, Joel L; Ebneter, Christina; Hutter, Pascale; Tschirren, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    Organizational processes during prenatal development can have long-term effects on an individual's phenotype. Because these early developmental stages are sensitive to environmental influences, mothers are in a unique position to alter their offspring's phenotype by differentially allocating resources to their developing young. However, such prenatal maternal effects are difficult to disentangle from other forms of parental care, additive genetic effects, and/or other forms of maternal inheritance, hampering our understanding of their evolutionary consequences. Here we used divergent selection lines for high and low prenatal maternal investment and their reciprocal line crosses in a precocial bird-the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)-to quantify the relative importance of genes and prenatal maternal effects in shaping offspring phenotype. Maternal but not paternal origin strongly affected offspring body size and survival throughout development. Although the effects of maternal egg investment faded over time, they were large at key life stages. Additionally, there was evidence for other forms of maternal inheritance affecting offspring phenotype at later stages of development. Our study is among the first to successfully disentangle prenatal maternal effects from all other sources of confounding variation and highlights the important role of prenatal maternal provisioning in shaping offspring traits closely linked to fitness.

  15. Linking prenatal maternal adversity to developmental outcomes in infants: the role of epigenetic pathways.

    PubMed

    Monk, Catherine; Spicer, Julie; Champagne, Frances A

    2012-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal stress, anxiety, and depression can have lasting effects on infant development with risk of psychopathology. Although the impact of prenatal maternal distress has been well documented, the potential mechanisms through which maternal psychosocial variables shape development have yet to be fully elucidated. Advances in molecular biology have highlighted the role of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating gene activity, neurobiology, and behavior and the potential role of environmentally induced epigenetic variation in linking early life exposures to long-term biobehavioral outcomes. In this article, we discuss evidence illustrating the association between maternal prenatal distress and both fetal and infant developmental trajectories and the potential role of epigenetic mechanisms in mediating these effects. Postnatal experiences may have a critical moderating influence on prenatal effects, and we review findings illustrating prenatal-postnatal interplay and the developmental and epigenetic consequences of postnatal mother-infant interactions. The in utero environment is regulated by placental function and there is emerging evidence that the placenta is highly susceptible to maternal distress and a target of epigenetic dysregulation. Integrating studies of prenatal exposures, placental function, and postnatal maternal care with the exploration of epigenetic mechanisms may provide novel insights into the pathophysiology induced by maternal distress.

  16. Linking Prenatal Maternal Adversity to Developmental Outcomes in Infants: The Role of Epigenetic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Catherine; Spicer, Julie; Champagne, Frances A.

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal stress, anxiety, and depression can have lasting effects on infant development with consequences for risk of psychopathology. Though the impact of prenatal maternal distress has been well documented, the potential mechanisms through which maternal psychosocial variables shape development have yet to be fully elucidated. Advances in molecular biology have highlighted the role of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating gene activity, neurobiology, and behavior and the potential role of environmentally-induced epigenetic variation in linking early life exposures to long-term biobehavioral outcomes. In this review, we discuss evidence illustrating the association between maternal prenatal distress and both fetal and infant developmental trajectories and the potential role of epigenetic mechanisms in mediating these effects. Postnatal experiences may have a critical moderating influence on prenatal effects, and here we review findings illustrating prenatal-postnatal interplay and the developmental and epigenetic consequences of postnatal mother-infant interactions. The in utero environment is regulated by placental function and there is emerging evidence that the placenta is highly susceptible to maternal distress and a target of epigenetic dysregulation. Integrating studies of prenatal exposures, placental function, and postnatal maternal care with the exploration of epigenetic mechanisms may provide novel insights into the pathophysiology induced by maternal distress. PMID:23062303

  17. Integration of microarray technology into prenatal diagnosis: counselling issues generated during the NICHD clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Wapner, Ronald J; Driscoll, Deborah A; Simpson, Joe Leigh

    2012-04-01

    Cytogenetic microarray analysis (CMA) in prenatal testing detects chromosome abnormalities and new genetic syndromes that would be missed by conventional cytogenetics and has the potential to significantly enhance prenatal genetic evaluation. A large Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)-sponsored multicentered trial to assess the role of CMA as a primary prenatal diagnostic tool has been completed, and results will soon be available. Integration of this technology into clinical care will require thoughtful changes in patient counseling. Here, we examine four cases, all ascertained in the NICHD prenatal microarray study, to illustrate the challenges and subtleties of genetic counseling required with prenatal CMA testing. Although the specifics of each case are distinct, the underlying genetic principles of uncertainty, variable expressivity, and lack of precise genotype-phenotype correlation are well known and already part of prenatal counseling. Counselor and practitioner education will need to include both the science of interpreting array findings as well as development of improved approaches to uncertainty. A team approach to interpretation will need to be developed, as will standardized guidelines by professional organizations and laboratories. Of equal import is additional research into patient attitudes and desires, and a better understanding of the full phenotypic spectrum of copy number variants discovered in utero.

  18. Mathematical Model of Neuronal Morphology: Prenatal Development of the Human Dentate Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Rajković, Katarina; Bačić, Goran; Ristanović, Dušan; Milošević, Nebojša T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify the morphological changes of the human dentate nucleus during prenatal development using mathematical models that take into account main morphometric parameters. The camera lucida drawings of Golgi impregnated neurons taken from human fetuses of gestational ages ranging from 14 to 41 weeks were analyzed. Four morphometric parameters, the size of the neuron, the dendritic complexity, maximum dendritic density, and the position of maximum density, were obtained using the modified Scholl method and fractal analysis. Their increase during the entire prenatal development can be adequately fitted with a simple exponential. The three parameters describing the evolution of branching complexity of the dendritic arbor positively correlated with the increase of the size of neurons, but with different rate constants, showing that the complex development of the dendritic arbor is complete during the prenatal period. The findings of the present study are in accordance with previous crude qualitative data on prenatal development of the human dentate nucleus, but provide much greater amount of fine details. The mathematical model developed here provides a sound foundation enabling further studies on natal development or analyzing neurological disorders during prenatal development. PMID:24995329

  19. Neurodevelopment in Early Childhood Affected by Prenatal Lead Exposure and Iron Intake.

    PubMed

    Shah-Kulkarni, Surabhi; Ha, Mina; Kim, Byung-Mi; Kim, Eunjeong; Hong, Yun-Chul; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Yangho; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Chang, Namsoo; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Young Ju; Kimʼs, Young Ju; Lee, Boeun; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    No safe threshold level of lead exposure in children has been recognized. Also, the information on shielding effect of maternal dietary iron intake during pregnancy on the adverse effects of prenatal lead exposure on children's postnatal neurocognitive development is very limited. We examined the association of prenatal lead exposure and neurodevelopment in children at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and the protective action of maternal dietary iron intake against the impact of lead exposure. The study participants comprise 965 pregnant women and their subsequent offspring of the total participants enrolled in the Mothers and Children's environmental health study: a prospective birth cohort study. Generalized linear model and linear mixed model analysis were performed to analyze the effect of prenatal lead exposure and mother's dietary iron intake on children's cognitive development at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Maternal late pregnancy lead was marginally associated with deficits in mental development index (MDI) of children at 6 months. Mothers having less than 75th percentile of dietary iron intake during pregnancy showed significant increase in the harmful effect of late pregnancy lead exposure on MDI at 6 months. Linear mixed model analyses showed the significant detrimental effect of prenatal lead exposure in late pregnancy on cognitive development up to 36 months in children of mothers having less dietary iron intake during pregnancy. Thus, our findings imply importance to reduce prenatal lead exposure and have adequate iron intake for better neurodevelopment in children.

  20. Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers

    PubMed Central

    Cuckle, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs), chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening. PMID:26237388

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of Sanfilippo syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, John J

    2005-02-01

    The focus of this communication is to comment on the relative importance of enzymatic and molecular genetics, potential false results and future options for prenatal diagnosis of Sanfilippo syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) types IIIA, IIIB, IIIC and IIID). During the provision of an international service over the past 25 years, our department has identified 7 affected out of 49 MPS III prenatal assessments. During this period, the technology used by us and others (Thompson et al., 1993; Kleijer et al., 1996) in these diagnoses has undergone considerable development in evolution. Our policy to maintain a close relationship between the provision of a diagnostic service and research to achieve an overall goal of early diagnosis and effective therapy have progressed both activities.

  2. Prenatal nutrition and birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fowles, Eileen R

    2004-01-01

    The complex relationship between maternal nutritional and birth outcomes emphasizes the need for consistent and thorough assessments of women's diet throughout pregnancy and individualized nutritional education to promote positive birth outcomes. The purpose of this article is to examine the influence of prenatal nutrition on birth outcomes, describe research on the effects of macro- and micronutrients on birth outcomes, and discuss strategies for monitoring diet and implementing nutrition education during pregnancy.

  3. Variable outcome in quintuplets pregnancy based on obstetric care.

    PubMed

    Breborowicz, Grzegorz H; Dera, Anna; Szymankiewicz, Marta; Ropacka-Lesiak, Mariola; Markwitz, Wiesław

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of multiple pregnancies has increased dramatically over the last few years in developed countries, largely attributed to delayed childbearing and the increasing use of assisted reproduction technologies and ovulation inducing hormones. Relatively few countries have population-based statistics covering birth statistics. Of those that do, the numbers of quintuplet pregnancies rose sharply in the nineties while, at the same time, their delivery rates decreased greatly because of the use of fetal reduction. Fetal reduction is not possible or legal in some countries, Poland being one of them, and therefore obstetricians are faced with the challenges of quintuplet deliveries. Conservative treatment and management is difficult, and outcomes often vary greatly. Despite this, expert care provided at tertiary care centers can positively influence outcomes. The objective of this article is to present different care options and their consequences in two illustrative cases, as well as to establish a set of obstetric care and management goals that would allow prolongation of the gestation time. Quintuplet pregnancy is rare but poses relevant clinical problems to both the obstetrician and the neonatologist. It should be managed with close cooperation between all concerned. Due to the extreme and invariable risk of premature delivery associated with quintuplet pregnancies, we recommend early diagnosis, adequate prenatal care at one tertiary medical center, routine hospitalization and bed rest, repeated ante partum ultrasound surveillance with tests of fetal well-being, tocolytic therapy at first signs of the risk of premature labor, and specialized neonatology care after delivery.

  4. Medical Care during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... en español Atención médica durante el embarazo The Importance of Prenatal Care Millions of American women give ... screening tests are done. This is called an integrated screening test. It's important to keep in mind ...

  5. Relation of prenatal diagnosis with one-year survival rate for infants with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Wright, Lydia K; Ehrlich, Alexandra; Stauffer, Nanci; Samai, Cyrus; Kogon, Brian; Oster, Matthew E

    2014-03-15

    Prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defects (CHDs) is increasingly common, but it is still unclear whether it translates to improved postoperative outcomes. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all infants (aged <1 year) who underwent surgery for CHDs from 2006 to 2011 at a single institution. Primary outcomes were in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates. Secondary outcomes were readmission within 30 days of discharge, postoperative length of intensive care unit and hospital stay, unplanned reoperation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use. We used chi-square analyses, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, Kaplan-Meier survival curves, and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models to compare outcomes. Of the 1,642 patients with CHDs, 539 (33%) were diagnosed prenatally. Patients with prenatal diagnoses were of a younger age and less weight at the time of surgery, had greater Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery scores, and were more likely to be white, to have an identified syndrome, or to be born at term. Compared with those diagnosed postnatally, those diagnosed prenatally had a significantly higher unadjusted 1-year mortality rate (11% vs 5.5%, respectively, p = 0.03). Controlling for weight, surgical severity, race, age at surgery, prematurity, and the presence or absence of genetic syndrome, patients with prenatal diagnoses had significantly greater mortality at 1 year (adjusted hazard ratio 1.5, p = 0.03), as well as significantly longer intensive care unit and hospital stays. Infants with CHDs diagnosed prenatally had worse outcomes compared with those diagnosed postnatally. Prenatal diagnosis likely captures patients with more severe phenotypes within given surgical risk categories and even within diagnoses and thus may be an important prognostic factor when counseling families.

  6. Prenatal Counseling, Ultrasound Diagnosis, and the Role of Maternal-Fetal Medicine of the Cleft Lip and Palate Patient.

    PubMed

    James, Jeffrey N; Schlieder, Daniel W

    2016-05-01

    A multidisciplinary team is the standard of care and the cornerstone of management of cleft patients. With readily improving advanced diagnostic modalities, early prenatal diagnosis of cleft lip and palate increasingly becomes a topic of importance for both the team caring for and families of cleft patients. Maternal-fetal medicine is a fellowship subspecialty of obstetrics that can offer high-quality care and coordination to the cleft team. Both 3-D and 4-D sonography lead to early prenatal diagnosis of cleft patients; however, differences in training result in variations in its diagnostic accuracy.

  7. "Civil unrest does not stop ovulation": women's prenatal and family planning services in a 1960s Detroit neighborhood clinic.

    PubMed

    DeGuzman, Pamela B; Schminkey, Donna L; Koyen, Emily A

    2014-01-01

    In 1965, Nancy Milio established a prenatal and family planning clinic in Detroit, Michigan, to address health disparities and limited access to care among low-income, African American, urban women. Women's health disparities persist today nationally and internationally. Using historical methods, this research analyzes how Milio provided women's health services in the context of the social and political environment. Milio empowered neighborhood women to direct, plan, and participate in the care they received. Successful methods to address disparities in access to family and planning and prenatal care should include empowered participation from the women these programs are intending to serve.

  8. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (10/14/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadben,. Director, to Nancy Wrona and Dennis Smith informing them that Maricopa County's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2003 MAGCO Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  9. Region 6: Texas Adequate Letter (4/16/2010)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Texas Commission on Environmental Quality determined 2021 motor vehicle emission budgets for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for Beaumont/Port Arthur area adequate for transportation conformity purposes

  10. Region 2: New Jersey Adequate Letter (5/23/2002)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This April 22, 2002 letter from EPA to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection determined 2007 and 2014 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Mobile Source Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal

  11. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (10/29/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Denvers' particulate matter (PM10) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  12. Region 1: New Hampshire Adequate Letter (8/12/2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This July 9, 2008 letter from EPA to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, determined the 2009 Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets (MVEBs) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal Register (FR).

  13. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (1/20/2004)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Greeleys' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the FR.

  14. Region 8: Utah Adequate Letter (6/10/2005)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Utah Department of Environmental Quality determined Salt Lake Citys' and Ogdens' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  15. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  16. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  17. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  18. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  19. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  20. Region 6: New Mexico Adequate Letter (8/21/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Carl Edlund, Director, to Alfredo Santistevan regarding MVEB's contained in the latest revision to the Albuquerque Carbon Monoxide State Implementation Plan (SIP) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  1. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  2. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  3. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  4. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  5. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  6. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  7. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  8. Region 9: Nevada Adequate Letter (3/30/2006)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Deborah Jordan, Director, to Leo M. Drozdoff regarding Nevada's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2005 Truckee Meadows CO Redesignation Request and Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity decisions.

  9. Improving prenatal health: setting the agenda for increased male involvement.

    PubMed

    Guadagno, Marie; Mackert, Michael; Rochlen, Aaron

    2013-11-01

    The U.S. infant mortality rate is among the highest in the developed world, with recent vital statistics reports estimating 6.14 infant deaths per 1,000 live births. Traditional health education and promotion to improve maternal, infant, and child health in the United States has focused only on women, leaving men out of important health messages that may affect pregnancy outcomes as well as family well-being. Recently, public health scholars have suggested that men be included in prenatal health education in an effort to improve birth outcomes and reduce infant mortality. Incorporating men in prenatal health promotion and education has been found to improve overall birth preparedness, reduce the risk of maternal-infant HIV transmission, and reduce perinatal mortality in less-developed nations. Although these results are positive, research on paternal impact in pregnancy outcomes in the United States to date is lacking. This article proposes a U.S.-specific research agenda to understand the current role of men in pregnancy health, as well as actual involvement, barriers, and the influence men can have in prenatal health. A discussion of culture, individual motivations, health care providers, and social marketing is also considered.

  10. Development of an Attitudes Measure for Prenatal Screening in Diverse Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, S. F.; Learman, L. A.; Gates, E. A.; Washington, A. E.; Kuppermann, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Prenatal screening for chromosomal abnormalities is routinely offered to all pregnant women who present for care by their 20th gestational week. Not all women, however, choose to undergo one of these tests, and choice of which test(s) to undergo also vary. The reasons for variation in screening test behavior have not been fully…

  11. The effects of prenatal education intervention on unwed prospective adolescent fathers.

    PubMed

    Westney, O E; Cole, O J; Munford, T L

    1988-05-01

    This study assesses the impact of a prenatal education program dealing with human sexuality, pregnancy, prenatal care, labor, delivery, and infant and child care on the unwed expectant adolescent father. It also assesses the relationship between the father's knowledge in these areas and his supportive behaviors toward the adolescent mother and the expected infant. The 28 black 15-18-year-old adolescent males who volunteered to participate in the study were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 15) or a control group (n = 13). Each was pretested (T-1) with Form A of a 75-item prenatal questionnaire, and posttested (T-2) with Form B of the same instrument after an intervention for the experimental group, or 4 weeks after the initial assessment for the comparison group. Findings suggest significant gains in knowledge for the experimental group at T-2 versus T-1 with regard to 1) pregnancy and prenatal care, and 2) infant development and child care. The data also suggest that fathers who were more informed tended to report more supportive behaviors toward the mother and the infant.

  12. Early Intervention with Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine: Expansion with Multiple Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bono, Katherine E.; Dinehart, Laura H. Bolzani; Claussen, Angelika H.; Scott, Keith G.; Mundy, Peter C.; Katz, Lynne F.

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure is an indicator for adverse developmental outcomes. To prevent developmental disabilities, an early intervention program for children birth to 3 years was developed that included three groups: center-based, home-based, and primary care comparison. The intervention was implemented across 10 years and data were collected on…

  13. Effects of Three Levels of Early Intervention Services on Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claussen, Angelika H.; Scott, Keith G.; Mundy, Peter C.; Katz, Lynne F.

    2004-01-01

    Cocaine use during pregnancy is a high-risk indicator for adverse developmental outcomes. Three levels of intervention (center, home, and primary care) were compared in a full service, birth to age 3, early intervention program serving children exposed to cocaine prenatally. Data were collected on 130 children from urban, predominantly poor,…

  14. Prenatal Support To Educate and Counsel Pregnant Mothers with Children in a Preschool Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Sarah L.

    A health specialist working in a program providing health, social, and educational services to low-income children and families implemented and evaluated a practicum intervention designed to increase inner-city mothers' knowledge of the importance of ongoing prenatal care throughout pregnancy and to improve the mothers' health. A prenatal…

  15. Use of traditional and complementary health practices in prenatal, delivery and postnatal care in the context of HIV transmission from mother to child (PMTCT) in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Treger, Latasha

    2009-03-07

    The aim of this study was as part of a baseline assessment in PMTCT in the traditional health sector: a) to determine the views of women who have used the services of traditional practitioners before, during and/or after pregnancy, and b) to conduct formative research with traditional health practitioners (THPs), i.e. herbalists, diviners and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) on HIV, pregnancy care, delivery and infant care. The sample included a) 181 postnatal care clients with a child less than 12 months interviewed at postnatal clinic visits from 20 primary care clinics in the Kouga Local Service Area (LSA), Cacadu district, Eastern Cape, and b) 54 traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and 47 herbalists and/or diviners were interviewed from Kouga LSA. Results showed that THP (in particular TBAs and to a certain extend herbalists/diviners) play a significant role in pregnancy and postnatal care, and also with the assistance of delivery. Certain HIV risk practices were reported on the practice of TBAs. THPs also seem to have some role in infant feeding and family planning. THPs should be trained in optimising their services in pregnancy and postnatal care, and preparation for health facility delivery. In addition, they should be trained on HIV risk practices, HIV/AIDS, HIV prevention including PMTCT, infant feeding and family planning.

  16. Conceptions of Prenatal Development: Behavioral Embryology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Gilbert

    1976-01-01

    Describes recent progress in research on prenatal behavioral development and in a systematic fashion the various ways in which prenatal experience can affect the development of behavior in the neonate as well as in the embryo and fetus. (Author/RK)

  17. Prenatal exclusion of the HHH syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gray, R G; Green, A; Hall, S; McKeown, C

    1995-05-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of the hyperornithinaemia, hyperammonaemia, and homocitrullinuria syndrome is described by the analysis of ornithine incorporation in second-trimester cultured amniotic fluid cells. An unaffected fetus was predicted and confirmed in the newborn child. This is the third reported prenatal diagnosis for this disorder and the second predicting an unaffected fetus.

  18. Prenatal Yoga: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... promote your baby's health? Before you start prenatal yoga, understand the range of possible benefits, as well as what a typical class entails ... centering and focused breathing. Research suggests that prenatal yoga is safe ... many benefits for pregnant women and their babies. Research suggests ...

  19. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  20. Primary Pupils' Preconceptions about Child Prenatal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoldosova, Kristina; Prokop, Pavol

    2007-01-01

    The research deals a problem of primary pupils' preconceptions about a child prenatal development. Even the pupils cannot experience the phenomenon and can get only mediate information; their idea about the prenatal development is quite well constructed. The quality of the preconceptions depends mainly upon variety of informational sources kept at…

  1. Driving through: postpartum care during World War II.

    PubMed Central

    Temkin, E

    1999-01-01

    In 1996, public outcry over shortened hospital stays for new mothers and their infants led to the passage of a federal law banning "drive-through deliveries." This recent round of brief postpartum stays is not unprecedented. During World War II, a baby boom overwhelmed maternity facilities in American hospitals. Hospital births became more popular and accessible as the Emergency Maternal and Infant Care program subsidized obstetric care for servicemen's wives. Although protocols before the war had called for prolonged bed rest in the puerperium, medical theory was quickly revised as crowded hospitals were forced to discharge mothers after 24 hours. To compensate for short inpatient stays, community-based services such as visiting nursing care, postnatal homes, and prenatal classes evolved to support new mothers. Fueled by rhetoric that identified maternal-child health as a critical factor in military morale, postpartum care during the war years remained comprehensive despite short hospital stays. The wartime experience offers a model of alternatives to legislation for ensuring adequate care of postpartum women. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:10191809

  2. Right Aortic Arch Detected Prenatally: A Rare Case With Bilateral Arterial Duct and Nonconfluent Pulmonary Arteries.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Silvia; Fainardi, Valentina; Spaziani, Gaia; Favilli, Silvia; Chiappa, Enrico

    2015-09-01

    We describe a rare case of right aortic arch (RAA) and nonconfluent pulmonary arteries. RAA and a right-sided arterial duct (AD) were identified on the prenatal scan, but a second left-sided AD and disconnection of the left pulmonary artery were missed. The missed diagnosis in fetal life adversely affected postnatal management. We suggest that fetuses with a prenatal diagnosis of RAA and right-sided AD be delivered in tertiary care centres to rule out an association with bilateral AD and nonconfluent pulmonary arteries after birth. Prompt postnatal diagnosis will enable preservation of flow in the disconnected pulmonary artery through prostaglandin E1 infusion until surgical reconstruction.

  3. Use of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma for noninvasive prenatal screening.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Amy J; Mitchell, Michael E; Tomita-Mitchell, Aoy

    2014-12-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using cell-free fetal (cfDNA) offers potential as a screening tool for fetal anomalies. All pregnant women should be offered prenatal screening and diagnostic testing based on current guidelines. Adoption of NIPT in high-risk pregnancies suggests a change in the standard of care for genetic screening; there are advantages to an accurate test with results available early in pregnancy. This accuracy decreases the overall number of invasive tests needed for diagnosis, subjecting fewer pregnancies to the risks of invasive procedures. Women undergoing NIPT need informed consent before testing and accurate, sensitive counseling after results are available.

  4. Cell-free DNA versus intact fetal cells for prenatal genetic diagnostics: what does the future hold?

    PubMed

    Wou, Karen; Feinberg, Jessica L; Wapner, Ronald J; Simpson, Joe Leigh

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening and diagnosis is currently focused on the development of a noninvasive prenatal diagnostic test capable of detecting abnormalities similar to those attainable with an invasive test. One contender is cell-free fetal DNA circulating in maternal plasma and the other is intact fetal cells either from the maternal blood or the cervix. Once adequate fetal DNA is available, laboratory analytic techniques, such as sequencing and microarray, can be applied allowing detection of most cytogenetic and Mendelian fetal disorders. The question is: how close are we to achieving this feat, and what does the future hold?

  5. Prenatal microwave exposure and behavior

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    The hypotheses for the initial investigation was based on the idea that failure to observe structural teratogenesis following microwave exposure did not preclude the possibility that such exposure would result in behavioral changes. We also proposed that such exposure might specifically alter some aspect of thermoregulatory behavior. The results of these studies support both of these hypotheses. Whether the studies show enhanced thermal sensitivity or enhanced development, they do support the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to microwave radiation is more likely to alter postnatal sensitivity to thermally related stimuli or conditions as compared to stimuli that are thermally neutral.

  6. Broadband inversion of 1J(CC) responses in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra.

    PubMed

    Reibarkh, Mikhail; Williamson, R Thomas; Martin, Gary E; Bermel, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Establishing the carbon skeleton of a molecule greatly facilitates the process of structure elucidation, both manual and computer-assisted. Recent advances in the family of ADEQUATE experiments demonstrated their potential in this regard. 1,1-ADEQUATE, which provides direct (13)C-(13)C correlation via (1)J(CC), and 1,n-ADEQUATE, which typically yields (3)J(CC) and (1)J(CC) correlations, are more sensitive and more widely applicable experiments than INADEQUATE and PANACEA. A recently reported modified pulse sequence that semi-selectively inverts (1)J(CC) correlations in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra provided a significant improvement, allowing (1)J(CC) and (n)J(CC) correlations to be discerned in the same spectrum. However, the reported experiment requires a careful matching of the amplitude transfer function with (1)J(CC) coupling constants in order to achieve the inversion, and even then some (1)J(CC) correlations could still have positive intensity due to the oscillatory nature of the transfer function. Both shortcomings limit the practicality of the method. We now report a new, dual-optimized inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment, which provides more uniform inversion of (1)J(CC) correlations across the range of 29-82 Hz. Unlike the original method, the dual optimization experiment does not require fine-tuning for the molecule's (1)J(CC) coupling constant values. Even more usefully, the dual-optimized version provides up to two-fold improvement in signal-to-noise for some long-range correlations. Using modern, cryogenically-cooled probes, the experiment can be successfully applied to samples of ~1 mg under favorable circumstances. The improvements afforded by dual optimization inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment make it a useful and practical tool for NMR structure elucidation and should facilitate the implementation and utilization of the experiment.

  7. Candidate diseases for prenatal gene therapy.

    PubMed

    David, Anna L; Waddington, Simon N

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal gene therapy aims to deliver genes to cells and tissues early in prenatal life, allowing correction of a genetic defect, before irreparable tissue damage has occurred. In contrast to postnatal gene therapy, prenatal application may target genes to a large population of stem cells, and the smaller fetal size allows a higher vector to target cell ratio to be achieved. Early gestation delivery may allow the development of immune tolerance to the transgenic protein, which would facilitate postnatal repeat vector administration if needed. Moreover, early delivery would avoid anti-vector immune responses which are often acquired in postnatal life. The NIH Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee considered that a candidate disease for prenatal gene therapy should pose serious morbidity and mortality risks to the fetus or neonate, and not have any effective postnatal treatment. Prenatal gene therapy would therefore be appropriate for life-threatening disorders, in which prenatal gene delivery maintains a clear advantage over cell transplantation or postnatal gene therapy. If deemed safer and more efficacious, prenatal gene therapy may be applicable for nonlethal conditions if adult gene transfer is unlikely to be of benefit. Many candidate diseases will be inherited congenital disorders such as thalassaemia or lysosomal storage disorders. However, obstetric conditions such as fetal growth restriction may also be treated using a targeted gene therapy approach. In each disease, the condition must be diagnosed prenatally, either via antenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis, for example, in the case of hemophilias, or by ultrasound assessment of the fetus, for example, congenital diaphragmatic hernia. In this chapter, we describe some examples of the candidate diseases and discuss how a prenatal gene therapy approach might work.

  8. Working-class Filipino women's perspectives on factors that facilitate or hinder prenatal micronutrients supplementation to prevent congenital anomalies.

    PubMed

    Daack-Hirsch, Sandra; Gamboa, Henrietta

    2012-11-01

    The study was conducted to plan for a community-health campaign to inform working-class Filipinos about the causes and prevention of orofacial clefting. Prenatal micronutrients may play a role in preventing orofacial clefting. Therefore, women's practices and perspectives on barriers to and facilitators of micronutrient supplementation were elicited. A total of 43 women and 22 health care workers were interviewed. Barriers to taking supplements included side effects, late prenatal care, the view that micronutrients are medications, inadequate supply, and health care workers who were unaware that prenatal vitamin supplements prevent congenital anomalies. The main facilitator was women's understanding that prenatal micronutrients improve the physical well-being of both mother and child. Given that women view having healthy babies as a reason to take micronutrients and that the health care workers lacked knowledge related to the use of micronutrients to prevent congenital anomalies, uptake of prenatal micronutrient supplementation programs may improve by specifically promoting the health benefit of preventing congenital anomalies.

  9. Practice Bulletin No. 162 Summary: Prenatal Diagnostic Testing for Genetic Disorders.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    Prenatal genetic diagnostic testing is intended to determine, with as much certainty as possible, whether a specific genetic disorder or condition is present in the fetus. In contrast, prenatal genetic screening is designed to assess whether a patient is at increased risk of having a fetus affected by a genetic disorder. Originally, prenatal genetic testing focused primarily on Down syndrome (trisomy 21), but now it is able to detect a broad range of genetic disorders. Although it is necessary to perform amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) to definitively diagnose most genetic disorders, in some circumstances, fetal imaging with ultrasonography, echocardiography, or magnetic resonance imaging may be diagnostic of a particular structural fetal abnormality that is suggestive of an underlying genetic condition.The objective of prenatal genetic testing is to detect health problems that could affect the woman, fetus, or newborn and provide the patient and her obstetrician-gynecologist or other obstetric care provider with enough information to allow a fully informed decision about pregnancy management. Prenatal genetic testing cannot identify all abnormalities or problems in a fetus, and any testing should be focused on the individual patient's risks, reproductive goals, and preferences. It is important that patients understand the benefits and limitations of all prenatal screening and diagnostic testing, including the conditions for which tests are available and the conditions that will not be detected by testing. It also is important that patients realize that there is a broad range of clinical presentations, or phenotypes, for many genetic disorders and that results of genetic testing cannot predict all outcomes. Prenatal genetic testing has many benefits, including reassuring patients when results are normal, identifying disorders for which prenatal treatment may provide benefit, optimizing neonatal outcomes by ensuring the appropriate location for

  10. Informing on prenatal screening for Down syndrome prior to conception. An empirical and ethical perspective.

    PubMed

    Schoonen, Marleen; van der Zee, Boukje; Wildschut, Hajo; de Beaufort, Inez; de Wert, Guido; de Koning, Harry; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Steegers, Eric

    2012-03-01

    In most Western countries, information on prenatal screening for Down syndrome is provided in the first-trimester of pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to examine whether this information should additionally be provided before pregnancy to improve the informed decision-making process. In an empirical study, we obtained data from pregnant women with respect to their preferences regarding information on prenatal screening preconceptionally. Questionnaire data (n = 510) showed that 55.7% of responding women considered participating in prenatal screening for Down syndrome before pregnancy. 28.0% of women possessed information on prenatal screening preconceptionally. 84.6% preferred not to receive information preconceptionally in retrospect. In an ethical analysis, we elaborated on these preferences by weighing pros and cons. We considered two arguments against the provision of information on prenatal screening preconceptionally: women's preference to receive information in a step-by-step manner, and the risk of providing a directive message. We identified three reasons supporting its provision preconceptionally: the likelihood of making an informed decision could, firstly, be increased by "unchaining" the initial information from possible subsequent decisions, and, secondly, by providing women sufficient time to deliberate. Thirdly, the probability of equal access to prenatal screening may increase. To conclude with, we propose to incorporate an information offer on prenatal screening for Down syndrome in preconception care consultations. By offering information, instead of providing information, prospective parents are enabled to either accept or decline the information, which respects both their right to know and their right not-to-know.

  11. Prenatal diagnosis in multiple pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M J; Fisk, N M

    2000-08-01

    Fetal abnormality is more common in multiple than in singleton pregnancies. This, together with the requirement to consider the risks with at least two babies to sample correctly each fetus and to undertake accurately-targeted selective termination, amounts to a major challenge for obstetricians involved in prenatal diagnosis. Early determination of chorionicity should be routine, since this influences not only the genetic risks but also the invasive procedure chosen for karyotyping or genotyping. Assessment of nuchal translucency identifies individual fetuses at risk of trisomy. Contrary to expectation, invasive procedures in twins appear to have procedure-related miscarriage rates that are similar to those in singletons. Instead, contamination remains a concern at chorionic villus sampling. Elective late karyotyping of fetuses may have a role in some countries. Whereas management options for discordant fetal abnormality are relatively straightforward in dichorionic pregnancies, monochorionic pregnancies are at risk of co-twin sequelae after any single intrauterine death. Techniques have now been developed to occlude completely the cord vasculature by laser and/or ultrasound guided bipolar diathermy. Given the complexities associated with prenatal diagnosis, all invasive procedures in multiple pregnancies should be performed in tertiary referral centres.

  12. Prenatal 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional ultrasonography diagnosis and autoptic findings of isolated ectopia cordis.

    PubMed

    Bianca, S; Bartoloni, G; Auditore, S; Reale, A; Tetto, C; Ingegnosi, C; Pirruccello, B; Ettore, G

    2006-01-01

    Ectopia cordis is a very rare congenital malformation, commonly associated with intracardiac anomalies. It is due to a defect in fusion of the anterior chest wall resulting in an extrathoracic location of the heart. We report prenatal 2-dimensional (2D) and 3D ultrasonography diagnosis and postnatal autoptic findings of an isolated ectopia cordis with tricuspid atresia. Ectopia cordis prenatal diagnosis is easily made with ultrasound by visualizing the heart outside the thoracic cavity. 3D ultrasonography may add more detailed visualization of the heart anomaly even if the 2D ultrasonography alone permits the prenatal diagnosis. Obstetrical management should include a careful search for associated anomalies, especially cardiac, and the assessment of fetal karyotype. As this is considered a sporadic anomaly, the recurrence risk is low and no genetic origin is known.

  13. Prenatal, perinatal, and adolescent exposure to marijuana: Relationships with aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Barthelemy, Olivier J; Richardson, Mark A; Cabral, Howard J; Frank, Deborah A

    This manuscript reviews research exploring the relationship between prenatal, perinatal, and adolescent exposure to marijuana and aggressive behavior, including physical aggression. Areas of inquiry include animal research, as well as human research, on prenatal exposure and on marijuana use during adolescence. Potential psychosocial and psychopharmacological mechanisms are identified, as well as relevant confounds. The prenatal marijuana exposure literature provides minimal support for a direct relationship with aggressive behavior in childhood. The adolescent use literature suggests a marginal (at best) association between acute intoxication and aggressive behavior, and an association between chronic use and aggressive behavior heavily influenced by demographic variables, rather than direct, psychopharmacological mechanisms. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms also may include aggression and anger, but there is little evidence to suggest that these effects are large or specific to withdrawal from marijuana compared to other substances. This review will offer recommendations for clinical care and public policy, as well as important questions for future research.

  14. From prenatal genomic diagnosis to fetal personalized medicine: progress and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Diana W

    2015-01-01

    Thus far, the focus of personalized medicine has been the prevention and treatment of conditions that affect adults. Although advances in genetic technology have been applied more frequently to prenatal diagnosis than to fetal treatment, genetic and genomic information is beginning to influence pregnancy management. Recent developments in sequencing the fetal genome combined with progress in understanding fetal physiology using gene expression arrays indicate that we could have the technical capabilities to apply an individualized medicine approach to the fetus. Here I review recent advances in prenatal genetic diagnostics, the challenges associated with these new technologies and how the information derived from them can be used to advance fetal care. Historically, the goal of prenatal diagnosis has been to provide an informed choice to prospective parents. We are now at a point where that goal can and should be expanded to incorporate genetic, genomic and transcriptomic data to develop new approaches to fetal treatment. PMID:22772565

  15. Usability evaluation of a mobile tool to support prenatal examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, Juan C.; Aponte, Angelica; Vega, Sebastian; Romero, Eduardo

    2013-11-01

    There have existed for a long period several strategies developed by international organisms to improve their intervention at the very rst level of some public health problems. In particular, the prenatal control has been introduced as a structured strategy for the rst level as the integrated management of childhood illness (AIEPI in spanish) since more than twenty years. This paper presents a novel approach to include recent technological advances within the work ow of such process so that it facilitates interaction and decreases the training time. The method, named herein TeleAIEPI, implements the whole AIEPI questionnaire in a mobile application with high portability, little computational requirements and usability. The success of teleAIEPI application is completely dependent on the usability and integrability with any mobile device. The architecture, functional requirements and usability evaluation are herein presented, showing an adequate performance when real users interact with such an application.

  16. Prenatal nicotine exposure enhances the trigeminocardiac reflex via serotonin receptor facilitation in brainstem pathways.

    PubMed

    Gorini, C; Jameson, H; Woerman, A L; Perry, D C; Mendelowitz, D

    2013-08-15

    In this study we used a rat model for prenatal nicotine exposure to test whether clinically relevant concentrations of brain nicotine and cotinine are passed from dams exposed to nicotine to her pups, whether this changes the trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR), and whether serotonergic function in the TCR brainstem circuitry is altered. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams were exposed to 6 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) of nicotine via osmotic minipumps for the duration of pregnancy. Following birth dams and pups were killed, blood was collected, and brain nicotine and cotinine levels were measured. A separate group of prenatal nicotine-exposed pups was used for electrophysiological recordings. A horizontal brainstem slice was obtained by carefully preserving the trigeminal nerve with fluorescent identification of cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the nucleus ambiguus. Stimulation of the trigeminal nerve evoked excitatory postsynaptic current in CVNs. Our data demonstrate that prenatal nicotine exposure significantly exaggerates both the TCR-evoked changes in heart rate in conscious unrestrained pups, and the excitatory neurotransmission to CVNs upon trigeminal afferent nerve stimulation within this brainstem reflex circuit. Application of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100635 (100 μM) and 5-HT2A/C receptor antagonist ketanserin (10 μM)significantly decreased neurotransmission, indicating an increased facilitation of 5-HT function in prenatal nicotine-exposed animals. Prenatal nicotine exposure enhances activation of 5-HT receptors and exaggerates the trigeminocardiac reflex.

  17. Prenatal nicotine exposure enhances the trigeminocardiac reflex via serotonin receptor facilitation in brainstem pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gorini, C.; Jameson, H.; Woerman, A. L.; Perry, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we used a rat model for prenatal nicotine exposure to test whether clinically relevant concentrations of brain nicotine and cotinine are passed from dams exposed to nicotine to her pups, whether this changes the trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR), and whether serotonergic function in the TCR brainstem circuitry is altered. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams were exposed to 6 mg·kg−1·day−1 of nicotine via osmotic minipumps for the duration of pregnancy. Following birth dams and pups were killed, blood was collected, and brain nicotine and cotinine levels were measured. A separate group of prenatal nicotine-exposed pups was used for electrophysiological recordings. A horizontal brainstem slice was obtained by carefully preserving the trigeminal nerve with fluorescent identification of cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the nucleus ambiguus. Stimulation of the trigeminal nerve evoked excitatory postsynaptic current in CVNs. Our data demonstrate that prenatal nicotine exposure significantly exaggerates both the TCR-evoked changes in heart rate in conscious unrestrained pups, and the excitatory neurotransmission to CVNs upon trigeminal afferent nerve stimulation within this brainstem reflex circuit. Application of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100635 (100 μM) and 5-HT2A/C receptor antagonist ketanserin (10 μM)significantly decreased neurotransmission, indicating an increased facilitation of 5-HT function in prenatal nicotine-exposed animals. Prenatal nicotine exposure enhances activation of 5-HT receptors and exaggerates the trigeminocardiac reflex. PMID:23766497

  18. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  19. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  20. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  1. Is the Stock of VET Skills Adequate? Assessment Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandy, Richard; Freeland, Brett

    In Australia and elsewhere, four approaches have been used to determine whether stocks of vocational education and training (VET) skills are adequate to meet industry needs. The four methods are as follows: (1) the manpower requirements approach; (2) the international, national, and industry comparisons approach; (3) the labor market analysis…

  2. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  3. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  4. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  5. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  6. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  7. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  8. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation…

  9. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  10. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  11. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (11/1/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadbent, Director, Air Division to Nancy Wrona and James Bourney informing them of the adequacy of Revised MAG 1999 Serious Area Carbon Monoxide Plan and that the MAG CO Plan is adequate for Maricopa County.

  12. Prenatal Reflective Functioning and Development of Aggression in Infancy: the Roles of Maternal Intrusiveness and Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Smaling, H J A; Huijbregts, S C J; van der Heijden, K B; Hay, D F; van Goozen, S H M; Swaab, H

    2017-02-01

    Maternal reflective functioning (RF) has been associated with quality of parent-child interactions and child development. This study investigated whether prenatal RF predicted the development of infant physical aggression and whether maternal sensitivity and/or intrusiveness mediated or moderated this association. The sample consisted of 96 first-time mothers (M = 22.57 years, SD = 2.13) and their infants (54 % male). Prenatal RF was measured with an interview, maternal behavior was observed during free play at 6 months post-partum, and infant physical aggression was assessed at 6, 12, and 20 months using maternal reports. Multivariate analyses of variance showed that relatively poor prenatal RF was related to relatively high infant physical aggression. These associations were moderated by maternal intrusiveness, with significant differences in physical aggression between RF-groups reportedly only in the absence of intrusiveness. Generally, mothers reported an increase in physical aggression between 6 and 12 months, except when they had both low RF-skills and were relatively less sensitive. It is concluded that prenatal RF is associated with (development of) infant physical aggression, and may be targeted in intervention programs aimed at reducing early physical aggression. Less adequate parenting, however, may counteract the beneficial effects of good RF, or obscure insight into children's behavioral development.

  13. Experiences of informational needs and received information following a prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defect

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Gunnar; Wadensten, Barbro; Mattsson, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the need for information and what information was actually received following prenatal diagnosis of a congenital heart defect, in a country where termination of pregnancy beyond 22 weeks of gestation is not easily possible because of legal constraints. Methods Twenty‐six Swedish‐speaking pregnant women (n = 14) and partners (n = 12) were consecutively recruited for semi‐structured telephone interviews following the prenatal diagnosis of a congenital heart defect. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Results Although high satisfaction with the specialist information was described, the information was considered overwhelming and complex. Objective, honest, and detailed information about multiple subjects were needed, delivered repeatedly, and supplemented by written information/illustrations. Eighteen respondents had used the Internet to search for information and identified issues involving searching difficulties, low quality, and that it was too complex, insufficient, or unspecific. Those who terminated their pregnancy criticized that there was a lack of information about termination of pregnancy, both from health professionals and online sources, resulting in unanswered questions and unpreparedness. Conclusion Individuals faced with a prenatal diagnosis of a congenital heart defect need individualized and repeated information. These needs are not all adequately met, as individuals are satisfied with the specialist consultation but left with unanswered questions regarding pregnancy termination. © 2016 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26991536

  14. Effect of hindlimb unloading on motor activity in adult rats: impact of prenatal stress.

    PubMed

    Canu, M H; Darnaudéry, M; Falempin, M; Maccari, S; Viltart, O

    2007-02-01

    Environmental changes that occur in daily life or, in particular, in situations like actual or simulated microgravity require neuronal adaptation of sensory and motor functions. Such conditions can exert long-lasting disturbances on an individual's adaptive ability. Additionally, prenatal stress also leads to behavioral and physiological abnormalities in adulthood. Therefore, the aims of the present study were (a) to evaluate in adult rats the behavioral motor adaptation that follows 14 days of exposure to simulated microgravity (hindlimb unloading) and (b) to determine whether restraint prenatal stress influences this motor adaptation. For this purpose, the authors assessed rats' motor reactivity to novelty, their skilled walking on a ladder, and their swimming performance. Results showed that unloading severely impaired motor activity and skilled walking. By contrast, it had no effect on swimming performance. Moreover, results demonstrated for the first time that restraint prenatal stress exacerbates the effects of unloading. These results are consistent with the role of a steady prenatal environment in allowing an adequate development and maturation of sensorimotor systems to generate adapted responses to environmental challenges during adulthood.

  15. Ethical issues in prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S R; Elkins, T E

    1988-06-01

    Prenatal diagnosis raises complex ethical issues not only in terms of individual decision making, but also in the development of clinical services and the formulation of public policy regarding access and funding. The motivation behind prenatal diagnosis is generally to provide the family with information regarding the pregnancy so that the outcome can be improved or, in the case of severely affected pregnancies, a decision can be made about pregnancy termination. Although many of the ethical issues involved in prenatal diagnosis and treatment overlap those common to all types of diagnostic procedures, the former situation is complicated by controversy about the moral status of the fetus and the use of selective abortion as a form of treatment. While there is general agreement that pregnancy termination after the 2nd trimester can be justified if the fetus is afflicted with a condition that is incompatible with postnatal survival or characterized by the virtual absence of cognitive functioning, the disposition of a fetus afflicted with a non-life-threatening physical or mental disability (e.g., Down's syndrome) is more controversial. An additional concern is that women with positive screening test results may choose elective abortion rather than undergo a definitive work-up. The issue of maternal versus fetal rights is perhaps the single most controversial dilemma. Here, the basic ethical dilemma is the conflict between respecting maternal autonomy versus acting beneficently toward the fetus. As a general rule, the more invasive the medical technique and the less certain the benefit to the fetus (e.g., laparotomy), the more difficult it is to make a convincing argument for forced interventions involving the mother's body. Situations in which compelling arguments can be made for forced interventions against the will of the mother are those where an otherwise healthy infant will die without immediate intervention or failure to perform a procedure will result in the

  16. Influence of prenatal exposure to cimetidine and alcohol on selected morphological parameters of sexual differentiation: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    McGivern, R F

    1987-01-01

    Pregnant rats were administered ethanol, cimetidine or a combination of both drugs from day 14 of gestation until parturition. Ano-genital (AG) distance measured at birth was significantly reduced in males exposed to cimetidine, but not in males or females exposed to alcohol. AG distance in males exposed to both ethanol and cimetidine also was not reduced, indicating a possible protective influence of ethanol against this effect of cimetidine. Birthweights in both sexes were reduced by prenatal ethanol exposure, both alone and with cimetidine exposure. Prenatal cimetidine exposure, both alone and in combination with ethanol significantly reduced seminal vesicle weights of adult males. However, no long-term effects of ethanol or cimetidine were observed on adrenal, testicular or ovarian weights. These results indicate that when fetal alcohol exposure is restricted to the critical prenatal period for hormonal actions on sexual differentiation, testosterone levels are maintained at an adequate level for normal morphological development of the genitalia.

  17. Prenatal surgery for myelomeningocele and the need for cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement

    PubMed Central

    Tulipan, Noel; Wellons, John C.; Thom, Elizabeth A.; Gupta, Nalin; Sutton, Leslie N.; Burrows, Pamela K.; Farmer, Diana; Walsh, William; Johnson, Mark P.; Rand, Larry; Tolivaisa, Susan; D’Alton, Mary E.; Adzick, N. Scott

    2016-01-01

    these modified criteria, only 3 patients in each group met criteria but did not receive a shunt. For the revised composite outcome, there was a difference between the prenatal and postnatal surgery groups: 49.5% versus 87.0% (p < 0.0001). There was also a significant reduction in the number of children who had a shunt placed and then required a revision by 1 year of age in the prenatal group (15.4% vs 40.2%, relative risk 0.38 [95% CI 0.22–0.66]). In the prenatal surgery group, 20% of those with ventricle size < 10 mm at initial screening, 45.2% with ventricle size of 10 up to 15 mm, and 79.0% with ventricle size ≥ 15 mm received a shunt, whereas in the postnatal group, 79.4%, 86.0%, and 87.5%, respectively, received a shunt (p = 0.02). Lesion level and degree of hindbrain herniation appeared to have no effect on the eventual need for shunting (p = 0.19 and p = 0.13, respectively). Similar results were obtained for the revised outcome. Conclusions Larger ventricles at initial screening are associated with an increased need for shunting among those undergoing fetal surgery for myelomeningocele. During prenatal counseling, care should be exercised in recommending prenatal surgery when the ventricles are 15 mm or larger because prenatal surgery does not appear to improve outcome in this group. The revised criteria may be useful as guidelines for treating hydrocephalus in this group. PMID:26369371

  18. Prenatal cannibalism in an insect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Thomas; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2007-06-01

    Host selection and infection strategies of parasitoids often correlate with high parental investment and low numbers of progeny. In this study, we investigate how additional internal mechanisms might shape brood size and fitness of the offspring. Emblemasoma auditrix is a parasitoid fly in which about 38 larvae hatch simultaneously in utero. After host location, a single larva is deposited into the host, where it rapidly develops and pupates after about 5 days. The search for hosts can take several weeks, and during that time, the larvae arrest their development and remain in the first larval instar. Nevertheless, the larvae increase in weight within the uterus, and this growth correlates to a decrease in the number of larvae, although no larvae are deposited. Thus, our data indicate a first case of prenatal cannibalism in an invertebrate with larvae feeding on each other within the uterus of the adult.

  19. Risk screening, emergency care, and lay concepts of complications during pregnancy in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Ojanguren, Rolando; Glantz, Namino M; Martinez-Hernandez, Imelda; Ovando-Meza, Ismael

    2008-03-01

    Maternal morbidity and mortality are widespread in Chiapas, Mexico's southernmost state, as in many developing regions. Globally, the utility of three approaches to addressing such problems has been debated: (a) obstetric risk screening (i.e. screening women for risk during pregnancy and channeling those at risk to preventive care); (b) emergency obstetric care (i.e. identifying complications during pregnancy or birth and providing prompt effective treatment); and (c) combined risk screening and emergency care. Unaddressed to date in peer-reviewed journals are the lay perceptions of complications and risk that precede and incite the quest for obstetric care in Mexico. High incidence of maternal mortality in Chiapas, exacerbated by the predominantly rural, highly indigenous, geographically dispersed, and economically marginalized nature of the state's southern Border Region, prompted us to conduct 45 open-ended interviews with a convenience sample of women and their close relative/s, including indigenous and non-indigenous informants in urban and rural areas of four municipalities in this region. Interviews suggest that none of the three approaches is effective in this context, and we detail reasons why each approach has fallen short. Specific obstacles identified include that (1) many women do not access adequate prenatal screening care on a regular basis; (2) emergency obstetric care in this region is severely circumscribed; and (3) lay notions of pregnancy-related risk and complications contrast with official clinical criteria, such that neither clinical nor extra-clinical prenatal monitoring encompasses the entire range of physical and social risk factors and danger signs. Findings reported here center on a rich description of the latter: lay versus clinical criteria for risk of antepartum complication.

  20. First Breath prenatal smoking cessation pilot study: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Jehn, Lisette; Lokker, Nicole; Matitz, Debra; Christiansen, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Despite the many dangers associated with smoking during pregnancy, it remains a salient public health problem for Wisconsin women. The First Breath pilot program was developed in an attempt to reduce rates of smoking during pregnancy among low-income women. Preliminary results suggest that the First Breath counseling-based approach is effective, with a quit rate of 43.8% among First Breath enrollees at 1 month postpartum. Women receiving First Breath cessation counseling also had higher quit rates at every measurement period versus women in a comparison group who were receiving whatever cessation care was available in their county in the absence of First Breath. The First Breath pilot study has demonstrated success in helping pregnant women quit smoking and in creating a model for integration of cessation services into prenatal health care service provision. It is through this success that First Breath is expanding beyond the pilot study stage to a statewide program in 2003.

  1. Prenatal stress, prematurity and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the U.S. and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic Blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced “premature asthma”. Prenatal stress may not only cause abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring Th2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: IL-6, which has been associated with premature labor, can promote Th2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing “premature asthma”. If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common co-morbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (e.g. from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health. PMID:26676148

  2. Prenatal Testing: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Predictive Accuracy of Serial Transvaginal Cervical Lengths and Quantitative Vaginal... Article: A possible new approach in the ... Institutes of Health The primary NIH organization for research on Prenatal Testing is the National Institute of ...

  3. Army General Fund Adjustments Not Adequately Documented or Supported

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-26

    statements were unreliable and lacked an adequate audit trail. Furthermore, DoD and Army managers could not rely on the data in their accounting...risk that AGF financial statements will be materially misstated and the Army will not achieve audit readiness by the congressionally mandated...and $6.5 trillion in yearend adjustments made to Army General Fund data during FY 2015 financial statement compilation. We conducted this audit in

  4. Wanted: better care for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Kestler, E

    1993-01-01

    In three prenatal clinics in Latin America the average attendance time by pregnant women was 129 minutes but the average time spent with a doctor was only 8-10 minutes. In order to improve prenatal care, providers should analyse what happens during visits. Assessments should be made of the usefulness of the services offered and some thought should be given as to who might best provide them.

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, L.Y.F.

    1996-03-01

    I read with great interest the paper on {open_quotes}Prenatal Diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism and 45,X: Implications for Postnatal Outcome{close_quotes} by Koeberl et al. They reported their experience with 12 prenatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism and made a clinical comparison between those 12 cases and their own 41 postnatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism. As expected, they found an overall milder phenotypic manifestation in the prenatal cases than in the postnatal ones. These authors report a lack of previous prognostic information on this type of prenatally diagnosis of mosaicism and offer their findings to fill this need. However, considerable information on this topic has been published. There have been >200 prenatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XX. According to my data on 189 cases with a prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism (Hsu 1992), there are 114 cases with available information on phenotypic outcome. Of these, 12 (10.5%) were reported to have some features of Turner syndrome, 4 had other anomalies probably not related to Turner syndrome, and 2 resulted in stillbirth. The overall rate for an abnormal phenotype in this category was thus 16/114 (14.03%). However, we must realize that, even in patients with a nonmosaic 45,X complement, the major features of Turner syndrome, such as short stature and sexual infantilism, are manifested only later in childhood or in adolescence. 3 refs.

  6. Do parental perceptions and motivations towards genetic testing and prenatal diagnosis for deafness vary in different cultures?

    PubMed

    Nahar, Risha; Puri, Ratna D; Saxena, Renu; Verma, Ishwar C

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of attitudes of individuals with deafness and their families towards genetic testing or prenatal diagnosis have mostly been carried out in the West. It is expected that the perceptions and attitudes would vary amongst persons of different cultures and economic background. There is little information on the prevailing attitudes for genetic testing and prenatal diagnosis for deafness in developing countries. Therefore, this study evaluates the motivations of Indian people with inherited hearing loss towards such testing. Twenty-eight families with history of congenital hearing loss (23 hearing parents with child/family member with deafness, 4 couples with both partners having deafness and 1 parent and child with deafness) participated in a semi-structured survey investigating their interest, attitudes, and intentions for using genetic and prenatal testing for deafness. Participants opinioned that proper management and care of individuals with deafness were handicapped by limited rehabilitation facilities with significant financial and social burden. Nineteen (68%) opted for genetic testing. Twenty-six (93%) expressed high interest in prenatal diagnosis, while 19 (73%) would consider termination of an affected fetus. Three hearing couples, in whom the causative mutations were identified, opted for prenatal diagnosis. On testing, all the three fetuses were affected and the hearing parents elected to terminate the pregnancies. This study provides an insight into the contrasting perceptions towards hearing disability in India and its influence on the desirability of genetic testing and prenatal diagnosis.

  7. Prenatal predictors of chronic lung disease in very preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Henderson‐Smart, D J; Hutchinson, J L; Donoghue, D A; Evans, N J; Simpson, J M; Wright, I

    2006-01-01

    Objective To identify prenatal risk factors for chronic lung disease (CLD) at 36 weeks postmenstrual age in very preterm infants. Population Data were collected prospectively as part of the ongoing audit of the Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Network (ANZNN) of all infants born at less than 32 weeks gestation admitted to all tertiary neonatal intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand. Methods Prenatal factors up to 1 minute of age were examined in the subset of infants born at gestational ages 22–31 weeks during 1998–2001, and who survived to 36 weeks postmenstrual age (n = 11 453). Factors that were significantly associated with CLD at 36 weeks were entered into a multivariate logistic regression model. Results After adjustment, low gestational age was the dominant risk factor, with an approximate doubling of the odds with each week of decreasing gestational age from 31 to less than 25 weeks (trend p<0.0001). Birth weight for gestational age also had a dose‐response effect: the lower the birth weight for gestational age, the greater the risk, with infants below the third centile having 5.67 times greater odds of CLD than those between the 25th and 75th centile (trend p<0.0001). There was also a significantly increased risk for male infants (odds ratio 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.36 to 1.68), p<0.0001). Conclusions These population based data show that the prenatal factors low gestational age, low birth weight for gestational age, and male sex significantly predict the development of chronic respiratory insufficiency in very preterm infants and may assist clinical decision about delivery. PMID:16131530

  8. The Psychological Impact of Prenatal Diagnosis and Disclosure of Susceptibility Loci: First Impressions of Parents' Experiences.

    PubMed

    van der Steen, S L; Riedijk, S R; Verhagen-Visser, J; Govaerts, L C P; Srebniak, M I; Van Opstal, D; Joosten, M; Knapen, M F C M; Tibben, A; Diderich, K E M; Galjaard, R J H

    2016-12-01

    Genomic microarray may detect susceptibility loci (SL) for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and epilepsy, with a yet unquantifiable risk for the fetus. The prenatal disclosure of susceptibility loci is a topic of much debate. Many health care professionals fear that reporting susceptibility loci may put a psychological burden on pregnant couples. It is our policy to disclose prenatal susceptibility loci as we recognize them as actionable for prospective parents. The aim of this report was to evaluate the psychological impact of disclosing a prenatal diagnosis of susceptibility loci. The psychological impact of disclosing susceptibility loci was evaluated in the first patients who received such results. Eight out of 15 women who had a susceptibility locus disclosed and four of their partners consented to share their experiences through a telephonic evaluation (n = 12). Follow-up time ranged from 3 to 15 months after their prenatal test result. The reporting of susceptibility loci was initially 'shocking' for five parents while the other seven felt 'worried'. Ten out of 12 participants indicated they would like to be informed about the susceptibility locus again, two were unsure. Most had no enduring worries. Participants unanimously indicated that pregnant couples should have an individualized pre-test choice about susceptibility loci (non)disclosure. We observed no negative psychological impact with the prenatal diagnosis and disclosure of SL on participants. A key factor in mitigating parental anxiety with SL disclosure appears to be post-test genetic counseling. Our report confirms that pregnant women and their partners prefer an individualized choice regarding the scope of prenatal testing.

  9. Genetic modification of preimplantation embryos: toward adequate human research policies.

    PubMed

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects.

  10. [Oral health and pregnancy: promotion of oral health during the pre-natal training in the Latina province].

    PubMed

    Capasso, F; La Penna, C; Carcione, P; Vestri, A; Polimeni, A; Ottolenghi, L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study, conducted in the Province of Latina, was to verify knowledge, attitudes, and lifestyles in relation to oral health in a sample of pregnant women, assessing their subjective perception of oral health, and highlight prenatal dental prevention need specialist in the area and provide adequate information on the importance of good oral hygiene in order to achieve a better health level both of the mother and the child. The study was conducted on a sample of pregnant women between the 26th and 39th gestational week, in the period from June to October 2009, during the childbirth training courses in the Province of Latina. Each patient was administered a questionnaire for the assessment of oral habits during pregnancy and for the definition of specific knowledge on and perception of themselves and their own oral condition. The survey shows that more than one third of the sample reported visiting a dentist only in case of pain, over half (56.9%) did not undergo any dental visit during the gestational period, only 24 subjects (33.3%) having applied to a dental hygienist for professional oral hygiene and that only 7 out of 72 women had been prescribed a dental checkup by a gynecologist. The study showed that knowledge about dental problems that may arise during pregnancy is insufficient to guarantee a good threshold to oral health care for the mother hence the need to promote information programs, oral health and pregnancy prevention and training in the territory mainly directed to health-care specialists (gynecologists and obstetricians) and to pregnant women.

  11. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  12. Regional and international prenatal telemedicine network for computerized antepartum cardiotocography.

    PubMed

    Di Lieto, Andrea; De Falco, Marianna; Campanile, Marta; Török, Miklós; Gábor, Spánik; Scaramellino, Mariangela; Schiraldi, Paola; Ciociola, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to review the activity of TOCOMAT, a system for antepartum cardiotocographic telemonitoring. Nine peripheral units recorded the traces, transmitted them via modem to the University operation center, where the computerized analysis was performed, and received the medical report within a few minutes, via fax or e-mail. Traces were classified as reassuring, nonreassuring, or pathological. The parameters of computerized analysis were grouped together for each week of gestation. The perinatal outcome was also evaluated. In 5 years, 5830 traces were analyzed: 4372 (75%) from 1344 high-risk patients and 1458 (25%) from 529 patients at apparent low risk. The system allowed the identification of high-risk patients (32.8% with nonreassuring traces and 7.1% with pathologic traces) and lowrisk patients (16.3% with nonreassuring traces and 4.3% with pathologic traces) that required further evaluation. The neonatal outcome was good overall. At each week of pregnancy, the mean values of computerized parameters resulted in normal ranges. The TOCOMAT system allowed a decentralization of prenatal surveillance and improved the patients quality of life and the level of prenatal care.

  13. Prenatal death in Fraser syndrome.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Jessica M; Putnam, Angelica R; Opitz, John M; Pysher, Theodor J; Szakacs, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    Cryptophthalmos may be partial or complete, unilateral or bilateral, apparently nonsyndromal or syndromal. A recent study of 2 stillborn infants at the University of Utah prompted an analysis of the developmental aspects of the syndromal form (Fraser syndrome). We conclude that, per se, cryptophthalmos is a developmental field defect on the basis of heterogeneity (autosomal dominant and recessive forms) and phylogeneity (occurrence also in the pheasant, rabbit, pigeon, dog, and mouse). In humans this autosomal recessive disorder maps to 4q21, is homologous to the bleb (bl/bl) mouse, and is due to mutations in the FRAS1 gene that codes for a 4007 amino acid protein 85% identical to the Fras1 gene of the bleb mouse. Commonest anomalies in humans are cryptophthalmos, cutaneous syndactyly of digits, abnormal ears and genitalia, renal agenesis, and congenital heart defects. Almost half of affected infants are stillborn or die in infancy, and mental retardation is common. The pathogenesis evidently involves abnormal epithelial integrity during prenatal life. Older (mostly German) publications, some dating to the 19th century, provide a fascinating historical insight into the process of syndrome delineation.

  14. Prenatal nipple conditioning for breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, L D

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-two primigravida women who planned to breastfeed began conditioning their nipples six weeks before their expected delivery date by nipple rolling twice a day for two minutes each time; providing gentle friction against the nipple with a terry cloth towel for 15 seconds once a day; and nipple airing for two hours a day, allowing outer clothing to rub against the nipple. Each woman served as her own control, conditioning one nipple but not the other. No nipple ointments or soap were used on either nipple during the course of the study. Each woman was given instructions on breastfeeding techniques to be used after delivery. The women completed two checklists: One revealed how consistently they followed the nipple-conditioning regime; with the other, they rated nipple pain on each breast, for every nursing, during the first five days postdelivery. Ratings were: 1--negligible pain or no pain, 2--definite pain, 3--extreme pain. Seventeen women successfully completed the study. Effect of skin color on the amount of nipple pain was also investigated. The prenatal nipple-conditioning regime significantly reduced the amount of total nipple pain experienced during the first few days of breastfeeding. The amount of extreme pain experienced on the conditioned nipple was significantly (p less than .01) reduced compared to the control nipple. Fair-skinned women reported more nipple soreness on unconditioned nipples, and olive-complected women reported significantly (p less than .01) less nipple soreness on unconditioned nipples.

  15. Preparing Heart and Mind Following Prenatal Diagnosis of Complex Congenital Heart Defect

    PubMed Central

    McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Pridham, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on attachment and caregiving theory and the concept of motivation, the purpose of this descriptive study was to examine parents’ retrospective accounts of their prenatal experiences after receiving the diagnosis of a fetal heart defect. These parents constituted a subgroup of participants in a larger longitudinal study of parenting an infant with a complex congenital heart defect. Data were derived from 14 semistructured interviews with 13 mothers and 3 fathers in the home or hospital setting. A directed content analysis yielded a central category of preparing heart and mind for infant caregiving. Preparing heart and mind is a preliminary caregiving goal within the caregiving system that generates intentions and expectations indicative of specific caregiving motivations to relate to the baby, handle circumstances practically, and manage infant medical care. A theoretical model illustrates the prenatal process these parents engaged in to provide care to their infants with life-threatening medical conditions. PMID:22927700

  16. Anencephaly: pitfalls in pregnancy outcome and relevance of the prenatal exam.

    PubMed

    Tica, V I; Beghim, M; Tica, Irina; Zaher, M; Beghim, Esra

    2009-01-01

    Anencephaly is an embryological malformation of the central nervous system, invariable lethal, characterized by the absence of the brain and cranial vault and by other defects of the cranial structures. It has no cure but it can be detected during the pregnancy with ultrasonography. We present a rare case of a 15-year-old primipara, with no prenatal care, who delivered at 37 weeks an anencephalous female newborn. Ultrasonography avoided the confusion with a breach presentation, which, in conjunction with the prematurity, premature rupture of membranes and the young maternal age would have favored the cesarean section. The rarity of the case is increased by the singularity of the malformation. The importance of the prenatal care and genetic workup are stressed out in this embryologic pathology.

  17. Prenatal reporting to child protection: Characteristics and service responses in one Australian jurisdiction.

    PubMed

    Taplin, Stephanie

    2017-03-01

    Prenatal reporting to child protection services has been enacted into most jurisdictions across Australia and in other countries, its aims being to intervene early and provide supports which will either identify or prevent the need for a baby to be taken into care and protection once born. Despite indications that there are increasing numbers of prenatal reports, little is known about the characteristics of those reported, the timing and reasons for reports, service responses, and the impacts of being reported. This study is one of the first to use administrative data to examine the characteristics of two samples from one Australian jurisdiction: (i) data from casefiles of 38 cases reported in 2012-13, and (ii) administrative data from 117 cases reported prenatally in 2013. These data showed that women who were reported to child protection services in relation to their pregnancy were predominantly disadvantaged, and were likely to be reported relatively late in their pregnancy due to 'future risk concerns'. Approximately two-thirds of those reported were provided with some prenatal support, as recorded by the child protection system, generally of limited duration. Twelve percent of the babies born to the larger cohort of women were removed within 100days of their birth. It is likely that longer term supportive interventions are needed, to reduce the risk factors evident in women reported during pregnancy, and to improve their ability to safely care for their children. Information on the short and long-term impacts from rigorous evaluations and longer-term intervention trials are also vital to ensure that prenatal reporting and interventions are, in fact, improving outcomes for infants and families.

  18. Prenatal exposure to escitalopram and/or stress in rats: a prenatal stress model of maternal depression and its treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, Chase H.; Capello, Catherine F.; Rogers, Swati M.; Yu, Megan L.; Boss-Williams, Katherine A.; Weiss, Jay M.; Stowe, Zachary N.; Owens, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale A rigorously investigated model of stress and antidepressant administration during pregnancy is needed to evaluate possible effects on the mother. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model of clinically relevant prenatal exposure to an antidepressant and stress during pregnancy to evaluate the effects on maternal care behavior. Results Female rats implanted with 28 day osmotic minipumps delivering the SSRI escitalopram throughout pregnancy had serum escitalopram concentrations in a clinically observed range (17-65 ng/mL). A separate cohort of pregnant females exposed to a chronic unpredictable mild stress paradigm on gestational days 10-20 showed elevated baseline (305 ng/mL), and acute stress-induced (463 ng/mL), plasma corticosterone concentrations compared to unstressed controls (109 ng/mL). A final cohort of pregnant dams were exposed to saline (control), escitalopram, stress, or stress and escitalopram to determine the effects on maternal care. Maternal behavior was continuously monitored over the first 10 days post parturition. A reduction of 35% in maternal contact and 11% in nursing behavior was observed due to stress during the light cycle. Licking and grooming behavior was unaffected by stress or drug exposure in either the light or dark cycle. Conclusions These data indicate that: 1) clinically relevant antidepressant treatment during human pregnancy can be modeled in rats using escitalopram; 2) chronic mild stress can be delivered in a manner that does not compromise fetal viability; and 3) neither of these prenatal treatments substantially altered maternal care post parturition. PMID:23436130

  19. Medical Care for Echelons Above Divisions - Is Medical Force 2000 Adequate to Need?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-08

    exercised during Operation Just Cause in Panama proved to be such a workable concept that it was also exercised during the Gulf conflict. Similar...Medical Battalion becomes a multifunctional organization encompassing preventive medicine, optometry , mental health, and medical supply in the medical...Provides Preventive Medicine, Combat Stress, Optometry , and Emergency Surgery to the Division. Provides Class VIII supply/resupply for Division from

  20. Prenatal and newborn screening for hemoglobinopathies.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, C C

    2013-06-01

    The hemoglobinopathies encompass a heterogeneous group of disorders associated with mutations in both the alpha-globin and beta-globin genes. Increased immigration of high-risk populations has prompted the implementation of prenatal and newborn screening programs for hemoglobinopathies across Europe and North America. In Canada, the UK, and other European countries, prenatal screening to identify hemoglobinopathy carriers and offer prenatal diagnostic testing to couples at risk is linked to newborn screening, while in the United States, it is still not universally performed. The structure of screening programs, whether prenatal or postnatal, universal or selective, varies greatly among these countries and within the United States. The laboratory methods used to identify hemoglobinopathies are based on the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies within the population and the type of screening performed. Advances in molecular testing have facilitated the diagnosis of complex thalassemias and sickling disorders observed in ethnically diverse populations. This review summarizes the current approaches and methods used for carrier detection, prenatal diagnosis, and newborn screening.

  1. Prenatal Testosterone and Preschool Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Bethan A; Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Disruptive Behaviors Disorders (DBD), including Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are fairly common and highly impairing childhood behavior disorders that can be diagnosed as early as preschool. Prenatal exposure to testosterone may be particularly relevant to these early-emerging DBDs that exhibit a sex-biased prevalence rate favoring males. The current study examined associations between preschool DBD symptom domains and prenatal exposure to testosterone measured indirectly via right 2D:4D finger-length ratios. The study sample consisted of 109 preschool-age children between ages 3 and 6 (64% males;72% with DBD) and their primary caregivers. Primary caregivers completed a semi-structured interview (i.e., Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule), as well as symptom questionnaires (i.e., Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, Peer Conflict Scale); teachers and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires and children provided measures of prenatal testosterone exposure, measured indirectly via finger-length ratios (i.e., right 2D:4D). Study results indicated a significant association of high prenatal testosterone (i.e., smaller right 2D:4D) with high hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms in girls but not boys, suggesting that the effect may be driven by, or might only exist in, girls. The present study suggests that prenatal exposure to testosterone may increase risk for early ADHD, particularly hyperactivity-impulsivity, in preschool girls.

  2. Noninvasive Prenatal Screening for Genetic Diseases Using Massively Parallel Sequencing of Maternal Plasma DNA.

    PubMed

    Chitty, Lyn S; Lo, Y M Dennis

    2015-07-17

    The identification of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal plasma in 1997 heralded the most significant change in obstetric care for decades, with the advent of safer screening and diagnosis based on analysis of maternal blood. Here, we describe how the technological advances offered by next-generation sequencing have allowed for the development of a highly sensitive screening test for aneuploidies as well as definitive prenatal molecular diagnosis for some monogenic disorders.

  3. Prostate cancer between prognosis and adequate/proper therapy

    PubMed Central

    Grozescu, T; Popa, F

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the indolent, non-invasive nature of most types of prostate cancer, as well as the simple fact that the disease seems more likely to be associated with age rather than with other factors (50% of men at the age of 50 and 80% at the age of 80 have it [1], with or without presenting any symptom), the big challenge of this clinical entity was to determine severity indicators (so far insufficient) to guide the physician towards an adequate attitude in the clinical setting. The risk of over-diagnosing and over-treating many prostate cancer cases (indicated by all the major European and American studies) is real and poses many question marks. The present paper was meant to deliver new research data and to reset the clinical approach in prostate cancer cases. PMID:28255369

  4. The cerebellopontine angle: does the translabyrinthine approach give adequate access?

    PubMed

    Fagan, P A; Sheehy, J P; Chang, P; Doust, B D; Coakley, D; Atlas, M D

    1998-05-01

    A long-standing but unfounded criticism of the translabyrinthine approach is the misperception that this approach does not give adequate access to the cerebellopontine angle. Because of what is perceived as limited visualization and operating space within the cerebellopontine angle, some surgeons still believe that the translabyrinthine approach is inappropriate for large acoustic tumors. In this study, the surgical access to the cerebellopontine angle by virtue of the translabyrinthine approach is measured and analyzed. The parameters are compared with those measured for the retrosigmoid approach. This series objectively confirms that the translabyrinthine approach offers the neurotologic surgeon a shorter operative depth to the tumor, via a similar-sized craniotomy. This permits superior visualization by virtue of a wider angle of surgical access. Such access is achieved with the merit of minimal cerebellar retraction.

  5. Aortic Arch Interruption and Persistent Fifth Aortic Arch in Phace Syndrome: Prenatal Diagnosis and Postnatal Course.

    PubMed

    Chiappa, Enrico; Greco, Antonella; Fainardi, Valentina; Passantino, Silvia; Serranti, Daniele; Favilli, Silvia

    2015-09-01

    PHACE is a rare congenital neurocutaneous syndrome where posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, cerebrovascular anomalies, aortic arch anomalies, cardiac defects, and eye abnormalities are variably associated. We describe the prenatal detection and the postnatal course of a child with PHACE syndrome with a unique type of aortic arch anomaly consisting of proximal interruption of the aortic arch and persistence of the fifth aortic arch. The fifth aortic arch represented in this case a vital systemic-to-systemic connection between the ascending aorta and the transverse portion of the aortic arch allowing adequate forward flow through the aortic arch without surgical treatment.

  6. Prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Park, Kyungil

    2011-09-01

    The study investigated prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge of alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among Korean women. The participants were 221 Korean women who attended the post-partum care centers in Seoul, Korea. The data included the participants' background characteristics, quantity-frequency typology, Student Alcohol Questionnaire, and a scale on the participants' knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol was consumed during pregnancy by 12.7% of the participants. Of these, 60.7% drank alcohol with their spouse. A few participants reported that nurses identified their drinking habits and gave them information on alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. Most of the participants did not have the opportunity for prenatal counseling about fetal alcohol syndrome. The knowledge level regarding alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among the participants was poor. Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was significantly related to prenatal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol consumption was not related to knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. The assessment of alcohol consumption and counseling about alcohol are needed for pregnant women in order to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

  7. Research and Practice Communications Between Oral Health Providers and Prenatal Health Providers: A Bibliometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Skvoretz, John; Dyer, Karen; Daley, Ellen; Debate, Rita; Vamos, Cheryl; Kline, Nolan; Thompson, Erika

    2016-08-01

    Objectives We aimed to examine scholarly collaboration between oral health and prenatal providers. Oral disease is a silent epidemic with significant public health implications for pregnant women. Evidence linking poor oral health during pregnancy to adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes requires oral health and prenatal providers to communicate on the prevention, treatment and co-management matters pertaining to oral health issues among their pregnant patients. The need for inter-professional collaboration is highlighted by guidelines co-endorsed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Dental Association, stressing the importance of oral health care during pregnancy. Methods To assess if interdisciplinary communication occurs between oral health and prenatal disciplines, we conducted a network analysis of research on pregnancy-related periodontal disease. Results Social Network analysis allowed us to identify communication patterns between communities of oral health and prenatal professionals via scientific journals. Analysis of networks of citations linking journals in different fields reveals a core-periphery pattern dominated by oral health journals with some participation from medicine journals. However, an analysis of dyadic ties of citation reveals statistically significant "inbreeding" tendencies in the citation patterns: both medical and oral health journals tend to cite their own kind at greater-than-chance levels. Conclusions Despite evidence suggesting that professional collaboration benefits patients' overall health, findings from this research imply that little collaboration occurs between these two professional groups. More collaboration may be useful in addressing women's oral-systemic health concerns that result in adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  8. Counseling Challenges with Variants of Uncertain Significance and Incidental Findings in Prenatal Genetic Screening and Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Westerfield, Lauren; Darilek, Sandra; van den Veyver, Ignatia B.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal genetic screening and testing provides prospective parents information about the health of their fetus. It is offered to find or address an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities or other genetic conditions in the fetus or to identify the cause of fetal structural abnormalities detected by prenatal imaging. Genome-wide tests, such as the already widely-used chromosomal microarray analysis and emerging diagnostic whole exome and whole genome sequencing, have improved the ability to detect clinically significant findings, but have also increased the chance of detecting incidental findings and variants of uncertain significance. There is an extensive ongoing discussion about optimal strategies for diagnostic laboratories to report such findings and for providers to communicate them with patients. While consensus opinions and guidelines are beginning to appear, they often exclude the prenatal setting, due to its unique set of challenging considerations. These include more limited knowledge of the impact of genetic variants when prospectively detected in an ongoing pregnancy, the absence or limitations of detecting clinically recognizable phenotypes at the time of testing and the different decision-making processes that will ensue from testing. In this review, we examine these challenges within the medical ethical framework unique to prenatal care. PMID:26237491

  9. Prenatal Programming and Toxicity (PPTOX) Introduction.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Miller, Mark F

    2015-10-01

    The developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis posits that early-life exposures, including prenatal, can influence disease outcomes throughout the entire lifespan of an organism. Over the past 30 years, scientific researchers have compiled robust epidemiological and mechanistic data showing the effects of early-life nutrition, chemical exposures, and stress on prenatal programing and toxicity. Using novel techniques in genomics and epigenetics, science is now establishing strong links between low-level early-life environmental exposures and the later development of noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease, reproductive effects, immune system function and cancer. Now scientists must engage with communities, industry, policy makers, and clinicians to leverage our newfound understanding of prenatal programing and toxicity into better health outcomes across the lifespan.

  10. First Trimester Ultrasound in Prenatal Diagnosis-Part of the Turning Pyramid of Prenatal Care.

    PubMed

    Neiger, Ran

    2014-09-05

    First-trimester sonographic assessment of the risk of chromosomal abnormalities is routinely performed throughout the world, primarily by measuring fetal nuchal translucency thickness between 11-13 weeks' gestation, combined with assessment of serum markers. The development of high-frequency transvaginal transducers has led to improved ultrasound resolution and better visualization of fetal anatomy during the first-trimester. Continuous improvement in ultrasound technology allows a thorough detailed assessment of fetal anatomy at the time of the nuchal translucency study. Using transabdominal or transvaginal sonography, or a combination of both approaches, it is now possible to diagnose a wide range of fetal anomalies during the first trimester. Multiple studies reported early diagnosis of major fetal anomalies after demonstrating the association of increased nuchal translucency thickness with structural defect in chromosomally normal and abnormal fetuses. Normal sonographic findings provide reassurance for women at high risk while detection of fetal malformation during the first trimester enables discussion and decisions about possible treatments and interventions, including termination of pregnancy, during an early stage of pregnancy.

  11. First Trimester Ultrasound in Prenatal Diagnosis—Part of the Turning Pyramid of Prenatal Care

    PubMed Central

    Neiger, Ran

    2014-01-01

    First-trimester sonographic assessment of the risk of chromosomal abnormalities is routinely performed throughout the world, primarily by measuring fetal nuchal translucency thickness between 11–13 weeks’ gestation, combined with assessment of serum markers. The development of high-frequency transvaginal transducers has led to improved ultrasound resolution and better visualization of fetal anatomy during the first-trimester. Continuous improvement in ultrasound technology allows a thorough detailed assessment of fetal anatomy at the time of the nuchal translucency study. Using transabdominal or transvaginal sonography, or a combination of both approaches, it is now possible to diagnose a wide range of fetal anomalies during the first trimester. Multiple studies reported early diagnosis of major fetal anomalies after demonstrating the association of increased nuchal translucency thickness with structural defect in chromosomally normal and abnormal fetuses. Normal sonographic findings provide reassurance for women at high risk while detection of fetal malformation during the first trimester enables discussion and decisions about possible treatments and interventions, including termination of pregnancy, during an early stage of pregnancy. PMID:26237489

  12. Prenatal MRI Diagnosis of Hirschsprung's Disease at 29 Weeks' Gestational Age in a Fetus with Heterotaxy and Polysplenia Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Mariana L; Crombleholme, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease is extremely rare and has only been suggested by ultrasound. This report presents a 29-week fetus with heterotaxy and polysplenia syndrome and prenatal diagnosis of nonrotation of the bowel and Hirschsprung's disease by fetal MRI. None of the previously reported findings in the literature suggestive of distal bowel obstruction were noted in this case. Rather, there was a diminutive size of the rectosigmoid compared to the rest of the colon. Fetal MRI has become an important tool in the fetal diagnosis of multiple anomalies and can aid in perinatal and immediate postnatal care of patients, such as those with Hirschsprung's disease.

  13. An integrated approach to prenatal smoking cessation interventions.

    PubMed

    Todd, S J; LaSala, K B; Neil-Urban, S

    2001-01-01

    This article encourages the incorporation of smoking cessation activities into routine nursing care in the prenatal period. A brief background is given regarding the problem of smoking in women--especially pregnant women and adolescents. A model is suggested that integrates the Stages of Change framework with a program for planning, implementing, and evaluating smoking cessation activities in the clinical setting. The use of biochemical testing for cotinine, a biomarker of nicotine, is also explored as an evaluation tool and a method of self-report confirmation. The nurse is uniquely poised to reduce both the healthcare and economic burden of smoking during pregnancy. Because cigarette smoking is a major public health problem in the United States today, it is important for nurses to have a background in smoking assessment, cessation, and evaluation methods. It is critical for all nurses in obstetric, pediatric, hospital, and clinic settings to use this knowledge to assist vulnerable clients in achieving lifetime abstinence from cigarettes.

  14. Committee opinion no. 515: Health care for urban American Indian and Alaska Native women.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Sixty percent of American Indian and Alaska Native women live in metropolitan areas. Most are not eligible for health care provided by the federal Indian Health Service (IHS). The IHS partly funds 34 Urban Indian Health Organizations, which vary in size and services. Some are small informational and referral sites that are limited even in the scope of outpatient services provided. Compared with other urban populations, urban American Indian and Alaska Native women have higher rates of teenaged pregnancy, late or no prenatal care, and alcohol and tobacco use in pregnancy. Their infants have higher rates of preterm birth, mortality, and sudden infant death syndrome than infants in the general population. Barriers to care experienced by American Indian and Alaska Native women should be addressed. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourages Fellows to be aware of the risk profile of their urban American Indian and Alaska Native patients and understand that they often are not eligible for IHS coverage and may need assistance in gaining access to other forms of coverage. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists also recommends that Fellows encourage their federal legislators to support adequate funding for the Indian Health Care Improvement Act, permanently authorized as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

  15. Do British travel agents provide adequate health advice for travellers?

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, D A; Burke, J; Bouskill, E; Conn, G; Edwards, P; Gillespie, D

    2000-01-01

    Travel-related illness is a burden for primary care, with more than two million travellers consulting a general practitioner each year. The annual cost of travel-related illness in the United Kingdom is 11 million Pounds. Travel agents are in a unique position to influence this burden as the most common and most serious problems are preventable with simple advice and/or immunisation. This study, using covert researchers, suggests this potential is not being fully utilised. PMID:10954940

  16. Family Centered Maternity Care

    PubMed Central

    Enkin, Murray W.

    1973-01-01

    Current practices of obstetrical care tend to hinder rather than facilitate family development and maturation. A program of family centred maternity care is described. Husbands are invited to prenatal visits, and are involved in intensive preparation for labor and delivery. Their presence and active participation in labor, delivery, and postpartum course are encouraged. This, along with a rooming-in policy for the baby, and the utilization of the postpartum period for an intensive training in parenthood, appears to produce a safe and satisfying obstetrical experience for the family. PMID:20468914

  17. PRENATAL MALNUTRITION ALTERS DIAZEPAM-MEDIATED SUPPRESSION OF ULTRASONIC VOCALIZATIONS IN AN AGE DEPENDENT MANNER

    PubMed Central

    Tonkiss, John; Galler, Janina

    2007-01-01

    The sensitivity of prenatally malnourished rats to the ultrasonic vocalization (USV) suppressant effect of diazepam (a non-specific benzodiazepine (BZ) receptor agonist) was investigated. Male offspring of dams provided with a protein deficient diet (6% casein) for 5 weeks prior to mating and throughout pregnancy were compared to the offspring of mothers provided with a diet of adequate protein content (25% casein). At postnatal day 7 or 11, pups were injected with vehicle or one of five doses of DZ (0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1 or 3mg/kg) 30min after removal from their dam. Thirty minutes later they were subjected to 2min of cooling on a 20 degrees C surface and their USVs were quantified. DZ dose-dependently suppressed USV at both ages. At P7, the USV suppressant effect of DZ was the same for both groups. However, by P11 the prenatally malnourished rats showed significantly greater suppression of USV by 0.03 and 0.1mg/kg DZ than well-nourished controls. These differences were not related to degree of temperature loss or body weight. Thus, differential sensitivity to BZ receptor agonists develops in the second postnatal week in prenatally malnourished rats. This reflects either an altered program of development of the GABAergic system, or adaptive, compensatory changes in the GABAergic system in response to more extensive functional disturbances in the developing brain. PMID:17147960

  18. Prenatal diagnoses of an uncommon isolated obstructed supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection

    PubMed Central

    Muntean, Iolanda; Mărginean, Claudiu; Stanca, Răzvan; Togănel, Rodica; Pop, Marian; Gozar, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection is an uncommon congenital heart disease. Four types are described based on the site of pulmonary venous drainage: supracardiac, cardiac, infradiaphragmathic, and mixed connection. In most cases of supracardiac type, the common venous confluence drains through an ascending left vertical vein into the brachiocephalic vein, right superior vena cava, and then into the right atrium. Anomalous connection of the pulmonary venous confluence directly to the right SVC, especially the obstructed form is an unusual and severe supracardiac variant. The prenatal diagnosis is challenging. Patient concerns: We present a case report of a fetus diagnosed with TAPVC at 23 gestational weeks. Diagnosis interventions: The 4-chamber view showed a small left atrium, with a “smooth” posterior wall and the absence of pulmonary vein connection. This is the first case of prenatally diagnosed isolated, obstructed supracardiac type with drainage directly into the right superior vena cava. Conclusion: The obstetrician and fetal cardiologist should be cautious at the direct and indirect echocardiographic signs of this condition. A prenatal diagnose of isolated, obstructed form is important for adequate planning of delivery and postnatal surgery in a tertiary center. PMID:28151919

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of sickle-cell anemia in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Goossens, M; Dumez, Y; Kaplan, L; Lupker, M; Chabret, C; Henrion, R; Rosa, J

    1983-10-06

    To investigate the usefulness of chorionic biopsy for prenatal diagnosis of sickle-cell anemia by restriction-endonuclease analysis of fetal DNA, we studied 30 pregnancies before elective abortion. When the reproducibility of the technique for obtaining adequate DNA samples was established, we successfully applied the test to five pregnancies at risk for sickle-cell anemia. In two cases, sickle-cell disease of the fetus led to a decision to terminate the pregnancy. In three other cases, a normal or AS genotype was demonstrated. One normal infant has been born, and one other pregnancy is continuing normally. In one case in which fetal death was observed three weeks after sampling, placental abnormalities found on histologic examination were compatible with a chromosomal aberration. Our study shows that chorionic biopsy is feasible for the prenatal diagnosis of sickle-cell disease before the 10th gestational week. If subsequent experience demonstrates this technique to be safe enough for mother and fetus, the ability to test in early pregnancy may make prenatal diagnosis acceptable to more couples at risk for serious genetic disorders.

  20. Least explored factors associated with prenatal smoking.

    PubMed

    Masho, Saba W; Bishop, Diane L; Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Varner, Sara B; White, Shannon; Svikis, Dace

    2013-09-01

    Poor pregnancy and birth outcomes are major problems in the United States, and maternal smoking during pregnancy has been identified as one of the most preventable risk factors associated with these outcomes. This study examines less explored risk factors of smoking among underserved African American pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at an outpatient obstetrics-gynecology clinic of an inner-city university hospital in Virginia from March 2009 through January 2011 in which pregnant women (N = 902) were interviewed at their first prenatal care visit. Survey questions included items related to women's sociodemographic characteristics as well as their pregnancy history; criminal history; receipt of social services; child protective services involvement; insurance status; and history of substance abuse, domestic violence, and depression. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to calculate odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals depicting the relationship between these factors and smoking during pregnancy. The analysis reported that maternal age [OR = 1.08, 95 % CI = 1.05-1.12], less than high school education [OR = 4.30, 95 % CI = 2.27-8.14], unemployed [OR = 2.33, 95 % CI = 1.35-4.04], criminal history [OR = 1.66, 95 % CI = 1.05-2.63], receipt of social services [OR = 2.26, 95 % CI = 1.35-3.79] alcohol use [OR = 2.73, 95 % CI = 1.65-4.51] and illicit drug use [OR = 1.97, 95 % CI = 1.04-3.74] during pregnancy were statistically significant risk factors associated with smoking during pregnancy. In addition to the well known risk factors, public health professionals should be aware that criminal history and receipt of social services are important factors associated with smoking during pregnancy. Social service providers such as WIC and prisons and jails may offer a unique opportunity for education and cessation interventions during the preconception or interconception period.

  1. Systemic Crisis of Civilization: In Search for Adequate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khozin, Grigori

    In December 1972 a jumbo jet crashed in the Florida Everglades with the loss of 101 lives. The pilot, distracted by a minor malfunction, failed to note until too late the warning signal that - correctly - indicated an impending disaster. His sudden, astonished cry of Hey, what happening here? were his last words 1. Three decades after this tragic episode, as the Humankind approaches the threshold of the third Millennium, the problem of adequate reaction to warning signals of different nature and of distinguishing minor malfunctions in everyday life of society, in economy and technology as well as in evolution of biosphere from grave threats to the world community and the phenomenon of life on our planet remains crucial to human survival and the future of Civilization. Rational use of knowledge and technology available to the world community remains in this context the corner stone of discussions on the destiny of the intelligent life both on the planet Earth and in the Universe (the fact of intelligent life in the Universe is to be detected by the Humankind)…

  2. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  3. DARHT -- an adequate EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    In April 1996 the US District Court in Albuquerque ruled that the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), prepared by the Los Alamos Area Office, US Department of Energy (DOE), was adequate. The DARHT EIS had been prepared in the face of a lawsuit in only 10 months, a third of the time usually allotted for a DOE EIS, and for only a small fraction of the cost of a typical DOE EIS, and for only a small fraction of the cost of a typical DOE EIS. It subject was the first major facility to be built in decades for the DOE nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. It was the first EIS to be prepared for a proposal at DOE`s Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1979, and the first ever prepared by the Los Alamos Area Office. Much of the subject matter was classified. The facility had been specially designed to minimize impacts to a nearby prehistoric Native American ruin, and extensive consultation with American Indian Pueblos was required. The week that the draft EIS was published Laboratory biologists identified a previously unknown pair of Mexican spotted owls in the immediate vicinity of the project, bringing into play the consultation requirements of the Endangered Species Act. In spite of these obstacles, the resultant DARHT EIS was reviewed by the court and found to meet all statutory and regulatory requirements; the court praised the treatment of the classified material which served as a basis for the environmental analysis.

  4. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  5. Prenatal diagnosis and assessment of congenital spinal anomalies: Review for prenatal counseling

    PubMed Central

    Upasani, Vidyadhar V; Ketwaroo, Pamela Deaver; Estroff, Judy A; Warf, Benjamin C; Emans, John B; Glotzbecker, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen continuous advances in prenatal ultrasonography and in utero magnetic resonance imaging. These technologies have increasingly enabled the identification of various spinal pathologies during early stages of gestation. The purpose of this paper is to review the range of fetal spine anomalies and their management, with the goal of improving the clinician’s ability to counsel expectant parents prenatally. PMID:27458551

  6. Prenatal radiation exposure: dose calculation.

    PubMed

    Scharwächter, C; Röser, A; Schwartz, C A; Haage, P

    2015-05-01

    .• In case of radiation a suitable hygiene consultation may be necessary.• For risk assessment a three-stage concept is applied, which, depending on the radiation exposure, estimates or calculates the dose for the unborn child.• The radiologist plays a crucial role as a competent advisor and provider of reliable expert information. Citation Format: • Scharwächter C, Röser A, Schwartz CA et al. Prenatal Radiation Exposure: Dose Calculation. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2015; 187: 338 - 346.

  7. MRI can determine the adequate area for debridement in the case of Fournier's gangrene.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Akira; Fujita, Fumihiko; Tokai, Hirotaka; Ito, Yuichiro; Haraguchi, Masashi; Tajima, Yoshitsugu; Kanematsu, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    A 57-year-old man was transferred to our hospital because of gluteal pain. His right buttock had flare and swelling. Complete blood count showed leukocytosis, and renal failure was evident. Pelvic computed tomography (CT) revealed that the abscess, including gas, was widespread into the hypodermal tissue of the right buttock. Fournier's gangrene had been suspected, and immediate drainage was performed on the right buttock. The symptom and the condition improved rapidly, but on the day after the operation, the patient became drowsy and fell into endotoxic shock. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed strong inflammation along the entire fascia of the right femur and necrotizing fasciitis. MRI was very useful for identification of the necrotic range. Immediately, an emergency operation was performed; 3 wide incisions were made on the right thigh and crus for drainage. The patient was cared for intensively under a sedated condition, and irrigation and debridement were repeated every day. Culture of the pus revealed mixed infection of Escherichia coli and anaerobic bacteria, and a large quantity of antimicrobial drug was used. The inflammatory reaction decreased, and the patient's general condition tentatively improved. With Fournier's gangrene, initiating adequate surgical and medical treatment is essential. Therefore, MRI should be used in the early exact diagnosis of this disease to obtain knowledge of the extent of necrosis and to determine the adequate area for debridement.

  8. Prenatal Drug Exposure: Ethical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    Explores sources of societal disapproval of drug-abusing pregnant women, and examines the relationship between society's moral judgments and public policies. A pregnant woman's fundamental moral obligations to the fetus are comparable to a parent's obligations to a child already born. Society has an obligation to provide needed health care. (SLD)

  9. Prenatal diagnosis and prenatal imaging features of fetal monosomy 1p36.

    PubMed

    Lissauer, D; Larkins, S A; Sharif, S; MacPherson, L; Rhodes, C; Kilby, M D

    2007-09-01

    Deletion of the distal end of the short arm of chromosome 1 (1p36) is thought to be a common terminal chromosomal deletion. However, few cases prospectively diagnosed prenatally have been reported. In this case, prenatal ultrasound at 21 weeks of gestation noted the fetus to have mild ventriculomegaly (Vhanterior = 11 mm and Vhposterior = 12 mm) and increased nuchal edema (6 mm). Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein was normal unlike in a majority of previously described cases. The prenatal ultrasound features were further clarified with fetal MRI. Chromosome analysis following amniocentesis demonstrated a 1p36 deletion, which was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The syndrome associated with 1p36 deletion is well described in infants and is characterized by typical facial features (prominent forehead, straight eyebrows. deep-set eyes, flat nasal bridge and a pointed chin). Other associated features are neurodevelopmental delay, seizures, cardiomyopathy and neurosensory hearing impairment. This case supplements our knowledge of the prenatal features of 1p36. Identification of this deletion by direct chromosomal analysis can be technically difficult and vigilance is required to improve diagnosis. FISH analysis is an important diagnostic adjunct where the diagnosis is suspected following classical G-banding techniques. However, in this chromosomal anomaly there remain few characteristic prenatal signs that are readily diagnosed with prenatal imaging.

  10. The Development and Implementation of a Prenatal Education Program for Expectant Parents of Multiples

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnly, Joan Esper; Juliano, Marion; McLarney, Patricia Swider

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Preparing expectant parents of multiples required a unique prenatal education program. A thorough explanation of the course layout, curriculum, and content the faculty developed for this unique 9-hour program is presented. The unique implications for parenting multiples was highlighted throughout the program, which included expectations for late pregnancy, preparation for labor and birth, assuring infant safety, learning how to provide infant care, identifying sources of support, breastfeeding information and support, potential for neonatal intensive care, postpartum depression, and providing a multiple parent’s personal perspective. All classes were interactive and used active learner-based teaching strategies. PMID:26957894

  11. An interesting prenatal diagnosis: double aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cetin; Eris, Serenat; Yalcin, Yakup; Sen Selim, Halime

    2013-01-01

    Double aneuploidy, the existence of two chromosomal abnormalities in the same individual, is a rare condition. Early diagnosis of this condition is important to offer termination of pregnancy in genetic counselling. Cytogenetic analysis with amniocentesis and ultrasound examination is valuable for diagnosis of double aneuploidy. In this report we present a case with the karyotype of 48XXY+21 diagnosed prenatally.

  12. Prenatal diagnosis of Chinese families with phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Liu, N; Kong, X D; Zhao, D H; Wu, Q H; Li, X L; Guo, H F; Cui, L X; Jiang, M; Shi, H R

    2015-11-19

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability to prenatally diagnose phenylketonuria (PKU) by using phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene mutation analysis combined with short tandem repeat (STR) linkage analysis in 118 fetuses from 112 Chinese families. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood from members of 112 families and the exons and exon-intron boundaries of the PAH gene were amplified by PCR. PCR products were analyzed by bi-directional Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). The three variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) markers PAH-1, PAH-26, PAH-32 were used in the prenatal diagnosis for the PKU families. We identified a spectrum of 63 different mutations, including 61 point mutations and indels, two large exon deletion mutations, and five novel mutations. A substantial proportion of mutant alleles were accounted for by p.R243Q (15.62%), EX6-96AG (9.82%), p.V399V (7.59%), p.Y356X (6.70%), and p.R413P (5.36%). The same mutations were identified in 31 prenatally genotyped fetuses. We identified 58 fetuses that carried only one mutant allele and 29 fetuses that carried no mutations of PAH and were presumed normal. PAH gene mutation analysis combined with STR linkage analysis can provide rapid and accurate prenatal diagnosis for PKU families.

  13. Psychiatric Conditions Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary J.; Paley, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Since the identification of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) over 35 years ago, mounting evidence about the impact of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy has prompted increased attention to the link between prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and a constellation of developmental disabilities that are characterized by physical, cognitive, and…

  14. Ethical Considerations in Prenatal Sex Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty

    2005-01-01

    Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethical dilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of…

  15. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

  16. Prenatal Testing: Is It Right for You?

    MedlinePlus

    ... information about a baby's sex and rhesus (Rh) blood type. Diagnostic tests. If a screening test or prenatal cell-free DNA screening indicates a possible problem — or your age, family history or medical history puts you at increased risk ...

  17. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  18. Are Vancomycin Trough Concentrations Adequate for Optimal Dosing?

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Gilmer; Jones, Brenda; Jelliffe, Roger W.; Drusano, George L.; Rodvold, Keith A.; Lodise, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The current vancomycin therapeutic guidelines recommend the use of only trough concentrations to manage the dosing of adults with Staphylococcus aureus infections. Both vancomycin efficacy and toxicity are likely to be related to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). We assembled richly sampled vancomycin pharmacokinetic data from three studies comprising 47 adults with various levels of renal function. With Pmetrics, the nonparametric population modeling package for R, we compared AUCs estimated from models derived from trough-only and peak-trough depleted versions of the full data set and characterized the relationship between the vancomycin trough concentration and AUC. The trough-only and peak-trough depleted data sets underestimated the true AUCs compared to the full model by a mean (95% confidence interval) of 23% (11 to 33%; P = 0.0001) and 14% (7 to 19%; P < 0.0001), respectively. In contrast, using the full model as a Bayesian prior with trough-only data allowed 97% (93 to 102%; P = 0.23) accurate AUC estimation. On the basis of 5,000 profiles simulated from the full model, among adults with normal renal function and a therapeutic AUC of ≥400 mg · h/liter for an organism for which the vancomycin MIC is 1 mg/liter, approximately 60% are expected to have a trough concentration below the suggested minimum target of 15 mg/liter for serious infections, which could result in needlessly increased doses and a risk of toxicity. Our data indicate that adjustment of vancomycin doses on the basis of trough concentrations without a Bayesian tool results in poor achievement of maximally safe and effective drug exposures in plasma and that many adults can have an adequate vancomycin AUC with a trough concentration of <15 mg/liter. PMID:24165176

  19. Is clinical measurement of anatomic axis of the femur adequate?

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Chuan

    2017-03-23

    Background and purpose - The accuracy of using clinical measurement from the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) to the center of the knee to determine an anatomic axis of the femur has rarely been studied. A radiographic technique with a full-length standing scanogram (FLSS) was used to assess the adequacy of the clinical measurement. Patients and methods - 100 consecutive young adult patients (mean age 34 (20-40) years) with chronic unilateral lower extremity injuries were studied. The pelvis and intact contralateral lower extremity images in the FLSS were selected for study. The angles between the tibial axis and the femoral shaft anatomic axis (S-AA), the piriformis anatomic axis (P-AA), the clinical anatomic axis (C-AA), and the mechanical axis (MA) were compared between sexes. Results - Only the S-AA and C-AA angles were statistically significantly different in the 100 patients (3.6° vs. 2.8°; p = 0.03). There was a strong correlation between S-AA, P-AA, and C-AA angles (r > 0.9). The average intersecting angle between MA and S-AA in the femur in the 100 patients was 5.5°, and it was 4.8° between MA and C-AA. Interpretation - Clinical measurement of an anatomic axis from the ASIS to the center of the knee may be an adequate and acceptable method to determine lower extremity alignment. The optimal inlet for antegrade femoral intramedullary nailing may be the lateral edge of the piriformis fossa.

  20. Child Health USA 2013: Barriers to Prenatal Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Barriers to ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Share this! ...