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Sample records for adequate protective measures

  1. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  2. Are hotspots of evolutionary potential adequately protected in southern California?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergast, A.G.; Bohonak, A.J.; Hathaway, S.A.; Boys, J.; Fisher, R.N.

    2008-01-01

    Reserves are often designed to protect rare habitats, or "typical" exemplars of ecoregions and geomorphic provinces. This approach focuses on current patterns of organismal and ecosystem-level biodiversity, but typically ignores the evolutionary processes that control the gain and loss of biodiversity at these and other levels (e.g., genetic, ecological). In order to include evolutionary processes in conservation planning efforts, their spatial components must first be identified and mapped. We describe a GIS-based approach for explicitly mapping patterns of genetic divergence and diversity for multiple species (a "multi-species genetic landscape"). Using this approach, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA datasets from 21 vertebrate and invertebrate species in southern California to identify areas with common phylogeographic breaks and high intrapopulation diversity. The result is an evolutionary framework for southern California within which patterns of genetic diversity can be analyzed in the context of historical processes, future evolutionary potential and current reserve design. Our multi-species genetic landscapes pinpoint six hotspots where interpopulation genetic divergence is consistently high, five evolutionary hotspots within which genetic connectivity is high, and three hotspots where intrapopulation genetic diversity is high. These 14 hotspots can be grouped into eight geographic areas, of which five largely are unprotected at this time. The multi-species genetic landscape approach may provide an avenue to readily incorporate measures of evolutionary process into GIS-based systematic conservation assessment and land-use planning.

  3. When one is not enough: prevalence and characteristics of homes not adequately protected by smoke alarms

    PubMed Central

    Peek-Asa, C; Allareddy, V; Yang, J; Taylor, C; Lundell, J; Zwerling, C

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has specific recommendations about the number, location, and type of smoke alarms that are needed to provide maximum protection for a household. No previous studies have examined whether or not homes are completely protected according to these guidelines. The authors describe the prevalence and home characteristics associated with compliance to recommendations for smoke alarm installation by the NFPA. Design, setting, and subjects: Data are from the baseline on-site survey of a randomized trial to measure smoke alarm effectiveness. The trial was housed in a longitudinal cohort study in a rural Iowa county. Of 1005 homes invited, 691 (68.8%) participated. Main outcome measures: Information about smoke alarm type, placement, and function, as well as home and occupant characteristics, was collected through an on-site household survey. Results: Although 86.0% of homes had at least one smoke alarm, only 22.3% of homes (approximately one in five) were adequately protected according to NFPA guidelines. Fourteen percent of homes had no functioning smoke alarms. More than half of the homes with smoke alarms did not have enough of them or had installed them incorrectly, and 42.4% of homes with alarms had at least one alarm that did not operate. Homes with at least one high school graduate were nearly four times more likely to be fully protected. Homes that had multiple levels, a basement, or were cluttered or poorly cleaned were significantly less likely to be fully protected. Conclusion: These findings indicate that consumers may not be knowledgeable about the number of alarms they need or how to properly install them. Occupants are also not adequately maintaining the alarms that are installed. PMID:16326772

  4. The Human Right to Adequate Housing: A Tool for Promoting and Protecting Individual and Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Bret

    2002-01-01

    The human right to adequate housing is enshrined in international law. The right to adequate housing can be traced to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was unanimously adopted by the world community in 1948. Since that time, the right to adequate housing has been reaffirmed on numerous occasions and further defined and elaborated. A key component of this right is habitability of housing, which should comply with health and safety standards. Therefore, the right to adequate housing provides an additional tool for advocates and others interested in promoting healthful housing and living conditions and thereby protecting individual and community health. PMID:11988432

  5. Is clinical measurement of anatomic axis of the femur adequate?

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Chuan

    2017-03-23

    Background and purpose - The accuracy of using clinical measurement from the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) to the center of the knee to determine an anatomic axis of the femur has rarely been studied. A radiographic technique with a full-length standing scanogram (FLSS) was used to assess the adequacy of the clinical measurement. Patients and methods - 100 consecutive young adult patients (mean age 34 (20-40) years) with chronic unilateral lower extremity injuries were studied. The pelvis and intact contralateral lower extremity images in the FLSS were selected for study. The angles between the tibial axis and the femoral shaft anatomic axis (S-AA), the piriformis anatomic axis (P-AA), the clinical anatomic axis (C-AA), and the mechanical axis (MA) were compared between sexes. Results - Only the S-AA and C-AA angles were statistically significantly different in the 100 patients (3.6° vs. 2.8°; p = 0.03). There was a strong correlation between S-AA, P-AA, and C-AA angles (r > 0.9). The average intersecting angle between MA and S-AA in the femur in the 100 patients was 5.5°, and it was 4.8° between MA and C-AA. Interpretation - Clinical measurement of an anatomic axis from the ASIS to the center of the knee may be an adequate and acceptable method to determine lower extremity alignment. The optimal inlet for antegrade femoral intramedullary nailing may be the lateral edge of the piriformis fossa.

  6. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America.

  7. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  8. 75 FR 69648 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... ENERGY Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers... designed to hold firmly in place. 10 CFR Part 830 imposes a requirement that a documented safety analysis... provide guidance on meeting the requirements imposed by DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis...

  9. Perinatal substance abuse and human subjects research: are privacy protections adequate?

    PubMed

    Marshall, Mary Faith; Menikoff, Jerry; Paltrow, Lynn M

    2003-01-01

    moral responsibility to understand local, state and national policies and laws governing perinatal substance abuse. Investigators and IRB members should balance the harms of punitive interventions against the protections that may, or may not be afforded to prospective research subjects as well as the prospective benefits, individual and social, of the research. In situations where criminal or punitive policies are in effect, investigators and IRB members should consider whether adequate protections can be achieved. In the context of inadequate protections, potential risks to prospective research subjects and their families may outweigh the individual or social benefits that accrue from the research. Clinical researchers are professionally obligated to work toward amending laws and policies that are not in the best interests of prospective research subjects.

  10. Critique of protective measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hari Dass, N.D.; Qureshi, T.

    1999-04-01

    The recently proposed idea of {open_quotes}protective{close_quotes} measurement of a quantum state is critically examined, and generalized. Earlier criticisms of the idea are discussed, and their relevance to the proposal assessed. Several constraints on measuring apparatus required by {open_quotes}protective{close_quotes} measurements are discussed, with emphasis on how they may restrict their experimental feasibility. Though {open_quotes}protective{close_quotes} measurements result in an unchanged system state and a shift of the pointer proportional to the expectation value of the measured observable in the system state, the actual reading of the pointer position gives rise to several subtleties. We propose several schemes for reading the pointer position, both when the apparatus is treated as a classical system as well as when its quantum aspects are taken into account, that address these issues. The tiny entanglement which is always present due to deviation from extreme adiabaticity in realistic situations is argued to be the weakest aspect of the proposal. Because of this, one can never perform a protective measurement on a single quantum system with absolute certainty. This clearly precludes an ontological status for the wave function. Several other conceptual issues are also discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Does the new EU Regulation on clinical trials adequately protect vulnerable research participants?

    PubMed

    Gennet, Éloïse; Andorno, Roberto; Elger, Bernice

    2015-07-01

    Vulnerable research participants deserve special protection because of their increased risks of being wronged. Yet, paradoxically, the conduct of trials involving vulnerable groups is sometimes inescapable to develop safe and efficient therapies suitable to these groups. The key question is therefore how to protect vulnerable research participants from harm and exploitation without excluding the populations they belong to from the benefits of research. The European Union faced this challenge in April 2014 when adopting the new Regulation on clinical trials, which will replace the currently applicable 2001 Clinical Trials Directive in 2016. In order to assess the protection of vulnerable persons in the new Regulation, this paper makes four suggestions: first, the need to adopt a risk-based approach to vulnerability in biomedical research; second, to better distinguish between decisional vulnerabilities and health-related vulnerabilities; third, to emphasise the need to preserve the freedom of consent of subjects with decisional vulnerability, who are more susceptible to undue influence; and finally to assert the need of actively promoting specific clinical trials involving people with physical or psychological vulnerabilities. In conclusion, this paper claims that the protection of vulnerable subjects still needs to be improved in the new EU Regulation.

  12. Movement and spawning migration patterns suggest small marine reserves can offer adequate protection for exploited emperorfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, B. M.; Mills, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    A critical feature of effective marine reserves is to be large enough to encompass home ranges of target species, thereby allowing a significant portion of the population to persist without the threat of exploitation. In this study, patterns of movement and home range for Lethrinus harak and Lethrinus obsoletus were quantified using an array of 33 acoustic receivers that covered approximately three quarters of Piti Marine Reserve in the Pacific island of Guam. This array was designed to ensure extensive overlap of receiver ranges throughout the study area. Eighteen individuals (12 L. harak and 6 L. obsoletus) were surgically implanted with ultrasonic transmitters and passively tracked for 4 months. Both species displayed high site fidelity and had relatively small home ranges. The home ranges of L. harak expanded with increasing body size. Feeding of fish by humans, which was common but restricted to a small area within the study site, had little effect on the distribution of the resident populations. L. harak made nightly spawning migrations within the reserve between full moon and last quarter moon of each lunar cycle, coinciding with a strong ebbing tide. Results indicate that even small reserves can include many individual home ranges of these emperorfishes and can protect spawning sites for L. harak. These species are heavily targeted in Guam, and there are major demographic differences between fished and protected sites. This study shows the potential for protected areas to sustain reproductive viability in exploited populations.

  13. Best strategy for cerebral protection in arch surgery - antegrade selective cerebral perfusion and adequate hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Friedrich W.; Etz, Christian D.

    2013-01-01

    Aortic arch surgery remains a complex surgical operation that necessitates specific neuroprotection strategies. Various approaches, such as hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA), retrograde cerebral perfusion, and antegrade selective cerebral perfusion (aSCP), have each enjoyed periods of popularity. However, while the overall surgical approach tend to favour HCA with aSCP, technical factors, such as perfusion site, perfusate temperature and flow rate and pH management, have not been conclusively elucidated. The optimal extent of hypothermia during circulatory arrest is also unclear, particularly with recent partiality for warmer temperatures. The following perspective details the preferred surgical practice for cerebral protection in aortic arch surgery, based on existing evidence. PMID:23977602

  14. Gaussian membership functions are most adequate in representing uncertainty in measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreinovich, V.; Quintana, C.; Reznik, L.

    1992-01-01

    In rare situations, like fundamental physics, we perform experiments without knowing what their results will be. In the majority of real-life measurement situations, we more or less know beforehand what kind of results we will get. Of course, this is not the precise knowledge of the type 'the result will be between alpha - beta and alpha + beta,' because in this case, we would not need any measurements at all. This is usually a knowledge that is best represented in uncertain terms, like 'perhaps (or 'most likely', etc.) the measured value x is between alpha - beta and alpha + beta.' Traditional statistical methods neglect this additional knowledge and process only the measurement results. So it is desirable to be able to process this uncertain knowledge as well. A natural way to process it is by using fuzzy logic. But, there is a problem; we can use different membership functions to represent the same uncertain statements, and different functions lead to different results. What membership function do we choose? In the present paper, we show that under some reasonable assumptions, Gaussian functions mu(x) = exp(-beta(x(exp 2))) are the most adequate choice of the membership functions for representing uncertainty in measurements. This representation was efficiently used in testing jet engines to airplanes and spaceships.

  15. Protective Measurement and Quantum Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan

    2015-01-01

    1. Protective measurements: an introduction Shan Gao; Part I. Fundamentals and Applications: 2. Protective measurements of the wave function of a single system Lev Vaidman; 3. Protective measurement, postselection and the Heisenberg representation Yakir Aharonov and Eliahu Cohen; 4. Protective and state measurement: a review Gennaro Auletta; 5. Determination of the stationary basis from protective measurement on a single system Lajos Diósi; 6. Weak measurements, the energy-momentum tensor and the Bohm approach Robert Flack and Basil J. Hiley; Part II. Meanings and Implications: 7. Measurement and metaphysics Peter J. Lewis; 8. Protective measurements and the explanatory gambit Michael Dickson; 9. Realism and instrumentalism about the wave function: how should we choose? Mauro Dorato and Frederico Laudisa; 10. Protective measurements and the PBR theorem Guy Hetzroni and Daniel Rohrlich; 11. The roads not taken: empty waves, waveform collapse and protective measurement in quantum theory Peter Holland; 12. Implications of protective measurements on de Broglie-Bohm trajectories Aurelien Drezet; 13. Entanglement, scaling, and the meaning of the wave function in protective measurement Maximilian Schlosshauer and Tangereen V. B. Claringbold; 14. Protective measurements and the nature of the wave function within the primitive ontology approach Vincent Lam; 15. Reality and meaning of the wave function Shan Gao; Index.

  16. Residual triose phosphate isomerase activity and color measurements to determine adequate cooking of ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Sair, A I; Booren, A M; Berry, B W; Smith, D M

    1999-02-01

    The objectives were to (i) compare the use of triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) activity and internal color scores for determination of cooking adequacy of beef patties and (ii) determine the effect of frozen storage and fat content on residual TPI activity in ground beef. Ground beef patties (24.4% fat) were cooked to five temperatures ranging from 60.0 to 82.2 degrees C. TPI activity decreased as beef patty cooking temperature was increased from 60.0 to 71.1 degrees C; however, no difference (P > 0.05) in activity (6.3 U/kg meat) was observed in patties cooked to 71.1 degrees C and above. Degree of doneness color scores, a* values and b* values, of ground beef patties decreased as internal temperature was increased from 60.0 to 71.1 degrees C; however, temperature had no effect on L* values. TPI activity in raw ground beef after five freeze-thaw cycles did not differ from the control. Three freeze-thaw cycles of raw ground beef resulted in a 57.2% decrease in TPI activity after cooking. TPI activity of cooked beef increased during 2 months of frozen storage, but TPI activity in ground beef stored for 3 months or longer did not differ from the unfrozen control. While past research has shown color to be a poor indicator of adequate thermal processing, our results suggest that undercooked ground beef patties could be distinguished from those that had been adequately cooked following U.S. Department of Agriculture guidelines using residual TPI activity as a marker.

  17. The role of adequate reference materials in density measurements in hemodialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furtado, A.; Moutinho, J.; Moura, S.; Oliveira, F.; Filipe, E.

    2015-02-01

    In hemodialysis, oscillation-type density meters are used to measure the density of the acid component of the dialysate solutions used in the treatment of kidney patients. An incorrect density determination of this solution used in hemodialysis treatments can cause several and adverse events to patients. Therefore, despite the Fresenius Medical Care (FME) tight control of the density meters calibration results, this study shows the benefits of mimic the matrix usually measured to produce suitable reference materials for the density meter calibrations.

  18. Transmission potential and design of adequate control measures for Marburg hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Ajelli, Marco; Merler, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Marburg hemorrhagic fever is rare yet among the most severe diseases affecting humans, with case fatality ratio even higher than 80%. By analyzing the largest documented Marburg hemorrhagic fever epidemic, which occurred in Angola in 2005 and caused 329 deaths, and data on viral load over time in non-human primates, we make an assessment of transmissibility and severity of the disease. We also give insight into the control of new Marburg hemorrhagic fever epidemics to inform appropriate health responses. We estimated the distribution of the generation time to have mean 9 days (95%CI: 8.2-10 days) and standard deviation 5.4 days (95%CI: 3.9-8.6 days), and the basic reproduction number to be R(0) = 1.59 (95%CI: 1.53-1.66). Model simulations suggest that a timely isolation of cases, starting no later than 2-3 days after symptoms onset, is sufficient to contain an outbreak. Our analysis reveals that Marburg hemorrhagic fever is characterized by a relatively small reproduction number and by a relatively long generation time. Such factors, along with the extremely high severity and fatality, support the rare occurrence of large epidemics in human populations. Our results also support the effectiveness of social distancing measures--case isolation in particular--to contain or at least to mitigate an emerging outbreak. This work represents an advance in the knowledge required to manage a potential Marburg hemorrhagic fever epidemic.

  19. Personal Protection Measures Against Mosquitoes, Ticks, and Other Arthropods.

    PubMed

    Alpern, Jonathan D; Dunlop, Stephen J; Dolan, Benjamin J; Stauffer, William M; Boulware, David R

    2016-03-01

    Arthropod-associated diseases are a major cause of morbidity among travelers. Obtaining a detailed travel itinerary and understanding traveler-specific and destination-specific risk factors can help mitigate the risk of vector-borne diseases. DEET, picaridin, PMD, and IR3535 are insect repellents that offer sufficient protection against arthropod bites. IR3535 does not provide adequate protection against Anopheles mosquitoes, and should be avoided in malaria-endemic regions. General protective measures, such as bite avoidance, protective clothing, insecticide-treated bed nets, and insecticide-treated clothing, should be recommended, especially in malaria-endemic areas. Spatial repellents may prevent nuisance biting, but have not been shown to prevent against vector-borne disease.

  20. Assessment of adequate quality and collocation of reference measurements with space borne hyperspectral infrared instruments to validate retrievals of temperature and water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbet, X.

    2015-06-01

    A method is presented to assess whether a given reference ground based point observation, typically a radiosonde measurement, is adequately collocated and sufficiently representative of space borne hyperspectral infrared instrument measurements. Once this assessment is made, the ground based data can be used to validate and potentially calibrate, with a high degree of accuracy, the hyperspectral retrievals of temperature and water vapour.

  1. Adequate Wound Care and Use of Bed Nets as Protective Factors against Buruli Ulcer: Results from a Case Control Study in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Landier, Jordi; Boisier, Pascal; Fotso Piam, Félix; Noumen-Djeunga, Blanbin; Simé, Joseph; Wantong, Fidèle Gaetan; Marsollier, Laurent; Fontanet, Arnaud; Eyangoh, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease involving the skin, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Its exact transmission mechanism remains unknown. Several arguments indicate a possible role for insects in its transmission. A previous case-control study in the Nyong valley region in central Cameroon showed an unexpected association between bed net use and protection against Buruli ulcer. We investigated whether this association persisted in a newly discovered endemic Buruli ulcer focus in Bankim, northwestern Cameroon. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a case-control study on 77 Buruli ulcer cases and 153 age-, gender- and village-matched controls. Participants were interviewed about their activities and habits. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis identified systematic use of a bed net (Odds-Ratio (OR) = 0.4, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI] = [0.2–0.9], p-value (p) = 0.04), cleansing wounds with soap (OR [95%CI] = 0.1 [0.03–0.3], p<0.0001) and growing cassava (OR [95%CI] = 0.3 [0.2–0.7], p = 0.005) as independent protective factors. Independent risk factors were bathing in the Mbam River (OR [95%CI] = 6.9 [1.4–35], p = 0.02) and reporting scratch lesions after insect bites (OR [95%CI] = 2.7 [1.4–5.4], p = 0.004). The proportion of cases that could be prevented by systematic bed net use was 32%, and by adequate wound care was 34%. Conclusions/Significance Our study confirms that two previously identified factors, adequate wound care and bed net use, significantly decreased the risk of Buruli ulcer. These associations withstand generalization to different geographic, climatic and epidemiologic settings. Involvement of insects in the household environment, and the relationship between wound hygiene and M. ulcerans infection should now be investigated. PMID:22087346

  2. An Examination of Principal Leadership Styles and Their Influence on School Performance as Measured by Adequate Yearly Progress at Selected Title I Elementary Schools in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Tammy Faith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine principal leadership styles and their influence on school performance as measured by adequate yearly progress at selected Title I schools in South Carolina. The main focus of the research study was to complete descriptive statistics on principal leadership styles in schools that met or did not meet adequate…

  3. In vitro measurements of sunscreen protection.

    PubMed

    Stanfield, Joseph; Osterwalder, Uli; Herzog, Bernd

    2010-04-01

    The ultimate goal of in vitro measurements of sunscreen protection is replacement of invasive tests on human volunteer subjects. This requires validation of methods against a measurable in vivo benchmark, such as SPF. SPF is measured in the laboratory using artificial light sources that do not completely simulate sunlight. Once a method for in vitro measurements is validated, sunscreen protection against measured solar spectra may be achieved. Critical aspects of in vitro measurements of sun protection include the ability of substrates to emulate human skin, performance of instrumentation and use of correct algorithms to account for changes in sunscreen absorbance during irradiation. We have developed a dose-response model that accounts for changes in absorbance and facilitates evaluation of broad spectrum protection, as well as SPF, and provides an index of sunscreen photostability.

  4. Assessment of adequate quality and collocation of reference measurements with space-borne hyperspectral infrared instruments to validate retrievals of temperature and water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbet, X.

    2016-01-01

    A method is presented to assess whether a given reference ground-based point observation, typically a radiosonde measurement, is adequately collocated and sufficiently representative of space-borne hyperspectral infrared instrument measurements. Once this assessment is made, the ground-based data can be used to validate and potentially calibrate, with a high degree of accuracy, the hyperspectral retrievals of temperature and water vapour.

  5. Measurement of protection factor of respiratory protective devices toward nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Brochot, C; Michielsen, N; Chazelet, S; Thomas, D

    2012-07-01

    The use of nanoparticles in industry has increased spectacularly over the past few years. Additionally, nanoscale particles seem to be the cause of new professional exposure situations. Due to their size, these particles may build up within the respiratory tract and may even reach the nervous system via the nasal passages; for this reason, it is generally recommended to wear respiratory protective devices (RPDs) in situations where collective protection is impossible to implement or inadequate. Here, we present the test bench ETNA designed to study the efficiency of RPDs in the presence of nanoparticles. The results of the efficiency measurement of two RPDs for two positions (sealed and unsealed) on a Sheffield head, for two inhalation configurations (constant flow and cyclic flow), and for two different particle size distributions of NaCl aerosol (one centered on 13 nm and the other on 59 nm) are presented below. The measurements indicate that when the leaks are negligible at the interface mask/head, the efficiency of RPD is greater for nanoparticles. For major leaks, the device's protection factor changes independently of the size of the particles. Furthermore, no trends with respect to the effect of the respiration type (constant-flow and cyclic-flow tests) have been shown on the device's protection factor.

  6. Vaccination of Elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes Does Not Induce Adequate Protection against Experimental Brucella abortus Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Nol, Pauline; Olsen, Steven C.; Rhyan, Jack C.; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; McCollum, Matthew P.; Hennager, Steven G.; Pavuk, Alana A.; Sprino, Phillip J.; Boyle, Stephen M.; Berrier, Randall J.; Salman, Mo D.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further, work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk. PMID:26904509

  7. Vaccination of Elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes Does Not Induce Adequate Protection against Experimental Brucella abortus Challenge.

    PubMed

    Nol, Pauline; Olsen, Steven C; Rhyan, Jack C; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; McCollum, Matthew P; Hennager, Steven G; Pavuk, Alana A; Sprino, Phillip J; Boyle, Stephen M; Berrier, Randall J; Salman, Mo D

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further, work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk.

  8. Earthquake Protection Measures for People with Disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gountromichou, C.; Kourou, A.; Kerpelis, P.

    2009-04-01

    The problem of seismic safety for people with disabilities not only exists but is also urgent and of primary importance. Working towards disability equality, Earthquake Planning and Protection Organization of Greece (E.P.P.O.) has developed an educational scheme for people with disabilities in order to guide them to develop skills to protect themselves as well as to take the appropriate safety measures before, during and after an earthquake. The framework of this initiative includes a number of actions have been already undertaken, including the following: a. Recently, the main guidelines have been published to help people who have physical, cognitive, visual, or auditory disabilities to cope with a destructive earthquake. Of great importance, in case of people with disabilities, is to be prepared for the disaster, with several measures that must be taken starting today. In the pre-earthquake period, it is important that these people, in addition to other measures, do the following: - Create a Personal Support Network The Personal Support Network should be a group of at least three trustful people that can assist the disabled person to prepare for a disastrous event and to recover after it. - Complete a Personal Assessment The environment may change after a destructive earthquake. People with disabilities are encouraged to make a list of their personal needs and their resources for meeting them in a disaster environment. b. Lectures and training seminars on earthquake protection are given for students, teachers and educators in Special Schools for disabled people, mainly for informing and familiarizing them with earthquakes and with safety measures. c. Many earthquake drills have already taken place, for each disability, in order to share good practices and lessons learned to further disaster reduction and to identify gaps and challenges. The final aim of this action is all people with disabilities to be well informed and motivated towards a culture of earthquake

  9. Experiments for Realising Pragmatic Protective Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Dass, N. D. Hari

    2011-09-23

    I shall describe Aharonov, Anandan and Vaidman's proposal for protective measurements and their claims of providing an ontological interpretation for a certain class of wavefunctions through this type of measurement. I shall then describe work done with Tabish Qureshi which dispels this myth. I will show how the AAV proposal may be useful in a pragmatic sense and provide a concrete experimental setup using cold atoms. In particular, I will discuss how techniques developed by the Schmiedmayer group in Vienna for single-particle-sensitive imaging of freely propagating cold atoms could be adopted for this purpose. I will conclude with a brief description of my work with Anirban Das on adiabatic interactions between spin-systems and a proposal for its experimental realisation.

  10. Experiments for Realising Pragmatic Protective Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dass, N. D. Hari

    2011-09-01

    I shall describe Aharonov, Anandan and Vaidman's [1] proposal for protective measurements and their claims of providing an ontological interpretation for a certain class of wavefunctions through this type of measurement. I shall then describe work done with Tabish Qureshi [2] which dispels this myth. I will show how the AAV proposal may be useful in a pragmatic sense and provide a concrete experimental setup using cold atoms [4]. In particular, I will discuss how techniques developed by the Schmiedmayer group in Vienna [9] for single-particle-sensitive imaging of freely propagating cold atoms could be adopted for this purpose. I will conclude with a brief description of my work with Anirban Das [5] on adiabatic interactions between spin-systems and a proposal for its experimental realisation.

  11. Protective sheath for a continuous measurement thermocouple

    SciTech Connect

    Phillippi, R. Michael

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a protective thermocouple sheath of a magnesia graphite refractory material for use in continuous temperature measurements of molten metal in a metallurgical ladle and having a basic slag layer thereon. The sheath includes an elongated torpedo-shaped sheath body formed of a refractory composition and having an interior borehole extending axially therethrough and adapted to receive a thermocouple. The sheath body includes a lower end which is closed about the borehole and forms a narrow, tapered tip. The sheath body also includes a first body portion integral with the tapered tip and having a relatively constant cross section and providing a thin wall around the borehole. The sheath body also includes a second body portion having a relatively constant cross section larger than the cross section of the first body portion and providing a thicker wall around the borehole. The borehole terminates in an open end at the second body portion. The tapered tip is adapted to penetrate the slag layer and the thicker second body portion and its magnesia constituent material are adapted to withstand chemical attack thereon from the slag layer. The graphite constituent improves thermal conductivity of the refractory material and, thus, enhances the thermal responsiveness of the device.

  12. Protective sheath for a continuous measurement thermocouple

    SciTech Connect

    Phillippi, R.M.

    1991-12-03

    Disclosed is a protective thermocouple sheath of a magnesia graphite refractory material for use in continuous temperature measurements of molten metal in a metallurgical ladle and having a basic slag layer thereon. The sheath includes an elongated torpedo-shaped sheath body formed of a refractory composition and having an interior borehole extending axially therethrough and adapted to receive a thermocouple. The sheath body includes a lower end which is closed about the borehole and forms a narrow, tapered tip. The sheath body also includes a first body portion integral with the tapered tip and having a relatively constant cross section and providing a thin wall around the borehole. The sheath body also includes a second body portion having a relatively constant cross section larger than the cross section of the first body portion and providing a thicker wall around the borehole. The borehole terminates in an open end at the second body portion. The tapered tip is adapted to penetrate the slag layer and the thicker second body portion and its magnesia constituent material are adapted to withstand chemical attack thereon from the slag layer. The graphite constituent improves thermal conductivity of the refractory material and, thus, enhances the thermal responsiveness of the device. 4 figures.

  13. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  14. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  15. 29 CFR 1917.95 - Other protective measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.95 Other protective measures. (a) Protective clothing..., or for use on vessels. (3) Personal flotation devices shall be maintained in safe condition and...

  16. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required...

  17. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required...

  18. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5... SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required to... paying off the crew should be either the Master, or purser, or some other member of the ship's...

  19. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5... SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required to... paying off the crew should be either the Master, or purser, or some other member of the ship's...

  20. 30 CFR 582.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to be inadequate to support an environmental evaluation of a proposed Delineation, Testing, or Mining... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental protection measures. 582.28... Responsibilities of Lessees § 582.28 Environmental protection measures. (a) Exploration, testing,...

  1. 30 CFR 582.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to be inadequate to support an environmental evaluation of a proposed Delineation, Testing, or Mining... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental protection measures. 582.28... Responsibilities of Lessees § 582.28 Environmental protection measures. (a) Exploration, testing,...

  2. 30 CFR 582.28 - Environmental protection measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to be inadequate to support an environmental evaluation of a proposed Delineation, Testing, or Mining... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental protection measures. 582.28... Responsibilities of Lessees § 582.28 Environmental protection measures. (a) Exploration, testing,...

  3. Measuring the effectiveness of protected area networks in reducing deforestation

    PubMed Central

    Andam, Kwaw S.; Ferraro, Paul J.; Pfaff, Alexander; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. Arturo; Robalino, Juan A.

    2008-01-01

    Global efforts to reduce tropical deforestation rely heavily on the establishment of protected areas. Measuring the effectiveness of these areas is difficult because the amount of deforestation that would have occurred in the absence of legal protection cannot be directly observed. Conventional methods of evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas can be biased because protection is not randomly assigned and because protection can induce deforestation spillovers (displacement) to neighboring forests. We demonstrate that estimates of effectiveness can be substantially improved by controlling for biases along dimensions that are observable, measuring spatial spillovers, and testing the sensitivity of estimates to potential hidden biases. We apply matching methods to evaluate the impact on deforestation of Costa Rica's renowned protected-area system between 1960 and 1997. We find that protection reduced deforestation: approximately 10% of the protected forests would have been deforested had they not been protected. Conventional approaches to evaluating conservation impact, which fail to control for observable covariates correlated with both protection and deforestation, substantially overestimate avoided deforestation (by over 65%, based on our estimates). We also find that deforestation spillovers from protected to unprotected forests are negligible. Our conclusions are robust to potential hidden bias, as well as to changes in modeling assumptions. Our results show that, with appropriate empirical methods, conservation scientists and policy makers can better understand the relationships between human and natural systems and can use this to guide their attempts to protect critical ecosystem services. PMID:18854414

  4. Measuring the effectiveness of protected area networks in reducing deforestation.

    PubMed

    Andam, Kwaw S; Ferraro, Paul J; Pfaff, Alexander; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Robalino, Juan A

    2008-10-21

    Global efforts to reduce tropical deforestation rely heavily on the establishment of protected areas. Measuring the effectiveness of these areas is difficult because the amount of deforestation that would have occurred in the absence of legal protection cannot be directly observed. Conventional methods of evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas can be biased because protection is not randomly assigned and because protection can induce deforestation spillovers (displacement) to neighboring forests. We demonstrate that estimates of effectiveness can be substantially improved by controlling for biases along dimensions that are observable, measuring spatial spillovers, and testing the sensitivity of estimates to potential hidden biases. We apply matching methods to evaluate the impact on deforestation of Costa Rica's renowned protected-area system between 1960 and 1997. We find that protection reduced deforestation: approximately 10% of the protected forests would have been deforested had they not been protected. Conventional approaches to evaluating conservation impact, which fail to control for observable covariates correlated with both protection and deforestation, substantially overestimate avoided deforestation (by over 65%, based on our estimates). We also find that deforestation spillovers from protected to unprotected forests are negligible. Our conclusions are robust to potential hidden bias, as well as to changes in modeling assumptions. Our results show that, with appropriate empirical methods, conservation scientists and policy makers can better understand the relationships between human and natural systems and can use this to guide their attempts to protect critical ecosystem services.

  5. SITE-SPECIFIC MEASUREMENTS OF RESIDENTIAL RADON PROTECTION CATEGORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a series of benchmark measurements of soil radon potential at seven Florida sites and compares the measurements with regional estimates of radon potential from the Florida radon protection map. The measurements and map were developed under the Florida Radon R...

  6. Security Measures to Protect Mobile Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadhich, Piyanka; Govil, M. C.; Dutta, Kamlesh

    2010-11-01

    The security issues of mobile agent systems have embarrassed its widespread implementation. Mobile agents that move around the network are not safe because the remote hosts that accommodate the agents initiates all kinds of attacks. These hosts try to analyze the agent's decision logic and their accumulated data. So, mobile agent security is the most challenging unsolved problems. The paper analyzes various security measures deeply. Security especially the attacks performed by hosts to the visiting mobile agent (the malicious hosts problem) is a major obstacle that prevents mobile agent technology from being widely adopted. Being the running environment for mobile agent, the host has full control over them and could easily perform many kinds of attacks against them.

  7. Food groups associated with a composite measure of probability of adequate intake of 11 micronutrients in the diets of women in urban Mali.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Gina; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Seghieri, Chiara; Arimond, Mary; Koreissi, Yara; Dossa, Romain; Kok, Frans J; Brouwer, Inge D

    2010-11-01

    The prevalence of micronutrient deficiency is high among women of reproductive age living in urban Mali. Despite this, there are little data on the dietary intake of micronutrients among women of reproductive age in Mali. This research tested the relationship between the quantity of intake of 21 possible food groups and estimated usual micronutrient (folate, vitamin B-12, calcium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin A, iron, thiamin, vitamin B-6, vitamin C, and zinc) intakes and a composite measure of adequacy of 11 micronutrients [mean probability of adequacy (MPA)] based on the individual probability of adequacy (PA) for the 11 micronutrients. Food group and micronutrient intakes were calculated from 24-h recall data in an urban sample of Malian women. PA was lowest for folate, vitamin B-12, calcium, and riboflavin. The overall MPA for the composite measure of 11 micronutrients was 0.47 ± 0.18. Grams of intake from the nuts/seeds, milk/yogurt, vitamin A-rich dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV), and vitamin C-rich vegetables food groups were correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.20-0.36; P < 0.05) with MPA. Women in the highest consumption groups of nuts/seeds and DGLV had 5- and 6-fold greater odds of an MPA > 0.5, respectively. These findings can be used to further the development of indicators of dietary diversity and to improve micronutrient intakes of women of reproductive age.

  8. Measuring the skin dose protection afforded by protective apparel with a beta spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, D.E.; Rich, B.L.; Johnson, L.O. )

    1986-10-01

    This paper reports that the protective apparel worn by radiation workers to avoid skin contamination also provides measurable protection against external beta sources. The beta contribution to the skin dose rate depends on the residual energy spectrum of the beta particles after they have penetrated the protective apparel. The shift in the beta energy spectra and consequent reduction in the shallow dose rates afforded by various items of protective apparel were investigated for a few laboratory beta sources using a beta spectrometer that is capable of dose calculations. The results presented here indicate that significant dose rates to the skin can occur despite the presence of protective apparel if high energy beta emitting isotopes are present.

  9. Validation of Three Early Ejaculation Diagnostic Tools: A Composite Measure Is Accurate and More Adequate for Diagnosis by Updated Diagnostic Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Jern, Patrick; Piha, Juhana; Santtila, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To validate three early ejaculation diagnostic tools, and propose a new tool for diagnosis in line with proposed changes to diagnostic criteria. Significant changes to diagnostic criteria are expected in the near future. Available screening tools do not necessarily reflect proposed changes. Materials and Methods Data from 148 diagnosed early ejaculation patients (Mage = 42.8) and 892 controls (Mage = 33.1 years) from a population-based sample were used. Participants responded to three different questionnaires (Premature Ejaculation Profile; Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool; Multiple Indicators of Premature Ejaculation). Stopwatch measured ejaculation latency times were collected from a subsample of early ejaculation patients. We used two types of responses to the questionnaires depending on the treatment status of the patients 1) responses regarding the situation before starting pharmacological treatment and 2) responses regarding current situation. Logistic regressions and Receiver Operating Characteristics were used to assess ability of both the instruments and individual items to differentiate between patients and controls. Results All instruments had very good precision (Areas under the Curve ranging from .93-.98). A new five-item instrument (named CHecklist for Early Ejaculation Symptoms – CHEES) consisting of high-performance variables selected from the three instruments had validity (Nagelkerke R2 range .51-.79 for backwards/forwards logistic regression) equal to or slightly better than any individual instrument (i.e., had slightly higher validity statistics, but these differences did not achieve statistical significance). Importantly, however, this instrument was more in line with proposed changes to diagnostic criteria. Conclusions All three screening tools had good validity. A new 5-item diagnostic tool (CHEES) based on the three instruments had equal or somewhat more favorable validity statistics compared to the other three tools, but is

  10. Public-private provision of protection measures against natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, M.

    2009-04-01

    Natural hazards threaten human lives as well as economic values of a society. Due to an increasing population density, augmenting property holdings in congested areas as well as higher frequencies of catastrophic events, the damage potential associated with natural hazards is growing. In order to safeguard societal assets against this threat, active and passive protection measures can be established. While passive protection measures provide for this type of risk by means of thorough land use planning, active protection measures aim at improving safety through technical or biological protective systems and structures. However, these provisions are costly and need to be handled prudentially. In most European countries protection measures against natural hazards are provided by the public. Specific governmental funds have been set up for the establishment of preventive systems as well as for damage compensation payments after the occurrence of catastrophic events. Though, additional capital is urgently needed in order to facilitate the realisation of all necessary projects in this field and to provide for maximal safety. One potential solution for such financial deficiencies can be found in Public Private Partnerships (PPP). PPPs have been implemented as attractive concepts for the funding of diverse projects in the fields of e.g. road construction, municipal, health and social services. In principle, they could also provide alternative funding solutions for the establishment of crucial protective infrastructure in respect of natural hazards, adding private financial means to the currently available public funds. Thereby, the entire capacities for catastrophe funding could be enhanced. Beside PPPs, also alternative funding mechanisms such as the emission of catastrophe bonds, contingent credit lines or leasing arrangements may enhance available capacities for the financing of protection measures. This contribution discusses innovative solutions for the funding of

  11. Design Considerations of a Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Protective Housing for Intramuscular Pressure Measurements.

    PubMed

    Go, Shanette A; Jensen, Elisabeth R; O'Connor, Shawn M; Evertz, Loribeth Q; Morrow, Duane A; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2017-03-01

    Intramuscular pressure (IMP), defined as skeletal muscle interstitial fluid pressure, reflects changes in individual muscle tension and may provide crucial insight into musculoskeletal biomechanics and pathologies. IMP may be measured using fiber-optic fluid pressure sensors, provided the sensor is adequately anchored to and shielded from surrounding muscle tissue. Ineffective anchoring enables sensor motion and inadequate shielding facilitates direct sensor-tissue interaction, which result in measurement artifacts and force-IMP dissociation. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of polyimide and nitinol protective housing designs to anchor pressure sensors to muscle tissue, prevent IMP measurement artifacts, and optimize the force-IMP correlation. Anchoring capacity was quantified as force required to dislodge sensors from muscle tissue. Force-IMP correlations and non-physiological measurement artifacts were quantified during isometric muscle activations of the rabbit tibialis anterior. Housing structural integrity was assessed after both anchoring and activation testing. Although there was no statistically significant difference in anchoring capacity, nitinol housings demonstrated greater structural integrity and superior force-IMP correlations. Further design improvements are needed to prevent tissue accumulation in the housing recess associated with artificially high IMP measurements. These findings emphasize fundamental protective housing design elements crucial for achieving reliable IMP measurements.

  12. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  13. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  14. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  15. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  16. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  17. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  18. Region 2: New Jersey Adequate Letter (5/23/2002)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This April 22, 2002 letter from EPA to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection determined 2007 and 2014 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Mobile Source Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal

  19. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  20. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  1. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  2. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  3. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  4. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  5. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  6. Load Measurement on Foundations of Rockfall Protection Systems

    PubMed Central

    Volkwein, Axel; Kummer, Peter; Bitnel, Hueseyin; Campana, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Rockfall protection barriers are connected to the ground using steel cables fixed with anchors and foundations for the steel posts. It is common practice to measure the forces in the cables, while to date measurements of forces in the foundations have been inadequately resolved. An overview is presented of existing methods to measure the loads on the post foundations of rockfall protection barriers. Addressing some of the inadequacies of existing approaches, a novel sensor unit is presented that is able to capture the forces acting on post foundations in all six degrees of freedom. The sensor unit consists of four triaxial force sensors placed between two steel plates. To correctly convert the measurements into the directional forces acting on the foundation a special in-situ calibration procedure is proposed that delivers a corresponding conversion matrix. PMID:26840315

  7. Revision of the Measurement Tool for Patients' Health Information Protection Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Song, Youngshin; Lee, Miyoung; Jun, Younghee; Lee, Yoonhee; Cho, Jeonghwa; Kwon, Myoungjin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Despite the importance of the protection of patients' health information in clinical settings, little is known about the awareness of this concept in nursing students due to the lack of a suitable measurement tool. Hence, this study attempted to redevelop the Patients' Health Information Protection Awareness Scale, and evaluate its construct validity and reliability for nursing students. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. Nursing students who were in their 3rd and 4th year were recruited from 10 universities in Korea to assess the construct validity, and 30 experts (27 nurses and 3 faculty members) participated in the content validation process. Results The content validity assessment indicated that 23 items were ideal. The assessment of construct validity using exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors: communication, management, and referrals. They together accounted for 54.1% of the variance in scale scores. The three-factor scale had good fit in the confirmatory factor analysis. Scale reliability was confirmed, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.94 for all items. Conclusions This study was the first attempt to redevelop the Patients' Health Information Protection Awareness Scale for student nurses. The 23-item scale was shown to be a reliable and valid tool. It facilitates the assessment of nursing students' awareness of patient information protection. Academic nursing programs and health organizations can use its scores to implement adequate education plans to safeguard information in nursing students. PMID:27525162

  8. Constructing vulnerabilty and protective measures indices for the enhanced critical infrastructure protection program.

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R. E.; Buehring, W. A.; Whitfield, R. G.; Bassett, G. W.; Dickinson, D. C.; Haffenden, R. A.; Klett, M. S.; Lawlor, M. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; LANL

    2009-10-14

    The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has directed its Protective Security Advisors (PSAs) to form partnerships with the owners and operators of assets most essential to the Nation's well being - a subclass of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) - and to conduct site visits for these and other high-risk assets as part of the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection (ECIP) Program. During each such visit, the PSA documents information about the facility's current CIKR protection posture and overall security awareness. The primary goals for ECIP site visits (DHS 2009) are to: (1) inform facility owners and operators of the importance of their facilities as an identified high-priority CIKR and the need to be vigilant in light of the ever-present threat of terrorism; (2) identify protective measures currently in place at these facilities, provide comparisons of CIKR protection postures across like assets, and track the implementation of new protective measures; and (3) enhance existing relationships among facility owners and operators; DHS; and various Federal, State, local tribal, and territorial partners. PSAs conduct ECIP visits to assess overall site security; educate facility owners and operators about security; help owners and operators identify gaps and potential improvements; and promote communication and information sharing among facility owners and operators, DHS, State governments, and other security partners. Information collected during ECIP visits is used to develop metrics; conduct sector-by-sector and cross-sector vulnerability comparisons; identify security gaps and trends across CIKR sectors and subsectors; establish sector baseline security survey results; and track progress toward improving CIKR security through activities, programs, outreach, and training (Snyder 2009). The data being collected are used in a framework consistent with the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) risk criteria (DHS 2009). The NIPP

  9. [Comprehensive evaluation of protective measures in electric welding].

    PubMed

    Ye, K; Zhao, Z

    1995-03-01

    Protective effects of safety masks, eyewear, work clothes, gloves, periodically physical examination system, and ventilation and barriers at workplace, were evaluated by one-way analysis for handtorch welding, carbon dioxide gas-protective welding, and argon-arc welding operations, etc. in township and village enterprises and state-owned enterprises by interviewing managers in the departments of technology and work safety and field investigating. Based on the results of one-way analysis of protective measures, comprehensive evaluations of various enterprises were made with a fussy mathematical model. Both enterprises in township and village level and of state-owned were graded as A on a basis of the evaluation, which will be helpful to the better management of occupational health in the future.

  10. Benefits of fish passage and protection measures at hydroelectric projects

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.; Jones, D.W.

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hydropower Program is engaged in a multi-year study of the costs and benefits of environmental mitigation measures at nonfederal hydroelectric power plants. An initial report (Volume 1) reviewed and surveyed the status of mitigation methods for fish passage, instream flows, and water quality; this paper focuses on the fish passage/protection aspects of the study. Fish ladders were found to be the most common means of passing fish upstream; elevators/lifts were less common, but their use appears to be increasing. A variety of mitigative measures is employed to prevent fish from being drawn into turbine intakes, including spill flows, narrow-mesh intake screens, angled bar racks, and lightor sound-based guidance measures. Performance monitoring and detailed, quantifiable performance criteria were frequently lacking at non-federal hydroelectric projects. Volume 2 considers the benefits and costs of fish passage and protection measures, as illustrated by case studies for which performance monitoring has been conducted. The report estimates the effectiveness of particular measures, the consequent impacts on the fish populations that are being maintained or restored, and the resulting use and non-use values of the maintained or restored fish populations.

  11. Measuring the accuracy of management effectiveness evaluations of protected areas.

    PubMed

    Cook, Carly N; Carter, R W Bill; Hockings, Marc

    2014-06-15

    Evaluating the effectiveness of protected area management to help improve management outcomes is becoming an increasingly common practice. The evaluation tools developed and implemented in over 100 countries generally rely on the expert judgements of protected area managers. Despite the growing collection and use of management effectiveness evaluation data, there have been no previous attempts to measure the accuracy of these data. We measured the accuracy of managers' judgements about the conditions in their reserves by collecting independent field data. We also assessed how accurately the evaluation tool reflected managers' views by conducting semi-structured interviews with 23 protected area managers from New South Wales, Australia. We found that managers made highly accurate judgements of the extent of a common weed species, Rubus fruticosus (blackberry), but often misinterpreted the scope, scale and timeframe of the evaluation. These framing effects can lead to error being introduced into the evaluation dataset, affecting the precision of evaluations such that they cannot be reliably compared among reserves. We suggest that the wording of evaluation questions needs to be explicit about the assessment frame to minimize the influence of framing effects on management effectiveness evaluations.

  12. Evaluation of protection measures against laser dazzling for imaging sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, Gunnar; Eberle, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    We present the latest results of our work regarding the evaluation of protection measures against laser dazzling for imaging devices. Three different approaches for the evaluation of dazzled sensor images are investigated and compared to estimate the loss of information due to the dazzle spot by a) counting the number of overexposed pixels, b) based on triangle orientation discrimination (TOD) and c) using the structural similarity (SSIM) index. The performance evaluation approaches are applied on experimental data obtained with two different imaging sensors hardened against laser dazzling. The hardening concept of the first sensor is based on the combination of a spatial light modulator and wavelength multiplexing. This active protection concept allows spatially and spectrally resolved suppression of laser radiation within the sensor's field of view. The hardening concept of the second sensor utilizes the principle of "complementary bands". The optical setup resembles a common 3-chip camera, with the difference that dedicated filters with steep edges replace the regular spectral band filters. Although this concept does not really represent a "protection measure", it allows the sensor to provide information even in laser dazzling situations. The data for the performance evaluation was acquired both in a dedicated laboratory setup using test charts comprising triangles of different size and orientation as well as in field trials.

  13. Nuclear fragmentation measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Napoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Battistoni, G.; Blancato, A. A.; Bondı, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Giacoppo, F.; Morone, M. C.; Nicolosi, D.; Pandola, L.; Raciti, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Romano, F.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V.; Sfienti, C.; Tropea, S.

    2013-04-01

    Nuclear fragmentation measurements are necessary in hadrontherapy and space radiation protection, to predict the effects of the ion nuclear interactions within the human body. Nowadays, a very limited set of carbon fragmentation cross sections has been measured and in particular, to our knowledge, no double differential fragmentation cross sections at intermediate energies are available in literature. We have measured the double differential cross sections and the angular distributions of the secondary fragments produced in the 12C fragmentation at 62 AMeV on a thin carbon target. The experimental data have been also used to benchmark the prediction capability of the Geant4 Monte Carlo code at intermediate energies, where it was never tested before.

  14. Implementing planetary protection measures on the Mars Science Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Benardini, James N; La Duc, Myron T; Beaudet, Robert A; Koukol, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), comprising a cruise stage; an aeroshell; an entry, descent, and landing system; and the radioisotope thermoelectric generator-powered Curiosity rover, made history with its unprecedented sky crane landing on Mars on August 6, 2012. The mission's primary science objective has been to explore the area surrounding Gale Crater and assess its habitability for past life. Because microbial contamination could profoundly impact the integrity of the mission and compliance with international treaty was required, planetary protection measures were implemented on MSL hardware to verify that bioburden levels complied with NASA regulations. By applying the proper antimicrobial countermeasures throughout all phases of assembly, the total bacterial endospore burden of MSL at the time of launch was kept to 2.78×10⁵ spores, well within the required specification of less than 5.0×10⁵ spores. The total spore burden of the exposed surfaces of the landed MSL hardware was 5.64×10⁴, well below the allowed limit of 3.0×10⁵ spores. At the time of launch, the MSL spacecraft was burdened with an average of 22 spores/m², which included both planned landed and planned impacted hardware. Here, we report the results of a campaign to implement and verify planetary protection measures on the MSL flight system.

  15. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors.A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L.The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg.In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L.

  16. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors. A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L. The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg. In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L. PMID:27902589

  17. Influence of phytase and xylanase, individually or in combination, on performance, apparent metabolisable energy, digestive tract measurements and gut morphology in broilers fed wheat-based diets containing adequate level of phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y B; Ravindran, V; Thomas, D G; Birtles, M J; Hendriks, W H

    2004-02-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of microbial phytase and xylanase, individually or in combination, on performance, apparent metabolisable energy, digesta viscosity, digestive tract measurements and gut morphology in broilers fed on wheat-soy diets containing adequate phosphorus (P). The wheat-soy basal diet was formulated to contain 4.5 g/kg non-phytate P and the experimental diets were formulated by supplementing the basal diet with xylanase (1000 xylanase units/kg diet), phytase (500 phytase units/kg diet) or a combination of phytase and xylanase. 2. Supplemental phytase improved the weight gains and feed efficiency by 17.5 and 2.9%, respectively. Corresponding improvements due to the addition of xylanase were 16.5 and 4.9%, respectively. The combination of phytase and xylanase caused no further improvements in broiler performance. 3. Individual additions of xylanase or phytase resulted in numerical improvements in apparent metabolisable energy (AME), but the differences were not significant. The combination of the two enzymes significantly increased AME. Addition of xylanase and the combination of the two enzymes reduced the viscosity of digesta in all sections of the intestine. Phytase supplementation reduced digesta viscosity in the duodenum and ileum, but not in the jejunum. 4. Enzyme supplementation lowered the relative weight and length of the small intestine. Additions of xylanase and phytase reduced the relative weight of the small intestine by 15.5 and 11.4%, respectively, while the corresponding reductions in the relative length of the small intestine were 16.5 and 14.1%, respectively. The combination of phytase and xylanase had no further effects on the relative weight and length of the small intestine compared with the xylanase group. 5. The addition of phytase increased villus height in the duodenum and decreased the number of goblet cells in the jejunum compared with those on the unsupplemented basal diet. Xylanase

  18. Measurement of corrosion under insulation and effectiveness of protective coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Abayarathna, D.; Ashbaugh, W.G.; Kane, R.D.; McGowan, N. Heimann, B.

    1997-08-01

    A laboratory cell set-up was designed and constructed for the simulation of corrosion under insulation (CUI) on a pipe section at elevated temperature. The CUI cell consisted of six carbon steel ring specimens separated by insulation spacers and held together by blind flanged pipe sections on both ends. Thermal insulation which was placed around the testing section provided the annular space to retain the test environment. The ring specimens were used as test electrodes in two separate electrochemical cells. One cell was used as the control while the other was used to test applied protective coatings. Corrosion measurements were made using both electrochemical polarization resistance and mass loss data under isothermal and cyclic wet/dry test conditions. The test cell was used to (1) successfully simulate CUI in the laboratory, (2) evaluate the corrosivity and different modes of corrosion observed with CUI and (3) evaluate proprietary coatings for minimizing CUI under simulated CUI conditions.

  19. Effect of bank protection measures, Stehekin River, Chelan County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation of the lower Stehekin River was conducted to study the effects on flood elevations and velocities from four bank protection and flood prevention measures that are being contemplated as a means of reducing erosional losses of river bank property. These measures are: bank armoring, armored revetment levees, spur dikes, and redevelopment of old cutoff channels. The banks at seven study sites could be armored without adverse effect on the flood velocities and elevations. The largest increases due to armoring--up to 1.6 ft/sec in velocity and 1 ft in elevation--occurred in the vicinity of sites 5, 6, and 7 where the gradient of the river channel is about 50 ft/mi and the velocities are high to begin with (about 6 to 13 ft/sec). The use of a levee in conjunction with armoring on the northeast bank from sites 5 to 7 would increase the velocities as much as 2.8 ft/sec and increase the elevation as much as 1 ft, but it would also provide some flood protection to the east bank, which is frequently inundated. Spur dikes were considered a practical alternative only at site 3, where reduced bank erosion may occur without aggravating flood inundation or erosion elsewhere. The rerouting of flood flow through an old cutoff channel near site 1 increased the velocity by 3.2 ft/sec and the elevation by 1 ft for the 100-year flood; however, it would move floodwater away from residential property where bank erosion is a problem. The few other old channels that shortcut river bends where much erosion occurs are apparently already part of the channel during floods. (Author 's abstract)

  20. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  1. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  2. Measuring the Impact of Child Protection through Activation States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackenridge, Celia H.; Pawlaczek, Zofia; Bringer, Joy D.; Cockburn, Claudi; Nutt, Gareth; Pitchford, Andy; Russell, Kate

    2005-01-01

    Child protection (CP) has risen to the top of the UK sports policy agenda in the past four years and the Football Association has invested in this major strategy as part of its commitment to "use the power of football to build a better future" (Football Association, 2000a). Evidencing the impact of child protection is, however, a complex…

  3. Condenser Microphone Protective Grid Correction for High Frequency Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Erik; Bennett, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    Use of a protective grid on small diameter microphones can prolong the lifetime of the unit, but the high frequency effects can complicate data interpretation. Analytical methods have been developed to correct for the grid effect at high frequencies. Specifically, the analysis pertains to quantifying the microphone protective grid response characteristics in the acoustic near field of a rocket plume noise source. A frequency response function computation using two microphones will be explained. Experimental and instrumentation setup details will be provided. The resulting frequency response function for a B&K 4944 condenser microphone protective grid will be presented, along with associated uncertainties

  4. 5 CFR 919.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate evidence. 919.900 Section 919.900 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.900 Adequate...

  5. Will the new Australian health privacy law provide adequate protection?

    PubMed

    Bomba, David; Hallit, George

    2002-01-01

    Amendments to the original Privacy Act (1988) come at a key point in time, as a national medical record system looms on the Australian horizon. Changes to The Privacy Act have the potential to define a level of information privacy prior to the implementation of such a system. We have therefore collected expert opinions on the ability of the Health Privacy Guidelines (enacted in December 2001 under The Privacy Act and hereafter more specifically known as Health Privacy Legislation) to ensure the privacy and security of patient information. We conclude that the legislation is flawed in its capacity to withstand an increasingly corporatised health sector. Deficiencies in consent requirements, together with feeble enforcement capabilities, mean The Legislation cannot effectively ensure that personally identifiable information will not end up in corporate third party hands. To significantly bolster the new legislation, we argue that it should be supplemented with explicit health data legislation and privacy auditing.

  6. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  7. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  8. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  9. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  10. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  11. Influence of time-dependent factors in the evaluation of critical infrastructure protection measures.

    SciTech Connect

    Buehring, W. A.; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-03-28

    The examination of which protective measures are the most appropriate to be implemented in order to prevent, protect against, respond to, and recover from attacks on critical infrastructures and key resources typically involves a comparison of the consequences that could occur when the protective measure is implemented to those that could occur when it is not. This report describes a framework for evaluation that provides some additional capabilities for comparing optional protective measures. It illustrates some potentially important time-dependent factors, such as the implementation rate, that affect the relative pros and cons associated with widespread implementation of protective measures. It presents example results from the use of protective measures, such as detectors and pretrained responders, for an illustrative biological incident. Results show that the choice of an alternative measure can depend on whether or not policy and financial support can be maintained for extended periods of time. Choice of a time horizon greatly influences the comparison of alternatives.

  12. Meeting the Needs of the Nation for Radiation Protection: Summary of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

    PubMed

    Toohey, Richard E

    2017-02-01

    The 52nd Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) was held in Bethesda, MD, 11-12 April 2016, on the topic of "Meeting National Needs for Radiation Protection." This meeting was an outgrowth of the NCRP initiative "Where are the Radiation Professionals?" (WARP), which addresses looming shortages in professional personnel trained in the radiological disciplines, including but not limited to health physics, radiological engineering, radiobiology, radiochemistry, radioecology, radiation emergency response; and the medical disciplines of diagnostic and interventional radiology, radiation oncology, nuclear medicine, and medical physics. A shortage of radiation professionals has been predicted for at least 20 y but now seems to be imminent. Obviously radiation professionals are needed for regulatory responsibilities at both state and federal levels, national defense, energy production, waste management, industrial applications, education, and medicine. Although the supply of radiation professionals in medicine appears to be adequate for the next decade or so, the use of radiation in medical diagnosis and therapy will continue to increase with the aging of the general population.

  13. 43 CFR 3272.12 - What environmental protection measures must I include in my utilization plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... minimum, your proposed measures to: (1) Prevent or control fires; (2) Prevent soil erosion; (3) Protect surface or ground water; (4) Protect fish and wildlife; (5) Protect cultural, visual, and other natural... operations to ensure that they comply with the requirements of § 3200.4, and applicable noise, air, and...

  14. Financial risk protection and universal health coverage: evidence and measurement challenges.

    PubMed

    Saksena, Priyanka; Hsu, Justine; Evans, David B

    2014-09-01

    Financial risk protection is a key component of universal health coverage (UHC), which is defined as access to all needed quality health services without financial hardship. As part of the PLOS Medicine Collection on measurement of UHC, the aim of this paper is to examine and to compare and contrast existing measures of financial risk protection. The paper presents the rationale behind the methodologies for measuring financial risk protection and how this relates to UHC as well as some empirical examples of the types of measures. Additionally, the specific challenges related to monitoring inequalities in financial risk protection are discussed. The paper then goes on to examine and document the practical challenges associated with measurement of financial risk protection. This paper summarizes current thinking on the area of financial risk protection, provides novel insights, and suggests future developments that could be valuable in the context of monitoring progress towards UHC.

  15. Financial Risk Protection and Universal Health Coverage: Evidence and Measurement Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Saksena, Priyanka; Hsu, Justine; Evans, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Financial risk protection is a key component of universal health coverage (UHC), which is defined as access to all needed quality health services without financial hardship. As part of the PLOS Medicine Collection on measurement of UHC, the aim of this paper is to examine and to compare and contrast existing measures of financial risk protection. The paper presents the rationale behind the methodologies for measuring financial risk protection and how this relates to UHC as well as some empirical examples of the types of measures. Additionally, the specific challenges related to monitoring inequalities in financial risk protection are discussed. The paper then goes on to examine and document the practical challenges associated with measurement of financial risk protection. This paper summarizes current thinking on the area of financial risk protection, provides novel insights, and suggests future developments that could be valuable in the context of monitoring progress towards UHC. PMID:25244520

  16. Application of radiological protection measures to meet different environmental protection criteria.

    PubMed

    Copplestone, D

    2012-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recognises that there is no simple or single universal definition of 'environmental protection', and that the concept differs from country to country and from one circumstance to another. However, there is an increasing need to be able to demonstrate that the environment is protected from radioactive substances released under authorisation for various reasons, such as for wildlife conservation requirements, or wildlife management for commercial reasons, or simply as part of pollution control. The Commission is developing the concept of Representative Organisms, which may be identified from any specific legal requirements or from more general requirements to protect local habitats or ecosystems. Such organisms may be the actual objects of protection or they may be hypothetical, depending on the objectives of the assessment. They may be similar to, or even congruent with, one or more of the Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs). Where this is not the case, attempts can be made to consider the extent to which the Representative Organisms differ from the nearest RAP in terms of known radiation effects upon it, basic biology, radiation dosimetry, and pathways of exposure. This paper discusses the practical implications of such an approach.

  17. The perplexing dilemma of measuring sun protection factors.

    PubMed

    Pissavini, Marc; Diffey, Brian; Doucet, Olivier

    2017-03-15

    Truth, like knowledge, is surprisingly difficult to define. Indeed, every definition of truth that philosophers have developed falls prey to the question, "Is it true?". In this essay we consider what is the true SPF of a sunscreen product and whether it can ever be realizable. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. 50 CFR 622.29 - Conservation measures for protected resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... protected resources. (a) Gulf reef fish commercial vessels and charter vessels/headboats—(1) Sea turtle... Turtle Release With Minimal Injury,” and must post inside the wheelhouse, or in an easily viewable area if no wheelhouse, the sea turtle handling and release guidelines provided by NMFS. (ii) Such owner...

  19. 50 CFR 622.29 - Conservation measures for protected resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... protected resources. (a) Gulf reef fish commercial vessels and charter vessels/headboats—(1) Sea turtle... Turtle Release With Minimal Injury,” and must post inside the wheelhouse, or in an easily viewable area if no wheelhouse, the sea turtle handling and release guidelines provided by NMFS. (ii) Such owner...

  20. Examining self-protection measures guarding Adult Protective Services social workers against compassion fatigue.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Dara

    2012-06-01

    Little research has focused on the risk factors, effects, and experiences of compassion fatigue among gerontological social workers. This qualitative study explores the experiences and perspectives of nine Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers in relation to compassion fatigue. Results show that the APS social workers combined personal characteristics and professional factors to develop boundary-setting mechanisms that protected them from experiencing the deleterious symptoms and effects of compassion fatigue. Implications center around the elements needed to implement boundaries in order to maintain a separation between the work and home environment. Suggestions for future research are provided.

  1. Examining Self-Protection Measures Guarding Adult Protective Services Social Workers against Compassion Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourassa, Dara

    2012-01-01

    Little research has focused on the risk factors, effects, and experiences of compassion fatigue among gerontological social workers. This qualitative study explores the experiences and perspectives of nine Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers in relation to compassion fatigue. Results show that the APS social workers combined personal…

  2. 78 FR 45573 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... COMMISSION Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for public comment.../CR-7135, ``Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire...

  3. 78 FR 55765 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... COMMISSION Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft NUREG/CR, reopening of comment period... Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE).'' In response to comments from members...

  4. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  5. Measuring benefits of protected area management: trends across realms and research gaps for freshwater systems

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Vanessa M.; Setterfield, Samantha A.; Douglas, Michael M.; Kennard, Mark J.; Ferdinands, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas remain a cornerstone for global conservation. However, their effectiveness at halting biodiversity decline is not fully understood. Studies of protected area benefits have largely focused on measuring their impact on halting deforestation and have neglected to measure the impacts of protected areas on other threats. Evaluations that measure the impact of protected area management require more complex evaluation designs and datasets. This is the case across realms (terrestrial, freshwater, marine), but measuring the impact of protected area management in freshwater systems may be even more difficult owing to the high level of connectivity and potential for threat propagation within systems (e.g. downstream flow of pollution). We review the potential barriers to conducting impact evaluation for protected area management in freshwater systems. We contrast the barriers identified for freshwater systems to terrestrial systems and discuss potential measurable outcomes and confounders associated with protected area management across the two realms. We identify key research gaps in conducting impact evaluation in freshwater systems that relate to three of their major characteristics: variability, connectivity and time lags in outcomes. Lastly, we use Kakadu National Park world heritage area, the largest national park in Australia, as a case study to illustrate the challenges of measuring impacts of protected area management programmes for environmental outcomes in freshwater systems. PMID:26460127

  6. Developing measurement indices to enhance protection and resilience of critical infrastructure and key resources.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Ronald E; Norman, Michael

    2010-07-01

    The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is developing indices to better assist in the risk management of critical infrastructures. The first of these indices is the Protective Measures Index - a quantitative index that measures overall protection across component categories: physical security, security management, security force, information sharing, protective measures and dependencies. The Protective Measures Index, which can also be recalculated as the Vulnerability Index, is a way to compare differing protective measures (eg fence versus security training). The second of these indices is the Resilience Index, which assesses a site's resilience and consists of three primary components: robustness, resourcefulness and recovery. The third index is the Criticality Index, which assesses the importance of a facility. The Criticality Index includes economic, human, governance and mass evacuation impacts. The Protective Measures Index, Resilience Index and Criticality Index are being developed as part of the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection initiative that DHS protective security advisers implement across the nation at critical facilities. This paper describes two core themes: determination of the vulnerability, resilience and criticality of a facility and comparison of the indices at different facilities.

  7. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  8. 50 CFR 622.273 - Conservation measures for protected species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 622.270(a)(1), and that has on board a pelagic longline must post inside the wheelhouse the sea turtle... turtle bycatch mitigation measures, including gear requirements and sea turtle handling requirements,...

  9. 50 CFR 622.273 - Conservation measures for protected species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 622.270(a)(1), and that has on board a pelagic longline must post inside the wheelhouse the sea turtle... turtle bycatch mitigation measures, including gear requirements and sea turtle handling requirements,...

  10. Usage and Perceived Side Effects of Personal Protective Measures against Mosquitoes among Current Users in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Charu; Kumar, Rajesh; Meena, G S; Singh, M M; Sahoo, Jyotiranjan; Ingle, G K

    2014-01-01

    Background. Mosquito-borne diseases constitute an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The use of personal protective measures (PPM) like mats, bednets, screening, repellents, liquid vaporizers, mosquito coils, and so forth has been advocated as an effective tool in control of mosquito-borne diseases, but data about the safety profile of personal protective measures is still scarce. Objective. To study the usage and side effects of personal protective measures against mosquitoes among current users in Delhi. Materials and Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study among 350 adult individuals selected by systematic sampling method. Data was collected using pretested semistructured questionnaire after taking written informed consent. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square/Fisher's Exact test was used for qualitative variables to find association and P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results. Out of 350 families selected, 210 belonged to rural area and 140 to urban area. Personal protective measures were used by 219 (62.5%) subjects. Liquid vaporizer was the most preferred method (41.4%). Most common perceived side effect of personal protective measures was headache (7.7%). Other perceived side effects were cough (3.2%), sore throat (2.7%), allergy (1.3%), and eye irritation (0.9%) predominantly among coil users. Conclusion. There is a need to have a close watch for side effects of personal protective measures among users. Further research is also needed to develop safe and effective personal protective measures against mosquitoes.

  11. Adequate mathematical modelling of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    In environmental observations and laboratory visualization both large scale flow components like currents, jets, vortices, waves and a fine structure are registered (different examples are given). The conventional mathematical modeling both analytical and numerical is directed mostly on description of energetically important flow components. The role of a fine structures is still remains obscured. A variety of existing models makes it difficult to choose the most adequate and to estimate mutual assessment of their degree of correspondence. The goal of the talk is to give scrutiny analysis of kinematics and dynamics of flows. A difference between the concept of "motion" as transformation of vector space into itself with a distance conservation and the concept of "flow" as displacement and rotation of deformable "fluid particles" is underlined. Basic physical quantities of the flow that are density, momentum, energy (entropy) and admixture concentration are selected as physical parameters defined by the fundamental set which includes differential D'Alembert, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations and closing equation of state. All of them are observable and independent. Calculations of continuous Lie groups shown that only the fundamental set is characterized by the ten-parametric Galilelian groups reflecting based principles of mechanics. Presented analysis demonstrates that conventionally used approximations dramatically change the symmetries of the governing equations sets which leads to their incompatibility or even degeneration. The fundamental set is analyzed taking into account condition of compatibility. A high order of the set indicated on complex structure of complete solutions corresponding to physical structure of real flows. Analytical solutions of a number problems including flows induced by diffusion on topography, generation of the periodic internal waves a compact sources in week-dissipative media as well as numerical solutions of the same

  12. 50 CFR 622.179 - Conservation measures for protected resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .../headboats—(1) Sea turtle conservation measures. (i) The owner or operator of a vessel for which a commercial... for Sea Turtle Release With Minimal Injury,” and must post inside the wheelhouse, or in an easily viewable area if no wheelhouse, the sea turtle handling and release guidelines provided by NMFS. (ii)...

  13. 50 CFR 622.10 - Conservation measures for protected resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pelagic longline must post inside the wheelhouse the sea turtle handling and release guidelines provided by NMFS. Such owner or operator must also comply with the sea turtle bycatch mitigation measures, including gear requirements and sea turtle handling requirements, as specified in § 635.21(c)(5)(i) and...

  14. 50 CFR 622.10 - Conservation measures for protected resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pelagic longline must post inside the wheelhouse the sea turtle handling and release guidelines provided by NMFS. Such owner or operator must also comply with the sea turtle bycatch mitigation measures, including gear requirements and sea turtle handling requirements, as specified in § 635.21(c)(5)(i) and...

  15. 50 CFR 622.10 - Conservation measures for protected resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pelagic longline must post inside the wheelhouse the sea turtle handling and release guidelines provided by NMFS. Such owner or operator must also comply with the sea turtle bycatch mitigation measures, including gear requirements and sea turtle handling requirements, as specified in § 635.21(c)(5)(i) and...

  16. 50 CFR 622.179 - Conservation measures for protected resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .../headboats—(1) Sea turtle conservation measures. (i) The owner or operator of a vessel for which a commercial... for Sea Turtle Release With Minimal Injury,” and must post inside the wheelhouse, or in an easily viewable area if no wheelhouse, the sea turtle handling and release guidelines provided by NMFS. (ii)...

  17. Measurements of the UVR protection provided by hats used at school.

    PubMed

    Gies, Peter; Javorniczky, John; Roy, Colin; Henderson, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    The importance of protection against solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in childhood has lead to SunSmart policies at Australian schools, in particular primary schools, where children are encouraged and in many cases required to wear hats at school. Hat styles change regularly and the UVR protection provided by some of the hat types currently used and recommended for sun protection by the various Australian state cancer councils had not been previously evaluated. The UVR protection of the hats was measured using UVR sensitive polysulphone film badges attached to different facial sites on rotating headforms. The sun protection type hats included in this study were broad-brimmed hats, "bucket hats" and legionnaires hats. Baseball caps, which are very popular, were also included. The broad-brimmed hats and bucket hats provided the most UVR protection for the six different sites about the face and head. Legionnaires hats also provided satisfactory UVR protection, but the caps did not provide UVR protection to many of the facial sites. The highest measured UVR protection factors for facial sites other than the forehead were 8 to 10, indicating that, while some hats can be effective, they need to be used in combination with other forms of UVR protection.

  18. The Measurement of Within-Child Protective Factors in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBuffe, Paul A.

    This paper offers a method for evaluating protective factors in young children at risk for emotional and/or behavioral disorders. It reviews the development, standardization, validation, and use of a new, nationally standardized measure of within child protective factors, the Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA). The DECA evaluates the…

  19. Measuring Risk and Protection in Communities Using the Communities that Care Youth Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Michael W.; Briney, John S.; Hawkins, J. David; Abbott, Robert D.; Brooke-Weiss, Blair L.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2007-01-01

    The Communities That Care Youth Survey measures risk and protective factors shown in prior studies to predict adolescent problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence. This paper describes the development and validation of cut points for the risk and protective factor scales in the Communities That Care Youth Survey that…

  20. [Planning and implementation of protective measures in emergencies during railway transportation of radioactive cargo].

    PubMed

    Romanov, V V; Konin, A P; Popov, S A; Golovanev, S M; Tulushev, V N

    2000-01-01

    Protective measures in emergencies during railway transportation of radioactive cargoes must be planned in advance, by obligatorily taking into account many factors that influence the scope, nature, specific features and consequences of radiation transport accidents. Of great importance are radiation monitoring, protective regimens, and requirements for decontamination of various objects in liquidating the consequences of a radiation transport accident.

  1. Criteria for protected areas and other conservation measures in the Antarctic region

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    The Antarctic region is threatened by three major anthropogenic influences: climatic change brought about by increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, the effects of persistent pollutants carried into the region via atmosphere and ocean, and the increase in Man's activities. These include radioactive wastes, organochlorides, freons, PCBs and heavy metals. Vulnerable ecosystems can be considered as those which are under direct pressure from Man's activities, whereas fragile ecosystems are the more likely to suffer irreversible change when perturbed, but are not necessarily threatened at present. Three of the main habitat types, terrestrial, inland waters, and islands, are likely to be fragile. However, all these can be conserved reasonably adequately with a system of protected and managed areas, so long as the area covered is adequate and representative. The fourth habitat type, the oceanic ecosystem, contains few fragile elements because it is dominated by the highly dynamic physical oceanic processes. Elements of the ecosystem are vulnerable to further exploitation, and although only the whales and some of the fish stocks can be regarded as fragile, there is considerably uncertainty as what synergistic effect exploitation of apparently key elements of the ecosystem, such as the krill, will have on other important components of the communities. The highly dynamic structure of oceanic environments renders the concept of conservation based on limited protected areas developed for terrestrial environments ineffective in the majority of marine environments. Instead the whole marine environment of the Antarctic region must be considered to be a single entity and managed as such.

  2. 43 CFR 3272.12 - What environmental protection measures must I include in my utilization plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... minimum, your proposed measures to: (1) Prevent or control fires; (2) Prevent soil erosion; (3) Protect... resources; (6) Minimize air and noise pollution; and (7) Minimize hazards to public health and safety...

  3. Genetic modification of preimplantation embryos: toward adequate human research policies.

    PubMed

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects.

  4. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 192 - Criteria for Cathodic Protection and Determination of Measurements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of Measurements D Appendix D to Part 192 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation.... 192, App. D Appendix D to Part 192—Criteria for Cathodic Protection and Determination of Measurements... appendix. D. Metals of different anodic potentials. A negative (cathodic) voltage, measured in...

  5. Outdoor workers' acceptance of personal protective measures against solar ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Weber, Marko; Uller, Andreas; Schulmeister, Karl; Brusl, Helmut; Hann, Hans; Kindl, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The acceptance and usability of personal protection against solar UV radiation was evaluated in a field study with a group of tinsmiths in Austria. The personal protective measures (PPM) tested involved four categories: shirts, headwear, sunglasses and topically applied sunscreens; at least six different products per category were tested. Recommendations for the "ideal" shirt, headwear, pair of sunglasses and topical sunscreen are given based on data from questionnaires, i.e., from the point of view of the workers, independently from the actual physical level of protection (such as low transmittance or area of coverage) provided. It is argued that in practice it is important to consider the acceptance and usability of protective measures as well as the level of physical protection when providing PPM.

  6. Measuring impact of protected area management interventions: current and future use of the Global Database of Protected Area Management Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Coad, Lauren; Leverington, Fiona; Knights, Kathryn; Geldmann, Jonas; Eassom, April; Kapos, Valerie; Kingston, Naomi; de Lima, Marcelo; Zamora, Camilo; Cuardros, Ivon; Nolte, Christoph; Burgess, Neil D; Hockings, Marc

    2015-11-05

    Protected areas (PAs) are at the forefront of conservation efforts, and yet despite considerable progress towards the global target of having 17% of the world's land area within protected areas by 2020, biodiversity continues to decline. The discrepancy between increasing PA coverage and negative biodiversity trends has resulted in renewed efforts to enhance PA effectiveness. The global conservation community has conducted thousands of assessments of protected area management effectiveness (PAME), and interest in the use of these data to help measure the conservation impact of PA management interventions is high. Here, we summarize the status of PAME assessment, review the published evidence for a link between PAME assessment results and the conservation impacts of PAs, and discuss the limitations and future use of PAME data in measuring the impact of PA management interventions on conservation outcomes. We conclude that PAME data, while designed as a tool for local adaptive management, may also help to provide insights into the impact of PA management interventions from the local-to-global scale. However, the subjective and ordinal characteristics of the data present significant limitations for their application in rigorous scientific impact evaluations, a problem that should be recognized and mitigated where possible.

  7. Measuring impact of protected area management interventions: current and future use of the Global Database of Protected Area Management Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Coad, Lauren; Leverington, Fiona; Knights, Kathryn; Geldmann, Jonas; Eassom, April; Kapos, Valerie; Kingston, Naomi; de Lima, Marcelo; Zamora, Camilo; Cuardros, Ivon; Nolte, Christoph; Burgess, Neil D.; Hockings, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are at the forefront of conservation efforts, and yet despite considerable progress towards the global target of having 17% of the world's land area within protected areas by 2020, biodiversity continues to decline. The discrepancy between increasing PA coverage and negative biodiversity trends has resulted in renewed efforts to enhance PA effectiveness. The global conservation community has conducted thousands of assessments of protected area management effectiveness (PAME), and interest in the use of these data to help measure the conservation impact of PA management interventions is high. Here, we summarize the status of PAME assessment, review the published evidence for a link between PAME assessment results and the conservation impacts of PAs, and discuss the limitations and future use of PAME data in measuring the impact of PA management interventions on conservation outcomes. We conclude that PAME data, while designed as a tool for local adaptive management, may also help to provide insights into the impact of PA management interventions from the local-to-global scale. However, the subjective and ordinal characteristics of the data present significant limitations for their application in rigorous scientific impact evaluations, a problem that should be recognized and mitigated where possible. PMID:26460133

  8. 75 FR 81921 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... Steller sea lion protection measures to ensure that the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management...

  9. Leakage current measurement of protective equipment insulating materials used in electrical installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buică, G.; Dobra, R.; Păsculescu, D.; Tătar, A.

    2016-06-01

    This research describes the behaviour of equipment and safety devices during use in extreme environmental conditions, in order to establish the technical conditions and additional health and safety requirements during operation, to ensure the health and safety of users, regardless of conditions and working environment in which they are use. The studies have been conducted both on new equipment and means of protection used in electrical installations. There has been evaluated protective equipment made of insulating rubber, reinforced fiberglass or PVC. They have been followed the technical characteristics and protection against electric shock by measuring the leakage current of different insulating materials.

  10. Protecting a quantum state from environmental noise by an incompatible finite-time measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Brasil, Carlos Alexandre; Castro, L. A. de; Napolitano, R. d. J.

    2011-08-15

    We show that measurements of finite duration performed on an open two-state system can protect the initial state from a phase-noisy environment, provided the measured observable does not commute with the perturbing interaction. When the measured observable commutes with the environmental interaction, the finite-duration measurement accelerates the rate of decoherence induced by the phase noise. For the description of the measurement of an observable that is incompatible with the interaction between system and environment, we have found an approximate analytical expression, valid at zero temperature and weak coupling with the measuring device. We have tested the validity of the analytical predictions against an exact numerical approach, based on the superoperator-splitting method, that confirms the protection of the initial state of the system. When the coupling between the system and the measuring apparatus increases beyond the range of validity of the analytical approximation, the initial state is still protected by the finite-time measurement, according with the exact numerical calculations.

  11. National measures under the chemical weapons convention to protect confidential business information and compensate for its loss

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.; Kellman, B.

    1995-07-01

    This report contains a discussion presented at the Regional Seminar on the National Authority and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Measures to protect confidential business information and compensation for information which has not been sufficiently protected is discussed.

  12. Are the current Australian sun exposure guidelines effective in maintaining adequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D?

    PubMed

    Kimlin, Michael; Sun, Jiandong; Sinclair, Craig; Heward, Sue; Hill, Jane; Dunstone, Kimberley; Brodie, Alison

    2016-01-01

    An adequate vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, is important in humans for maintenance of healthy bones and muscle function. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed in participants from Melbourne, Australia (37.81S, 144.96E), who were provided with the current Australian guidelines on sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy (25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L). Participants were interviewed in February (summer, n=104) and August (winter, n=99) of 2013. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was examined as a function of measures of sun exposure and sun protection habits with control of key characteristics such as dietary intake of vitamin D, body mass index (BMI) and skin colour, that may modify this relationship. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in participants who complied with the current sun exposure guidelines was 67.3 nmol/L in summer and 41.9 nmol/L in winter. At the end of the study, 69.3% of participants who complied with the summer sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate, while only 27.6% of participants who complied with the winter sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate at the end of the study. The results suggest that the current Australian guidelines for sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy are effective for most in summer and ineffective for most in winter. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  13. Investigation of Stinson Beach Park storm damage and evaluation of alternative shore protection measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, R.M.; Whelan, G.

    1984-07-01

    An investigation was made of storm damage during the winter of 1982-83 to the National Park Service's Stinson Beach Park. The investigation included an assessment of the storm damage, evaluation of physical processes contributing to the damage, subsequent beach recovery, and the feasibility of implementing shoreline protection measure to reduce future risk. During the winter of 1982-83, the beach was almost completely denuded of sand, wave overwash damaged the foredune, vegetation on the foredune was destroyed, and backshore flooding occurred. Two structures and a parking lot were endangered as the shoreline receded. Subsequent recovery of the park beach was rapid. By January 1982 sand had moved back onshore and a beach berm was beginning to reform. The foredune and dune vegetation received the only permanent damage. Four shoreline protection alternatives were evaluated. These include no action, dune development/enhancement, construction of a rock riprap revetment, and offshore installation of artificial seaweed. The first costs (estimated costs, excluding maintenance) range from about $90,000 to $475,000. The least-cost protection measure is riprap revetment, which protects the two structures and parking lot endangered during the 1982-83 winter storms. Construction of a foredune along the entire park beach is the highest cost protection measure. If no shore protection action measures are implemented, wave overwash of the foredune can be expected to occur on the average of every 2 to 3 years, and beach degradation, similar to that during the 1982-83 winter, can be expected to occur on the average of every 10 to 12 years. 12 references, 19 figures, 18 tables.

  14. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 192 - Criteria for Cathodic Protection and Determination of Measurements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria for Cathodic Protection and Determination of Measurements D Appendix D to Part 192 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION...

  15. Enabling multi-faceted measures of success for protected area management in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Granderson, Ainka A

    2011-08-01

    A key challenge has been to define and measure "success" in managing protected areas. A case study was conducted of efforts to evaluate the new protected area management system in Trinidad and Tobago using a participatory approach. The aim of the case study was to (1) examine whether stakeholder involvement better captures the multi-faceted nature of success and (2) identify the role and influence of various stakeholder groups in this process. An holistic and systematic framework was developed with stakeholder input that facilitated the integration of expert and lay knowledge, a broad emphasis on ecological, socio-economic, and institutional aspects, and the use of both quantitative and qualitative data allowing the evaluation to capture the multi-faceted nature and impacts of protected area management. Input from primary stakeholders, such as local communities, was critical as they have a high stake in protected area outcomes. Secondary and external stakeholders, including government agencies, non-governmental organizations, academia and the private sector, were also important in providing valuable technical assistance and serving as mediators. However, a lack of consensus over priorities, politics, and limited stakeholder capacity and data access pose significant barriers to engaging stakeholders to effectively measure the management success of protected areas.

  16. [Evaluation of the efficiency of Angara River water protection measures against pollution by petroleum products].

    PubMed

    Zabuga, G A; Katul'skiĭ, Iu N; Gorbunova, O V; Storozheva, L N

    2011-01-01

    The process installations and storage reservoirs of a petroleum refinery have leaks of petroleum products (PP) that pollute soil, underground waters, and eventually nearest water objects, by worsening their hygienic state. Environmental and economic assessments of the Angara River water protection system that is in operation at the petroleum refinery OAO "Angara Petroleum Company", which comprises well clusters, a gravel-filled trench, and a drainage system, have shown the high values of preventable relative natural and economic damages and other economic indicators. At the same time, comparison of the amount of PPs accumulated at the industrial site with their annual withdrawal has demonstrated a need for further development of a river protection system. Therefore the environmental protection system efficacy evaluated by the quality of goal attainment and by means of a matrix of algorithmized statements was 60% or 5 of 20 scores, which shows the necessity of special measures to protect Angara River waters. The elaboration and implementation of these measures associated with considerable expenditures make it possible not only to increase the environmental efficiency of water protection of the Angara River, but also to do the hygienic quality of water use in its related localities.

  17. The cerebellopontine angle: does the translabyrinthine approach give adequate access?

    PubMed

    Fagan, P A; Sheehy, J P; Chang, P; Doust, B D; Coakley, D; Atlas, M D

    1998-05-01

    A long-standing but unfounded criticism of the translabyrinthine approach is the misperception that this approach does not give adequate access to the cerebellopontine angle. Because of what is perceived as limited visualization and operating space within the cerebellopontine angle, some surgeons still believe that the translabyrinthine approach is inappropriate for large acoustic tumors. In this study, the surgical access to the cerebellopontine angle by virtue of the translabyrinthine approach is measured and analyzed. The parameters are compared with those measured for the retrosigmoid approach. This series objectively confirms that the translabyrinthine approach offers the neurotologic surgeon a shorter operative depth to the tumor, via a similar-sized craniotomy. This permits superior visualization by virtue of a wider angle of surgical access. Such access is achieved with the merit of minimal cerebellar retraction.

  18. Manikin measurements versus wear trials of cold protective clothing (Subzero project).

    PubMed

    Meinander, Harriet; Anttonen, Hannu; Bartels, Volkmar; Holmér, Ingvar; Reinertsen, Randi E; Soltynski, Krzysztof; Varieras, Sabine

    2004-09-01

    The thermal insulation properties of clothing systems can be defined through physical measurements using thermal manikins or through wear trials using human test subjects. One objective of the European Subzero project was to define the relationship between physically measured thermal insulation values of cold-protective clothing and the corresponding physiological reactions on human test subjects. Four cold-protective clothing ensembles, intended for use in temperatures between 0 and -50 degrees C, were measured with manikins in eight European laboratories and on human test subjects in four of these laboratories. The results showed that reasonably good reproducible values from the manikin tests can be achieved (CV < 8%); however, the fit of the clothing on the manikin is a critical factor. There were greater individual differences in the wear trial results. Comparing the results from the manikin and the wear trials, good agreement in the thermal insulation values was shown if the amount of accumulated sweat was low. In these situations, which are normal when using cold protective clothing, the thermal comfort can also be determined with good accuracy by means of mathematical models based on manikin results. Special situations, e.g. for highly perspiring wearers, strong wind, or high friction between garment layers, need specific modelling; some suggestions have been made as a result of the Subzero project, but further research is required.

  19. [Shielding during dental X-ray examinations. Effectiveness of radiation protection measures for patients during X-ray examinations].

    PubMed

    Roth, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    During dental X-ray examinations, lead rubber shields such as neck protections or half aprons are commonly used to protect the patient against unnecessary radiation. However, they are practically of no use to the patient as it has been shown by the present measurements. The scatter radiation produced in the body of the patient creates organ doses outside of the collimated radiation field. Other radiation protection measures are more effective and should be considered, although the doses are usually low.

  20. Are shear force methods adequately reported?

    PubMed

    Holman, Benjamin W B; Fowler, Stephanie M; Hopkins, David L

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the detail to which shear force (SF) protocols and methods have been reported in the scientific literature between 2009 and 2015. Articles (n=734) published in peer-reviewed animal and food science journals and limited to only those testing the SF of unprocessed and non-fabricated mammal meats were evaluated. It was found that most of these SF articles originated in Europe (35.3%), investigated bovine species (49.0%), measured m. longissimus samples (55.2%), used tenderometers manufactured by Instron (31.2%), and equipped with Warner-Bratzler blades (68.8%). SF samples were also predominantly thawed prior to cooking (37.1%) and cooked sous vide, using a water bath (50.5%). Information pertaining to blade crosshead speed (47.5%), recorded SF resistance (56.7%), muscle fibre orientation when tested (49.2%), sub-section or core dimension (21.8%), end-point temperature (29.3%), and other factors contributing to SF variation were often omitted. This base failure diminishes repeatability and accurate SF interpretation, and must therefore be rectified.

  1. Measured catalycities of various candidate space shuttle thermal protection system coatings at low temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    Atom recombination catalytic rates for surface coatings of various candidate thermal protection system materials for the space shuttle vehicle were obtained from measurements in arc jet, air flow. The coatings, chrome oxides, siliconized carbon/carbon, hafnium/tantalum carbide on carbon/carbon, and niobium silicide, were bonded to the sensitive surface of transient slug calorimeters that measured the heat transfer rates to the coatings. The catalytic rates were inferred from these heat transfer rates Surface temperatures of the calorimeters varied from approximately 300 to 410 K.

  2. Measurement of impulse peak insertion loss for four hearing protection devices in field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, William J.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Meinke, Deanna K.; Sondergaard, Jacob; Finan, Donald S.; Lankford, James E.; Khan, Amir; Vernon, Julia; Stewart, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective In 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed an impulse noise reduction rating (NRR) for hearing protection devices based upon the impulse peak insertion loss (IPIL) methods in the ANSI S12.42-2010 standard. This study tests the ANSI S12.42 methods with a range of hearing protection devices measured in field conditions. Design The method utilizes an acoustic test fixture and three ranges for impulse levels: 130–134, 148–152, and 166–170 dB peak SPL. For this study, four different models of hearing protectors were tested: Bilsom 707 Impact II electronic earmuff, E·A·R Pod Express, E·A·R Combat Arms version 4, and the Etymotic Research, Inc. Electronic BlastPLG™ EB1. Study sample Five samples of each protector were fitted on the fixture or inserted in the fixture's ear canal five times for each impulse level. Impulses were generated by a 0.223 caliber rifle. Results The average IPILs increased with peak pressure and ranged between 20 and 38 dB. For some protectors, significant differences were observed across protector examples of the same model, and across insertions. Conclusions The EPA's proposed methods provide consistent and reproducible results. The proposed impulse NRR rating should utilize the minimum and maximum protection percentiles as determined by the ANSI S12.42-2010 methods. PMID:22176308

  3. Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.; Tadmor, J.

    1988-06-01

    The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability of civil defense shelters. Computations were performed by means of a probabilistic consequence model, which allows a comprehensive description of exposure modes and processes dealing with the implementation of sheltering and which takes into account a broad range of radiological effects. Sheltering, even in regular buildings, was found to be efficient in reducing early fatalities and other non-stochastic effects. However, it was shown that respiratory protection is also needed in order to alleviate stochastic effects and that, for this purpose, expedient individual filtration methods may be satisfactory. Under the conditions studied, sheltering was found to be preferable in most cases over evacuation, as the main immediate protective measure, unless evacuation can be carried out before the radioactive cloud reaches the populated area.

  4. Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Koch, J; Tadmor, J

    1988-06-01

    The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability of civil defense shelters. Computations were performed by means of a probabilistic consequence model, which allows a comprehensive description of exposure modes and processes dealing with the implementation of sheltering and which takes into account a broad range of radiological effects. Sheltering, even in regular buildings, was found to be efficient in reducing early fatalities and other non-stochastic effects. However, it was shown that respiratory protection is also needed in order to alleviate stochastic effects and that, for this purpose, expedient individual filtration methods may be satisfactory. Under the conditions studied, sheltering was found to be preferable in most cases over evacuation, as the main immediate protective measure, unless evacuation can be carried out before the radioactive cloud reaches the populated area.

  5. The COLIPA in vitro UVA method: a standard and reproducible measure of sunscreen UVA protection.

    PubMed

    Matts, P J; Alard, V; Brown, M W; Ferrero, L; Gers-Barlag, H; Issachar, N; Moyal, D; Wolber, R

    2010-02-01

    There is a continuing need to measure and communicate reliably the UVA protection offered by commercial sunscreens. To that end, the COLIPA (European Cosmetics Trade Association) 'In Vitro Sun Protection Methods' group has developed a new in vitro method for measuring UVA protection in a standardized, reproducible manner. The method is based on in vitro UV substrate spectrophotometry and convolution of resulting absorbance data with the action spectrum for the in vivo Persistent Pigment Darkening (PPD) endpoint to provide an in vitro UVA protection factor (UVAPF) which is correlated with an in vivo measure. This method has been published as a COLIPA guideline, used currently in European geographies for testing and labelling sunscreen products. This article summarizes two 'ring' studies, involving eight separate testing laboratories, which both defined critical parameters for the method and validated it. In Ring Study 1, eight laboratories tested the in vitro UV transmission of a total of 24 sunscreens and, from the data, a unit dose of UVA (D(0) of 1.2 J cm(-2)) was defined to provide a single irradiation step which, by taking into account potential sunscreen photo-instability, gave the closest agreement with in vivo UVAPF values. In Ring Study 2, eight laboratories tested the in vitro UV transmission of a total of 13 sunscreens using this single irradiation step and established a very good correlation (r(2) = 0.83; slope = 0.84, P < 0.0001) between resulting in vitro UVAPF values and corresponding values derived from the in vivo PPD method. This new method, therefore, can be used to provide a reliable in vitro metric to describe and label UVA efficacy in sunscreen products, in line with the EU Commission recommendation 2006/247/EC.

  6. Non-melanoma skin cancer: a case-control study on risk factors and protective measures.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Varela, M M; Llopis Gonzalez, A; Ferrer Caraco, E

    1996-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that exposure to ultraviolet radiation increases the risk of many dermatological conditions, such as non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). In order to better understand this relationship, we examined the connection between quantitative measures of individual sun exposure and the risk of NMSC, and the benefits of some protective measures against sunlight, analyzing the differences by sex. A case-control study was conducted in Valencia, Spain during 1990 to 1992 that included 276 cases of histologically confirmed NMSC and 552 control subjects matched by age, sex, and area of residence. Quantitative ultraviolet exposure, phenotypic features, and protective measures from sunlight were estimated by means of a history questionnaire administered by interview. Logistic regression analysis was carried out for each variable and level of quantitative measures. We observed a statistically significant increase in the risk of NMSC proportional to an increase in the hours of occupational exposure to the sun (OR = 1.2, 2.5, and 5.3, respectively). An increased risk of NMSC was observed in men with high nonoccupational exposure (OR = 1.7; p < 0.05 in open-air activities in the sun, OR = 2.1; p < 0.05 in the sun while on vacation). In women, we found instances of OR > 1, but without significance (p > 0.05). Wearing a hat at work appeared to be an important protective measure for men. Light phenotypic features predominated in our study, especially in women, and seems to be the major risk factor involved. It seems reasonable to presume that differences between the sexes are basically sociocultural, (i.e., different work activities and different use of leisure time.

  7. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disclosure or destruction of manual and automatic record systems. These security safeguards shall apply to... use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction...

  8. Space Shuttle Orbiter flight heating rate measurement sensitivity to thermal protection system uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, P. F.; Throckmorton, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    A study was completed to determine the sensitivity of computed convective heating rates to uncertainties in the thermal protection system thermal model. Those parameters considered were: density, thermal conductivity, and specific heat of both the reusable surface insulation and its coating; coating thickness and emittance; and temperature measurement uncertainty. The assessment used a modified version of the computer program to calculate heating rates from temperature time histories. The original version of the program solves the direct one dimensional heating problem and this modified version of The program is set up to solve the inverse problem. The modified program was used in thermocouple data reduction for shuttle flight data. Both nominal thermal models and altered thermal models were used to determine the necessity for accurate knowledge of thermal protection system's material thermal properties. For many thermal properties, the sensitivity (inaccuracies created in the calculation of convective heating rate by an altered property) was very low.

  9. Measuring the spectral emissivity of thermal protection materials during atmospheric reentry simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marble, Elizabeth

    1996-01-01

    Hypersonic spacecraft reentering the earth's atmosphere encounter extreme heat due to atmospheric friction. Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials shield the craft from this searing heat, which can reach temperatures of 2900 F. Various thermophysical and optical properties of TPS materials are tested at the Johnson Space Center Atmospheric Reentry Materials and Structures Evaluation Facility, which has the capability to simulate critical environmental conditions associated with entry into the earth's atmosphere. Emissivity is an optical property that determines how well a material will reradiate incident heat back into the atmosphere upon reentry, thus protecting the spacecraft from the intense frictional heat. This report describes a method of measuring TPS emissivities using the SR5000 Scanning Spectroradiometer, and includes system characteristics, sample data, and operational procedures developed for arc-jet applications.

  10. Interactions between spatially explicit conservation and management measures: implications for the governance of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, P Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F

    2013-12-01

    Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas.

  11. Nanoparticle usage and protection measures in the manufacturing industry--a representative survey.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Kaspar; Danuser, Brigitta; Riediker, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Addressing the risks of nanoparticles requires knowledge about release into the environment and occupational exposure. However, such information currently is not systematically collected; therefore, this risk assessment lacks quantitative data. The goal was to evaluate the current level of nanoparticle usage in Swiss industry as well as health, safety, and environmental measures, and the number of potentially exposed workers. A representative, stratified mail survey was conducted among 1626 clients of the Swiss National Accident Insurance Fund (SUVA), which insures 80,000 manufacturing firms, representing 84% of all Swiss manufacturing companies (947 companies answered the survey for a 58.3% response rate). The extrapolation to all Swiss manufacturing companies results in 1309 workers (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1073 to 1545) potentially exposed to nanoparticles in 586 companies (95% CI: 145 to 1027). This corresponds to 0.08% of workers (95% CI: 0.06% to 0.09%) and to 0.6% of companies (95% CI: 0.2% to 1.1%). The industrial chemistry sector showed the highest percentage of companies using nanoparticles (21.2%). Other important sectors also reported nanoparticles. Personal protection equipment was the predominant protection strategy. Only a few applied specific environmental protection measures. This is the first nationwide representative study on nanoparticle use in the manufacturing sector. The information gained can be used for quantitative risk assessment. It can also help policymakers design strategies to support companies developing a safer use of nanomaterial. Noting the current low use of nanoparticles, there is still time to proactively introduce protective methods. If the predicted "nano-revolution" comes true, now is the time to take action.

  12. [Prevention of melanoma by sun protective measures in childhood. Temporal changes in awareness of parents].

    PubMed

    Kölmel, K F; Pfahlberg, A; Gefeller, O

    1997-06-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies on risk factors of malignant melanoma confirm the etiologic role of excessive UV-exposure especially in childhood. Preventive educational campaigns directed to parents of pre-school children have been inaugurated in several countries. In Germany the information was distributed by the "Working group for Preventive Measures in Dermatology" in cooperation with different public health institutions and the media starting in 1993. To evaluate the influence of these efforts on the knowledge and behaviour of the parents, two successive cross-sectional studies at all 56 nursery schools using the same standardised questionnaire were performed. The first interview took place in spring 1993 (before the campaign) with 1341 evaluable questionnaires', the second in fall 1994 (after the campaign) with 1150 evaluable questionnaire. The knowledge of the parents on melanoma risk factors was significantly improved in the second interview. Also the parental behavior regarding sun-protective measures when their children were outdoor at the beach or in the garden definitely changed. In 1993 the best textile sun protection was used by 21% of the parents at the beach and 36% in the garden. These numbers rose to 34% (beach) and 57% (garden) by the second interview. The percentage of children with no sunburn recorded during the preceding summer rose from 39% to 51%. According to the child's gender the parental behavior was different between the sexes; boys were always better protected than girls. The design of this study with two cross-sectional surveys in the same populations does not provide a methodologically sound basis for attributing the observed positive changes to the campaign. Without any doubt it can be stated that the parental knowledge and their attention to sun protection in their children showed substantial improvement in the second survey after the campaign. Thus, these results provide some evidence for the success of the preventive activities

  13. Interactions Between Spatially Explicit Conservation and Management Measures: Implications for the Governance of Marine Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárcamo, P. Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F.

    2013-12-01

    Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas.

  14. Developing measurement indices to enhance protection and resilience of U.S. critical infrastructure and key resources.

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R. E.; Norman, M.

    2010-07-01

    The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is developing indices to better assist in the risk management of critical infrastructures. The first of these indices is the Protective Measures Index - a quantitative index that measures overall protection across component categories: physical security, security management, security force, information sharing, protective measures and dependencies. The Protective Measures Index, which can also be recalculated as the Vulnerability Index, is a way to compare differing protective measures (eg fence versus security training). The second of these indices is the Resilience Index, which assesses a site's resilience and consists of three primary components: robustness, resourcefulness and recovery. The third index is the Criticality Index, which assesses the importance of a facility. The Criticality Index includes economic, human, governance and mass evacuation impacts. The Protective Measures Index, Resilience Index and Criticality Index are being developed as part of the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection initiative that DHS protective security advisers implement across the nation at critical facilities. This paper describes two core themes: determination of the vulnerability, resilience and criticality of a facility and comparison of the indices at different facilities.

  15. Collective dose as a performance measure for occupational radiation protection programs: Issues and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, D.J.; Harty, R.; Hickey, E.E.; Martin, J.B.; Peffers, M.S.; Kathren, R.L.

    1998-07-01

    Collective dose is one of the performance measures used at many US Department of Energy (DOE) contractor facilities to quantitatively assess the objectives of the radiation protection program. It can also be used as a management tool to improve the program for keeping worker doses as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Collective dose is used here to mean the sum of all total effective dose equivalent values for all workers in a specified group over a specified time. It is often used as a surrogate estimate of radiological risk. In principle, improvements in radiation protection programs and procedures will result in reduction of collective dose, all other things being equal. Within the DOE, most frequently, a single collective dose number, which may or may not be adjusted for workload and other factors, is used as a performance measure for a contractor. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the use of collective dose as a performance measure for ALARA programs at DOE sites.

  16. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON FOOD AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FOR RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION: STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES.

    PubMed

    Calmet, D; Ameon, R; Bombard, A; Brun, S; Byrde, F; Chen, J; Duda, J-M; Forte, M; Fournier, M; Fronka, A; Haug, T; Herranz, M; Husain, A; Jerome, S; Jiranek, M; Judge, S; Kim, S B; Kwakman, P; Loyen, J; LLaurado, M; Michel, R; Porterfield, D; Ratsirahonana, A; Richards, A; Rovenska, K; Sanada, T; Schuler, C; Thomas, L; Tokonami, S; Tsapalov, A; Yamada, T

    2016-11-24

    Radiological protection is a matter of concern for members of the public and thus national authorities are more likely to trust the quality of radioactivity data provided by accredited laboratories using common standards. Normative approach based on international standards aims to ensure the accuracy or validity of the test result through calibrations and measurements traceable to the International System of Units. This approach guarantees that radioactivity test results on the same types of samples are comparable over time and space as well as between different testing laboratories. Today, testing laboratories involved in radioactivity measurement have a set of more than 150 international standards to help them perform their work. Most of them are published by the International Standardization Organization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). This paper reviews the most essential ISO standards that give guidance to testing laboratories at different stages from sampling planning to the transmission of the test report to their customers, summarizes recent activities and achievements and present the perspectives on new standards under development by the ISO Working Groups dealing with radioactivity measurement in connection with radiological protection.

  17. Measuring scatter radiation in diagnostic X rays for radiation protection purposes.

    PubMed

    Vlachos, Ioannis; Tsantilas, Xenophon; Kalyvas, Nektarios; Delis, Harry; Kandarakis, Ioannis; Panayiotakis, George

    2015-07-01

    During the last decades, radiation protection and dosimetry in medical X-ray imaging practice has been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to measure secondary radiation in a conventional radiographic room, in terms of ambient dose rate equivalent H*(10) and its dependence on the radiographic exposure parameters such as X-ray tube voltage, tube current and distance. With some exceptions, the results indicated that the scattered radiation was uniform in the space around the water cylindrical phantom. The results also showed that the tube voltage and filtration affect the dose rate due to the scatter radiation. Finally, the scattered X-ray energy distribution was experimentally calculated.

  18. Accidental beam loss in superconducting accelerators: Simulations, consequences of accidents and protective measures

    SciTech Connect

    Drozhdin, A.; Mokhov, N.; Parker, B.

    1994-02-01

    The consequences of an accidental beam loss in superconducting accelerators and colliders of the next generation range from the mundane to rather dramatic, i.e., from superconducting magnet quench, to overheating of critical components, to a total destruction of some units via explosion. Specific measures are required to minimize and eliminate such events as much as practical. In this paper we study such accidents taking the Superconducting Supercollider complex as an example. Particle tracking, beam loss and energy deposition calculations were done using the realistic machine simulation with the Monte-Carlo codes MARS 12 and STRUCT. Protective measures for minimizing the damaging effects of prefire and misfire of injection and extraction kicker magnets are proposed here.

  19. Establishing protective long term measures after severe nuclear accidents using multiple criteria.

    PubMed

    Papazoglou, I A; Kollas, J G

    1997-05-01

    This paper proposes a methodology supporting decisions on protective measures following severe nuclear accidents and demonstrates its use. A multicriteria decision analysis approach is adopted where value tradeoffs are postponed until the very last stage of the decision process. All feasible solutions are implicitly considered and evaluated in the chosen criteria. Technically inferior solutions are excluded. Only the non-dominated or efficient solutions forming the "efficient frontier" are retained and presented to the decision makers. Implementation of inefficient solutions is in this way avoided. A choice among the efficient solutions, although it implies value tradeoffs among the multiple criteria, avoids the direct and apriori assessment of preferences. An interactive computer package has been developed with which the decision maker can choose a point on the efficient frontier in the consequence space and immediately see the corresponding alternative in the decision space. The methodology is demonstrated through an application on the choice among possible protective measures in contaminated areas of the former USSR after the Chernobyl accident using as criteria the collective effective life-time dose received by the population and the cost associated with each possible decision.

  20. Knowledge and Use of Personal Protective Measures Against Mosquito Borne Diseases in a Resettlement Colony of Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Anand, T; Kumar, R; Saini, V; Meena, GS; Ingle, GK

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mosquito borne diseases (MBDs) are major public health problem in India. State of Delhi is endemic for dengue and other MBDs. The increasing incidence of MBDs in Delhi in recent years warrants a pro-active approach for their prevention. Knowledge and use of personal protective measures (PPMs) presents an effective strategy for prevention and control of MBDs. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge and use of PPMs against MBDs in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi. Subjects and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study carried out in a resettlement colony of Delhi. A total of 100 families were selected by systematic random sampling. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaire and supplemented by spot survey by the investigator in the community. The results were analyzed in SPSS version 16.0 (Chicago Illinios, USA). Results: Out of the 100 respondents, 65% (65/100), 58%(58/100) and 13% (13/100) had heard about dengue, malaria and chikungunya, respectively. Nearly, one-fifth (20/100; 20%) of the participants reported incorrect breeding sites for mosquitoes. The knowledge regarding PPMs was very high (93/100; 93%) and about (90/100; 90%) families were actually using at least one of the PPMs. However, very few families were using them correctly (1/90; 1.1%) and adequately (5/90; 5.6%). The most common PPM being used by the study population was liquid vaporizers (54/90; 60%). Nearly one-third (29/90; 32.2%) of the participants reported side-effects due to PPMs with irritation to smell being the most common reported side-effect. On house visit, adult mosquitoes were seen in 67% (67/100) of the houses, while potential mosquito breeding sites were found in and around 56% (56/100) houses. Conclusions: There were crucial gaps in knowledge and practices of participants with regard to prevention and control of MBDs. Thus, there is a need to intensify efforts toward creating public knowledge and mobilizing community about correct use

  1. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo Ndebele's…

  2. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  3. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  4. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  5. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  6. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  7. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  8. PHITS simulations of the Protective curtain experiment onboard the Service module of ISS: Comparison with absorbed doses measured with TLDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploc, Ondřej; Sihver, Lembit; Kartashov, Dmitry; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav; Tolochek, Raisa

    2013-12-01

    "Protective curtain" was the physical experiment onboard the International Space Station (ISS) aimed on radiation measurement of the dose - reducing effect of the additional shielding made of hygienic water-soaked wipes and towels placed on the wall in the crew cabin of the Service module Zvezda. The measurements were performed with 12 detector packages composed of thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) and plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) placed at the Protective curtain, so that they created pairs of shielded and unshielded detectors.

  9. The Balloon Analog Insurance Task (BAIT): A Behavioral Measure of Protective Risk Management

    PubMed Central

    Essex, Brian G.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Qian, Rebecca Y.; Bernstein, Katherine; Zald, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Prior methods used to assess individual differences related to risk have not focused on an important component of risk management: how willing individuals are to pay for or take actions to insure what they already have. It is not clear whether this type of protective risk management taps into the same individual differences as does risk taking propensity measured by existing risk taking tasks. We developed a novel task to assess protective risk management, the Balloon Analog Insurance Task (BAIT), which is modeled after the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART). In the BAIT, individuals are forced to decide how much money they are willing to pay in order to insure a specific fraction of their prior winnings given changing but imprecise levels of risk of monetary loss. Participants completed the BART and BAIT for real monetary rewards, and completed six self report questionnaires. The amount of insurance purchased on the BAIT was positively correlated with scores on the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale and on the Checking scale of the revised Obsessive Compulsive Inventory. Conversely, the amount of insurance purchased was negatively correlated with scores on the Domain Specific Risk Taking Questionnaire, and on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI). Furthermore, relationships between insurance purchased and these scales remained significant after controlling for the BART in linear regression analyses, and the BART was only a significant predictor for measures on one scale - the PPI. Our results reveal that behavior on the BAIT taps into a number of individual differences that are not related to behavior on another measure of risk taking. We propose that the BAIT may provide a useful complement to the BART in the assessment of risk management style. PMID:21738666

  10. Strontium-90 Biokinetics from Simulated Wound Intakes in Non-human Primates Compared with Combined Model Predictions from National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report 156 and International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 67.

    PubMed

    Allen, Mark B; Brey, Richard R; Gesell, Thomas; Derryberry, Dewayne; Poudel, Deepesh

    2016-01-01

    This study had a goal to evaluate the predictive capabilities of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) wound model coupled to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) systemic model for 90Sr-contaminated wounds using non-human primate data. Studies were conducted on 13 macaque (Macaca mulatta) monkeys, each receiving one-time intramuscular injections of 90Sr solution. Urine and feces samples were collected up to 28 d post-injection and analyzed for 90Sr activity. Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis (IMBA) software was configured with default NCRP and ICRP model transfer coefficients to calculate predicted 90Sr intake via the wound based on the radioactivity measured in bioassay samples. The default parameters of the combined models produced adequate fits of the bioassay data, but maximum likelihood predictions of intake were overestimated by a factor of 1.0 to 2.9 when bioassay data were used as predictors. Skeletal retention was also over-predicted, suggesting an underestimation of the excretion fraction. Bayesian statistics and Monte Carlo sampling were applied using IMBA to vary the default parameters, producing updated transfer coefficients for individual monkeys that improved model fit and predicted intake and skeletal retention. The geometric means of the optimized transfer rates for the 11 cases were computed, and these optimized sample population parameters were tested on two independent monkey cases and on the 11 monkeys from which the optimized parameters were derived. The optimized model parameters did not improve the model fit in most cases, and the predicted skeletal activity produced improvements in three of the 11 cases. The optimized parameters improved the predicted intake in all cases but still over-predicted the intake by an average of 50%. The results suggest that the modified transfer rates were not always an improvement over the default NCRP and ICRP model values.

  11. Neutron Measurements for Radiation Protection in Low Earth Orbit - History and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golightly, M. J.; Se,pmes. E/

    2003-01-01

    The neutron environment inside spacecraft has been of interest from a scientific and radiation protection perspective since early in the history of manned spaceflight. With 1:.1e exception of a few missions which carried plutonium-fueled radioisotope thermoelectric generators, all of the neutrons inside the spacecraft are secondary radiations resulting from interactions of high-energy charged particles with nuclei in the Earth's atmosphere, spacecraft structural materials, and the astronaut's own bodies. Although of great interest, definitive measurements of the spacecraft neutron field have been difficult due to the wide particle energy range and the limited available volume and power for traditional techniques involving Bonner spheres. A multitude of measurements, however, have been made of the neutron environment inside spacecraft. The majority of measurements were made using passive techniques including metal activation fo ils, fission foils, nuclear photoemulsions, plastic track detectors, and thermoluminescent detectors. Active measurements have utilized proton recoil spectrometers (stilbene), Bonner Spheres eRe proportional counter based), and LiI(Eu)phoswich scintillation detectors. For the International Space Station (ISS), only the plastic track! thermoluminescent detectors are used with any regularity. A monitoring program utilizing a set of active Bonner spheres was carried out in the ISS Lab module from March - December 200l. These measurements provide a very limited look at the crew neutron exposure, both in time coverage and neutron energy coverage. A review of the currently published data from past flights will be made and compared with the more recent results from the ISS. Future measurement efforts using currently available techniques and those in development will be also discussed.

  12. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  13. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (10/14/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadben,. Director, to Nancy Wrona and Dennis Smith informing them that Maricopa County's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2003 MAGCO Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  14. Region 6: Texas Adequate Letter (4/16/2010)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Texas Commission on Environmental Quality determined 2021 motor vehicle emission budgets for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for Beaumont/Port Arthur area adequate for transportation conformity purposes

  15. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (10/29/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Denvers' particulate matter (PM10) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  16. Region 1: New Hampshire Adequate Letter (8/12/2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This July 9, 2008 letter from EPA to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, determined the 2009 Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets (MVEBs) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal Register (FR).

  17. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (1/20/2004)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Greeleys' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the FR.

  18. Region 8: Utah Adequate Letter (6/10/2005)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Utah Department of Environmental Quality determined Salt Lake Citys' and Ogdens' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  19. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  20. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  1. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  2. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  3. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  4. Region 6: New Mexico Adequate Letter (8/21/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Carl Edlund, Director, to Alfredo Santistevan regarding MVEB's contained in the latest revision to the Albuquerque Carbon Monoxide State Implementation Plan (SIP) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  5. Region 9: Nevada Adequate Letter (3/30/2006)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Deborah Jordan, Director, to Leo M. Drozdoff regarding Nevada's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2005 Truckee Meadows CO Redesignation Request and Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity decisions.

  6. Psychometric Properties of Three Measures of Protective Factors for Depression and Suicidal Behaviour Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Labelle, Réal; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Berthiaume, Claude; Royer, Chantal; Raymond, Sylvie; Cournoyer, Marilou; Balan, Bogdan; Zaloum, Terry; Bibaud, Antoine; Gauvin, Geoffrey; Janelle, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the reliability of French versions of the Adolescent Coping Scale (ACS), the Reasons for Living Inventory for Adolescents (RFL-A), and the Spirituality Scale (SS); to examine the construct validity of these psychometric instruments; and to determine their convergent validity with French versions of the Life Events Questionnaire for Adolescents (LEQ-A), the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II), and the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) among French-Canadian adolescents. Methods: Participants were 429 adolescents from high schools (n = 283) and the Mood Disorder Clinic (n = 146) in Montreal. The instruments were translated into French following the back-translation method. The internal consistency was assessed through Cronbach alpha coefficients. Exploratory analyses were conducted to document the content of their dimensions. Convergent validity was examined by correlating the ACS, the RFL-A, and the SS with the French versions of the LEQ-A, the BDI-II, and the BHS. Results: The findings confirm that the ACS, RFL-A, and SS are psychometric instruments well suited to assess protective factors for depression and suicidal behaviour among French-speaking adolescents in community and clinical settings. However, results must be interpreted with some circumspection as 2 SS subscales obtained reliability coefficients in the moderate range only and the instructions for the RFL-A were reframed in response to ethical considerations. Conclusions: Our results add to those already available on the original English versions of the ACS, RFL-A, and SS and advance the knowledge of the psychometric properties of protective measures. PMID:25886667

  7. Rates of reinforcement and measures of compliance in free and protected contact elephant management systems.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Megan L; Perdue, Bonnie M; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Maple, Terry L

    2015-01-01

    Protected contact is an alternative to traditional captive elephant training techniques that emerged as a result of concerns for animal welfare and personnel safety. The present study documented the behavior of elephants and their animal care professionals to determine rates of reinforcement and measures of compliance under two handling systems. Behavioral data were collected from animal care professionals and elephants during the elephants' baths in both free contact (FC) and protected contact (PC). Positive reinforcement, in the form of food, was delivered, on average, nearly eight times more frequently in the PC condition. Further, the mean rate at which the animal care professionals used the ankus in the FC condition as negative reinforcement was similar to the mean rate at which they provided positive reinforcement to the elephants in the FC condition. Latencies between verbal commands and the elephants' behaviors demonstrated an inconsistent pattern, but were generally longer in the PC condition. The mean percent of "refusals" by the elephants was higher for most behaviors across elephants in the PC condition. The findings suggest that animal care professionals did not heavily rely on positive reinforcement in the FC condition to elicit desired behaviors from the elephants, but this was the case in the PC condition. We propose that longer latencies and higher mean percent of refusals by the elephants may indicate that they were exercising choice or control over their environment, which has been associated with improved well-being. Additional studies of this kind are needed to enable other institutions to make informed decisions about elephant management and welfare.

  8. Investigation of Radiation Protection Methodologies for Radiation Therapy Shielding Using Monte Carlo Simulation and Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanny, Sean

    The advent of high-energy linear accelerators for dedicated medical use in the 1950's by Henry Kaplan and the Stanford University physics department began a revolution in radiation oncology. Today, linear accelerators are the standard of care for modern radiation therapy and can generate high-energy beams that can produce tens of Gy per minute at isocenter. This creates a need for a large amount of shielding material to properly protect members of the public and hospital staff. Standardized vault designs and guidance on shielding properties of various materials are provided by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) Report 151. However, physicists are seeking ways to minimize the footprint and volume of shielding material needed which leads to the use of non-standard vault configurations and less-studied materials, such as high-density concrete. The University of Toledo Dana Cancer Center has utilized both of these methods to minimize the cost and spatial footprint of the requisite radiation shielding. To ensure a safe work environment, computer simulations were performed to verify the attenuation properties and shielding workloads produced by a variety of situations where standard recommendations and guidance documents were insufficient. This project studies two areas of concern that are not addressed by NCRP 151, the radiation shielding workload for the vault door with a non-standard design, and the attenuation properties of high-density concrete for both photon and neutron radiation. Simulations have been performed using a Monte-Carlo code produced by the Los Alamos National Lab (LANL), Monte Carlo Neutrons, Photons 5 (MCNP5). Measurements have been performed using a shielding test port designed into the maze of the Varian Edge treatment vault.

  9. Measuring the difference made by conservation initiatives: protected areas and their environmental and social impacts

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Paul J.; Pressey, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Success in conservation depends on our ability to reduce human pressures in areas that harbour biological diversity and ecosystem services. Legally protecting some of these areas through the creation of protected areas is a key component of conservation efforts globally. To develop effective protected area networks, practitioners need credible, scientific evidence about the degree to which protected areas affect environmental and social outcomes, and how these effects vary with context. Such evidence has been lacking, but the situation is changing as conservation scientists adopt more sophisticated research designs for evaluating protected areas' past impacts and for predicting their future impacts. Complementing these scientific advances, conservation funders and practitioners are paying increasing attention to evaluating their investments with more scientifically rigorous evaluation designs. This theme issue highlights recent advances in the science of protected area evaluations and explores the challenges to developing a more credible evidence base that can help societies achieve their goals of protecting nature while enhancing human welfare. PMID:26460123

  10. Measuring the difference made by conservation initiatives: protected areas and their environmental and social impacts.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Paul J; Pressey, Robert L

    2015-11-05

    Success in conservation depends on our ability to reduce human pressures in areas that harbour biological diversity and ecosystem services. Legally protecting some of these areas through the creation of protected areas is a key component of conservation efforts globally. To develop effective protected area networks, practitioners need credible, scientific evidence about the degree to which protected areas affect environmental and social outcomes, and how these effects vary with context. Such evidence has been lacking, but the situation is changing as conservation scientists adopt more sophisticated research designs for evaluating protected areas' past impacts and for predicting their future impacts. Complementing these scientific advances, conservation funders and practitioners are paying increasing attention to evaluating their investments with more scientifically rigorous evaluation designs. This theme issue highlights recent advances in the science of protected area evaluations and explores the challenges to developing a more credible evidence base that can help societies achieve their goals of protecting nature while enhancing human welfare.

  11. Attitudes, Beliefs, and Measures Taken by Parents to Protect Their Children from the Sun in Guangzhou City, China.

    PubMed

    Wan, Miaojian; Hu, Rong; Li, Ying; Wang, Yaning; Xie, Xiaoyuan; Yue, Pan; Guan, Lei; Lai, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Excessive sun exposure can cause sunburn, suntan, skin photoaging, and even skin cancer. Skin photoaging conflicts with the human pursuit of a young and beautiful appearance. Some research data indicate that the incidence of skin cancer in the Chinese has been increasing, although it remains lower than in whites. To estimate the prevalence of sun protection used on Chinese children aged 3-13 years and identify its predictors, a population-based cross-sectional questionnaire was given to 3684 parents/guardians of children in Guangzhou, China, of which 3083 questionnaires were returned. Of those returned, 35.5% of parents/guardians reported regularly using sun protection on their children and the primary reason cited was to prevent sunburn. Hats and handheld umbrellas were the most frequently used measures; sunscreen was less common, and when used, 48.8% of parents/guardians still reapplied sunscreen on their children every 2.0-3.0 h. Parental age, parents using sun protection measures themselves when outdoors, and the child's sex were factors associated with regular use of sun protection on children. These results suggest that sun protection campaigns targeted toward parents and children need to be conducted in Guangzhou, or throughout China, to strengthen awareness about sun protection and address any inadequate protocols of sun protection.

  12. Workplace protection factor measurements on powered air-purifying respirators at a secondary lead smelter: results and discussion.

    PubMed

    Myers, W R; Peach, M J; Cutright, K; Iskander, W

    1984-10-01

    A study was conducted at a secondary lead smelter to evaluate the workplace performance of the 3M W-344 and Racal AH3 powered air-purifying respirators equipped with helmets and high efficiency filters. The research protocol developed for the study has been described in a companion paper. The results of the study indicate that the mean lead concentrations, measured inside the facepiece of both PAPRs, were significantly less than the OSHA lead exposure limit of 50 micrograms/m3. The means of the workplace protection factor measurements on both PAPRs were significantly less than the PAPR selection guide protection factor classification of 1000. Correlation analysis of preshift quantitative fit factors and corresponding workplace protection factors indicated no linear association between these two measures of performance. This finding suggests that for PAPRs equipped with helmets and high efficiency filters quantitative fit factors as presently determined are not indicative of the workplace protection which the respirators provide. Since the PAPR protection factor classification of 1000 was originally based on quantitative fit factors, the lack of a demonstrated association between quantitative fit factors and workplace protection as found in this study may explain why their performance was significantly less than expected.

  13. Vigorous cleaning and adequate ventilation are necessary to control an outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Shimono, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Jun; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Miyake, Noriko; Uchida, Yujiro; Shimoda, Shinji; Furusyo, Norihiro; Akashi, Koichi

    2012-06-01

    An outbreak of Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) bacteremia occurred in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in July 2005. Many strains of B. cereus were cultured from patient specimens, as well as from environmental samples such as the surfaces of instruments and air in the NICU. Some of these strains were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, and several were confirmed to be identical. We speculated that the bacterial load in the environment had initially increased and then possibly spread throughout the NICU facility via the airflow of the ventilation system. For this reason, besides maintaining standard precautions, we performed a vigorous clean of the NICU, and covered the vents to prevent dust falling from them. These protective measures ended the outbreak. In the hospital environment, adequate ventilation is important, especially in single-occupancy isolation rooms and operating theaters. However, the criteria for the adequate ventilation of multioccupancy rooms for acute care environments such as the NICU have not yet been defined. We need to pay more attention to these environmental factors in order to avoid cross contamination and infectious outbreaks.

  14. Measurement of effects on tone with lip-protecting music splints for wind instrument players

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katada, Chigusa; Nozaki, Kazunori; Imai, Miharu; Kawamoto, Masayuki; Shima, Yuko; Tamagawa, Hiroo; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Ohboshi, Naoki; Toda, Tadao

    2004-05-01

    To protect against lip trauma from wind instruments, music splints that cover the sharp edges of incisor teeth are often manufactured by dentists. Wind instrument players who have installed these custom-made music splints often express not only their lip comfort but also changes in their tone quality. In this study, we investigated the effect of the splints to the tone quality. We recorded three types of trumpet sounds such as long tones, arpeggios with perfect fifth, and tonguing tones with and without using a splint, respectively, by a professional trumpet player in an anechoic room. After fast Fourier transform, the higher harmonics was observed more in the splint group than in the nonsplint group, with sharp peaks from 5000 to 8000 Hz. We also examined the differences of these sound groups with recognition tests by two groups of listeners such as professional musicians and nonprofessional persons. Though sound-pressure levels of higher harmonics in two sound groups were lower than those at 400 to 2000 Hz, the musically trained persons recognized the difference perfectly. These results suggest the target of measurement to evaluate the effect of music splints.

  15. A Measure of the Forest Protected Areas Benefits for the Surrounding Population: A Case Study of the Bouaflé Protected Forest (CÔTE D'IVOIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouame, B. N. P.

    2015-12-01

    Côte d'Ivoire located in West Africa, registers high level of biodiversity which occurs mainly in forest land. The country has suffered severe deforestation. However, deforestation and forest degradation release Greenhouse Gases into the atmosphere which contributes to Climate Change. In order to address the deforestation, many actions are taken, one of which is the implementation of protected areas within countries. These measures put restrictions on the access of local communities to forest services. However, local communities supplement their daily livelihood from forests, especially from timber and non-timber forest products. What are the effects of forests conservation in protected areas on surrounding population? This study focuses on the Bouaflé protected forest (foret classée de Bouaflé) in the western part of Côte d'Ivoire. The forest is 20350 ha and was made a protected forest in 1974. It is one of the most deforested protected areas in the country. Firstly, we described the perception of forest benefits by the population. Secondly, we estimated the benefits of forest conservation using a contingent valuation approach, particularly the Willingness to Pay (WTP) methodology. From our sample size of 156 households, it appears that most of the individuals are aware of the importance of the forest (94 % against 6%). According to the estimate of the benefits, it results on average, people are willing to pay 1658.491F CFA (2.53 Euros). The median WTP is 1000 FCFA. This study will be helpful by adding to the scientific literature and for inducing local people implication in conservation.

  16. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  17. Electrochemical measurements of cathodic protection for reinforced concrete piles in a marine environment using embedded corrosion monitoring sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jin-A.; Chung, Won-Sub; Kim, Yong-Hwan

    2013-05-01

    This study developed a sensor to monitor the corrosion of reinforced concrete structures. Concrete pile specimens with embedded sensors were used to obtain data on corrosion and cathodic protection for bridge columns in a real marine environment. Corrosion potential, cathodic protection current density, concrete resistivity, and the degree of depolarization potential were measured with the embedded sensors in concrete pile specimens. The cathodic protection (CP) state was accurately monitored by sensors installed in underwater, tidal, splash, and atmospheric zones. The protection potential measurements confirmed that the CP by Zn-mesh sacrificial anode was fairly effective in the marine pile environment. The protection current densities in the tidal, splash zones were 2-3 times higher than those in underwater and atmospheric zones. The concrete resistivity in the tidal and splash zones was decreased through the installation of both mortar-embedded Zn-mesh (sacrificial anode) and outside an FRP jacket (cover). Considering the CP, the cathodic prevention was more effective than cathodic protection.

  18. Regulatory requirements for providing adequate veterinary care to research animals.

    PubMed

    Pinson, David M

    2013-09-01

    Provision of adequate veterinary care is a required component of animal care and use programs in the United States. Program participants other than veterinarians, including non-medically trained research personnel and technicians, also provide veterinary care to animals, and administrators are responsible for assuring compliance with federal mandates regarding adequate veterinary care. All program participants therefore should understand the regulatory requirements for providing such care. The author provides a training primer on the US regulatory requirements for the provision of veterinary care to research animals. Understanding the legal basis and conditions of a program of veterinary care will help program participants to meet the requirements advanced in the laws and policies.

  19. Risk analysis and protection measures in a carbon nanofiber manufacturing enterprise: an exploratory investigation.

    PubMed

    Genaidy, Ash; Sequeira, Reynold; Rinder, Magda; A-Rehim, Amal

    2009-11-01

    The emerging US carbon nano-manufacturing sector accounts for 40% of nanotechnology product marketplace, thus, there is a significant potential for increased risks arising from workers' exposure to carbon nanofibers (CNF). This research aims at developing a low-cost/evidence-based tool, thereby, increasing the sustainability of CNF manufacturing firms. The following specific aims achieve the study objective: Aim 1 - To present a technical discussion of the proposed concept for risk analysis and protection measures; Aim 2 - To describe the manufacturing process utilized for the CNF production; Aim 3 - To describe the hazards typically encountered in a CNF manufacturing facility; and, Aim 4 - To document the application of the proposed tool for risk analysis and intervention strategy development. In this study, a four-step methodology was developed to protect worker health in the nano-manufacturing enterprise through the generation of improvement actions (i.e., suggested changes in the hazard/work environment characteristics and individual capabilities without specifying how changes are made) followed by interventions (i.e., workplace solutions which specify how changes are being implemented). The methodology was implemented in a CNF manufacturing enterprise in the Midwest of the US. The data collected were based on detailed observations and interviews with worker and management personnel. A detailed flow process analysis was conducted for the nano-manufacturing operation. Eleven hazards were identified at the facility. Analysis indicated that the computed risk scores ranged from moderate (i.e., requiring one to start with incremental changes, then, explore substantial changes, if needed) to very high (i.e., substantial changes should be planned in the short term, followed by incremental changes). A detailed intervention plan was presented for the identified hazards on the basis of criteria of applicability, cost, benefit and feasibility. Management personnel were in

  20. Identifying the Factors Impacting the Adequately Yearly Progress Performance in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Ju-Shan

    2013-01-01

    The NCLB (No Child Left Behind Act) specifies that states must develop AYP (adequate yearly progress) statewide measurable objectives for improved achievement by all students, including economically disadvantaged students, students from minority races, students with disabilities, and students with limited English proficiency. By the 2013-2014…

  1. Science Education as a Contributor to Adequate Yearly Progress and Accountability Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act requires states to measure the adequate yearly progress (AYP) of each public school and local educational agency (LEA) and to hold schools and LEAs accountable for failing to make AYP. Although it is required that science be assessed in at least three grades, the achievement results from science examinations are…

  2. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  3. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  4. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  5. Is the Stock of VET Skills Adequate? Assessment Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandy, Richard; Freeland, Brett

    In Australia and elsewhere, four approaches have been used to determine whether stocks of vocational education and training (VET) skills are adequate to meet industry needs. The four methods are as follows: (1) the manpower requirements approach; (2) the international, national, and industry comparisons approach; (3) the labor market analysis…

  6. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  7. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  8. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  9. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  10. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  11. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  12. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation…

  13. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  14. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  15. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (11/1/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadbent, Director, Air Division to Nancy Wrona and James Bourney informing them of the adequacy of Revised MAG 1999 Serious Area Carbon Monoxide Plan and that the MAG CO Plan is adequate for Maricopa County.

  16. Weak Measurement-Based Entanglement Protection of Two-Qubit X-States from Amplitude Damping Decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yao-Hua; Tao, Ya-Ping; Tan, Yong-Gang; Yang, Hai-Feng

    2017-02-01

    Considering X-states the density matrixes of which look like the letter X, we propose a weak measurement-based entanglement protection protocol of two-qubit X-states under local amplitude damping channels using weak measurement and reversal operation. It is shown that, with increase of the decoherence parameter, the entanglement attenuates rapidly owing to the amplitude damping noise and even experiences entanglement sudden death (ESD). However, the entanglement under the weak measurement and reversal operation is always much stronger than the entanglement undergoing the amplitude damping decoherence. These results reflect that entanglement of two-qubit X-states from amplitude damping decoherence can be protected, and ESD can be circumvented by increasing the weak measurement strength.

  17. Item Randomized-Response Models for Measuring Noncompliance: Risk-Return Perceptions, Social Influences, and Self-Protective Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockenholt, Ulf; Van Der Heijden, Peter G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Randomized response (RR) is a well-known method for measuring sensitive behavior. Yet this method is not often applied because: (i) of its lower efficiency and the resulting need for larger sample sizes which make applications of RR costly; (ii) despite its privacy-protection mechanism the RR design may not be followed by every respondent; and…

  18. 75 FR 77535 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... environmental baseline; Steller sea lions population trends, foraging behavior, and biology; and effects of the... foraging behavior of Steller sea lions in the Aleutian Islands subarea. The details of these standards are... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

  19. Household-Level Expenditure on Protective Measures Against Mosquitoes on the Island of La Réunion, France

    PubMed Central

    Thuilliez, Josselin; Bellia, Claire; Dehecq, Jean-Sébastien; Reilhes, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Background For decades La Réunion has experienced a number of epidemics that have resulted in efforts to control the density of Aedes species on this Island. This study was conducted to assess household-level expenditure on protective measures against mosquito nuisance on the Island of La Réunion in 2012. Methodology/Principal Findings Data was collected during a cross-sectional survey of 1024 households and used to determine the relationship between the use of chemically-based protective measures and subjective and objective indicators of the density of Aedes albopictus. The average household expenditure in July 2012 was USD 9.86 and the total household-level expenditure over a one-year period was extrapolated to USD 28.05million (range: USD 25.58 million to USD 30.76 million). Much of this money was spent on measures thought to be relatively ineffective against Aedes mosquitoes. Expenditure on protective measures was not influenced by the level of knowledge on mosquitoes or by the visual nuisance they generated at home, but rather by the perception of risk related to a future epidemic of chikungunya and socioeconomic factors. Most importantly, household spending on protective measures was found to be influenced by a measure of zone-level mosquito density (the Breteau index), but not by objective indicators of the presence of mosquitoes within or around the house. Conclusions/Significance Household-level expenditure on chemically-based protective measures is high when compared to the investment made by public entities to achieve vector control, and it is differentially influenced by subjective and objective measures of mosquito density. The current situation could be improved, firstly by ensuring that the public is well-informed about mosquitoes and the effectiveness of various protective measures, and secondly by implementing interventions that could either complement current vector-control strategies and improve their effectiveness on a country-level, or that

  20. Scenario analysis of Agro-Environment measure adoption for soil erosion protection in Sicilian vineyard (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Fantappiè, Maria; Costantini, Edoardo

    2014-05-01

    Most of the challenges in designing land use policies that address sustainability issues are inherent to the concept of Agro-Environmental Measures (AEM). Researchers, farmers and mainly policy makers need to evaluate the impact of new and existing policies for soil protection. In Europe, farmers commit themselves, for a minimum period of at least five years, to adopt environmentally-friendly farming techniques that undergone legal obligations. On the other hand, farmers receive payments that provide compensation for additional costs and income foregone resulting from applying those environmentally friendly farming practices in line with the stipulations of agri-environment contracts. In this context we prospect scenarios on soil erosion variations in a detailed case study after the application of Agro-Environmental Measures (AEM). The study area is located in the South part of Sicily. In a district area of 11,588 ha, 35.5 % is devoted to vineyard cultivation, 32.2 % is arable land and only 11.1 % cultivated to olive grow. 2416 ha are urbanized areas and other less important crops. A paired-site approach was chosen to study the difference in soil organic carbon stocks after AEM adoption, following criteria based on Conteh (1999) also applied in several research studies. For the purpose of comparison, the members of a paired site were selected to be similar with respect to the type of soil, slope, elevation, and drainage, but not to AEM. The comparisons were made between adjacent patches of land with different AEM, and a known history of land use and management. 100 paired sites (two adjacent plots) were chosen and three soil samples (0-30 cm depth) were collected in each plot (600 soil samples). The rainfall erosivity (R) factor (Mj mm ha-1 hour-1 year-1) was estimated with the formula specifically proposed for Sicily by Ferro and coauthors in 1999. The soil erodibility factor (K, in tons hour MJ-1 mm-1) was mapped on the base of soil texture and soil organic

  1. Army General Fund Adjustments Not Adequately Documented or Supported

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-26

    statements were unreliable and lacked an adequate audit trail. Furthermore, DoD and Army managers could not rely on the data in their accounting...risk that AGF financial statements will be materially misstated and the Army will not achieve audit readiness by the congressionally mandated...and $6.5 trillion in yearend adjustments made to Army General Fund data during FY 2015 financial statement compilation. We conducted this audit in

  2. [Preventing transmission of infection in endoscopy: hygienic maintainance of flexible endoscopes and measures for personal protection].

    PubMed

    Leiss, O; Exner, M; Niebel, J

    1995-12-01

    For prevention of transfer of infective agents by the contaminated endoscope the importance of thorough mechanical cleaning of the endoscope and adequate disinfection is stressed. Mode of action and side effects of liquid disinfectants as well as resistance of microorganisms (spores and some mycobacteria) to germicidal chemicals are mentioned. The different steps of disinfection procedures and potential causes of failure are discussed. Automatic disinfection systems are required for a higher degree of security of both patient and staff of the endoscopic unit. A regular control of the efficacy of the disinfection process is recommended and models for implementation are discussed. For prevention of occupationally acquired infection general precaution guidelines (use of gloves, prevention of needle-stick injuries) and vaccination programs are stressed.

  3. 75 FR 74022 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory that represented a significant departure from... Laboratory Plutonium Facility Seismic Safety. The Board followed up its Recommendation with a letter to the... of the DSA for the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility in December 2008...

  4. Contemporary Proton Therapy Systems Adequately Protect Patients from Exposure to Stray Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Fontenot, Jonas D.; Taddei, Phillip J.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Giebeler, Annelise; Zhang Rui; Mahajan, Anita; Kornguth, David; Stovall, Marilyn; Woo, Shiao; Mohan, Radhe; Yepes, Pablo

    2009-03-10

    Proton beam therapy has provided safe and effective treatments for a variety of adult cancers. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in utilizing proton therapy for pediatric cancers because it allows better sparing of healthy tissues. Minimizing exposures of normal tissues is especially important in children because they are highly susceptible to consequential late effects, including the development of a radiogenic second cancer, which may occur years or even decades after treatment of the first cancer. While the dosimetric advantage of therapeutic proton beams is well understood, relatively little attention has been paid to the whole-body exposure to stray neutron radiation that is inherent in proton therapy. In this report, we review the physical processes that lead to neutron exposures, discuss the potential for mitigating these exposures using advanced proton beam delivery systems, and present a comparative analysis of predicted second cancer incidence following various external beam therapies. In addition, we discuss uncertainties in the relative biological effectiveness of neutrons for carcinogenesis and the impact that these uncertainties have on second-cancer risk predictions for survivors of adult and childhood cancer who receive proton therapy.

  5. Contemporary Proton Therapy Systems Adequately Protect Patients from Exposure to Stray Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Fontenot, Jonas D.; Taddei, Phillip J.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Giebeler, Annelise; Zhang, Rui; Mahajan, Anita; Kornguth, David; Stovall, Marilyn; Yepes, Pablo; Woo, Shiao; Mohan, Radhe

    2009-03-01

    Proton beam therapy has provided safe and effective treatments for a variety of adult cancers. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in utilizing proton therapy for pediatric cancers because it allows better sparing of healthy tissues. Minimizing exposures of normal tissues is especially important in children because they are highly susceptible to consequential late effects, including the development of a radiogenic second cancer, which may occur years or even decades after treatment of the first cancer. While the dosimetric advantage of therapeutic proton beams is well understood, relatively little attention has been paid to the whole-body exposure to stray neutron radiation that is inherent in proton therapy. In this report, we review the physical processes that lead to neutron exposures, discuss the potential for mitigating these exposures using advanced proton beam delivery systems, and present a comparative analysis of predicted second cancer incidence following various external beam therapies. In addition, we discuss uncertainties in the relative biological effectiveness of neutrons for carcinogenesis and the impact that these uncertainties have on second-cancer risk predictions for survivors of adult and childhood cancer who receive proton therapy.

  6. Practical and affordable measures for the protection of health care workers from tuberculosis in low-income countries.

    PubMed Central

    Harries, A. D.; Maher, D.; Nunn, P.

    1997-01-01

    With the global upsurge in tuberculosis (TB), fueled by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic, and the increase in multidrug-resistant TB, the condition has become a serious occupational hazard for health care workers worldwide. Much of the current understanding about nosocomial TB transmission stems from the USA; however, little is known about the risk of such transmission in low-income countries. The focus of this review is on sub-Saharan Africa, since this is the region with the highest TB incidence, the highest HIV incidence, the worst epidemic of HIV-related TB, and where the risk to health care workers is probably greatest. Measures used in industralized countries to control nosocomial TB transmission (ventilation systems, isolation rooms, personal protective equipment) are beyond the resources of low-income countries. Protecting health care workers in these settings involves practical measures relating to diagnosis and treatment of infectious cases; appropriate environmental control; and relevant personal protection and surveillance of health care workers. Research needs to be carried out to examine the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of measures such as voluntary HIV-testing of health care workers (to enable known HIV-positive health care workers to avoid high-risk settings) and isoniazid preventive therapy for workers in high-risk settings. More resources are also needed to ensure full implementation of currently recommended measures to decrease the risk of nosocomial and laboratory-acquired TB. PMID:9447782

  7. MEASURING HYDROLOGICAL CHANGE DURING EXURBAN DEVELOPMENT: COLLABORATIVE HYDROLOGIC RESEARCH IN THE CLARKSBURG SPECIAL PROTECTION AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project is focused on the Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA) in Montgomery County, Maryland. The CSPA subwatersheds are on the outer edge of the exurban development shockwave expanding outward from the Washington DC metropolitan area. The CSPA is an area of ...

  8. MEASURING HYDROLOGICAL CHANGE DURING EXURBAN DEVELOPMENT: COLLABORATIVE HYDROLOGIC RESEARCH IN THE CLARKSBURG SPECIAL PROTECTION AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project is focused on the Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA) in Montgomery County, Maryland. The CSPA subwatersheds are on the outer edge of the exurban development shockwave expanding outward from the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. The CSPA is an area o...

  9. Community football players' attitudes towards protective equipment—a pre-season measure

    PubMed Central

    Braham, R; Finch, C; McIntosh, A; McCrory, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: The Australian football injury prevention project (AFIPP) was a randomised controlled trial examining the effects of protective equipment on injury rates in Australian Football. Objective: To present the results of the AFIPP baseline survey of community football players' attitudes towards protective equipment. Methods: Teams of players were recruited from the largest community football league in Victoria, Australia, during the 2001 playing season; 301 players were enrolled in the study and all were surveyed before the season began about their attitudes towards protective headgear and mouthguards. Results: Almost three quarters of the players (73.6%) reported wearing mouthguards during the previous playing season (year 2000) compared with only 2.1% wearing headgear. The most common reasons for not wearing headgear and mouthguards (in non-users) were: "I don't like wearing it" (headgear: 44.8%; mouthguards: 30.6%), and "It is too uncomfortable" (headgear: 40.7%; mouthguards: 45.8%). Conclusions: The higher mouthguard usage reflects the favourable attitudes towards mouthguards by Australian football players generally. Similarly, the low headgear usage reflects the low acceptance of this form of protection in this sport. Further research should be directed towards establishing the reasons why players seem to believe that headgear plays a role in injury prevention yet few wear it. PMID:15273177

  10. Terrestrial reserve networks do not adequately represent aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Matthew E; McIntyre, Peter B; Doran, Patrick J; Allan, J David; Abell, Robin

    2010-08-01

    Protected areas are a cornerstone of conservation and have been designed largely around terrestrial features. Freshwater species and ecosystems are highly imperiled, but the effectiveness of existing protected areas in representing freshwater features is poorly known. Using the inland waters of Michigan as a test case, we quantified the coverage of four key freshwater features (wetlands, riparian zones, groundwater recharge, rare species) within conservation lands and compared these with representation of terrestrial features. Wetlands were included within protected areas more often than expected by chance, but riparian zones were underrepresented across all (GAP 1-3) protected lands, particularly for headwater streams and large rivers. Nevertheless, within strictly protected lands (GAP 1-2), riparian zones were highly represented because of the contribution of the national Wild and Scenic Rivers Program. Representation of areas of groundwater recharge was generally proportional to area of the reserve network within watersheds, although a recharge hotspot associated with some of Michigan's most valued rivers is almost entirely unprotected. Species representation in protected areas differed significantly among obligate aquatic, wetland, and terrestrial species, with representation generally highest for terrestrial species and lowest for aquatic species. Our results illustrate the need to further evaluate and address the representation of freshwater features within protected areas and the value of broadening gap analysis and other protected-areas assessments to include key ecosystem processes that are requisite to long-term conservation of species and ecosystems. We conclude that terrestrially oriented protected-area networks provide a weak safety net for aquatic features, which means complementary planning and management for both freshwater and terrestrial conservation targets is needed.

  11. Elements for adequate informed consent in the surgical context.

    PubMed

    Abaunza, Hernando; Romero, Klaus

    2014-07-01

    Given a history of atrocities and violations of ethical principles, several documents and regulations have been issued by a wide variety of organizations. They aim at ensuring that health care and clinical research adhere to defined ethical principles. A fundamental component was devised to ensure that the individual has been provided the necessary information to make an informed decision regarding health care or participation in clinical research. This article summarizes the history and regulations for informed consent and discusses suggested components for adequate consent forms for daily clinical practice in surgery as well as clinical research.

  12. Region 5: Ohio Parkersburg Adequate Letter (4/18/2007)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency determined the 2009 and 2018 motor vehicle emission budgets for (MVEBs) for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for Washington County 8-hour ozone nonattainment

  13. Heath Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems - Preliminary Measurements and Design Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. A.; Price, D. C.

    2007-01-01

    The work reported here is the first stage of a project that aims to develop a health monitoring system for Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) that enables a vehicle to safely re-enter the Earth's atmosphere. The TPS health monitoring system is to be integrated into an existing acoustic emissions-based Concept Demonstrator, developed by CSIRO, which has been previously demonstrated for evaluating impact damage of aerospace systems.

  14. Review of weapon noise measurement and damage risk criteria: considerations for auditory protection and performance.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Ann; Farinaccio, Rocco

    2015-04-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss resulting from weapon noise exposure has been studied for decades. A summary of recent work in weapon noise signal analysis, current knowledge of hearing damage risk criteria, and auditory performance in impulse noise is presented. Most of the currently used damage risk criteria are based on data that cannot be replicated or verified. There is a need to address the effects of combined noise exposures, from similar or different weapons and continuous background noise, in future noise exposure regulations. Advancements in hearing protection technology have expanded the options available to soldiers. Individual selection of hearing protection devices that are best suited to the type of exposure, the auditory task requirements, and hearing status of the user could help to facilitate their use. However, hearing protection devices affect auditory performance, which in turn affects situational awareness in the field. This includes communication capability and the localization and identification of threats. Laboratory training using high-fidelity weapon noise recordings has the potential to improve the auditory performance of soldiers in the field, providing a low-cost tool to enhance readiness for combat.

  15. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  16. Assessment of the Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer Through Protective Garments Using Manikins and Other Advanced Measurement Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, René M.; Psikuta, Agnes

    The assessment of the coupled heat and mass transfer in protective clothing is very complex as the layers of the system are a combination of fabric and air layers that constantly change with the movements of the wearer. The methods to measure these mechanisms become more and more sophisticated which increases the precision of models to predict the impact of heat and moisture fluxes on the human thermal physiology. The simulation of the human thermoregulatory mechanisms requires the combination of physical models representing the body (manikins) with physiological (mathematical) models. This chapter gives different examples of advanced measurement methods to characterize the thermal properties of fabrics and garments.

  17. Biomechanical Modeling and Measurement of Blast Injury and Hearing Protection Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    in animals and measuring mechanical properties of ear tissues after exposure; develop FE model of human ear to predict middle ear responses to blast... animal holder used in the blast testing chamber; 2) verifying the study protocol for electromyography (EMG) measurement of the stapedius muscle reflex...conditions. The specific objectives are to develop animal experimental protocols, prepare tools and surgical procedures for EMG measurement, complete

  18. Prostate cancer between prognosis and adequate/proper therapy

    PubMed Central

    Grozescu, T; Popa, F

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the indolent, non-invasive nature of most types of prostate cancer, as well as the simple fact that the disease seems more likely to be associated with age rather than with other factors (50% of men at the age of 50 and 80% at the age of 80 have it [1], with or without presenting any symptom), the big challenge of this clinical entity was to determine severity indicators (so far insufficient) to guide the physician towards an adequate attitude in the clinical setting. The risk of over-diagnosing and over-treating many prostate cancer cases (indicated by all the major European and American studies) is real and poses many question marks. The present paper was meant to deliver new research data and to reset the clinical approach in prostate cancer cases. PMID:28255369

  19. Deep Phosphoproteomic Measurements Pinpointing Drug Induced Protective Mechanisms in Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chengli; Gao, Jing; Zhou, Yanting; Chen, Xiangling; Xiao, Ruoxuan; Zheng, Jing; Liu, Yansheng; Zhou, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurological disorder that impairs the living quality of old population and even life spans. New compounds have shown potential inneuroprotective effects in AD, such as GFKP-19, a 2-pyrrolidone derivative which has been proved to enhance the memory of dysmnesia mouse. The molecular mechanisms remain to be established for these drug candidates. Large-scale phosphoproteomic approach has been evolved rapidly in the last several years, which holds the potential to provide a useful toolkit to understand cellular signaling underlying drug effects. To establish and test such a method, we accurately analyzed the deep quantitative phosphoproteome of the neuro-2a cells treated with and without GFKP-19 using triple SILAC labeling. A total of 14,761 Class I phosphosites were quantified between controls, damaged, and protected conditions using the high resolution mass spectrometry, with a decent inter-mass spectrometer reproducibility for even subtle regulatory events. Our data suggests that GFKP-19 can reverse Aβ25−35 induced phosphorylation change in neuro-2a cells, and might protect the neuron system in two ways: firstly, it may decrease oxidative damage and inflammation induced by NO via down regulating the phosphorylation of nitric oxide synthase NOS1 at S847; Secondly, it may decrease tau protein phosphorylation through down-regulating the phosphorylation level of MAPK14 at T180. All mass spectrometry data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD005312. PMID:28066266

  20. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; P<0.01) and improved adequacy of received services (95.04% versus 83.8%; P=0.02). Conclusion The poor prenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  1. A FASTER METHOD OF MEASURING RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY FOR BETTER PROTECTION OF SWIMMER'S HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are used to monitor recreational water quality worldwide. Current methods of measuring FIB require at least 24-hours for visible bacterial colonies to grow. We previously reported that a faster method (< 2 hours) of measuring FI...

  2. Ecological foundations of measures to protect the hydrosphere against man-made pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Polikarpov, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    General problems of classification of pollutants, development of limits, and protection of the hydrosphere are discussed. Pollutants can be subdivided, first of all, into those involving energy and water. Sound and thermal vibrations, visible light, ultraviolet, and ionizing radiation, as well as shock factors of diverse origin producing breakage, trauma, and death of aquatic organisms are among the ''energy dependent'' pollutants. Man does not create fundamentally new energy-dependent pollutants, but merely adds to those in nature, by producing noise in power plants, shock waves in instantaneous to continuous--intensified or more often reduced, intensifying ultraviolet irradiation by progressive destruction of the ozone layer in the stratosphere, as well as ionizing radiation as a result of nuclear explosions and from nuclear reactors. Radioactive contaminants (fission and induced products) combine the properties of energy- and matter-dependent factors, namely, they are emitters of ionizing radiation and may act as environment-disturbing chemical elements. (JMT)

  3. Report: Measuring the Impact of the Food Quality Protection Act: Challenges and Opportunities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2006-P-00028, August 1, 2006. The EPA OIG found that OPP has primarily measured its success and the impact of FQPA by adherence to its reregistration schedule rather than by reductions in risk to children’s health.

  4. *A FASTER METHOD OF MEASURING RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY FOR BETTER PROTECTION OF SWIMMER'S HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously reported that a faster method (< 2 hours) of measuring fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), based on Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (QPCR), was predictive of swimming associated gastrointestinal illness. Using data from two additional beaches, we examined the re...

  5. Description of modular devices for the measurement of external dosimetry in radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Genicot, Jean Louis; Boogers, Eric; Van Iersel, Mark

    2015-04-01

    In 2002 the Group of Radiation Dosimetry and Calibration of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN) has developed an experimental device based on the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) working with Al2O3:C detectors (TLD-500 and Luxel) stimulated with an argon laser. A set of devices made from different modules have been developed to permit external dosimetry measurements with thermoluminescence (TL) and OSL techniques under different conditions. This study describes these measurement devices that can be made with these modules and some of the characteristics of the different systems. These devices present several advantages in terms of measurement possibilities: a small number of modules allow the use of different detection materials (Al2O3:C, BeO, quartz electronic components and tiles) and different measurement methods (TL, CW-OSL and pulsed OSL). Some applications are commented.

  6. Protecting the autonomy of states to enact tobacco control measures under trade and investment agreements.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Andrew; Sheargold, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    Since the adoption of the WHO's WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, governments have been pursuing progressively stronger and more wide-reaching tobacco control measures. In response, tobacco companies are frequently using international trade and investment agreements as tools to challenge domestic tobacco control measures. Several significant new trade and investment agreements that some fear may provide new legal avenues to the tobacco industry to challenge health measures are currently under negotiation, including the Trans-Pacific Partnership (a 12 party agreement of Asia-Pacific regional countries) and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (an agreement between the USA and the European Union). This commentary examines different options for treaty provisions that the parties could employ in these agreements to minimise legal risks relating to tobacco control measures. It recommends that parties take a comprehensive approach, combining provisions that minimise the potential costs of litigation with provisions that increase the likelihood of a state successfully defending tobacco control measures in such litigation.

  7. Implementation of a complex of measures to fulfill the planetary protection requirements of the ExoMars-2016 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamidullina, Natalia; Novikova, Nataliya; Deshevaya, Elena; Orlov, Oleg; Guridov, Alexander; Zakharenko, Dmitry; Zaytseva, Olga

    2016-07-01

    The major purpose of the planetary protection program in the ExoMars-2016 mission is to forestall Mars contamination by terrestrial microorganisms. Since Martian descent module is not intended for biological experiments, ExoMars-2016 mission falls under COSPAR category IVa. Within the joint project co-sponsored by ESA and Roscosmos the European side holds full responsibility for ensuring a prescribed level of SC microbiological purity, while the Russian side is charged with compliance of the launch services provided on Baikonur technical complex with the planetary protection requirements that is, specifically, prevention of SC recontamination. To this end, a complex of measures was executed to control microbial contamination of cosmodrome facilities on the prescribed level which included: - regular decontamination of clean rooms using an effective disinfectant and impulse ultraviolet radiation that created favorable conditions for reliable functioning of the ESA clean tent, - replacement of airline filters in the Thermal Conditioning Unit (TCU) air duct for SC conditioning with pure air. The results of microbiological tests performed in the period of 2015 - 2016 lead to the conclusion that the Baikonur clean rooms (ISO class 8), TCU air ducts and Air Thermal Control System (ATCS) at launch site are ready for the launch campaign and that the Russian side fulfilled the planetary protection requirements of the ExoMars-2016 mission.

  8. Reflectance measurement using digital camera and a protecting dome with built in light source.

    PubMed

    Välisuo, Petri; Harju, Toni; Alander, Jarmo

    2011-08-01

    The reflectance of the skin reveals the chemical and physical changes of the skin as well as many metabolic changes. The reflectance measurement is an important method for medical diagnosis, follow-up and screening. This article concentrates on designing and validating an imaging system, based on a digital camera. The proposed system can measure the reflectance of the skin with high spatial and currently four channel spectral resolution, in the range of 450 nm to 980 nm. The accuracy of the system is determined by imaging a colour checker board and comparing the obtained values with both given values and spectrometer measurements. The diffuse interreflections of both, the integrating sphere and the lighting dome of the imaging system, is compensated with a correction factor. The accuracy of the proposed system is only slightly weaker than the spectrometer. The imaging system characteristics are independent of the camera characteristics.

  9. Systemic Crisis of Civilization: In Search for Adequate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khozin, Grigori

    In December 1972 a jumbo jet crashed in the Florida Everglades with the loss of 101 lives. The pilot, distracted by a minor malfunction, failed to note until too late the warning signal that - correctly - indicated an impending disaster. His sudden, astonished cry of Hey, what happening here? were his last words 1. Three decades after this tragic episode, as the Humankind approaches the threshold of the third Millennium, the problem of adequate reaction to warning signals of different nature and of distinguishing minor malfunctions in everyday life of society, in economy and technology as well as in evolution of biosphere from grave threats to the world community and the phenomenon of life on our planet remains crucial to human survival and the future of Civilization. Rational use of knowledge and technology available to the world community remains in this context the corner stone of discussions on the destiny of the intelligent life both on the planet Earth and in the Universe (the fact of intelligent life in the Universe is to be detected by the Humankind)…

  10. DARHT -- an adequate EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    In April 1996 the US District Court in Albuquerque ruled that the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), prepared by the Los Alamos Area Office, US Department of Energy (DOE), was adequate. The DARHT EIS had been prepared in the face of a lawsuit in only 10 months, a third of the time usually allotted for a DOE EIS, and for only a small fraction of the cost of a typical DOE EIS, and for only a small fraction of the cost of a typical DOE EIS. It subject was the first major facility to be built in decades for the DOE nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. It was the first EIS to be prepared for a proposal at DOE`s Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1979, and the first ever prepared by the Los Alamos Area Office. Much of the subject matter was classified. The facility had been specially designed to minimize impacts to a nearby prehistoric Native American ruin, and extensive consultation with American Indian Pueblos was required. The week that the draft EIS was published Laboratory biologists identified a previously unknown pair of Mexican spotted owls in the immediate vicinity of the project, bringing into play the consultation requirements of the Endangered Species Act. In spite of these obstacles, the resultant DARHT EIS was reviewed by the court and found to meet all statutory and regulatory requirements; the court praised the treatment of the classified material which served as a basis for the environmental analysis.

  11. Dermal Exposure Associated with Occupational End Use of Pesticides and the Role of Protective Measures

    PubMed Central

    MacFarlane, Ewan; Carey, Renee; Keegel, Tessa; El-Zaemay, Sonia; Fritschi, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational end users of pesticides may experience bodily absorption of the pesticide products they use, risking possible health effects. The purpose of this paper is to provide a guide for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers working in the field of agricultural health or other areas where occupational end use of pesticides and exposure issues are of interest. Methods This paper characterizes the health effects of pesticide exposure, jobs associated with pesticide use, pesticide-related tasks, absorption of pesticides through the skin, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) for reducing exposure. Conclusions Although international and national efforts to reduce pesticide exposure through regulatory means should continue, it is difficult in the agricultural sector to implement engineering or system controls. It is clear that use of PPE does reduce dermal pesticide exposure but compliance among the majority of occupationally exposed pesticide end users appears to be poor. More research is needed on higher-order controls to reduce pesticide exposure and to understand the reasons for poor compliance with PPE and identify effective training methods. PMID:24106643

  12. School Sun-Protection Policies: Measure Development and Assessments in 2 Regions of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; French, Simone A.; Buller, Mary K.; Ashley, Jeff L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2002, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that schools adopt policies that reduce exposure of children to ultraviolet radiation to prevent skin cancer. We report here the development of a school sun-safety policy measure and baseline descriptive statistics from the assessment of written policies collected…

  13. [Measure of sunscreen cream transmittance in UV wave range and analysis of sun protection effect].

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiao-Hua; Xiao, Duo

    2013-11-01

    SPF and PA index present the resistance ability of sunscreen to UVA (Ultraviolet A) and UVB (Ultraviolet B) respectively. The present article focuses on the research on the relationship between ultraviolet transmittance and sunscreen ability based on definition of sunscreen efficiency and a simple and significant result was obtained by deducing. The technique we applied is spectral analysis dealing with ethanol-ethyl ether mixed solvent by ultraviolet and visible light spectrophotometer. We measured the UVA and UVB transmittance of 69 common sunscreen samples. The measurement result shows that spectral analysis method could differentiate sunscreens with different SPF and PA and identify whether the parameter value marked is accurate. So, an effective method is provided for the measurement of SPF and PA value. If different types of ultraviolet absorbent or UV scattering dose is added in sunscreen, the authors can distinguish them easily through the shape of the transmittance curve. In our sunscreen samples measured, domestic brands and imported brands are classified into two categories. By comparing the experimental results, the authors found that the domestic sunscreen and import sunscreen have no significant difference in sun block efficiency as long as the authors adopt the product of qualified manufacturer.

  14. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 192 - Criteria for Cathodic Protection and Determination of Measurements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... negative (cathodic) voltage of at least 0.85 volt, with reference to a saturated copper-copper sulfate half... at voltages in excess of 1.20 volts as measured with reference to a copper-copper sulfate half cell... excess of 8. C. Copper structures. A minimum negative (cathodic) polarization voltage shift of...

  15. BC measurement activities at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    Black carbon (BC)--sometimes referred to as soot, char, or elemental carbon (EC)--is a refractory form of light-absorbing carbon produced from incomplete combustion. Accurate measurement of BC in combustion source emissions is important for understanding anthropogenic climate for...

  16. Radiation Protection. Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Air- radon 222. A proposed ISO standard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, G.; Woods, M.

    2009-04-01

    Radon isotopes (222, 220, 219) are radioactive gases produced by the disintegration of radium isotopes 226, 224 and 223, which are decay products of uranium238, thorium232 and uranium235 respectively. All are found in the earth's crust. Solid elements, also radioactive, are produced by radon disintegration. Radon is classed as a rare gas in the periodic table of elements, along with helium, argon, neon, krypton and xenon. When disintegrating, radon emits alpha particles and generates solid decay products, which are also radioactive (polonium, bismuth, lead etc.). The potential danger of radon lies in its solid decay products rather than the gas itself. Whether or not they are attached aerosols, radon decay products can be inhaled and deposited in the bronchopulmonary tree to varying depths according to their size. Radon today is considered to be the main source of human exposure to natural radiation. At the international level, radon accounts for 52% of global average exposure to natural radiation. Isotope 222 (48%) is far more significant than isotope 220 (4%), whilst isotope 219 is considered as negligible. Exposure to radon varies considerably from one region to another, depending on factors such as weather conditions, and underlying geology. Activity concentration can therefore vary by a factor of 10 or even a 100 from one period of time to the next and from one area to another. There are many ways of measuring the radon 222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products. Measuring techniques fall into three categories: - spot measurement methods; continuous measurement; integrated measurement. The proposed ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) document suggests guidelines for measuring radon222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products in a free (environment) and confined (buildings) atmosphere. The target date for availability of

  17. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion.

    PubMed

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-18

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery.

  18. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion

    PubMed Central

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. PMID:25621216

  19. Are Vancomycin Trough Concentrations Adequate for Optimal Dosing?

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Gilmer; Jones, Brenda; Jelliffe, Roger W.; Drusano, George L.; Rodvold, Keith A.; Lodise, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The current vancomycin therapeutic guidelines recommend the use of only trough concentrations to manage the dosing of adults with Staphylococcus aureus infections. Both vancomycin efficacy and toxicity are likely to be related to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). We assembled richly sampled vancomycin pharmacokinetic data from three studies comprising 47 adults with various levels of renal function. With Pmetrics, the nonparametric population modeling package for R, we compared AUCs estimated from models derived from trough-only and peak-trough depleted versions of the full data set and characterized the relationship between the vancomycin trough concentration and AUC. The trough-only and peak-trough depleted data sets underestimated the true AUCs compared to the full model by a mean (95% confidence interval) of 23% (11 to 33%; P = 0.0001) and 14% (7 to 19%; P < 0.0001), respectively. In contrast, using the full model as a Bayesian prior with trough-only data allowed 97% (93 to 102%; P = 0.23) accurate AUC estimation. On the basis of 5,000 profiles simulated from the full model, among adults with normal renal function and a therapeutic AUC of ≥400 mg · h/liter for an organism for which the vancomycin MIC is 1 mg/liter, approximately 60% are expected to have a trough concentration below the suggested minimum target of 15 mg/liter for serious infections, which could result in needlessly increased doses and a risk of toxicity. Our data indicate that adjustment of vancomycin doses on the basis of trough concentrations without a Bayesian tool results in poor achievement of maximally safe and effective drug exposures in plasma and that many adults can have an adequate vancomycin AUC with a trough concentration of <15 mg/liter. PMID:24165176

  20. Radiation Protection in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, H. E.

    1964-01-01

    Factors that may reduce the dose of radiation, from diagnostic and therapeutic x-ray procedures, to the patient and to the occupational and non-occupational worker are outlined. Suitable basic radiation measuring apparatus is described. It is recommended that, in diagnostic radiography, relatively high kilovoltage, proper cones, collimation and adequate filtration be used. Some specific recommendations are made concerning fluoroscopic, photoroentgen and portable x-ray examinations. Film monitoring of personnel is advisable. Examples are given of protective devices to lessen the dosage to the occupational worker. It is the responsibility of the radiologist or physician in charge to ensure that the x-ray equipment is safe to operate and the radiation dose to the patient is kept to a minimum. The roentgen output for all radiographic examinations should be known by the responsible user. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:14199820

  1. Narita Target Heart Rate Equation Underestimates the Predicted Adequate Exercise Level in Sedentary Young Boys

    PubMed Central

    Siahkouhian, Marefat; Khodadadi, Davar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Optimal training intensity and the adequate exercise level for physical fitness is one of the most important interests of coaches and sports physiologists. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the Narita et al target heart rate equation for the adequate exercise training level in sedentary young boys. Methods Forty two sedentary young boys (19.07±1.16 years) undertook a blood lactate transition threshold maximal treadmill test to volitional exhaustion with continuous respiratory gas measurements according to the Craig method. The anaerobic threshold (AT) of the participants then was calculated using the Narita target heart rate equation. Results Hopkin's spreadsheet to obtain confidence limit and the chance of the true difference between gas measurements and Narita target heart rate equation revealed that the Narita equation most likely underestimates the measured anaerobic threshold in sedentary young boys (168.76±15 vs. 130.08±14.36) (Difference ±90% confidence limit: 38.1±18). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed a poor agreement between the criterion method and Narita equation (ICC= 0.03). Conclusion According to the results, the Narita equation underestimates the measured AT. It seems that the Narita equation is a good predictor of aerobic not AT which can be investigated in the future studies. PMID:24427475

  2. Radiation protection measurements around a 12 MeV mobile dedicated IORT accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Soriani, Antonella; Felici, Giuseppe; Fantini, Mario; Paolucci, Massimiliano; Borla, Oscar; Evangelisti, Giovanna; Benassi, Marcello; Strigari, Lidia

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate radioprotection issues that must be addressed when dedicated accelerators for intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) are used in operating rooms. Recently, a new version of a mobile IORT accelerator (LIAC Sordina SpA, Italy) with 12 MeV electron beam has been implemented. This energy is necessary in some specific pathology treatments to allow a better coverage of thick lesions. At an electron energy of 10 MeV, leakage and scattered x-ray radiation (stray radiation) coming from the accelerator device and patient must be considered. If the energy is greater than 10 MeV, the x-ray component will increase; however, the most meaningful change should be the addition of neutron background. Therefore, radiation exposure of personnel during the IORT procedure needs to be carefully evaluated. Methods: In this study, stray x-ray radiation was measured and characterized in a series of spherical projections by means of an ion chamber survey meter. To simulate the patient during all measurements, a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab phantom with volume 30x30x15 cm{sup 3} and density 1.19 g/cm{sup 3} was used. The PMMA phantom was placed along the central axis of the beam in order to absorb the electron beams and the tenth value layer (TVL) and half value layer (HVL) of scattered radiation (at 0 deg., 90 deg., and 180 deg. scattering angles) were also measured at 1 m of distance from the phantom center. Neutron measurements were performed using passive bubble dosimeters and a neutron probe, specially designed to evaluate ambient dose equivalent H{sup *}(10). Results: The x-ray equivalent dose measured at 1 m along the beam axis at 12 MeV was 260 {mu}Sv/Gy. The value measured at 1 m at 90 deg. scattering angle was 25 {mu}Sv/Gy. The HVL and TVL values were 1.1 and 3.5 cm of lead at 0 deg., and 0.4 and 1 cm at 90 deg., respectively. The highest equivalent dose of fast neutrons was found to be at the surface of the phantom on the central

  3. Textile protection of snow and ice: Measured and simulated effects on the energy- and mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olefs, Marc; Lehning, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Measurements and simulations of the energy fluxes and mass changes of an artificially covered snow and ice surface (geotextile material) and a reference plot within an Austrian glacier ski resort are presented and compared. A modified version of the snow cover model SNOWPACK is used to successfully reproduce the artificially compacted and the additionally covered snow cover in a physically based way. Supplementary measurements of crucial material properties of the 0.0045 m thin geotextile serve as model input as well. Results indicate that the shortwave reflectivity of the covers is responsible for half the performance (47%). Thermal insulation of the material (14%) and a negative latent heat flux due to evaporation of precipitation from the cover surface (10%) have almost the same contribution. An assumed layer of air between the cover and the snow and ice surface (thickness 0.075 m to 0.12 m) adds the rest, which is at the upper limit of observations and may therefore also compensate for model errors. This generally explains the high performance of the method in glacier skiing resorts and, most importantly, an altitude dependant application limit of the method: the method becomes less effective at lower altitudes, where sensible heat fluxes become more important compared to short wave radiation.

  4. [Methods of analysis of protective measures in agriculture regarding radioactively contaminated land: evaluation of the effectiveness, intervention levels and comparison of different countermeasures].

    PubMed

    Iatsalo, B I; Aleksakhin, R M

    1997-01-01

    Methodological aspects of the analysis of protective measures in agriculture in the long-term period of liquidation of the consequences of a nuclear accident are considered. Examples of the estimations of countermeasure effectiveness with the use of the cost-benefit analysis, as well as methods of the estimation of intervention levels and examples of a comparison of various protective measures with the use of several criteria of effectiveness are discussed.

  5. Insulator-protected mechanically controlled break junctions for measuring single-molecule conductance in aqueous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthusubramanian, N.; Galan, E.; Maity, C.; Eelkema, R.; Grozema, F. C.; van der Zant, H. S. J.

    2016-07-01

    We present a method to fabricate insulated gold mechanically controlled break junctions (MCBJ) by coating the metal with a thin layer of aluminum oxide using plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition. The Al2O3 thickness deposited on the MCBJ devices was varied from 2 to 15 nm to test the suppression of leakage currents in deionized water and phosphate buffered saline. Junctions coated with a 15 nm thick oxide layer yielded atomically sharp electrodes and negligible conductance counts in the range of 1 to 10-4 G0 (1 G0 = 77 μS), where single-molecule conductances are commonly observed. The insulated devices were used to measure the conductance of an amphiphilic oligophenylene ethynylene derivative in deionized water.

  6. Measurement of skin dose variations produced by a silicon-based protective dressing in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Butson, Martin J; Cheung, Tsang; Yu, Peter K N; Metcalfe, Peter

    2002-06-07

    Variations in skin dose caused by a silicon-based burn dressing used in radiotherapy during treatment have been investigated. Measurement of these variations in skin dose has been achieved using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and Gafchromic film. For a 6 MV x-ray beam results have shown that an approximately 0.4 mm thick silicon mesh dressing increases the average surface dose by approximately 12.5% to 14% of the maximum and average dose at 1 mm depth and by 4% to 6% of the maximum for field sizes ranging from 5 cm x 5 cm up to 40 cm x 40 cm at 100 cm source to surface distance (SSD). The radiation effective thickness of the silicon dressing was calculated to be 0.5 mm +/- 0.05 mm water equivalent. TLDs of various thicknesses provide point-dose assessment and Gafchromic film can provide a detailed two-dimensional dose map with a high spatial resolution. Results have shown that a large variation in skin dose is delivered under the dressing depending on the amount of material directly above it as defined by the silicon mesh outline.

  7. Measurement of vibrations and evaluation of protective gloves for work with hand-held power tools in industrial settings.

    PubMed

    Milosevic, Matija; McConville, Kristiina M V

    2007-01-01

    This study considers the use of hand-held power tools and the exposure of a large number of employees to hand-arm vibrations in work settings as well as the harmful effects that such exposure has on health and safety. The major objective of the project was the development of a diagnostic device for the detection and monitoring of the vibrations produced during work activities in a natural working environment and to analyze the impact of the vibrations on workers during different work operations. The developed device for vibration monitoring is based on the latest generation MEMS tri-axis accelerometer with a wireless link with the PC station. This study demonstrates the use of the device in evaluating the level of protection that gloves provide concerning the level of vibrations during work operations. The initial evaluation shows that the proposed solution provides an effective multifunctional, low-cost diagnostic device for vibration measurement in natural work settings. Preliminary results indicate that the developed device could be used for health and safety studies, evaluation of protective equipment, and ongoing monitoring in a natural working environment, and in this way may lead to more effective prevention and management of the risks associated with exposure to workplace vibrations.

  8. Protective Action Guides (PAGs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Protective Action Guide (PAG) manual contains radiation dose guidelines that would trigger public safety measures. EPA developed Protective Action Guides to help responders plan for radiation emergencies.

  9. Methodological approach to EMF protection standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchia, Paolo

    2010-04-01

    Biological and health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) have been investigated for many years. Exposure standards have been developed internationally, that provide adequate protection against all known adverse effects of exposure to EMF. The guidelines developed by the International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) are widely recognized and have formed the basis for national regulations in several countries. Concerns for hypothesized, but unproven, long-term effects of chronic exposure to low-level EMFs have created a demand for precautionary measures beyond the standards for recognized, acute effects. However, such measure should be separate from exposure standards, and adopted with special care to avoid undermining the credibility of science-based guidelines, and of health protection agencies.

  10. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Measures progress separately for reading/language arts and for mathematics; (6) Is the same for all public... calculating AYP for schools, LEAs, and the State, a State must, consistent with § 200.7(a), include the scores of all students with disabilities. (2) With respect to scores based on alternate or modified...

  11. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Measures progress separately for reading/language arts and for mathematics; (6) Is the same for all public... mathematics; and (ii) The proficient and advanced scores of students with disabilities based on the modified... assessed in reading/language arts and in mathematics. (3) A State's or LEA's number of proficient...

  12. Risk assessments for exposure of deployed military personnel to insecticides and personal protective measures used for disease-vector management.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Paula A; Peterson, Robert K D; Davis, Ryan S

    2007-10-01

    Infectious diseases are problematic for deployed military forces throughout the world, and, historically, more military service days have been lost to insect-vectored diseases than to combat. Because of the limitations in efficacy and availability of both vaccines and therapeutic drugs, vector management often is the best tool that military personnel have against most vector-borne pathogens. However, the use of insecticides may raise concerns about the safety of their effects on the health of the military personnel exposed to them. Therefore, our objective was to use risk assessment methodologies to evaluate health risks to deployed U.S. military personnel from vector management tactics. Our conservative tier-1, quantitative risk assessment focused on acute, subchronic, and chronic exposures and cancer risks to military personnel after insecticide application and use of personal protective measures in different scenarios. Exposures were estimated for every scenario, chemical, and pathway. Acute, subchronic, and chronic risks were assessed using a margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Our MOE was the ratio of a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) to an estimated exposure. MOEs were greater than the levels of concern (LOCs) for all surface residual and indoor space spraying exposures, except acute dermal exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin. MOEs were greater than the LOCs for all chemicals in the truck-mounted ultra-low-volume (ULV) exposure scenario. The aggregate cancer risk for permethrin exceeded 1 x 10(-6), but more realistic exposure refinements would reduce the cancer risk below that value. Overall, results indicate that health risks from exposures to insecticides and personal protective measures used by military personnel are low.

  13. Protective actions as a factor in power reactor siting

    SciTech Connect

    Gant, K.S.; Schweitzer, M.

    1984-06-01

    This report examines the relationship between a power reactor site and the ease of implementing protective actions (emergency measures a serious accident). Limiting populating density around a reactor lowers the number of people at risk but cannot assure that all protective actions are possible for those who reside near the reactor. While some protective measures can always be taken (i.e., expedient respiratory protection, sheltering) the ability to evacuate the area or find adequate shelter may depend on the characteristics of the area near the reactor site. Generic siting restrictions designed to identify and eliminate these site-specific constraints would be difficult to formulate. The authors suggest identifying possible impediments to protective actions at a proposed reactor site and addressing these problems in the emergency plans. 66 references, 6 figures, 8 tables.

  14. Skin protection for hairdressers.

    PubMed

    Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte

    2007-01-01

    The application of protective creams in the hairdressing trade forms part of a complex concept for the prevention of occupational skin disorders. To date, no comparative controlled intervention studies have been carried out using different skin-protective creams. Previously published skin protection plans concerning barrier creams for the hairdressing trade are fairly general or rudimentary, reflecting our still limited knowledge on the subject. Bioengineering studies have even demonstrated a paradoxical effect of a certain skin-protective foam designed for hairdressers. Regarding other barrier creams, a certain protective effect could however be shown in studies concerning exposure to wetness and detergents. Pre-exposition skin protection seems to be of particular relevance. Thus, in principle, the regular application of adequate skin protection creams can be recommended in the hairdressing trade, although the protective effect should not be overvalued.

  15. Evaluation of Grounding Impedance of a Complex Lightning Protective System Using Earth Ground Clamp Measurements and ATP Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, Carlos T.; Rakov, V. A.; Mata, Angel G.

    2010-01-01

    A new Lightning Protection System (LPS) was designed and built at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B), at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, which consists of a catenary wire system (at a height of about 181 meters above ground level) supported by three insulators installed atop three towers in a triangular configuration. A total of nine downconductors (each about 250 meters long, on average) are connected to the catenary wire system. Each of the nine downconductors is connected to a 7.62-meter radius circular counterpoise conductor with six equally spaced 6-meter long vertical grounding rods. Grounding requirements at LC39B call for all underground and above ground metallic piping, enclosures, raceways, and cable trays, within 7.62 meters of the counterpoise, to be bounded to the counterpoise, which results in a complex interconnected grounding system, given the many metallic piping, raceways, and cable trays that run in multiple direction around LC39B. The complexity of this grounding system makes the fall of potential method, which uses multiple metallic rods or stakes, unsuitable for measuring the grounding impedances of the downconductors. To calculate the downconductors grounding impedance, an Earth Ground Clamp (a stakeless grounding resistance measuring device) and a LPS Alternative Transient Program (ATP) model are used. The Earth Ground Clamp is used to measure the loop impedance plus the grounding impedance of each downconductor and the ATP model is used to calculate the loop impedance of each downconductor circuit. The grounding impedance of the downconductors is then calculated by subtracting the ATP calculated loop impedances from the Earth Ground Clamp measurements.

  16. Looking for an adequate quality criterion for depth coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerbiriou, Paul; Boisson, Guillaume

    2010-02-01

    This paper deals with 3DTV, more especially with 3D content transmission using disparity-based format. In 3DTV, the problem of measuring the stereoscopic quality of a 3D content remains open. Depth signal degradations due to 3DTV transmission will induce new types of artifacts in the final rendered views. Whereas we have some experience regarding the issue of texture coding, the issue of depth coding consequences is rather unknown. In this paper we focus on that particular issue. For that purpose we considered LDV contents (Layered Depth Video) and performed various encoding of their depth information - i.e. depth maps plus depth occlusions layers - using MPEG-4 Part 10 AVC/H.264 MVC. We investigate the impact of depth coding artifacts on the quality of the final views. To this end, we compute the correlation between depth coding errors with the quality of the synthesized views. The criteria used for synthesized views include MSE and structural criteria such as SSIM. The criteria used for depth maps include also a topological measure in the 3D space (the Hausdorff distance). Correlations between the two criteria sets are presented. Trends in function of quantization are also discussed.

  17. Combining control measures for more effective management of fisheries under uncertainty: quotas, effort limitation and protected areas

    PubMed Central

    Stefansson, Gunnar; Rosenberg, Andrew A.

    2005-01-01

    We consider combinations of three types of control measures for the management of fisheries when the input information for policy decisions is uncertain. The methods considered include effort controls, catch quotas and area closures. We simulated a hypothetical fishery loosely based on the Icelandic cod fishery, using a simple spatially explicit dynamic model. We compared the performance with respect to conserving the resource and economic return for each type of control measure alone and in combination. In general, combining more than one type of primary direct control on fishing provides a greater buffer to uncertainty than any single form of fishery control alone. Combining catch quota control with a large closed area is a most effective system for reducing the risk of stock collapse and maintaining both short and long-term economic performance. Effort controls can also be improved by adding closed areas to the management scheme. We recommend that multiple control methods be used wherever possible and that closed areas should be used to buffer uncertainty. To be effective, these closed areas must be large and exclude all principal gears to provide real protection from fishing mortality. PMID:15713593

  18. A Dry Membrane Protection Technique to Allow Surface Acoustic Wave Biosensor Measurements of Biological Model Membrane Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Reder-Christ, Katrin; Schmitz, Patrick; Bota, Marian; Gerber, Ursula; Falkenstein-Paul, Hildegard; Fuss, Christian; Enachescu, Marius; Bendas, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Model membrane approaches have attracted much attention in biomedical sciences to investigate and simulate biological processes. The application of model membrane systems for biosensor measurements is partly restricted by the fact that the integrity of membranes critically depends on the maintenance of an aqueous surrounding, while various biosensors require a preconditioning of dry sensors. This is for example true for the well-established surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensor SAM®5 blue. Here, a simple drying procedure of sensor-supported model membranes is introduced using the protective disaccharide trehalose. Highly reproducible model membranes were prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, transferred to SAW sensors and supplemented with a trehalose solution. Membrane rehydration after dry incorporation into the SAW device becomes immediately evident by phase changes. Reconstituted model membranes maintain their full functionality, as indicated by biotin/avidin binding experiments. Atomic force microscopy confirmed the morphological invariability of dried and rehydrated membranes. Approximating to more physiological recognition phenomena, the site-directed immobilization of the integrin VLA-4 into the reconstituted model membrane and subsequent VCAM-1 ligand binding with nanomolar affinity were illustrated. This simple drying procedure is a novel way to combine the model membrane generation by Langmuir-Blodgett technique with SAW biosensor measurements, which extends the applicability of SAM®5 blue in biomedical sciences. PMID:24064603

  19. Which kind of psychometrics is adequate for patient satisfaction questionnaires?

    PubMed Central

    Konerding, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The construction and psychometric analysis of patient satisfaction questionnaires are discussed. The discussion is based upon the classification of multi-item questionnaires into scales or indices. Scales consist of items that describe the effects of the latent psychological variable to be measured, and indices consist of items that describe the causes of this variable. Whether patient satisfaction questionnaires should be constructed and analyzed as scales or as indices depends upon the purpose for which these questionnaires are required. If the final aim is improving care with regard to patients’ preferences, then these questionnaires should be constructed and analyzed as indices. This implies two requirements: 1) items for patient satisfaction questionnaires should be selected in such a way that the universe of possible causes of patient satisfaction is covered optimally and 2) Cronbach’s alpha, principal component analysis, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and analyses with models from item response theory, such as the Rasch Model, should not be applied for psychometric analyses. Instead, multivariate regression analyses with a direct rating of patient satisfaction as the dependent variable and the individual questionnaire items as independent variables should be performed. The coefficients produced by such an analysis can be applied for selecting the best items and for weighting the selected items when a sum score is determined. The lower boundaries of the validity of the unweighted and the weighted sum scores can be estimated by their correlations with the direct satisfaction rating. While the first requirement is fulfilled in the majority of the previous patient satisfaction questionnaires, the second one deviates from previous practice. Hence, if patient satisfaction is actually measured with the final aim of improving care with regard to patients’ preferences, then future practice should be changed so that the second

  20. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  1. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  2. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  3. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  4. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  5. Neutron field measurements of the CRNA OB26 irradiator using a Bonner sphere spectrometer for radiation protection purposes.

    PubMed

    Mazrou, H; Allab, M

    2012-08-01

    The present work deals with the Bonner sphere spectrometer (BSS) measurements performed, to support the authors' Monte-Carlo calculations, to estimate accurately the main characteristics of the neutron field of the (241)Am-Be-based OB26 irradiator acquired for radiation protection purposes by the Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers. The measurements were performed at a reference irradiation position selected at 150 cm from the geometrical centre of the neutron source. The spectrometric system in use is based on a central spherical (3)He thermal neutron proportional counter. The response matrix of the present spectrometer has been taken to be similar to the original Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) (Braunschweig, Germany) BSS's response matrix, with a five bins per decade energy group structure, as there is no significant difference in the BSS's physical characteristics. Thereafter, the authors' BSS measurements were used together with MCNP5 results to unfold the neutron spectrum by means of MAXED and GRAVEL computer codes from the U.M.G. 3.3 package, developed at PTB. Besides, sensitivity analysis has been performed to test the consistency of the unfolding procedure. It reveals that no significant discrepancy was observed in the total neutron fluence and total ambient dose values following the perturbation of some pertinent unfolding parameters except for the case where a 10 bins energy structure was assumed for the guess spectrum. In this latter case, a 5 % difference was observed in the ambient dose equivalent compared with the reference case. Finally, a comparative study performed between different counting systems together with MCNP5 and predictive formulas results shows that they were globally satisfactory, highlighting thereby the relevance of the unfolding procedure and the reliability of the obtained results.

  6. Soil Protection measures based on the analysis if sediment sources in a commercial farm at the Guadalquivir Valley (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Enrique; Brígido, Consuelo; Herrera, Pascual; Migallón, Jose Ignacio; Taguas, Encarnación V.

    2016-04-01

    High soil losses are associated with agricultural areas dedicated to traditional crops in Spain (olive, grapevine, almond and sunflower, among others) and they caused by interacting drivers such as frequent intense events, steep/hilly slopes and unsuitable managements (De Santisteban et al., 2006). These crops are essential for the Spanish economy but at the same time, they constitute important areas of soil degradation. This work has been promoted by a farm owner interested in improving the sustainability of his farm as well as solving traffic problems derived from a gully. An analysis based on a modeling approach and field measurements was carried out in order to diagnose the main sediment sources of a farm with traditional Mediterranean crops (sunflower and olives) and to propose actions for optimizing soil conservation efforts. Firstly, an environmental study to characterize meteorological and topographical features, soil properties and managements was performed. The farm was divided in different areas belonging to the same hydrological catchment, land-use and management. Secondly, splash and inter-rill erosion were evaluated in each spatial unit through the RUSLE model. Rills and gullies in the catchment were also measured by using orthophotographies and a tape in the field to calculate their corresponding sediment volume. Finally, a plan of soil protection measures was designed and presented to the owner who will apply the proposed actions, mainly cover crop seeding and construction of check dams. REFERENCES: De Santisteban, L. M., J. Casalí, and J. J. López. 2006. Assessing soil erosion rates in cultivated areas of Navarre (Spain). Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 31: 487-506.

  7. Determinants of compliance with anti-vectorial protective measures among non-immune travellers during missions to tropical Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of anti-vectorial malaria protective measures in travellers and expatriates is hampered by incorrect compliance. The objective of the present study was to identify the determinants of compliance with anti-vectorial protective measures (AVPMs) in this population that is particularly at risk because of their lack of immunity. Methods Compliance with wearing long clothing, sleeping under insecticide-impregnated bed nets (IIBNs) and using insect repellent was estimated and analysed by questionnaires administered to 2,205 French military travellers from 20 groups before and after short-term missions (approximately four months) in six tropical African countries (Senegal, Ivory Coast, Chad, Central African Republic, Gabon and Djibouti). For each AVPM, the association of "correct compliance" with individual and collective variables was investigated using random-effect mixed logistic regression models to take into account the clustered design of the study. Results The correct compliance rates were 48.6%, 50.6% and 18.5% for wearing long clothing, sleeping under bed nets and using repellents, respectively. Depending on the AVPM, correct compliance was significantly associated with the following factors: country, older than 24 years of age, management responsibilities, the perception of a personal malaria risk greater than that of other travellers, the occurrence of life events, early bedtime (i.e., before midnight), the type of stay (field operation compared to training), the absence of medical history of malaria, the absence of previous travel in malaria-endemic areas and the absence of tobacco consumption. There was no competition between compliance with the different AVPMs or between compliance with any AVPM and malaria chemoprophylaxis. Conclusion Interventions aimed at improving compliance with AVPMs should target young people without management responsibilities who are scheduled for non-operational activities in countries with high risk of

  8. Surface plasmon resonance measurements of plasma antibody avidity during primary and secondary responses to anthrax protective antigen.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Heather E; Stewart, Shelley M; Kepler, Thomas B; Sempowski, Gregory D; Alam, S Munir

    2014-02-01

    Establishment of humoral immunity against pathogens is dependent on events that occur in the germinal center and the subsequent induction of high-affinity neutralizing antibodies. Quantitative assays that allow monitoring of affinity maturation and duration of antibody responses can provide useful information regarding the efficacy of vaccines and adjuvants. Using an anthrax protective antigen (rPA) and alum model antigen/adjuvant system, we describe a methodology for monitoring antigen-specific serum antibody concentration and avidity by surface plasmon resonance during primary and secondary immune responses. Our analyses showed that following a priming dose in mice, rPA-specific antibody concentration and avidity increases over time and reaches a maximal response in about six weeks, but gradually declines in the absence of antigenic boost. Germinal center reactions were observed early with maximal development achieved during the primary response, which coincided with peak antibody avidity responses to primary immunization. Boosting with antigen resulted in a rapid increase in rPA-specific antibody concentration and five-fold increase in avidity, which was not dependent on sustained GC development. The described methodology couples surface plasmon resonance-based plasma avidity measurements with germinal center analysis and provides a novel way to monitor humoral responses that can play a role in facilitating vaccine and adjuvant development.

  9. Contact angle measurement - a reliable supportive method for screening water-resistance of ultraviolet-protecting products in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hagens, R; Mann, T; Schreiner, V; Barlag, H G; Wenck, H; Wittern, K-P; Mei, W

    2007-08-01

    Substantivity of sunscreen formulations is affected by the wash-out rate of ultraviolet-absorber and -reflector compounds in water. Water-resistance of sunscreen formulations is currently determined according to a standardized European Cosmetic Toiletry and Perfumery Association (COLIPA) protocol, encompassing the determination of a minimal erythemal dose before and after a defined immersion step in water. It can be supposed that the higher the wettability of a treated skin area, the higher is the wash-out rate of sunscreen compounds. This present report addresses the validity of determining the wettability of treated skin alone as a measure for the water-resistance of sunscreen products. The report addresses the robustness, accuracy and congruence of a recently developed wettability test, based on the measurement of the contact angle (CA) of a sessile water drop on treated skin areas. Contact angle data of 66 sunscreen formulations are compared with the corresponding results of 81 water-resistance tests, using the sun protection factor (SPF)/immersion/SPF method. Sunscreen products tested by the CA method were applied to the skin of the volar forearm of test subjects at a defined dose and drying-time, using a standardized application and recording device. Contact angles between a sessile water drop and skin were recorded by a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera and subjected to automatic contour analysis. Taking the SPF/immersion/SPF method as gold standard, accuracy parameters of the CA method were determined. By using an appropriate cut-off level of CAs, the CA method has a specificity and positive-predictive value of 100%, and turns out to be a reliable screening method to identify water-resistant formulations. Based on our findings, those formulations that give CAs above 30 degrees may be categorized water-proof without further testing by the COLIPA water-resistance method.

  10. Environmental Assessment for Force Protection Measures at the LaSalle Gate, Langley Air Force Base, Virginia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    FP standards, putting security personnel at risk. The guard house does not meet ballistic standards, and there is no physical barrier to mitigate...environmental consequences are anticipated. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 1 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 122 19a...terrorist attack. This is best accomplished by proper intelligence and adequate perimeter security . Presently, two of the three Langley AFB gate

  11. [Protective glasses. Personal eye protection for professional use].

    PubMed

    Eppig, T; Speck, A; Zelzer, B; Langenbucher, A

    2014-01-01

    Several activities in the occupational environment or in leisure time implicate an increased risk of eye injuries. Many injuries could be prevented by wearing adequate eye protection devices; however, the selection of appropriate eye protection devices requires considerations of different attributes in order to achieve a maximum of protection efficiency. This article provides an overview on the three basic types of eye protection device, introduces the classification regarding optical and protective properties and gives some additional advice on the selection of protective eyewear beyond the current standard regulations.

  12. Switching off angiogenic signalling: creating channelled constructs for adequate oxygen delivery in tissue engineered constructs.

    PubMed

    Cheema, U; Alekseeva, T; Abou-Neel, E A; Brown, R A

    2010-10-06

    A major question in biomimetic tissue engineering is how much of the structure/function of native vasculature needs to be reproduced for effective tissue perfusion. O2 supplied to cells in 3D scaffolds in vitro is initially dependent upon diffusion through the scaffold and cell consumption. Low O2 (3%) enhances specific cell behaviours, but where O2 is critically low (pathological hypoxia) cell survival becomes compromised. We measured real-time O2 in 3D scaffolds and introduced micro-channelled architecture to controllably increase delivery of O2 to cells and switch off the hypoxic response. Simple static micro-channelling gives adequate perfusion and can be used to control cell generated hypoxia-induced signalling.

  13. J-modulated ADEQUATE experiments using different kinds of refocusing pulses.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Christina M; Bermel, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    Owing to the recent developments concerning residual dipolar couplings (RDCs), the interest in methods for the accurate determination of coupling constants is renascenting. We intended to use the J-modulated ADEQUATE experiment by Kövér et al. for the measurement of (13)C - (13)C coupling constants at natural abundance. The use of adiabatic composite chirp pulses instead of the conventional 180 degrees pulses, which compensate for the offset dependence of (13)C 180 degrees pulses, led to irregularities of the line shapes in the indirect dimension causing deviations of the extracted coupling constants. This behaviour was attributed to coupling evolution, during the time of the adiabatic pulse (2 ms), in the J-modulation spin echo. The replacement of this pulse by different kinds of refocusing pulses indicated that a pair of BIPs (broadband inversion pulses), which behave only partially adiabatic, leads to correct line shapes and coupling constants conserving the good sensitivity obtained with adiabatic pulses.

  14. A new approach to measuring protein backbone protection with high spatial resolution using H/D exchange and electron capture dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Abzalimov, Rinat R.; Bobst, Cedric E.; Kaltashov, Igor A.

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate spatial resolution remains one of the most serious limitations of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS), especially when applied to larger proteins (over 30 kDa). Supplementing proteolytic fragmentation of the protein in solution with ion dissociation in the gas phase has been used successfully by several groups to obtain near-residue level resolution. However, the restrictions imposed by the LC/MS/MS mode of operation on the data acquisition time frame makes it difficult in many cases to obtain signal-to-noise ratio adequate for reliable assignment of the backbone amide protection levels at individual residues. This restriction is lifted in the present work by eliminating the LC separation step from the workflow and taking advantage of the high resolving power and dynamic range of a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT ICR MS). A residue-level resolution is demonstrated for a peptic fragment of a 37 kDa recombinant protein (N-lobe of human serum transferrin) using electron-capture dissociation as an ion fragmentation tool. The absence of hydrogen scrambling in the gas phase prior to ion dissociation is verified using redundant HDX MS data generated by FT ICR MS. The backbone protection pattern generated by direct HDX MS/MS is in excellent agreement with the known crystal structure of the protein, but also provides information on conformational dynamics, which is not available from the static X-ray structure. PMID:23978257

  15. Offshore platform cathodic protection retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Turnipseed, S.P.

    1996-10-01

    Cathodic protection (CP) is the primary technique used for underwater corrosion control on the majority of offshore steel structures. Offshore platforms are often kept in service far beyond their original design life. Refurbishment of the CP system is required when adequate protection can no longer be maintained. Various offshore platform CP retrofit designs are discussed.

  16. Temperature Measurement Inside Protective Headgear: Comparison With Core Temperatures and Indicators of Physiological Strain During Exercise in a Hot Environment.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Joel B; Goldston, Kelly R; Adams, Amy N; Crisp, Kelli M; Franklin, Brian B; Kreutzer, Andreas; Montalvo, Diego X; Turner, Marcell G; Phillips, Melody D

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive temperature monitoring with a sensor inside protective headgear may be effective in detecting temperatures that are associated with heat illness. The purpose was to establish the relationship between in-hardhat temperatures (Tih) and core temperature (Tc) as measured by rectal (Tre) and esophageal (Tes) probes. Thirty males (age 24.57 ± 4.32 yrs.) completed two trials: continuous submaximal exercise (CSE) and a series of high intensity 30-s sprints (HIE) with a one-minute rest between each. Exercise in both conditions was in a 36(°)C environment (40% RH) while wearing a standard hardhat with sensors mounted on the forehead that were monitored remotely. Exercise continued until voluntary termination or until Tc reached 39.5(°)C. Temperatures, heart rate, cardiorespiratory, and perceptual responses were monitored throughout. A physiological strain index (PSI) was calculated from Tc and HR. The final temperatures in the CSE condition were 38.77 ± 0.41, 38.90 ± 0.49 and 39.29 ± 0.58(°)C and in the HIE condition, final temperatures were 38.76 ± 0.37, 38.91 ± 0.47, and 39.19 ± 0.57 f (o)C for Tih, Tre, and Tes, respectively. The PSI in CSE was 9.62 ± 062, 9.18 ± 1.11, and 10.04 ± 1.05, and in the HIE condition 9.67 ± 068, 9.29 ± 0.99. and 9.86 ± 1.02 based on Tih, Tre and Tes, respectively. The general agreement between the Tih and other temperature measures along with the consistency as indicated by a low coefficient of variation (approx. 1%) in the recordings of the Tih sensors at the point of termination suggest that this device, or similar devices, may have application as a warning system for impending heat-related problems.

  17. National Management Measures to Protect and Restore Wetlands and Riparian Areas for the Abatement of Nonpoint Source Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Guidance includes technical assistance to state, local, and tribal program managers on means of reducing nonpoint source pollution of surface and ground water through the protection and restoration of wetlands and riparian areas.

  18. MEASUREMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY COMPENDIUM METHOD TO-17 - EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evaluation of performance criteria for US Environmental Protection Agency Compendium Method TO-17 for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air has been accomplished. The method is a solid adsorbent-based sampling and analytical procedure including performance crit...

  19. 76 FR 2027 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Business Information or otherwise sensitive or protected information. NMFS will accept anonymous comments (enter N/A in the required fields, if you wish to remain anonymous). You may submit attachments...

  20. Quantitative relationship between anticapsular antibody measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or radioimmunoassay and protection of mice against challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4.

    PubMed Central

    Musher, D M; Johnson, B; Watson, D A

    1990-01-01

    We have recently shown that a substantial proportion of antibody to pneumococcal polysaccharide as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or radioimmunoassay is removed by adsorption with pneumococcal cell wall polysaccharide (CWPS). The present study was undertaken to validate the hypothesis that only serotype-specific antibody that remains after adsorption with CWPS provides protection against pneumococcal infection. Serum samples were obtained from human subjects before and after they had been vaccinated with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Antibody to Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4 was measured by ELISA without adsorption or after adsorption of serum with CWPS. Groups of mice were injected with graded doses of serum and then challenged intraperitoneally with 10, 100, or 1,000 50% lethal doses (LD50) of S. pneumoniae serotype 4. Without adsorption, prevaccination sera from five healthy adults appeared to contain up to 33 micrograms of antibody to S. pneumoniae serotype 4 antigen per ml; adsorption with CWPS removed all detectable antibody, and pretreating mice with up to 0.1 ml of these sera (less than or equal to 3.3 micrograms of antibody) failed to protect them against challenge with 100 LD50. In contrast, postvaccination sera contained 2.9 to 30 micrograms of antibody per ml that was not removed by adsorption. Diluting sera to administer desired amounts of serotype-specific immunoglobulin G showed a significant relationship between protection and antibody remaining after adsorption (P less than 0.05 by linear regression analysis); 150 ng was uniformly protective against 1,000 LD50, and 50 ng was protective against 100 LD50. These studies have, for the first time, quantitated the amount of serotype-specific antibody that protects mice against challenge with S. pneumoniae type 4. In light of these observations, it is necessary to reassess current concepts regarding the presence of antipneumococcal antibody in the unvaccinated

  1. A new theoretical framework for modeling respiratory protection based on the beta distribution.

    PubMed

    Klausner, Ziv; Fattal, Eyal

    2014-08-01

    The problem of modeling respiratory protection is well known and has been dealt with extensively in the literature. Often the efficiency of respiratory protection is quantified in terms of penetration, defined as the proportion of an ambient contaminant concentration that penetrates the respiratory protection equipment. Typically, the penetration modeling framework in the literature is based on the assumption that penetration measurements follow the lognormal distribution. However, the analysis in this study leads to the conclusion that the lognormal assumption is not always valid, making it less adequate for analyzing respiratory protection measurements. This work presents a formulation of the problem from first principles, leading to a stochastic differential equation whose solution is the probability density function of the beta distribution. The data of respiratory protection experiments were reexamined, and indeed the beta distribution was found to provide the data a better fit than the lognormal. We conclude with a suggestion for a new theoretical framework for modeling respiratory protection.

  2. Evaluation of Variants of 3M Peltor ComTAC Tactical Communication and Protection System (TCAPS) Headsets: Measures of Hearing Protection and Auditory Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    sound source azimuth. With the exception of the bare head condition, a helmet was always worn , and with the exception of the ComTAC III ARC-carbon...lightweight carbon helmets were worn in combination with the ComTAC III ARC headset to measure the difference in their effect on auditory localization ability...the ComTAC III ARC TCAPS is designed to mount on the Ops-Core FAST helmet accessory rail connector system, all TCAPS were evaluated in combination

  3. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... and Adequate Veterinary Care § 2.40 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and... veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section. (1) Each dealer and exhibitor shall employ...

  4. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  5. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  6. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  7. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  8. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  9. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  10. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  11. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  12. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  13. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  14. Measuring protection of aromatic wine thiols from oxidation by competitive reactions vs wine preservatives with ortho-quinones.

    PubMed

    Nikolantonaki, Maria; Magiatis, Prokopios; Waterhouse, Andrew L

    2014-11-15

    Quinones are central intermediates in wine oxidation that can degrade the quality of wine by reactions with varietal thiols, such as 3-sulfanylhexanol, decreasing desirable aroma. Protection by wine preservatives (sulphur dioxide, glutathione, ascorbic acid and model tannin, phloroglucinol) was assessed by competitive sacrificial reactions with 4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone, quantifying products and ratios by HPLC-UV-MS. Regioselectivity was assessed by product isolation and identification by NMR spectroscopy. Nucleophilic addition reactions compete with two electron reduction of quinones by sulphur dioxide or ascorbic acid, and both routes serve as effective quenching pathways, but minor secondary products from coupled redox reactions between the products and reactants are also observed. The wine preservatives were all highly reactive and thus all very protective against 3-sulfanylhexanol loss to the quinone, but showed only additive antioxidant effects. Confirmation of these reaction rates and pathways in wine is needed to assess the actual protective action of each tested preservative.

  15. Measuring sunscreen protection against solar-simulated radiation-induced structural radical damage to skin using ESR/spin trapping: development of an ex vivo test method.

    PubMed

    Haywood, Rachel; Volkov, Arsen; Andrady, Carima; Sayer, Robert

    2012-03-01

    The in vitro star system used for sunscreen UVA-testing is not an absolute measure of skin protection being a ratio of the total integrated UVA/UVB absorption. The in vivo persistent-pigment-darkening method requires human volunteers. We investigated the use of the ESR-detectable DMPO protein radical-adduct in solar-simulator-irradiated skin substitutes for sunscreen testing. Sunscreens SPF rated 20+ with UVA protection, reduced this adduct by 40-65% when applied at 2 mg/cm(2). SPF 15 Organic UVA-UVB (BMDBM-OMC) and TiO(2)-UVB filters and a novel UVA-TiO(2) filter reduced it by 21, 31 and 70% respectively. Conventional broad-spectrum sunscreens do not fully protect against protein radical-damage in skin due to possible visible-light contributions to damage or UVA-filter degradation. Anisotropic spectra of DMPO-trapped oxygen-centred radicals, proposed intermediates of lipid-oxidation, were detected in irradiated sunscreen and DMPO. Sunscreen protection might be improved by the consideration of visible-light protection and the design of filters to minimise radical leakage and lipid-oxidation.

  16. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  17. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  18. Knowledge and Informed Decision-Making about Population-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation in Groups with Low and Adequate Health Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Essink-Bot, M. L.; Dekker, E.; Timmermans, D. R. M.; Uiters, E.; Fransen, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To analyze and compare decision-relevant knowledge, decisional conflict, and informed decision-making about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening participation between potential screening participants with low and adequate health literacy (HL), defined as the skills to access, understand, and apply information to make informed decisions about health. Methods. Survey including 71 individuals with low HL and 70 with adequate HL, all eligible for the Dutch organized CRC screening program. Knowledge, attitude, intention to participate, and decisional conflict were assessed after reading the standard information materials. HL was assessed using the Short Assessment of Health Literacy in Dutch. Informed decision-making was analyzed by the multidimensional measure of informed choice. Results. 64% of the study population had adequate knowledge of CRC and CRC screening (low HL 43/71 (61%), adequate HL 47/70 (67%), p > 0.05). 57% were informed decision-makers (low HL 34/71 (55%), adequate HL 39/70 (58%), p > 0.05). Intention to participate was 89% (low HL 63/71 (89%), adequate HL 63/70 (90%)). Respondents with low HL experienced significantly more decisional conflict (25.8 versus 16.1; p = 0.00). Conclusion. Informed decision-making about CRC screening participation was suboptimal among both individuals with low HL and individuals with adequate HL. Further research is required to develop and implement effective strategies to convey decision-relevant knowledge about CRC screening to all screening invitees. PMID:27200089

  19. Determination of wavelength-specific UV protection factors of sunscreens in intact skin by EPR measurement of UV-induced reactive melanin radical.

    PubMed

    Lund, Leslie; Ley, Ronald D; Felton, Linda A; Timmins, Graham S

    2007-01-01

    There remains an unmet need for skin tissue-based assays for the measurement of the UVA protection and efficacy of sunscreens. Here we describe development of a novel electron paramagnetic resonance assay that uses the photogeneration of reactive melanin radical as a measure of UV light penetration to melanocytes in situ in skin. We have used areas of focal melanocytic hyperplasia in the skin of Monodelphis domestica to model the human nevus. We show that we are able to use this assay to determine the monochromatic protection factors (mPF) of research and commercial sunscreens at specific narrow wavebands of UVB, UVA and blue visible light. Both commercial sunscreens, a sun protection factor (SPF) 4 and an SPF 30 product, had mPFs in the UVB range that correlated well with their claimed SPF. However, their mPF in the UVA ranges were only about one-third of claimed SPF. This technique can be used to design and assay sunscreens with optimally balanced UVA and UVB protection.

  20. Medical and Medio-social Measures for the Health Protection of Mothers and Young Children in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Roy; Evans, Patricia G.

    1983-01-01

    Provides English translation of a French study of legislation and programs providing preventive medical and social services to pregnant women and young children. Discussed are legislative objectives and organizational levels, strategies and modes of executive action, the contribution of social security to medical protection for mother and child,…

  1. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  2. Cognitive Attributes, Attention, and Self-Efficacy of Adequate and Inadequate Responders in a Fourth Grade Reading Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eunsoo; Roberts, Garrett J.; Capin, Philip; Roberts, Greg; Miciak, Jeremy; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    We examined cognitive attributes, attention, and self-efficacy of fourth grade struggling readers who were identified as adequate responders (n = 27), inadequate responders with comprehension only deficits (n = 46), and inadequate responders with comprehension and word reading deficits (n = 52) after receiving a multicomponent reading intervention. We also included typical readers (n = 40). These four groups were compared on measures of nonverbal reasoning, working memory, verbal knowledge, listening comprehension, phonological awareness, and rapid naming as well as on teacher ratings of attention problems and self-reported self-efficacy. The two inadequate responder groups demonstrated difficulties primarily with verbal knowledge and listening comprehension compared to typical readers and adequate responders. Phonological awareness and rapid naming differentiated the two inadequate responder groups. In addition, both inadequate responder groups showed more attention problems and low self-efficacy compared to typical readers. PMID:26997755

  3. Cognitive Attributes, Attention, and Self-Efficacy of Adequate and Inadequate Responders in a Fourth Grade Reading Intervention.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eunsoo; Roberts, Garrett J; Capin, Philip; Roberts, Greg; Miciak, Jeremy; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-11-01

    We examined cognitive attributes, attention, and self-efficacy of fourth grade struggling readers who were identified as adequate responders (n = 27), inadequate responders with comprehension only deficits (n = 46), and inadequate responders with comprehension and word reading deficits (n = 52) after receiving a multicomponent reading intervention. We also included typical readers (n = 40). These four groups were compared on measures of nonverbal reasoning, working memory, verbal knowledge, listening comprehension, phonological awareness, and rapid naming as well as on teacher ratings of attention problems and self-reported self-efficacy. The two inadequate responder groups demonstrated difficulties primarily with verbal knowledge and listening comprehension compared to typical readers and adequate responders. Phonological awareness and rapid naming differentiated the two inadequate responder groups. In addition, both inadequate responder groups showed more attention problems and low self-efficacy compared to typical readers.

  4. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David J.; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6–12 (n = 1203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in comprehension. Results suggest that there is considerable growth across the middle and high school years, particularly for adequate comprehenders in those text integration processes that maintain local coherence. Accuracy in text consistency judgments accounted for significant unique variance for passage-level, but not sentence-level comprehension, particularly for adequate comprehenders. PMID:26166946

  5. Using Multitheory Model of Health Behavior Change to Predict Adequate Sleep Behavior.

    PubMed

    Knowlden, Adam P; Sharma, Manoj; Nahar, Vinayak K

    The purpose of this article was to use the multitheory model of health behavior change in predicting adequate sleep behavior in college students. A valid and reliable survey was administered in a cross-sectional design (n = 151). For initiation of adequate sleep behavior, the construct of behavioral confidence (P < .001) was found to be significant and accounted for 24.4% of the variance. For sustenance of adequate sleep behavior, changes in social environment (P < .02), emotional transformation (P < .001), and practice for change (P < .001) were significant and accounted for 34.2% of the variance.

  6. [Measurement and study report as a part of the control system for human safety and health protection against electromagnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation (0 Hz-300 GHz)].

    PubMed

    Aniołczyk, Halina

    2007-01-01

    The National Control System for safety and health protection against electromagnetic fields (EMF) and electromagnetic radiation (EMR) (0 Hz-300 GHz) is constantly analyzed in view of Directive 2004/40/EC. Reports on the effects of investments (at the designing stage or at the stage of looking for their localization) on the environment and measurement and study reports on the objects already existing or being put into operation are important elements of this system. These documents should meet both national and European Union's legislation requirements. The overriding goal of the control system is safety and health protection of humans against electromagnetic fields in the environment and in occupational settings. The author pays a particular attention to provisions made in directives issued by relevant ministers and to Polish standards, which should be documented in measurement and study reports published by the accredited laboratories and relating to the problems of human safety and health protection. Similar requirements are valid for the Reports. Therefore, along with measurement outcomes, the reports should include data on the EMF exposure classification at work-posts and the assessment of occupational risk resulting from EMF exposure or at least thorough data facilitating such a classification.

  7. Cardiac catecholamines in rats fed copper deficient or copper adequate diets containing fructose or starch

    SciTech Connect

    Scholfield, D.J.; Fields, M.; Beal, T.; Lewis, C.G.; Behall, K.M. )

    1989-02-09

    The symptoms of copper (Cu) deficiency are known to be more severe when rats are fed a diet with fructose (F) as the principal carbohydrate. Mortality, in males, due to cardiac abnormalities usually occurs after five weeks of a 62% F, 0.6 ppm Cu deficient diet. These effects are not observed if cornstarch (CS) is the carbohydrate (CHO) source. Studies with F containing diets have shown increased catecholamine (C) turnover rates while diets deficient in Cu result in decreased norepinephrine (N) levels in tissues. Dopamine B-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.17.1) is a Cu dependent enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine (D) to N. An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of CHO and dietary Cu on levels of three C in cardiac tissue. Thirty-two male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Cu deficient or adequate diets with 60% of calories from F or CS for 6 weeks. N, epinephrine (E) and D were measured by HPLC. Statistical analysis indicates that Cu deficiency tends to decrease N levels, while having the reverse effect on E. D did not appear to change. These findings indicate that Cu deficiency but not dietary CHO can affect the concentration of N and E in rat cardiac tissue.

  8. Are image quality metrics adequate to evaluate the quality of geometric objects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogowitz, Bernice E.; Rushmeier, Holly E.

    2001-06-01

    Geometric objects are often represented by many millions of triangles or polygons, which limits the ease with which they can be transmitted and displayed electronically. This has lead to the development of many algorithms for simplifying geometric models, and to the recognition that metrics are required to evaluate their success. The goal is to create computer graphic renderings of the object that do not appear to be degraded to a human observer. The perceptual evaluation of simplified objects is a new topic. One approach has been to sue image-based metrics to predict the perceived degradation of simplified 3D models. Since that 2D images of 3D objects can have significantly different perceived quality, depending on the direction of the illumination, 2D measures of image quality may not adequately capture the perceived quality of 3D objects. To address this question, we conducted experiments in which we explicitly compared the perceived quality of animated 3D objects and their corresponding 2D still image projections. Our results suggest that 2D judgements do not provide a good predictor of 3D image quality, and identify a need to develop 'object quality metrics.'

  9. A test of the cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia in adequate and inadequate responders to reading intervention.

    PubMed

    Barth, Amy E; Denton, Carolyn A; Stuebing, Karla K; Fletcher, Jack M; Cirino, Paul T; Francis, David J; Vaughn, Sharon

    2010-05-01

    The cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia posits that cerebellar deficits are associated with reading disabilities and may explain why some individuals with reading disabilities fail to respond to reading interventions. We tested these hypotheses in a sample of children who participated in a grade 1 reading intervention study (n = 174) and a group of typically achieving children (n = 62). At posttest, children were classified as adequately responding to the intervention (n = 82), inadequately responding with decoding and fluency deficits (n = 36), or inadequately responding with only fluency deficits (n = 56). Based on the Bead Threading and Postural Stability subtests from the Dyslexia Screening Test-Junior, we found little evidence that assessments of cerebellar functions were associated with academic performance or responder status. In addition, we did not find evidence supporting the hypothesis that cerebellar deficits are more prominent for poor readers with "specific" reading disabilities (i.e., with discrepancies relative to IQ) than for poor readers with reading scores consistent with IQ. In contrast, measures of phonological awareness, rapid naming, and vocabulary were strongly associated with responder status and academic outcomes. These results add to accumulating evidence that fails to associate cerebellar functions with reading difficulties.

  10. Ipragliflozin effectively reduced visceral fat in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes under adequate diet therapy.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Chiho; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Ono, Kota; Sugawara, Hajime; Kameda, Reina; Ichiyama, Mei; Yamamoto, Kohei; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Akinobu; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2016-06-30

    To investigate if ipragliflozin, a novel sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, alters body composition and to identify variables associated with reductions in visceral adipose tissue in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This prospective observational study enrolled Japanese participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Subjects were administered ipragliflozin (50 mg/day) once daily for 16 weeks. Body composition, visceral adipose tissue volume and plasma variables were measured at 0, 8, and 16-weeks. The subjects' lifestyle habits including diet and exercise were evaluated at baseline and 16 weeks. The primary endpoint was defined as the decrease of visceral adipose tissue mass. Twenty-four of 26 enrolled participants completed the study. The visceral adipose tissue decreased significantly (110 ± 33 to 101 ± 36 cm(2), p = 0.005) as well as other parameters for metabolic insufficiency including hemoglobin A1c. Seventy-one % of the total body weight reduction (-2.49 kg) was estimated by a decrease in fat mass (-1.77 kg), and the remaining reduction (22%) by water volume (-0.55 kg). A minor but significant reduction in the skeletal muscle index was also observed. Correlation analyses were performed to identify variables associated with changes in visceral adipose tissue and the only significant variable identified was diet therapy (Spearman's r = -0.416, p = 0.043). Ipragliflozin significantly decreased visceral adipose tissue, and improved parametres for metabolic dysfunction. Adequate diet therapy would be necessary to induce and enhance the therapeutic merit.

  11. Aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis for scattered sound in auditoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Molly K.; Xiang, Ning; Kleiner, Mendel

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this work was to apply an aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis technique to the analysis of sound scattering effects in auditoria. Time-frequency representations were developed as a motivated effort that takes into account binaural hearing, with a specific implementation of interaural cross-correlation process. A model of the human auditory system was implemented in the MATLAB platform based on two previous models [A. Härmä and K. Palomäki, HUTear, Espoo, Finland; and M. A. Akeroyd, A. Binaural Cross-correlogram Toolbox for MATLAB (2001), University of Sussex, Brighton]. These stages include proper frequency selectivity, the conversion of the mechanical motion of the basilar membrane to neural impulses, and binaural hearing effects. The model was then used in the analysis of room impulse responses with varying scattering characteristics. This paper discusses the analysis results using simulated and measured room impulse responses. [Work supported by the Frank H. and Eva B. Buck Foundation.

  12. On the protection of "protected areas".

    PubMed

    Joppa, Lucas N; Loarie, Scott R; Pimm, Stuart L

    2008-05-06

    Tropical moist forests contain the majority of terrestrial species. Human actions destroy between 1 and 2 million km(2) of such forests per decade, with concomitant carbon release into the atmosphere. Within these forests, protected areas are the principle defense against forest loss and species extinctions. Four regions-the Amazon, Congo, South American Atlantic Coast, and West Africa-once constituted about half the world's tropical moist forest. We measure forest cover at progressively larger distances inside and outside of protected areas within these four regions, using datasets on protected areas and land-cover. We find important geographical differences. In the Amazon and Congo, protected areas are generally large and retain high levels of forest cover, as do their surroundings. These areas are protected de facto by being inaccessible and will likely remain protected if they continue to be so. Deciding whether they are also protected de jure-that is, whether effective laws also protect them-is statistically difficult, for there are few controls. In contrast, protected areas in the Atlantic Coast forest and West Africa show sharp boundaries in forest cover at their edges. This effective protection of forest cover is partially offset by their very small size: little area is deep inside protected area boundaries. Lands outside protected areas in the Atlantic Coast forest are unusually fragmented. Finally, we ask whether global databases on protected areas are biased toward highly protected areas and ignore "paper parks." Analysis of a Brazilian database does not support this presumption.

  13. The effect of monochromatic infrared energy on transcutaneous oxygen measurements and protective sensation: results of a controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Franzen-Korzendorfer, Holly; Blackinton, Mary; Rone-Adams, Shari; McCulloch, Joseph

    2008-06-01

    Monochromatic infrared energy has been reported to restore protective sensation by increasing circulation. A controlled, double-blind, quasi-experimental, randomized clinical study was conducted to 1) examine the effects of monochromatic infrared energy treatments on tissue perfusion, 2) determine the effects of a published monochromatic infrared energy neuropathy protocol on sensation on the feet of patients with diabetes and a loss of protective sensation; 3) examine monochromatic infrared energy's effect on pain; and 4) examine the relationship between transcutaneous oxygen levels and loss of protective sensation. The study was conducted at a wound and hyperbaric treatment center in Norwalk, Conn; 18 adults (12 men, six women; mean age 65 +/-13 years, range 39 to 86 years) with diabetes and loss of protective sensation were recruited using convenience sampling methods. All patients served as their own control. Pre- and post treatment tests assessed sensation, pain, and transcutaneous oxygen measurements on two sites per foot. Participants underwent a series of 30-minute monochromatic infrared energy treatments (one foot active treatment, one foot sham). Monochromatic infrared energy was delivered at the manufacturer pre-set level of energy of 1.5 J/cm(2)/min at a wavelength of 890 nm; sham units delivered no energy. Scores were analyzed using paired t-tests and Pearson's correlation coefficient. No significant differences were observed between active and sham treatments for transcutaneous oxygen values, pain, or sensation. Both active and sham monochromatic infrared energy-treated feet had significantly improved sensation when compared to pretest baseline scores (P <0.05). No statistical relationship was found between transcutaneous oxygen and sensation. This small study did not demonstrate any effects of monochromatic infrared energy treatment on transcutaneous oxygen measurements, pain, or sensation in adults with diabetes and loss of protective sensation.

  14. 30 CFR 75.814 - Electrical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., overloads, ground faults, and undervoltages by circuit-interrupting devices of adequate interrupting... protection must not be dependent upon control power and may consist of a current transformer and...

  15. 30 CFR 75.814 - Electrical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., overloads, ground faults, and undervoltages by circuit-interrupting devices of adequate interrupting... protection must not be dependent upon control power and may consist of a current transformer and...

  16. 30 CFR 75.814 - Electrical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., overloads, ground faults, and undervoltages by circuit-interrupting devices of adequate interrupting... protection must not be dependent upon control power and may consist of a current transformer and...

  17. 30 CFR 75.814 - Electrical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., overloads, ground faults, and undervoltages by circuit-interrupting devices of adequate interrupting... protection must not be dependent upon control power and may consist of a current transformer and...

  18. 30 CFR 75.814 - Electrical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., overloads, ground faults, and undervoltages by circuit-interrupting devices of adequate interrupting... protection must not be dependent upon control power and may consist of a current transformer and...

  19. Testing cathodic protection systems on aboveground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Garrity, K.C.

    1995-12-31

    The evaluation of cathodic protection systems on aboveground storage tanks presents a unique challenge. Paramount with selection of system type is the method of verification that corrosion control has indeed been achieved. Past experience indicates that standard monitoring procedures intended to determine satisfaction of the industry recognized criteria may not be adequate in analyzing the degree of protection being afforded a storage tank resting on the ground. The standard method of determining the effectiveness of cathodic protection on any structure is the structure-to-electrolyte potential measurement. These measurements are performed utilizing a high impedance voltmeter and a stable, reproducible reference electrode contacting the electrolyte. The paper describes several case histories to illustrate methods.

  20. Development of a simple assay system for protein-stabilizing efficiency based on hemoglobin protection against denaturation and measurement of the cooperative effect of mixing protein stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Siyu; Manabe, Yoshiyuki; Minamoto, Naoya; Saiki, Naoka; Fukase, Koichi

    2016-10-01

    We have elucidated the cooperative stabilization of proteins by sugars, amino acids, and other protein-stabilizing agents using a new and simple assay system. Our system determines the protein-stabilizing ability of various compounds by measuring their ability to protect hemoglobin from denaturation. Hemoglobin denaturation was readily measured by quantitative changes in its ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum. The efficiency of our assay was confirmed using various sugars such as trehalose and sucrose that are known to be good protein stabilizers. We have also found that mixtures of two different types of protein stabilizers resulted in a cooperative stabilizing effect on protein.

  1. Region 8: Colorado Lamar and Steamboat Springs Adequate Letter (11/12/2002)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Lamar and Steamboat Springs particulate matter (PM10) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes

  2. 75 FR 5893 - Suspension of Community Eligibility for Failure To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management Regulations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency... floodplain management regulations meeting minimum requirements under the National Flood Insurance Program... they have brought their floodplain management regulations into compliance with the NFIP...

  3. Region 9: California Adequate / Inadequate Letter Attachment (5/30/2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a document that states that it has been found adequate for transportation conformitypurposes certain 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 motor vehicleemissions budgets in the 2007 South Coast StateImplementation Plan.

  4. Pattern of use of personal protective equipments and measures during application of pesticides by agricultural workers in a rural area of Ahmednagar district, India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhoopendra; Gupta, Mudit Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Background: Pesticides, despite their known toxicity, are widely used in developing countries for agricultural purposes. Objectives: To find various patterns of hardware use for spraying of insecticides, prevalent storage practice adopted by the user, types of personal protective equipments used for the handling of chemicals; to detect dangerous practices and the extent to which safety norms being followed by the users during the application/treatments, and finally their knowledge concerning the risks of pesticides. Materials and Methods: The agriculture workers who had been involved in pesticide application for agricultural purpose were interviewed face-to-face to gain information on the following determinants of pesticide exposure: Types, treatment equipment, use of personal protection and safety measures during the application/treatments and knowledge of the risks of pesticide exposure. Results: Hundred workers, aged between 21 and 60 years old, were included. Pesticides were mostly applied with manual equipment using Knapsack (70%) and only 5% farmers were using Tractor-mounted sprayer. Workers frequently performed tasks involving additional exposure to pesticides (mixing chemicals, 66%, or washing equipment, 65%). Majority of the workers/applicators used no personal protection measures or used it defectively/partially. Most of the workers/respondents (77%) did not bother for safety and health risks of pesticide exposure. Conclusions: Workers involved in pesticide application use personal protection measures very poorly and defectively. Almost half of the applicators were not following right direction with respect to wind direction while spraying, thus it increase the risk of exposure. There is a clear need to develop specific training and prevention programs for these workers. The determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers described in this study should be properly assessed in epidemiological studies of the health effects of pesticides on

  5. Defining an adequate sample of earlywood vessels for retrospective injury detection in diffuse-porous species.

    PubMed

    Arbellay, Estelle; Corona, Christophe; Stoffel, Markus; Fonti, Patrick; Decaulne, Armelle

    2012-01-01

    Vessels of broad-leaved trees have been analyzed to study how trees deal with various environmental factors. Cambial injury, in particular, has been reported to induce the formation of narrower conduits. Yet, little or no effort has been devoted to the elaboration of vessel sampling strategies for retrospective injury detection based on vessel lumen size reduction. To fill this methodological gap, four wounded individuals each of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were harvested in an avalanche path. Earlywood vessel lumina were measured and compared for each tree between the injury ring built during the growing season following wounding and the control ring laid down the previous year. Measurements were performed along a 10 mm wide radial strip, located directly next to the injury. Specifically, this study aimed at (i) investigating the intra-annual duration and local extension of vessel narrowing close to the wound margin and (ii) identifying an adequate sample of earlywood vessels (number and intra-ring location of cells) attesting to cambial injury. Based on the results of this study, we recommend analyzing at least 30 vessels in each ring. Within the 10 mm wide segment of the injury ring, wound-induced reduction in vessel lumen size did not fade with increasing radial and tangential distances, but we nevertheless advise favoring early earlywood vessels located closest to the injury. These findings, derived from two species widespread across subarctic, mountainous, and temperate regions, will assist retrospective injury detection in Alnus, Betula, and other diffuse-porous species as well as future related research on hydraulic implications after wounding.

  6. Defining an Adequate Sample of Earlywood Vessels for Retrospective Injury Detection in Diffuse-Porous Species

    PubMed Central

    Arbellay, Estelle; Corona, Christophe; Stoffel, Markus; Fonti, Patrick; Decaulne, Armelle

    2012-01-01

    Vessels of broad-leaved trees have been analyzed to study how trees deal with various environmental factors. Cambial injury, in particular, has been reported to induce the formation of narrower conduits. Yet, little or no effort has been devoted to the elaboration of vessel sampling strategies for retrospective injury detection based on vessel lumen size reduction. To fill this methodological gap, four wounded individuals each of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were harvested in an avalanche path. Earlywood vessel lumina were measured and compared for each tree between the injury ring built during the growing season following wounding and the control ring laid down the previous year. Measurements were performed along a 10 mm wide radial strip, located directly next to the injury. Specifically, this study aimed at (i) investigating the intra-annual duration and local extension of vessel narrowing close to the wound margin and (ii) identifying an adequate sample of earlywood vessels (number and intra-ring location of cells) attesting to cambial injury. Based on the results of this study, we recommend analyzing at least 30 vessels in each ring. Within the 10 mm wide segment of the injury ring, wound-induced reduction in vessel lumen size did not fade with increasing radial and tangential distances, but we nevertheless advise favoring early earlywood vessels located closest to the injury. These findings, derived from two species widespread across subarctic, mountainous, and temperate regions, will assist retrospective injury detection in Alnus, Betula, and other diffuse-porous species as well as future related research on hydraulic implications after wounding. PMID:22761707

  7. Individual and contextual determinants of adequate maternal health care services in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Achia, Thomas N O; Mageto, Lillian E

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine individual and community level factors associated with adequate use of maternal antenatal health services in Kenya. Individual and community level factors associated with adequate use of maternal health care (MHC) services were obtained from the 2008-09 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey data set. Multilevel partial-proportional odds logit models were fitted using STATA 13.0 to quantify the relations of the selected covariates to adequate MHC use, defined as a three-category ordinal variable. The sample consisted of 3,621 women who had at least one live birth in the five-year period preceding this survey. Only 18 percent of the women had adequate use of MHC services. Greater educational attainment by the woman or her partner, higher socioeconomic status, access to medical insurance coverage, and greater media exposure were the individual-level factors associated with adequate use of MHC services. Greater community ethnic diversity, higher community-level socioeconomic status, and greater community-level health facility deliveries were the contextual-level factors associated with adequate use of MHC. To improve the use of MHC services in Kenya, the government needs to design and implement programs that target underlying individual and community level factors, providing focused and sustained health education to promote the use of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care.

  8. Cyber resilience: a review of critical national infrastructure and cyber security protection measures applied in the UK and USA.

    PubMed

    Harrop, Wayne; Matteson, Ashley

    This paper presents cyber resilience as key strand of national security. It establishes the importance of critical national infrastructure protection and the growing vicarious nature of remote, well-planned, and well executed cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. Examples of well-known historical cyber attacks are presented, and the emergence of 'internet of things' as a cyber vulnerability issue yet to be tackled is explored. The paper identifies key steps being undertaken by those responsible for detecting, deterring, and disrupting cyber attacks on critical national infrastructure in the United Kingdom and the USA.

  9. Radiation Protection

    MedlinePlus

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radiation Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Radiation Protection Document Library View ...

  10. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  11. Obstacles to adaptation decisions in the developing world: A case study of coastal protection measures and sea-level rise in Kiribati

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donner, S. D.; Webber, S.

    2014-12-01

    International aid is increasingly focused on adaptation to climate change. At recent meetings of the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the developed world agreed to rapidly increase international assistance to help the developing world respond to the impacts of climate change. Here, we examine the decision-making challenges facing internationally supported climate change adaptation projects given the large uncertainty in future climate predictions, using the example of efforts to implement coastal protection measures (e.g. sea walls, mangrove planting) in Kiribati. The central equatorial Pacific country is home to the Kiribati Adaptation Project, the first national-level climate change adaptation project supported by the World Bank. Drawing on interview and document research conducted over an 8-year period, we trace the forces influencing decisions about coastal protection measures, starting from the variability and uncertainty in climate change projections, through the trade-offs between different measures, to the social, political, and economic context in which decisions are finally made. We then discuss how sub-optimal adaptation measures may be implemented despite years of planning, consultation, and technical studies. This qualitative analysis of the real-world process of climate change adaptation reveals that embracing a culturally appropriate and short-term (~20 years) planning horizon, while not ignoring the longer-term future, may reduce the influence of scientific uncertainty on decisions and provide opportunities to learn from mistakes, reassess the science, and adjust suboptimal investments.

  12. An Analysis of the Selected Materials Used in Step Measurements During Pre-Fits of Thermal Protection System Tiles and the Accuracy of Measurements Made Using These Selected Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranz, David William

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this research project was be to compare and contrast the selected materials used in step measurements during pre-fits of thermal protection system tiles and to compare and contrast the accuracy of measurements made using these selected materials. The reasoning for conducting this test was to obtain a clearer understanding to which of these materials may yield the highest accuracy rate of exacting measurements in comparison to the completed tile bond. These results in turn will be presented to United Space Alliance and Boeing North America for their own analysis and determination. Aerospace structures operate under extreme thermal environments. Hot external aerothermal environments in high Mach number flights lead to high structural temperatures. The differences between tile heights from one to another are very critical during these high Mach reentries. The Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System is a very delicate and highly calculated system. The thermal tiles on the ship are measured to within an accuracy of .001 of an inch. The accuracy of these tile measurements is critical to a successful reentry of an orbiter. This is why it is necessary to find the most accurate method for measuring the height of each tile in comparison to each of the other tiles. The test results indicated that there were indeed differences in the selected materials used in step measurements during prefits of Thermal Protection System Tiles and that Bees' Wax yielded a higher rate of accuracy when compared to the baseline test. In addition, testing for experience level in accuracy yielded no evidence of difference to be found. Lastly the use of the Trammel tool over the Shim Pack yielded variable difference for those tests.

  13. Data replicating the factor structure and reliability of commonly used measures of resilience: The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Resilience Scale, and Scale of Protective Factors.

    PubMed

    Madewell, A N; Ponce-Garcia, E; Martin, S E

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the article entitled "Assessing Resilience in Emerging Adulthood: The Resilience Scale (RS), Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), and Scale of Protective Factors (SPF)" (Madewell and Ponce-Garcia, 2016) [1]. The data were collected from a sample of 451 college students from three universities located in the Southwestern region of the United States: 374 from a large public university and 67 from two smaller regional universities. The data from the three universities did not significantly differ in terms of demographics. The data represent participant responses on six measurements to include the Resilience Scale-25 (RS-25), Resilience Scale-14 (RS-14), Connor Davidson Resilience Scale-25 (CD-RISC-25), Connor Davidson Resilience Scale-10 (CD-RISC-10), Scale of Protective Factors-24 (SPF-24), and the Life Stressor Checklist Revised (LSC-R).

  14. Re-Assessing Poverty Dynamics and State Protections in Britain and the US: The Role of Measurement Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worts, Diana; Sacker, Amanda; McDonough, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a key methodological challenge in the modeling of individual poverty dynamics--the influence of measurement error. Taking the US and Britain as case studies and building on recent research that uses latent Markov models to reduce bias, we examine how measurement error can affect a range of important poverty estimates. Our data…

  15. FLOPROS: an evolving global database of flood protection standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scussolini, Paolo; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Jongman, Brenden; Bouwer, Laurens M.; Winsemius, Hessel C.; de Moel, Hans; Ward, Philip J.

    2016-05-01

    With projected changes in climate, population and socioeconomic activity located in flood-prone areas, the global assessment of flood risk is essential to inform climate change policy and disaster risk management. Whilst global flood risk models exist for this purpose, the accuracy of their results is greatly limited by the lack of information on the current standard of protection to floods, with studies either neglecting this aspect or resorting to crude assumptions. Here we present a first global database of FLOod PROtection Standards, FLOPROS, which comprises information in the form of the flood return period associated with protection measures, at different spatial scales. FLOPROS comprises three layers of information, and combines them into one consistent database. The design layer contains empirical information about the actual standard of existing protection already in place; the policy layer contains information on protection standards from policy regulations; and the model layer uses a validated modelling approach to calculate protection standards. The policy layer and the model layer can be considered adequate proxies for actual protection standards included in the design layer, and serve to increase the spatial coverage of the database. Based on this first version of FLOPROS, we suggest a number of strategies to further extend and increase the resolution of the database. Moreover, as the database is intended to be continually updated, while flood protection standards are changing with new interventions, FLOPROS requires input from the flood risk community. We therefore invite researchers and practitioners to contribute information to this evolving database by corresponding to the authors.

  16. Multidimensional Measurement Within Adult Protective Services: Design and Initial Testing of the Tool for Risk, Interventions, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfeld, David H.; Henderson, Linda B.; Snider, Marcy A.; Aarons, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the development, field utility, reliability, and validity of the multidimensional Tool for Risk, Interventions, and Outcomes (TRIO) for use in Adult Protective Services (APS). The TRIO is designed to facilitate consistent APS practice and collect data related to multiple dimensions of typical interactions with APS clients, including the investigation and assessment of risks, the provision of APS interventions, and associated health and safety outcomes. Initial tests of the TRIO indicated high field utility, social worker “relevance and buy-in,” and inter-rater reliability. TRIO concurrent validity was demonstrated via appropriate patterns of TRIO item differentiation based on the type of observed confirmed abuse or neglect; and predictive validity was demonstrated by prediction of the risk of actual APS recurrence. The TRIO is a promising new tool that can help meet the challenges of providing and documenting effective APS practices and identifying those at high risk for future APS recurrence. PMID:24848994

  17. The adequate stimulus for avian short latency vestibular responses to linear translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Jones, S. M.; Colbert, S.

    1998-01-01

    Transient linear acceleration stimuli have been shown to elicit eighth nerve vestibular compound action potentials in birds and mammals. The present study was undertaken to better define the nature of the adequate stimulus for neurons generating the response in the chicken (Gallus domesticus). In particular, the study evaluated the question of whether the neurons studied are most sensitive to the maximum level of linear acceleration achieved or to the rate of change in acceleration (da/dt, or jerk). To do this, vestibular response thresholds were measured as a function of stimulus onset slope. Traditional computer signal averaging was used to record responses to pulsed linear acceleration stimuli. Stimulus onset slope was systematically varied. Acceleration thresholds decreased with increasing stimulus onset slope (decreasing stimulus rise time). When stimuli were expressed in units of jerk (g/ms), thresholds were virtually constant for all stimulus rise times. Moreover, stimuli having identical jerk magnitudes but widely varying peak acceleration levels produced virtually identical responses. Vestibular response thresholds, latencies and amplitudes appear to be determined strictly by stimulus jerk magnitudes. Stimulus attributes such as peak acceleration or rise time alone do not provide sufficient information to predict response parameter quantities. Indeed, the major response parameters were shown to be virtually independent of peak acceleration levels or rise time when these stimulus features were isolated and considered separately. It is concluded that the neurons generating short latency vestibular evoked potentials do so as "jerk encoders" in the chicken. Primary afferents classified as "irregular", and which traditionally fall into the broad category of "dynamic" or "phasic" neurons, would seem to be the most likely candidates for the neural generators of short latency vestibular compound action potentials.

  18. The rat adequately reflects human responses to exercise in blood biochemical profile: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Goutianos, Georgios; Tzioura, Aikaterini; Kyparos, Antonios; Paschalis, Vassilis; Margaritelis, Nikos V; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Dipla, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are widely used in biology and the findings of animal research are traditionally projected to humans. However, recent publications have raised concerns with regard to what extent animals and humans respond similar to physiological stimuli. Original data on direct in vivo comparison between animals and humans are scarce and no study has addressed this issue after exercise. We aimed to compare side by side in the same experimental setup rat and human responses to an acute exercise bout of matched intensity and duration. Rats and humans ran on a treadmill at 86% of maximal velocity until exhaustion. Pre and post exercise we measured 30 blood chemistry parameters, which evaluate iron status, lipid profile, glucose regulation, protein metabolism, liver, and renal function. ANOVA indicated that almost all biochemical parameters followed a similar alteration pattern post exercise in rats and humans. In fact, there were only 2/30 significant species × exercise interactions (in testosterone and globulins), indicating different responses to exercise between rats and humans. On the contrary, the main effect of exercise was significant in 15/30 parameters and marginally nonsignificant in other two parameters (copper, P = 0.060 and apolipoprotein B, P = 0.058). Our major finding is that the rat adequately mimics human responses to exercise in those basic blood biochemical parameters reported here. The physiological resemblance of rat and human blood responses after exercise to exhaustion on a treadmill indicates that the use of blood chemistry in rats for exercise physiology research is justified. PMID:25677548

  19. Cathodic protection maintenance for aboveground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Koszewski, L.

    1995-12-31

    Cathodic protection systems are utilized to mitigate corrosion on the external bottom surfaces of aboveground storage tanks (ASTs). Cathodic protection systems should be part of a preventative maintenance program to minimize in-service failures. A good maintenance program will permit determination of continuous adequate cathodic protection of ASTs, through sustained operation and also provide the opportunity to detect cathodic protection system malfunctions, through periodic observations and testing.

  20. Importance of adequate exercise in the detection of coronary heart disease by radionuclide ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.H.; Lo, K.; Pitt, B.

    1980-12-01

    Rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculograms were obtained on 77 symptomatic patients without prior documented coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary artery disease was present by angiograms in 48. Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) was abnormal in 41 patients (overall sensitivity 85%). In 29 patients with normal coronary arteries, RNV was normal in 24 (specificity 83%). To determine if the exercise level affects sensitivity, the studies were graded for adequacy of exercise. It was considered adequate if patients developed (a) chest pain, or (b) ST segment depression of at least 1 mm, or (c) if they achieved a pressure rate product greater than 250. Among the 48 patients with coronary artery disease, 35 achieved adequate exercise. Thirty-three had an abnormal RNV (sensitivity 94%). In 13 patients who failed to achieve adequate exercise, RNV was abnormal in eight (sensitivity of only 62%). Some patients with coronary artery disease may have a normal ventricular response at inadequate levels of stress.

  1. [Prevention of ocular complications of herpes zoster ophthalmicus by adequate treatment with acyclovir].

    PubMed

    Borruat, F X; Buechi, E R; Piguet, B; Fitting, P; Zografos, L; Herbort, C P

    1991-05-01

    We compared the frequency of severe ocular complications secondary to Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus (HZO) in 232 patients. They were divided into three groups: 1) patients without treatment (n = 164); 2) patients treated adequately (n = 48) with acyclovir (ACV; 5 x 800 mg/d orally and ophthalmic ointment 5 x /d for a minimum of 7 days, given within three days after skin eruption); and, 3) patients treated inadequately (n = 20) with ACV (only topical treatment, insufficient doses, interrupted treatment, delayed treatment). Patients with no treatment or with inadequate treatments showed the same frequency of severe ocular complications (21% (34/164) and 25% (5/20), respectively). In contrast, when adequate treatment of ACV was given complications occurred in only 4% (2/48) of cases. This study emphasizes the need for prompt (within three days after skin eruption) and adequate (5 x 800 mg/d for at least 7 days) treatment of ACV to prevent the severe complications of HZO.

  2. Broadband inversion of 1J(CC) responses in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra.

    PubMed

    Reibarkh, Mikhail; Williamson, R Thomas; Martin, Gary E; Bermel, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Establishing the carbon skeleton of a molecule greatly facilitates the process of structure elucidation, both manual and computer-assisted. Recent advances in the family of ADEQUATE experiments demonstrated their potential in this regard. 1,1-ADEQUATE, which provides direct (13)C-(13)C correlation via (1)J(CC), and 1,n-ADEQUATE, which typically yields (3)J(CC) and (1)J(CC) correlations, are more sensitive and more widely applicable experiments than INADEQUATE and PANACEA. A recently reported modified pulse sequence that semi-selectively inverts (1)J(CC) correlations in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra provided a significant improvement, allowing (1)J(CC) and (n)J(CC) correlations to be discerned in the same spectrum. However, the reported experiment requires a careful matching of the amplitude transfer function with (1)J(CC) coupling constants in order to achieve the inversion, and even then some (1)J(CC) correlations could still have positive intensity due to the oscillatory nature of the transfer function. Both shortcomings limit the practicality of the method. We now report a new, dual-optimized inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment, which provides more uniform inversion of (1)J(CC) correlations across the range of 29-82 Hz. Unlike the original method, the dual optimization experiment does not require fine-tuning for the molecule's (1)J(CC) coupling constant values. Even more usefully, the dual-optimized version provides up to two-fold improvement in signal-to-noise for some long-range correlations. Using modern, cryogenically-cooled probes, the experiment can be successfully applied to samples of ~1 mg under favorable circumstances. The improvements afforded by dual optimization inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment make it a useful and practical tool for NMR structure elucidation and should facilitate the implementation and utilization of the experiment.

  3. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Melody S; Gaskin, Darrell J; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2012-09-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent's race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth.

  4. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy

    PubMed Central

    Gaskin, Darrell J.; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D.; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent’s race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth. PMID:22658579

  5. A recirculation aerosol wind tunnel for evaluating aerosol samplers and measuring particle penetration through protective clothing materials.

    PubMed

    Jaques, Peter A; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Gao, Pengfei

    2011-08-01

    A recirculation aerosol wind tunnel was designed to maintain a uniform airflow and stable aerosol size distribution for evaluating aerosol sampler performance and determining particle penetration through protective clothing materials. The oval-shaped wind tunnel was designed to be small enough to fit onto a lab bench, have optimized dimensions for uniformity in wind speed and particle size distributions, sufficient mixing for even distribution of particles, and minimum particle losses. Performance evaluation demonstrates a relatively high level of spatial uniformity, with a coefficient of variation of 1.5-6.2% for wind velocities between 0.4 and 2.8 m s(-1) and, in this range, 0.8-8.5% for particles between 50 and 450 nm. Aerosol concentration stabilized within the first 5-20 min with, approximately, a count median diameter of 135 nm and geometric standard deviation of 2.20. Negligible agglomerate growth and particle loss are suggested. The recirculation design appears to result in unique features as needed for our research.

  6. A hypothesis on biological protection from space radiation through the use of new therapeutic gases as medical counter measures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure to astronauts could be a significant obstacle for long duration manned space exploration because of current uncertainties regarding the extent of biological effects. Furthermore, concepts for protective shielding also pose a technically challenging issue due to the nature of cosmic radiation and current mass and power constraints with modern exploration technology. The concern regarding exposure to cosmic radiation is biological damage that is associated with increased oxidative stress. It is therefore important and would be enabling to mitigate and/or prevent oxidative stress prior to the development of clinical symptoms and disease. This paper hypothesizes a "systems biology" approach in which a combination of chemical and biological mitigation techniques are used conjunctively. It proposes using new, therapeutic, medical gases as chemical radioprotectors for radical scavenging and as biological signaling molecules for management of the body's response to exposure. From reviewing radiochemistry of water, biological effects of CO, H2, NO, and H2S gas, and mechanisms of radiation biology, it can be concluded that this approach may have therapeutic potential for radiation exposure. Furthermore, it also appears to have similar potential for curtailing the pathogenesis of other diseases in which oxidative stress has been implicated including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic inflammatory disease, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, cataracts, and aging. We envision applying these therapies through inhalation of gas mixtures or ingestion of water with dissolved gases. PMID:22475015

  7. A Hypothesis on Biological Protection from Space Radiation Through the Use of New Therapeutic Gases as Medical Counter Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Ansari, Rafat R.; Nakao, Atsunori; Wink, David

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure to astronauts could be a significant obstacle for long duration manned space exploration because of current uncertainties regarding the extent of biological effects. Furthermore, concepts for protective shielding also pose a technically challenging issue due to the nature of cosmic radiation and current mass and power constraints with modern exploration technology. The concern regarding exposure to cosmic radiation is the biological damage it induces. As damage is associated with increased oxidative stress, it is important and would be enabling to mitigate and/or prevent oxidative stress prior to the development of clinical symptoms and disease. This paper hypothesizes a "systems biology" approach in which a combination of chemical and biological mitigation techniques are used conjunctively. It proposes using new, therapeutic, medical gases as both chemical radioprotectors for radical scavenging and biological signaling molecules for management of the body s response to exposure. From reviewing radiochemistry of water, biological effects of CO, H2, NO, and H2S gas, and mechanisms of radiation biology, it is concluded that this approach may have great therapeutic potential for radiation exposure. Furthermore, it also appears to have similar potential for curtailing the pathogenesis of other diseases in which oxidative stress has been implicated including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic inflammatory disease, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, Parkinson s and Alzheimer s disease, cataracts, and aging.

  8. A Hypothesis on Biological Protection from Space Radiation Through the Use of New Therapeutic Gases as Medical Counter Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Ansari, Rafat R.; Nakao, Atsunori; Wink, David

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to astronauts could be a significant obstacle for long duration manned space exploration because of current uncertainties regarding the extent of biological effects. Furthermore, concepts for protective shielding also pose a technically challenging issue due to the nature of cosmic radiation and current mass and power constraints with modern exploration technology. As biological damage from exposure is associated with increased oxidative stress, it would be enabling to mitigate and/or prevent stress prior to the development of clinical symptoms and disease. This paper hypothesizes a "systems biology" approach in which a combination of chemical and biological mitigation techniques are used conjunctively. It proposes using new, therapeutic, medical gases as both chemical radioprotectors for radical scavenging and biological promoters for management of the body s response to exposure. From reviewing radiochemistry of water, biological effects of CO, H2, NO, and H2S gas, and mechanisms of radiation biology, it is concluded that this approach may have great therapeutic potential for exposure. Furthermore, it also appears to have potential for curtailing the pathogenesis of other diseases in which oxidative stress has been implicated including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic inflammatory disease, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, Parkinson s and Alzheimer s disease, cataracts, and aging.

  9. Protection performance evaluation regarding imaging sensors hardened against laser dazzling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, Gunnar; Koerber, Michael; Forster, Daniel; Eberle, Bernd

    2015-05-01

    Electro-optical imaging sensors are widely distributed and used for many different purposes, including civil security and military operations. However, laser irradiation can easily disturb their operational capability. Thus, an adequate protection mechanism for electro-optical sensors against dazzling and damaging is highly desirable. Different protection technologies exist now, but none of them satisfies the operational requirements without any constraints. In order to evaluate the performance of various laser protection measures, we present two different approaches based on triangle orientation discrimination on the one hand and structural similarity on the other hand. For both approaches, image analysis algorithms are applied to images taken of a standard test scene with triangular test patterns which is superimposed by dazzling laser light of various irradiance levels. The evaluation methods are applied to three different sensors: a standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor camera, a high dynamic range camera with a nonlinear response curve, and a sensor hardened against laser dazzling.

  10. [Bird species diversity and related protection measures in urban park green spaces of Loudi City, Hunan Province of China].

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-de; Liu, Ping-yuan; Gong, Xun-sheng; Xiao, Xiao-jun

    2013-08-01

    Urban park green space is an important physical part of urban ecosystem, and also, the important habitat and carrier for birds and other animals. Rapid urbanization induces the great change in the spatial pattern of urban park green space, while the patched distribution of urban park green space has the habitat features similar to 'habitat islands', giving obvious effects on urban avian communities. In order to understand the bird species distribution and species diversity in Loudi City and to provide the basic information for the bird conservation, a line transect method and a quadrat sampling method were adopted to investigate the distribution pattern and species richness of the birds across seven urban parks in the Loudi City from November, 2010 to January, 2012. A total of 56 birds species belonging to 11 orders and 27 families were recorded, among which, there were 32, 12 and 12 species belonging to resident birds, summer migrant birds and winter migrant birds, accounting for 57.2%, 21.4% and 21.4%, respectively. As for the fauna, there were 27, 14, and 15 bird species belonging to oriental species, palaearctic species and widely distributed species, accounting for 48.2%, 25.0% and 26.8%, respectively. A total of 7 species belonging to the second class of the national key protected species were recorded, accounting for 12.5% of the total. The Shannon, Pielou and G-F indices of the bird communities in the urban parks in Loudi City were 1.49, 0.85 and 0.62, respectively. Zhushan Park had the highest species number (42), Shannon index (1.41), G index (3.46), F index (6.12) and G-F index (0.43), and Yueqin Hill Park had the highest Pielou index (0.92). The reasons of the poor bird species in Loudi City were analyzed, and some suggestions for preventing the birds were put forward.

  11. 42 CFR 413.24 - Adequate cost data and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Adequate data capable of being audited is consistent with good business concepts and effective and efficient management of any organization, whether it is operated for profit or on a nonprofit basis. It is a... contract for services (for example, a management contract), directly assigning the costs to the...

  12. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  13. Towards Defining Adequate Lithium Trials for Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Use of lithium with mentally retarded individuals with psychiatric conditions and/or behavior disturbances is discussed. The paper describes components of an adequate clinical trial and reviews case studies and double-blind cases. The paper concludes that aggression is the best indicator for lithium use, and reviews treatment parameters and…

  14. ADEQUATE SHELTERS AND QUICK REACTIONS TO WARNING: A KEY TO CIVIL DEFENSE.

    PubMed

    LYNCH, F X

    1963-11-08

    Case histories collected by investigators in Japan during 1945 illustrate both the effectiveness of shelters and the dangers inherent in apathy of the population, which suffered needless casualties by ignoring air raid warnintgs. Adequate shelters and immediate response to warnings are essential to survival in nuclear attack.

  15. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to…

  16. 45 CFR 1182.15 - Institute responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... record systems. These security safeguards shall apply to all systems in which identifiable personal data... data and automated systems shall be adequately trained in the security and privacy of personal data. (4... technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual...

  17. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  18. Effect of tranquilizers on animal resistance to the adequate stimuli of the vestibular apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maksimovich, Y. B.; Khinchikashvili, N. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of tranquilizers on vestibulospinal reflexes and motor activity was studied in 900 centrifuged albino mice. Actometric studies have shown that the tranquilizers have a group capacity for increasing animal resistance to the action of adequate stimuli to the vestibular apparatus.

  19. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  20. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  1. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  2. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  3. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Adequate Yearly Progress among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…

  4. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    PubMed

    Godrich, Stephanie L; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-01-03

    Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD) (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions) and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA). Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256) living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23). A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20) for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007), promotion (p = 0.017), location of food outlets (p = 0.027), and price (p = 0.043). Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned) are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing.

  5. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall...

  6. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall...

  7. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  8. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  9. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  10. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled: ``Hemoglobin... discuss blood donor hemoglobin and hematocrit qualification standards in the United States, its impact...

  11. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  12. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  13. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  14. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  15. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  16. 30 CFR 227.801 - What if a State does not adequately perform a delegated function?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... delegated function? 227.801 Section 227.801 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES Performance Review § 227.801 What if a State does not adequately perform a delegated function? If your performance of the delegated function does...

  17. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  18. Understanding the pelvic pain mechanism is key to find an adequate therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Van Kerrebroeck, Philip

    2016-06-25

    Pain is a natural mechanism to actual or potential tissue damage and involves both a sensory and an emotional experience. In chronic pelvic pain, localisation of pain can be widespread and can cause considerable distress. A multidisciplinary approach is needed in order to fully understand the pelvic pain mechanism and to identify an adequate therapeutic approach.

  19. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  20. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  1. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  2. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The ...

  3. Adequate Yearly Progress for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders through Research-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannest, Kimberly J.; Temple-Harvey, Kimberly K.; Mason, Benjamin A.

    2009-01-01

    Because schools are held accountable for the academic performance of all students, it is important to focus on academics and the need for effective teaching practices. Adequate yearly progress, a method of accountability that is part of the No Child Left Behind Act (2001), profoundly affects the education of students who have emotional and…

  4. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared.

  5. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  6. Physical protection philosophy and techniques in the Federal Republic of Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Fechner, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Adequate physical protection measures are required by law as a licensing prerequisite for all transporters of nuclear materials and for all nuclear installations such as nuclear power plants, enrichment, fuel fabrication, storage, and reprocessing facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany (RFG). The objective of these measures is to prevent the following: Any risk to health and safety of the public that might be caused by direct radiation exposure or by significant release of radioactive substances through sabotage or other criminal acts; Any single or repeated theft or robbery of nuclear materials in quantities sufficient for the construction of a critical assembly. This paper describes the integrated physical protection concept, which is the basis for the measures to be implemented by the applicant and the state authorities. A general overview of the vulnerability analysis and examples of various physical protection measures for nuclear facilities and for transportation of nuclear material follows.

  7. Planning 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography (4DCT) Cannot Adequately Represent Daily Intrafractional Motion of Abdominal Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Jiajia; Santanam, Lakshmi; Noel, Camille; Parikh, Parag J.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate whether planning 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) can adequately represent daily motion of abdominal tumors in regularly fractionated and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) patients. Methods and Materials: Intrafractional tumor motion of 10 patients with abdominal tumors (4 pancreas-fractionated and 6 liver-stereotactic patients) with implanted fiducials was measured based on daily orthogonal fluoroscopic movies over 38 treatment fractions. The needed internal margin for at least 90% of tumor coverage was calculated based on a 95th and fifth percentile of daily 3-dimensional tumor motion. The planning internal margin was generated by fusing 4DCT motion from all phase bins. The disagreement between needed and planning internal margin was analyzed fraction by fraction in 3 motion axes (superior-inferior [SI], anterior-posterior [AP], and left-right [LR]). The 4DCT margin was considered as an overestimation/underestimation of daily motion when disagreement exceeded at least 3 mm in the SI axis and/or 1.2 mm in the AP and LR axes (4DCT image resolution). The underlying reasons for this disagreement were evaluated based on interfractional and intrafractional breathing variation. Results: The 4DCT overestimated daily 3-dimensional motion in 39% of the fractions in 7 of 10 patients and underestimated it in 53% of the fractions in 8 of 10 patients. Median underestimation was 3.9 mm, 3.0 mm, and 1.7 mm in the SI axis, AP axis, and LR axis, respectively. The 4DCT was found to capture irregular deep breaths in 3 of 10 patients, with 4DCT motion larger than mean daily amplitude by 18 to 21 mm. The breathing pattern varied from breath to breath and day to day. The intrafractional variation of amplitude was significantly larger than intrafractional variation (2.7 mm vs 1.3 mm) in the primary motion axis (ie, SI axis). The SBRT patients showed significantly larger intrafractional amplitude variation than fractionated patients (3.0 mm vs 2

  8. Workplace protection factor measurements on powered air-purifying respirators at a secondary lead smelter--test protocol.

    PubMed

    Myers, W R; Peach, M J; Allender, J

    1984-04-01

    A study was conducted at a secondary smelter to evaluate the workplace performance of the 3M Model W-344 and Racal Model AH3 powered air-purifying respirators ( PAPR ) equipped with helmets and high efficiency filters. The research protocol developed for obtaining leakage measurements in the field provides for proper respirator fitting, use, wear, maintenance and worker supervision, all of which are problems commonly associated with data acquisition when field testing respirators. The protocol proved to be very workable, even though it required extensive worker and equipment monitoring. Based upon the successful implementation of this protocol, the performance of these PAPRs should be indicative of their best performance under the workplace conditions experienced in this study. This research protocol is proposed as a model for conducting field studies on other types of respirators as well as the basis on which to develop new and improved field test procedures. The results of one such study are presented in a comparison paper.

  9. Workplace protection factor measurements on powered air-purifying respirators at a secondary lead smelter - test protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, W.R.; Peach, M.J. III; Alldender, J.

    1984-04-01

    A study was conducted at a secondary smelter to evaluate the workplace performance of the 3M Model W-344 and Racal Model AH3 powered air-purifying respirators (PAPR) equipped with helmets and high efficiency filters. The research protocol developed for obtaining leakage measurements in the field provides for proper respirator fitting, use, wear, maintenance and worker supervision, all of which are problems commonly associated with data acquisition when field testing respirators. The protocol proved to be very workable, even though it required extensive worker and equipment monitoring. Based upon the successful implementation of this protocol, the performance of these PAPRs should be indicative of their best performance under the workplace conditions experienced in this study. This research protocol is proposed as a model for conducting field studies on other types of respirators as well as the basis on which to develop new and improved field test procedures. The results of one such study are presented in a comparison paper.

  10. Measuring and Modeling Solute Transport in the Rootzone: Protecting the Receiving Water Environments of the Coral Atolls of Tonga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clothier, B. E.; van der Velde, M.; Green, S. R.; Gee, G. W.; Manu, V.; Menoniti, V.; Vanclooster, M.

    2005-05-01

    Intensification of agriculture on the raised coral atolls of the Tongan archipelago, notably through squash-pumpkin production, has lead to increased use of agrichemicals. Agrichemicals, both fertilisers and pesticides, pose a risk to these fragile environments. Sustainable land-management practices are needed for small-island developing states. On Tongatapu, solutes leaving the rootzone of the squash can rapidly find their way to the underlying freshwater lenses. These lenses are hydraulically linked to the internal lagoon, and the fringing reefs. We have used buried, non-suction fluxmeters to monitor both the quantity and quality of drainage leaving the rootzone of squash. Fertiliser is traditionally applied at planting. During establishment of the squash in 2003, some 350 mm of rain fell, with 70 % of this leaving the rootzone of this permeable soil as drainage. The concentration of nitrate-N in the drainage water was measured at around 50 mg-N/L. All of the initial fertiliser dressing had been lost, along with N mineralised from the plowed-in grass. Pesticides are needed in humid tropical environments to control weeds, pests and diseases. These chemicals can leach though the rootzone to contaminate receiving waters. We modeled the transport and fate of the presticides used in squash production, and we developed a Decision Support Tool (DST). Our DST can be used to select the best pesticides for local conditions, to tailor practices for minimising leaching losses below the rootzone, and to avoid the build-up of residues in the soil. This project, funded by the European Union and NZAID, took a multi-disciplinary approach through measurement and modeling protocols. Our DST enabled us to engage the wider community and stakeholders. There has been increased awareness of the impacts and risks associated with productive land management in the fragile hydrological environments of this small-island developing state.

  11. Hourly measurements of fine particulate sulfate and carbon aerosols at the Harvard-U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Supersite in Boston.

    PubMed

    Kang, Choong-Min; Koutrakis, Petros; Suh, Helen H

    2010-11-01

    Hourly concentrations of ambient fine particle sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols (elemental carbon [EC], organic carbon [OC], and black carbon [BC]) were measured at the Harvard-U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Supersite in Boston, MA, between January 2007 and October 2008. These hourly concentrations were compared with those made using integrated filter-based measurements over 6-day or 24-hr periods. For sulfate, the two measurement methods showed good agreement. Semicontinuous measurements of EC and OC also agreed (but not as well as for sulfate) with those obtained using 24-hr integrated filter-based and optical BC reference methods. During the study period, 24-hr PM2.5 (particulate matter [PM] < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) concentrations ranged from 1.4 to 37.6 microg/m3, with an average of 9.3 microg/m3. Sulfate as the equivalent of ammonium sulfate accounted for 39.1% of the PM2.5 mass, whereas EC and OC accounted for 4.2 and 35.2%, respectively. Hourly sulfate concentrations showed no distinct diurnal pattern, whereas hourly EC and BC concentrations peaked during the morning rush hour between 7:00 and 9:00 a.m. OC concentrations also exhibited nonpronounced, small peaks during the day, most likely related to traffic, secondary organic aerosol, and local sources, respectively.

  12. Measurement and mitigation of corrosion on self-contained fluid filled (SCFF) submarine circuits for New York Power Authority: Volume 2 -- Stray electrical current measurements and preliminary design of the cathodic protection system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    In 1987, the New York Power Authority (NYPA) installed a 345-kV submarine cable circuit across Long Island Sound between substations at Davenport Neck and Hempstead Harbor. During design and installation of the cable circuit, utility and cable manufacturers engineers identified corrosion as a possible problem for the cable system. They considered such effects in the cable design and discussed preliminary requirements for a cathodic protection system on Long Island Sound circuit. EPRI cosponsored this review of the corrosion effects with NYPA and Empire State Electric Energy Research Corp. (ESEERCO). Volume 1 of this report discusses the results from an in-depth evaluation of the self-contained fluid-filled (SCFF) cable construction materials and their susceptibility to corrosion. Volume 2 provides extended stray current field measurements and a preliminary design for a cathodic protection system to ensure cable service reliability. This study provides a blueprint for East or West Coast utilities evaluating site-specific corrosion processes and cable circuit protection methods suitable for underwater environments.

  13. Barriers to help-seeking, detection, and adequate treatment for anxiety and mood disorders: implications for health care policy.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, David

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the focus of health policies and initiatives has been directed toward mental health. More precisely, depressive and anxiety disorders have received particular attention because of their disabling outcomes and prevalence among most populations. Despite this increased interest, numerous issues regarding patients' willingness to seek treatment and the adequate recognition and treatment of these disorders by clinicians remain to be addressed. This article considers the factors that influence patients and physicians in their reticence to acknowledge and adequately treat depression and anxiety disorders. It also reviews the impact of society and the media, together with other factors relating to health care organization and administration that affect the treatment of depression and anxiety. In view of the multifaceted challenge involved, efforts to achieve a consensus in determining treatment for those with depressive and anxiety disorders are essential. A consensus will require easy, measurable, and reliable disability indicators; evidence that treatment of patients with varying levels of need is cost effective; and that persons who most need and would benefit from care can be reliably identified among the highly prevalent population of persons with more transient symptoms. Governments and other policymakers should be encouraged to provide appropriate coverage for access to primary and secondary care, the treatments required, and sufficient resources so that care is available when necessary. An important aspect of the challenge is to incorporate these efforts within the realistic constraints of primary care.

  14. Calculation of the sun protection factor of sunscreens with different vehicles using measured film thickness distribution - Comparison with the SPF in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Myriam; Herzog, Bernd; Osterwalder, Uli; Imanidis, Georgios

    2016-06-01

    The sun protection factor (SPF) depends on UV filter composition, and amount and type of vehicle of the applied sunscreen. In an earlier work, we showed that the vehicle affected the average thickness of sunscreen film that is formed upon application to a skin substrate and that film thickness correlated significantly with SPF in vitro. In the present study, we quantitatively assess the role for sunscreen efficacy of the complete film thickness frequency distribution of sunscreen measured with an oil-in-water cream, an oil-in-water spray, a gel, a water-in-oil, and an alcoholic spray formulation. A computational method is employed to determine SPF in silico from calculated UV transmittance based on experimental film thickness and thickness distribution, and concentration and spectral properties of the UV filters. The investigated formulations exhibited different SPFs in vitro and different film thickness distributions especially in the small thickness range. We found a very good agreement between SPF in silico and SPF in vitro for all sunscreens. This result establishes the relationship between sun protection and the film thickness distribution actually formed by the applied sunscreen and demonstrates that variation in SPF between formulations is primarily due to their film forming properties. It also opens the possibility to integrate the influence of vehicle into tools for in silico prediction of the performance of sunscreen formulations. For this, the use of the Gamma distribution was found to be appropriate for describing film thickness distribution.

  15. The effects of protection measures on fish assemblage in the Plemmirio marine reserve (Central Mediterranean Sea, Italy): A first assessment 5 years after its establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierpaolo, Consoli; Gianluca, Sarà; Gianfranco, Mazza; Pietro, Battaglia; Teresa, Romeo; Vincenzo, Incontro; Franco, Andaloro

    2013-05-01

    This 2-year study was aimed to investigate the early effects of protection measures on fish assemblage in the Plemmirio marine reserve and to evaluate its level of enforcement. Sampling was carried out by means of underwater visual census techniques in four sampling sites within the reserve boundaries and eight outside the reserve. Results showed significant inside/outside differences in the multivariate abundance of fish assemblage. These results were confirmed and exemplified by significant univariate differences between locations for total abundance, Species Richness and diversity of the fish assemblage; values of these metrics were higher inside the reserve than outside. Small fish size and species of low and medium fishing value did not display significant inside/outside differences in abundances whereas medium, large size fish and high value species showed abundances significantly higher inside the marine reserve. Protection effects were particularly evident for large specimens of high fishing value, most of which were exclusively found inside the reserve (Diplodus puntazzo, Epinephelus costae, Mycteroperca rubra, Scorpaena scrofa, Spondyliosoma cantharus, Sciaena umbra and Epinephelus marginatus). The present study provides evidence of a reserve effect on fish populations after only five years since its establishment. This is an extraordinary result likely due to the high level of enforcement observed inside the Plemmirio MPA.

  16. The concept of adequate causation and Max Weber's comparative sociology of religion.

    PubMed

    Buss, A

    1999-06-01

    Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, studied in isolation, shows mainly an elective affinity or an adequacy on the level of meaning between the Protestant ethic and the 'spirit' of capitalism. Here it is suggested that Weber's subsequent essays on 'The Economic Ethics of World Religions' are the result of his opinion that adequacy on the level of meaning needs and can be verified by causal adequacy. After some introductory remarks, particularly on elective affinity, the paper tries to develop the concept of adequate causation and the related concept of objective possibility on the basis of the work of v. Kries on whom Weber heavily relied. In the second part, this concept is used to show how the study of the economic ethics of India, China, Rome and orthodox Russia can support the thesis that the 'spirit' of capitalism, although it may not have been caused by the Protestant ethic, was perhaps adequately caused by it.

  17. Ensuring smokers are adequately informed: reflections on consumer rights, manufacturer responsibilities, and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, S; Liberman, J

    2005-01-01

    The right to information is a fundamental consumer value. Following the advent of health warnings, the tobacco industry has repeatedly asserted that smokers are fully informed of the risks they take, while evidence demonstrates widespread superficial levels of awareness and understanding. There remains much that tobacco companies could do to fulfil their responsibilities to inform smokers. We explore issues involved in the meaning of "adequately informed" smoking and discuss some of the key policy and regulatory implications. We use the idea of a smoker licensing scheme—under which it would be illegal to sell to smokers who had not demonstrated an adequate level of awareness—as a device to explore some of these issues. We also explore some of the difficulties that addiction poses for the notion that smokers might ever voluntarily assume the risks of smoking. PMID:16046703

  18. Myth 19: Is Advanced Placement an Adequate Program for Gifted Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Shelagh A.

    2009-01-01

    Is it a myth that Advanced Placement (AP) is an adequate program for gifted students? AP is so covered with myths and assumptions that it is hard to get a clear view of the issues. In this article, the author finds the answer about AP by looking at current realties. First, AP is hard for gifted students to avoid. Second, AP never was a program…

  19. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    PubMed Central

    Godrich, Stephanie L.; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R.; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD) (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions) and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA). Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256) living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23). A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20) for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007), promotion (p = 0.017), location of food outlets (p = 0.027), and price (p = 0.043). Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned) are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing. PMID:28054955

  20. Oil & gas in the 1990`s and beyond: Adequate supplies, growing demand, flat prices

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.L.

    1995-06-01

    Long term petroleum market fundamentals are clear: supplies are adequate and world demand will continue to grow steadily. Adequate supplies insure that prices will not increase significantly, on average, till the end of the 1990`s, probably much beyond. Despite plentiful supply and modest price increases, there will be peaks and valleys in the price graph as productive capacity is used up, then expanded. Tens of billions of dollars will be needed over the next decade to expand producing capacity. World oil consumption will increase at about 1.5% per year, at least for the next decade. Demand in Asia and Latin America will grow several times faster than this average world rate. World natural gas demand will grow at more then 2% per year well past 2000. Oil and gas companies around the world have changed the way they operate to survive the market realities of the 1990`s. restructuring, outsourcing, and partnering will continue as increasing costs and flat prices squeeze profits. Energy use patterns will change. Fuel and other product specifications will change. Market shares of oil and gas will shift. But opportunities abound in this new market environment. Growing markets always provide opportunities. Technology has helped operators dramatically lower finding, developing, and producing costs. The petroleum age is far from being over. Growing markets, adequate supply, affordable products, and a 60% market share. Those are the signs of an industry with a bright future.

  1. A test for adequate wastewater treatment based on glutathione S transferase isoenzyme profile.

    PubMed

    Grammou, A; Samaras, P; Papadimitriou, C; Papadopoulos, A I

    2013-04-01

    Discharge to the environment of treated or non-treated municipal wastewater imposes several threats to coastal and estuarine ecosystems which are difficult to assess. In our study we evaluate the use of the isoenzyme profile of glutathione S transferase (GST) in combination with the kinetic characteristics of the whole enzyme and of heme peroxidase, as a test of adequate treatment of municipal wastewater. For this reason, Artemia nauplii were incubated in artificial seawater prepared by wastewater samples, such as secondary municipal effluents produced by a conventional activated sludge unit and advanced treated effluents produced by the employment of coagulation, activated carbon adsorption and chlorination as single processes or as combined ones. Characteristic changes of the isoenzyme pattern and the enzymes' kinetic properties were caused by chlorinated secondary municipal effluent or by secondary non-chlorinated effluent. Advanced treatment by combination of coagulation and/or carbon adsorption resulted to less prominent changes, suggesting more adequate treatment. Our results suggest that GST isoenzyme profile in combination with the kinetic properties of the total enzyme family is a sensitive test for the evaluation of the adequateness of the treatment of reclaimed wastewater and the reduction of potentially harmful compounds. Potentially, it may offer a 'fingerprint' characteristic of a particular effluent and probably of the treatment level it has been subjected.

  2. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Progress Report, February 1991-February 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, Thomas P.

    1992-12-31

    This document is the 1991 annual report of progress for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) research Project conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Our approach was to present the progress achieved during 1991 in a series of separate reports for each major project task. Each report is prepared in the format of a scientific paper and is able to stand alone, whatever the state of progress or completion. This project has two major goals. One is to understand the significance of selective predation and prey vulnerability by determining if substandard juvenile salmonids (dead, injured, stressed, diseased, or naive) are more vulnerable to predation by northern squawfish, than standard or normal juvenile salmonids. The second goal is to develop and test prey protection measures to control predation on juvenile salmonids by reducing predator-smolt encounters or predator capture efficiency.

  3. Minimum exposure limits and measured relationships between the vitamin D, erythema and international commission on non-ionizing radiation protection solar ultraviolet.

    PubMed

    Downs, Nathan; Parisi, Alfio; Butler, Harry; Turner, Joanna; Wainwright, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has established guidelines for exposure to ultraviolet radiation in outdoor occupational settings. Spectrally weighted ICNIRP ultraviolet exposures received by the skin or eye in an 8 h period are limited to 30 J m(-2). In this study, the time required to reach the ICNIRP exposure limit was measured daily in 10 min intervals upon a horizontal plane at a subtropical Australian latitude over a full year and compared with the effective Vitamin D dose received to one-quarter of the available skin surface area for all six Fitzpatrick skin types. The comparison of measured solar ultraviolet exposures for the full range of sky conditions in the 2009 measurement period, including a major September continental dust event, show a clear relationship between the weighted ICNIRP and the effective vitamin D dose. Our results show that the horizontal plane ICNIRP ultraviolet exposure may be used under these conditions to provide minimum guidelines for the healthy moderation of vitamin D, scalable to each of the six Fitzpatrick skin types.

  4. Monitoring the level of government trust, risk perception and intention of the general public to adopt protective measures during the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background During the course of an influenza pandemic, governments know relatively little about the possibly changing influence of government trust, risk perception, and receipt of information on the public's intention to adopt protective measures or on the acceptance of vaccination. This study aims to identify and describe possible changes in and factors associated with public's intentions during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in the Netherlands. Methods Sixteen cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted (N = 8060) between April - November 2009. From these repeated measurements three consecutive periods were categorized based on crucial events during the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic. Time trends in government trust, risk perception, intention to adopt protective measures, and the acceptance of vaccination were analysed. Factors associated with an intention to adopt protective measures or vaccination were identified. Results Trust in the government was high, but decreased over time. During the course of the pandemic, perceived vulnerability and an intention to adopt protective measures increased. Trust and vulnerability were associated with an intention to adopt protective measures in general only during period one. Higher levels of intention to receive vaccination were associated with increased government trust, fear/worry, and perceived vulnerability. In periods two and three receipt of information was positively associated with an intention to adopt protective measures. Most respondents wanted to receive information about infection prevention from municipal health services, health care providers, and the media. Conclusions The Dutch response to the H1N1 virus was relatively muted. Higher levels of trust in the government, fear/worry, and perceived vulnerability were all positively related to an intention to accept vaccination. Only fear/worry was positively linked to an intention to adopt protective measures during the entire pandemic. Risk and crisis

  5. An Increase in Consuming Adequately Iodized Salt May Not Be Enough to Rectify Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy in an Iodine-Sufficient Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhifang; Zhu, Wenming; Mo, Zhe; Wang, Yuanyang; Mao, Guangming; Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Universal salt iodization (USI) has been implemented for two decades in China. It is crucial to periodically monitor iodine status in the most vulnerable population, such as pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was carried out in an evidence-proved iodine-sufficient province to evaluate iodine intake in pregnancy. According to the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation criteria of adequate iodine intake in pregnancy (150–249 µg/L), the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of the total 8159 recruited pregnant women was 147.5 µg/L, which indicated pregnant women had iodine deficiency at the province level. Overall, 51.0% of the total study participants had iodine deficiency with a UIC < 150 µg/L and only 32.9% of them had adequate iodine. Participants living in coastal areas had iodine deficiency with a median UIC of 130.1 µg/L, while those in inland areas had marginally adequate iodine intake with a median UIC of 158.1 µg/L (p < 0.001). Among the total study participants, 450 pregnant women consuming non-iodized salt had mild-moderate iodine deficiency with a median UIC of 99.6 µg/L; 7363 pregnant women consuming adequately iodized salt had a lightly statistically higher median UIC of 151.9 µg/L, compared with the recommended adequate level by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD (p < 0.001). Consuming adequately iodized salt seemed to lightly increase the median UIC level, but it may not be enough to correct iodine nutrition status to an optimum level as recommended by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD. We therefore suggest that, besides strengthening USI policy, additional interventive measure may be needed to improve iodine intake in pregnancy. PMID:28230748

  6. Sports eyewear protective standards.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed.

  7. Survey of wildlife rehabilitators on infection control and personal protective behaviors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saito, E.K.; Shreve, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Wildlife veterinarians and rehabilitators treat a number of wildlife species that can carry infectious and zoonotic diseases. These can rapidly spread within a facility and to the caregivers when adequate measures are not taken. Financial constraints and reduced access to laboratories often limit identification of disease etiology of many cases admitted into wildlife rehabilitation centers. A survey to investigate wildlife rehabilitator illness during the 2002 West Nile virus season indicated that many rehabilitators do not follow adequate protective measures in their facilities and may not seek medical care when disease symptoms arise or even linger. The recommended precautions and proper infection control measures for those handling and housing wildlife cases should be discussed between rehabilitators and their attending veterinarian(s).

  8. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  9. The Nigerian health care system: Need for integrating adequate medical intelligence and surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Menizibeya Osain

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods: Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe) health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results: Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion: The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine surveillance and medical

  10. Nebulized antibiotics. An adequate option for treating ventilator-associated respiratory infection?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Barcenilla, F

    2015-03-01

    Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) is a frequent complication in critical patients. The 90% of those who develop it receive broad-spectrum antibiotic (ATB) treatment, without any strong evidence of its favorable impact. The use of nebulized ATB could be a valid treatment option, to reduce the use of systemic ATB and the pressure of selection on the local flora. Several studies suggest that an adequate nebulization technique can ensure high levels of ATB even in areas of lung consolidation, and to obtain clinical and microbiological cure. New studies are needed to properly assess the impact of treatment with nebulized ATB on the emergence of resistance.

  11. Computer synthesis of human motion as a part of an adequate motion analysis experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Alexandre A.; Sholukha, Victor A.; Zinkovsky, Anatoly V.

    1999-05-01

    The role of problem of computer synthesis of a human motion for a traditional problem of control generalized and muscular forces determination is discussed. It is emphasized significance of computer model choice for adequate analysis kinematic and dynamic experimental data. On the basis of an imitation computer model influence of model's parameters values is demonstrated. With help of non-stationary constraints we can simulate human motions that satisfy to the most significant parameters of the concerned class of motion. Some results of simulation are discussed. We arrive at a conclusion that for correct interpretation of an experiment mixed problem of bodies system dynamics must be solved.

  12. Health Insecurity and Social Protection: Pathways, Gaps, and Their Implications on Health Outcomes and Poverty.

    PubMed

    Gama, Elvis

    2015-11-27

    Health insecurity has emerged as a major concern among health policy-makers particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It includes the inability to secure adequate healthcare today and the risk of being unable to do so in the future as well as impoverishing healthcare expenditure. The increasing health insecurity among 150 million of the world's poor has moved social protection in health (SPH) to the top of the agenda among health policy-makers globally. This paper aims to provide a debate on the potential of social protection contribution to addressing health insecurity, poverty, and vulnerability brought by healthcare expenditure in low-income countries, to explore the gaps in current and proposed social protection measures in healthcare and provide suggestions on how social protection intervention aimed at addressing health insecurity, poverty, and vulnerability may be effectively implemented.

  13. Health Insecurity and Social Protection: Pathways, Gaps, and Their Implications on Health Outcomes and Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Gama, Elvis

    2016-01-01

    Health insecurity has emerged as a major concern among health policy-makers particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It includes the inability to secure adequate healthcare today and the risk of being unable to do so in the future as well as impoverishing healthcare expenditure. The increasing health insecurity among 150 million of the world’s poor has moved social protection in health (SPH) to the top of the agenda among health policy-makers globally. This paper aims to provide a debate on the potential of social protection contribution to addressing health insecurity, poverty, and vulnerability brought by healthcare expenditure in low-income countries, to explore the gaps in current and proposed social protection measures in healthcare and provide suggestions on how social protection intervention aimed at addressing health insecurity, poverty, and vulnerability may be effectively implemented. PMID:26927589

  14. Region 5: Ohio Lima and Wheeling Adequate Letter (4/18/2007)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency determined the 2009 and 2018 motor vehicle emission budgets (MVEBs) for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for the Allen County (Lima), Belmont County (Wheeling),

  15. Use of the Oslo-Potsdam Solution to test the effect of an environmental education model on tangible measures of environmental protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Philip Craig

    The fundamental goals of environmental education include the creation of an environmentally literate citizenry possessing the knowledge, skills, and motivation to objectively analyze environmental issues and engage in responsible behaviors leading to issue resolution and improved or maintained environmental quality. No existing research, however, has linked educational practices and environmental protection. In an original attempt to quantify the pedagogy - environmental protection relationship, both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to investigate local environmental records and environmental quality indices that reflected the results of student actions. The data were analyzed using an educational adaptation of the "Oslo-Potsdam Solution for International Environmental Regime Effectiveness." The new model, termed the Environmental Education Performance Indicator (EEPI), was developed and evaluated as a quantitative tool for testing and fairly comparing the efficacy of student-initiated environmental projects in terms of environmental quality measures. Five case studies were developed from descriptions of student actions and environmental impacts as revealed by surveys and interviews with environmental education teachers using the IEEIA (Investigating and Evaluating Environmental Issues and Actions) curriculum, former students, community members, and agency officials. Archival information was also used to triangulate the data. In addition to evaluating case study data on the basis of the EEPI model, an expert panel of evaluators consisting of professionals from environmental education, natural sciences, environmental policy, and environmental advocacy provided subjective assessments on the effectiveness of each case study. The results from this study suggest that environmental education interventions can equip and empower students to act on their own conclusions in a manner that leads to improved or maintained environmental conditions. The EEPI model

  16. Protective Eyewear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > NEI for Kids > Protective Eyewear All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  17. [Incidence of primary malignant lesions in clinically benign teratoma: on the problem of adequate surgical procedure].

    PubMed

    Kindermann, G; Jung, E M; Maassen, V; Bise, K

    1996-08-01

    The Problem of an Adequate Surgical Approach: Frequency of malignant teratomas is, according to the literature, 2%-10%. Examining 194 own cases (1983-1993) it was 1.5%. We found one squamous cell carcinoma (0.5%). Additionally we found 2 immature teratomas (1%). We point out the different biological behaviour of malignant mature teratomas and immature teratomas. We agree with the majority of authors that the method of choice is the intact removal of all teratomas without iatrogen rupture or contamination of the abdominal cavity by contents of the teratoma. This adequate surgical procedure can and should be performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy with endobag. The often practised method of cutting open the cyst during laparoscopy, sucking off the contents or cutting the teratoma into pieces, has been proven to lead to implantation and worsening the prognosis in case of a malignant teratoma. Even the rinsing of the abdominal cavity, usually carried out with this method, could not compensate always for the disadvantage of this "dirty" endoscopical method compared with usual oncological standards. This is pointed out by case reports in the literature and the first analysis of a German survey with early-follow-up of 192 laparoscopically managed ovarian malignancies [11a]. The principle of intact removal of every teratoma should again be kept in mind.

  18. MRI can determine the adequate area for debridement in the case of Fournier's gangrene.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Akira; Fujita, Fumihiko; Tokai, Hirotaka; Ito, Yuichiro; Haraguchi, Masashi; Tajima, Yoshitsugu; Kanematsu, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    A 57-year-old man was transferred to our hospital because of gluteal pain. His right buttock had flare and swelling. Complete blood count showed leukocytosis, and renal failure was evident. Pelvic computed tomography (CT) revealed that the abscess, including gas, was widespread into the hypodermal tissue of the right buttock. Fournier's gangrene had been suspected, and immediate drainage was performed on the right buttock. The symptom and the condition improved rapidly, but on the day after the operation, the patient became drowsy and fell into endotoxic shock. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed strong inflammation along the entire fascia of the right femur and necrotizing fasciitis. MRI was very useful for identification of the necrotic range. Immediately, an emergency operation was performed; 3 wide incisions were made on the right thigh and crus for drainage. The patient was cared for intensively under a sedated condition, and irrigation and debridement were repeated every day. Culture of the pus revealed mixed infection of Escherichia coli and anaerobic bacteria, and a large quantity of antimicrobial drug was used. The inflammatory reaction decreased, and the patient's general condition tentatively improved. With Fournier's gangrene, initiating adequate surgical and medical treatment is essential. Therefore, MRI should be used in the early exact diagnosis of this disease to obtain knowledge of the extent of necrosis and to determine the adequate area for debridement.

  19. Duration of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Infectiousness under Adequate Therapy, as Assessed Using Induced Sputum Samples

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yousang; Shin, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Suh-Young; Park, So Young; Mo, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Changhwan

    2017-01-01

    Background A sputum culture is the most reliable indicator of the infectiousness of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB); however, a spontaneous sputum specimen may not be suitable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the infectious period in patients with non–drug-resistant (DR) PTB receiving adequate standard chemotherapy, using induced sputum (IS) specimens. Methods We evaluated the duration of infectiousness of PTB using a retrospective cohort design. Results Among the 35 patients with PTB, 22 were smear-positive. The rates of IS culture positivity from baseline to the sixth week of anti-tuberculosis medication in the smear-positive PTB group were 100%, 100%, 91%, 73%, 36%, and 18%, respectively. For smear-positive PTB cases, the median time of conversion to culture negativity was 35.0 days (range, 28.0–42.0 days). In the smear-negative PTB group (n=13), the weekly rates of positive IS culture were 100%, 77%, 39%, 8%, 0%, and 0%, respectively, and the median time to conversion to culture-negative was 21.0 days (range, 17.5–28.0 days). Conclusion The infectiousness of PTB, under adequate therapy, may persist longer than previously reported, even in patients with non-DR PTB. PMID:28119744

  20. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing. 1

  1. External Ventricular Catheters: Is It Appropriate to Use an Open/Monitor Position to Adequately Trend Intracranial Pressure in a Neuroscience Critical Care Environment?

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Nicole E; Villanueva, Nancy E; Pazuchanics, Susan J

    2016-10-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring can be an important assessment tool in critically and acutely ill patients. An external ventricular drain offers a comprehensive way to monitor ICP and drain cerebrospinal fluid. The Monro-Kellie hypothesis, Pascal's principle, and fluid dynamics were used to formulate an assumption that an open/monitor position on the stopcock is an adequate trending measure for ICP monitoring while concurrently draining cerebrospinal fluid. Data were collected from 50 patients and totaled 1053 separate number sets. The open/monitor position was compared with the clamped position every hour. An order for "open to drain" was needed for appropriate measurement and nursing care. Results showed the absolute average differences between open/monitor and clamped positions at 1.6268 mm Hg. This finding suggests that it is appropriate to use an open/monitor position via an external ventricular drain for adequate trending of patients' ICP.

  2. [Assessment of protective properties of gloves used in manufacturing of fiber glass products].

    PubMed

    Sul'zhenko, A I

    1990-01-01

    The article deals with an account of occurrence and specific features of protecting gloves' damages and contamination of their inner surfaces. The results proved that rubber and knitter gloves cannot protect the hands adequately and must be changed.

  3. Precise ablation of dental hard tissues with ultra-short pulsed lasers. Preliminary exploratory investigation on adequate laser parameters.

    PubMed

    Bello-Silva, Marina Stella; Wehner, Martin; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula; Lampert, Friedrich; Poprawe, Reinhart; Hermans, Martin; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of introducing ultra-short pulsed lasers (USPL) in restorative dentistry by maintaining the well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also overcoming disadvantages, such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. USPL ablation of dental hard tissues was investigated in two phases. Phase 1--different wavelengths (355, 532, 1,045, and 1,064 nm), pulse durations (picoseconds and femtoseconds) and irradiation parameters (scanning speed, output power, and pulse repetition rate) were assessed for enamel and dentin. Ablation rate was determined, and the temperature increase measured in real time. Phase 2--the most favorable laser parameters were evaluated to correlate temperature increase to ablation rate and ablation efficiency. The influence of cooling methods (air, air-water spray) on ablation process was further analyzed. All parameters tested provided precise and selective tissue ablation. For all lasers, faster scanning speeds resulted in better interaction and reduced temperature increase. The most adequate results were observed for the 1064-nm ps-laser and the 1045-nm fs-laser. Forced cooling caused moderate changes in temperature increase, but reduced ablation, being considered unnecessary during irradiation with USPL. For dentin, the correlation between temperature increase and ablation efficiency was satisfactory for both pulse durations, while for enamel, the best correlation was observed for fs-laser, independently of the power used. USPL may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, since effective ablation and low temperature increase were observed. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this technique seems to be promising for promoting the laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach.

  4. Adequate health literacy is associated with higher heart failure knowledge and self-care confidence in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Cheryl R; McEntee, Mindy L; Samuel, Laura; Johnson, Brandon J; Rotman, Stacey; Kielty, Alexandra; Russell, Stuart D

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) patients with inadequate health literacy are at increased risk for poor self-care and negative health outcomes such as hospital readmission. The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of inadequate health literacy, the reliability of the Dutch HF Knowledge Scale (DHFKS) and the Self-care of Heart Failure Index (SCHFI), and the differences in HF knowledge, HF self-care, and 30-day readmission rate by health literacy level among patients hospitalized with HF. The convenience sample included adults (n = 95) admitted to a large, urban, teaching hospital whose primary diagnosis was HF. Measures included the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, the DHFKS, the SCHFI, and readmission at 30 days after discharge. The sample was 59 ± 14 years in age, 51% male, and 67% African American; 35% had less than a high school education, 35% were employed, 73% lived with someone who helps with their HF care, and 16% were readmitted within 30 days of index admission. Health literacy was inadequate for 42%, marginal for 19%, and adequate for 39%. Reliability of the DHFKS and SCHFI scales was comparable to prior reports. Mean knowledge score was 11.43 ± 2.26; SCHFI subscale scores were 56.82 ± 17.12 for maintenance, 63.64 ± 18.29 for management, and 65.02 ± 16.34 for confidence. Those with adequate health literacy were younger and had higher education level, HF knowledge scores, and HF self-care confidence compared with those with marginal or inadequate health literacy. Self-care maintenance and management scores and 30-day readmission rate did not differ by health literacy level. These findings demonstrate the high prevalence of inadequate and marginal health literacy and that health literacy is an important consideration in promoting HF knowledge and confidence in self-care behaviors, particularly among older adults and those with less than a high school education.

  5. Direct effects protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Protection of an aircraft and each of its various systems against the direct effects of lightning were analyzed. Components located in different sections of the aircraft were individually examined since they are likely to experience different degrees of susceptibility to lightning, and may be vulnerable to different components of the lightning flash. The basic steps to be followed in establishing lightning protection were presented by discussing the varieties of arc entry and current flow-through damage. The lightning-strike zones and lightning current environments are established, since environmental conditions in the zones are those under which specific protective measures must perform. Airworthiness regulations which apply to lightning protection are cited.

  6. Impact of Rabies Vaccination History on Attainment of an Adequate Antibody Titre Among Dogs Tested for International Travel Certification, Israel - 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Yakobson, B; Taylor, N; Dveres, N; Rotblat, S; Spero, Ż; Lankau, E W; Maki, J

    2016-12-02

    Rabies is endemic in wildlife or domestic carnivore populations globally. Infection of domestic dogs is of particular concern in many areas. In regions where domestic animals are at risk of exposure to rabies virus, dogs should be routinely vaccinated against rabies to protect both pet and human populations. Many countries require demonstration of an adequate level of serum rabies neutralizing antibodies to permit entry of dogs during international travel. We analysed rabies titres of dogs seeking travel certification in Israel to assess demographic and vaccine history factors associated with antibody titres below the acceptable threshold for travel certification. Having received only one previous rabies vaccination and a longer duration since the most recent vaccination was received were primary risk factors for not achieving an adequate rabies virus neutralizing antibody titre for travel certification. These risk factors had stronger effects in younger animals, but were consistent for dogs of all ages. In particular, these findings reiterate the importance of administering at least two rabies vaccinations (the primo vaccination and subsequent booster) to ensure population-level protection against rabies in dogs globally.

  7. Wired for Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Describes how growing acceptance of security measures such as access-control cards, video surveillance, and biometric devices is allowing colleges to protect students and their belongings more effectively. (EV)

  8. Laser eye protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Ralph G.; Labo, Jack A.; Mayo, Michael W.

    1990-07-01

    Laser applications have proliferated in recent years and as to be expected their presence is no longer confined to the laboratory or places where access to their radiation can be easily controlled. One obvious application where this is so is in military operations where various devices such as laser range finders target designators and secure communications equipment elevate the risk of exposure specifically eye exposure to unacceptable levels. Although the need for eye protection in the laboratory and other controlled areas has been appreciated since the invention of the laser the use of lasers in circumstances where safety or the risk of temporary loss of vision which can not always be ensured by administrative procedures has made adequate eye protection essential. It is the critical nature of many military operations that has driven the search for eye protection against both nuclear and laser radiation. At the same time the requirement to maintain useful vision during irradiation as well as advances in laser technology have complicated the problem enormously. Pertinent aspects of the problem such as laser characteristics- -pulse width repetition rate laser wavelength tunability or agility as well as laser power or energy have been placed in perspective. In addition possible effects on vision for various exposures have been estimated as have the characteristics required of eye protective devices. Various classes of devices are discussed and advantages and disadvantages noted. 1.

  9. Efficient expansion of global protected areas requires simultaneous planning for species and ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Polak, Tal; Watson, James E. M.; Fuller, Richard A.; Joseph, Liana N.; Martin, Tara G.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Venter, Oscar; Carwardine, Josie

    2015-01-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)'s strategic plan advocates the use of environmental surrogates, such as ecosystems, as a basis for planning where new protected areas should be placed. However, the efficiency and effectiveness of this ecosystem-based planning approach to adequately capture threatened species in protected area networks is unknown. We tested the application of this approach in Australia according to the nation's CBD-inspired goals for expansion of the national protected area system. We set targets for ecosystems (10% of the extent of each ecosystem) and threatened species (variable extents based on persistence requirements for each species) and then measured the total land area required and opportunity cost of meeting those targets independently, sequentially and simultaneously. We discover that an ecosystem-based approach will not ensure the adequate representation of threatened species in protected areas. Planning simultaneously for species and ecosystem targets delivered the most efficient outcomes for both sets of targets, while planning first for ecosystems and then filling the gaps to meet species targets was the most inefficient conservation strategy. Our analysis highlights the pitfalls of pursuing goals for species and ecosystems non-cooperatively and has significant implications for nations aiming to meet their CBD mandated protected area obligations. PMID:26064645

  10. US protected lands mismatch biodiversity priorities

    PubMed Central

    Pimm, Stuart L.; Sexton, Joseph O.

    2015-01-01

    Because habitat loss is the main cause of extinction, where and how much society chooses to protect is vital for saving species. The United States is well positioned economically and politically to pursue habitat conservation should it be a societal goal. We assessed the US protected area portfolio with respect to biodiversity in the country. New synthesis maps for terrestrial vertebrates, freshwater fish, and trees permit comparison with protected areas to identify priorities for future conservation investment. Although the total area protected is substantial, its geographic configuration is nearly the opposite of patterns of endemism within the country. Most protected lands are in the West, whereas the vulnerable species are largely in the Southeast. Private land protections are significant, but they are not concentrated where the priorities are. To adequately protect the nation’s unique biodiversity, we recommend specific areas deserving additional protection, some of them including public lands, but many others requiring private investment. PMID:25847995

  11. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Report, February 1992-February 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, Thomas P.; Gadomski, Dena M.

    1994-09-01

    This document is the 1992 annual report of progress for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) research Project No. 82-003 conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), the Oregon Cooperative Fishery Research Unit (OCFRU), and the Idaho Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (ICFWRU). The approach was to present the progress achieved during 1992 in a series of separate reports for each major project task. Each report is prepared in the format of a scientific paper and is able to stand alone, whatever the state of progress or completion. Reports 1, 2, and 4 consist of the Abstract only (journal papers were submitted in lieu of reports). This project has two major goals. One is to understand the significance of selective predation and prey vulnerability by determining if substandard juvenile salmonids (dead, injured, stressed, diseased, or naive) are more vulnerable to predation by northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, than standard or normal juvenile salmonids. The second goal is to develop and test prey protection measures to control predation on juvenile salmonids by reducing predator-smolt encounters or predator capture efficiency. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the database for the seven articles in this report.

  12. An application of the NCRP screening techniques to atmospheric radon releases from the former feed materials production center near Fernald, Ohio. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

    PubMed

    Miller, C W

    1999-11-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements has published a series of screening models for releases of radionuclides to the environment. These models have been used to prioritize radionuclides being considered in environmental dose reconstructions. The NCRP atmospheric models are also accepted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for demonstrating compliance with the constraint on releases of airborne radioactive materials to the environment from licensees other than power reactors. This study tested the NCRP atmospheric techniques by comparing annual average predicted air concentrations of radon with measured radon concentrations at 14 locations 43 m to 598 m downwind of the former U.S. Department of Energy Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) near Fernald, Ohio, for the period 2 July 1985 to 2 July 1986. Predictions were made using five different sets of meteorological data as input: (1) NCRP default values; (2) composite FMPC site data; (3) data from the Greater Cincinnati Airport; (4) data from the Dayton, Ohio, airport; and (5) data collected at Miami University, located near Oxford, Ohio. Following are the respective medians and ranges of the ratio of the predicted to observed annual radon air concentrations for each of these sources of meteorological data: (1) 5.2, 0.9-54; (2) 1.4, 0.1-8.2; (3) 0.7, 0.1-7.2; (4) 0.7, 0.1-8.4; and (5) 0.6, 0.1-10. The stated goal of the NCRP models is to predict doses that do not underpredict actual doses by greater than a factor of 10. In this comparison, all of the meteorological data produced air concentration predictions that meet this criteria. However, to ensure that final doses meet this criterion, one would need to carefully evaluate all assumptions used to calculate dose from each of these air concentrations.

  13. Using Computer Vision and Depth Sensing to Measure Healthcare Worker-Patient Contacts and Personal Protective Equipment Adherence Within Hospital Rooms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junyang; Cremer, James F; Zarei, Kasra; Segre, Alberto M; Polgreen, Philip M

    2016-01-01

    Background.  We determined the feasibility of using computer vision and depth sensing to detect healthcare worker (HCW)-patient contacts to estimate both hand hygiene (HH) opportunities and personal protective equipment (PPE) adherence. Methods.  We used multiple Microsoft Kinects to track the 3-dimensional movement of HCWs and their hands within hospital rooms. We applied computer vision techniques to recognize and determine the position of fiducial markers attached to the patient's bed to determine the location of the HCW's hands with respect to the bed. To measure our system's ability to detect HCW-patient contacts, we counted each time a HCW's hands entered a virtual rectangular box aligned with a patient bed. To measure PPE adherence, we identified the hands, torso, and face of each HCW on room entry, determined the color of each body area, and compared it with the color of gloves, gowns, and face masks. We independently examined a ground truth video recording and compared it with our system's results. Results.  Overall, for touch detection, the sensitivity was 99.7%, with a positive predictive value of 98.7%. For gowned entrances, sensitivity was 100.0% and specificity was 98.15%. For masked entrances, sensitivity was 100.0% and specificity was 98.75%; for gloved entrances, the sensitivity was 86.21% and specificity was 98.28%. Conclusions.  Using computer vision and depth sensing, we can estimate potential HH opportunities at the bedside and also estimate adherence to PPE. Our fine-grained estimates of how and how often HCWs interact directly with patients can inform a wide range of patient-safety research.

  14. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  15. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  16. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  17. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  18. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  19. Matching occupation and self: does matching theory adequately model children's thinking?

    PubMed

    Watson, Mark; McMahon, Mary

    2004-10-01

    The present exploratory-descriptive cross-national study focused on the career development of 11- to 14-yr.-old children, in particular whether they can match their personal characteristics with their occupational aspirations. Further, the study explored whether their matching may be explained in terms of a fit between person and environment using Holland's theory as an example. Participants included 511 South African and 372 Australian children. Findings relate to two items of the Revised Career Awareness Survey that require children to relate personal-social knowledge to their favorite occupation. Data were analyzed in three stages using descriptive statistics, i.e., mean scores, frequencies, and percentage agreement. The study indicated that children perceived their personal characteristics to be related to their occupational aspirations. However, how this matching takes place is not adequately accounted for in terms of a career theory such as that of Holland.

  20. Adequate connexin-mediated coupling is required for proper insulin production

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    To assess whether connexin (Cx) expression contributes to insulin secretion, we have investigated normal and tumoral insulin-producing cells for connexins, gap junctions, and coupling. We have found that the glucose-sensitive cells of pancreatic islets and of a rat insulinoma are functionally coupled by gap junctions made of Cx43. In contrast, cells of several lines secreting insulin abnormally do not express Cx43, gap junctions, and coupling. After correction of these defects by stable transfection of Cx43 cDNA, cells expressing modest levels of Cx43 and coupling, as observed in native beta-cells, showed an expression of the insulin gene and an insulin content that were markedly elevated, compared with those observed in both wild-type (uncoupled) cells and in transfected cells overexpressing Cx43. These findings indicate that adequate levels of Cx-mediated coupling are required for proper insulin production and storage. PMID:8522612

  1. Adaptive robust image registration approach based on adequately sampling polar transform and weighted angular projection function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhao; Tao, Feng; Jun, Wang

    2013-10-01

    An efficient, robust, and accurate approach is developed for image registration, which is especially suitable for large-scale change and arbitrary rotation. It is named the adequately sampling polar transform and weighted angular projection function (ASPT-WAPF). The proposed ASPT model overcomes the oversampling problem of conventional log-polar transform. Additionally, the WAPF presented as the feature descriptor is robust to the alteration in the fovea area of an image, and reduces the computational cost of the following registration process. The experimental results show two major advantages of the proposed method. First, it can register images with high accuracy even when the scale factor is up to 10 and the rotation angle is arbitrary. However, the maximum scaling estimated by the state-of-the-art algorithms is 6. Second, our algorithm is more robust to the size of the sampling region while not decreasing the accuracy of the registration.

  2. Precise femtosecond laser ablation of dental hard tissue: preliminary investigation on adequate laser parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikov, Todor; Pecheva, Emilia; Montgomery, Paul; Antoni, Frederic; Leong-Hoi, Audrey; Petrov, Todor

    2017-01-01

    This work aims at evaluating the possibility of introducing state-of-the-art commercial femtosecond laser system in restorative dentistry by maintaining well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also in overcoming disadvantages such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. Femtosecond ablation of dental hard tissue is investigated by changing the irradiation parameters (pulsed laser energy, scanning speed and pulse repetition rate), assessed for enamel and dentin. The femtosecond laser system used in this work may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, due to the expected effective ablation and low temperature increase when using ultra short laser pulses. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this system seems to be promising for promoting a laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach in restorative dentistry.

  3. Criterion values for urine-specific gravity and urine color representing adequate water intake in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Perrier, E T; Bottin, J H; Vecchio, M; Lemetais, G

    2017-02-01

    Growing evidence suggests a distinction between water intake necessary for maintaining a euhydrated state, and water intake considered to be adequate from a perspective of long-term health. Previously, we have proposed that maintaining a 24-h urine osmolality (UOsm) of ⩽500 mOsm/kg is a desirable target for urine concentration to ensure sufficient urinary output to reduce renal health risk and circulating vasopressin. In clinical practice and field monitoring, the measurement of UOsm is not practical. In this analysis, we calculate criterion values for urine-specific gravity (USG) and urine color (UCol), two measures which have broad applicability in clinical and field settings. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis performed on 817 urine samples demonstrates that a USG ⩾1.013 detects UOsm>500 mOsm/kg with very high accuracy (AUC 0.984), whereas a subject-assessed UCol⩾4 offers high sensitivity and moderate specificity (AUC 0.831) for detecting UOsm >500 m Osm/kg.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 1 February 2017; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.269.

  4. A Nomogram to Predict Adequate Lymph Node Recovery before Resection of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen-yu; Li, Cong; Gao, Wei; Yin, Xiao-wei; Luo, Qi-feng; Liu, Nan; Basnet, Shiva; Dai, Zhen-ling; Ge, Hai-yan

    2016-01-01

    Increased lymph node count (LNC) has been associated with prolonged survival in colorectal cancer (CRC), but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. The study aims to identify new predictors and develop a preoperative nomogram for predicting the probability of adequate LNC (≥ 12). 501 eligible patients were retrospectively selected to identify clinical-pathological factors associated with LNC ≥ 12 through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The nomogram was built according to multivariate analyses of preoperative factors. Model performance was assessed with concordance index (c-index) and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), followed by internal validation and calibration using 1000-resample bootstrapping. Clinical validity of the nomogram and LNC impact on stage migration were also evaluated. Multivariate analyses showed patient age, CA19-9, circulating lymphocytes, neutrophils, platelets, tumor diameter, histology and deposit significantly correlated with LNC (P < 0.05). The effects were marginal for CEA, anemia and CRC location (0.05 < P < 0.1). The multivariate analyses of preoperative factors suggested decreased age, CEA, CA19-9, neutrophils, proximal location, and increased platelets and diameter were significantly associated with increased probability of LNC ≥ 12 (P < 0.05). The nomogram achieved c-indexes of 0.75 and 0.73 before and after correction for overfitting. The AUC was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.70–0.79) and the clinically valid threshold probabilities were between 10% and 60% for the nomogram to predict LNC < 12. Additionally, increased probability of adequate LNC before surgery was associated with increased LNC and negative lymph nodes rather than increased positive lymph nodes, lymph node ratio, pN stages or AJCC stages. Collectively, the results indicate the LNC is multifactorial and irrelevant to stage migration. The significant correlations with preoperative circulating markers may

  5. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen; Smed, Sinne; Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Mojca; Rayner, Mike; Darmon, Nicole; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Methods Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods. Results The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6). The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8). The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN) to 134 (DGN) foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N) and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN). Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN) tripled it. Conclusion Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable. PMID:27760131

  6. [Quality of Mesorectal Excision ("Plane of Surgery") - Which Quality Targets are Adequate?].

    PubMed

    Hermanek, P; Merkel, S; Ptok, H; Hohenberger, W

    2015-12-01

    Today, the examination of rectal cancer specimens includes the obligate macroscopic assessment of the quality of mesorectal excision by the pathologist reporting the plane of surgery. The frequency of operations in the muscularis propria plane of surgery (earlier described as incomplete mesorectal excision) is essential. The quality of mesorectal excision is important for the prognosis, especially as local recurrences are observed more frequently after operations in the muscularis propria plane of surgery. For the definition of quality targets, data of 13 studies published between 2006 and 2012, each with more than 100 patients and adequate specialisation and experience of the surgeons (5413 patients), data of the prospective multicentric observation study "Quality Assurance - Rectal Cancer" (at the Institute for Quality Assurance in Operative Medicine at the Otto-von-Guericke University at Magdeburg) from 2005 to 2010 (8044 patients) and data of the Department of Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen, from 1998 to 2011 (991 patients) were analysed. The total incidence of operations in the muscularis propria plane of surgery was 5.0 % (721/14 448). Even with adequate specialisation and experience of the surgeon, the frequency of operations in the muscularis propria plane of surgery is higher in abdominoperineal excisions than in sphincter-preserving surgery (8.4 vs. 2.8 %, p < 0.001). Thus, the quality target for the frequency of operations in the muscularis propria plane should be defined as < 5 % for sphincter-preserving procedures and as < 10 % for abdominoperineal excisions.

  7. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapic Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently enough and the ventilation flow is adequate enough to maintain CO2 1 Project Engineer, Space Suit and Crew Survival Systems Branch, Crew and Thermal Systems Division, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058/EC5. washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, the testing results performed in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing.

  8. What Effect Did General Order Number 1 and the Force Protection Measures Have on Task Force Eagle Operations in Bosnia During Implementation Force?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    Intelligence CIMIC Civil Military Information Center COL Colonel COMEAGLE Commander Task Force Eagle COMIFOR Commander Implementation Force CSS Combat Service...Protection Team FWF Former Warring Factions HMMWV High Mobility, Multipurpose, Wheeled Vehicle HUMINT Human Intelligence G2 Divisional Intelligence ...security, personal protective services, and supported by intelligence , counterintelligence and other security programs.7 This is more useful as it clearly

  9. Structural and functional MRI study of the brain, cognition and mood in long-term adequately treated Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Quinque, Eva M; Karger, Stefan; Arélin, Katrin; Schroeter, Matthias L; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Villringer, Arno

    2014-04-01

    The current study investigated neuropsychological and underlying structural and functional brain alterations in long-term adequately treated patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in order to examine much discussed residual complaints in patients in relation to possible long-term neural alterations with a specific interest in the underlying autoimmune process. Eighteen patients with treated hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis (mean age 32, range 18-54 years; two males; mean treatment duration 4.4 years) and 18 healthy matched control subjects underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate grey matter density, resting-state functional MRI to analyse the brain connectivity of areas known to be altered in hypothyroidism and event-related functional MRI to examine brain activity during associative memory encoding. Neuropsychological assessment included memory, working memory, psychomotor speed and attention. We previously reported subclinically reduced mood in this study population and investigated its neural correlates here. Thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodthyronine, free thyroxine and thyroid peroxidase antibodies were measured in serum. We did not find cognitive deficits or alterations in grey matter density, functional connectivity or associative memory-related brain activity in comparison to the control group and cognition was unrelated to thyroid serum measures in the patient group. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies in the patient group correlated with increased grey matter density in right amygdala and enhanced connectivity between subcallosal and parahippocampal areas. Treatment duration was associated with brain structure in frontal and occipital cortex and connectivity between left amygdala and frontal cortex. Mood correlated with brain areas associated with distinct functional networks, but not with those most prominently affected in depression. In conclusion, no cognitive or neural

  10. Lightning Protection Guidelines for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodloe, C. C.

    1999-01-01

    This technical memorandum provides lightning protection engineering guidelines and technical procedures used by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch for aerospace vehicles. The overviews illustrate the technical support available to project managers, chief engineers, and design engineers to ensure that aerospace vehicles managed by MSFC are adequately protected from direct and indirect effects of lightning. Generic descriptions of the lightning environment and vehicle protection technical processes are presented. More specific aerospace vehicle requirements for lightning protection design, performance, and interface characteristics are available upon request to the MSFC Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch, mail code EL23.

  11. Effects of protection forests on rockfall risks: implementation in the Swiss risk concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trappmann, Daniel; Moos, Christine; Fehlmann, Michael; Ernst, Jacqueline; Sandri, Arthur; Dorren, Luuk; Stoffel, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Forests growing on slopes below active rockfall cliffs can provide effective protection for human lives and infrastructures. The risk-based approach for natural hazards in Switzerland shall take such biological measures just like existing technical protective measures into account, provided that certain criteria regarding condition, maintenance and durability are met. This contribution describes a project in which we are investigating how the effects of protection forests can be considered in rockfall risk analyses in an appropriate way. In principle, protection forests reduce rockfall risks in three different ways: (i) reduction of the event magnitude (energy) due to collisions with tree stems; (ii) reduction of frequency of occurrence of a given scenario (block volume arriving at the damage potential); (iii) reduction of spatial probability of occurrence (spread and runout) of a given scenario in case of multiple fragments during one event. The aim of this work is to develop methods for adequately implementing these three effects of rockfall protection forests in risk calculations. To achieve this, we use rockfall simulations taking collisions with trees into account and detailed field validation. On five test sites, detailed knowledge on past rockfall activity is gathered by combining investigations of impacted trees, analysis of documented historical events, and deposits in the field. Based on this empirical data on past rockfalls, a methodology is developed that allows transferring real past rockfall activity to simulation results obtained with the three-dimensional, process-based model Rockyfor3D. Different ways of quantifying the protective role of forests will be considered by comparing simulation results with and without forest cover. Combining these different research approaches, systematic considerations shall lead to the development of methods for adequate inclusion of the protective effects of forests in risk calculations. The applicability of the

  12. Measuring $\

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  13. Skin Protection Behaviors among Young Male Latino Day Laborers: An Exploratory Study Using a Social Cognitive Approach

    PubMed Central

    Boyas, Javier F.; Brodell, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    Latino Day Laborers (LDLs) are employed in occupations where multiple work hazards exist. One such hazard is the overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiation for continuous periods of time. Regular sun exposure can put individuals at increased risk of developing skin cancers, especially without adequate protection. The purpose of this cross-sectional exploratory study was to use a social cognitive framework to assess skin protective behaviors among LDLs. A community-based nonrandom and purposive sample of LDLs was recruited in two states: Mississippi and Illinois. The study sample consisted of 137 male participants, of which the majority were of Mexican ancestry (72%). The average age was 35.40 (SD = 9.89) years. Results demonstrated that a substantial number of LDLs do not adequately practice sun protection behaviors on a regular basis. The skin cancer knowledge scores were very modest. The most frequently indicated barriers towards sun protection were “inconvenient,” “forget to use,” and “not being able to reapply sunscreen.” Overall, LDLs had moderate confidence in their abilities to adopt successful sun protection strategies. This study underscores the need for intervention programs aimed at LDLs to reduce extended time in the sun and increase use of sun protective measures when working outdoors. PMID:27019656

  14. Research on laser protection: an overview of 20 years of activities at Fraunhofer IOSB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, G.; Walter, D.; Eberle, B.

    2013-10-01

    Since the advent of the laser in 1960, the protection of human eyes and sensors against intended or unintended damage by laser radiation is a hot research topic. As long as the parameters of a laser source such as the wavelength and the output power are known, adequate laser safety can be ensured simply by utilizing conventional laser protection filters which are based on absorption or interference effects. This is typically the case in cooperative environments like a laboratory or industrial facilities. A very different situation prevails in military defense or civil security. There, the parameters of encountering laser threats are usually unknown. Protection measures, helping against all types of laser threats, are the long desired objective of countless research activities. The biggest challenge in finding an effective measure arises from single laser pulses of unknown wavelength. The problem demands for a passive protection concept and may be based for example on intensity dependent effects. Moreover, the requested solutions shall comprise add-on possibilities like thin films to be put on existing optics, windshields or glasses. Unfortunately, such an all-embracing solution is still far out of reach. The Fraunhofer IOSB has been working on the evaluation and development of non-conventional laser protection methods for more than 20 years. An overview of the past and present research activities shall be presented, comprising protection measures against laser damaging and laser dazzling.

  15. Measuring microscale strain fields in articular cartilage during rapid impact reveals thresholds for chondrocyte death and a protective role for the superficial layer

    PubMed Central

    Bartell, Lena R.; Fortier, Lisa A.; Bonassar, Lawrence J.; Cohen, Itai

    2015-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a heterogeneous soft tissue that dissipates and distributes loads in mammalian joints. Though robust, cartilage is susceptible to damage from loading at high rates or magnitudes. Such injurious loads have been implicated in degenerative changes, including chronic osteoarthritis (OA), which remains a leading cause of disability in developed nations. Despite decades of research, mechanisms of OA initiation after trauma remain poorly understood. Indeed, although bulk cartilage mechanics are measurable during impact, current techniques cannot access microscale mechanics at those rapid time scales. We aimed to address this knowledge gap by imaging the microscale mechanics and corresponding acute biological changes of cartilage in response to rapid loading. In this study, we utilized fast-camera and confocal microscopy to achieve roughly 85 μm spatial resolution of the cartilage deformation during a rapid (~3 ms), localized impact and the chondrocyte death following impact. Our results showed that, at these high rates, strain and chondrocyte death were highly correlated (p<0.001) with a threshold of 8% microscale strain norm before any cell death occurred. Additionally, chondrocyte death had developed by two hours after impact, suggesting a time frame for clinical therapeutics. Moreover, when the superficial layer was removed, strain – and subsequently chondrocyte death – penetrated deeper into the samples (p<0.001), suggesting a protective role for the superficial layer of articular cartilage. Combined, these results provide insight regarding the detailed biomechanics that drive early chondrocyte damage after trauma and emphasize the importance of understanding cartilage and its mechanics on the microscale. PMID:26150096

  16. Nutrient loads from agricultural and forested areas in Finland from 1981 up to 2010-can the efficiency of undertaken water protection measures seen?

    PubMed

    Tattari, Sirkka; Koskiaho, Jari; Kosunen, Maiju; Lepistö, Ahti; Linjama, Jarmo; Puustinen, Markku

    2017-03-01

    Long-term data from a network of intensively monitored research catchments in Finland was analysed. We studied temporal (1981-2010) and spatial variability in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), from 1987 losses, both from agricultural and forestry land. Based on trend analysis, total nitrogen (TN) concentrations increased in two of the four agricultural sites and in most of the forested sites. In agricultural catchments, the total phosphorus (TP) trends were decreasing in two of the four catchments studied. Dissolved P (DRP) concentrations increased in two catchments and decreased in one. The increase in DRP concentration can be a result of reducing erosion by increased non-plough cultivation and direct sowing. In forested catchments, the TP trends in 1987-2011 were significantly decreasing in three of the six catchments, while DRP concentrations decreased significantly in all sites. At the same time, P fertilisation in Finnish forests has decreased significantly, thus contributing to these changes. The mean annual specific loss for agricultural land was on average 15.5 kg ha(-1) year(-1) for N and 1.1 kg ha(-1) year(-1) for P. In the national scale, total TN loading from agriculture varied between 34,000-37,000 t year(-1) and total P loading 2400-2700 t year(-1). These new load estimates are of the same order than those reported earlier, emphasising the need for more efforts with wide-ranging and carefully targeted implementation of water protection measures.

  17. Are the Department of Defense Non-Lethal Weapon Capabilities Adequate for the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    the next 25 years will be shaped by a unique and substantially unfamiliar set of political, economic , technological, social, and cultural forces... economic fragmentation and demographic shifts, such as violence will form by far the most common type of conflict in the next quarter century.4 The United...be driven by disruptions in the political process, social disturbance, economic divisiveness, and cultural partition – all of which demand protection

  18. The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Training for the Urban Fight/The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Trained for the Urban Fight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    1 The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Training for the Urban Fight Subject Area Training EWS 2006...The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Training for the Urban Fight Submitted by Captain RC Rybka to Majors GC Schreffler and RR...estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the

  19. Research in biomechanics of occupant protection.

    PubMed

    King, A I; Yang, K H

    1995-04-01

    This paper discusses the biomechanical bases for occupant protection against frontal and side impact. Newton's Laws of Motion are used to illustrate the effect of a crash on restrained and unrestrained occupants, and the concept of ride down is discussed. Occupant protection through the use of energy absorbing materials is described, and the mechanism of injury of some of the more common injuries is explained. The role of the three-point belt and the airbag in frontal protection is discussed along with the potential injuries that can result from the use of these restraint systems. Side impact protection is more difficult to attain but some protection can be derived from the use of padding or a side impact airbag. It is concluded that the front seat occupants are adequately protected against frontal impact if belts are worn in an airbag equipped vehicle. Side impact protection may not be uniform in all vehicles.

  20. Manifolds and Radiation Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossitto, Franco; Petrov, Vladislav M.; Ongaro, Filippo

    During the past 40 years humans have travelled beyond Earth's atmosphere, orbiting the planets for extended periods of time and landing on the Moon. Humans have survived this overwhelming challenge but to assure future exploration of space further expertise in the long term survival in space must be obtained. The International Space Station (ISS) provides this opportunity and allows space scientist to fine-tune their knowledge and prepare for even bolder human space missions. In this work we focus on the aspect of radiation, perhaps the most complex one from a physical and physiological perspective. Travel beyond the Earth's atmosphere and especially to Moon and Mars requires a precise consideration of the radiation environment as radiation exposure could be a show-stopper. At the moment scientists have not yet developed complete and reliable systems for radiation protection. Most likely an adequate level of protection will be reached through an integrated countermeasure system which could include: shields, monitoring of the environment, drugs to protect from damage, etc.

  1. The placental pursuit for an adequate oxidant balance between the mother and the fetus

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Emilio A.; Krause, Bernardo; Ebensperger, German; Reyes, Roberto V.; Casanello, Paola; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Llanos, Anibal J.

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is the exchange organ that regulates metabolic processes between the mother and her developing fetus. The adequate function of this organ is clearly vital for a physiologic gestational process and a healthy baby as final outcome. The umbilico-placental vasculature has the capacity to respond to variations in the materno-fetal milieu. Depending on the intensity and the extensity of the insult, these responses may be immediate-, mediate-, and long-lasting, deriving in potential morphostructural and functional changes later in life. These adjustments usually compensate the initial insults, but occasionally may switch to long-lasting remodeling and dysfunctional processes, arising maladaptation. One of the most challenging conditions in modern perinatology is hypoxia and oxidative stress during development, both disorders occurring in high-altitude and in low-altitude placental insufficiency. Hypoxia and oxidative stress may induce endothelial dysfunction and thus, reduction in the perfusion of the placenta and restriction in the fetal growth and development. This Review will focus on placental responses to hypoxic conditions, usually related with high-altitude and placental insufficiency, deriving in oxidative stress and vascular disorders, altering fetal and maternal health. Although day-to-day clinical practice, basic and clinical research are clearly providing evidence of the severe impact of oxygen deficiency and oxidative stress establishment during pregnancy, further research on umbilical and placental vascular function under these conditions is badly needed to clarify the myriad of questions still unsettled. PMID:25009498

  2. Prevention of mother to child transmission lay counsellors: Are they adequately trained?

    PubMed

    Thurling, Catherine H; Harris, Candice

    2012-06-05

    South Africa's high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women requires a comprehensive health care approach to pregnancy because of the added risk of their HIV status. As a result of the shortage of health care workers in South Africa, lay counsellors play important roles in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). There is no standardization of training of lay counsellors in South Africa, and training varies in length depending on the training organisation. The study aimed to investigate the training of lay counsellors by analysing their training curricula and interviewing lay counsellors about their perceptions of their training. A two phase research method was applied. Phase one documented an analysis of the training curricula. Phase two was semi-structured interviews with the participants. Purposive sampling was undertaken for this study. The total sample size was 13 people, with a final sample of 9 participants, determined at the point of data saturation. The research was qualitative, descriptive and contextual in design. The curricula analysed had different styles of delivery, and the approaches to learning and courses varied, resulting in inconsistent training outcomes. A need for supervision and mentorship in the working environment was also noted. The training of lay counsellors needs to be adapted to meet the extended roles that they are playing in PMTCT. The standardization of training programmes, and the incorporation of a system of mentorship in the work environment, would ensure that the lay counsellors are adequately prepared for their role in PMTCT.

  3. Improved ASTM G72 Test Method for Ensuring Adequate Fuel-to-Oxidizer Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susana Tapia

    2016-01-01

    The ASTM G72/G72M-15 Standard Test Method for Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in a High-Pressure Oxygen-Enriched Environment is currently used to evaluate materials for the ignition susceptibility driven by exposure to external heat in an enriched oxygen environment. Testing performed on highly volatile liquids such as cleaning solvents has proven problematic due to inconsistent test results (non-ignitions). Non-ignition results can be misinterpreted as favorable oxygen compatibility, although they are more likely associated with inadequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios. Forced evaporation during purging and inadequate sample size were identified as two potential causes for inadequate available sample material during testing. In an effort to maintain adequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios within the reaction vessel during test, several parameters were considered, including sample size, pretest sample chilling, pretest purging, and test pressure. Tests on a variety of solvents exhibiting a range of volatilities are presented in this paper. A proposed improvement to the standard test protocol as a result of this evaluation is also presented. Execution of the final proposed improved test protocol outlines an incremental step method of determining optimal conditions using increased sample sizes while considering test system safety limits. The proposed improved test method increases confidence in results obtained by utilizing the ASTM G72 autogenous ignition temperature test method and can aid in the oxygen compatibility assessment of highly volatile liquids and other conditions that may lead to false non-ignition results.

  4. Radiation dose reduction in invasive cardiology by restriction to adequate instead of optimized picture quality.

    PubMed

    Kuon, Eberhard; Dorn, Christian; Schmitt, Moritz; Dahm, Johannes B

    2003-05-01

    In this study, the cinegraphic image intensifier entrance dose level for coronary angiography was changed in four steps from dose level A (0.041 microGy frame(-1)), allowing high contrast, but coarse mottled background, to level D (0.164 microGy frame(-1)), affording high transparency and sharpness. Using this new approach throughout the course of 404 consecutive cardiac catheterizations, we reduced patient radiation exposures down to 11 to 16% of currently typical values: i.e., mean dose area products of 5.97 Gy cm2 (n = 91), 6.73 (n = 113), 8.11 (n = 91), and 8.90 (n = 109); cinegraphic dose area products of 2.34, 3.64, 4.56, and 5.49; and cinegraphic dose area products frame(-1) of 13.3, 19.8, 27.0, and 30.2 mGy cm2, for levels A, B, C, and D, respectively. The number of cinegraphic frames ranged within 168 to 182 per case. Our results show that during catheterization interventionalists should vary image intensifier entrance dose levels in accordance with documented structure, angulation, and body mass index. With the exception of cases with special requirements, lower dose levels typically guarantee an adequate image quality.

  5. Adequate nutrient intake can reduce cardiovascular disease risk in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Reusser, Molly E; DiRienzo, Douglas B; Miller, Gregory D; McCarron, David A

    2003-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease kills nearly as many Americans each year as the next seven leading causes of death combined. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease and most of its associated risk factors is markedly higher and increasing more rapidly among African Americans than in any other racial or ethnic group. Improving these statistics may be simply a matter of improving diet quality. In recent years, a substantial and growing body of evidence has revealed that dietary patterns complete in all food groups, including nutrient-rich dairy products, are essential for preventing and reducing cardiovascular disease and the conditions that contribute to it. Several cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, insulin resistance syndrome, and obesity, have been shown to be positively influenced by dietary patterns that include adequate intake of dairy products. The benefits of nutrient-rich dietary patterns have been specifically tested in randomized, controlled trials emphasizing African American populations. These studies demonstrated proportionally greater benefits for African Americans without evidence of adverse effects such as symptoms of lactose intolerance. As currently promoted for the prevention of certain cancers and osteoporosis, regular consumption of diets that meet recommended nutrient intake levels might also be the most effective approach for reducing cardiovascular disease risk in African Americans.

  6. Are neurodegenerative disorder and psychotic manifestations avoidable brain dysfunctions with adequate dietary omega-3?

    PubMed

    Saugstad, Letten F

    2006-01-01

    The present mismatch between what our brain needs, and the modern diet neglects our marine heritage. Last century, the priority in nutrition and food production was to achieve a high protein diet and somatic growth and function. The dietary content of omega-3 (N-3) required by the brain was neglected although evidence for the essentiality of certain fatty acids was published in 1929 and specifically re-affirmed for omega 3 in the brain in the 1970s. Cognitive decline with age and neurodegenerative disorder with dementia are now rising. This review describes signs of N-3 deficit in Alzheimer and Parkinson Disease, where maximum change involves the primary sites: olfactory cortex and the hippocampus. The olfactory agnosia observed in schizophrenia supports an N-3 deficit as does a reduction of key ologodendrocyte- and myelin-related genes in this disorder and affective disorder, where a rise in dementia accords with a deficit of N-3 also in this disorder. N-3 normalizes cerebral excitability at all levels. That the two disorders are localized at the extremes of excitability, is supported by their opposing treatments: convulsant neuroleptics and anti-epileptic antidepressants. An adequate N-3 diet will probably prevent most psychotic episodes and prove that neurodegenerative disorder with dementia is also to a large extent not only preventable but avoidable.

  7. Are neurodegenerative disorder and psychotic manifestations avoidable brain dysfunctions with adequate dietary omega-3?

    PubMed

    Saugstad, Letten F

    2006-01-01

    The present mismatch between what our brain needs, and the modern diet neglects our marine heritage. Last century, the priority in nutrition and food production was to achieve a high protein diet and somatic growth and function. The dietary content of omega-3 (N-3) required by the brain was neglected although evidence for the essentiality of certain fatty acids was published in 1929 and specifically re-affirmed for omega 3 in the brain in the 1970s. Cognitive decline with age and neurodegenerative disorder with dementia are now rising. This review describes signs of N-3 deficit in Alzheimer and Parkinson Disease, where maximum change involves the primary sites: olfactory cortex and the hippocampus. The olfactory agnosia observed in schizophrenia supports an N-3 deficit as does a reduction of key ologodendrocyte- and myelin-related genes in this disorder and affective disorder, where a rise in dementia accords with a deficit of N-3 also in this disorder. N-3 normalizes cerebral excitability at all levels. That the two disorders are localized at the extremes of excitability, is supported by their opposing treatments: convulsant neuroleptics and anti-epileptic anti-depressants. An adequate N-3 diet will probably prevent most psychotic episodes and prove that neurodegenerative disorder with dementia is also to a large extent not only preventable but avoidable.

  8. A high UV environment does not ensure adequate Vitamin D status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimlin, M. G.; Lang, C. A.; Brodie, A.; Harrison, S.; Nowak, M.; Moore, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    Queensland has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world and due to the high levels of solar UV in this region it is assumed that incidental UV exposure should provide adequate vitamin D status for the population. This research was undertaken to test this assumption among healthy free-living adults in south-east Queensland, Australia (27°S), at the end of winter. This research was approved by Queensland University of Technology Human Research Ethics Committee and conducted under the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki. 10.2% of the sample had serum vitamin D levels below 25nm/L (deficiency) and a further 32.3% had levels between 25nm/L and 50nm/L (insufficiency). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency can occur at the end of winter, even in sunny climates. The wintertime UV levels in south-east Queensland (UV index 4-6) are equivalent to summertime UV levels in northern regions of Europe and the USA. These ambient UV levels are sufficient to ensure synthesis of vitamin D requirements. We investigated individual UV exposure (through a self reported sun exposure questionnaire) and found correlations between exposure and Vitamin D status. Further research is needed to explore the interactions between the solar UV environment and vitamin D status, particularly in high UV environments, such as Queensland.

  9. Determination of the need for selenium by chicks fed practical diets adequate in vitamin E

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Su, Q.; Liu, C.H.; Sinisalo, M.; Combs, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the dietary needs for selenium (Se) by chicks fed either purified (amino acid-based) or practical (corn- and soy-based) diets that were adequate with respect to vitamin E (i.e., contained 100 IU/kg) and all other known nutrients with the single exception of Se (i.e., contained only 0.10 ppm Se). Studies were conducted in Ithaca using Single Comb White Leghorn chicks fed the purified basal diet and in Beijing using chicks of the same breed fed either the same purified basal diet or the practical diet formulated to be similar to that used in poultry production in some parts of China and the US. Results showed that each basal diet produced severe depletion of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) in plasma, liver and pancreas according to the same time-course, but that other consequences of severe uncomplicated Se deficiency were much more severe among chicks fed the purified diet (e.g., growth depression, pancreatic dysfunction as indicated by elevated plasma amylase and abnormal pancreatic histology). Chicks fed the practical Se-deficient diet showed reduced pancreas levels of copper, zinc and molybdenum and elevated plasma levels of iron; they required ca. 0.10 ppm dietary Se to sustain normal SeGSHpx in several tissues and to prevent elevated amylase in plasma. The dietary Se requirement of the chick is, therefore, estimated to be 0.10 ppm.

  10. Salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: what is the most adequate preventive strategy? A Swiss perspective

    PubMed Central

    Burnier, Michel; Wuerzner, Gregoire; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-01-01

    Among the various strategies to reduce the incidence of non-communicable diseases reduction of sodium intake in the general population has been recognized as one of the most cost-effective means because of its potential impact on the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Yet, this strategic health recommendation of the WHO and many other international organizations is far from being universally accepted. Indeed, there are still several unresolved scientific and epidemiological questions that maintain an ongoing debate. Thus what is the adequate low level of sodium intake to recommend to the general population and whether national strategies should be oriented to the overall population or only to higher risk fractions of the population such as salt-sensitive patients are still discussed. In this paper, we shall review the recent results of the literature regarding salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk and we present the recommendations recently proposed by a group of experts of Switzerland. The propositions of the participating medical societies are to encourage national health authorities to continue their discussion with the food industry in order to reduce the sodium intake of food products with a target of mean salt intake of 5–6 grams per day in the population. Moreover, all initiatives to increase the information on the effect of salt on health and on the salt content of food are supported. PMID:26321959

  11. PG medical training and accreditation: responsibility of the government for the adequate health service delivery.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, M D

    2012-09-01

    On one hand there is obvious inadequate health coverage to the rural population and on the other hand the densely populated urban area is facing the triple burden of increasing non-communicable and communicable health problems and the rising health cost. The postgraduate medical training is closely interrelated with the adequate health service delivery and health economics. In relation to the prevailing situation, the modern medical education trend indicates the five vital issues. These are i). Opportunity needs to be given to all MBBS graduates for General Specialist and Sub-Specialist Training inside the country to complete their medical education, ii). Urgent need for review of PG residential training criteria including appropriate bed and teacher criteria as well as entry criteria and eligibility criteria, iii). Involvement of all available units of hospitals fulfilling the requirements of the residential PG training criteria, iv). PG residential trainings involve doing the required work in the hospitals entitling them full pay and continuation of the service without any training fee or tuition fee, and v). Planning of the proportions of General Specialty and Sub-Specialty Training fields, particularly General Practice (GP) including its career and female participation. With increased number of medical graduates, now it seems possible to plan for optimal health coverage to the populations with appropriate postgraduate medical training. The medical professionals and public health workers must make the Government aware of the vital responsibility and the holistic approach required.

  12. Fair Balance and Adequate Provision in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Online Banner Advertisements: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The current direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) guidelines were developed with print, television, and radio media in mind, and there are no specific guidelines for online banner advertisements. Objective This study evaluates how well Internet banner ads comply with existing Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines for DTCA in other media. Methods A content analysis was performed of 68 banner advertisements. A coding sheet was developed based on (1) FDA guidance documents for consumer-directed prescription drug advertisements and (2) previous DTCA content analyses. Specifically, the presence of a brief summary detailing the drug’s risks and side effects or of a “major statement” identifying the drug’s major risks, and the number and type of provisions made available to consumers for comprehensive information about the drug were coded. In addition, the criterion of “fair balance,” the FDA’s requirement that prescription drug ads balance information relating to the drug’s risks with information relating to its benefits, was measured by numbering the benefit and risk facts identified in the ads and by examining the presentation of risk and benefit information. Results Every ad in the sample included a brief summary of risk information and at least one form of adequate provision as required by the FDA for broadcast ads that do not give audiences a brief summary of a drug’s risks. No ads included a major statement. There were approximately 7.18 risk facts for every benefit fact. Most of the risks (98.85%, 1292/1307) were presented in the scroll portion of the ad, whereas most of the benefits (66.5%, 121/182) were presented in the main part of the ad. Out of 1307 risk facts, 1292 were qualitative and 15 were quantitative. Out of 182 benefit facts, 181 were qualitative and 1 was quantitative. The majority of ads showed neutral images during the disclosure of benefit and risk facts. Only 9% (6/68) of the ads displayed positive images and

  13. Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, W. J.

    2014-05-01

    Wim J. de Lange, Geert F. Prinsen, Jacco H. Hoogewoud, Ab A Veldhuizen, Joachim Hunink, Erik F.W. Ruijgh, Timo Kroon Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses

  14. Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, Wim; Prinsen, Geert.; Hoogewoud, Jacco; Veldhuizen, Ab; Ruijgh, Erik; Kroon, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with? by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses. Regional expertise is welcomed in the calibration phase of NHI. It aims to reduce uncertainties by improving the

  15. Biological basis for protection of the environment.

    PubMed

    Larsson, C-M

    2012-01-01

    The approach to protection of the environment may vary considerably depending on ethical basis, methodological approach, and identification of endpoints and protective targets. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reviewed these issues in Publication 91, 'A framework for assessing the impact of ionising radiation on non-human species', published in 2003. At the same time, ICRP proposed that a possible future ICRP system addressing environmental assessment and protection would focus on biota, that the system should be effect-based so that any reasoning about adequate protection would be derived from firm understanding of harm at different exposure levels, and that the system should be based on data sets for Reference Animals and Plants. ICRP has thus chosen to approach environmental protection on the basis of biology, and further developed the approach in Publications 103, 108 and 114. This paper explores the biological basis for the ICRP system of environmental protection from the viewpoints of: the effects endpoints of concern; the hierarchy of biological organisation; adequate and appropriate protective targets; and the derivation of benchmark dose (rates) to guide protective efforts.

  16. Satellite News Feeds: Protecting a Transient Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwater, Tony; And Others

    Satellite news gathering (SNG) has been widely adopted in broadcast journalism in recent years, and appears likely to grow in importance as local television news operations increase their reliance on it. However, because the technology for SNG is so new, information transmitted through SNG systems is not adequately protected under current laws.…

  17. 45 CFR 2508.10 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and automatic record..., and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and...

  18. 45 CFR 2508.10 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and automatic record..., and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and...

  19. 45 CFR 2508.10 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and automatic record..., and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and...

  20. Homodecoupled 1,1- and 1,n-ADEQUATE: Pivotal NMR Experiments for the Structure Revision of Cryptospirolepine.

    PubMed

    Saurí, Josep; Bermel, Wolfgang; Buevich, Alexei V; Sherer, Edward C; Joyce, Leo A; Sharaf, Maged H M; Schiff, Paul L; Parella, Teodor; Williamson, R Thomas; Martin, Gary E

    2015-08-24

    Cryptospirolepine is the most structurally complex alkaloid discovered and characterized thus far from any Cryptolepis specie. Characterization of several degradants of the original, sealed NMR sample a decade after the initial report called the validity of the originally proposed structure in question. We now report the development of improved, homodecoupled variants of the 1,1- and 1,n-ADEQUATE (HD-ADEQUATE) NMR experiments; utilization of these techniques was critical to successfully resolving long-standing structural questions associated with crytospirolepine.