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Sample records for adequate protein intake

  1. Dietary intake of nutrients with adequate intake values in the dietary reference intakes for Japanese.

    PubMed

    Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Takizawa, Asuka; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Nakade, Makiko; Imai, Eri; Kondo, Akiko; Yoshida, Kazue; Okuda, Nagako; Nishi, Nobuo; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2013-01-01

    The Adequate Intake (AI) values in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (DRIs-J) 2010 were mainly determined based on the median intakes from 2 y of pooled data (2005-2006) from the National Health and Nutrition Survey-Japan (NHNS-J). However, it remains unclear whether 2 y of pooled data from the NHNS-J are appropriate for evaluating the intake of the population. To clarify the differences in nutrient intakes determined from 2 and 7 y of pooled data, we analyzed selected nutrient intake levels by sex and age groups using NHNS-J data. Intake data were obtained from 64,624 individuals (age: ≥1 y; 47.4% men) who completed a semi-weighed 1-d household dietary record that was part of the NHNS-J conducted annually in Japan from 2003 to 2009. There were no large differences between the median intakes calculated from 2 or 7 y of pooled data for n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin D, pantothenic acid, potassium, or phosphorus. When the AI values and median intakes were compared, there was no large difference in the values for n-6 or n-3 PUFAs, pantothenic acid, or phosphorus. Conversely, the AI values for vitamin D and potassium differed from the median intakes of these nutrients for specific sex and age groups, because values were not based on NHNS-J data. Our results indicate that 2 y of pooled data from the NHNS-J adequately reflect the population's intake, and that the current system for determination of AI values will be applicable for future revisions.

  2. Protein intake and bone health.

    PubMed

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe

    2011-03-01

    Adequate nutrition plays an important role in the development and maintenance of bone structures resistant to usual mechanical stresses. In addition to calcium in the presence of an adequate supply of vitamin D, dietary proteins represent key nutrients for bone health and thereby function in the prevention of osteoporosis. Several studies point to a positive effect of high protein intake on bone mineral density or content. This fact is associated with a significant reduction in hip fracture incidence, as recorded in a large prospective study carried out in a homogeneous cohort of postmenopausal women. Low protein intake (< 0.8 g/kg body weight/day) is often observed in patients with hip fractures and an intervention study indicates that following orthopedic management, protein supplementation attenuates post-fracture bone loss, tends to increase muscle strength, and reduces medical complications and rehabilitation hospital stay. There is no evidence that high protein intake per se would be detrimental for bone mass and strength. Nevertheless, it appears reasonable to avoid very high protein diets (i. e. more than 2.0 g/kg body weight/day) when associated with low calcium intake (i. e. less than 600 mg/day). In the elderly, taking into account the attenuated anabolic response to dietary protein with ageing, there is concern that the current dietary protein recommended allowance (RDA), as set at 0.8 g/kg body weight/day, might be too low for the primary and secondary prevention of fragility fractures. PMID:22139564

  3. Growth and metabolism of fetal and maternal muscles of adolescent sheep on adequate or high feed intake: possible role of protein kinase C-alpha in fetal muscle growth.

    PubMed

    Palmer, R M; Thompson, M G; Meallet, C; Thom, A; Aitken, R P; Wallace, J M

    1998-04-01

    From days 4-104 of pregnancy, adolescent sheep, weighing 43.7 (SE 0.87) kg were offered a complete diet at two different intakes (approximately 5 or 15 kg/week) designed to meet slightly, or well above, maternal maintenance requirements. The fetal and maternal muscles were taken on day 104 of pregnancy and analysed for total DNA, RNA and protein. Ewes offered a high intake to promote rapid maternal weight gain, weighed more (76.5 (SE 4.5) v 50.0 (SE 1.7) kg) and had muscles with a greater fresh weight, whilst their fetuses had smaller muscles, than those fed at a lower intake. Plantaris muscle of the ewes fed at the high intake contained more RNA and protein; again the opposite situation was found in the fetal muscle. On the higher maternal intakes, the DNA, RNA and protein contents of the fetal plantaris muscle were less than in fetuses of ewes fed at the lower intake. To investigate the possible mechanisms involved in this decrease in fetal muscle mass, cytosolic and membrane-associated muscle proteins were subjected to Western immunoblotting with antibodies to nine isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), a family of enzymes known to play an important role in cell growth. Five PKC isoforms (alpha, epsilon, theta, mu, zeta) were identified in fetal muscle. One of these, PKC-alpha was located predominantly in the cytosolic compartment in the smaller fetuses of the ewes fed at a high plane of nutrition, but was present to a greater extent in the membranes of the more rapidly growing fetuses of the ewes fed at the lower intake. This was the only isoform to demonstrate nutritionally related changes in it subcellular compartmentation suggesting that it may mediate some aspects of the change in fetal growth rate.

  4. [Factors associated with adequate fruit and vegetable intake by schoolchildren in Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Larissa da Cunha Feio; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de; Corso, Arlete Catarina Tittoni

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to estimate fruit and vegetable intake and identify associated factors among schoolchildren in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 4,964 students from public and private schools in eight districts in the State, analyzing socioeconomic and anthropometric data and dietary intake. Adequate fruit and vegetable intake was defined as five or more servings per day. Poisson regression was performed to test associations between fruit and vegetable intake and independent variables (p < 0.05). Adequate intake was found in 2.7% of children, while 26.6% of the sample did not consume any fruits and vegetables. In the analysis of the association between independent variables and adequate fruit and vegetable intake in the total sample, only geographic region (residents in western Santa Catarina) and consumption of candy were significantly associated. In the stratified analysis by sex, for boys, only geographic region was associated, while among girls, region and candy consumption were significantly associated with adequate fruit and vegetable intake. The findings indicate the need for specific strategies in the school community to improve fruit and vegetable intake by schoolchildren.

  5. Protein leverage and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Gosby, A K; Conigrave, A D; Raubenheimer, D; Simpson, S J

    2014-03-01

    Increased energy intakes are contributing to overweight and obesity. Growing evidence supports the role of protein appetite in driving excess intake when dietary protein is diluted (the protein leverage hypothesis). Understanding the interactions between dietary macronutrient balance and nutrient-specific appetite systems will be required for designing dietary interventions that work with, rather than against, basic regulatory physiology. Data were collected from 38 published experimental trials measuring ad libitum intake in subjects confined to menus differing in macronutrient composition. Collectively, these trials encompassed considerable variation in percent protein (spanning 8-54% of total energy), carbohydrate (1.6-72%) and fat (11-66%). The data provide an opportunity to describe the individual and interactive effects of dietary protein, carbohydrate and fat on the control of total energy intake. Percent dietary protein was negatively associated with total energy intake (F = 6.9, P < 0.0001) irrespective of whether carbohydrate (F = 0, P = 0.7) or fat (F = 0, P = 0.5) were the diluents of protein. The analysis strongly supports a role for protein leverage in lean, overweight and obese humans. A better appreciation of the targets and regulatory priorities for protein, carbohydrate and fat intake will inform the design of effective and health-promoting weight loss diets, food labelling policies, food production systems and regulatory frameworks.

  6. Twenty-Four-Hour Urine Osmolality as a Physiological Index of Adequate Water Intake

    PubMed Central

    Perrier, Erica T.; Buendia-Jimenez, Inmaculada; Vecchio, Mariacristina; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Tack, Ivan; Klein, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    While associations exist between water, hydration, and disease risk, research quantifying the dose-response effect of water on health is limited. Thus, the water intake necessary to maintain optimal hydration from a physiological and health standpoint remains unclear. The aim of this analysis was to derive a 24 h urine osmolality (UOsm) threshold that would provide an index of “optimal hydration,” sufficient to compensate water losses and also be biologically significant relative to the risk of disease. Ninety-five adults (31.5 ± 4.3 years, 23.2 ± 2.7 kg·m−2) collected 24 h urine, provided morning blood samples, and completed food and fluid intake diaries over 3 consecutive weekdays. A UOsm threshold was derived using 3 approaches, taking into account European dietary reference values for water; total fluid intake, and urine volumes associated with reduced risk for lithiasis and chronic kidney disease and plasma vasopressin concentration. The aggregate of these approaches suggest that a 24 h urine osmolality ≤500 mOsm·kg−1 may be a simple indicator of optimal hydration, representing a total daily fluid intake adequate to compensate for daily losses, ensure urinary output sufficient to reduce the risk of urolithiasis and renal function decline, and avoid elevated plasma vasopressin concentrations mediating the increased antidiuretic effort. PMID:25866433

  7. Protein intake and ovulatory infertility

    PubMed Central

    Chavarro, Jorge E.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Willett, Walter C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether intake of protein from animal and vegetable origin is associated with ovulatory infertility. Study Design 18,555 married women without a history of infertility were followed as they attempted a pregnancy or became pregnant during an eight year period. Dietary assessments were related to the incidence of ovulatory infertility. Results During follow-up, 438 women reported ovulatory infertility. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk [RR] (95% CI; P, trend) of ovulatory infertility comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of animal protein intake was 1.39 (1.01 – 1.90; 0.03). The corresponding RR (95% CI; P, trend) for vegetable protein intake was 0.78 (0.54 – 1.12; 0.07). Further, consuming 5% of total energy intake as vegetable protein rather than as animal protein was associated with a more than 50% lower risk of ovulatory infertility (P = 0.007). Conclusions Replacing animal sources of protein with vegetable sources of protein may reduce ovulatory infertility risk. PMID:18226626

  8. [Bone and joint diseases in children. Adequate calcium intake and dietary habit especially breakfast in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Kodama, Momoko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2010-06-01

    Childhood and adolescence are important periods for body growth. Calcium is one of the critical dietary factors especially for bone growth. Although recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of calcium has been determined higher in Dietary reference intakes for Japanese, 2010, calcium intake of Japanese children and adolescent are not necessarily adequate. Furthermore, breakfast skippers in this period tend to increase. So, it is very important to acquire an adequate dietary habit from childhood and adolescent. PMID:20513944

  9. Cultural and environmental barriers to adequate iron intake among northern Kenyan schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Shell-Duncan, Bettina; McDade, Thomas

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the context of iron deficiency and feeding patterns of iron-rich foods among northern Kenyan school-aged children. A nutrition survey was conducted among 300 subjects in two Rendille communities, Korr and Karare. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency as it relates to parasitic infection, dietary intake, and sociodemographic factors, as well as cultural food proscriptions influencing child feeding. Sociodemographic and qualitative data on food beliefs and child-feeding practices were obtained from the primary caretaker of each subject. From pediatric subjects, 24-hour dietary recall data were obtained with the help of the primary caretaker, and capillary blood from a fingerstick was used to detect iron deficiency based on measures of hemoglobin, the zinc protoporphyrin-to-heme ratio, C-reactive protein, and transferrin receptor. With an overall prevalence of 31.2%, iron deficiency was found to be associated with dietary iron intakes constrained by diverse economic, cultural, and environmental factors among Rendille children. In Karare, where children's iron intake approached recommended levels, iron deficiency was found to be attributable to low bioavailability of iron (only 4.3% of total iron intake), rather than low dietary intake per se. By contrast, in Korr the average daily iron intake was estimated at only 65% of recommended allowances, indicating that iron deficiency was the outcome not merely of low bioavailability, but rather of overall inadequate iron intake. Sociodemographic analysis showed a significant interaction between sex and economic status, revealing that girls in economically sufficient households were 2.4 times as likely to have iron deficiency as boys. This difference in risk parallels culturally defined gender-based proscriptions for child feeding: girls are believed to benefit from "soft foods," including rice, maize porridge, and tea, whereas boys benefitfrom "hard foods

  10. Adequate iodine levels in healthy pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey of dietary intake in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kasap, Burcu; Akbaba, Gülhan; Yeniçeri, Emine N.; Akın, Melike N.; Akbaba, Eren; Öner, Gökalp; Turhan, Nilgün Ö.; Duru, Mehmet E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess current iodine levels and related factors among healthy pregnant women. Methods: In this cross-sectional, hospital-based study, healthy pregnant women (n=135) were scanned for thyroid volume, provided urine samples for urinary iodine concentration and completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics and dietary habits targeted for iodine consumption at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Muğla, Turkey, between August 2014 and February 2015. Sociodemographic data were analyzed by simple descriptive statistics. Results: Median urinary iodine concentration was 222.0 µg/L, indicating adequate iodine intake during pregnancy. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 28.1% of subjects had iodine deficiency, 34.1% had adequate iodine intake, 34.8% had more than adequate iodine intake, and 3.0% had excessive iodine intake during pregnancy. Education level, higher monthly income, current employment, consuming iodized salt, and adding salt to food during, or after cooking were associated with higher urinary iodine concentration. Conclusion: Iodine status of healthy pregnant women was adequate, although the percentage of women with more than adequate iodine intake was higher than the reported literature. PMID:27279519

  11. Dietary protein intake and human health.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao

    2016-03-01

    A protein consists of amino acids (AA) linked by peptide bonds. Dietary protein is hydrolyzed by proteases and peptidases to generate AA, dipeptides, and tripeptides in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. These digestion products are utilized by bacteria in the small intestine or absorbed into enterocytes. AA that are not degraded by the small intestine enter the portal vein for protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and other tissues. AA are also used for cell-specific production of low-molecular-weight metabolites with enormous physiological importance. Thus, protein undernutrition results in stunting, anemia, physical weakness, edema, vascular dysfunction, and impaired immunity. Based on short-term nitrogen balance studies, the Recommended Dietary Allowance of protein for a healthy adult with minimal physical activity is currently 0.8 g protein per kg body weight (BW) per day. To meet the functional needs such as promoting skeletal-muscle protein accretion and physical strength, dietary intake of 1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 g protein per kg BW per day is recommended for individuals with minimal, moderate, and intense physical activity, respectively. Long-term consumption of protein at 2 g per kg BW per day is safe for healthy adults, and the tolerable upper limit is 3.5 g per kg BW per day for well-adapted subjects. Chronic high protein intake (>2 g per kg BW per day for adults) may result in digestive, renal, and vascular abnormalities and should be avoided. The quantity and quality of protein are the determinants of its nutritional values. Therefore, adequate consumption of high-quality proteins from animal products (e.g., lean meat and milk) is essential for optimal growth, development, and health of humans. PMID:26797090

  12. Determining median urinary iodine concentration that indicates adequate iodine intake at population level.

    PubMed Central

    Delange, François; de Benoist, Bruno; Burgi, Hans

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Urinary iodine concentration is the prime indicator of nutritional iodine status and is used to evaluate population-based iodine supplementation. In 1994, WHO, UNICEF and ICCIDD recommended median urinary iodine concentrations for populations of 100- 200 micro g/l, assuming the 100 micro g/l threshold would limit concentrations <50 micro g/l to 100 micro g/l. The total population was 55 892, including 35 661 (64%) schoolchildren. Median urinary iodine concentrations were 111-540 (median 201) micro g/l for all populations, 100-199 micro g/l in 23 (48%) populations and >/=200 micro g/l in 25 (52%). The frequencies of values <50 micro g/l were 0-20.8 (mean 4.8%) overall and 7.2% and 2.5% in populations with medians of 100-199 micro g/l and >200 micro g/l, respectively. The frequency reached 20% only in two places where iodine had been supplemented for <2 years. CONCLUSION: The frequency of urinary iodine concentrations <50 micro g/l in populations with median urinary iodine concentrations >/=100 micro g/l has been overestimated. The threshold of 100 micro g/l does not need to be increased. In populations, median urinary iodine concentrations of 100-200 micro g/l indicate adequate iodine intake and optimal iodine nutrition. PMID:12219154

  13. Protein intake in renal disease.

    PubMed

    Pollock, C A; Ibels, L S; Zhu, F Y; Warnant, M; Caterson, R J; Waugh, D A; Mahony, J F

    1997-05-01

    The dietary protein intake (DPI) of 766 patients (aged 7 to 88 yr) was determined from 24-h urinary urea and protein excretion by urea kinetic modelling. Five hundred sixty-five patients had a normal serum creatinine concentration, and of these 565, 385 patients had no dietary modification advised and 180 were advised to follow a low-protein diet. The remaining 201 patients had an increased serum creatinine concentration; 148 of these 201 patients had been advised to restrict their DPI. Patients with a normal serum creatinine concentration who had no dietary restriction had a significantly higher DPI than those advised to restrict their protein intake (1.08 +/- 0.01 versus 0.96 +/- 0.02 g/kg per day (mean +/- SEM), P < 0.01). Similarly, patients with abnormal renal function who were advised to follow a low-protein diet had a reduced DPI (0.93 +/- 0.01 versus 0.87 +/- 0.02 g/kg per day; P < 0.05). A lower DPI correlated with level of renal dysfunction, independent of dietary advice (P < 0.0001). In the overall population, DPI correlated with body mass index (BMI; P < 0.0001) and serum albumin (P < 0.0001), and inverse correlations were evident between age (P < 0.0001), blood glucose level (P < 0.01), serum cholesterol level (P < 0.0001), and triglyceride levels (P < 0.0001) independently of renal function. Fifty-two patients were assessed within the 3 months before the commencement of dialysis, and 47 were reassessed within 3 months after the commencement of dialysis. Despite advice regarding an increase in dietary protein after the commencement of dialysis, this increase failed to occur within the 3 months of commencement of dialytic therapy (0.79 +/- 0.04 versus 0.82 +/- 0.03 g/kg per day); P = 0.64). However, 6 to 9 months after the commencement of dialysis, a significant increase in protein intake was evident (1.04 +/- 0.04 g/kg per day; P < 0.005 versus both prior measurements). Hence a low DPI in renal impairment occurs independently of dietary advice, but

  14. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained. PMID:16614427

  15. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained.

  16. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    PubMed

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in non-consumers. The PANDiet index was significantly higher in yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p < 0.001). The adequacy sub-score for 17 nutrients for which usual intake should be above the reference value was significantly higher among yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet. PMID:26906103

  17. Protein supplements: do they alter dietary intakes?

    PubMed

    Mallard, Alistair R; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca T; Rehrer, Nancy J

    2014-06-01

    Effects of protein versus mixed macronutrient supplementation on total energy intake (TEI) and protein intake during an ad libitum diet were examined. Trained males undertook two, 2-week dietary interventions which were randomized, double blinded, and separated by 2 weeks. These were high-protein supplementation (HP: 1034.5 kJ energy, 29.6 g protein, 8.7 g fat and 12.3 g CHO) and standard meal supplementation (SM: 1039 kJ energy, 9.9 g protein, 9.5 g fat, and 29.4 g CHO) consumed daily following a week of baseline measures. Eighteen participants finished both interventions and one only completed HP. TEI (mean ± SD) was not different between baseline (11148 ± 3347 kJ) and HP (10705 ± 3143 kJ) nor between baseline and SM (12381 ± 3877 kJ), however, TEI was greater with SM than HP (923 ± 4015 kJ p = .043). Protein intake (%TEI) was greater with HP (22.4 ± 6.2%) than baseline (19.4 ± 5.4%; p = .008) but not SM (20.0 ± 5.0%). No differences in absolute daily protein intake were found. Absolute CHO intake was greater with SM than HP (52.0 ± 89.5 g, p = .006). No differences in fat intake were found. Body mass did not change between baseline (82.7 ± 11.2 kg) and either HP (83.1 ± 11.7 kg) or SM (82.9 ± 11.0 kg). Protein supplementation increases the relative proportion of protein in the diet, but doesn't increase the absolute amount of total protein or energy consumed. Thus some compensation by a reduction in other foods occurs. This is in contrast to a mixed nutrient supplement, which does not alter the proportion of protein consumed but does increase TEI.

  18. Healthcare Costs Associated with an Adequate Intake of Sugars, Salt and Saturated Fat in Germany: A Health Econometrical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Toni; Senftleben, Karolin; Deumelandt, Peter; Christen, Olaf; Riedel, Katja; Langer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany—in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar—and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS) were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002–2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3–24.1 billion EUR) in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10%) of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR). This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0–12.1); salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2–7.3) and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million—4.7 billion). Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR. PMID:26352606

  19. Healthcare Costs Associated with an Adequate Intake of Sugars, Salt and Saturated Fat in Germany: A Health Econometrical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Meier, Toni; Senftleben, Karolin; Deumelandt, Peter; Christen, Olaf; Riedel, Katja; Langer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany--in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar--and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS) were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002-2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3-24.1 billion EUR) in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10%) of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR). This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0-12.1); salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2-7.3) and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million-4.7 billion). Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR.

  20. Nutritional status, protein intake and progression of renal failure in children.

    PubMed

    Sahpazova, Emilija; Kuzmanovska, Dafina; Todorovska, Lidija; Bogdanovska, Angelina

    2006-12-01

    Nutritional status and progression of renal failure in 35 children (22 males and 13 females; mean age: 8.85+/-4.13 years) with moderate renal failure were followed for 2 years. All children were on an "ad libidum" diet. Protein intake was determined by a minimum of two dietary diaries kept by the parents and the appearance of urea nitrogen. The children were divided into two groups according to their protein intake: Group 1 - sub-optimal intake (46% of the children, all with significantly lower protein intake); Group 2 - adequate protein intake. The mean protein intake (expressed as a percentage of the WHO recommendations) based on the diets of the patients was 94.79% in Group 1 children and 175.45% in Group 2 children (p<0.05). All patients had a calorie intake of at least 80% of the WHO recommendations. Nutritional status was determined by anthropometric measurements expressed as a standard deviation score. There was no significant anthropometric or biochemical evidence of malnutrition in children with moderate chronic renal failure (CRF). The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with a sub-optimal intake of protein was -5.41+/-2.87 ml/2 year versus-9.53+/-8.61 ml/2 year in the normal protein intake group. There was no correlation between protein intake, nutritional status and progression of renal failure in children with moderate CRF within the 2-year study period.

  1. Protein intake and obesity in young adolescents

    PubMed Central

    XU, SHUMEI; XUE, YING

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of protein and its functional diversity in living systems makes it essential for virtually all life processes. Dietary protein and amino acid requirements are affected by age, body size, body composition, physiological state, and the level of energy output. The requirement for dietary protein is based on the indispensable amino acids under all conditions and under specific physiological and pathological conditions as well as the synthesis of dispensable amino acids and other nitrogen-containing compounds. Previous findings have shown the influence of early intake of proteins on the development of overweight in healthy children. The present review focused on the possible association (if any) between protein intake and later development of obesity. The aim is to benefit physicians, dieticians as well as parents to understand future consequences of incorrect dietary habits in young adolescents and encourage healthy dietary habits to avoid obesity. PMID:27168771

  2. Minimum protein intake for the preterm neonate determined by protein and amino acid kinetics.

    PubMed

    Zello, Gordon A; Menendez, Cesar E; Rafii, Mahroukh; Clarke, Ruth; Wykes, Linda J; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B

    2003-02-01

    Lower limits of protein needs in prematurely born neonates have not been adequately studied, yet providing protein in amounts maximizing accretion without excess is a goal in these infants' nutritional care. We hypothesized that with the use of amino acid oxidation methodology, it would be possible to define minimum protein requirement. Our objective was to investigate protein kinetics during short-term changes in protein intake by measurement of nitrogen balance and amino acid flux and oxidation using [(15)N]glycine, [(13)C]phenylalanine, and [(13)C]leucine tracers. Protein kinetics were examined in 21 preterm infants (gestational age: 29 +/- 3 wk; birth weight: 1091 +/- 324 g) at five protein intakes (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)) with 1 d of adaptation to the test intakes. From nitrogen balance data, a protein need of 0.74 g x kg(-1 x -1) was estimated to achieve zero balance. For all three amino acids, flux and oxidation estimates were not different across protein intakes. Whole-body protein synthesis and breakdown estimates from [(15)N]ammonia data were 14.6 +/- 3.4 and 14.4 +/- 4.1 g x kg(-1) x d(-1), respectively. Glycine flux (680 +/- 168 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)) was greater than leucine flux (323 +/- 115 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)), which was greater than phenylalanine flux (84.3 +/- 35.2 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)). Leucine oxidation (36.7 +/- 15.6 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)) was also greater than phenylalanine oxidation (6.64 +/- 4.41 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)). Infants in our study were able to adapt to short-term changes in protein intake with little consequence to the overall whole-body protein economy, as measured by the three test amino acids.

  3. The deuterium oxide-to-the-mother method documents adequate breast-milk intake among Sri Lankan infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The WHO recommends that exclusive breastfeeding should last up to 6 months. However, human milk intake of Sri Lankan infants has not been quantified scientifically. The objectives of this study were to measure the human milk intake of Sri Lankan infants during the first 6 months of age and to docume...

  4. Prebiotic supplementation and adequate calcium intake have beneficial effects on body mass index changes during early adolescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prebiotics have been shown to enhance bone and gastrointestinal health. Recent data suggest a benefit to weight maintenance as well. However, few data are available in children or adolescents. The interactive effects of prebiotic intake and calcium intake on weight maintenance are unknown. Our objec...

  5. Monoamines and protein intake: are control mechanisms designed to monitor a threshold intake or a set point?

    PubMed

    Fernstrom, J D; Fernstrom, M H

    2001-08-01

    The concentration of TYR in brain changes directly with dietary protein content in the 0-10% PE range, but not higher. The effect is large: TYR concentrations rise as much as two- to threefold between 0% and 10% dietary protein content. This increase produces a clear stimulation of the rate of catecholamine synthesis, observed both for DA and NE, and notably in the hypothalamus, a brain area involved in appetite regulation. A similar relationship to chronic dietary protein intake may also exist for tryptophan and its neurotransmitter product, 5HT. Because the natural diet of rats, the animal model most commonly used in such studies, typically contains between 6% and 14% protein, and may contain less under unfavorable environmental circumstances, rats in the wild may frequently operate on the portion of the protein intake curve producing maximal changes in brain TYR (and perhaps TRP) concentrations. If so, then the production of catecholamines and 5HT may be similarly affected. By such a scenario, the brain might receive information regarding the animal's success in acquiring adequate amounts of protein in its diet. A similar argument can also be made for monkeys in the wild, based on their dietary habits, and thus possibly for humans. From this perspective, animals are hypothesized to monitor/regulate their intake of protein based on a threshold, rather than a set-point model. This notion is not new or unique to amino acids. For example, one current notion of leptin action is that it serves as a signal for energy intake important during periods of deficiency, but not excess. More generally, given the primacy in nature of the need to acquire adequate amounts of food in order to survive and reproduce, and the difficulty in achieving this nutritional goal, it may be that appetite control mechanisms have evolved in nature to center more on attaining and exceeding adequacy than on maintaining intake around a set-point well in excess of adequacy.

  6. Dietary protein intake in sarcopenic obese older women

    PubMed Central

    Muscariello, Espedita; Nasti, Gilda; Siervo, Mario; Di Maro, Martina; Lapi, Dominga; D’Addio, Gianni; Colantuoni, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in a population of obese older women and to assess the effect of a diet moderately rich in proteins on lean mass in sarcopenic obese older women. Materials and methods A total of 1,030 females, >65 years old, body mass index >30 kg/m2, were investigated about their nutritional status. Muscle mass (MM) was estimated according to the Janssen equation (MM =0.401× height2/resistance measured at 50 kHz +3.825× sex −0.071× age +5.102). Sarcopenia was defined according to the MM index, MM/height2 (kg/m2), as two standard deviations lower than the obesity-derived cutoff score (7.3 kg/m2). A food-frequency questionnaire was used to measure participants’ usual food intake during the previous 3 months. Moreover, a group of sarcopenic obese older women (n=104) was divided in two subgroups: the first (normal protein intake [NPI], n=50) administered with a hypocaloric diet (0.8 g/kg desirable body weight/day of proteins), and the second treated with a hypocaloric diet containing 1.2 g/kg desirable body weight/day of proteins (high protein intake [HPI], n=54), for 3 months. Dietary ingestion was estimated according to a daily food diary, self-administered, and three reports of nonconsecutive 24-hour recall every month during the follow-up. Results The 104 women were classified as sarcopenic. After dieting, significant reductions in body mass index were detected (NPI 30.7±1.3 vs 32.0±2.3 kg/m2, HPI 30.26±0.90 vs 31.05±2.90 kg/m2; P<0.01 vs baseline). The MM index presented significant variations in the NPI as well as in the HPI sarcopenic group (NPI 6.98±0.1 vs 7.10±0.2 kg/m2, HPI 7.13±0.4 vs 6.96±0.1 kg/m2; P<0.01 vs baseline). Conclusion A diet moderately rich in proteins was able to preserve MM in sarcopenic women. Therefore, adequate protein intake could contribute to the prevention of lean-mass loss associated with weight reduction in obese older people. PMID:26917955

  7. Nutrient intake in lysinuric protein intolerance.

    PubMed

    Tanner, L M; Näntö-Salonen, K; Venetoklis, J; Kotilainen, S; Niinikoski, H; Huoponen, K; Simell, O

    2007-10-01

    Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by defective transport of cationic amino acids. Poor intestinal absorption and increased renal loss of arginine, ornithine and lysine lead to low plasma concentrations of these amino acids and, subsequently, to impaired urea cycle function. The patients therefore have decreased nitrogen tolerance, which may lead to hyperammonaemia after ingestion of normal amounts of dietary protein. As a protective mechanism, most patients develop strong aversion to protein-rich foods early in life. Oral supplementation with citrulline, which is absorbed normally and metabolized to arginine and ornithine, improves protein tolerance to some extent, as do sodium benzoate and sodium phenylbutyrate also used by some patients. Despite effective prevention of hyperammonaemia, the patients still consume a very restricted diet, which may be deficient in energy, essential amino acids and some vitamins and minerals. To investigate the potential nutritional problems of patients with lysinuric protein intolerance, 77 three- to four-day food records of 28 Finnish LPI patients aged 1.5-61 years were analysed. The data suggest that the patients are clearly at risk for many nutritional deficiencies, which may contribute to their symptoms. Their diet is highly deficient in calcium, vitamin D, iron and zinc. Individualized nutritional supplementation accompanied by regular monitoring of dietary intake is therefore an essential part of the treatment of LPI. PMID:17588131

  8. Whey proteins in the regulation of food intake and satiety.

    PubMed

    Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Akhavan, Tina; Anderson, G Harvey

    2007-12-01

    Whey protein has potential as a functional food component to contribute to the regulation of body weight by providing satiety signals that affect both short-term and long-term food intake regulation. Because whey is an inexpensive source of high nutritional quality protein, the utilization of whey as a physiologically functional food ingredient for weight management is of current interest. At present, the role of individual whey proteins and peptides in contributing to food intake regulation has not been fully defined. However, Whey protein reduces short-term food intake relative to placebo, carbohydrate and other proteins. Whey protein affects satiation and satiety by the actions of: (1) whey protein fractions per se; (2) bioactive peptides; (3) amino-acids released after digestion; (4) combined action of whey protein and/or peptides and/or amino acids with other milk constituents. Whey ingestion activates many components of the food intake regulatory system. Whey protein is insulinotropic, and whey-born peptides affect the renin-angiotensin system. Therefore whey protein has potential as physiologically functional food component for persons with obesity and its co-morbidities (hypertension, type II diabetes, hyper- and dislipidemia). It remains unclear, however, if the favourable effects of whey on food intake, subjective satiety and intake regulatory mechanisms in humans are obtained from usual serving sizes of dairy products. The effects described have been observed in short-term experiments and when whey is consumed in much higher amounts.

  9. Protein, amino acids and the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Tome, Daniel

    2004-08-01

    The influence of protein and amino acid on the control of food intake and the specific control of protein and amino acid intakes remains incompletely understood. The most commonly accepted conclusions are: (1) the existence of an aversive response to diets deficient in or devoid of protein or deficient in at least one essential amino acid; (2) the existence of a mechanism that enables attainment of the minimum requirement for N and essential amino acids by increasing intake of a low-protein diet; (3) a decrease in the intake of a high-protein diet is associated with different processes, including the high satiating effect of protein. Ingested proteins are believed to generate pre- and post-absorptive signals that contribute to the control of gastric kinetics, pancreatic secretion and food intake. At the brain level, two major afferent pathways are involved in protein and amino acid monitoring: the indirect neuro-mediated (mainly vagus-mediated) pathway and the direct blood pathway. The neuro-mediated pathway transfers pre-absorptive and visceral information. This information is for the main part transferred through the vagus nerve that innervates part of the oro-sensory zone: the stomach, the duodenum and the liver. Other information is directly monitored in the blood. It is likely that the system responds precisely when protein and essential amino acid intake is inadequate, but in contrast allows a large range of adaptive capacities through amino acid degradation and substrate interconversion.

  10. Maintaining adequate nutrition, not probiotic administration, prevents growth stunting and maintains skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates in a piglet model of colitis.

    PubMed

    Harding, Scott V; Adegoke, Olasunkanmi A J; Fraser, Keely G; Marliss, Errol B; Chevalier, Stéphanie; Kimball, Scot R; Jefferson, Leonard S; Wykes, Linda J

    2010-03-01

    Malnutrition and cytokine-induced catabolism are pervasive in children with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), however, the benefits of aggressive nutrition support or of probiotics on nutrient and functional deficiencies and growth remain unclear. Piglets with dextran sulfate (DS)-induced colitis consuming a 50% macronutrient restricted diet (C-MR) were compared with those receiving probiotics (C-MRP) or adequate nutrition (C-WN) and with healthy well-nourished controls (REF). C-WN versus REF had reduced growth (-34% chest circumference and -22% snout-to-rump length gain) and a tendency toward lesser weight gain, but no differences in skeletal muscle protein fractional synthesis rates (FSR) or initiation of translation via the mTOR pathway were observed. Compared with C-WN, the C-MR and C-MRP piglets had lower weight gain, growth, and skeletal muscle FSR, and lower phosphorylated p70S6K1 with higher eIF4E*4E-BP1, indicative of reduced initiation of protein translation. Finally, plasma leucine concentrations were positively correlated with weight and phosphorylated p70S6K1, whereas negatively correlated with eIF4E*4E-BP1. In conclusion, reductions in weight gain, growth, protein turnover, skeletal muscle FSR, and initiation of protein translation with moderate macronutrient restriction in colitis are not ameliorated by probiotic supplementation. However, maintaining adequate nutrient intake during colitis preserves whole body protein metabolism, but growth remains compromised.

  11. Intake of protein, calcium and sodium in public child day care centers

    PubMed Central

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Toloni, Maysa Helena de A.; de Menezes, Risia Cristina E.; Temteo, Tatiane Leocádio; Oliveira, Maria Alice A.; Asakura, Leiko; Costa, Emília Chagas; Taddei, José Augusto de A. C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess calcium, protein and sodium intake, of children that attend public day-care centers and to compare it with the recommended one. METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive study in seven public day care centers of São Paulo city, Southeast Brazil, which enrolled 366 children between 12 and 36 months of age. The data collection occurred between September and December 2010. Each day care center was evaluated for three non-consecutive days, totaling 42 days and 210 meals. Dietary intake was assessed by a direct food weighing method. For the nutritional calculation, DietWin(r) Profissional 2.0 was used, and the adequacy was calculated according to the recommendations of the National School Feeding Program for energy, protein, calcium and sodium. The calcium/protein relation was also calculated, as well as calcium density (mg/1,000kcal). RESULTS: The energy (406.4kcal), protein (18.2g) and calcium (207.6mg) consumption did not reach the recommended values ​​in all the evaluated day care centers. Sodium intake exceeded up to three times the recommendation. The calcium/protein ratio of 11.7mg/g was less than the adequate one (20mg/g). CONCLUSIONS: There was inadequacy of calcium, protein and sodium dietary intake, in children attending public day-care centers. PMID:25119750

  12. Effects of protein intake on blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and blood lipids in children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Voortman, Trudy; Vitezova, Anna; Bramer, Wichor M; Ars, Charlotte L; Bautista, Paula K; Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Felix, Janine F; Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Sajjad, Ayesha; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Tharner, Anne; Franco, Oscar H; van den Hooven, Edith H

    2015-02-14

    High protein intake in early childhood is associated with obesity, suggesting possible adverse effects on other cardiometabolic outcomes. However, studies in adults have suggested beneficial effects of protein intake on blood pressure (BP) and lipid profile. Whether dietary protein intake is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic health in children is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review the evidence on the associations of protein intake with BP, insulin sensitivity and blood lipids in children. We searched the databases Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central and PubMed for interventional and observational studies in healthy children up to the age of 18 years, in which associations of total, animal and/or vegetable protein intake with one or more of the following outcomes were reported: BP; measures of insulin sensitivity; cholesterol levels; or TAG levels. In the search, we identified 6636 abstracts, of which fifty-six studies met all selection criteria. In general, the quality of the included studies was low. Most studies were cross-sectional, and many did not control for potential confounders. No overall associations were observed between protein intake and insulin sensitivity or blood lipids. A few studies suggested an inverse association between dietary protein intake and BP, but evidence was inconclusive. Only four studies examined the effects of vegetable or animal protein intake, but with inconsistent results. In conclusion, the literature, to date provides insufficient evidence for effects of protein intake on BP, insulin sensitivity or blood lipids in children. Future studies could be improved by adequately adjusting for key confounders such as energy intake and obesity.

  13. The Current Recommended Vitamin D Intake Guideline for Diet and Supplements During Pregnancy Is Not Adequate to Achieve Vitamin D Sufficiency for Most Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Field, Catherine J.; Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Rabi, Doreen M.; Maggiore, Jack A.; O’Beirne, Maeve; Hanley, David A.; Eliasziw, Misha; Dewey, Deborah; Weinberg, Amy; Ross, Sue J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to determine if pregnant women consumed the recommended vitamin D through diet alone or through diet and supplements, and if they achieved the current reference range vitamin D status when their reported dietary intake met the current recommendations. Methods Data and banked blood samples collected in second trimester from a subset of 537 women in the APrON (Alberta Pregnant Outcomes and Nutrition) study cohort were examined. Frozen collected plasma were assayed using LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) to determine 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations. Dietary data were obtained from questionnaires including a Supplement Intake Questionnaire and a 24-hour recall of the previous day’s diet. Results Participants were 87% Caucasian; mean (SD) age of 31.3 (4.3); BMI 25.8 (4.7); 58% were primiparous; 90% had education beyond high school; 80% had a family income higher than CAN $70,000/year. 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, and 3-epi-25(OH)D3) were identified in all of the 537 plasma samples;3-epi-25(OH)D3 contributed 5% of the total vitamin D. The median (IQR) total 25(OH)D (D2+D3) was 92.7 (30.4) nmol/L and 20% of women had 25(OH)D concentration < 75 nmol/L. The median (IQR) reported vitamin D intake from diet and supplements was 600 (472) IU/day. There was a significant relationship between maternal reported dietary vitamin D intake (diet and supplement) and 25(OH)D and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations in an adjusted linear regression model. Conclusions We demonstrated the current RDA (600 IU/ day) may not be adequate to achieve vitamin D status >75 nmol/L in some pregnant women who are residing in higher latitudes (Calgary, 51°N) in Alberta, Canada and the current vitamin D recommendations for Canadian pregnant women need to be re-evaluated. PMID:27367800

  14. Considerations for protein intake in managing weight loss in athletes.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Caoileann H; Hector, Amy J; Phillips, Stuart M

    2015-01-01

    A large body of evidence now shows that higher protein intakes (2-3 times the protein Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 0.8 g/kg/d) during periods of energy restriction can enhance fat-free mass (FFM) preservation, particularly when combined with exercise. The mechanisms underpinning the FFM-sparing effect of higher protein diets remain to be fully elucidated but may relate to the maintenance of the anabolic sensitivity of skeletal muscle to protein ingestion. From a practical point of view, athletes aiming to reduce fat mass and preserve FFM should be advised to consume protein intakes in the range of ∼1.8-2.7 g kg(-1) d(-1) (or ∼2.3-3.1 g kg(-1) FFM) in combination with a moderate energy deficit (-500 kcal) and the performance of some form of resistance exercise. The target level of protein intake within this recommended range requires consideration of a number of case-specific factors including the athlete's body composition, habitual protein intake and broader nutrition goals. Athletes should focus on consuming high-quality protein sources, aiming to consume protein feedings evenly spaced throughout the day. Post-exercise consumption of 0.25-0.3 g protein meal(-1) from protein sources with high leucine content and rapid digestion kinetics (i.e. whey protein) is recommended to optimise exercise-induced muscle protein synthesis. When protein is consumed as part of a mixed macronutrient meal and/or before bed slightly higher protein doses may be optimal. PMID:25014731

  15. Plant and animal protein intakes are differently associated with nutrient adequacy of the diet of French adults.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Géraldine M; Verger, Eric O; Huneau, Jean-François; Carpentier, Florence; Dubuisson, Carine; Mariotti, François

    2013-09-01

    The sustainability of dietary plant and animal protein consumption is an important issue, but few data are available to ascertain the health-related impact of animal and plant protein intake. The objective was to study the relationships between animal and plant protein intake and diet quality, as reflected by an integrated index of nutrient adequacy. Using data on 1912 adults from the French Individual and National Consumption Survey 2 (2006-2007), we assessed diet quality by using the PANDiet, a unique score combining 35 probabilities of having an adequate nutrient intake, and used multiple regression analysis to study the relationship with intakes of plant, animal, and related food source proteins. After adjustments for intakes of energy, alcohol, and protein from other sources and sociodemographic factors, plant protein intake was positively associated with the PANDiet, irrespective of sex (β = 0.50, P < 0.0001). By contrast, total and animal protein intakes were differently associated with the PANDiet according to sex, with a positive association in women (β = 0.07 and β = 0.08, respectively; P < 0.01) and an inverse association in men (β = -0.07 and β = -0.05, respectively; P < 0.01). The relationships between the PANDiet and intakes of protein from animal food sources varied: for instance, associations were inverse for red meat and poultry in men but not in women, whereas irrespective of sex, they were positive for fish, milk, and yogurt and inverse for processed meat, cheese, and eggs. These findings show that plant protein is a robust marker of a healthy diet, whereas total animal protein includes different subtypes of animal protein that largely vary in their relationship with diet quality. These data could help refine protein recommendations from a qualitative and dietary standpoint.

  16. Synergistic effects of resistance training and protein intake: practical aspects.

    PubMed

    Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Cholewa, Jason Michael; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Zhi, X I A; Magagnin, Daiane; de Sá, Rafaele Bis Dal Ponte; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Teixeira, Tamiris da Silva; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2014-10-01

    Resistance training is a potent stimulus to increase skeletal muscle mass. The muscle protein accretion process depends on a robust synergistic action between protein intake and overload. The intake of protein after resistance training increases plasma amino acids, which results in the activation of signaling molecules leading to increased muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle hypertrophy. Although both essential and non-essential amino acids are necessary for hypertrophy, the intake of free L-leucine or high-leucine whole proteins has been specifically shown to increase the initiation of translation that is essential for elevated MPS. The literature supports the use of protein intake following resistance-training sessions to enhance MPS; however, less understood are the effects of different protein sources and timing protocols on MPS. The sum of the adaptions from each individual training session is essential to muscle hypertrophy, and thus highlights the importance of an optimal supplementation protocol. The aim of this review is to present recent findings reported in the literature and to discuss the practical application of these results. In that light, new speculations and questions will arise that may direct future investigations. The information and recommendations generated in this review should be of benefit to clinical dietitians as well as those engaged in sports.

  17. Marginal B-6 intake affects protein synthesis in rat tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, D.A.; Kretsch, M.J.; Young, L.A.; Jansen, G.R.

    1986-03-05

    The role of vitamin B-6 in amino acid metabolism suggests that inadequate B-6 intake may impair protein synthesis. To test this hypothesis, 30 male rats (initially 227 g) were fed AIN76A diets that contained control, marginal or devoid levels of B-6 (5.8, 1.2 or 0.1 mg B-6/kg diet, by analysis) ad libitum for 9 weeks. Protein synthesis rates (PSRs) were measured in liver, kidney and calf muscle using a flooding dose of /sup 3/H-phenylalanine. Marginal and control groups ate and gained weight at similar rates. The marginal diet did not elevate xanthurenic acid (XA) excretion following a tryptophan load. However, marginal B-6 intake did depress liver PSR by 29% (2182 vs 1549 mg/day, P<.05), liver wet weight by 15% (19.0 vs 16.1 g, P<.05) and muscle PSR by 23% (3.0 vs 2.3%/day, P<.10). Unexpectedly, marginal B-6 intake increased PSR in kidney 47% (90 vs 132 mg/day, P<.05). The devoid diet, which increased XA excretion following a tryptophan load by more than 3-fold, depressed PSRs 56% in liver and 31% in muscle. However, the devoid diet decreased food intake by 40% (25.0 vs 15.0 g/day); therefore effects of devoid B-6 intake on PSRs may have been confounded by deficits in protein-energy intake in devoid vs control groups. These data demonstrate that marginal B-6 intake alters protein synthesis in tissues of the rat.

  18. Variation in Protein Intake Induces Variation in Spider Silk Expression

    PubMed Central

    Blamires, Sean J.; Wu, Chun-Lin; Tso, I-Min

    2012-01-01

    Background It is energetically expensive to synthesize certain amino acids. The proteins (spidroins) of spider major ampullate (MA) silk, MaSp1 and MaSp2, differ in amino acid composition. Glutamine and proline are prevalent in MaSp2 and are expensive to synthesize. Since most orb web spiders express high proline silk they might preferentially attain the amino acids needed for silk from food and shift toward expressing more MaSp1 in their MA silk when starved. Methodology/Principal Findings We fed three spiders; Argiope aetherea, Cyrtophora moluccensis and Leucauge blanda, high protein, low protein or no protein solutions. A. aetherea and L. blanda MA silks are high in proline, while C. moluccesnsis MA silks are low in proline. After 10 days of feeding we determined the amino acid compositions and mechanical properties of each species' MA silk and compared them between species and treatments with pre-treatment samples, accounting for ancestry. We found that the proline and glutamine of A. aetherea and L. blanda silks were affected by protein intake; significantly decreasing under the low and no protein intake treatments. Glutmaine composition in C. moluccensis silk was likewise affected by protein intake. However, the composition of proline in their MA silk was not significantly affected by protein intake. Conclusions Our results suggest that protein limitation induces a shift toward different silk proteins with lower glutamine and/or proline content. Contradictions to the MaSp model lie in the findings that C. moluccensis MA silks did not experience a significant reduction in proline and A. aetherea did not experience a significant reduction in serine on low/no protein. The mechanical properties of the silks could not be explained by a MaSp1 expressional shift. Factors other than MaSp expression, such as the expression of spidroin-like orthologues, may impact on silk amino acid composition and spinning and glandular processes may impact mechanics. PMID:22363691

  19. How Adequate are One- and Two-Dimensional Free Energy Landscapes for Protein Folding Dynamics?

    PubMed Central

    Maisuradze, Gia G.; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2009-01-01

    The molecular dynamics trajectories of protein folding or unfolding, generated with the coarse-grained united-residue force field for the B domain of staphylococcal protein A, were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). The folding or unfolding process was examined by using free-energy landscapes (FELs) in PC space. By introducing a novel multidimensional FEL, it was shown that the low-dimensional FELs are not always sufficient for the description of folding or unfolding processes. Similarities between the topographies of FELs along low- and high-indexed principal components were observed. PMID:19658975

  20. Association between dietary protein intake and the risk of hypertension: a cross-sectional study from rural western China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruru; Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong; Wang, Duolao; Zhao, Yaling; Li, Qiang; Liu, Xiaoning

    2013-11-01

    Evidence for an association between dietary proteins and the risk of hypertension in rural Chinese adults, whose diets are protein-poor and unbalanced, is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary proteins on hypertension among adults of rural western China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hanzhong, China, and 2241 residents were included in the analysis. Logistic regression models were used to examine whether dietary proteins (total, plant and animal protein) were independently correlated with hypertension. The total protein intake was inadequate (51.7 g per day for male and 40.1 g per day for female), accounting for 56-71% of the Chinese recommended nutrient intakes or adequate intakes. Nearly 80% of protein intake derived from plants, especially grains, and the proportion derived from plants was higher in females than in males. The daily animal protein intake was 12.1 g for males and 8.3 g for females. For females, no significant association was found between hypertension and total protein or plant protein intake. However, animal protein intake was significantly and negatively associated with the risk of hypertension after controlling for demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, body mass index and other dietary nutrients. In addition, the odds ratio for the upper quartile compared with the bottom quartile was 0.64 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.43-0.95, P for trend <0.05). Furthermore, a significant decrease of 1.082 mm Hg (95%CI: 0.189-1.975) in systolic blood pressure and 0.668 mm Hg (95%CI: 0.105-1.232) in diastolic blood pressure was observed per s.d. increase of animal protein intake in females. For males, we did not observe a significant association between dietary proteins and hypertension or blood pressure. In conclusion, for the western rural Chinese population, especially women, whose dietary protein intake is low and largely derived from plants, the intake of animal protein may be related to a decreased

  1. Growth, nutrient retention, and metabolic response in low birth weight infants fed varying intakes of protein and energy.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, S; Schulze, K F; Forsyth, M; Zucker, C; Dell, R B; Ramakrishnan, R; Heird, W C

    1988-10-01

    Growth, nutrient retention, and metabolic response were determined in low birth weight (LBW) infants fed daily protein and energy intakes, respectively, of 2.8 gm/kg and 119 kcal/kg (group 1), 3.8 gm/kg and 120 kcal/kg (group 2), and 3.9 gm/kg and 142 kcal/kg (group 3). The mean rates of both weight gain and nitrogen retention in group 1 were somewhat greater than intrauterine rates; plasma concentrations of transthyretin and albumin also were acceptable. Thus the lower protein intake appeared to be adequate. On the other hand, the rates of weight gain and nitrogen retention in groups 2 and 3 were greater than those in group 1, supporting the efficacy of the higher protein intake with respect to growth. However, blood urea nitrogen and plasma amino acid concentrations also were higher in groups 2 and 3; both were higher in group 2 than in group 3, reflecting the positive effect of the higher energy intake on protein utilization. This observation, combined with data from an earlier study, indicates that protein intakes in excess of 3 gm/100 kcal will not be utilized completely. Energy expenditure in group 3 was greater than in group 1 but not group 2, raising the possibility that protein intakes not utilized completely contribute to diet-induced thermogenesis. The higher energy intake in group 3 vs group 2 did not affect rate of weight gain significantly, but energy storage in group 3, and hence fat accretion, was greater than that of other groups. In all groups the ratio of protein accretion to fat accretion reflected dietary proportions of protein and energy.

  2. Net protein oxidation is adapted to dietary protein intake in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus).

    PubMed

    Russell, Kim; Murgatroyd, Peter R; Batt, Roger M

    2002-03-01

    Cats have a requirement for dietary protein two to three times that of omnivores and herbivores. This was reported to be due to the hepatic catabolic enzymes of this species being set to a permanently high level and, therefore, showing little adaptation to low dietary protein. A major mechanism for adapting to dietary protein in other species is amino acid oxidation (hereafter referred to as protein oxidation), and the objective of this study was to determine whether protein oxidation in cats was correlated with protein intake. Net protein and net fat oxidation in six adult cats were studied directly from gas exchanges using indirect calorimetry, after feeding moderate protein (MP; 35% energy) and high protein (HP; 52% energy) diets. Protein oxidation was significantly higher (P < 0.05) when cats were fed the HP diet (28.4 plus minus 0.7 mg/min) rather than the MP diet (20.4 plus minus 0.8 mg/min). Fat oxidation was significantly higher (P < 0.05) when cats consumed the MP diet (9.0 plus minus 0.7 mg/min) rather than the HP diet (4.7 plus minus 0.5 mg/min). Protein oxidation was significantly correlated (linear regression, R(2) = 46.0, P < 0.05) with protein intake such that the mean ratio of 18-h oxidation: 18-h intake was 1.2 on both diets. Fat oxidation was significantly correlated (linear regression, R(2) = 18.9, P < 0.05) with fat intake such that the mean ratio of 18-h fat oxidation: 18-h fat intake was 1.1 (MP) and 0.9 (HP). This study demonstrated that cats adapt net protein oxidation at these levels of protein intake, and the reason for the high dietary protein requirement of this species is, therefore, unclear.

  3. Quantity of dietary protein intake, but not pattern of intake, affects net protein balance primarily through differences in protein synthesis in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Young; Schutzler, Scott; Schrader, Amy; Spencer, Horace; Kortebein, Patrick; Deutz, Nicolaas E P; Wolfe, Robert R; Ferrando, Arny A

    2015-01-01

    To examine whole body protein turnover and muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (MPS) following ingestions of protein in mixed meals at two doses of protein and two intake patterns, 20 healthy older adult subjects (52-75 yr) participated in one of four groups in a randomized clinical trial: a level of protein intake of 0.8 g (1RDA) or 1.5 g·kg(-1)·day(-1) (∼2RDA) with uneven (U: 15/20/65%) or even distribution (E: 33/33/33%) patterns of intake for breakfast, lunch, and dinner over the day (1RDA-U, 1RDA-E, 2RDA-U, or 2RDA-E). Subjects were studied with primed continuous infusions of L-[(2)H5]phenylalanine and L-[(2)H2]tyrosine on day 4 following 3 days of diet habituation. Whole body protein kinetics [protein synthesis (PS), breakdown, and net balance (NB)] were expressed as changes from the fasted to the fed states. Positive NB was achieved at both protein levels, but NB was greater in 2RDA vs. 1RDA (94.8 ± 6.0 vs. 58.9 ± 4.9 g protein/750 min; P = 0.0001), without effects of distribution on NB. The greater NB was due to the higher PS with 2RDA vs. 1RDA (15.4 ± 4.8 vs. -18.0 ± 8.4 g protein/750 min; P = 0.0018). Consistent with PS, MPS was greater with 2RDA vs. 1RDA, regardless of distribution patterns. In conclusion, whole body net protein balance was greater with protein intake above recommended dietary allowance (0.8 g protein·kg(-1)·day(-1)) in the context of mixed meals, without demonstrated effects of protein intake pattern, primarily through higher rates of protein synthesis at whole body and muscle levels.

  4. Weight, protein, fat, and timing of preloads affect food intake.

    PubMed

    Porrini, M; Santangelo, A; Crovetti, R; Riso, P; Testolin, G; Blundell, J E

    1997-09-01

    Two foods, one rich in protein (HP) and one rich in fat (HF), were employed to evaluate the effect of macronutrients on food intake and to underline the differences that occurred when the foods were served as uniform meal, as first course of a varied meal, and as a snack 2 h before a varied meal. Our results showed that HP food always exerted a higher effect on both intrameal satiation and postingestive satiety than HF food. When a uniform meal was consumed, satiation for the specific food was reached before fullness; in this condition, sensory characteristics of foods played an important role in controlling food intake and made the uniform meal more satiating than the varied one. The consumption of a snack far from a meal did not contribute to satiety; consequently, gastric filling seems to be an important factor determining the amount consumed in a varied meal.

  5. Adequate Intake levels of choline are sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in Mexican American men but are not optimal for minimizing plasma total homocysteine increases after a methionine load2

    PubMed Central

    Veenema, Kristin; Solis, Claudia; Li, Rui; Wang, Wei; Maletz, Charles V; Abratte, Christian M; Caudill, Marie A

    2009-01-01

    Background An adequate intake of 550 mg choline/d was established for the prevention of liver dysfunction in men, as assessed by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations. Objective This controlled feeding study investigated the influence of choline intakes ranging from 300 to 2200 mg/d on biomarkers of choline status. The effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype on choline status was also examined. Design Mexican American men (n = 60) with different MTHFR C677T genotypes (29 677TT, 31 677CC) consumed a diet providing 300 mg choline/d plus supplemental choline intakes of 0, 250, 800, or 1900 mg/d for total choline intakes of 300, 550, 1100, or 2200 mg/d, respectively, for 12 wk; 400 μg/d as dietary folate equivalents and 173 mg betaine/d were consumed throughout the study. Results Choline intake affected the response of plasma free choline and betaine (time × choline, P < 0.001); the highest concentrations were observed in the 2200 mg/d group. Phosphatidylcholine (P = 0.026) and total cholesterol (P = 0.002) were also influenced by choline intake; diminished concentrations were observed in the 300 mg/d group. Phosphatidylcholine was modified by MTHFR genotype (P = 0.035; 677TT < 677CC). After a methionine load (100 mg/kg body wt), choline intakes of 1100 and 2200 mg/d attenuated (P = 0.016) the rise in plasma homocysteine, as did the MTHFR 677TT genotype (P < 0.001). Serum alanine aminotransferase was not influenced by the choline intakes administered in this study. Conclusions These data suggest that 550 mg choline/d is sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in this population under the conditions of this study; higher intakes may be needed to optimize other endpoints. PMID:18779284

  6. Renal response to restricted protein intake in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Bending, J J; Dodds, R A; Keen, H; Viberti, G C

    1988-12-01

    Proteinuria in diabetes is associated with progressive glomerular damage. We studied the effects of 3-wk dietary protein restriction on proteinuria and renal function in 10 insulin-dependent diabetic men with diabetic nephropathy. Patients were randomly assigned by a crossover design to 40-g low-protein diet (LPD) or usual-protein diet (UPD). Glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow were measured by inulin and p-aminohippurate clearance at the end of each period under conditions of sustained euglycemia. Total calorie intake, body weight, serum albumin and total protein concentrations, hematocrit, blood pressure, and glucose control were similar during the two diets. Achieved protein intake was 46 +/- 3 g/day during LPD and 81 +/- 4 g/day during UPD (P less than .001). Urinary urea appearance and plasma urea were significantly lower on LPD. Median total urinary protein was reduced from 3.9 g/day (range 0.5-12.3) on UPD to 2.4 (range 0.2-9.0) on LPD (P less than .006), and there was a significant fall in the median fractional clearance of albumin from 2.0 x 10(-4) (range 0.1-90.9) on UPD to 1.0 x 10(-4) (range 0.1-51.4) on LPD and IgG from 2.1 x 10(-5) (range 0.2-238) to 1.5 x 10(-5) (range 0.1-77) (P less than .006 and P less than .02, respectively). The reabsorption rate of beta 2-microglobulin was similar on the two diets and glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and filtration fraction remained unchanged. Thus, short-term dietary protein restriction reduces diabetic proteinuria independently of blood glucose or systemic blood pressure changes by improving glomerular permselectivity.

  7. Adequately Diversified Dietary Intake and Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy Is Associated with Reduced Occurrence of Symptoms Suggestive of Pre-Eclampsia or Eclampsia in Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sutapa; Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective Pre-eclampsia or Eclampsia (PE or E) accounts for 25% of cases of maternal mortality worldwide. There is some evidence of a link to dietary factors, but few studies have explored this association in developing countries, where the majority of the burden falls. We examined the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E in Indian women. Methods Cross-sectional data from India’s third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-06) was used for this study. Self-reported symptoms suggestive of PE or E during pregnancy were obtained from 39,657 women aged 15-49 years who had had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E after adjusting for maternal, health and lifestyle factors, and socio-demographic characteristics of the mother. Results In their most recent pregnancy, 1.2% (n=456) of the study sample experienced symptoms suggestive of PE or E. Mothers who consumed an adequately diversified diet were 34% less likely (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.51-0.87) to report PE or E symptoms than mothers with inadequately diversified dietary intake. The likelihood of reporting PE or E symptoms was also 36% lower (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88) among those mothers who consumed iron and folic acid supplementation for at least 90 days during their last pregnancy. As a sensitivity analysis, we stratified our models sequentially by education, wealth, antenatal care visits, birth interval, and parity. Our results remained largely unchanged: both adequately diversified dietary intake and iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were associated with a reduced occurrence of PE or E symptoms. Conclusion Having a adequately diversified dietary

  8. Response of protein and urea kinetics in burn patients to different levels of protein intake.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, R R; Goodenough, R D; Burke, J F; Wolfe, M H

    1983-01-01

    The effects of two levels of protein intake on protein metabolism in six severely burned adult patients were studied (means of 70% BSA burned). A crossover experimental design enabled the authors to study each patient at the end of two three-day dietary regimens. All diets were isocaloric and provided approximately 25% more calories than the measured energy expenditure (means = 40.8 Kcal/kg X day). In one regimen, each patient received 2.2 g protein/kg X day, while during the other treatment period they received 1.4 g protein/kg X day. The patients were studied in the fed state and after 10 to 12 hours of fasting. Leucine kinetics were determined by means of the primed-constant infusion of [1--13C]--leucine. The authors were able to distinguish the oxidation of plasma leucine from the oxidation of leucine derived from intracellular protein at the site of the deamination of leucine (predominantly muscle) by simultaneously determining both leucine and alpha-ketoisocaproic acid enrichment. Also, rates of whole-body protein synthesis and catabolism were calculated from the leucine flux and oxidation data. Net protein synthesis was also calculated by means of another stable-isotope technique involving the infusion of [15N2]--urea. Finally, a third means of estimating net protein catabolism based on urinary N-excretion data was used at the same time that the isotopic studies were performed. The 13C leucine-data and the N-excretion data indicated that a balance between protein synthesis and catabolism could be achieved with a protein intake of 1.4 protein/kg X day. When protein intake was increased to 2.2 g protein/kg X day, neither isotopic method indicated a further beneficial effect on net protein synthesis, although the absolute rates of protein synthesis and catabolism were stimulated. The N-excretion data, on the other hand, indicated a significant improvement in net protein synthesis with higher protein intake. Regardless of the level of protein intake, the

  9. Effects of fat, protein, and carbohydrate and protein load on appetite, plasma cholecystokinin, peptide YY, and ghrelin, and energy intake in lean and obese men.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Ixchel M; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Seimon, Radhika V; Otto, Bärbel; Horowitz, Michael; Wishart, Judith M; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2012-07-01

    While protein is regarded as the most satiating macronutrient, many studies have employed test meals that had very high and unsustainable protein contents. Furthermore, the comparative responses between lean and obese subjects and the relationships between energy intake suppression and gut hormone release remain unclear. We evaluated the acute effects of meals with modest variations in 1) fat, protein, and carbohydrate content and 2) protein load on gastrointestinal hormones, appetite, and subsequent energy intake in lean and obese subjects. Sixteen lean and sixteen obese men were studied on four occasions. Following a standardized breakfast, they received for lunch: 1) high-fat (HF), 2) high-protein (HP), 3) high-carbohydrate/low-protein (HC/LP), or 4) adequate-protein (AP) isocaloric test meals. Hunger, fullness, and gut hormones were measured throughout, and at t = 180 min energy intake at a buffet meal was quantified. In lean subjects, hunger was less and fullness greater following HF, HP, and AP compared with HC/LP meals, and energy intake was less following HF and HP compared with HC meals (P < 0.05). In the obese subjects, hunger was less following HP compared with HF, HC/LP, and AP meals, and energy intake was less following HP and AP compared with HF and HC meals (P < 0.05). There were no major differences in hormone responses to the meals among subject groups, but the CCK and ghrelin responses to HP and AP were sustained in both groups. In conclusion, HP meals suppress energy intake in lean and obese subjects, an effect potentially mediated by CCK and ghrelin, while obese individuals appear to be less sensitive to the satiating effects of fat.

  10. Protein synthesis and retention in some tissues of the young pig as influenced by dietary protein intake after early-weaning. Possible connection to the energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sève, B; Reeds, P J; Fuller, M F; Cadenhead, A; Hay, S M

    1986-01-01

    Changes in fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR) of 4 tissues (muscle, liver, intestine and bone) were assessed in 2 groups of young pigs from weaning, 10 days postpartum, to one week later, after feeding equal amounts of dry diets at 2 levels of protein (15 and 30%). In the meantime, protein and energy balance measurements were performed on the whole body partitioned into 4 components (carcass, liver, digestive organs, other organs + blood). Whole body energy balances were strongly negative in both groups as a result of low metabolisable energy (ME) intakes and fat mobilization. Protein balance improved, with the increase in dietary protein, at the expense of additional body fat loss. Parallel to that, an increase in the efficiency of ME for protein deposition was noticed. With the lower protein intake, protein deposition remained significantly positive in digestive tissues but not in liver and carcass. Muscle and liver RNA: protein ratios decreased after weaning at rates consistent with the normal age-dependent variations regardless of diet. FSRs were directly related to protein intake and the high supply allowed these tissues to match the preweaning values. In contrast, intestine RNA: protein ratio did not change after weaning and FSR was increased in both groups, with a trend to a higher value with the lower protein supply. Bone RNA: protein ratio and FSR both decreased after weaning on the low-protein diet; the effect of increasing dietary nitrogen could not be assessed in this tissue. The most typical effect of underfeeding associated with early-weaning seems to be an exaggeration of the normal age-dependent increase in protein synthesis per unit of RNA, provided that an adequate protein diet is fed. The relevance of these findings to the variations in the ME efficiency for protein deposition needs further investigations. PMID:3749602

  11. Inadequate dietary protein intake: When does it occur and what are the consequences?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous work with country-level data has shown associations between inadequate protein supply and stunting rates. Inadequate protein intake is known to be deleterious in animals. Low dietary protein intake in children is associated with growth faltering. According to World Health Organization (WHO)...

  12. Update on protein intake: importance of milk proteins for health status of the elderly.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Robert R

    2015-08-01

    Loss of lean body mass that occurs with aging is the primary endpoint with which sarcopenia is defined. Furthermore, loss of muscle mass is central to the development of many adverse health issues in the elderly. Consequently, the response of lean body mass to nutritional interventions, particularly to dietary protein, has been a commonly measured endpoint. However, increased protein intake has been associated with improved markers for cardiovascular health, improved bone health, management of weight and metabolic diseases, and reduced all-cause mortality. Strength, rather than lean body mass, may be a more accurate indicator of health, especially in the elderly. The recommended dietary allowance for protein has been set at 0.8 g/kg/day. Because the average protein intake in the United States is approximately 1.2 g/kg/day, it appears that the average protein intake is above the recommended dietary allowance but below the low end of the acceptable macronutrient distribution range recommended by expert committees of the National Academy of Sciences and below the dietary intake levels suggested by the US Department of Agriculture in the Dietary Guidelines.

  13. Update on protein intake: importance of milk proteins for health status of the elderly

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Loss of lean body mass that occurs with aging is the primary endpoint with which sarcopenia is defined. Furthermore, loss of muscle mass is central to the development of many adverse health issues in the elderly. Consequently, the response of lean body mass to nutritional interventions, particularly to dietary protein, has been a commonly measured endpoint. However, increased protein intake has been associated with improved markers for cardiovascular health, improved bone health, management of weight and metabolic diseases, and reduced all-cause mortality. Strength, rather than lean body mass, may be a more accurate indicator of health, especially in the elderly. The recommended dietary allowance for protein has been set at 0.8 g/kg/day. Because the average protein intake in the United States is approximately 1.2 g/kg/day, it appears that the average protein intake is above the recommended dietary allowance but below the low end of the acceptable macronutrient distribution range recommended by expert committees of the National Academy of Sciences and below the dietary intake levels suggested by the US Department of Agriculture in the Dietary Guidelines. PMID:26175489

  14. Atherosclerosis: A Link Between Lipid Intake and Protein Tyrosine Nitration

    PubMed Central

    Upmacis, Rita K.

    2009-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, a disease characterized by plaque formation in the arterial wall that can lead to heart attack and stroke, is a principal cause of death in the world. Since the 1990’s, protein nitrotyrosine formation has been known to occur in the atherosclerotic plaque. This potentially damaging reaction occurs as a result of tyrosine modification by reactive nitrogen species, such as nitrogen dioxide radical, which forms upon peroxynitrite decomposition or nitrite oxidation by hydrogen peroxide-activated peroxidase enzymes. The presence of protein-bound nitrotyrosine can be considered an indicator of a loss in the natural balance of oxidants and antioxidants, and as such, there is an emerging view that protein-bound nitrotyrosine may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This review brings together evidence that the accumulation of protein nitrotyrosine during atherogenesis is more widespread than initially thought (as its presence can be detected not only in the lesion but also in the blood stream and other organs) and is closely linked to lipid intake. PMID:20157638

  15. Update on lipid and protein intakes in the critical newborn.

    PubMed

    Francescato, Gaia; Mosca, Fabio; Agosti, Massimo

    2012-10-01

    The influence of critical illnesses on adverse outcomes in newborn infants seems to be mediated by nutritional intakes during the first week or few weeks of life. Changes in amounts and ratios of protein and energy, fat quality (medium chain triglycerides, and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids), maintaining normoglycemia during full or partial parenteral nutrition, rate of feeding advancements and avoidance of postnatal growth retardation represent the main items whose roles in critically ill preterm infants have been considered so far. In a condition such as extreme prematurity, feeding higher amounts of amino acids since the first day of life has been shown so far to be safe and effective in terms of metabolic balance, body growth and neurodevelopment outcome. In other clinical conditions and as far as other nutrients are concerned, available data are still limited and do not allow for firm conclusions in most cases.

  16. Relationship between animal protein intake and muscle mass index in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Adlercreutz, Herman

    2009-12-01

    The amount and the type of dietary protein could play a role in determining the quantity of skeletal muscle mass. The aim was to examine the relationship between the type of protein intake and the level of muscle mass in healthy omnivorous and vegetarian Caucasian women. The design of the present study was an observational and cross-sectional study. Twenty-one omnivores (Om) and nineteen vegetarians (Ve) were recruited. Muscle mass index (urinary creatinine), dietary intake (5 d dietary records) and biochemical analyses (hormone, phyto-oestrogen and lipid profiles) were obtained. We found differences between groups for muscle mass (Ve: 18 kg v. Om: 23 kg; P = 0.010), muscle mass index (Ve: 6.7 kg/m2 v. Om: 8.3 kg/m2; P = 0.002), animal protein intake in g/d (P = 0.001) and in g/kg body weight per d (P = 0.003), plant protein intake in g/d (P = 0.015) and in g/kg body weight per d (P = 0.007), the animal:plant protein intake ratio (P = 0.001) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) (P = 0.001). Muscle mass index still correlated with animal protein intake in g/d (P = 0.001) and in g/kg body weight per d (P = 0.008), and the animal:plant protein intake ratio (P = 0.007) even after controlling for SHBG and plant protein intake. Finally, animal protein intake (g/d) was the independent predictor of muscle mass index (adjusted r2 0.42). Thus, a vegetarian diet is associated with a lower muscle mass index than is an omnivorous diet at the same protein intake. A good indicator of muscle mass index in women seems to be animal protein intake.

  17. Muscle protein turnover in rats treated with corticosterone (CC) or/and nandrolone decanoate (ND) and fed an adequate or a low-protein diet

    SciTech Connect

    Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Goena, M.; Larralde, J.

    1986-03-01

    In order to investigate the possible antagonistic effect between glucocorticoids and androgens on muscle protein turnover, the authors have measured the fractional rates of gastrocnemius muscle protein synthesis (k/sub s/) and degradation (k/sub d/) by the constant-intravenous-infusion method using L-//sup 14/C/-tyrosine in rats receiving via s.c. per 100 g b.wt. 10 mg of CC, or 2 mg of ND or CC+ND at the indicated doses, and fed either an 18% or 5% protein diets over a period of 5 days. As an additional index of protein synthesis, RNA activity (g of synthesized protein/day/g RNA) was determined as well. Results showed that as compared to vehicle-injected animals fed the adequate diet, CC-treated rats exhibited a reduction of muscle k/sub d/, while ND-treated rats had an outstanding increase of muscle k/sub s/. However, rats receiving CC+ND showed k/sub s/ and k/sub d/ values similar to those displayed by control animals. Nevertheless, when the steroids were injected to rats fed the low-protein diet, CC has a catabolic effect on muscle protein but by reducing k/sub s/, while the anabolic action of ND is still displayed but by a significant reduction of muscle k/sub d/. CC+ND given to these protein-deficient rats caused an increase in muscle k/sub s/ and a reduction in k/sub d/. These results might indicate that, at least in part, ND antagonizes the catabolic action of high doses of CC on muscle protein metabolism.

  18. Role of dietary protein and thiamine intakes on cognitive function in healthy older people: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Koh, Freda; Charlton, Karen; Walton, Karen; McMahon, Anne-Therese

    2015-04-02

    The effectiveness of nutritional interventions to prevent and maintain cognitive functioning in older adults has been gaining interest due to global population ageing. A systematic literature review was conducted to obtain and appraise relevant studies on the effects of dietary protein or thiamine on cognitive function in healthy older adults. Studies that reported on the use of nutritional supplementations and/or populations with significant cognitive impairment were excluded. Seventeen eligible studies were included. Evidence supporting an association between higher protein and/or thiamine intakes and better cognitive function is weak. There was no evidence to support the role of specific protein food sources, such as types of meat, on cognitive function. Some cross-sectional and case-control studies reported better cognition in those with higher dietary thiamine intakes, but the data remains inconclusive. Adequate protein and thiamine intake is more likely associated with achieving a good overall nutritional status which affects cognitive function rather than single nutrients. A lack of experimental studies in this area prevents the translation of these dietary messages for optimal cognitive functioning and delaying the decline in cognition with advancing age.

  19. Dietary protein intake is associated with lean body mass in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Geirsdottir, Olof G; Arnarson, Atli; Ramel, Alfons; Jonsson, Palmi V; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-08-01

    Lean body mass (LBM) is important to maintain physical function during aging. We hypothesized that dietary protein intake and leisure-time physical activity are associated with LBM in community-dwelling older adults. To test the hypothesis, participants (n = 237; age, 65-92 years) did 3-day weighed food records and reported physical activity. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Protein intake was 0.98 ± 0.28 and 0.95 ± 0.29 g/kg body weight in male and female participants, respectively. Protein intake (in grams per kilogram of body weight) was associated with LBM (in kilograms); that is, the differences in LBM were 2.3 kg (P < .05) and 2.0 kg (P = .054) between the fourth vs the first and the fourth vs the second quartiles of protein intake, respectively. Only a minor part of this association was explained by increased energy intake, which follows an increased protein intake. Our study shows that dietary protein intake was positively associated with LBM in older adults with a mean protein intake higher than the current recommended daily allowance of 0.8 g/kg per day. Leisure-time physical activity, predominantly consisting of endurance type exercises, was not related to LBM in this group.

  20. High Protein Intake Improves Insulin Sensitivity but Exacerbates Bone Resorption in Immobility (WISE Study)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Martina; Smith, Scott M.; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Zwart, Sara R.; Baecker, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Inactivity, like bed rest (BR), causes insulin resistance (IR) and bone loss even in healthy subjects. High protein intake seems to mitigate this IR but might exacerbate bone loss. We hypothesized that high protein intake (animal:vegetable protein ratio: 60:40), isocaloric, compared to the control group plus high potassium intake would prevent IR without affecting bone turnover. After a 20-day ambulatory adaptation to controlled confinement and diet, 16 women participated in a 60-day, 6 deg head-down-tilt BR and were assigned randomly to one of the two groups. Control subjects (CON, n=8) received 1g/kg body mass/d dietary protein. Nutrition subjects (NUT, n=8) received 1.45g/kg body mass/d dietary protein plus 7.2g branched chain amino acids per day during BR. All subjects received 1670 kcal/d. Bed rest decreased glucose disposal by 35% (p<0.05) in CON. Isocaloric high protein intake prevented insulin resistance, but exacerbated bed rest induced increase in bone resorption markers C-telopeptide (> 30%) and Ntelopeptide (>20%) (both: p<0.001). Bone formation markers were unaffected by high protein intake. We conclude from these results that high protein intake might positively affect glucose tolerance, but might also foster bone loss. Further long-duration studies are mandatory before high protein intake for diabetic patients, who have an increased fracture risk, might be recommended.

  1. ASSOCIATIONS OF PROTEIN INTAKE AND PROTEIN SOURCE WITH BONE MINERAL DENSITY AND FRACTURE RISK: A POPULATION-BASED COHORT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    LANGSETMO, L.; BARR, S.I.; BERGER, C.; KREIGER, N.; RAHME, E.; ADACHI, J.D.; PAPAIOANNOU, A.; KAISER, S. M; PRIOR, J.C.; HANLEY, D.A.; KOVACS, C.S.; JOSSE, R.G.; GOLTZMAN, D.

    2016-01-01

    High dietary protein has been hypothesized to cause lower bone mineral density (BMD) and greater fracture risk. Previous results are conflicting and few studies have assessed potential differences related to differing protein sources. Objective To determine associations between total protein intake, and protein intake by source (dairy, non-dairy animal, plant) with BMD, BMD change, and incident osteoporotic fracture. Design/Setting Prospective cohort study (Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study). Participants/Measures Protein intake was assessed as percent of total energy intake (TEI) at Year 2 (1997–99) using a food frequency questionnaire (N=6510). Participants were contacted annually to ascertain incident fracture. Total hip and lumbar spine BMD was measured at baseline and Year 5. Analyses were stratified by group (men 25–49 y, men 50+ y, premenopausal women 25–49 y, and postmenopausal women 50+ y) and adjusted for major confounders. Fracture analyses were limited to those 50+ y. Results Intakes of dairy protein (with adjustment for BMI) were positively associated with total hip BMD among men and women aged 50+ y, and in men aged 25–49. Among adults aged 50+ y, those with protein intakes of <12% TEI (women) and <11% TEI (men) had increased fracture risk compared to those with intakes of 15% TEI. Fracture risk did not significantly change as intake increased above 15% TEI, and was not significantly associated with protein source. Conclusions In contrast to hypothesized risk of high protein, we found that for adults 50+ y, low protein intake (below 15% TEI) may lead to increased fracture risk. Source of protein was a determinant of BMD, but not fracture risk. PMID:26412291

  2. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Kondrup, Jens; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000–2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were included. Out of a total of 5,718 abstracts, 412 full papers were identified as potentially relevant, and after careful scrutiny, 64 papers were quality graded as A (highest), B, or C. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive or inconclusive. The evidence is assessed as: probable for an estimated average requirement of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW)/day based on nitrogen balance studies, suggestive for a relationship between increased all-cause mortality risk and long-term low-carbohydrate–high-protein (LCHP) diets; but inconclusive for a relationship between all-cause mortality risk and protein intake per se; suggestive for an inverse relationship between cardiovascular mortality and vegetable protein intake; inconclusive for relationships between cancer mortality and cancer diseases, respectively, and protein intake; inconclusive for a relationship between cardiovascular diseases and total protein intake; suggestive for an inverse relationship between blood pressure (BP) and vegetable protein; probable to convincing for an inverse relationship between soya protein intake and LDL cholesterol; inconclusive for a relationship between protein intake and bone health, energy intake, BW control, body composition, renal function, and risk of kidney stones, respectively; suggestive for a relationship between increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and long-term LCHP-high-fat diets; inconclusive for impact of physical training on protein requirement; and suggestive for effect of physical training on whole-body protein retention. In conclusion, the evidence is assessed as probable regarding the estimated requirement based on

  3. Commonly consumed protein foods contribute to nutrient intake, diet quality, and nutrient adequacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amount of dietary protein needed to prevent deficiency in most individuals is defined in the United States and Canada by the Recommended Dietary Allowance and is currently set at 0.8 g protein per kg per day for adults. To meet this protein recommendation, the intake of a variety of protein food...

  4. Dynamics of body protein deposition and changes in body composition after sudden changes in amino acid intake: I. Barrows.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ramírez, H R; Jeaurond, E A; de Lange, C F M

    2008-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the extent and dynamics of whole body protein deposition and changes in chemical and physical body composition after a period of AA intake restriction in growing barrows with medium lean tissue growth potentials. Forty Yorkshire barrows (initial BW 14.4 +/- 1.6 kg) were scale-fed at 75% of estimated voluntary daily DE intake up to 35 kg of BW and assigned to 1 of 2 diets: AA adequate (AA+; 20% above requirements; NRC, 1998) and AA deficient (AA-; 40% below requirements; restriction phase). Thereafter (re-alimentation phase), pigs from both dietary AA levels were scale-fed or fed ad libitum diets that were not limiting in AA. Body weight gain and body composition, based on serial slaughter, were monitored during the 34-d re-alimentation phase. During the restriction phase AA intake restriction reduced BW gains (556 vs. 410 g/d; P < 0.001; AA+ and AA-, respectively). At 35 kg of BW, AA intake restriction increased whole body lipid content (11.1 vs. 17.5% of empty BW; P < 0.05) and the whole body lipid to body protein ratio (0.65 vs. 1.20; P < 0.01) and reduced body protein content (17.1 vs. 14.6% of empty BW; P < 0.01) and body water content (68.2 vs. 63.9%; P < 0.05). The relationships between body protein vs. body water and body protein vs. body ash content were not altered by previous AA intake restriction or by feeding level during the re-alimentation phase (P > 0.10). Throughout the re-alimentation phase, there were no interactive effects of time, feeding level, and previous AA intake level on growth performance, body protein, and body lipid content (P > 0.10). During the re-alimentation phase, body protein deposition, derived from the linear regression analysis of body protein content vs. time, was not affected by feeding level and previous AA intake level (P > 0.10; 156 g/d for AA- vs. 157 g/d for AA+). Based on BW and body protein content, it can be concluded that no compensatory body protein deposition occurred in barrows

  5. Protein intake and nitrogen balance in male non-active adolescents and soccer players.

    PubMed

    Boisseau, N; Le Creff, C; Loyens, M; Poortmans, J R

    2002-12-01

    Recommendations for the requirements for protein intake amount usually to 0.8-1.0 g x kg(-1) body mass x day(-1) in adolescents without any reference to the undertaking of acute exercise or to the training status. The present investigation intended to determine the nitrogen balance and protein intake in 8 healthy male non-active adolescents and 11 adolescent soccer players, both groups aged about 15 years. An assessment of nutrient intake was obtained by analysing 7 day food records collected by a questionnaire. Nitrogen excretion rate was determined and nitrogen balance was calculated from the mean daily protein intake and the urinary excretion. The results showed that the nutritional status of the two groups was similar. Nevertheless, we found that their diets were quite inappropriate in terms of the intakes of carbohydrate, some minerals (zinc, calcium, magnesium), vitamins (A, B6, D) and fibre. A positive nitrogen balance was observed from a mean protein intake of 1.57 g x kg(-1) body mass x day(-1) in these adolescents, whether they were non-active or athletes. Thus, the present investigation indicated that the growth and development in non-active adolescents and in adolescent soccer-players give rise to a need for a higher protein intake than is usually recommended. However, the higher protein requirements did not seem to be related only to the increased energy expenditure imposed by the exercise training in the soccer-player group.

  6. Feed intake and protein skeletal muscle in growing mice treated with growth hormone: time course effects.

    PubMed

    López-Oliva, M E; Agis-Torres, A; Unzaga, M T; Muñoz-Martínez, E

    2000-03-01

    The exogenous recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) administration on gastrocnemius muscle growth performance and its contribution to body growth of male and female BALB/c mice fed a 12 % protein diet from 25 to 50 days of age, as well as the mechanism of utilization of feed intake to the lean muscle deposition were studied. Male and female weaning mice (21 days of age) were injected subcutaneously for 29 days with rhGH (74 ng x g(-1)) or saline vehicle (control). Feed intake and body weight (BW) were measured daily. At 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 days of age twenty mice were killed by cervical dislocation and the gastrocnemius muscle was isolated, weighed and the protein content was measured. The rhGH administration caused a biphasic response of BW and muscle growth as a consequence of age-specific feed intake changes. The initial feed intake fall induced the allometric proportion decreases in both muscle growth versus body growth and protein muscle versus muscle growth. That effect was due to ineffient utilization of energy and protein intake on protein muscle store. Later on, the self-controlled increase of feed intake leads to the recovery of muscle weight to control values, through nutrient partitioning toward non protein tissue showing a compensatory muscle growth. This suggests that a higher dietary protein level should be necessary for promoting the protein anabolic effect of GH during weaning.

  7. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J.; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs. CON (all, p < 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect. PMID:26506378

  8. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs. CON (all, p < 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect. PMID:26506378

  9. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-10-21

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs. CON (all, p < 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect.

  10. Controversies Surrounding High-Protein Diet Intake: Satiating Effect and Kidney and Bone Health12

    PubMed Central

    Cuenca-Sánchez, Marta; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-protein diet could be linked with metabolic and clinical problems, such as loss of bone mass and renal dysfunction. However, although it is well accepted that a high-protein diet may be detrimental to individuals with existing kidney dysfunction, there is little evidence that high protein intake is dangerous for healthy individuals. High-protein meals and foods are thought to have a greater satiating effect than high-carbohydrate or high-fat meals. The effect of high-protein diets on the modulation of satiety involves multiple metabolic pathways. Protein intake induces complex signals, with peptide hormones being released from the gastrointestinal tract and blood amino acids and derived metabolites being released in the blood. Protein intake also stimulates metabolic hormones that communicate information about energy status to the brain. Long-term ingestion of high amounts of protein seems to decrease food intake, body weight, and body adiposity in many well-documented studies. The aim of this article is to provide an extensive overview of the efficacy of high protein consumption in weight loss and maintenance, as well as the potential consequences in human health of long-term intake. PMID:25979491

  11. Controversies surrounding high-protein diet intake: satiating effect and kidney and bone health.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Sánchez, Marta; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2015-05-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-protein diet could be linked with metabolic and clinical problems, such as loss of bone mass and renal dysfunction. However, although it is well accepted that a high-protein diet may be detrimental to individuals with existing kidney dysfunction, there is little evidence that high protein intake is dangerous for healthy individuals. High-protein meals and foods are thought to have a greater satiating effect than high-carbohydrate or high-fat meals. The effect of high-protein diets on the modulation of satiety involves multiple metabolic pathways. Protein intake induces complex signals, with peptide hormones being released from the gastrointestinal tract and blood amino acids and derived metabolites being released in the blood. Protein intake also stimulates metabolic hormones that communicate information about energy status to the brain. Long-term ingestion of high amounts of protein seems to decrease food intake, body weight, and body adiposity in many well-documented studies. The aim of this article is to provide an extensive overview of the efficacy of high protein consumption in weight loss and maintenance, as well as the potential consequences in human health of long-term intake.

  12. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production

    PubMed Central

    Wratten, Stephen D.; Porter, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies. PMID:27478691

  13. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production.

    PubMed

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John R

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies. PMID:27478691

  14. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production.

    PubMed

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John R

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies.

  15. Inhibitory effect of high protein intake on nephrocalcinogenesis in female rats.

    PubMed

    Sterck, J G; Ritskes-Hoitinga, J; Beynen, A C

    1992-03-01

    Increased intakes of protein have been shown to reduce kidney calcification (nephrocalcinosis) in female rats. Two questions were addressed in the present study. First, can protein-induced inhibition of nephrocalcinosis be demonstrated when the diets used are balanced for calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in the added protein? Second, can the protein effect be explained by the frequently observed magnesiuria after giving high-protein diets? Nephrocalcinosis was induced in female rats by giving purified diets containing 151 g casein/kg and either an increased concentration of P (6 v. 2 g/kg) or a decreased concentration of Mg (0.1 v. 0.4 g/kg). To these diets 151 g ovalbumin/kg was added at the expense of glucose, and the diets were balanced for Ca, Mg and P in ovalbumin. The diets were given for 29 d. In rats fed on the diet containing 151 g protein/kg, an increased intake of P or a decreased intake of Mg caused nephrocalcinosis as measured chemically by analysis of kidney Ca as well as histologically by scoring kidney sections stained according to Von Kossa's method. The addition of ovalbumin to the diet prevented the induction of nephrocalcinosis. High P intake and low Mg intake with the low-protein diets induced enhanced loss of albumin in urine, suggesting that nephrocalcinosis caused kidney damage. Increased protein intake with a non-calcinogenic diet also caused increased albumin excretion in urine. Irrespective of the composition of the background diet, increased protein intake caused increased urinary excretion of Mg. When all dietary groups were considered, differences in nephrocalcinosis and urinary Mg output were not proportionally related.

  16. Healthy pregnant women in Canada are consuming more dietary protein at 16- and 36-week gestation than currently recommended by the Dietary Reference Intakes, primarily from dairy food sources.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Trina V; Woo, Hillary; Innis, Sheila M; Elango, Rajavel

    2014-07-01

    Adequate dietary protein intake throughout pregnancy is essential to ensure healthy fetal development. Insufficient and excessive maternal dietary protein intakes are both associated with intrauterine growth restriction, resulting in low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to analyze the dietary protein intake patterns of healthy pregnant women in Vancouver, British Columbia, during early and late gestation. We hypothesized that women would be consuming higher protein during late stages of pregnancy compared with early stages of pregnancy. Interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaires were collected prospectively from 270 women at 16- and 36-week gestation; food frequency questionnaires from 212 women met study criteria. Maternal anthropometrics at both stages and infant weight at birth were collected. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to determine significant gestational differences in protein intakes. Spearman correlation was used to determine the influence of protein intakes and maternal anthropometrics on pregnancy outcomes. Median (25th and 75th percentiles) protein intakes adjusted for body weight were 1.5 (1.18 and 1.79) and 1.3 (1.04 and 1.60) g/kg per day at 16- than 36-week gestation, respectively. Primary protein sources were identified as dairy products. Protein intakes were negatively correlated with birth weight (P < .05), whereas maternal height, weight, body mass index, and weight gain to 36-week gestation were positively correlated with birth weight (P < .05). This study provides current dietary protein intake patterns among healthy Canadian women during pregnancy and indicates higher intakes than current Dietary Reference Intakes recommended dietary allowance of 1.1 g/kg per day, especially during early gestation.

  17. Healthy pregnant women in Canada are consuming more dietary protein at 16- and 36-week gestation than currently recommended by the Dietary Reference Intakes, primarily from dairy food sources.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Trina V; Woo, Hillary; Innis, Sheila M; Elango, Rajavel

    2014-07-01

    Adequate dietary protein intake throughout pregnancy is essential to ensure healthy fetal development. Insufficient and excessive maternal dietary protein intakes are both associated with intrauterine growth restriction, resulting in low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to analyze the dietary protein intake patterns of healthy pregnant women in Vancouver, British Columbia, during early and late gestation. We hypothesized that women would be consuming higher protein during late stages of pregnancy compared with early stages of pregnancy. Interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaires were collected prospectively from 270 women at 16- and 36-week gestation; food frequency questionnaires from 212 women met study criteria. Maternal anthropometrics at both stages and infant weight at birth were collected. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to determine significant gestational differences in protein intakes. Spearman correlation was used to determine the influence of protein intakes and maternal anthropometrics on pregnancy outcomes. Median (25th and 75th percentiles) protein intakes adjusted for body weight were 1.5 (1.18 and 1.79) and 1.3 (1.04 and 1.60) g/kg per day at 16- than 36-week gestation, respectively. Primary protein sources were identified as dairy products. Protein intakes were negatively correlated with birth weight (P < .05), whereas maternal height, weight, body mass index, and weight gain to 36-week gestation were positively correlated with birth weight (P < .05). This study provides current dietary protein intake patterns among healthy Canadian women during pregnancy and indicates higher intakes than current Dietary Reference Intakes recommended dietary allowance of 1.1 g/kg per day, especially during early gestation. PMID:25150115

  18. Metabolic effects of milk protein intake strongly depend on pre-existing metabolic and exercise status.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C; Schmitz, Gerd; John, Swen; Carrera-Bastos, Pedro; Lindeberg, Staffan; Cordain, Loren

    2013-01-01

    Milk protein intake has recently been suggested to improve metabolic health. This Perspective provides evidence that metabolic effects of milk protein intake have to be regarded in the context of the individual's pre-existing metabolic and exercise status. Milk proteins provide abundant branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and glutamine. Plasma BCAAs and glutamine are increased in obesity and insulin resistance, but decrease after gastric bypass surgery resulting in weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity. Milk protein consumption results in postprandial hyperinsulinemia in obese subjects, increases body weight of overweight adolescents and may thus deteriorate pre-existing metabolic disturbances of obese, insulin resistant individuals. PMID:24225036

  19. Metabolic effects of milk protein intake strongly depend on pre-existing metabolic and exercise status

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Milk protein intake has recently been suggested to improve metabolic health. This Perspective provides evidence that metabolic effects of milk protein intake have to be regarded in the context of the individual’s pre-existing metabolic and exercise status. Milk proteins provide abundant branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and glutamine. Plasma BCAAs and glutamine are increased in obesity and insulin resistance, but decrease after gastric bypass surgery resulting in weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity. Milk protein consumption results in postprandial hyperinsulinemia in obese subjects, increases body weight of overweight adolescents and may thus deteriorate pre-existing metabolic disturbances of obese, insulin resistant individuals. PMID:24225036

  20. Effect of increased protein intake on renal acid load and renal hemodynamic responses.

    PubMed

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F M; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Brink, Elizabeth J; de Leeuw, Peter W; van Baak, Marleen A

    2016-03-01

    Increased protein intake versus maltodextrin intake for 4 weeks lowers blood pressure. Concerns exist that high-protein diets reduce renal function. Effects of acute and 4-week protein intake versus maltodextrin intake on renal acid load, glomerular filtration rate and related parameters were compared in this study. Seventy-nine overweight individuals with untreated elevated blood pressure and normal kidney function were randomized to consume a mix of protein isolates (60 g/day) or maltodextrin (60 g/day) for 4 weeks in energy balance. Twenty-four-hour urinary potential renal acid load (uPRAL) was compared between groups. A subgroup (maltodextrin N = 27, protein mix N = 25) participated in extra test days investigating fasting levels and postprandial effects of meals supplemented with a moderate protein- or maltodextrin-load on glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, plasma renin, aldosterone, pH, and bicarbonate. uPRAL was significantly higher in the protein group after 4 weeks (P ≤ 0.001). Postprandial filtration fraction decreased further after the protein-supplemented breakfast than after the maltodextrin-supplemented breakfast after 4 weeks of supplementation (P ≤ 0.001). Fasting and postprandial levels of glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, renin, aldosterone, angiotensin-converting enzyme, pH and bicarbonate did not differ between groups. In conclusion, 4 weeks on an increased protein diet (25% of energy intake) increased renal acid load, but did not affect renal function. Postprandial changes, except for filtration fraction, also did not differ between groups. These data suggest that a moderate increase in protein intake by consumption of a protein mix for 4 weeks causes no (undesirable) effects on kidney function in overweight and obese individuals with normal kidney function. PMID:26997623

  1. Effect of increased protein intake on renal acid load and renal hemodynamic responses.

    PubMed

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F M; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Brink, Elizabeth J; de Leeuw, Peter W; van Baak, Marleen A

    2016-03-01

    Increased protein intake versus maltodextrin intake for 4 weeks lowers blood pressure. Concerns exist that high-protein diets reduce renal function. Effects of acute and 4-week protein intake versus maltodextrin intake on renal acid load, glomerular filtration rate and related parameters were compared in this study. Seventy-nine overweight individuals with untreated elevated blood pressure and normal kidney function were randomized to consume a mix of protein isolates (60 g/day) or maltodextrin (60 g/day) for 4 weeks in energy balance. Twenty-four-hour urinary potential renal acid load (uPRAL) was compared between groups. A subgroup (maltodextrin N = 27, protein mix N = 25) participated in extra test days investigating fasting levels and postprandial effects of meals supplemented with a moderate protein- or maltodextrin-load on glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, plasma renin, aldosterone, pH, and bicarbonate. uPRAL was significantly higher in the protein group after 4 weeks (P ≤ 0.001). Postprandial filtration fraction decreased further after the protein-supplemented breakfast than after the maltodextrin-supplemented breakfast after 4 weeks of supplementation (P ≤ 0.001). Fasting and postprandial levels of glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, renin, aldosterone, angiotensin-converting enzyme, pH and bicarbonate did not differ between groups. In conclusion, 4 weeks on an increased protein diet (25% of energy intake) increased renal acid load, but did not affect renal function. Postprandial changes, except for filtration fraction, also did not differ between groups. These data suggest that a moderate increase in protein intake by consumption of a protein mix for 4 weeks causes no (undesirable) effects on kidney function in overweight and obese individuals with normal kidney function.

  2. Dose-dependent effects of beverage protein content upon short-term intake.

    PubMed

    Bertenshaw, Emma J; Lluch, Anne; Yeomans, Martin R

    2009-06-01

    Protein is considered to be more satiating than carbohydrate, quantified by energy adjustment and subjective appetite. However, the effect of increasing protein content upon short-term energy adjustment in beverage contexts is unclear. This study used a repeated-measures, cross-over design. 28 male volunteers (18-35 years) ate a standard breakfast in the laboratory and 210 min later consumed one of four preloads 30 min prior to an ad libitum pasta meal. Three of the preloads were isocaloric ( approximately 1155 kJ) mixed composition dairy fruit drinks (300 g) of low (13% protein energy/87% carbohydrate energy), medium (25% protein energy/75% carbohydrate energy) and high (50% protein energy/50% carbohydrate energy) protein content. The control drink was a low energy (328 kJ) alternative. Results indicated a dose response effect of preload protein level on intake (g) at the ad libitum meal. Ad libitum intake was: control (637.6g+/-39.7), low (596.9 g+/-40.5), medium (546.9 g+/-34.7), and high protein (533.6g+/-42.3). 100% compensation was not achieved; however total energy intake after the medium and high protein drinks did not differ significantly from control. There were no significant differences in hunger and fullness ratings. Our findings support the view that increasing the protein composition of beverages relative to carbohydrate proportionally affects short-term subsequent intake in controlled conditions. PMID:19501753

  3. Dietary protein intake affects expression of genes for lipid metabolism in porcine skeletal muscle in a genotype-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingying; Li, Fengna; He, Lingyun; Tan, Bie; Deng, Jinping; Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Yinghui; Geng, Meimei; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-04-14

    Skeletal muscle is a major site for the oxidation of fatty acids (FA) in mammals, including humans. Using a swine model, we tested the hypothesis that dietary protein intake regulates the expression of key genes for lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. A total of ninety-six barrows (forty-eight pure-bred Bama mini-pigs (fatty genotype) and forty-eight Landrace pigs (lean genotype)) were fed from 5 weeks of age to market weight. Pigs of fatty or lean genotype were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments (low- or adequate-protein diet), with twenty-four individually fed pigs per treatment. Our data showed that dietary protein levels affected the expression of genes involved in the anabolism and catabolism of lipids in the longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles in a genotype-dependent manner. Specifically, Bama mini-pigs had more intramuscular fat, SFA and MUFA, as well as elevated mRNA expression levels of lipogenic genes, compared with Landrace pigs. In contrast, Bama mini-pigs had lower mRNA expression levels of lipolytic genes than Landrace pigs fed an adequate-protein diet in the growing phase. These data are consistent with higher white-fat deposition in Bama mini-pigs than in Landrace pigs. In conclusion, adequate provision of dietary protein (amino acids) plays an important role in regulating the expression of key lipogenic genes, and the growth of white adipose tissue, in a genotype- and tissue-specific manner. These findings have important implications for developing novel dietary strategies in pig production.

  4. Activation of hypothalamic serotonin receptors reduced intake of dietary fat and protein but not carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Smith, B K; York, D A; Bray, G A

    1999-09-01

    Systemic treatment with dexfenfluramine (dF), fluoxetine, or serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) recently was shown to suppress fat and occasionally protein but not carbohydrate intake in rats when a macronutrient selection paradigm was employed. These reports contrast with the prevailing literature, which for the past decade has described a role for serotonin neurotransmission in the modification of dietary carbohydrate consumption. To test the hypothesis that the suppression of fat selection and/or consumption by systemic serotonin agonists involves stimulation of central 5-HT receptors, a series of experiments was performed in nondeprived rats. In experiment 1, third cerebroventricular (3V) infusion of the nonselective 5-HT antagonist metergoline prevented the reduction in fat but not carbohydrate feeding caused by systemic dF. Furthermore, 3V metergoline alone increased fat intake. In experiments 2 and 3, 3V infusion of 5-HT(1B/2C) receptor agonists D-norfenfluramine (DNF) or quipazine inhibited fat intake exclusively. Next, the infusion of DNF or 5-HT into the region of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) reduced both fat and protein intake (experiments 4 and 5). Finally, in experiment 6, when rats were grouped by baseline diet preference, 5-HT infused into the PVN led to a dose-related decrease in fat intake in both carbohydrate- and fat-preferring rats. In contrast, there were no dose effects of 5-HT on carbohydrate or protein intake in either preference group. However, in fat-preferring rats, the highest dose of 5-HT reduced intake of all three macronutrient diets. These results demonstrate a selective effect of exogenous serotonergic drugs in the hypothalamus to reduce fat rather than carbohydrate intake and suggest that higher baseline fat intake enhances responsivity to serotonergic drugs.

  5. During stopover, migrating blackcaps adjust behavior and intake of food depending on the content of protein in their diets.

    PubMed

    Aamidor, Sarah E; Bauchinger, Ulf; Mizrahy, Ortal; McWilliams, Scott R; Pinshow, Berry

    2011-09-01

    During migration, birds undergo alternating periods of fasting and re-feeding that are associated with dynamic changes in body mass (m(b)) and in organ size, including that of the digestive tract. After arrival at a migratory stopover site, following a long flight, a bird must restore the tissues of its digestive tract before it can refuel. In the present study we examined how the availability of dietary protein influences refueling of migrating blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) during a migratory stopover. We tested the following predictions in blackcaps deprived of food and water for 1-2 days to induce stopover behavior: (1) birds provided with a low-protein diet will gain m(b), lean mass and fat mass, and increase in pectoral muscle size slower than do birds fed a high-protein diet; (2) since stopover time is shorter in spring, birds will gain m(b) and build up fat tissue and lean tissue faster than in autumn; and (3) if low dietary protein limits a bird's ability to gain m(b) and fat reserves, then birds that do not obtain enough protein will initiate migratory restlessness (Zugunruhe) earlier than will birds with adequate dietary protein. These predictions were tested by providing captured migrating blackcaps with semisynthetic isocaloric diets differing only in their protein content. Each day, we measured m(b), and food intake; also lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. In addition, we monitored nocturnal activity with a video recording system. In both spring and autumn, birds fed diets containing either 3 or 20% protein increased in m(b), lean mass and fat mass at similar rates during the experiment. However, the group receiving 3% protein ate more than did the group receiving 20% protein. In support of our predictions, m(b), lean mass, fat mass, and intake of food all were higher in spring than in autumn. We also found that in spring all birds had higher levels of migratory restlessness, but birds fed 3% protein were less

  6. Dietary protein intake is associated with better physical function and muscle strength among elderly women.

    PubMed

    Isanejad, Masoud; Mursu, Jaakko; Sirola, Joonas; Kröger, Heikki; Rikkonen, Toni; Tuppurainen, Marjo; Erkkilä, Arja T

    2016-04-14

    Dietary protein intake might be beneficial to physical function (PF) in the elderly. We examined the cross-sectional and prospective associations of protein intake of g/kg body weight (BW), fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) with PF in 554 women aged 65·3-71·6 years belonging to the Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention Fracture Prevention Study. Participants filled a questionnaire on lifestyle factors and 3-d food record in 2002. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and PF measures were performed at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. Sarcopaenia was defined using European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria. At the baseline, women with higher protein intake (≥ 1·2 g/kg BW) had better performance in hand-grip strength/body mass (GS/BM) (P=0·001), knee extension/BM (P=0·003), one-leg stance (P=0·047), chair rise (P=0·043), squat (P=0·019), squat to the ground (P=0·001), faster walking speed for 10 m (P=0·005) and higher short physical performance battery score (P=0·004) compared with those with moderate and lower intakes (0·81-1·19 and ≤ 0·8 g/kg BW, respectively). In follow-up results, higher protein intake was associated with less decline in GS/BM, one-leg stance and tandem walk for 6 m over 3 years. Overall, results were no longer significant after controlling for FM. Associations were detected between protein intake and PF in non-sarcopaenic women but not in sarcopaenic women, except for change of GS (P=0·037). Further, FM but not LM was negatively associated with PF measures (P<0·050). This study suggests that higher protein intake and lower FM might be positively associated with PF in elderly women.

  7. [The intake of proteins and essential amino acids in top-competing women athletes].

    PubMed

    Nuviala Mateo, R J; Lapieza Laínez, M G

    1997-01-01

    In a group of 84 sportswomen (19 karatekas, 20 handball and 20 basketball players and 25 middle- and long-distance runners) the intake of protein and essential amino acids was assessed, as well as the urinary excretion of urea and creatinine. Simultaneously, we have studied 82 women who did not underwent physical activity (control group). After a 7-days long recall, by means of the food weighing method, was assessed by a computerized program the daily average intake of: total energy, macronutrients, proteins of animal origin and essential amino acids. The determination of urinary urea and creatinine was made in a 24-hours sample. The protein intake was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in basketball and handball players and in the runners than in the control group. The protein intake related with the body weight (g/kg) was significantly higher in basketball players (p < 0.05) and in the runners (p < 0.01), taking both the sportswomen and the sedentary women quantities higher than 0.8 g/kg/day established as minimum allowances. The amino acids intake related with the body weight (mg/kg), exceeded widely in all the studied groups the minimum recommended for each of them, outstanding the values significantly high (p < 0,01) found for all the amino acids in the runners. Both for the urinary excretion of the urea and the creatinine, the highest values correspond to the runners. All the sportswomen have superior protein and essential amino acids intake in relation with women without physical activity. The higher body losses of nitrogen in the form of urea and creatinine found in the runners are due to their higher protein/kg of body weight intake.

  8. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: A systematic literature review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were i...

  9. Early Programming by Protein Intake: The Effect of Protein on Adiposity Development and the Growth and Functionality of Vital Organs

    PubMed Central

    Luque, Veronica; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Escribano, Joaquín; Ferré, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the role of protein intake on metabolic programming early in life. The observations that breastfeeding in infancy reduces the risk of being overweight and obese later in life and the differences in the protein content between formula milk and human milk have generated the early protein hypothesis. The present review focuses on a mechanistic approach to programmed adiposity and the growth and development of other organs by protein intake in infancy, which may be mediated by branched-chain amino acids, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 via the mammalian target of rapamycin. Observational studies and clinical trials have shown that lowering the protein content in infant and follow-on formulas may reduce the risk of becoming obese later in life. The recent body of evidence is currently being translated into new policies. Therefore, the evolution of European regulatory laws and recommendations by expert panels on the protein content of infant and follow-on formulas are also reviewed. Research gaps, such as the critical window for programming adiposity by protein intake, testing formulas with modified amino acids, and the long-term consequences of differences in protein intake on organ functionality among well-nourished infants, have been identified. PMID:27013888

  10. Whey protein supplementation increases methionine intake but not homocysteine plasma concentration in rats.

    PubMed

    Deminice, Rafael; Comparotto, Hugo; Jordao, Alceu Afonso

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whey protein supplementation on homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism and liver oxidative stress in rats. Twenty-four rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 8) to receive one of the following diets for 4 weeks: control diet (C), whey protein-composed diet (WP), and whey protein-supplemented diet (WPS). The C and WP diets consisted of AIN-93 with 20% casein and 20% whey protein as protein source, respectively. WPS was AIN-93 (20% casein) supplemented by the addition of 20% (w/w) whey protein. Four weeks of ingesting a WPS diet resulted in a significantly higher (P < 0.05) total protein and methionine intakes. Although a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the hepatic S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine levels occurred in WPS group compared with C and WP, no significant change was observed in plasma Hcy concentration between groups. Furthermore, the levels of lipid hydroperoxides and advanced oxidation protein products, known liver oxidative stress markers, were increased in the WPS group compared with the C group. In addition, no change in glutathione liver concentration was observed in any of the groups studied. In conclusion, whey protein supplementation increases methionine intake substantially; however, it does not change plasma Hcy concentrations. On the other hand, increased hepatic oxidative stress markers were observed in whey protein supplemented rats were probably due to high protein intake.

  11. Dietary Protein and Vitamin D Intake and Risk of Falls: A Secondary Analysis of Postmenopausal Women from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures.

    PubMed

    Larocque, Sarah C; Kerstetter, Jane E; Cauley, Jane A; Insogna, Karl L; Ensrud, Kristine; Lui, Li-Yung; Allore, Heather G

    2015-01-01

    More than 90% of hip fractures in older Americans result from a fall. Inadequate intake of dietary protein and vitamin D are common in older adults, and diets in low these could contribute to loss of muscle mass and strength or coordination, in turn increasing the risk of falling. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between protein and vitamin D intake with the occurrence of falls in older women in the Study of Osteoporotic Fracture, a prospective cohort of more than 4000 postmenopausal women participating from January 1997 to September 1998. Incident falls were ascertained for one year. Protein and vitamin D intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire; associations with a reported fall were estimated with logistic regression, adjusted for fall-related covariates and energy. Protein and vitamin D were modeled separately because of high correlation (rho = 0.55, P < 0.001). A total of 1429 women reported a fall within one year. In separate, unadjusted models dietary protein (per 1 g/kg increase) and vitamin D (per 100 International Unit (IU) increase) significantly increased the odds ratio (OR) of falling (OR 1.35 95% CI 1.15-1.59, OR 1.11 95% CI 1.03-1.19, respectively). Once fall-related covariates were added to each model, dietary protein and vitamin D were noncontributory to falls. While we could find no direct association between vitamin D and protein intake and fall prevention, adequate intake of these two nutrients are critical for musculoskeletal health in older adults.

  12. Prolonged Calorie Restriction Downregulates Skeletal Muscle mTORC1 Signaling Independent of Dietary Protein Intake and Associated microRNA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Lee M.; Rivas, Donato A.; Berrone, Maria; Ezzyat, Yassine; Young, Andrew J.; McClung, James P.; Fielding, Roger A.; Pasiakos, Stefan M.

    2016-01-01

    Short-term (5–10 days) calorie restriction (CR) downregulates muscle protein synthesis, with consumption of a high protein-based diet attenuating this decline. Benefit of increase protein intake is believed to be due to maintenance of amino acid-mediated anabolic signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), however, there is limited evidence to support this contention. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of prolonged CR and high protein diets on skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling and expression of associated microRNA (miR). Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL) or calorie restricted (CR; 40%) adequate (10%, AIN-93M) or high (32%) protein milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Body composition was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle protein content was calculated from muscle homogenate protein concentrations expressed relative to fat-free mass to estimate protein content. Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to determine mTORC1 signaling and mRNA and miR expression in fasted mixed gastrocnemius. Independent of dietary protein intake, muscle protein content was 38% lower (P < 0.05) in CR compared to AL. Phosphorylation and total Akt, mTOR, rpS6, and p70S6K were lower (P < 0.05) in CR vs. AL, and total rpS6 was associated with muscle protein content (r = 0.64, r2 = 0.36). Skeletal muscle miR expression was not altered by either energy or protein intake. This study provides evidence that chronic CR attenuates muscle protein content by downregulating mTORC1 signaling. This response is independent of skeletal muscle miR and dietary protein. PMID:27761114

  13. Validation of web-based, multiple 24-h recalls combined with nutritional supplement intake questionnaires against nitrogen excretions to determine protein intake in Dutch elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Wardenaar, F C; Steennis, J; Ceelen, I J M; Mensink, M; Witkamp, R; de Vries, J H M

    2015-12-28

    Information on dietary composition is vitally important for elite athletes to optimise their performance and recovery, which requires valid tools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the validity of assessing protein intake using three web-based 24-h recalls and questionnaires, by comparing these with three urinary N excretions on the same day. A total of forty-seven Dutch elite top athletes, both disabled and non-disabled, aged between 18 and 35 years, with a BMI of 17·5-31 kg/m2, exercising >12 h/week were recruited. Estimated mean dietary protein intake was 109·6 (sd 33·0) g/d by recalls and questionnaires v. 141·3 (sd 38·2) g/d based on N excretions in urine; the difference was 25·5 (sd 21·3) % between the methods (P<0·05). We found a reasonably good association between methods for protein intake of 0·65 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·79). On an individual level, under-reporting was larger with higher protein intakes than with lower intakes. No significant differences were found in reporting absolute differences between subcategories (sex, under-reporting, BMI, collection of recalls within a certain amount of time and using protein supplements or not). In conclusion, combined, multiple, 24-h recalls and questionnaires underestimated protein intake in these young elite athletes more than that reported for non-athlete populations. The method proved to be suitable for ranking athletes according to their protein intake as needed in epidemiological studies. On an individual level, the magnitude of underestimation was about equal for all athletes except for those with very high protein intakes.

  14. Protein intake and lumbar bone density: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Hu, Tian; Rianon, Nahid J; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Hyder, Joseph A; He, Jiang; Steffen, Lyn M; Jacobs, David R; Criqui, Michael H; Bazzano, Lydia A

    2014-10-28

    Dietary protein has been shown to increase urinary Ca excretion in randomised controlled trials, and diets high in protein may have detrimental effects on bone health; however, studies examining the relationship between dietary protein and bone health have conflicting results. In the present study, we examined the relationship between dietary protein (total, animal and vegetable protein) and lumbar spine trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) among participants enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n 1658). Protein intake was assessed using a FFQ obtained at baseline examination (2000-2). Lumbar spine vBMD was measured using quantitative computed tomography (2002-5), on average 3 years later. Multivariable linear and robust regression techniques were used to examine the associations between dietary protein and vBMD. Sex and race/ethnicity jointly modified the association of dietary protein with vBMD (P for interaction = 0·03). Among white women, higher vegetable protein intake was associated with higher vBMD (P for trend = 0·03), after adjustment for age, BMI, physical activity, alcohol consumption, current smoking, educational level, hormone therapy use, menopause and additional dietary factors. There were no consistently significant associations for total and animal protein intakes among white women or other sex and racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, data from the present large, multi-ethnic, population-based study suggest that a higher level of protein intake, when substituted for fat, is not associated with poor bone health. Differences in the relationship between protein source and race/ethnicity of study populations may in part explain the inconsistent findings reported previously.

  15. Health effects of protein intake in healthy elderly populations: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Cederholm, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy elderly persons in order to evaluate the evidence for an optimal protein intake. The literature search covered year 2000–2011. Prospective cohort, case–control, and intervention studies of a general healthy population in settings similar to the Nordic countries with protein intake from food-based sources were included. Out of a total of 301 abstracts, 152 full papers were identified as potentially relevant. After careful scrutiny, 23 papers were quality graded as A (highest, n=1), B (n=18), or C (n=4). The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, or inconclusive. The evidence is assessed as: probable for an estimated average requirement (EAR) of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW)/day based on nitrogen balance (N-balance) studies and the subsequent recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of 0.83 g good-quality protein/kg BW/day representing the minimum dietary protein needs of virtually all healthy elderly persons. Regarding the optimal level of protein related to functional outcomes like maintenance of bone mass, muscle mass, and strength, as well as for morbidity and mortality, the evidence is ranging from suggestive to inconclusive. Results from particularly prospective cohort studies suggest a safe intake of up to at least 1.2–1.5 g protein/kg BW/day or approximately 15–20 E%. Overall, many of the included prospective cohort studies were difficult to fully evaluate since results mainly were obtained by food frequency questionnaires that were flawed by underreported intakes, although some studies were ‘calibrated’ to correct for under- or over-reporting. In conclusion, the evidence is assessed as probable regarding the EAR based on N-balance studies and suggestive to inconclusive regarding an optimal protein intake higher than the estimated

  16. Dietary crude protein intake influences rates of whole-body protein synthesis in weanling horses.

    PubMed

    Tanner, S L; Wagner, A L; Digianantonio, R N; Harris, P A; Sylvester, J T; Urschel, K L

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to measure whole-body protein kinetics in weanling horses receiving forage and one of two different concentrates: (1) commercial crude protein (CCP) concentrate, which with the forage provided 4.1 g CP/kg bodyweight (BW)/day (189 mg lysine (Lys)/kg BW/day), and (2) recommended crude protein (RCP) concentrate which, with the same forage, provided 3.1 g CP/kg BW/day (194 mg Lys/kg BW/day). Blood samples were taken to determine the response of plasma amino acid concentrations to half the daily concentrate allocation. The next day, a 2 h-primed, constant infusion of [(13)C]sodium bicarbonate and a 4 h-primed, constant infusion of [1-(13)C]phenylalanine were used with breath and blood sampling to measure breath (13)CO2 and blood [(13)C]phenylalanine enrichment. Horses on the CCP diet showed an increase from baseline in plasma isoleucine, leucine, lysine, threonine, valine, alanine, arginine, asparagine, glutamine, ornithine, proline, serine, and tyrosine at 120 min post-feeding. Baseline plasma amino acid concentrations were greater with the CCP diet for histidine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine, valine, asparagine, proline, and serine. Phenylalanine, lysine, and methionine were greater in the plasma of horses receiving the RCP treatment at 0 and 120 min. Phenylalanine intake was standardized between groups; however, horses receiving the RCP diet had greater rates of phenylalanine oxidation (P = 0.02) and lower rates of non-oxidative phenylalanine disposal (P = 0.04). Lower whole-body protein synthesis indicates a limiting amino acid in the RCP diet. PMID:24973006

  17. Protein Consumption and the Elderly: What Is the Optimal Level of Intake?

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Jamie I.; Kim, Il-Young; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining independence, quality of life, and health is crucial for elderly adults. One of the major threats to living independently is the loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that progressively occurs with aging, known as sarcopenia. Several studies have identified protein (especially the essential amino acids) as a key nutrient for muscle health in elderly adults. Elderly adults are less responsive to the anabolic stimulus of low doses of amino acid intake compared to younger individuals. However, this lack of responsiveness in elderly adults can be overcome with higher levels of protein (or essential amino acid) consumption. The requirement for a larger dose of protein to generate responses in elderly adults similar to the responses in younger adults provides the support for a beneficial effect of increased protein in older populations. The purpose of this review is to present the current evidence related to dietary protein intake and muscle health in elderly adults. PMID:27338461

  18. Sources and Amounts of Animal, Dairy, and Plant Protein Intake of US Adults in 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Lieberman, Harris R; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-08-01

    Dietary guidelines suggest consuming a mixed-protein diet, consisting of high-quality animal, dairy, and plant-based foods. However, current data on the distribution and the food sources of protein intake in a free-living, representative sample of US adults are not available. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, were used in these analyses (n = 10,977, age ≥ 19 years). Several US Department of Agriculture (USDA) databases were used to partition the composition of foods consumed into animal, dairy, or plant components. Mean ± SE animal, dairy, and plant protein intakes were determined and deciles of usual intakes were estimated. The percentages of total protein intake derived from animal, dairy, and plant protein were 46%, 16%, and 30%, respectively; 8% of intake could not be classified. Chicken and beef were the primary food sources of animal protein intake. Cheese, reduced-fat milk, and ice cream/dairy desserts were primary sources of dairy protein intake. Yeast breads, rolls/buns, and nuts/seeds were primary sources of plant protein intake. This study provides baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to alter the composition of protein foods consumed by the American public. PMID:26308049

  19. Sources and Amounts of Animal, Dairy, and Plant Protein Intake of US Adults in 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Lieberman, Harris R; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-08-21

    Dietary guidelines suggest consuming a mixed-protein diet, consisting of high-quality animal, dairy, and plant-based foods. However, current data on the distribution and the food sources of protein intake in a free-living, representative sample of US adults are not available. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, were used in these analyses (n = 10,977, age ≥ 19 years). Several US Department of Agriculture (USDA) databases were used to partition the composition of foods consumed into animal, dairy, or plant components. Mean ± SE animal, dairy, and plant protein intakes were determined and deciles of usual intakes were estimated. The percentages of total protein intake derived from animal, dairy, and plant protein were 46%, 16%, and 30%, respectively; 8% of intake could not be classified. Chicken and beef were the primary food sources of animal protein intake. Cheese, reduced-fat milk, and ice cream/dairy desserts were primary sources of dairy protein intake. Yeast breads, rolls/buns, and nuts/seeds were primary sources of plant protein intake. This study provides baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to alter the composition of protein foods consumed by the American public.

  20. Sources and Amounts of Animal, Dairy, and Plant Protein Intake of US Adults in 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Pasiakos, Stefan M.; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Lieberman, Harris R.; Fulgoni, Victor L.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary guidelines suggest consuming a mixed-protein diet, consisting of high-quality animal, dairy, and plant-based foods. However, current data on the distribution and the food sources of protein intake in a free-living, representative sample of US adults are not available. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007–2010, were used in these analyses (n = 10,977, age ≥ 19 years). Several US Department of Agriculture (USDA) databases were used to partition the composition of foods consumed into animal, dairy, or plant components. Mean ± SE animal, dairy, and plant protein intakes were determined and deciles of usual intakes were estimated. The percentages of total protein intake derived from animal, dairy, and plant protein were 46%, 16%, and 30%, respectively; 8% of intake could not be classified. Chicken and beef were the primary food sources of animal protein intake. Cheese, reduced-fat milk, and ice cream/dairy desserts were primary sources of dairy protein intake. Yeast breads, rolls/buns, and nuts/seeds were primary sources of plant protein intake. This study provides baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to alter the composition of protein foods consumed by the American public. PMID:26308049

  1. Optimizing Early Protein Intake for Long-Term Health of Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Atul

    2016-01-01

    The idea that early protein intake may influence, or program, long-term health in preterm infants is strongly supported by decades of research starting from the early 1980s. At this time, it was recognized that preterm infants required a high protein intake to achieve postnatal growth closer to the intrauterine growth rate of a normal fetus of the same postconceptional age, a goal regarded optimal for short- and long-term health. Subsequently, follow-up of preterm infants randomized to different neonatal diets demonstrated that those receiving higher protein intakes that promoted growth had benefits for brain structure and function up to 16 years later, but also detrimental effects on cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance and adiposity. These effects of early growth on risk of metabolic disease, termed the 'growth acceleration' hypothesis, have been demonstrated in randomized and observational studies in infants born preterm and at term. Nevertheless, on balance, current nutrition policy for preterm infants is based on the consensus that supporting optimal neurodevelopment is the neonatologist's highest priority. Therefore, this policy appropriately favors early administration of a high protein intake to benefit neurodevelopment, irrespective of any increase in cardiovascular risk. The current review will consider the evidence underlying this policy. PMID:27336311

  2. Actual and Prescribed Energy and Protein Intakes for Very Low Birth Weight Infants: An Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Deborah Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as…

  3. Effect of protein intake on bone and muscle mass in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Genaro, Patrícia de Souza; Martini, Lígia Araújo

    2010-10-01

    The aging process is frequently characterized by an involuntary loss of muscle (sarcopenia) and bone (osteoporosis) mass. Both chronic diseases are associated with decreased metabolic rate, increased risk of falls/fracture, and, as a result, increased morbidity and loss of independence in the elderly. The quality and quantity of protein intake affects bone and muscle mass in several ways and there is evidence that increased essential amino acid or protein availability can enhance muscle protein synthesis and anabolism, as well as improve bone homeostasis in older subjects. A thorough evaluation of renal function is important, since renal function decreases with age. Finally, protein and calcium intake should be considered in the prevention or treatment of the chronic diseases osteoporosis and sarcopenia. PMID:20883419

  4. Protein v. carbohydrate intake differentially affects liking- and wanting-related brain signalling.

    PubMed

    Born, Jurriaan M; Martens, Mieke J I; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Goebel, Rainer; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-01-28

    Extreme macronutrient intakes possibly lead to different brain signalling. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of ingesting high-protein v. high-carbohydrate food on liking and wanting task-related brain signalling (TRS) and subsequent macronutrient intake. A total of thirty female subjects (21.6 (SD 2.2) years, BMI 25.0 (SD 3.7) kg/m²) completed four functional MRI scans: two fasted and two satiated on two different days. During the scans, subjects rated all food items for liking and wanting, thereby choosing the subsequent meal. The results show that high-protein (PROT) v. high-carbohydrate (CARB) conditions were generated using protein or carbohydrate drinks at the first meal. Energy intake and hunger were recorded. PROT (protein: 53.7 (SD 2.1) percentage of energy (En%); carbohydrate: 6.4 (SD 1.3) En%) and CARB conditions (protein: 11.8 (SD 0.6) En%; carbohydrate: 70.0 (SD 2.4) En%) were achieved during the first meal, while the second meals were not different between the conditions. Hunger, energy intake, and behavioural liking and wanting ratings were decreased after the first meal (P< 0.001). Comparing the first with the second meal, the macronutrient content changed: carbohydrate -26.9 En% in the CARB condition, protein -37.8 En% in the PROT condition. After the first meal in the CARB condition, wanting TRS was increased in the hypothalamus. After the first meal in the PROT condition, liking TRS was decreased in the putamen (P< 0.05). The change in energy intake from the first to the second meal was inversely related to the change in liking TRS in the striatum and hypothalamus in the CARB condition and positively related in the PROT condition (P< 0.05). In conclusion, wanting and liking TRS were affected differentially with a change in carbohydrate or protein intake, underscoring subsequent energy intake and shift in macronutrient composition. PMID:22643242

  5. The nutritional status and energy and protein intakes of MOW clients and the need for further targeted strategies to enhance intakes.

    PubMed

    Walton, Karen; Charlton, Karen E; Manning, Fiona; McMahon, Anne T; Galea, Sarah; Evans, Kaitlyn

    2015-12-01

    There is a paucity of literature about the nutritional status and energy and protein intakes of Meals on Wheels (MOW) clients. The current study aimed to determine the nutritional status and the adequacy of energy and protein intakes of MOW clients. Forty-two clients were recruited from two MOW services in the Illawarra region of Australia for assessment of their nutritional status, using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA(®)). Estimated energy and protein intakes for a MOW day were compared to a non-MOW day and average daily energy and protein intakes were assessed against estimated daily requirements. A single dietitian performed all assessments and home based interviews to explore the client's perception of the service. Mean daily energy intake (7593 (±2012) kJ) was not significantly different to estimated requirements (7720 (±975) kJ) (P = 0.480), while mean daily protein intake was higher (78.7 (±23.4) g) than calculated requirements (68.4 (±10.8) g; P = 0.009). However 16 clients were identified as at risk of malnutrition and 2 were malnourished; consuming 2072 kJ (P = 0.000) less energy and 20.4 g less protein (P = 0.004) per day compared to well-nourished clients. MOW clients are at risk of being poorly nourished and meals delivered by the service provide an important contribution to overall intakes. These findings support the need for regular nutrition screening and dietary monitoring in this high risk group, to identify those for whom additional strategies may be indicated.

  6. Adolescent dietary fiber, vegetable fat, vegetable protein, and nut intakes and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Colditz, Graham A; Cotterchio, Michelle; Boucher, Beatrice A; Kreiger, Nancy

    2014-06-01

    The importance of early-life exposures in breast cancer development is increasingly recognized. However, limited research has evaluated the relationship between adolescent diet and subsequent risk of breast cancer and reported inconsistent results. This population-based case-control study investigated the associations of dietary fiber, vegetable protein, vegetable fat, and nuts consumed during adolescence with adult breast cancer risk. Women, ages 25-74 years, who were diagnosed with first primary breast cancer between 2002 and 2003, were identified using the Ontario Cancer Registry. Controls were identified through random-digit dialing and age-frequency matched to cases. Diet at ages 10-15 was assessed with a 55-item food frequency questionnaire among 2,865 cases and 3,299 controls. Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Inverse associations were found between intakes of dietary fiber, vegetable protein, vegetable fat, and nuts during adolescence and breast cancer risk, which persisted after controlling for adult intakes. The ORs (95 % CI) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of intake were 0.66 (0.55-0.78; P trend < 0.0001) for fiber, 0.80 (0.68-0.95; P trend = 0.01) for vegetable protein, 0.74 (0.63-0.87; P trend = 0.002) for vegetable fat, and 0.76 (0.61-0.95 for ≥1 serving/day vs. <1 serving/month intake; P trend = 0.04) for nuts. The reduced risk for adolescent intakes of fiber, vegetable protein, and nuts was largely limited to postmenopausal women (P interaction ≤ 0.05). Dietary fiber, vegetable protein, vegetable fat, and nuts consumed during adolescence were associated with reduced breast cancer risk.

  7. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate☆

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Debra; Diaz, George A.; Lee, Brendan; Bartley, James; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Le Mons, Cynthia; Rudolph-Angelich, Ingrid; Porter, Marty; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Little prospectively collected data are available comparing the dietary intake of urea cycle disorder (UCD) patients to UCD treatment guidelines or to healthy individuals. Objective To examine the protein and calorie intakes of UCD subjects who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) and compare these data to published UCD dietary guidelines and nutritional surveys. Design Dietary data were recorded for 45 adult and 49 pediatric UCD subjects in metabolic control during participation in clinical trials of GPB. Protein and calorie intakes were compared to UCD treatment guidelines, average nutrient intakes of a healthy US population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). Results In adults, mean protein intake was higher than UCD recommendations but lower than RDA and NHANES values, while calorie intake was lower than UCD recommendations, RDA and NHANES. In pediatric subjects, prescribed protein intake was higher than UCD guidelines, similar to RDA, and lower than NHANES data for all age groups, while calorie intake was at the lower end of the recommended UCD range and close to RDA and NHANES data. In pediatric subjects height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores were within normal range (− 2 to 2). Conclusions Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered. PMID:27014577

  8. Actual and prescribed energy and protein intakes for very low birth weight infants: An observational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allevato, Anthony J.

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as 100 kcal/kg/day, (3) if growth velocity from time to reach full EN to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) met Ziegler's estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day), and (4) growth outcomes at 36 weeks' PMA. Study design: Observational study of feeding, early nutrition and early growth of 40 VLBW infants <30 weeks GA at birth in three newborn intensive care units NICUs. Results: During the first week of life, the percentages of prescribed and delivered energy (69% [65 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (89% [3.1 g/kg/day]) were significantly less than theoretical estimated requirements. Delivered intakes were 15% less than prescribed because of numerous interruptions in delivery and medical complications. During the second week, the delivered intakes of energy (90% [86 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (102% [3.5 g/kg/day]) improved although the differences between prescribed and delivered were consistently 15%. Energy but not protein intake during the first week was significantly related to time to reach full EN. Neither energy nor protein intake significantly correlated with days to return to birth weight. The average growth velocity from the age that full EN was attained to 36 weeks' PMA (15 g/kg/day) was significantly less than the theoretical estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day) (p<0.03). A difference of 1 g/kg/day represents a total deficit of 42 - 54 grams over the course of a month. At 36 weeks' PMA, 53% of the VLBW infants had extrauterine growth restriction, or EUGR (<10th percentile) on the Fenton growth grid and 34% had EUGR on the Lubchenco growth grid. Conclusions: The delivered nutrient intakes were consistently less

  9. Optimizing protein intake in premature infants: a neonatal quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    Strahm, Alyse; Mohsini, Khawar; Nwankwo, Martin; Turner, Barbara

    2013-12-01

    This article examines a quality-improvement project to reduce clinical practice variation and measure growth outcomes by standardizing the process for the provision of protein intake for premature infants weighing 1250 g or less. Eighteen infants with a birth weight of 1250 g or less and gestational age of 32 weeks or less born between June and October 2010 were compared with 15 historical controls of the same birth weight and gestation born between January and May 2010 using a prospective cohort design. The prospective group followed a newly implemented standardized protein nutritional guideline. Independent t-tests and repeated measures of analyses of variance (between- and within-subjects) were performed on the difference between the intended and actual protein intakes between the 2 groups. A multivariate analysis of variance computed the difference between the birth and discharge gains. The prospective group showed statistically significant differences between the amount of intended and actual protein intakes (P = .023) when compared with historical controls. Growth outcomes were not significantly different (P = .67) between the 2 groups. Length of stay was not statistically significantly shorter (P = .06) in the prospective group. Reduction in clinical practice variation was associated with the implementation of a protein nutritional guideline. There was no statistical support for an improvement in the growth outcomes or reduction in length of stay. PMID:24300966

  10. Dietary whey protein decreases food intake and body fat in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael J; Losso, Jack N; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Tulley, Richard T; Blackman, Marc R; Martin, Roy J

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary whey protein on food intake, body fat, and body weight gain in rats. Adult (11-12 week) male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three dietary treatment groups for a 10-week study: control. Whey protein (HP-W), or high-protein content control (HP-S). Albumin was used as the basic protein source for all three diets. HP-W and HP-S diets contained an additional 24% (wt/wt) whey or isoflavone-free soy protein, respectively. Food intake, body weight, body fat, respiratory quotient (RQ), plasma cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and leptin were measured during and/or at the end of the study. The results showed that body fat and body weight gain were lower (P < 0.05) at the end of study in rats fed HP-W or HP-S vs. control diet. The cumulative food intake measured over the 10-week study period was lower in the HP-W vs. control and HP-S groups (P < 0.01). Further, HP-W fed rats exhibited lower N(2) free RQ values than did control and HP-S groups (P < 0.01). Plasma concentrations of total GLP-1 were higher in HP-W and HP-S vs. control group (P < 0.05), whereas plasma CCK, PYY, and leptin did not differ among the three groups. In conclusion, although dietary HP-W and HP-S each decrease body fat accumulation and body weight gain, the mechanism(s) involved appear to be different. HP-S fed rats exhibit increased fat oxidation, whereas HP-W fed rats show decreased food intake and increased fat oxidation, which may contribute to the effects of whey protein on body fat.

  11. Milk and Protein Intake by Pregnant Women Affects Growth of Foetus

    PubMed Central

    Borazjani, Fatemeh; Kulkarni, Shanuak S.

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the effects of the daily intake of milk and protein by pregnant women on foetal growth and determined the growth pattern and velocity of growth. A total of 504 ultrasound observations from 156 respondents were collected following a cross-sectional design in the last trimester of pregnancy; majority of them were in the last month of pregnancy. De facto and purposive sampling was done, and direct interviews of affluent pregnant women were conducted. Kruskal-Wallis test shows that majority of the respondents had tendency to consume 155.65 to 465.17 mL of milk per day, resulting in better and higher foetal growth. Most respondents consumed about 50-70 g of protein per day, and the foetal growth measurements, such as abdomen-circumference, femur length, biparietal diameter, and head-circumference, on an average, were higher in the same group. Quadratic regression model exhibited that all the traits of growth pattern in Model 1 (low milk and protein intake) appeared to have more mode of decline, in contrast to Model 2 (more milk and protein intake), which shows better growth. In addition, velocity of growth pattern was obtained through the first derivative of quadratic regression of growth pattern. Moreover, 95% confidence interval calculated for regression line slope of Model 1 and Model 2 showed that the estimation point (2 B2) of Model 1 does not lay into 95% CI of Model 2; so, statistical significance assorted and also the same trend conversely hold for Model 2. The rate of growth was highly influenced by maternal milk and protein intake. These findings suggest that contribution of common nutrients or other nutritional factors present in milk and protein promote the growth of foetus. PMID:24592584

  12. Low Recent Protein Intake Predicts Cancer-Related Fatigue and Increased Mortality in Patients with Advanced Tumor Disease Undergoing Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Stobäus, Nicole; Müller, Manfred J; Küpferling, Susanne; Schulzke, Jörg-Dieter; Norman, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients, in general, suffer from anorexia hence diminished nutritional intake. In a prospective observational study, we investigated the impact of recent energy and protein intake on cancer-related fatigue and 6-month mortality in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Recent protein and energy intake was assessed by 24-h recall in 285 patients. Cancer-related fatigue was determined by Brief Fatigue Inventory, and fat free mass index (FFMI) was assessed with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Symptoms with the validated German version of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire (30 questions) and 6-month mortality was documented. Risk factors of cancer-related fatigue and predictors of mortality were investigated with logistic regression analysis and stepwise Cox regression analysis, respectively. Low protein intake (<1 g/kg body weight) was found in 66% of patients, who were characterized by higher age, weight, and body mass index. Recent protein intake emerged as the strongest contributor to cancer-related fatigue followed by nausea/vomiting, insomnia, and age. Reduced protein intake, male sex, number of comorbidities, and FFMI were identified as significant predictors for increased 6-month mortality. In conclusion, a low recent protein intake assessed by 24-h recall is associated with a more than twofold higher risk of cancer-related fatigue and 6-month mortality. Every effort should be taken to assess and guarantee proper nutritional intake in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  13. Low Recent Protein Intake Predicts Cancer-Related Fatigue and Increased Mortality in Patients with Advanced Tumor Disease Undergoing Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Stobäus, Nicole; Müller, Manfred J; Küpferling, Susanne; Schulzke, Jörg-Dieter; Norman, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients, in general, suffer from anorexia hence diminished nutritional intake. In a prospective observational study, we investigated the impact of recent energy and protein intake on cancer-related fatigue and 6-month mortality in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Recent protein and energy intake was assessed by 24-h recall in 285 patients. Cancer-related fatigue was determined by Brief Fatigue Inventory, and fat free mass index (FFMI) was assessed with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Symptoms with the validated German version of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire (30 questions) and 6-month mortality was documented. Risk factors of cancer-related fatigue and predictors of mortality were investigated with logistic regression analysis and stepwise Cox regression analysis, respectively. Low protein intake (<1 g/kg body weight) was found in 66% of patients, who were characterized by higher age, weight, and body mass index. Recent protein intake emerged as the strongest contributor to cancer-related fatigue followed by nausea/vomiting, insomnia, and age. Reduced protein intake, male sex, number of comorbidities, and FFMI were identified as significant predictors for increased 6-month mortality. In conclusion, a low recent protein intake assessed by 24-h recall is associated with a more than twofold higher risk of cancer-related fatigue and 6-month mortality. Every effort should be taken to assess and guarantee proper nutritional intake in patients undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:25996582

  14. Protein and carbohydrate intake influence sperm number and fertility in male cockroaches, but not sperm viability

    PubMed Central

    Bunning, Harriet; Rapkin, James; Belcher, Laurence; Archer, C. Ruth; Jensen, Kim; Hunt, John

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that because males produce many, tiny sperm, they are cheap to produce. Recent work, however, suggests that sperm production is not cost-free. If sperm are costly to produce, sperm number and/or viability should be influenced by diet, and this has been documented in numerous species. Yet few studies have examined the exact nutrients responsible for mediating these effects. Here, we quantify the effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on sperm number and viability in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea, as well as the consequences for male fertility. We found the intake of P and C influenced sperm number, being maximized at a high intake of diets with a P : C ratio of 1 : 2, but not sperm viability. The nutritional landscapes for male fertility and sperm number were closely aligned, suggesting that sperm number is the major determinant of male fertility in N. cinerea. Under dietary choice, males regulate nutrient intake at a P : C ratio of 1 : 4.95, which is midway between the ratios needed to maximize sperm production and pre-copulatory attractiveness in this species. This raises the possibility that males regulate nutrient intake to balance the trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory traits in this species. PMID:25608881

  15. Protein and carbohydrate intake influence sperm number and fertility in male cockroaches, but not sperm viability.

    PubMed

    Bunning, Harriet; Rapkin, James; Belcher, Laurence; Archer, C Ruth; Jensen, Kim; Hunt, John

    2015-03-01

    It is commonly assumed that because males produce many, tiny sperm, they are cheap to produce. Recent work, however, suggests that sperm production is not cost-free. If sperm are costly to produce, sperm number and/or viability should be influenced by diet, and this has been documented in numerous species. Yet few studies have examined the exact nutrients responsible for mediating these effects. Here, we quantify the effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on sperm number and viability in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea, as well as the consequences for male fertility. We found the intake of P and C influenced sperm number, being maximized at a high intake of diets with a P : C ratio of 1 : 2, but not sperm viability. The nutritional landscapes for male fertility and sperm number were closely aligned, suggesting that sperm number is the major determinant of male fertility in N. cinerea. Under dietary choice, males regulate nutrient intake at a P : C ratio of 1 : 4.95, which is midway between the ratios needed to maximize sperm production and pre-copulatory attractiveness in this species. This raises the possibility that males regulate nutrient intake to balance the trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory traits in this species.

  16. Intake of Meat Proteins Substantially Increased the Relative Abundance of Genus Lactobacillus in Rat Feces

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Shi, Xuebin; Zhao, Fan; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    Diet has been shown to have a critical influence on gut bacteria and host health, and high levels of red meat in diet have been shown to increase colonic DNA damage and thus be harmful to gut health. However, previous studies focused more on the effects of meat than of meat proteins. In order to investigate whether intake of meat proteins affects the composition and metabolic activities of gut microbiota, feces were collected from growing rats that were fed with either meat proteins (from beef, pork or fish) or non-meat proteins (casein or soy) for 14 days. The resulting composition of gut microbiota was profiled by sequencing the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed using gas chromatography. The composition of gut microbiota and SCFA levels were significantly different between the five diet groups. At a recommended dose of 20% protein in the diet, meat protein-fed rats had a higher relative abundance of the beneficial genus Lactobacillus, but lower levels of SCFAs and SCFA-producing bacteria including Fusobacterium, Bacteroides and Prevotella, compared with the soy protein-fed group. Further work is needed on the regulatory pathways linking dietary protein intake to gut microbiota. PMID:27042829

  17. Intake of Meat Proteins Substantially Increased the Relative Abundance of Genus Lactobacillus in Rat Feces.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Shi, Xuebin; Zhao, Fan; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    Diet has been shown to have a critical influence on gut bacteria and host health, and high levels of red meat in diet have been shown to increase colonic DNA damage and thus be harmful to gut health. However, previous studies focused more on the effects of meat than of meat proteins. In order to investigate whether intake of meat proteins affects the composition and metabolic activities of gut microbiota, feces were collected from growing rats that were fed with either meat proteins (from beef, pork or fish) or non-meat proteins (casein or soy) for 14 days. The resulting composition of gut microbiota was profiled by sequencing the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed using gas chromatography. The composition of gut microbiota and SCFA levels were significantly different between the five diet groups. At a recommended dose of 20% protein in the diet, meat protein-fed rats had a higher relative abundance of the beneficial genus Lactobacillus, but lower levels of SCFAs and SCFA-producing bacteria including Fusobacterium, Bacteroides and Prevotella, compared with the soy protein-fed group. Further work is needed on the regulatory pathways linking dietary protein intake to gut microbiota. PMID:27042829

  18. Intake of Meat Proteins Substantially Increased the Relative Abundance of Genus Lactobacillus in Rat Feces.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Shi, Xuebin; Zhao, Fan; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    Diet has been shown to have a critical influence on gut bacteria and host health, and high levels of red meat in diet have been shown to increase colonic DNA damage and thus be harmful to gut health. However, previous studies focused more on the effects of meat than of meat proteins. In order to investigate whether intake of meat proteins affects the composition and metabolic activities of gut microbiota, feces were collected from growing rats that were fed with either meat proteins (from beef, pork or fish) or non-meat proteins (casein or soy) for 14 days. The resulting composition of gut microbiota was profiled by sequencing the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed using gas chromatography. The composition of gut microbiota and SCFA levels were significantly different between the five diet groups. At a recommended dose of 20% protein in the diet, meat protein-fed rats had a higher relative abundance of the beneficial genus Lactobacillus, but lower levels of SCFAs and SCFA-producing bacteria including Fusobacterium, Bacteroides and Prevotella, compared with the soy protein-fed group. Further work is needed on the regulatory pathways linking dietary protein intake to gut microbiota.

  19. Lesser suppression of energy intake by orally ingested whey protein in healthy older men compared with young controls

    PubMed Central

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G.; Rigda, Rachael; Hutchison, Amy T.; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D.; Hausken, Trygve; Jones, Karen L.; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in young and older people. Protein is the most satiating of the macronutrients in young. It is not known how the effects of oral protein ingestion on energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying are modified by age. The aim of the study was to determine the suppression of energy intake by protein compared with control and underlying gastric-emptying and appetite responses of oral whey protein drinks in eight healthy older men (69–80 yr) compared with eight young male controls (18–34 yr). Subjects were studied on three occasions to determine the effects of protein loads of 30 g/120 kcal and 70 g/280 kcal compared with a flavored water control-drink (0 g whey protein) on energy intake (ad libitum buffet-style meal), and gastric emptying (three-dimensional-ultrasonography) and appetite (0–180 min) in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Energy intake was suppressed by the protein compared with control (P = 0.034). Suppression of energy intake by protein was less in older men (1 ± 5%) than in young controls (15 ± 2%; P = 0.008). Cumulative energy intake (meal+drink) on the protein drink days compared with the control day increased more in older (18 ± 6%) men than young (1 ± 3%) controls (P = 0.008). Gastric emptying of all three drinks was slower in older men (50% gastric-emptying time: 68 ± 5 min) than young controls (36 ± 5 min; P = 0.007). Appetite decreased in young, while it increased in older (P < 0.05). In summary, despite having slower gastric emptying, elderly men exhibited blunted protein-induced suppression of energy intake by whey protein compared with young controls, so that in the elderly men, protein ingestion increased overall energy intake more than in the young men. PMID:26290103

  20. Lesser suppression of energy intake by orally ingested whey protein in healthy older men compared with young controls.

    PubMed

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G; Rigda, Rachael; Hutchison, Amy T; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hausken, Trygve; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2015-10-15

    Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in young and older people. Protein is the most satiating of the macronutrients in young. It is not known how the effects of oral protein ingestion on energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying are modified by age. The aim of the study was to determine the suppression of energy intake by protein compared with control and underlying gastric-emptying and appetite responses of oral whey protein drinks in eight healthy older men (69-80 yr) compared with eight young male controls (18-34 yr). Subjects were studied on three occasions to determine the effects of protein loads of 30 g/120 kcal and 70 g/280 kcal compared with a flavored water control-drink (0 g whey protein) on energy intake (ad libitum buffet-style meal), and gastric emptying (three-dimensional-ultrasonography) and appetite (0-180 min) in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Energy intake was suppressed by the protein compared with control (P = 0.034). Suppression of energy intake by protein was less in older men (1 ± 5%) than in young controls (15 ± 2%; P = 0.008). Cumulative energy intake (meal+drink) on the protein drink days compared with the control day increased more in older (18 ± 6%) men than young (1 ± 3%) controls (P = 0.008). Gastric emptying of all three drinks was slower in older men (50% gastric-emptying time: 68 ± 5 min) than young controls (36 ± 5 min; P = 0.007). Appetite decreased in young, while it increased in older (P < 0.05). In summary, despite having slower gastric emptying, elderly men exhibited blunted protein-induced suppression of energy intake by whey protein compared with young controls, so that in the elderly men, protein ingestion increased overall energy intake more than in the young men.

  1. Insulin-like growth factor-I, soy protein intake, and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Maureen; Shu, Xiao Ou; Yu, Herbert; Dai, Qi; Malin, Alecia S; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have found that estrogen enhances the effect of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels on breast cancer cell growth. Participants in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study (SBCS) consumed large amounts of soy that was high in isoflavones, which act as weak estrogens and as anti-estrogens. We assessed whether soy protein intake modified the effect of IGF-I levels on breast cancer risk. The SBCS is a population-based case-control study of breast cancer among women aged 25-64 conducted between 1996 and 1998 in urban Shanghai. In-person interviews were completed with 1,459 incident breast cancer cases ascertained through a population-based cancer registry and 1,556 controls randomly selected from the general population (with respective response rates of 91% and 90%). This analysis is restricted to the 397 cases and 397 matched controls for whom information on IGF-I levels was available. For premenopausal breast cancer, we found nearly significant interactions between soy protein intake and IGF-I levels (P = 0.080) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels (P = 0.057). The direction of the interaction appeared to be negative for IGF-I levels but was positive for IGFBP-3 levels. No interaction was evident between soy protein intake and IGF-I or IGFBP-3 levels among postmenopausal women. Our results suggest that soy protein intake may negatively modulate the effect of IGF-I and may positively modulate the effect of IGFBP-3 levels on premenopausal breast cancer risk. Further studies are needed to confirm our finding and to understand the biological mechanisms of these potential interactions.

  2. Effect of Varying the Energy Density of Protein-adequate Diets on Nutrient Metabolism, Clinical Chemistry, Immune Response and Growth of Muzaffarnagari Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Singh, V. K.; Pattanaik, A. K.; Goswami, T. K.; Sharma, K.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of varied dietary energy densities on immune response and performance of Muzzafarnagari lambs were ascertained in a 180-d study. Animals (n = 24), in three groups, were fed diets providing 100% (100E), 80% (80E) or 70% (70E) of their metabolizable energy requirement. Mean nutrient digestibilities varied significantly among treatments. Nitrogen intake was lower (p<0.01) in the 70E. Nitrogen retention, was reduced (p<0.001) in 80E and 70E vs 100E. The average daily gain (p<0.001) was 47.01±4.23, 13.54±1.72 and -16.67±8.24 g for 100E, 80E and 70E, respectively. Hemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, total and differential leukocyte counts were lower (p<0.001) for 80E and 70E than for 100E with a similar trend (p<0.05) for serum glucose and total protein. Serum cortisol was reduced (p<0.001) with decreased energy availability. Antibody titre to Brucella abortus S19 showed an initial reduction in 80E and 70E vs 100E. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response was lower (p<0.001) in 80E and 70E vs 100E, accompanying a lower (p<0.001) nitric oxide production by the peripheral lymphocytes. It is concluded that the reduced dietary energy density significantly affects the growth performance and immune response of lambs. PMID:25049889

  3. Agouti-related protein increases food hoarding more than food intake in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Day, Diane E; Bartness, Timothy J

    2004-01-01

    Agouti-related protein (AgRP), an endogenous melanocortin 3/4 receptor antagonist, appears to play an important role in the control of food intake and energy balance because exogenous administration in rats and overexpression in mice result in hyperphagia and body mass gain. Furthermore, arcuate nucleus AgRP mRNA is increased with fasting in laboratory rats and mice and is decreased with refeeding. In Siberian hamsters, fasting also increases arcuate nucleus AgRP mRNA, but these animals increase food hoarding, rather than food intake with refeeding. Therefore, we tested whether exogenous AgRP increased food hoarding in this species. Hamsters were trained in a hoarding/foraging apparatus to run a programmed number of wheel revolutions to earn food pellets. Four doses of AgRP-(83-132) or vehicle were injected into the third ventricle at the beginning of the dark phase, and food hoarding, food intake, and foraging were measured at various time points subsequently. Overall, food hoarding was stimulated as much as 10 times more than food intake, and both responses occurred as early as 1 h after injection. Food hoarding was increased the greatest at the lowest dose (0.1 nmol), whereas food intake was increased the greatest at the second lowest dose (1 nmol). Food intake and especially food hoarding were increased up to seven days after the AgRP injections. Foraging was increased at all AgRP doses except the highest dose (100 nmol). These results suggest that AgRP triggers the search for food in this species, and once they find it, hoarding predominates over eating.

  4. The ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake is a predictor of bone resorption in space flight analogues and in ambulatory subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Hargens, Alan R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bone loss is a critical concern for space travelers, and a dietary countermeasure would be of great benefit. Dietary protein and potassium-associated bicarbonate precursors may have opposing effects on the acid-base balance in the body and therefore on bone loss. OBJECTIVE: In 2 studies, we examined the ability of dietary protein and potassium to predict markers of bone metabolism. DESIGN: In the first study, 8 pairs of male identical twins were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, or SED, group) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower-body negative pressure chamber (EX group). In a second study, groups of 4 subjects lived in a closed chamber for 60 or 91 d, and dietary data were collected for two or three 5-d sessions. Urinary calcium, N-telopeptide, and pyridinium cross-links were measured before bed rest; on bed rest days 5-6, 12-13, 19-20, and 26-27; and daily during the chamber studies. Data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation (P < 0.05). RESULTS: The ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake was significantly correlated with N-telopeptide in the SED group during bed rest weeks 3 and 4 (r = 0.77 and 0.80) and during the 91-d chamber study (r = 0.75). The ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake was positively correlated with pyridinium cross-links before bed rest in the EX group (r = 0.83), in the EX group during bed rest week 1 (r = 0.84), and in the SED group during bed rest week 2 (r = 0.72) but not during either chamber study. In both studies, these relations were not significant with the ratio of vegetable protein intake to potassium intake. CONCLUSIONS: The ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake may affect bone in ambulatory and bed-rest subjects. Changing this ratio may help to prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  5. Timing of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans

    PubMed Central

    Esmarck, B; Andersen, J L; Olsen, S; Richter, E A; Mizuno, M; Kjær, M

    2001-01-01

    Age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength can partly be counteracted by resistance training, causing a net synthesis of muscular proteins. Protein synthesis is influenced synergistically by postexercise amino acid supplementation, but the importance of the timing of protein intake remains unresolved. The study investigated the importance of immediate (P0) or delayed (P2) intake of an oral protein supplement upon muscle hypertrophy and strength over a period of resistance training in elderly males. Thirteen men (age, 74 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI), 25 ± 1 kg m−2 (means ± S.E.M.)) completed a 12 week resistance training programme (3 times per week) receiving oral protein in liquid form (10 g protein, 7 g carbohydrate, 3 g fat) immediately after (P0) or 2 h after (P2) each training session. Muscle hypertrophy was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and from muscle biopsies and muscle strength was determined using dynamic and isokinetic strength measurements. Body composition was determined from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and food records were obtained over 4 days. The plasma insulin response to protein supplementation was also determined. In response to training, the cross-sectional area of m. quadriceps femoris (54.6 ± 0.5 to 58.3 ± 0.5 cm2) and mean fibre area (4047 ± 320 to 5019 ± 615 μm2) increased in the P0 group, whereas no significant increase was observed in P2. For P0 both dynamic and isokinetic strength increased, by 46 and 15 %, respectively (P < 0.05), whereas P2 only improved in dynamic strength, by 36 % (P < 0.05). No differences in glucose or insulin response were observed between protein intake at 0 and 2 h postexercise. We conclude that early intake of an oral protein supplement after resistance training is important for the development of hypertrophy in skeletal muscle of elderly men in response to resistance training. PMID:11507179

  6. Relationship between residual feed intake and lymphocyte mitochondrial complex protein concentration and ratio in crossbred steers.

    PubMed

    Davis, M P; Brooks, M A; Kerley, M S

    2016-04-01

    Rate of oxygen uptake by muscle mitochondria and respiratory chain protein concentrations differed between high- and low-residual feed intake (RFI) animals. The hypothesis of this research was that complex I (CI), II (CII), and III (CIII) mitochondria protein concentrations in lymphocyte (blood) mitochondria were related to the RFI phenotype of beef steers. Daily feed intake (ADFI) was individually recorded for 92 Hereford-crossbreed steers over 63 d using GrowSafe individual feed intake system. Predicted ADFI was calculated as the regression of ADFI on ADG and midtest BW. Difference between ADFI and predicted ADFI was RFI. Lymphocytes were isolated from low-RFI (-1.32 ± 0.11 kg/d; = 10) and high-RFI (1.34 ± 0.18 kg/d; = 8) steers. Immunocapture of CI, CII, and CIII proteins from the lymphocyte was done using MitoProfile CI, CII, and CIII immunocapture kits (MitoSciences Inc., Eugene, OR). Protein concentrations of CI, CII, and CIII and total protein were quantified using bicinchoninic acid colorimetric procedures. Low-RFI steers consumed 30% less ( = 0.0004) feed and had a 40% improvement ( < 0.0001) in feed efficiency compared with high-RFI steers with similar growth ( = 0.78) and weight measurements ( > 0.65). High- and low-RFI steers did not differ in CI ( = 0.22), CII ( = 0.69), and CIII ( = 0.59) protein concentrations. The protein concentration ratios for CI to CII ( = 0.03) were 20% higher and the ratios of CI to CIII ( = 0.01) were 30% higher, but the ratios of CII to CIII ( = 0.89) did not differ when comparing low-RFI steers with high-RFI steers. The similar magnitude difference in feed intake, feed efficiency measurements, and CI-to-CIII ratio between RFI phenotypes provides a plausible explanation for differences between the phenotypes. We also concluded that mitochondria isolated from lymphocytes could be used to study respiratory chain differences among differing RFI phenotypes. Further research is needed to determine if lymphocyte mitochondrial

  7. Choices for achieving adequate dietary calcium with a vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C M; Proulx, W R; Heaney, R

    1999-09-01

    To achieve adequate dietary calcium intake, several choices are available that accommodate a variety of lifestyles and tastes. Liberal consumption of dairy products in the diet is the approach of most Americans. Some plants provide absorbable calcium, but the quantity of vegetables required to reach sufficient calcium intake make an exclusively plant-based diet impractical for most individuals unless fortified foods or supplements are included. Also, dietary constituents that decrease calcium retention, such as salt, protein, and caffeine, can be high in the vegetarian diet. Although it is possible to obtain calcium balance from a plant-based diet in a Western lifestyle, it may be more convenient to achieve calcium balance by increasing calcium consumption than by limiting other dietary factors.

  8. Long-term high intake of whole proteins results in renal damage in pigs.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yong; Hwang, Sun Young; House, James D; Ogborn, Malcolm R; Weiler, Hope A; O, Karmin; Aukema, Harold M

    2010-09-01

    Despite evidence of potential antiobesity effects of high-protein (HP) diets, the impact of consuming diets with protein levels at the upper limit of the acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR) on kidney health is unknown. To test whether HP diets affect renal health, whole plant and animal proteins in proportions that mimicked human diets were given to pigs, because their kidneys have a similar anatomy and function to those of humans. Adult female pigs received either normal-protein (NP) or HP (15 or 35% of energy from protein, respectively) isocaloric diets for either 4 or 8 mo. The higher protein in the HP diet was achieved by increasing egg and dairy proteins. Although there were initial differences in body weight and composition, after 8 mo these were similar in pigs consuming the NP and HP diets. The HP compared with NP diet, however, resulted in enlarged kidneys at both 4 and 8 mo. Renal and glomerular volumes were 60-70% higher by the end of the study. These enlarged kidneys had greater evidence of histological damage, with 55% more fibrosis and 30% more glomerulosclerosis. Renal monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels also were 22% higher in pigs given the HP diet. Plasma homocysteine levels were higher in the HP pigs at 4 mo and continued to be elevated by 35% at 8 mo of feeding. These findings suggest that long-term intakes of protein at the upper limit of the AMDR from whole protein sources may compromise renal health.

  9. Association Between Protein Intake and Mortality in Hypertensive Patients Without Chronic Kidney Disease in the OLD-HTA Cohort.

    PubMed

    Courand, Pierre-Yves; Lesiuk, Chloé; Milon, Hugues; Defforges, Alice; Fouque, Denis; Harbaoui, Brahim; Lantelme, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Protein intake may have some benefits on reducing blood pressure and cardiovascular events, but their effects are still debated. The objective of this study was to test the prognostic value of protein intake assessed by 24-hour urinary urea in a cohort of hypertensive patients with preserved renal function. A total of 1128 hypertensive patients were followed according to tertile of protein intake adjusted for ideal body weight: <0.70, 0.70 to 0.93, and >0.93 g/kg. Baseline characteristics (mean±standard deviation) were age 45.1±13.2 years, systolic/diastolic blood pressure 185±32/107±20 mm Hg, and estimated glomerular filtration rate 82±32 mL/min. After 10 years of follow-up, 289 deaths occurred, 202 of which were of cardiovascular cause. After adjustment for major cardiovascular risk factors, patients in the second and third tertiles of protein intake had a decreased risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.71 [0.56-0.91]) and cardiovascular death (0.72 [0.54-0.96]), but not of stroke death (0.72 [0.41-1.28]) in comparison to patients in the low protein intake tertile. Normal-high protein intake was associated with a better outcome in a subset of the population: younger patients, low salt intake, without aortic atherosclerosis, or previous cardiovascular events (Pinteraction<0.10 for all). Hypertensive patients having a protein intake >0.7 g/kg ideal body weight, particularly those at low risk, had lower all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates. Physicians may encourage hyper tensive patients to have normal or high protein diet in addition to low salt consumption, moderate alcohol consumption, and regular physical activity. PMID:27091898

  10. Association Between Protein Intake and Mortality in Hypertensive Patients Without Chronic Kidney Disease in the OLD-HTA Cohort.

    PubMed

    Courand, Pierre-Yves; Lesiuk, Chloé; Milon, Hugues; Defforges, Alice; Fouque, Denis; Harbaoui, Brahim; Lantelme, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Protein intake may have some benefits on reducing blood pressure and cardiovascular events, but their effects are still debated. The objective of this study was to test the prognostic value of protein intake assessed by 24-hour urinary urea in a cohort of hypertensive patients with preserved renal function. A total of 1128 hypertensive patients were followed according to tertile of protein intake adjusted for ideal body weight: <0.70, 0.70 to 0.93, and >0.93 g/kg. Baseline characteristics (mean±standard deviation) were age 45.1±13.2 years, systolic/diastolic blood pressure 185±32/107±20 mm Hg, and estimated glomerular filtration rate 82±32 mL/min. After 10 years of follow-up, 289 deaths occurred, 202 of which were of cardiovascular cause. After adjustment for major cardiovascular risk factors, patients in the second and third tertiles of protein intake had a decreased risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.71 [0.56-0.91]) and cardiovascular death (0.72 [0.54-0.96]), but not of stroke death (0.72 [0.41-1.28]) in comparison to patients in the low protein intake tertile. Normal-high protein intake was associated with a better outcome in a subset of the population: younger patients, low salt intake, without aortic atherosclerosis, or previous cardiovascular events (Pinteraction<0.10 for all). Hypertensive patients having a protein intake >0.7 g/kg ideal body weight, particularly those at low risk, had lower all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates. Physicians may encourage hyper tensive patients to have normal or high protein diet in addition to low salt consumption, moderate alcohol consumption, and regular physical activity.

  11. Dietary protein intake is associated with favorable cardiometabolic risk factors in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Hajifaraji, Majid; Bahadoran, Zahra; Sarvghadi, Farzaneh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that dietary protein content and type are related to cardiometabolic risk factors including body mass index, waist circumference (WC), serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), serum fasting glucose, and blood pressure. This population-based study was conducted on 2537 subjects aged 19 to 70 years and selected from among participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008). Dietary data were collected using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Associations between intakes of total protein as well as the animal-to-plant (A/P) protein ratio and cardiometabolic risk factors were analyzed using multivariate linear regression models. Dietary protein intakes were 13.7% and 13.6% of energy, in men and women, respectively; the A/P protein ratio in women was significantly higher than in men (1.8 ± 1.4 vs 1.4 ± 0.9). Body mass index was associated with total protein intake in men (β = 0.14, P = .01) and A/P protein ratio in women (β = 0.075, P = .01). Waist circumference was associated with total protein intake (β = -0.048, P = .03) and A/P protein ratio (β=0.031, P = .05) in women. Serum fasting glucose was associated with both total protein intake (β=0.061 and 0.11, P < .05) and the A/P proteinratio (β = -0.078 and -0.056, P < .05) in both men and women, respectively. Serum HDL-C was associated with total protein intake (β = 0.107 and 0.07, P < .05) in both men and women, whereas diastolic blood pressure in women was associated with total protein intake (β = -0.125, P = .01). In conclusion, higher dietary protein intake was associated with enhanced HDL-C levels, WC, and diastolic BP, and a higher ratio of A/P protein intake was related with lower serum fasting glucose andWC.

  12. High whey protein intake delayed the loss of lean body mass in healthy old rats, whereas protein type and polyphenol/antioxidant supplementation had no effects.

    PubMed

    Mosoni, Laurent; Gatineau, Eva; Gatellier, Philippe; Migné, Carole; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Rémond, Didier; Rocher, Emilie; Dardevet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to compare and combine 3 nutritional strategies to slow down the age-related loss of muscle mass in healthy old rats: 1) increase protein intake, which is likely to stimulate muscle protein anabolism; 2) use leucine rich, rapidly digested whey proteins as protein source (whey proteins are recognized as the most effective proteins to stimulate muscle protein anabolism). 3) Supplement animals with a mixture of chamomile extract, vitamin E, vitamin D (reducing inflammation and oxidative stress is also effective to improve muscle anabolism). Such comparisons and combinations were never tested before. Nutritional groups were: casein 12% protein, whey 12% protein, whey 18% protein and each of these groups were supplemented or not with polyphenols/antioxidants. During 6 months, we followed changes of weight, food intake, inflammation (plasma fibrinogen and alpha-2-macroglobulin) and body composition (DXA). After 6 months, we measured muscle mass, in vivo and ex-vivo fed and post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis, ex-vivo muscle proteolysis, and oxidative stress parameters (liver and muscle glutathione, SOD and total antioxidant activities, muscle carbonyls and TBARS). We showed that although micronutrient supplementation reduced inflammation and oxidative stress, the only factor that significantly reduced the loss of lean body mass was the increase in whey protein intake, with no detectable effect on muscle protein synthesis, and a tendency to reduce muscle proteolysis. We conclude that in healthy rats, increasing protein intake is an effective way to delay sarcopenia.

  13. Low fatness, reduced fat intake and adequate plasmatic concentrations of LDL-cholesterol are associated with high bone mineral density in women: a cross-sectional study with control group

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several parameters are associated with high bone mineral density (BMD), such as overweight, black background, intense physical activity (PA), greater calcium intake and some medications. The objectives are to evaluate the prevalence and the main aspects associated with high BMD in healthy women. Methods After reviewing the database of approximately 21,500 BMD scans performed in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, from June 2005 to October 2010, high BMD (over 1400 g/cm2 at lumbar spine and/or above 1200 g/cm2 at femoral neck) was found in 421 exams. Exclusion criteria were age below 30 or above 60 years, black ethnicity, pregnant or obese women, disease and/or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. A total of 40 women with high BMD were included and matched with 40 healthy women with normal BMD, paired to weight, age, skin color and menopausal status. Medical history, food intake and PA were assessed through validated questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated through a GE-Lunar DPX MD + bone densitometer. Radiography of the thoracic and lumbar spine was carried out to exclude degenerative alterations or fractures. Biochemical parameters included both lipid and hormonal profiles, along with mineral and bone metabolism. Statistical analysis included parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression models. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results The mean age was 50.9 (8.3) years. There was no significant difference between groups in relation to PA, smoking, intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as laboratory tests, except serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX), which was lower in the high BMD group (p = 0.04). In the final model of multivariate regression, a lower fat intake and body fatness as well a better profile of LDL-cholesterol predicted almost 35% of high BMD in women. (adjusted R2 = 0.347; p < 0.001). In addition, greater amounts of lean mass and higher IGF-1 serum concentrations played a

  14. The Link between Dietary Protein Intake, Skeletal Muscle Function and Health in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Jamie I.; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass and function are progressively lost with age, a condition referred to as sarcopenia. By the age of 60, many older adults begin to be affected by muscle loss. There is a link between decreased muscle mass and strength and adverse health outcomes such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Data suggest that increasing dietary protein intake at meals may counterbalance muscle loss in older individuals due to the increased availability of amino acids, which stimulate muscle protein synthesis by activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORC1). Increased muscle protein synthesis can lead to increased muscle mass, strength and function over time. This review aims to address the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein and whether or not this value meets the needs for older adults based upon current scientific evidence. The current RDA for protein is 0.8 g/kg body weight/day. However, literature suggests that consuming protein in amounts greater than the RDA can improve muscle mass, strength and function in older adults. PMID:27417778

  15. Intake of Protein Plus Carbohydrate during the First Two Hours after Exhaustive Cycling Improves Performance the following Day

    PubMed Central

    Rustad, Per I.; Kolnes, Kristoffer J.; Sollie, Ove; Franch, Jesper; Ivy, John L.; Daniel, Hannelore; Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Intake of protein immediately after exercise stimulates protein synthesis but improved recovery of performance is not consistently observed. The primary aim of the present study was to compare performance 18 h after exhaustive cycling in a randomized diet-controlled study (175 kJ·kg-1 during 18 h) when subjects were supplemented with protein plus carbohydrate or carbohydrate only in a 2-h window starting immediately after exhaustive cycling. The second aim was to investigate the effect of no nutrition during the first 2 h and low total energy intake (113 kJ·kg-1 during 18 h) on performance when protein intake was similar. Eight endurance-trained subjects cycled at 237±6 Watt (~72% VO2max) until exhaustion (TTE) on three occasions, and supplemented with 1.2 g carbohydrate·kg-1·h-1 (CHO), 0.8 g carbohydrate + 0.4 g protein·kg-1·h-1 (CHO+PRO) or placebo without energy (PLA). Intake of CHO+PROT increased plasma glucose, insulin, and branch chained amino acids, whereas CHO only increased glucose and insulin. Eighteen hours later, subjects performed another TTE at 237±6 Watt. TTE was increased after intake of CHO+PROT compared to CHO (63.5±4.4 vs 49.8±5.4 min; p<0.05). PLA reduced TTE to 42.8±5.1 min (p<0.05 vs CHO). Nitrogen balance was positive in CHO+PROT, and negative in CHO and PLA. In conclusion, performance was higher 18 h after exhaustive cycling with intake of CHO+PROT compared to an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate during the first 2 h post exercise. Intake of a similar amount of protein but less carbohydrate during the 18 h recovery period reduced performance. PMID:27078151

  16. Intake of Protein Plus Carbohydrate during the First Two Hours after Exhaustive Cycling Improves Performance the following Day.

    PubMed

    Rustad, Per I; Sailer, Manuela; Cumming, Kristoffer T; Jeppesen, Per B; Kolnes, Kristoffer J; Sollie, Ove; Franch, Jesper; Ivy, John L; Daniel, Hannelore; Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Intake of protein immediately after exercise stimulates protein synthesis but improved recovery of performance is not consistently observed. The primary aim of the present study was to compare performance 18 h after exhaustive cycling in a randomized diet-controlled study (175 kJ·kg(-1) during 18 h) when subjects were supplemented with protein plus carbohydrate or carbohydrate only in a 2-h window starting immediately after exhaustive cycling. The second aim was to investigate the effect of no nutrition during the first 2 h and low total energy intake (113 kJ·kg(-1) during 18 h) on performance when protein intake was similar. Eight endurance-trained subjects cycled at 237±6 Watt (~72% VO2max) until exhaustion (TTE) on three occasions, and supplemented with 1.2 g carbohydrate·kg(-1)·h(-1) (CHO), 0.8 g carbohydrate + 0.4 g protein·kg(-1)·h(-1) (CHO+PRO) or placebo without energy (PLA). Intake of CHO+PROT increased plasma glucose, insulin, and branch chained amino acids, whereas CHO only increased glucose and insulin. Eighteen hours later, subjects performed another TTE at 237±6 Watt. TTE was increased after intake of CHO+PROT compared to CHO (63.5±4.4 vs 49.8±5.4 min; p<0.05). PLA reduced TTE to 42.8±5.1 min (p<0.05 vs CHO). Nitrogen balance was positive in CHO+PROT, and negative in CHO and PLA. In conclusion, performance was higher 18 h after exhaustive cycling with intake of CHO+PROT compared to an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate during the first 2 h post exercise. Intake of a similar amount of protein but less carbohydrate during the 18 h recovery period reduced performance. PMID:27078151

  17. Intake of Protein Plus Carbohydrate during the First Two Hours after Exhaustive Cycling Improves Performance the following Day.

    PubMed

    Rustad, Per I; Sailer, Manuela; Cumming, Kristoffer T; Jeppesen, Per B; Kolnes, Kristoffer J; Sollie, Ove; Franch, Jesper; Ivy, John L; Daniel, Hannelore; Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Intake of protein immediately after exercise stimulates protein synthesis but improved recovery of performance is not consistently observed. The primary aim of the present study was to compare performance 18 h after exhaustive cycling in a randomized diet-controlled study (175 kJ·kg(-1) during 18 h) when subjects were supplemented with protein plus carbohydrate or carbohydrate only in a 2-h window starting immediately after exhaustive cycling. The second aim was to investigate the effect of no nutrition during the first 2 h and low total energy intake (113 kJ·kg(-1) during 18 h) on performance when protein intake was similar. Eight endurance-trained subjects cycled at 237±6 Watt (~72% VO2max) until exhaustion (TTE) on three occasions, and supplemented with 1.2 g carbohydrate·kg(-1)·h(-1) (CHO), 0.8 g carbohydrate + 0.4 g protein·kg(-1)·h(-1) (CHO+PRO) or placebo without energy (PLA). Intake of CHO+PROT increased plasma glucose, insulin, and branch chained amino acids, whereas CHO only increased glucose and insulin. Eighteen hours later, subjects performed another TTE at 237±6 Watt. TTE was increased after intake of CHO+PROT compared to CHO (63.5±4.4 vs 49.8±5.4 min; p<0.05). PLA reduced TTE to 42.8±5.1 min (p<0.05 vs CHO). Nitrogen balance was positive in CHO+PROT, and negative in CHO and PLA. In conclusion, performance was higher 18 h after exhaustive cycling with intake of CHO+PROT compared to an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate during the first 2 h post exercise. Intake of a similar amount of protein but less carbohydrate during the 18 h recovery period reduced performance.

  18. The Association between Total Protein and Vegetable Protein Intake and Low Muscle Mass among the Community-Dwelling Elderly Population in Northern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ru-Yi; Yang, Kuen-Cheh; Chang, Hao-Hsiang; Lee, Long-Teng; Lu, Chia-Wen; Huang, Kuo-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia, highly linked with fall, frailty, and disease burden, is an emerging problem in aging society. Higher protein intake has been suggested to maintain nitrogen balance. Our objective was to investigate whether pre-sarcopenia status was associated with lower protein intake. A total of 327 community-dwelling elderly people were recruited for a cross-sectional study. We adopted the multivariate nutrient density model to identify associations between low muscle mass and dietary protein intake. The general linear regression models were applied to estimate skeletal muscle mass index across the quartiles of total protein and vegetable protein density. Participants with diets in the lowest quartile of total protein density (<13.2%) were at a higher risk for low muscle mass (odds ratio (OR) 3.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37–6.72) than those with diets in the highest quartile (≥17.2%). Similarly, participants with diets in the lowest quartile of vegetable protein density (<5.8%) were at a higher risk for low muscle mass (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.14–4.83) than those with diets in the highest quartile (≥9.4%). Furthermore, the estimated skeletal muscle mass index increased significantly across the quartiles of total protein density (p = 0.023) and vegetable protein density (p = 0.025). Increasing daily intakes of total protein and vegetable protein densities appears to confer protection against pre-sarcopenia status. PMID:27322317

  19. The Association between Total Protein and Vegetable Protein Intake and Low Muscle Mass among the Community-Dwelling Elderly Population in Northern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ru-Yi; Yang, Kuen-Cheh; Chang, Hao-Hsiang; Lee, Long-Teng; Lu, Chia-Wen; Huang, Kuo-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia, highly linked with fall, frailty, and disease burden, is an emerging problem in aging society. Higher protein intake has been suggested to maintain nitrogen balance. Our objective was to investigate whether pre-sarcopenia status was associated with lower protein intake. A total of 327 community-dwelling elderly people were recruited for a cross-sectional study. We adopted the multivariate nutrient density model to identify associations between low muscle mass and dietary protein intake. The general linear regression models were applied to estimate skeletal muscle mass index across the quartiles of total protein and vegetable protein density. Participants with diets in the lowest quartile of total protein density (<13.2%) were at a higher risk for low muscle mass (odds ratio (OR) 3.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37-6.72) than those with diets in the highest quartile (≥17.2%). Similarly, participants with diets in the lowest quartile of vegetable protein density (<5.8%) were at a higher risk for low muscle mass (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.14-4.83) than those with diets in the highest quartile (≥9.4%). Furthermore, the estimated skeletal muscle mass index increased significantly across the quartiles of total protein density (p = 0.023) and vegetable protein density (p = 0.025). Increasing daily intakes of total protein and vegetable protein densities appears to confer protection against pre-sarcopenia status. PMID:27322317

  20. Blunted hypothalamic ghrelin signaling reduces diet intake in rats fed a low-protein diet in late pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diet intake in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet was significantly reduced during late pregnancy despite elevated plasma levels of ghrelin. In this study, we hypothesized that ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus is blunted under a low-protein diet condition and therefore, it does not stimu...

  1. Effect of meal size reduction and protein enrichment on intake and satiety in vital community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Ziylan, Canan; Kremer, Stefanie; Eerens, Jessie; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-10-01

    Undernutrition risk among community-dwelling older adults is partly caused by inadequate protein intake. Enriching readymade meals with protein could be beneficial in increasing protein intake. Moreover, reduced-size meals could suit older adults with diminished appetite. In this single-blind randomized crossover study with 120 participants (age: 70.5 ± 4.5 y, BMI: 27.2 ± 4.4 kg/m(2)), 60 participants consumed four beef meals and another 60 consumed four chicken meals on four different days, once per week. These meals were produced according to a 2 × 2 factorial design: the protein content was either ∼25 g (lower) or ∼30 g (enriched), and the portion size was either 450 g (normal) or of 400 g (reduced). Palatability evaluation, meal intake, and subsequent satiety ratings after 120 min were measured. No significant differences in palatability among meals were found. While absolute intake (g) of the normal-size meals was significantly higher than that of the reduced-size meals, the relative intake (%) of the served meals did not differ between the four meals. Both protein and energy intakes were significantly higher for the enriched meals, regardless of portion size. Protein intakes were 5.4 g and 5.1 g higher in the normal-size and reduced-size enriched beef meals, respectively, and 6.1 g and 7.1 g higher in the enriched chicken meals, respectively. The normal-size enriched beef meal and reduced-size enriched chicken meal led to slightly but significantly higher ratings of satiety than the non-enriched meals. Due to these mixed satiety findings, separate effects of meal-size reduction and protein enrichment could not be distinguished in this study. The intake findings show that palatable protein-enriched meals support higher protein and energy intakes in vital community-dwelling older adults during a single meal.

  2. Urea kinetics in healthy young women: minimal effect of stage of menstrual cycle, contraceptive pill and protein intake.

    PubMed

    McClelland, I S; Jackson, A A

    1996-08-01

    Urea kinetics were measured using prime/intermittent oral doses of [15N15N]urea, on five separate protocols in thirteen normal young women. Each woman underwent either two or three study protocols. Measurements were made at day 12 and day 22 of the menstrual cycle, whilst consuming their habitual protein intake in seven women not taking the contraceptive pill and in six women taking the contraceptive pill. In three women taking the pill, and three not taking the pill, urea kinetics were measured whilst taking a diet in which the intake was restricted to 55 g protein/d. There was no difference in the rate of urea production, urea excretion or urea hydrolysis between the women taking the pill and those not taking the pill at day 22. In the women not taking the pill there was no difference in any measure between day 12 and day 22. In the women taking the pill there was a significant difference in the disposal of urea N to excretion or hydrolysis on day 12 compared with day 22, with a relative decrease in excretion and enhancement of hydrolysis at day 12 compared with day 22. On the restricted diet, an intake of 55 g protein/d represented 77% of the habitual intake and urea production, excretion and hydrolysis were reduced to about 84% of the rate found on the habitual intake. In paired studies the reduction in urea production was statistically significant, and there was a statistically significant linear relationship between urea production and either intake or the sum of intake plus hydrolysis. The within-individual variability for urea production was about 10%, for excretion 15% and for hydrolysis 44%. The between-individual variability for intake was about 17% on the habitual intake. The variability for production, excretion and hydrolysis (14, 13, 36%) was less in the women not taking the contraceptive pill than in those taking the pill 23, 32, 42% respectively). The variability was reduced on the controlled low intake of 55 g protein compared with the habitual

  3. Effects of different levels of protein intake and physical training on growth and nutritional status of young rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sandra Maria Lima; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Bacurau, Reury Frank Pereira; de Campos, Patrícia Lopes; Luz, Silmara dos Santos; Lancha, Antonio Herber; Tirapegui, Julio

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of physical training, and different levels of protein intake in the diet, on the growth and nutritional status of growing rats. Newly-weaned Wistar rats (n=48) were distributed into six experimental groups; three of them were subjected to physical swim training (1 h per day, 5 d per week, for 4 wk, after 2 wk of familiarization) and the other three were considered as controls (non-trained). Each pair of groups, trained and non-trained, received diets with a different level of protein in their composition: 14%, 21% or 28%. The animals were euthanized at the end of the training period and the following analyses were performed: proteoglycan synthesis as a biomarker of bone and cartilage growth, IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor-I) assay as a biomarker of growth and nutritional status, total RNA and protein concentration and protein synthesis measured in vivo using a large-dose phenylalanine method. As a main finding, increased dietary protein, combined with physical training, was able to improve neither tissue protein synthesis nor muscle growth. In addition, cartilage and bone growth seem to be deteriorated by the lower and the higher levels of protein intake. Our data allow us to conclude that protein enhancement in the diet, combined with physical exercise, does not stimulate tissue protein synthesis or muscle mass growth. Furthermore, physical training, combined with low protein intake, was not favorable to bone development in growing animals.

  4. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type.

  5. Protein and energy intake during weaning. III. Effects on plasma amino acids.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, I; Borulf, S; Abildskov, K; Heird, W; Räihä, N

    1988-01-01

    Preprandial plasma amino acid concentrations were measured at 5 and 6 months of age in 30 healthy term infants who were either breast-fed ad libitum or fed one of two different formulas (1.9 g of protein per 100 ml with a whey:casein ratio of 50:50; 2.9 g of protein per 100 ml with a whey:casein ratio of 20:80) ad libitum, plus the same supplementary food regimen. The mean plasma concentrations of total amino acids and especially total essential amino acids were higher in the formula-fed infants. Those fed formula also had plasma concentrations of methionine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, leucine, valine, threonine, aspartate, proline, lysine, tyrosine, histidine that exceeded plasma concentrations of breast-fed infants by 2 or more standard deviations. Concentrations of arginine, glutamic acid, glutamine, ornithine, serine, cystine did not differ and taurine was higher in the breast-fed infants. The data indicate that formulas in common use today during weaning (4-6 months) provide excessive protein intakes when compared to the breast-fed control infants. A lowering of protein concentration and a further manipulation of the whey:casein ratio is necessary if plasma amino acid patterns similar to those found in breast-fed infants is to be achieved with artificial feeding.

  6. Whole-body vibration can reduce calciuria induced by high protein intakes and may counteract bone resorption: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, M; Leiper, J; Farajian, P; Heer, M

    2007-01-01

    Excess protein intake can adversely affect the bone via an increase in calcium excretion, while suitable mechanical loading promotes osteogenesis. We therefore investigated whether vibration exposure could alleviate the bone mineral losses associated with a metabolic acidosis. Ten healthy individuals aged 22 - 29 years (median = 25) underwent three 5-day study periods while monitoring their dietary intake. The study consisted of recording the participants' usual dietary intake for 5 consecutive days. Participants were then randomly divided into two groups, one of which received a protein supplement (2 g x kg(-1) body mass x day(-1); n = 5) and the other whole-body low-magnitude (3.5 g), low-frequency (30 Hz) mechanical vibration (WBV) delivered through a specially designed vibrating plate for 10 min each day (n = 5). Finally, for the third treatment period, all participants consumed the protein supplement added to their normal diet and were exposed to WBV exercise for 10 min per day. Daily urine samples were collected throughout the experimental periods to determine the excretion of calcium, phosphate, titratable acid, urea, and C-telopeptide. As expected, when the participants underwent the high protein intake, there was an increase in urinary excretion rates of calcium (P < 0.001), phosphate (P < 0.003), urea (P < 0.001), titratable acid (P < 0.001), and C-telopeptide (P < 0.05) compared with baseline values. However, high protein intake coupled with vibration stimulation resulted in a significant reduction in urinary calcium (P = 0.006), phosphate excretion (P = 0.021), and C-telopeptide (P < 0.05) compared with protein intake alone, but did not affect titratable acid and urea output. The participants showed no effect of WBV exercise alone on urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate, urea, titratable acid, or C-telopeptide. The results indicate that vibration stimulation can moderate the increase in bone resorption and reduction in bone formation caused by a

  7. Raised FGF-21 and Triglycerides Accompany Increased Energy Intake Driven by Protein Leverage in Lean, Healthy Individuals: A Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gosby, Alison K.; Lau, Namson S.; Tam, Charmaine S.; Iglesias, Miguel A.; Morrison, Christopher D.; Caterson, Ian D.; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Conigrave, Arthur D.; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    A dominant appetite for protein drives increased energy intake in humans when the proportion of protein in the diet is reduced down to approximately 10% of total energy. Compensatory feeding for protein is apparent over a 1–2 d period but the mechanisms driving this regulation are not fully understood. Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) has been identified as a candidate protein signal as levels increase in the circulation when dietary protein is low. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to assess whether changes in percent dietary protein over a 4 d ad libitum experimental period in lean, healthy participants influenced energy intake, metabolic health, circulating FGF-21 and appetite regulating hormones including ghrelin, glucagon like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin. Twenty-two lean, healthy participants were fed ad libitum diets containing 10, 15 and 25% protein, over three, 4 d controlled, in-house experimental periods. Reduced dietary protein intake from 25% to 10% over a period of 4 d was associated with 14% increased energy intake (p = 0.02) as previously reported, and a 6-fold increase in fasting circulating plasma FGF-21 levels (p<0.0001), a 1.5-fold increase in serum triglycerides (p<0.0001), and a 0.9-fold decrease in serum total cholesterol (p = 0.02). Serum HDL cholesterol was reduced with a reduction in dietary protein from 15% to 10% (p = 0.01) over 4 d but not from 25% to 10% (p = 0.1) and the change from baseline was not different between diets. Plasma fasting insulin levels following the 4 d study period were significantly lower following the 25% ad libitum study period compared to the 15% protein period (p = 0.014) but not the 10% protein period (p = 0.2). Variability in interstitial glucose during each study period increased with a decrease in dietary protein from 25% to 15% and 10% (p = 0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively). Ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin were unchanged. Increases in energy intake, plasma FGF-21

  8. Sex-specific effects of protein and carbohydrate intake on reproduction but not lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kim; McClure, Colin; Priest, Nicholas K; Hunt, John

    2015-01-01

    Modest dietary restriction extends lifespan (LS) in a diverse range of taxa and typically has a larger effect in females than males. Traditionally, this has been attributed to a stronger trade-off between LS and reproduction in females than in males that is mediated by the intake of calories. Recent studies, however, suggest that it is the intake of specific nutrients that extends LS and mediates this trade-off. Here, we used the geometric framework (GF) to examine the sex-specific effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on LS and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that LS was maximized at a high intake of C and a low intake of P in both sexes, whereas nutrient intake had divergent effects on reproduction. Male offspring production rate and LS were maximized at the same intake of nutrients, whereas female egg production rate was maximized at a high intake of diets with a P:C ratio of 1:2. This resulted in larger differences in nutrient-dependent optima for LS and reproduction in females than in males, as well as an optimal intake of nutrients for lifetime reproduction that differed between the sexes. Under dietary choice, the sexes followed similar feeding trajectories regulated around a P:C ratio of 1:4. Consequently, neither sex reached their nutritional optimum for lifetime reproduction, suggesting intralocus sexual conflict over nutrient optimization. Our study shows clear sex differences in the nutritional requirements of reproduction in D. melanogaster and joins the growing list of studies challenging the role of caloric restriction in extending LS. PMID:25808180

  9. Sex-specific effects of protein and carbohydrate intake on reproduction but not lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kim; McClure, Colin; Priest, Nicholas K; Hunt, John

    2015-08-01

    Modest dietary restriction extends lifespan (LS) in a diverse range of taxa and typically has a larger effect in females than males. Traditionally, this has been attributed to a stronger trade-off between LS and reproduction in females than in males that is mediated by the intake of calories. Recent studies, however, suggest that it is the intake of specific nutrients that extends LS and mediates this trade-off. Here, we used the geometric framework (GF) to examine the sex-specific effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on LS and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that LS was maximized at a high intake of C and a low intake of P in both sexes, whereas nutrient intake had divergent effects on reproduction. Male offspring production rate and LS were maximized at the same intake of nutrients, whereas female egg production rate was maximized at a high intake of diets with a P:C ratio of 1:2. This resulted in larger differences in nutrient-dependent optima for LS and reproduction in females than in males, as well as an optimal intake of nutrients for lifetime reproduction that differed between the sexes. Under dietary choice, the sexes followed similar feeding trajectories regulated around a P:C ratio of 1:4. Consequently, neither sex reached their nutritional optimum for lifetime reproduction, suggesting intralocus sexual conflict over nutrient optimization. Our study shows clear sex differences in the nutritional requirements of reproduction in D. melanogaster and joins the growing list of studies challenging the role of caloric restriction in extending LS.

  10. Effect of degradable intake protein level on finishing cattle performance and ruminal metabolism.

    PubMed

    Shain, D H; Stock, R A; Klopfenstein, T J; Herold, D W

    1998-01-01

    Two finishing trials and a metabolism trial were conducted to evaluate level of supplemental degradable intake (crude) protein (DIP) in finishing diets on cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal metabolism. Finishing trials were conducted in two consecutive years using 128 crossbred yearling steers (BW = 343+/-5 kg, Trial 1) and 176 crossbred yearling steers (BW = 375+/-4 kg, Trial 2) in a randomized complete block design. Steers were fed dry-rolled corn diets containing urea at 0, .88, 1.34, or 1.96% (DM basis). No differences in DMI, daily gain, or feed efficiency were noted among steers receiving diets containing supplemental urea. However, steers fed diets supplemented with urea were 5.4% more efficient (P < .01) and gained 6.6% faster (P < .01) than steers receiving no supplemental urea. Metabolizable protein (MP) content of all diets exceeded the steers' requirements. However, diets containing no urea were deficient in DIP. In the metabolism trial, four ruminally fistulated steers (BW = 380+/-22 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design and fed (ad libitum) diets similar to those used in the finishing trials. Nitrogen intake and ruminal ammonia N concentration increased linearly (P < .05) with increasing level of urea supplementation. Diets containing no supplemental urea were calculated to be deficient in DIP, resulting in reduced bacterial synthesis. Results indicate that dry-rolled corn finishing diets containing no supplemental N are deficient in ruminally degradable N. Supplementing these diets with an inexpensive source of ruminally degradable N improved animal performance. However, supplementation with urea above .88% was not beneficial. PMID:9464905

  11. Mitochondrial complex I protein differs among residual feed intake phenotype in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M H; Kerley, M S

    2013-07-01

    Four experiments were performed to determine if residual feed intake (RFI) was related to mitochondrial complex I (CI) protein. For Exp. 1, crossbred Angus steers (initial BW 270 ± 2.0 kg) were fed for a total of 170 d (n = 72). For Exp. 2, crossbred Braunvieh steers (initial BW 280 ± 3.0 kg) were fed for a total of 150 d (n = 50). For Exp. 3, crossbred Braunvieh heifers (initial BW 260 ± 3.0 kg) were fed for a total of 160 d (n = 40). For Exp. 4, crossbred Angus steers (initial BW 290 ± 3.0 kg) were fed for a total of 160 d (n = 40). All cattle in all experiments were fed the same diet. The variable RFI was calculated as the difference between predicted and actual DMI. Predicted DMI was calculated from regressing intake on ADG and metabolic body weight. Blood was collected, lymphocytes were isolated, and antibody used to capture CI. For Exp. 1, 2, and 3, CI quantity was measured using an ELISA commercial kit (Mitosciences, OR). For Exp. 4, CI subunits were separated by gel electrophoresis and bands were analyzed for differences in concentration (absorbance) among RFI phenotypes. For all 4 experiments, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between RFI and DMI but no difference (P > 0.05) was reported for ADG and metabolic midweight. For Exp. 1, 2, and 3, CI concentration in mitochondria was greater (P < 0.05) for low RFI compared with other treatments. For Exp. 4, animals with low RFI had a trend (P = 0.07) for greater concentration of Band I (protein S1) than high RFI. Correlation between RFI and Band I was -0.72 (P = 0.04). We concluded that mitochondrial function was at least in part responsible for differences among animals in metabolic efficiency.

  12. Effects of varying protein and energy intakes on growth and metabolic response in low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, S; Forsyth, M; Zucker, C; Ramakrishnan, R; Dell, R B; Heird, W C

    1986-06-01

    Growth (weight, length, head circumference, and skinfold thickness), retention of major nutrients (nitrogen, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, and phosphorus), and chemical indices of protein adequacy (plasma albumin and transthyretin concentrations) and excess (blood urea nitrogen concentration and acid-base status; plasma amino acid concentrations) were determined serially from the time desired intake was tolerated until discharge weight (2200 gm) was reached in low birth weight infants (birth weight 900 to 1750 gm) fed one of three formulas, which provided protein and energy intakes, respectively, of 2.24 gm/kg/day and 115 kcal/kg/day (group 1), 3.6 gm/kg/day and 115 kcal/kg/day (group 2), and 3.5 gm/kg/day and 149 kcal/kg/day (group 3). Weight gain and rate of increase in length and head circumference were less in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3. Retention of most major nutrients also was less in group 1, as was blood urea nitrogen concentration, plasma albumin and transthyretin concentrations, and plasma concentrations of several amino acids. The rate of weight gain was not significantly greater in group 3 than in group 2, but the rate of increase in skinfold thickness was greater in this group. Neither nutrient retention nor metabolic indices differed between groups 2 and 3. These results suggest that a protein intake of 2.24 gm/kg/day is inadequate for the type of LBW infants studied, that the higher protein intakes are well tolerated, and that an energy intake of 149 vs 115 kcal/kg/day does not enhance utilization of the higher protein intakes studied.

  13. Blunted hypothalamic ghrelin signaling reduces diet intake in rats fed a low-protein diet in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haijun; Sisley, Stephanie; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2015-12-01

    Diet intake in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet was significantly reduced during late pregnancy despite elevated plasma levels of ghrelin. In this study, we hypothesized that ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus is blunted under a low-protein diet condition and therefore, it does not stimulate diet intake during late pregnancy. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal (CT) or LP diet from Day 1 of pregnancy. On Day 21, 0.5 μg ghrelin was given into the third ventricle (ICV). Diet and water intake at 30, 60, and 120 min after ICV injection was measured. Hypothalami were dissected and analyzed for expression of genes related to appetite regulation (Npy, Agrp, Pomc and Cart) and phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC proteins (downstream proteins of ghrelin receptor activation). Results include: In response to ICV injection of ghrelin, (1) diet intake was significantly lower in LP compared to CT rats; (2) water intake was not affected in LP rats; (3) expression of Npy and Agrp, but not Pomc and Cart, were higher in the hypothalamus of LP compared to CT rats; (4) the abundance of phosphorylated AMPK and the ratio of phosphorylated to total AMPK, but not the abundance of total AMPK, were lower in LP compared to CT rats; (5) the abundance of phosphorylated ACC, but not total ACC, was lower in LP rats. These findings suggest that blunted ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus of pregnant rats fed a LP diet leads to reduced diet intake and exacerbates gestational protein insufficiency.

  14. Obesity-prone high-fat-fed rats reduce caloric intake and adiposity and gain more fat-free mass when allowed to self-select protein from carbohydrate:fat intake.

    PubMed

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chalvon-Demersay, Tristan; Pimentel, Grégory; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire; Even, Patrick C

    2016-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, for rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), a prioritization of maintaining protein intake may increase energy consumption and hence result in obesity, particularly for individuals prone to obesity ("fat sensitive," FS, vs. "fat resistant," FR). Male Wistar rats (n = 80) first received 3 wk of HFD (protein 15%, fat 42%, carbohydrate 42%), under which they were characterized as being FS (n = 18) or FR (n = 20) based on body weight gain. They then continued on the same HFD but in which protein (100%) was available separately from the carbohydrate:fat (50:50%) mixture. Under this second regimen, all rats maintained their previous protein intake, whereas intake of fat and carbohydrate was reduced by 50%. This increased protein intake to 26% and decreased fat intake to 37%. Adiposity gain was prevented in both FR and FS rats, and gain in fat-free mass was increased only in FS rats. At the end of the study, the rats were killed 2 h after ingestion of a protein meal, and their tissues and organs were collected for analysis of body composition and measurement of mRNA levels in the liver, adipose tissue, arcuate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens. FS rats had a higher expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in lipogenesis in the liver and white adipose tissue. These results show that FS rats strongly reduced food intake and adiposity gain through macronutrient selection, despite maintenance of a relatively high-fat intake and overexpression of genes favoring lipogenesis.

  15. Effects of aging and dietary protein intake on uninephrectomized geriatric dogs.

    PubMed

    Finco, D R; Brown, S A; Crowell, W A; Brown, C A; Barsanti, J A; Carey, D P; Hirakawa, D A

    1994-09-01

    Thirty-one clinically normal Cocker Spaniels, Miniature Schnauzers, and Doberman Pinschers (28 female, 3 male) 7 to 8 years old were uninephrectomized (month -2) to increase the risk of renal damage associated with reduction of renal mass. Two diets, differing principally in protein concentration, were used to test the hypothesis that high dietary protein intake causes renal damage in aging dogs. For 2 months after uninephrectomy, all dogs were fed diet A (18% protein). After glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured (month 0), 16 dogs were assigned to group A and were fed diet A for an additional 48 months. The other 15 dogs were assigned to group B, and were fed diet B (34% protein) for the subsequent 48 months. At 6-month intervals, GFR and urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UP/C) were determined. At 48 months, terminal studies were done, survivors were euthanatized, and tissues were examined. Of 16 dogs in group A, 10 survived, compared with 13 of 15 in group B. Among survivors, a significant difference in GFR was not found between groups A and B, and decrease in GFR was not evident with time in either group. At 48 months, oral administration of casein caused minor acute effects on GFR and renal plasma flow in dogs of groups A and B. The UP/C values increased significantly (P = 0.001) from baseline values, but the increase was not progressive. The UP/C values were not affected by diet. Some dogs in both groups developed UP/C > 1.0.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Comparison of Postexercise Nutrition Knowledge and Postexercise Carbohydrate and Protein Intake Between Australian Masters and Younger Triathletes.

    PubMed

    Doering, Thomas M; Reaburn, Peter R; Cox, Gregory; Jenkins, David G

    2016-08-01

    Postexercise nutrition is a critical component of an athlete's recovery from training and competition. However, little is known about athletes' postexercise dietary practices or knowledge of dietary recommendations, particularly among masters athletes. The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast the knowledge of postexercise nutritional recommendations, and typical postexercise intakes of carbohydrate and protein, between masters and younger triathletes. 182 triathletes (Male = 101, Female = 81) completed an online survey distributed by Triathlon Australia. Knowledge of postexercise nutrition recommendations for protein and carbohydrate intake were assessed as a group, and contrasted between subgroups of masters (≥50 years) and younger triathletes (≤30 years). Using dietary recall, postexercise intakes of carbohydrate and protein were examined and contrasted between masters and younger triathletes. As a group, 43.1% and 43.9% of all triathletes answered, "I don't know" when asked to identify the recommended postexercise carbohydrate and protein intakes, respectively. Dietary analysis revealed masters triathletes consumed significantly less carbohydrate (0.7 ± 0.4 g.kg-1) postexercise than recommended (1.0 g.kg-1; p = .001), and in comparison with younger triathletes (1.1 ± 0.6 g.kg-1; p = .01). Postexercise protein intakes were similar between masters (19.6 ± 13.5 g) and younger (26.4 ± 15.8 g) triathletes. However, relative to body mass, masters triathletes consumed significantly less protein (0.3 ± 0.2 g.kg-1) than younger triathletes (0.4 ± 0.2 g.kg-1; p = .03), and consumed significantly less energy postexercise (22.7 ± 11.7 kJ.kg-1) than younger triathletes (37.8 ± 19.2 kJ.kg-1; p = .01). The present data suggests triathletes have poor knowledge of recommendations for postexercise carbohydrate and protein intakes. Furthermore, low postexercise intakes of carbohydrate and protein by masters athletes may impair acute recovery.

  17. Intraduodenal milk protein concentrate augments the glycemic and food intake suppressive effects of DPP-IV inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Olivos, Diana R.; McGrath, Lauren E.; Turner, Christopher A.; Montaubin, Orianne; Mietlicki-Baase, Elizabeth G.

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone released from intestinal L-cells in response to food entering into the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1-based pharmaceuticals improve blood glucose regulation and may hold promise for obesity treatment, as GLP-1 drugs reduce food intake and body weight in humans and animals. In an effort to improve GLP-1 pharmacotherapies, we focused our attention on macronutrients that, when present in the gastrointestinal tract, may enhance GLP-1 secretion and improve glycemic regulation and food intake suppression when combined with systemic administration of sitagliptin, a pharmacological inhibitor of DPP-IV (enzyme responsible for GLP-1 degradation). In particular, previous data suggest that specific macronutrient constituents found in dairy foods may act as potent secretagogues for GLP-1 and therefore may potentially serve as an adjunct dietary therapy in combination with sitagliptin. To directly test this hypothesis, rats received intraperitoneal injections of sitagliptin (6 mg/kg) or saline vehicle followed by intraduodenal infusions of either milk protein concentrate (MPC; 80/20% casein/whey; 4 kcal), soy protein (nondairy control infusate; 4 kcal), or 0.9% NaCl. Food intake was assessed 30 min postinfusion. In separate studies, regulation of blood glucose was examined via a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (2 g/kg) following identical sitagliptin treatment and intraduodenal nutrient infusions. Collectively, results show that intraduodenal MPC, but not soy protein, significantly enhances both the food intake suppression and improved control of blood glucose produced by sitagliptin. These data support the hypothesis that dietary intake of dairy protein may be beneficial as an adjunct behavioral therapy to enhance the glycemic and food intake suppressive effects of GLP-1-based pharmacotherapies. PMID:24352410

  18. Effects of chronic heat exposure and protein intake on growth performance, nitrogen retention and muscle development in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Temim, S; Chagneau, A M; Guillaumin, S; Michel, J; Peresson, R; Geraert, P A; Tesseraud, S

    1999-01-01

    The respective effects of ambient temperature, dietary crude protein and feed intake were investigated in finishing chickens and the consequence of protein supplementation under high temperature conditions was analysed in particular. Heat-related reduction in growth was associated with decreased nitrogen retention (-30 or -35% according to the diet), which could not be explained by the observed lower feed intake alone. Tissue samples performed in 5- to 6-week-old chicks showed varying effects of heat according to the muscles studied: at 32 degrees C, the proportion of Pectoralis major muscle (in percentage of body weight) appeared slightly reduced (reduction lower than 10%), whereas the proportion of two leg muscles were increased (+10 to +15% for the Sartorius muscle; +5% for the gastrocnemius muscle). At 32 degrees C, providing a high protein diet significantly (P < 0.05) increased weight gain and feed efficiency, and slightly improved whole body protein deposition.

  19. Diurnal rhythm of agouti-related protein and its relation to corticosterone and food intake.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin-Yun; Shieh, Kun-Ruey; Kabbaj, Mohamed; Barsh, Gregory S; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J

    2002-10-01

    In the present study we examined the diurnal patterns of agouti-related protein (AGRP) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression in the arcuate nucleus and their relation to circulating glucocorticoids and food intake. Animals were killed at 4-h intervals throughout the 24-h diurnal cycle, and the expression of AGRP and POMC mRNA was evaluated by semiquantitative in situ hybridization analysis. We observed a significant diurnal rhythm in AGRP mRNA expression, with a marked peak at 2200 h (4 h after lights off) and a trough at 1000 h (4 h after lights on), consistent with the overall day-night rhythm of food intake. In contrast, POMC mRNA levels did not show a significant fluctuation across the diurnal cycle, although there was a tendency for levels to decrease after the onset of the dark cycle. Corticosterone secretion temporally coincided with the rising phase of AGRP mRNA expression. Depletion of corticosterone by adrenalectomy abolished the AGRP diurnal rhythm by suppressing the nighttime expression, but did not alter the feeding rhythm. Exposure of adrenalectomized rats to constant corticosterone replacement (10 or 50 mg continuous release corticosterone pellet) resulted in fixed AGRP mRNA expression throughout the 12-h light, 12-h dark cycle. A relatively high level of corticosterone (50 mg) significantly increased AGRP mRNA expression, with a positive correlation between these two measures. These results indicate that 1) the diurnal expression of AGRP mRNA is regulated by corticosterone independently of the light/dark cue; and 2) a normal endogenous corticosterone rhythm is required for generating the diurnal AGRP rhythm.

  20. Nutritional Status and Daytime Pattern of Protein Intake on Match, Post-Match, Rest and Training Days in Senior Professional and Youth Elite Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Bettonviel A, E O; Brinkmans N, Y J; Russcher, Kris; Wardenaar, Floris C; Witard, Oliver C

    2016-06-01

    The nutritional status of elite soccer players across match, postmatch, training and rest days has not been defined. Recent evidence suggests the pattern of dietary protein intake impacts the daytime turnover of muscle proteins and, as such, influences muscle recovery. We assessed the nutritional status and daytime pattern of protein intake in senior professional and elite youth soccer players and compared findings against published recommendations. Fourteen senior professional (SP) and 15 youth elite (YP) soccer players from the Dutch premier division completed nutritional assessments using a 24-hr web-based recall method. Recall days consisted of a match, postmatch, rest, and training day. Daily energy intake over the 4-day period was similar between SP (2988 ± 583 kcal/day) and YP (2938 ± 465 kcal/day; p = .800). Carbohydrate intake over the combined 4-day period was lower in SP (4.7 ± 0.7 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) vs. YP (6.0 ± 1.5 g·kg-1 BM·day-1, p = .006) and SP failed to meet recommended carbohydrate intakes on match and training days. Conversely, recommended protein intakes were met for SP (1.9 ± 0.3 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) and YP (1.7 ± 0.4 g·kg-1 BM·day-1), with no differences between groups (p = .286). Accordingly, both groups met or exceeded recommended daily protein intakes on individual match, postmatch, rest and training days. A similar "balanced" daytime pattern of protein intake was observed in SP and YP. To conclude, SP increased protein intake on match and training days to a greater extent than YP, however at the expense of carbohydrate intake. The daytime distribution of protein intake for YP and SP aligned with current recommendations of a balanced protein meal pattern.

  1. Genetic parameters for dry matter, energy and protein intake, and their relationships with performance and carcass traits in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M A; Hosono, M; Suzuki, K

    2009-02-01

    Genetic parameters for feed intake and performance traits of 514 bulls and carcass traits of 22 099 of their progeny, and the relationships of measures of feed intake with performance and carcass traits were estimated. Feed intake traits were dry matter intake (DMI), concentrate intake (CONI), roughage intake, ratio of roughage intake to DMI, metabolizable energy intake (MEI) and digestible crude protein intake (DCPI). Performance traits included daily gain, metabolic weight, live weight at the end of test, dry matter conversion ratio and residual feed intake. Progeny carcass traits were carcass weight, percentage of meat yield, rib eye area (REA), subcutaneous fat, marbling score, meat colour (MCS), fat colour (FCS) and meat quality grade. All the feed intake and performance traits were moderately heritable. The heritabilities for REA and MCS were moderate, and that for FCS was low, while those for the other carcass traits were high. Selection against DMI, CONI and DCPI would reduce excessive intake of feed, but would have undesirable effects on growth and most of the carcass traits. Selection against MEI would lead to improvements in feed efficiency and growth traits. Selection against DCPI would also improve feed efficiency; however, responses in growth traits would decrease. Results indicate that selection against MEI might be better than any other measures of feed intake to improve feed efficiency with simultaneous improvement in growth and most of the carcass traits.

  2. Lower vegetable protein intake and higher dietary acid load associated with lower carbohydrate intake are risk factors for metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes: Post-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Iwase, Hiroya; Tanaka, Muhei; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Wada, Sayori; Kuwahata, Masashi; Kido, Yasuhiro; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Asano, Mai; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction A low-carbohydrate diet based on animal sources is associated with higher all-cause mortality, whereas a vegetable-based low-carbohydrate diet is associated with lower cardiovascular disease mortality. It has been suggested that acid/base imbalance might play an important role in some cardiometabolic abnormalities. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether carbohydrate intake is associated with quality of dietary protein and acid load, and whether these are related to metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional study involved 149 patients with type 2 diabetes. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary acid load was assessed by potential renal acid load and net endogenous acid production. Results Mean daily total energy intake, carbohydrate intake, animal protein intake and vegetable protein intake were 1821.5 kcal, 248.8 g, 36.1 g and 31.1 g, respectively. Carbohydrate energy/total energy was negatively correlated with animal protein energy/total energy, potential renal acid load or net endogenous acid production score, and was positively correlated with vegetable protein energy/total energy. Logistic regression analyses showed that the subgroup of patients with a lower vegetable protein energy/total energy or higher potential renal acid load or net endogenous acid production score was significantly associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The present study showed that carbohydrate intake was associated with the quality of dietary protein and dietary acid load. Furthermore, decreased vegetable protein intake and increased dietary acid load were associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26221526

  3. Formulas providing adequate pantothenic acid, vitamin D, manganese, iron and vitamin A for infants fed with mother's milk (aged 6-11 months) according to the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes prepared by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (2005 edition).

    PubMed

    Tsutie, Setsuko; Kurihara, Nobutaka; Sasaki, Aki; Takagi, Arisa; Seguti, Harumiti; Inatome, Tetsuya

    2010-04-01

    Weaning formulas served in hospitals and care facilities in Japan should conform to dietary reference intakes (DRIs). We examined whether the DRI for breastfed infants aged 6-11 months can be satisfied in dietary practice, with a particular focus on the fulfilment rates for vitamins, minerals, trace elements and electrolytes in weaning formulas containing energy and protein at levels either greater than or equal to the DRIs, as well as on the dietary profiles of weaning formulas to achieve the DRI for every nutrient. The results showed that no weaning formulas examined in this study fulfilled the DRI for pantothenic acid (5 mg), vitamin D (4 microg), manganese (1.2 mg) or iron (5.5 mg). Furthermore, their vitamin A content exceeded the DRI (350 microg RE). The discrepancy between the guidelines and actual dietary practice is probably because of the fact that the estimated reference values poorly reflect the actual dietary intake in the target population; for example, the pantothenic acid and manganese DRIs for breastfed infants aged 6-11 months were set based on the breast milk intake of younger infants (0-5 months) in combination with the breast milk contents. Our results suggest that dietary guidance for infants should include information to promote proper intakes of vitamins A and D, and iron by reducing the amount of vitamin A-rich foods and utilizing dietary vitamin D and iron supplements including government-approved specified health foods.

  4. Associations between dairy protein intake and body weight and risk markers of diabetes and CVD during weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, Line Q; Lorenzen, Janne K; Larsen, Thomas M; van Baak, Marleen; Papadaki, Angeliki; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Jebb, Susan A; Kunešová, Marie; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2014-03-14

    Dairy products have previously been reported to be associated with beneficial effects on body weight and metabolic risk markers. Moreover, primary data from the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study indicate a weight-maintaining effect of a high-protein-low-glycaemic index diet. The objective of the present study was to examine putative associations between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers after weight loss in obese and overweight adults. Results were based on secondary analyses of data obtained from overweight and obese adults who completed the DiOGenes study. The study consisted of an 8-week weight-loss phase and a 6-month weight-maintenance (WM) phase, where the subjects were given five different diets varying in protein content and glycaemic index. In the present study, data obtained from all the subjects were pooled. Dairy protein intake was estimated from 3 d dietary records at two time points (week 4 and week 26) during the WM phase. Body weight and metabolic risk markers were determined at baseline (week -9 to -11) and before and at the end of the WM phase (week 0 and week 26). Overall, no significant associations were found between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers. However, dairy protein intake tended to be negatively associated with body weight gain (P=0·08; β=-0·17), but this was not persistent when controlled for total protein intake, which indicates that dairy protein adds no additional effect to the effect of total protein. Therefore, the present study does not report that dairy proteins are more favourable than other proteins for body weight regulation.

  5. The acute effects of four protein meals on insulin, glucose, appetite and energy intake in lean men.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Ellis, Vanessa

    2010-10-01

    Different dietary proteins vary in their ability to influence satiety and reduce food intake. The present study compared the effects of four protein meals, whey, tuna, turkey and egg albumin, on postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations as well as on appetite measures and energy intake in twenty-two lean, healthy men. This was a randomised, cross-over design study where participants consumed four liquid test meals on separate occasions followed by the collection of regular blood samples (fasting, +30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min). They were then offered a buffet meal 4 h later. The blood glucose response after the consumption of the test meal, as an incremental area under the curve (AUC), was significantly lower with the whey meal than with the turkey (P < 0.023) and egg (P < 0.001) meals, but it was not lower than with the tuna meal (P < 0.34). The AUC blood insulin after the consumption of the test meal was significantly higher with the whey meal than with the tuna, turkey and egg meals (all P < 0.001). The AUC rating of hunger was significantly lower with the whey meal than with the tuna (P < 0.033), turkey (P < 0.001) and egg (P < 0.001) meals. Mean energy intake at the ad libitum meal was significantly lower (P < 0.001) with the whey meal than with the tuna, egg and turkey meals. There was a strong relationship between self-rated appetite, postprandial insulin response and energy intake at lunch. Whey protein meal produced a greater insulin response, reduced appetite and decreased ad libitum energy intake at a subsequent meal compared with the other protein meals, indicating a potential for appetite suppression and weight loss in overweight or obese individuals.

  6. Protein/energy ratios of current diets in developed and developing countries compared with a safe protein/energy ratio: implications for recommended protein and amino acid intakes.

    PubMed

    Millward, D Joe; Jackson, Alan A

    2004-05-01

    Revised estimates of protein and amino acid requirements are under discussion by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organizaion (WHO), and have been proposed in a recent report on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) from the USA. The nature and magnitude of these requirements are not entirely resolved, and no consideration has been given to the potential influence of metabolic adaptation on dietary requirements. We have examined the implications of these new values, and of the conceptual metabolic framework in which they are used, for defining the nutritional adequacy of protein intakes in developed and developing countries. We have expressed proposed values for protein requirements in relation to energy requirements, predicted for physical activity levels of 1.5, 1.75 and 2.0 times basal metabolic rate, in order to generate reference ratios for protein energy/total energy (reference P/E ratio) as a function of age, body weight, gender and physical activity level. Proposed values for amino acid requirements have been used to adjust the available digestible P/E ratio of foods and diets for protein quality. Focusing on the diets of UK omnivores and vegetarians and on diets in India, the risk of protein deficiency is evaluated from a comparison of P/E ratios of metabolic requirements with protein-quality-adjusted P/E ratios of intakes. A qualitative and conservative estimate of risk of deficiency is made by comparing the adjusted P/E ratio of the intake with a reference P/E ratio calculated for age, body weight, gender and physical activity according to FAO/WHO/United Nations University. A semi-quantitative estimate of risk of deficiency has also been made by the cut point approach, calculated as the proportion of the intake distribution below the mean P/E ratio of the requirement. Values for the quality-adjusted P/E ratio of the diet range from 0.126 for the UK omnivore diet to 0.054 for a rice-based diet of adults in West Bengal, which is lysine

  7. Balancing of lipid, protein, and carbohydrate intake in a predatory beetle following hibernation, and consequences for lipid restoration.

    PubMed

    Noreika, Norbertas; Madsen, Natalia E L; Jensen, Kim; Toft, Søren

    2016-05-01

    Carnivorous animals are known to balance their consumption of lipid and protein, and recent studies indicate that some mammalian carnivores also regulate their intake of carbohydrate. We investigated macronutrient balancing and lipid restoration following hibernation in the ground beetle Anchomenus dorsalis, hypothesizing that carbohydrates might be important energy sources upon hibernation when predator lipid stores are exhausted and prey are equally lean. We recorded the consumption of lipid, protein, and carbohydrate over nine days following hibernation, as the beetles foraged to refill their lipid stores. Each beetle was given the opportunity to regulate consumption from two semi-artificial foods differing in the proportion of two of the three macronutrients, while the third macronutrient was kept constant. When analyzing consumption of the three macronutrients on an energetic basis, it became apparent that the beetles regulated lipid and carbohydrate energy interchangeably and balanced the combined energy intake from the two macronutrients against protein intake. Restoration of lipid stores was independent of the availability of any specific macronutrient. However, the energetic consumption required to refill lipid stores was higher when a low proportion of lipids was ingested, suggesting that lipids were readily converted into lipid stores while there were energetic costs associated with converting carbohydrate and protein into stored lipids. Our experiment demonstrates that carbohydrates are consumed and regulated as a non-protein energy source by A. dorsalis despite an expectedly low occurrence of carbohydrates in their natural diet. Perhaps carbohydrates are in fact an overlooked supplementary energy source in the diet of carnivorous arthropods.

  8. Balancing of lipid, protein, and carbohydrate intake in a predatory beetle following hibernation, and consequences for lipid restoration.

    PubMed

    Noreika, Norbertas; Madsen, Natalia E L; Jensen, Kim; Toft, Søren

    2016-05-01

    Carnivorous animals are known to balance their consumption of lipid and protein, and recent studies indicate that some mammalian carnivores also regulate their intake of carbohydrate. We investigated macronutrient balancing and lipid restoration following hibernation in the ground beetle Anchomenus dorsalis, hypothesizing that carbohydrates might be important energy sources upon hibernation when predator lipid stores are exhausted and prey are equally lean. We recorded the consumption of lipid, protein, and carbohydrate over nine days following hibernation, as the beetles foraged to refill their lipid stores. Each beetle was given the opportunity to regulate consumption from two semi-artificial foods differing in the proportion of two of the three macronutrients, while the third macronutrient was kept constant. When analyzing consumption of the three macronutrients on an energetic basis, it became apparent that the beetles regulated lipid and carbohydrate energy interchangeably and balanced the combined energy intake from the two macronutrients against protein intake. Restoration of lipid stores was independent of the availability of any specific macronutrient. However, the energetic consumption required to refill lipid stores was higher when a low proportion of lipids was ingested, suggesting that lipids were readily converted into lipid stores while there were energetic costs associated with converting carbohydrate and protein into stored lipids. Our experiment demonstrates that carbohydrates are consumed and regulated as a non-protein energy source by A. dorsalis despite an expectedly low occurrence of carbohydrates in their natural diet. Perhaps carbohydrates are in fact an overlooked supplementary energy source in the diet of carnivorous arthropods. PMID:26868725

  9. Influence of protein intake from haem and non-haem animals and plant origin on inflammatory biomarkers among apparently-healthy adults in Greece.

    PubMed

    Vallianou, Natalia G; Bountziouka, Vassiliki P; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi; Evangelopoulos, Angelos A; Bonou, Maria S; Vogiatzakis, Evangelos D; Barbetseas, John D; Avgerinos, Peter C; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2013-12-01

    Intake of different types of protein may be associated with differences in biomarkers among various populations. This work investigated the influence of protein intake from haem and non-haem animals as well as protein from plants on haematological and biochemical parameters in inflammation among apparently-healthy adults living in Greece, a Mediterranean country. Four hundred and ninety apparently-healthy subjects (46 +/- 16 years, 40% men), who consecutively visited Polykliniki General Hospital for routine examinations, voluntarily agreed to participate in the study (participation rate 85%). Demographic, anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics were recorded. Participants completed a valid, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Protein intake was classified into three sources: protein from haem animals, protein from non-haem animals, and protein from plant origin. Fasting blood samples were taken from all participants; uric acid, creatinine, lipids, cystatin C, haptoglobin, haemoglobin, haematocrit, iron, ferritin, white blood cells, monocytes, platelets, and C-reactive protein were measured. Protein intake from only haem animals was associated with increased haemoglobin and haematocrit levels (p < 0.05) whereas intake of protein from non-haem animals and plant origin was not associated with the investigated haematological and biochemical markers of low-grade chronic inflammation when lifestyle factors and overall dietary habits were taken into account. Intake of protein from only haem animals seems to be consistently associated with haematological markers. The confounding role of dietary habits and lifestyle variables on the tested parameters deserves further attention in future research.

  10. Association of habitual high-fat intake and desire for protein and sweet food.

    PubMed

    Tatano, Hiroshi; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Zhou, Bei; Adachi, Chisaki; Kawakami, Yuka; Katayama, Takafumi; Masuda, Masashi; Takeda, Eiji; Taketani, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Reducing dietary calorie density (CD) is useful in body weight management. This study investigates the association between dietary habits and preferences for different CDs. We conducted a randomized crossover study of 232 healthy subjects who consumed packed lunch boxes containing a control, high-meat and low-rice, low-vegetable, medium-fat and low-vegetable, high-fat, and high-fat and low-vegetable meals over six sessions. The subjective levels of sensory properties were assessed over time using a visual analog scale and the area under the curve. Subjects were assessed for dietary habits using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) and were divided into two groups based on a daily fat energy ratio ≥ 25% (high fat [HF], n=116) and < 25% (normal, n=116) that was matched for age, body mass index, and sex ratio. Our findings indicate that the desire for sweetness was higher in the HF group than in the normal group, regardless of the meals consumed. Particularly, among the 500-kcal low-CD meals, a high-protein meal provided greater fullness and satisfaction and lower prospective consumption in the HF group than in the normal group. Therefore, our study demonstrates that postprandial appetite sensation is associated with dietary habits of fat intake. J. Med. Invest. 63: 241-247, August, 2016. PMID:27644566

  11. Trends in dietary energy, fat, carbohydrate and protein intake in Chinese children and adolescents from 1991 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhaohui; Dibley, Michael J

    2012-10-01

    Few studies have examined nutrition transition in children in China. Our aim, in the present study, was to examine temporal trends in dietary energy, fat, carbohydrate and protein intake in Chinese children aged 7-17 years. The analysis used individual level, consecutive 3 d dietary recall data from seven rounds of the China Health and Nutrition Surveys in 1991 (n 2714), 1993 (n 2542), 1997 (n 2516), 2000 (n 2142), 2004 (n 1341), 2006 (n 1072) and 2009 (n 996). Mixed-effect models were constructed to obtain adjusted means and to examine trends after adjusting for intra-class correlation within clusters and for covariates including age, sex, urban/rural residence and income. From 1991 to 2009, daily energy intake steadily declined from 9511·0 to 7658·2 kJ (P<0·0001). There was a steady decline in daily carbohydrate intake from 382·5 to 254·1 g (P<0·0001), and in the proportion of energy from carbohydrate from 66·7 to 56·8 % (P<0·0001). In contrast, daily fat intake steadily increased from 54·8 to 66·0 g (P<0·0001), as did the proportion of energy from fat from 21·5 to 30·0 % (P<0·0001). The proportion of children who consumed a diet with more than 30 % of energy from fat increased from 20·1 to 49·4 % (P<0·0001). The proportion of energy from protein increased from 11·8 to 13·1 % (P<0·0001), although daily protein intake dropped from 66·2 to 58·0 g (P<0·0001). Our data suggest that Chinese children have been undergoing a rapid nutrition transition to a high-fat diet.

  12. The effects of varying protein and energy intakes on the growth and body composition of very low birth weight infants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of high dietary protein and energy intake on the growth and body composition of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Study design Thirty-eight VLBW infants whose weights were appropriate for their gestational ages were assessed for when they could tolerate oral intake for all their nutritional needs. Thirty-two infants were included in a longitudinal, randomized clinical trial over an approximate 28-day period. One control diet (standard preterm formula, group A, n = 8, 3.7 g/kg/d of protein and 129 kcal/kg/d) and two high-energy and high-protein diets (group B, n = 12, 4.2 g/kg/d and 150 kcal/kg/d; group C, n = 12, 4.7 g/kg/d and 150 kcal/kg/d) were compared. Differences among groups in anthropometry and body composition (measured with bioelectrical impedance analysis) were determined. An enriched breast milk group (n = 6) served as a descriptive reference group. Results Groups B and C displayed greater weight gains and higher increases in fat-free mass than group A. Conclusion An intake of 150 kcal/kg/d of energy and 4.2 g/kg/d of protein increases fat-free mass accretion in VLBW infants. PMID:22206271

  13. Association of total protein intake with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone loss in men and women from the Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Shivani; Broe, Kerry E.; Tucker, Katherine L.; McLean, Robert R.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Hannan, Marian T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of % of total energy from protein (protein%) with bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2) and bone loss at the femoral neck (FN), trochanter (TR); L2–L4 spine (LS). To examine calcium as an effect modifier. Setting The Framingham Offspring Study. Subjects 1,280 men and 1,639 women completed an FFQ in 1992–95 or 1995–98 and baseline DXA-BMD measurement in 1996–2000. 495 men and 680 women had follow-up BMD measured in 2002–2005. Design Cohort study using multivariable regression to examine the association of protein% with each BMD, adjusting for covariates. Statistical interaction between protein% and calcium (total, dietary; supplemental) intake was examined. Results The mean age at baseline was 61y(±9). In the cross-sectional analyses, protein% was positively associated with all BMD sites (P:0.02–0.04) in women but not in men. Significant interactions were observed with total calcium intake (<800 vs. ≥800 mg/d) in women at all bone sites (P:0.002–0.02). Upon stratification, protein% was positively associated with all BMD sites (P:0.04–0.10) in women with low calcium intakes but not with high calcium intakes. In the longitudinal analyses, in men, higher protein% was associated with more TR-bone loss (P=0.01) while no associations were seen in women, regardless of calcium intake. Conclusion This suggests that greater protein intake benefits women especially those with lower calcium intakes. However, protein effects are not significant for short term changes in bone density. Contrastingly, in men, higher protein intakes lead to greater TR-bone loss. Longer follow-up is required to examine the impact of protein on bone loss. PMID:24168918

  14. Insufficient amounts and inadequate distribution of dietary protein intake in apparently healthy older adults in a developing country: implications for dietary strategies to prevent sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Roxana E Ruiz; Ponce, José A; Morales-Figueroa, Gloria Guadalupe; Muro, Karina Aguilar; Carreón, Virginia Ramírez; Alemán-Mateo, Heliodoro

    2013-01-01

    Background Both low dietary protein intake and inadequate distribution of protein over the three mealtimes have been reported in older Caucasian adults, but the association between protein intake at each meal and muscle mass has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dietary protein intake and distribution by mealtimes, and to explore their association with appendicular skeletal muscle mass in apparently healthy older adults. Methods This was a cross-sectional pilot study that included 78 people over the age of 60 years. Caloric and protein intake were estimated on the basis of three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls and appendicular skeletal muscle mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Men consumed 13.4 g of protein/day more than women (P < 0.05). The estimated value of dietary protein intake was 0.9 g/kg/day. In this sample, 28% of subjects did not cover 100% of the dietary reference intake for protein. Lower consumption of dietary protein was found at breakfast and dinnertime compared with the recommended amount of 25–30 g (P < 0.05). Also, the study observed that appendicular skeletal muscle mass in men and women who consumed <25 g of protein at each mealtime was different from that found in the group that consumed >25 g of protein at one, two, or three mealtimes. Conclusion While protein intake was higher than current recommendations, it failed to achieve the values reported as necessary to prevent sarcopenia. In addition, there was under-consumption of protein per mealtime, especially at breakfast and dinner. PMID:24039411

  15. Effect of exercise and protein intake during pregnancy on maternal and fetal zinc content in the Sprague-Dawley rat

    SciTech Connect

    Asente, R.A.; Cameron, S.R.; Taper, L.J.

    1986-03-05

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (179) were divided into four groups: sedentary-standard protein diet, sedentary-high protein diet, exercising-standard protein diet and exercising-high protein diet. The standard protein diet contained 24.77% protein; all other nutrients were supplied in amounts required for normal parturition. After aclimitization, the exercising dams, regardless of diet, were forced to swim continuously for one and one-half hours/day until sacrifice. The four major groups were further subdivided into 28 groups, designated by three-day intervals according to gestational day - days 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21. Uterine tissues were analyzed for zinc; fetal and placental tissues were separated from uterine tissue for days 15 through 21 only. Uterine zinc was affected solely by gestation; absolute placental zinc values were lowest in the sedentary-high and exercising-low protein groups, while the exercising-high protein group possessed the greatest. No significant difference was detected in fetal zinc concentrations. Fetal tissues from exercising dams weighed significantly less than fetal tissue from the sedentary dams; and sedentary-high protein dams produced significantly more fetuses than the exercising-high protein dams. Both protein intake and exercise significantly affect normal parturition and zinc metabolism in the rat.

  16. Consumption of low-fat dairy products and energy and protein intake in cancer patients at risk of malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Pintor-de la Maza, Begoña; Calleja-Fernández, Alicia; Villar-Taibo, Rocío; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D

    2015-01-01

    Current nutritional guidelines encourage the reduction of fat intake from animal sources like dairy products. The aim was to determine whether the consumption of low-fat dairy is related to poorer dietary intake and nutritional status in cancer patients at risk of malnutrition. This cross-sectional included patients with solid or hematological malignancies at risk of malnutrition. Nutritional status was studied using Subjective Global Assessment, anthropometry, and grip strength. Dietary intake was evaluated with a 24-h recall and dairy consumption with a structured questionnaire. Seventy-four patients were recruited; 71.6% males of 64.8 yr, most with gastrointestinal malignancies. Only 37.8% consumed whole milk, and 61.4% consumed whole yogurt. Reasons for consumption of low-fat dairies were healthy diet (58.0%), hypercholesterolemia (20.0%), and digestive intolerance (10.0%). There were similar rates of malnutrition according the type of dairy (whole 60.9% vs. low-fat 66.7%, P = 0.640). Low-fat dairies were related to a reduction in energy (whole 1980.1 kcal vs. low-fat 1480.9, P = 0.007) and protein intake (whole 86.0 g vs. low-fat 63.0 g, P = 0.030).

  17. Immediate and residual effects of heat stress and restricted intake on milk protein and casein composition and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cowley, F C; Barber, D G; Houlihan, A V; Poppi, D P

    2015-04-01

    The effects of heat stress on dairy production can be separated into 2 distinct causes: those effects that are mediated by the reduced voluntary feed intake associated with heat stress, and the direct physiological and metabolic effects of heat stress. To distinguish between these, and identify their effect on milk protein and casein concentration, mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 24) were housed in temperature-controlled chambers and either subjected to heat stress [HS; temperature-humidity index (THI) ~78] or kept in a THI<70 environment and pair-fed with heat-stressed cows (TN-R) for 7 d. A control group of cows was kept in a THI<70 environment with ad libitum feeding (TN-AL). A subsequent recovery period (7 d), with THI<70 and ad libitum feeding followed. Intake accounted for only part of the effects of heat stress. Heat stress reduced the milk protein concentration, casein number, and casein concentration and increased the urea concentration in milk beyond the effects of restriction of intake. Under HS, the proportion in total casein of αS1-casein increased and the proportion of αS2-casein decreased. Because no effect of HS on milk fat or lactose concentration was found, these effects appeared to be the result of specific downregulation of mammary protein synthesis, and not a general reduction in mammary activity. No residual effects were found of HS or TN-R on milk production or composition after THI<70 and ad libitum intake were restored. Heat-stressed cows had elevated blood concentrations of urea and Ca, compared with TN-R and TN-AL. Cows in TN-R had higher serum nonesterified fatty acid concentrations than cows in HS. It was proposed that HS and TN-R cows may mobilize different tissues as endogenous sources of energy.

  18. The Effect of Breakfast Type on Total Daily Energy Intake and Body Mass Index Among Thai School Children.

    PubMed

    Purttiponthanee, Sasiumphai; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen; Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Senaprom, Sayamon; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The study investigated the association between breakfast types consumed, daily energy intake, and body mass index for age Z-score (BAZ). Cross-sectional data from 1258 children aged 7 to 12.9 years were analyzed for breakfast type, nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight or obesity. Analysis of covariance was used to compare energy and nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight/obese children between breakfast groups. Only 19% of children had adequate energy intake from breakfast. Those consuming snacks had a significantly lower BAZ (Z = -0.73), with 5% of them being overweight/obese. Those consuming beverages and desserts had the lowest total daily energy intake (1314 kcal) and lowest protein intake (8.4 g). The results suggest that breakfast type is associated with daily energy intake and BAZ. Most breakfasts are not adequate. School-based nutrition education programs involving families, teachers, and health professionals can contribute to improve this situation. PMID:27183975

  19. Effect of timing of protein and carbohydrate intake after resistance exercise on nitrogen balance in trained and untrained young men

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Resistance exercise alters the post-exercise response of anabolic and catabolic hormones. A previous study indicated that the turnover of muscle protein in trained individuals is reduced due to alterations in endocrine factors caused by resistance training, and that muscle protein accumulation varies between trained and untrained individuals due to differences in the timing of protein and carbohydrate intake. We investigated the effect of the timing of protein and carbohydrate intake after resistance exercise on nitrogen balance in trained and untrained young men. Methods Subjects were 10 trained healthy men (mean age, 23 ± 4 years; height, 173.8 ± 3.1 cm; weight, 72.3 ± 4.3 kg) and 10 untrained healthy men (mean age, 23 ± 1 years; height, 171.8 ± 5.0 cm; weight, 64.5 ± 5.0 kg). All subjects performed four sets of 8 to 10 repetitions of a resistance exercise (comprising bench press, shoulder press, triceps pushdown, leg extension, leg press, leg curl, lat pulldown, rowing, and biceps curl) at 80% one-repetition maximum. After each resistance exercise session, subjects were randomly divided into two groups with respect to intake of protein (0.3 g/kg body weight) and carbohydrate (0.8 g/kg body weight) immediately after (P0) or 6 h (P6) after the session. All subjects were on an experimental diet that met their individual total energy requirement. We assessed whole-body protein metabolism by measuring nitrogen balance at P0 and P6 on the last 3 days of exercise training. Results The nitrogen balance was significantly lower in the trained men than in the untrained men at both P0 (P <0.05) and P6 (P <0.01). The nitrogen balance in trained men was significantly higher at P0 than at P6 (P <0.01), whereas that in the untrained men was not significantly different between the two periods. Conclusion The timing of protein and carbohydrate intake after resistance exercise influences nitrogen balance differently in trained and

  20. [Relationship of food groups intake and C-reactive protein in healthy adults from Mexicali, Baja California, México].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Esparza, Josefina; Robinson-Navarro, Octavio; Ortega-Vélez, María Isabel; Diaz-Molina, Raúl; Carrillo-Cedillo, Eugenia Gabriela; Soria-Rodriguez, Carmen G

    2013-09-01

    The high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is an important biomarker in inflammatory processes. The objective was to analyze the relationship between the concentrations of hs-CRP in adults from a northern Mexico region with their typical food intake patterns. A sample of 72 university professors underwent clinical and anthropometric assessments and their hs-CRP levels were quantified with an immunoenzymometric assay. Additionally, they filled out a food intake frequency questionnaire, from which the servings of different food groups were obtained with the ESHA software. The average age of participants was 49.75 +/- 10.05 years and the average hs-CRP concentration was 1.66 (0.97, 3.52) mg/L. The value of the association between fruit consumption and hs-CRP level was protective, according to the logistic regression analysis, being the Odds Ratio (OR) 0.23 (95% CI: 0.05, 1.03); while for vegetables the OR was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.12, 3.68). Furthermore, high protein content foods, dairy products, oils and fats were associated with elevated levels of hs-CRP. In conclusion, in our study, the intake of some food groups like fruits and vegetables, and to a lesser extent cereals, were associated with low values of hs-PCR. PMID:24354239

  1. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    and maintenance. Men lost percent total body fat and trunk fat more effectively than women. No interactive effects of protein intake and gender are evident. PMID:22691622

  2. Breakfast Protein Source Does Not Influence Postprandial Appetite Response and Food Intake in Normal Weight and Overweight Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, Christina M.; Neumann, Brianna L.; Baum, Jamie I.

    2016-01-01

    Breakfasts higher in protein lead to a greater reduction in hunger compared to breakfasts higher in carbohydrate. However, few studies have examined the impact of higher protein breakfasts with differing protein sources. Our objective was to determine if protein source (animal protein (AP) versus plant protein (PP)) influences postprandial metabolic response in participants consuming a high protein breakfast (~30% energy from protein). Normal weight (NW; n = 12) and overweight women (OW; n = 8) aging 18–36 were recruited to participate. Participants completed two visits in a randomized, cross-over design with one week between visits. Subjects had 15 minutes to consume each breakfast. Blood glucose and appetite were assessed at baseline, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 minutes postprandial. Participants kept a 24-hour dietary record for the duration of each test day. No difference was found between NW and OW participants or breakfasts for postprandial appetite responses. AP had a significantly lower glucose response at 30 minutes compared with PP (−11.6%; 127 ± 4 versus 112 ± 4 mg/dL; P < 0.05) and a slower return to baseline. There was no difference in daily energy intake between breakfasts. These data suggest that protein source may influence postprandial glucose response without significantly impacting appetite response in breakfast consumers. PMID:26885386

  3. Arg-Ile-Tyr (RIY) derived from rapeseed protein decreases food intake and gastric emptying after oral administration in mice.

    PubMed

    Marczak, Ewa D; Ohinata, Kousaku; Lipkowski, Andrzej W; Yoshikawa, Masaaki

    2006-09-01

    We previously reported that a bioactive tripeptide Arg-Ile-Tyr (RIY), which has been isolated as an inhibitor for angiotensin I-converting enzyme from the subtilisin digest of rapeseed protein, decreased blood pressure. In this study, we also found that RIY dose-dependently decreased food intake at a dose of 150 mg/kg after oral administration in fasted ddY male mice. The anorexigenic action of RIY was blocked by a cholecystokinin-1 CCK1 receptor antagonist, lorglumide. RIY also decreased the gastric emptying rate at a dose of 150 mg/kg and the RIY-induced delay of gastric emptying was blocked by lorglumide. However, RIY had no affinity for CCK1 receptor. Taken together, RIY decreased food intake and gastric emptying by stimulating CCK release.

  4. Protein requirements of man: comparative nitrogen balance response within the submaintenance-to-maintenance range of intakes of wheat and beef proteins.

    PubMed

    Young, V R; Fajardo, L; Murray, E; Rand, W M; Scrimshaw, N S

    1975-05-01

    Sixteen young male students participated in two studies designed to determine the nitrogen balance response to beef or stone-ground, whole wheat protein over the submaintenance-to-maintenance range of protein intake. The objective of the studies was to evaluate the relative capacities of these proteins to meet the minimum protein needs in young adult males. A modified Latin-square design was used to allocate subjects to the four 15-day metabolic balance diet periods in each study. The last 10 days were used for fecal nitrogen determination and the last 5 days for evaluation of urinary nitrogen excretion. The diet periods were separated by a 4-day break period and began with 1 day on a "protein-free" diet. The levels of protien (N times 6.25) intake tested were 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 g/kg body weight/day in the beef study. The results have been compared with those obtained in a previous similar study with egg protein. The regression of estimated "true" nitrogen balance (Y) (mg N/kg/day) on nitrogen intake (X) (mg N/kg/day) was: Y equals 0.51(plus or minus 0.08)X minus 41.9(plus or minus 4.6) for beef and Y equals 0.27(plus or minus 0.06)X minus 33.6(plus or minus 5.0) for whole wheat protein. The amounts of beef and wheat proteins estimated to be requried to support body nitrogen balance in 97.5% of the population supplied 96 and 178 mg N/kg/day, respectively. The relative protein value of beef and wheat proteins, in comparison with egg protein, was 78 plus or minus 12 and 41 plus or minus 10, respectively. It is concluded that the variations in dietary protein quality should be taken into account in assessing the protein adequacy of diets for individuals and population groups.

  5. Dietary intake in clients with chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, Agnieszka; Atkins, Marlis; Mager, Diana R

    2011-01-01

    To assess relationships among food intake, anthropometrics, and wound severity, we studied 31 home care clients with pressure ulcers (PUs) or venous stasis ulcers (VSUs). Anthropometric variables (weight, height, waist circumference [WC]) were measured according to standard methodologies. Risk for PU development was assessed using the Braden Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment score and wound severity according to the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. Three-day food records were analyzed to assess dietary adequacy. Adults with VSUs (65.8 ± 18.4 years) had a higher body mass index (48.1 vs. 25.9), WC (146.6 vs. 98.4 cm), and Braden score (20.2 vs. 17.5) than did those with PUs (67.8 ± 17.9 years) (p <0.05). Energy, protein, and zinc intake by diet alone did not meet estimated requirements in 41%, 32%, and 54.5% of clients, respectively. Intake by diet alone met the Estimated Average Requirement/Adequate Intake for all nutrients except fibre, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, folate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Nutrient supplementation resolved this for all nutrients except fibre, vitamin K, and potassium. In multivariate analysis, increasing wound severity was associated with decreased intakes of vitamin A, vitamin K, magnesium, and protein (r2=0.90, p<0.001). Optimizing nutrient intake may be an important strategy to promote wound healing and decrease wound severity in home care clients with chronic wounds.

  6. Short communication: genetic relationships among daily energy balance, feed intake, body condition score, and fat to protein ratio of milk in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Buttchereit, N; Stamer, E; Junge, W; Thaller, G

    2011-03-01

    Postpartum energy status is critically important to health and fertility, and it remains a major task to find suitable indicator traits for energy balance. Therefore, genetic parameters for daily energy balance (EB) and dry matter intake (DMI), weekly milk fat to protein ratio (FPR), and monthly body condition score (BCS) were estimated using random regression on data collected from 682 Holstein-Friesian primiparous cows recorded between lactation d 11 to 180. Average energy-corrected milk (ECM), EB, DMI, BCS, and FPR were 32.0 kg, 9.6 MJ of NE(L), 20.3 kg, 2.95, and 1.12, respectively. Heritability estimates for EB, DMI, BCS, and FPR ranged from 0.03 to 0.13, 0.04 to 0.19, 0.34 to 0.59, and 0.20 to 0.54. Fat to protein ratio was a more valid measure for EB in early lactation than DMI, BCS, or single milk components. Correlations between FPR and EB were highest at the beginning of lactation [genetic correlation (r(g)) = -0.62 at days in milk (DIM) 15] and decreased toward zero. Dry matter intake was the trait most closely correlated with EB in mid lactation (r(g) = 0.73 at DIM 120 and 150). Energy balance in early lactation was negatively correlated to EB in mid lactation. The same applied to DMI. Genetic correlations between FPR across lactation stages were all positive; the lowest genetic correlation (0.55) was estimated between the beginning of lactation and early mid lactation. Hence, to improve EB at the beginning of lactation, EB and indicator traits need to be recorded in early lactation. We concluded that FPR is an adequate indicator for EB during the energy deficit phase. Genetic correlations of FPR with ECM, fat percentage, and protein percentage showed that a reduction of FPR in early lactation would have a slightly negative effect on ECM, whereas milk composition would change in a desirable manner.

  7. Improved Function With Enhanced Protein Intake per Meal: A Pilot Study of Weight Reduction in Frail, Obese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pieper, Carl F.; Orenduff, Melissa C.; McDonald, Shelley R.; McClure, Luisa B.; Zhou, Run; Payne, Martha E.; Bales, Connie W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a significant cause of functional limitations in older adults; yet, concerns that weight reduction could diminish muscle along with fat mass have impeded progress toward an intervention. Meal-based enhancement of protein intake could protect function and/or lean mass but has not been studied during geriatric obesity reduction. Methods: In this 6-month randomized controlled trial, 67 obese (body mass index ≥30kg/m2) older (≥60 years) adults with a Short Physical Performance Battery score of 4–10 were randomly assigned to a traditional (Control) weight loss regimen or one with higher protein intake (>30g) at each meal (Protein). All participants were prescribed a hypo-caloric diet, and weighed and provided dietary guidance weekly. Physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery) and lean mass (BOD POD), along with secondary measures, were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months. Results: At the 6-month endpoint, there was significant (p < .001) weight loss in both the Control (−7.5±6.2kg) and Protein (−8.7±7.4kg) groups. Both groups also improved function but the increase in the Protein (+2.4±1.7 units; p < .001) was greater than in the Control (+0.9±1.7 units; p < .01) group (p = .02). Conclusion: Obese, functionally limited older adults undergoing a 6-month weight loss intervention with a meal-based enhancement of protein quantity and quality lost similar amounts of weight but had greater functional improvements relative to the Control group. If confirmed, this dietary approach could have important implications for improving the functional status of this vulnerable population (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01715753). PMID:26786203

  8. Associations of serum insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 levels with biomarker-calibrated protein, dairy product and milk intake in the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Jeannette M; Gunter, Marc J; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Prentice, Ross L; Neuhouser, Marian L; Tinker, Lesley F; Vitolins, Mara Z; Strickler, Howard D

    2014-03-14

    It is well established that protein-energy malnutrition decreases serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels, and supplementation of 30 g of whey protein daily has been shown to increase serum IGF-I levels by 8 % after 2 years in a clinical trial. Cohort studies provide the opportunity to assess associations between dietary protein intake and IGF axis protein levels under more typical eating conditions. In the present study, we assessed the associations of circulating IGF axis protein levels (ELISA, Diagnostic Systems Laboratories) with total biomarker-calibrated protein intake, as well as with dairy product and milk intake, among postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (n 747). Analyses were carried out using multivariate linear regression models that adjusted for age, BMI, race/ethnicity, education, biomarker-calibrated energy intake, alcohol intake, smoking, physical activity and hormone therapy use. There was a positive association between milk intake and free IGF-I levels. A three-serving increase in milk intake per d (approximately 30 g of protein) was associated with an estimated average 18·6 % higher increase in free IGF-I levels (95 % CI 0·9, 39·3 %). However, total IGF-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels were not associated with milk consumption and nor were there associations between biomarker-calibrated protein intake, biomarker-calibrated energy intake, and free IGF-I, total IGF-I or IGFBP-3 levels. The findings of the present study carried out in postmenopausal women are consistent with clinical trial data suggesting a specific relationship between milk consumption and serum IGF-I levels, although in the present study this association was only statistically significant for free, but not total, IGF-I or IGFBP-3 levels.

  9. The Acute-Phase Protein Orosomucoid Regulates Food Intake and Energy Homeostasis via Leptin Receptor Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Yang, Yili; Qin, Zhen; Cai, Jinya; Guo, Xiuming; Tang, Yun; Wan, Jingjing; Su, Ding-Feng; Liu, Xia

    2016-06-01

    The acute-phase protein orosomucoid (ORM) exhibits a variety of activities in vitro and in vivo, notably modulation of immunity and transportation of drugs. We found in this study that mice lacking ORM1 displayed aberrant energy homeostasis characterized by increased body weight and fat mass. Further investigation found that ORM, predominantly ORM1, is significantly elevated in sera, liver, and adipose tissues from the mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and db/db mice that develop obesity spontaneously due to mutation in the leptin receptor (LepR). Intravenous or intraperitoneal administration of exogenous ORM decreased food intake in C57BL/6, HFD, and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, which was absent in db/db mice and was significantly reduced in mice with arcuate nucleus (ARC) LepR knockdown, whereas enforced expression of ORM1 in ARC significantly decreased food intake, body weight, and serum insulin level. Furthermore, we found that ORM is able to bind directly to LepR and activate the receptor-mediated JAK2-STAT3 signaling in hypothalamus tissue and GT1-7 cells, which was derived from hypothalamic tumor. These data indicated that ORM could function through LepR to regulate food intake and energy homeostasis in response to nutrition status. Modulating the expression of ORM is a novel strategy for the management of obesity and related metabolic disorders.

  10. A high-protein, high-fat, carbohydrate-free diet reduces energy intake, hepatic lipogenesis, and adiposity in rats.

    PubMed

    Pichon, Lisa; Huneau, Jean-François; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effects in rats of ingesting 1 of 3 diets with normal or high protein concentrations and various carbohydrate:lipid ratios on weight gain, body composition, and the development and metabolism of white adipose tissue (WAT). For this purpose, male Wistar rats were fed for 20 or 42 d a high-carbohydrate, low-fat, normal-protein diet (76, 10, and 14% of energy as carbohydrate, lipid, and protein, respectively, carbohydrate:lipid ratio (C/L) = 7.6), a normal-carbohydrate, low-fat, high-protein diet (35, 10, and 55% of energy as carbohydrate, lipid, and protein respectively, C:L = 3.5), or a carbohydrate-free, high-fat, high-protein diet (45 and 55% of energy as fat and protein, respectively, C:L = 0). Growth, food intake, body composition, WAT cellularity, and several markers of lipogenesis including fatty acid synthase and lipoprotein lipase activities were measured in adipose tissue and liver. Lowering the C:L ratio reduced the development of WAT, weight gain, body fat mass, and adipocyte size, and in rats fed the carbohydrate-free diet (C:L = 0), the total number of adipocytes in subcutaneous WAT. These reductions in adipose tissue development with decreases in the C:L ratio of the diet seemed to be due primarily to reduced hepatic lipogenesis.

  11. Association of protein intake with the change of lean mass among elderly women: The Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention - Fracture Prevention Study (OSTPRE-FPS).

    PubMed

    Isanejad, Masoud; Mursu, Jaakko; Sirola, Joonas; Kröger, Heikki; Rikkonen, Toni; Tuppurainen, Marjo; Erkkilä, Arja T

    2015-01-01

    Low protein intake can lead to declined lean mass (LM) in elderly. We examined the associations of total protein (TP), animal protein (AP) and plant protein (PP) intakes with LM. The association of TP intake with LM change was further evaluated according to weight change status. This cross-sectional and prospective cohort study included 554 women aged 68 (sd 1·9) years from the Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention - Fracture Prevention Study (OSTPRE-FPS). The intervention group (n 270) received daily cholecalciferol (800 IU; 20 μg) and Ca (1000 mg) for 3 years while the control group received neither supplementation nor placebo (n 282). Participants filled out a questionnaire on lifestyle factors and a 3-d food record in 2002 and underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition measurements at baseline and 3 years. Multiple linear regressions evaluated the association between protein intake and LM, adjusting for relevant covariates. At the baseline TP and AP intakes were positively associated with LM and trunk LM, TP was associated also with appendicular LM (aLM). Follow-up results showed that in the total population and the intervention group, higher TP and AP were associated with increased LM and aLM (P ≤ 0·050). No such associations were observed in the control group. PP intake was also associated with aLM change in the total population. Overall, the associations were independent of fat mass. Further, among weight maintainers, TP intake was positively associated with LM, aLM and trunk LM changes (P ≤ 0·020). In conclusion, dietary TP, especially AP, intake may be a modifiable risk factor for sarcopenia by preserving LM in the elderly.

  12. Protein Intake and Muscle Health in Old Age: From Biological Plausibility to Clinical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Landi, Francesco; Calvani, Riccardo; Tosato, Matteo; Martone, Anna Maria; Ortolani, Elena; Savera, Giulia; D’Angelo, Emanuela; Sisto, Alex; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    The provision of sufficient amounts of dietary proteins is central to muscle health as it ensures the supply of essential amino acids and stimulates protein synthesis. Older persons, in particular, are at high risk of insufficient protein ingestion. Furthermore, the current recommended dietary allowance for protein (0.8 g/kg/day) might be inadequate for maintaining muscle health in older adults, probably as a consequence of “anabolic resistance” in aged muscle. Older individuals therefore need to ingest a greater quantity of protein to maintain muscle function. The quality of protein ingested is also essential to promoting muscle health. Given the role of leucine as the master dietary regulator of muscle protein turnover, the ingestion of protein sources enriched with this essential amino acid, or its metabolite β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate, is thought to offer the greatest benefit in terms of preservation of muscle mass and function in old age. PMID:27187465

  13. Protein intake and calcium absorption – Potential role of the calcium sensor receptor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary protein induces calcium excretion but the source of this calcium is unclear. Evidence from short-term studies indicates that protein promotes bone resorption, but many epidemiologic studies do not corroborate this. Evidence is also mixed on weather protein promotes calcium absorption. Stud...

  14. Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans (KDRIs).

    PubMed

    Paik, Hee Young

    2008-01-01

    For more than 40 years, Recommended Dietary Allowances for Koreans (KRDA) were used as references for nutrient intake. In 2002, the Korean Nutrition Society organized a committee to revise the KRDA, which were transformed into the new Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans (KDRIs) in 2005. KDRIs include Estimated Average Requirements (EAR), Recommended Intake (RI), Adequate Intake (AI) and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for protein, essential amino acids and micronutrients, Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) for energy and Acceptable Macronutrients Distribution Ranges (AMDR) for macronutrients. Evidence-based methods were used to determine the reference value (s) and the levels of nutrient intake for each nutrient. The KDRIs expanded significantly the number of nutrients and the basic concepts of nutrient recommendations compared to the previously used KRDA. In addition, a new food guide, depicted as Food Tower for Koreans, was developed and appended to the KDRIs publication. Continued efforts are needed to facilitate the application of KDRIs as well as to improve the understanding of the concepts. Additional modifications will be made as more scientific data become available.

  15. Protein Intake as a Risk Factor of Overweight/Obesity in 8- to 12-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Del Mar Bibiloni, Maria; Tur, Josep A; Morandi, Anita; Tommasi, Mara; Tomasselli, Francesca; Maffeis, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    Several studies investigating the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and/or body fat (BF) with macronutrient composition of the diet have suggested that dietary composition may play an important role to overweight/obesity in childhood, but its relation remains inconclusive. The aim was to assess the association between energy intake (EI) and macronutrient diet composition with overweight/obesity among children.Nonrandomized cohort study including 396 Italian children and preadolescents (9-13 years old), 200 overweight/obese and 196 normal-weight. The children's weight, height, WC, and food intake were measured.Reported EI was higher in overweight/obese than in nonoverweight children; however, after body weight was considered, the overweight/obese children had less EI than their leaner counterparts. Percentages of EI from proteins, SFA, MUFA and PUFA (in males), and dietary fiber (g/1000 kcal) were higher in the overweight/obese children than in the leaner ones. EI from carbohydrates and fats was lower in overweight/obese males and females, respectively. Positive correlations between BMI and waist-to-height ratio with EI from proteins were found in males (r = 0.296, P < 0.01 and r = 0.326, P < 0.01; respectively) and females (r = 0.374, P < 0.01 and r = 0.405, P < 0.01; respectively), but negative correlations with fats were found in females (r = -0.240, P < 0.01 and r = -0.188, P < 0.05; respectively). Using binary logistic regression, the highest EI from proteins were associated with higher odds ratio for overweight/obesity, while the lowest EI from carbohydrates was associated with higher odds ratio for overweight/obesity in males.Reported EI of overweight/obese children was higher than nonoverweight peers. Overweight/obese children had higher intakes of proteins compared with nonoverweight ones. Overweight/obese males and females showed lower EI from carbohydrates and fats

  16. Protein Intake as a Risk Factor of Overweight/Obesity in 8- to 12-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Del Mar Bibiloni, Maria; Tur, Josep A; Morandi, Anita; Tommasi, Mara; Tomasselli, Francesca; Maffeis, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    Several studies investigating the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and/or body fat (BF) with macronutrient composition of the diet have suggested that dietary composition may play an important role to overweight/obesity in childhood, but its relation remains inconclusive. The aim was to assess the association between energy intake (EI) and macronutrient diet composition with overweight/obesity among children.Nonrandomized cohort study including 396 Italian children and preadolescents (9-13 years old), 200 overweight/obese and 196 normal-weight. The children's weight, height, WC, and food intake were measured.Reported EI was higher in overweight/obese than in nonoverweight children; however, after body weight was considered, the overweight/obese children had less EI than their leaner counterparts. Percentages of EI from proteins, SFA, MUFA and PUFA (in males), and dietary fiber (g/1000 kcal) were higher in the overweight/obese children than in the leaner ones. EI from carbohydrates and fats was lower in overweight/obese males and females, respectively. Positive correlations between BMI and waist-to-height ratio with EI from proteins were found in males (r = 0.296, P < 0.01 and r = 0.326, P < 0.01; respectively) and females (r = 0.374, P < 0.01 and r = 0.405, P < 0.01; respectively), but negative correlations with fats were found in females (r = -0.240, P < 0.01 and r = -0.188, P < 0.05; respectively). Using binary logistic regression, the highest EI from proteins were associated with higher odds ratio for overweight/obesity, while the lowest EI from carbohydrates was associated with higher odds ratio for overweight/obesity in males.Reported EI of overweight/obese children was higher than nonoverweight peers. Overweight/obese children had higher intakes of proteins compared with nonoverweight ones. Overweight/obese males and females showed lower EI from carbohydrates and fats

  17. Dietary protein intake is associated with maximal and explosive strength of the leg flexors in young and older aged blue collar workers

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Brennan J.; Ryan, Eric D.; Sobolewski, Eric J.; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary PRO intake and maximal and rapid strength of the leg flexors in blue collar (BC) working men. Twenty-four young (age=23.2±2.1 yrs), and nineteen older aged (age=52.8±5.2 yrs) men employed in BC occupations completed a three day dietary record and isometric strength testing of the leg flexors. Food logs were analyzed for total protein (TPRO) and essential amino acid (EAA) intake. Rapid and maximal strength capacities were examined from the rate of torque development at 50ms (RTD50) and peak torque (PT) of the torque-time curves, respectively. Pearson correlations and partial correlations were used to examine the relationships between TPRO and EAA intake on strength variables. PT was positively correlated to TPRO and EAA intake in the young (r=0.439 and 0.431;P<0.05) and older aged (r=0.636 and 0.605; P<0.01) men and RTD50 was correlated to TPRO and EAA intake in the young (r=0.512 and 0.310; P=0.01) and older aged (r=0.662 and 0.665; P<0.01) men, respectively. There were no relationships (P>0.05) between TPRO and strength variables when controlling for EAA intake. TPRO intake explained 20–44% of the variance in rapid and maximal strength for both age groups. EAA intake was largely responsible for the positive relationship between PRO intake and strength. Across young and older aged blue collar working male populations, protein consumption was associated with both maximal and explosive strength capacities of the leg flexors muscle group. PMID:25753919

  18. Intakes of PUFAs were inversely associated with plasma C-reactive protein 12 years later in a middle-aged population with vitamin E intake as an effect modifier.

    PubMed

    Julia, Chantal; Touvier, Mathilde; Meunier, Nathalie; Papet, Isabelle; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2013-11-01

    Although n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered anti-inflammatory components, the role of dietary n-6 PUFAs in inflammation remains controversial. Some mechanistic evidence suggests vitamin E as a potential effect modifier in the relationship between PUFAs and inflammation. Our objectives were to evaluate the long-term associations between dietary intakes of PUFAs and elevated plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and to investigate potential effect modification by vitamin E. Individuals in the placebo group of the SU.VI.MAX trial who had available CRP measurements in 2007-2009 were included in the study (n = 843). Dietary intakes of n-3 PUFAs, n-6 PUFAs, and vitamin E were assessed in 1994-1996 with at least 6 dietary records. The logistic regression OR for elevated CRP (>3 mg/L) and 95% CI were estimated for individual PUFAs and for total n-3 and n-6 PUFA intakes. Models were adjusted for sociodemographical, lifestyle, anthropometric, and dietary variables. Interactions with vitamin E intakes were also assessed. Inverse associations were observed between intakes of total n-3 PUFAs [α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3), ALA + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3), EPA + docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n-3), DPA + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3)] and n-6 PUFA [linoleic acid (18:2n-6) + arachidonic acid (20:4n-6)] and elevated CRP (OR for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1 of intake: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.77; P-trend = 0.01; and OR 0.38; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.70; P-trend = 0.002, respectively). Stratification on vitamin E intakes showed that inverse associations between dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA intakes and elevated CRP were substantial only in individuals with low intakes of vitamin E. Our results supported the contention that intakes of both n-3 and n-6 PUFAs are inversely associated with plasma CRP concentrations. Vitamin E is a potential effect modifier and should therefore be taken into account in such investigations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials

  19. Voluntary food intake of growing pigs given diets containing rapeseed meal, from different types and varieties of rape, as the only protein supplement.

    PubMed

    Lee, P A; Hill, R

    1983-11-01

    The voluntary food intake, during 30 min periods after morning and afternoon feeds and during 24 h, by growing pigs given diets containing rapeseed meal (Rsm) or soya-bean meal (Sbm) as the only protein supplement was determined. One diet was offered at a time and a daily changeover sequence of feeding was followed. Four rapeseed meals were compared, one from seeds of British-grown winter Brassica napus varieties (Brsm) and the others from seeds of the varieties Tower (Trsm), Erglu (Ersm) and Span (Srsm). The effects on feed intake of adding flavouring substances to the Brsm diet were also determined. The flavouring substances were molassine meal, sucrose and four commercially-available substances: P, pig nectar; H, hog nectar; S, sow nectar and A, apple. Intake of the Brsm diet was significantly less than those of the Sbm, Trsm and Ersm diets. Addition to the Brsm diet of molassine meal or sucrose at 50 or 100 g/kg did not improve voluntary feed intake. None of the commercial flavouring substances raised the intake of the Brsm diet to the level of the Sbm diet but they improved intake of the Brsm diet to varying extents. Flavourings H, S and A gave similar improvements which were substantial. The Sbm, Brsm and Trsm diets were each fed ad. lib. to groups of growing pigs continuously for 4 weeks. Weekly feed intakes and weight gains were determined. Feed intakes and weight gains followed closely the intake values obtained in the changeover experiments. The highest values were for the Sbm diet; those for the Trsm diet were slightly lower and those for the Brsm diet were substantially and significantly lower. The glucosinolate, sinapine and tannin contents of the rapeseed meals were determined and the results suggested that voluntary feed intake of diets containing these meals was related to their glucosinolate content, but not to their sinapine or tannin contents. PMID:6639926

  20. Food intake is inversely correlated with central nervous system histamine receptor (H1) concentrations in male Sprague-Dawley rats fed normal, low protein, low energy or poor quality protein diets.

    PubMed

    Haq, A U; Bundrant, H M; Mercer, L P

    1996-12-01

    The reported studies were designed to examine relationships between whole-brain histamine receptors (H1) and food intake in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Three different experiments were conducted. In each experiment, control rats were fed normal protein (25 g casein/100 g food) and normal metabolizable energy (16.21 kJ/100 g food) diets. Feeding low protein diets (1 g casein/100 g food) elevated central H1 receptor concentrations (P < 0.0027) and reduced voluntary food intake (P < 0.007) compared with normal diets. Feeding low energy diets lowered H1 receptor concentrations (P < 0.0089) and increased voluntary food intake (P < 0.0012). Low quality protein diets also affected the central nervous histaminergic system. Whole-brain H1 receptor concentrations were significantly higher for rats fed low quality protein (25 g gelatin/100 g food) compared with rats fed casein (P < 0.0001). Rats fed medium quality protein (25 g wheat gluten/100 g food) or low quality protein ate significantly less food (P < 0.0001). In all experiments, dietary manipulation affected central histamine receptors. Elevated concentrations of H1 receptors were associated with a decrease in food intake whereas lowered concentrations of H1 receptors were associated with an increase in food intake (P < 0.001). The results of these experiments support the hypothesis that central histamine H1 receptor concentrations in male rats are inversely correlated with voluntary food intake and affected by dietary composition.

  1. A dynamic model to predict fat and protein fluxes and dry matter intake associated with body reserve changes in cattle.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Luis O; Fox, Danny G; Kononoff, Paul J

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to develop the structure and concepts of a dynamic model to simulate dry matter intake (DMI) pattern and the fluxes of fat and protein in the body reserves of cattle associated with changes in body condition score (BCS) for application within the structure of applied nutrition models. This model was developed to add the capability of evaluating the effects of factors affecting pre- and postcalving DMI, daily energy and protein balances, and changes in BCS over a reproductive cycle. Input variables are average DMI, diet metabolizable energy, and animal information (body weight, BCS, milk production, and calf birth body weight) from each diet fed over the reproductive cycle. Because the depletion and repletion of body reserves in cattle is a complex system of coordinated metabolic processes that reflect hormonal and physiological changes caused by negative or positive energy balances, the system dynamics modeling methodology was used to develop this model. The model was used to evaluate the effect of the dynamic interactions between dietary supply and animal requirements for energy and protein on the fluxes of body fat and body protein of dairy cows over the reproductive cycle and Monte Carlo simulations were used to assess the sensitivity of the parameters. The main long-term factor affecting DMI pattern was the growth of the gravid uterus causing an increase in the volume of abdominal organs and a compression of the rumen, consequentially reducing feed intake. Changes in body reserves (fat and protein) were computed based on metabolizable energy balance, assuming different efficiency of utilization coefficients for fat and protein during repletion and mobilization. The model was evaluated with data from 37 dairy cows individually fed 3 different diets over the lactation and dry periods. The model was successful in simulating the observed pattern of DMI (mean square error was 3.59, 3.97, and 3.66 for diets A, B, and C, respectively

  2. Reduced Food Intake and Body Weight in Mice Deficient for the G Protein-Coupled Receptor GPR82

    PubMed Central

    Teupser, Daniel; Holdt, Lesca Miriam; Tönjes, Anke; Kern, Matthias; Dietrich, Kerstin; Kovacs, Peter; Krügel, Ute; Scheidt, Holger A.; Schiller, Jürgen; Huster, Daniel; Brockmann, Gudrun A.; Augustin, Martin; Thiery, Joachim; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schulz, Angela

    2011-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) are involved in the regulation of numerous physiological functions. Therefore, GPCR variants may have conferred important selective advantages during periods of human evolution. Indeed, several genomic loci with signatures of recent selection in humans contain GPCR genes among them the X-chromosomally located gene for GPR82. This gene encodes a so-called orphan GPCR with unknown function. To address the functional relevance of GPR82 gene-deficient mice were characterized. GPR82-deficient mice were viable, reproduced normally, and showed no gross anatomical abnormalities. However, GPR82-deficient mice have a reduced body weight and body fat content associated with a lower food intake. Moreover, GPR82-deficient mice showed decreased serum triacylglyceride levels, increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, most pronounced under Western diet. Because there were no differences in respiratory and metabolic rates between wild-type and GPR82-deficient mice our data suggest that GPR82 function influences food intake and, therefore, energy and body weight balance. GPR82 may represent a thrifty gene most probably representing an advantage during human expansion into new environments. PMID:22216272

  3. Dietary protein intake, energy deficit, and nitrogen balance in normal-weight adults: a randomized controlled

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consuming protein at levels higher than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) may be metabolically advantageous for overweight and obese individuals attempting weight loss. However, the dose-response characteristics that define the optimal level of dietary protein necessary to sustain measures of...

  4. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  5. Higher Total Protein Intake and Change in Total Protein Intake Affect Body Composition but Not Metabolic Syndrome Indexes in Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults Who Perform Resistance and Aerobic Exercise for 36 Weeks123

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Wayne W; Kim, Jung Eun; Amankwaah, Akua F; Gordon, Susannah L; Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies assessing the effects of protein supplementation on changes in body composition (BC) and health rarely consider the impact of total protein intake (TPro) or the change in TPro (CTPro) from participants’ usual diets. Objective: This secondary data analysis assessed the impact of TPro and CTPro on changes in BC and metabolic syndrome (MetS) indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults who participated in an exercise training program. Methods: Men and women [n = 117; age: 50 ± 0.7 y, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 30.1 ± 0.3; means ± SEs] performed resistance exercise 2 d/wk and aerobic exercise 1 d/wk and consumed an unrestricted diet along with 200-kcal supplements (0, 10, 20, or 30 g whey protein) twice daily for 36 wk. Protein intake was assessed via 4-d food records. Multiple linear regression model and stratified analysis were applied for data analyses. Results: Among all subjects, TPro and CTPro were inversely associated (P < 0.05) with changes in body mass, fat mass (FM), and BMI. Changes in BC were different (P < 0.05) among groups that consumed <1.0 (n = 43) vs. ≥1.0 to <1.2 (n = 29) vs. ≥1.2 g · kg−1 · d−1 (n = 45). The TPro group with ≥1.0 to <1.2 g · kg−1 · d−1 reduced FM and %FM and increased percentage of LM (%LM) compared with the lowest TPro group, whereas the TPro group with ≥1.2 g · kg−1 · d−1 presented intermediate responses on changes in FM, %FM, and %LM. The gain in LM was not different among groups. In addition, MetS indexes were not influenced by TPro and CTPro. Conclusions: In conjunction with exercise training, higher TPro promoted positive changes in BC but not in MetS indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults. Changes in TPro from before to during the intervention also influenced BC responses and should be considered in future research when different TPro is achieved via diet or supplements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00812409. PMID:26246322

  6. Activity of protein kinase C-α within the subfornical organ is necessary for fluid intake in response to brain angiotensin.

    PubMed

    Coble, Jeffrey P; Johnson, Ralph F; Cassell, Martin D; Johnson, Alan Kim; Grobe, Justin L; Sigmund, Curt D

    2014-07-01

    Angiotensin-II production in the subfornical organ acting through angiotensin-II type-1 receptors is necessary for polydipsia, resulting from elevated renin-angiotensin system activity. Protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways have been shown to mediate effects of angiotensin-II in the brain. We investigated mechanisms that mediate brain angiotensin-II-induced polydipsia. We used double-transgenic sRA mice, consisting of human renin controlled by the neuron-specific synapsin promoter crossed with human angiotensinogen controlled by its endogenous promoter, which results in brain-specific overexpression of angiotensin-II, particularly in the subfornical organ. We also used the deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt model of hypertension, which exhibits polydipsia. Inhibition of protein kinase C, but not extracellular signal-regulated kinases, protein kinase A, or vasopressin V₁A and V₂ receptors, corrected the elevated water intake of sRA mice. Using an isoform selective inhibitor and an adenovirus expressing dominant negative protein kinase C-α revealed that protein kinase C-α in the subfornical organ was necessary to mediate elevated fluid and sodium intake in sRA mice. Inhibition of protein kinase C activity also attenuated polydipsia in the deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt model. We provide evidence that inducing protein kinase C activity centrally is sufficient to induce water intake in water-replete wild-type mice, and that cell surface localization of protein kinase C-α can be induced in cultured cells from the subfornical organ. These experimental findings demonstrate a role for central protein kinase C activity in fluid balance, and further mechanistically demonstrate the importance of protein kinase C-α signaling in the subfornical organ in fluid intake stimulated by angiotensin-II in the brain.

  7. Plant Protein Intake Is Associated with Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Serum Bicarbonate in Patients with CKD: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Scialla, Julia J.; Appel, Lawrence J; Wolf, Myles; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Sozio, Stephen M.; Miller, Edgar R.; Bazzano, Lydia A.; Cuevas, Magdalena; Glenn, Melanie J.; Lustigova, Eva; Kallem, Radhakrishna R.; Porter, Anna C.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Weir, Matthew R.; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein from plant, as opposed to animal, sources may be preferred in chronic kidney disease (CKD), due to lower bioavailability of phosphate and lower nonvolatile acid load. Study Design Observational cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 2938 participants with chronic kidney disease and information on dietary intake at the baseline visit in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Predictors Percentage of total protein from plant sources (% plant protein) was determined by scoring individual food items from the National Cancer Institute Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Outcomes Metabolic parameters, including serum phosphate, bicarbonate (HCO3), potassium, and albumin, plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and parathyroid hormone (PTH), and hemoglobin. Measurements We modeled the association between % plant protein and metabolic parameters using linear regression. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, diabetes, body mass index, eGFR, income, smoking, total energy intake, total protein intake, 24 hour urinary sodium, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers and use of diuretics. Results Higher % plant protein was associated with lower FGF23 (p=0.05) and higher HCO3 (p=0.01), but not with serum phosphate or PTH (p=0.9 and 0.5, respectively). Higher % plant protein was not associated with higher serum potassium (p=0.2), lower serum albumin (p=0.2) or lower hemoglobin (p=0.3). The associations of % plant protein with FGF23 and HCO3 did not differ by diabetes status, sex, race, CKD stage (2/3 vs. 4/5) or total protein intake (≤ 0.8 g/kg/d vs. >0.8 g/kg/d) (p-interaction > 0.10 for each). Limitations Cross-sectional study; Determination of % plant protein using the DHQ has not been validated. Conclusions Consumption of a higher percentage of protein from plant sources may lower FGF23 and raise HCO3 in patients with CKD. PMID:22480598

  8. Intake patterns and dietary associations of soya protein consumption in adults and children in the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2.

    PubMed

    Mudryj, Adriana N; Aukema, Harold M; Yu, Nancy

    2015-01-28

    Soya foods are one of the recommended alternatives to meat in many dietary guidelines. While this is expected to increase the intake of some nutrients, potential concerns regarding others have been raised. The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence and the association of soya food consumption with nutrient intakes and dietary patterns of Canadians (age ≥ 2 years). Cross-sectional data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey (Cycle 2.2; n 33,218) were used to classify soya consumers and non-consumers. Soya consumers were further divided into two groups based on their soya protein intake. Sample weights were applied and logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between nutrient intakes and soya consumption, with cultural background, sex, age and economic status being included as covariates. On any given day, 3.3% (n 1085) of Canadians consume soya foods, with females, Asian Canadians and adults with post-secondary education being more likely to be soya consumers. As a whole, adolescent and adult respondents who had consumed at least one soya food during their 24 h dietary recall had higher energy intakes, as well as increased intakes of nutrients such as protein, fibre, vitamin C, vitamin B6, naturally occurring folate, thiamin, Ca, P, Mg, PUFA, Fe and K and lowered intakes of saturated fat. These data indicate that soya food consumption is associated with improved diet quality of Canadians. However, future research is necessary to investigate the association between increased energy intake and soya consumption.

  9. Lysine partitioning in broiler breeders is not affected by energy or protein intake when fed at current industry levels.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; Salas, C; England, J; Cerrate, S; Coon, C N

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary energy and protein intake on the partitioning of lysine in broiler breeder hens. One hundred twenty-six broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 (390, 450 kcal/d) × 3 (22, 24, 26 g of CP/d) fashion. Thirty-six hens were administered a daily oral dose of 15 mg of (15)N-Lys for a period of 2 wk or until first egg. After the 2-wk enrichment period, no isotopes were given for 2 d. After 2 d, a daily oral dose of 15 mg of (2)D4-Lys was administered until the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th egg (saved) after the initial (2)D4-Lys was given, at which point pectoralis muscle was sampled. Weeks 25, 29, and 45 were assessed. Isotopic enrichment of pectoralis muscle, egg yolk, and albumen was determined via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The (15)N-Lys was intended to represent endogenous lysine, whereas the (2)D4-Lys was intended to represent dietary lysine. Greater than 78% of all labeled lysine ((15)N and (2)D4-Lys) was found in breast muscle. Endogenous muscle was the main source of lysine for yolk formation at wk 25 and 45. Diet was the main source of lysine for albumen formation at wk 25 and 29. A consistent decrease in the (15)N-Lys in breast muscle from the 2nd to the 3rd egg was observed, while also seeing an increase in the (15)N-Lys in the egg from the 3rd to the 4th egg. No difference in the partitioning of lysine was determined by energy or protein intake at levels typical for the current poultry industry. Rather, age, and possibly rate of production, appear to be the main drivers of lysine partitioning in the broiler breeder hen.

  10. Evidence-based recommendations for optimal dietary protein intake in older people: a position paper from the PROT-AGE Study Group.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jürgen; Biolo, Gianni; Cederholm, Tommy; Cesari, Matteo; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J; Morley, John E; Phillips, Stuart; Sieber, Cornel; Stehle, Peter; Teta, Daniel; Visvanathan, Renuka; Volpi, Elena; Boirie, Yves

    2013-08-01

    New evidence shows that older adults need more dietary protein than do younger adults to support good health, promote recovery from illness, and maintain functionality. Older people need to make up for age-related changes in protein metabolism, such as high splanchnic extraction and declining anabolic responses to ingested protein. They also need more protein to offset inflammatory and catabolic conditions associated with chronic and acute diseases that occur commonly with aging. With the goal of developing updated, evidence-based recommendations for optimal protein intake by older people, the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS), in cooperation with other scientific organizations, appointed an international study group to review dietary protein needs with aging (PROT-AGE Study Group). To help older people (>65 years) maintain and regain lean body mass and function, the PROT-AGE study group recommends average daily intake at least in the range of 1.0 to 1.2 g protein per kilogram of body weight per day. Both endurance- and resistance-type exercises are recommended at individualized levels that are safe and tolerated, and higher protein intake (ie, ≥ 1.2 g/kg body weight/d) is advised for those who are exercising and otherwise active. Most older adults who have acute or chronic diseases need even more dietary protein (ie, 1.2-1.5 g/kg body weight/d). Older people with severe kidney disease (ie, estimated GFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), but who are not on dialysis, are an exception to this rule; these individuals may need to limit protein intake. Protein quality, timing of ingestion, and intake of other nutritional supplements may be relevant, but evidence is not yet sufficient to support specific recommendations. Older people are vulnerable to losses in physical function capacity, and such losses predict loss of independence, falls, and even mortality. Thus, future studies aimed at pinpointing optimal protein intake in specific populations of older people

  11. Leucine acts in the brain to suppress food intake but does not function as a physiological signal of low dietary protein.

    PubMed

    Laeger, Thomas; Reed, Scott D; Henagan, Tara M; Fernandez, Denise H; Taghavi, Marzieh; Addington, Adele; Münzberg, Heike; Martin, Roy J; Hutson, Susan M; Morrison, Christopher D

    2014-08-01

    Intracerebroventricular injections of leucine are sufficient to suppress food intake, but it remains unclear whether brain leucine signaling represents a physiological signal of protein balance. We tested whether variations in dietary and circulating levels of leucine, or all three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), contribute to the detection of reduced dietary protein. Of the essential amino acids (EAAs) tested, only intracerebroventricular injection of leucine (10 μg) was sufficient to suppress food intake. Isocaloric low- (9% protein energy; LP) or normal- (18% protein energy) protein diets induced a divergence in food intake, with an increased consumption of LP beginning on day 2 and persisting throughout the study (P < 0.05). Circulating BCAA levels were reduced the day after LP diet exposure, but levels subsequently increased and normalized by day 4, despite persistent hyperphagia. Brain BCAA levels as measured by microdialysis on day 2 of diet exposure were reduced in LP rats, but this effect was most prominent postprandially. Despite these diet-induced changes in BCAA levels, reducing dietary leucine or total BCAAs independently from total protein was neither necessary nor sufficient to induce hyperphagia, while chronic infusion of EAAs into the brain of LP rats failed to consistently block LP-induced hyperphagia. Collectively, these data suggest that circulating BCAAs are transiently reduced by dietary protein restriction, but variations in dietary or brain BCAAs alone do not explain the hyperphagia induced by a low-protein diet.

  12. Dietary protein intake is associated with body mass index and weight up to 5 y of age in a prospective cohort of twins12

    PubMed Central

    Pimpin, Laura; Jebb, Susan; Johnson, Laura; Wardle, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few large epidemiologic studies have investigated the role of postweaning protein intake in excess weight and adiposity of young children, despite children in the United Kingdom consistently consuming protein in excess of their physiologic requirements. Objective: We investigated whether a higher proportion of protein intake from energy beyond weaning is associated with greater weight gain, higher body mass index (BMI), and risk of overweight or obesity in children up to 5 y of age. Design: Participants were 2154 twins from the Gemini cohort. Dietary intake was collected by using a 3-d diet diary when the children had a mean age of 21 mo. Weight and height were collected every 3 mo, from birth to 5 y. Longitudinal models investigated associations of protein intake with BMI, weight, and height, with adjustment for age at diet diary, sex, total energy intake, birth weight/length, and rate of prior growth and clustering within families. Logistic regression investigated protein intake in relation to the odds of overweight or obesity at 3 and 5 y of age. Results: A total of 2154 children had a mean ± SD of 5.7 ± 3.2 weight and height measurements up to 5 y. Total energy from protein was associated with higher BMI (β = 0.043; 95% CI: 0.011, 0.075) and weight (β = 0.052; 95% CI: 0.031, 0.074) but not height (β = 0.088; 95% CI: −0.038, 0.213) between 21 mo and 5 y. Substituting percentage energy from fat or carbohydrate for percentage energy from protein was associated with decreases in BMI and weight. Protein intake was associated with a trend in increased odds of overweight or obesity at 3 y (OR = 1.10; 95% CI 0.99, 1.22, P = 0.075), but the effect was not statistically significant at 5 y. Conclusion: A higher proportion of energy from protein during the complementary feeding stage is associated with greater increases in weight and BMI in early childhood in this large cohort of United Kingdom children. PMID:26718416

  13. Maternal protein and folic acid intake during gestation does not program leptin transcription or serum concentration in rat progeny.

    PubMed

    Chmurzynska, Agata; Stachowiak, Monika; Pruszynska-Oszmalek, Ewa

    2012-04-01

    Maternal nutrition during gestation influences the development of the fetus, thereby determining its phenotype, including nutrient metabolism, appetite, and feeding behavior. The control of appetite is a very complex process and can be modulated by orexigenic and anorexigenic mediators such as leptin, which is involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis by controlling food intake and energy expenditure. Leptin transcription and secretion are regulated by numerous factors, nutrition being one of them. The present study was designed to test whether maternal nutrition can permanently affect leptin gene transcription and leptin serum concentration in rat progeny. Moreover, we analyzed whether leptin expression and secretion in response to high-fat postweaning feeding depends on the maternal diet during gestation. Pregnant rats were fed either a normal protein, normal folic acid diet (the AIN-93 diet); a protein-restricted, normal folic acid diet; a protein-restricted, folic acid-supplemented diet; or a normal protein, folic acid-supplemented diet. After weaning, the progeny was fed either the AIN-93 diet or a high-fat diet. Neither maternal nutrition nor the postweaning diet significantly affected Lep transcription. High-fat feeding after weaning was associated with higher serum leptin concentration, but the reaction of an organism to the fat content of the diet was not determined by maternal nutrition during gestation. There was no correlation between Lep mRNA level and serum leptin concentration. Global DNA methylation in adipose tissue was about 30% higher in rats fed postnatally the high-fat diet (P < 0.01). Our study showed that the protein and folic acid content in the maternal diet had no significant programming effect on Lep transcription and serum leptin concentration in the rats.

  14. Influence of folic acid, vitamin B2 and B6 supplementation on feed intake, body and organs weight, and liver fatty acids composition in rats subjected to severe protein deprivation.

    PubMed

    Debski, B; Bertrandt, J; Klos, A; Gralak, M

    2006-01-01

    Growing rats fed for 3 months a low-protein (LP) diet (4.5% of energy from protein), possessed about 29% lower body weight than animals consuming adequate-protein diet (20% energy from protein). The LP diet feeding caused an increase in daily feed intake followed by a decrease in feed conversion efficiency. The enrichment of LP diet with folic acid, vitamin B2 and B6 (3 times above the level applied in the control diet) did not have any impact on rats BW and supplementation with these vitamins minimize the effect of LP diet on feed intake. The use of examined vitamins had a tendency to diminish an increase in feed conversion ratio caused by the LP nutrition. This effect was significant when all vitamins were added together. Rats fed the LP diet had higher relative weights of lungs, heart, liver and testis. Vitamins enriching the LP diet were observed to decrease a relative weight of lungs (folic acid, vitamin B6 and vitamin mixture), and liver (vitamin B6 and vitamin mixture). A tendency of increasing relative testis weight was also revealed in rats given the LP diet enriched with vitamins. The lower content of hepatic polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) and a tendency for monounsaturated FA content to be higher were found in rats fed the LP diet. The LP diet enrichment with folic acid caused that these changes were more pronounced and statistically significant. Enrichment of LP diet with vitamins tested may cause a partial reverse of changes observed in the hepatic FA composition.

  15. One seed juniper intake by sheep and goats supplemented with degradable or by-pass protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful prescribed grazing of one seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma Englem. Sarg.) with sheep and goats may depend on identifying times of the year when juniper terpenoid levels are less likely to deter herbivory and could be contingent on the use of protein supplements to help animals detoxify ...

  16. Does protein intake alter the precursors for synthesis of lactose and non-essential amino acids by the mammary glands of lactating mice?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aims were to: 1) develop a [U-13C]glucose tracer approach to establish the pathways of and substrates used for milk lactose and casein synthesis in the mouse mammary gland and 2) determine the influence of protein intake on this partition and use for milk synthesis. In Study 1, we determined th...

  17. Low dietary protein intake during pregnancy differentially affects mitochondrial copy number in stromal vascular cells from subcutaneous versus visceral adipose tissue in the offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study examined the influence of protein intake during pregnancy on mitochondrial metabolism in stromal vascular cells from subcutaneous (SVSu) and visceral (SVVi) adipose tissue of offspring fed a high fat diet. Obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing either 8% or 20% p...

  18. Prenatal caffeine intake differently affects synaptic proteins during fetal brain development.

    PubMed

    Mioranzza, Sabrina; Nunes, Fernanda; Marques, Daniela M; Fioreze, Gabriela T; Rocha, Andréia S; Botton, Paulo Henrique S; Costa, Marcelo S; Porciúncula, Lisiane O

    2014-08-01

    Caffeine is the psychostimulant most consumed worldwide. However, little is known about its effects during fetal brain development. In this study, adult female Wistar rats received caffeine in drinking water (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 g/L) during the active cycle in weekdays, two weeks before mating and throughout pregnancy. Cerebral cortex and hippocampus from embryonic stages 18 or 20 (E18 or E20, respectively) were collected for immunodetection of the following synaptic proteins: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), TrkB receptor, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), Growth Associated Protein 43 (GAP-43) and Synaptosomal-associated Protein 25 (SNAP-25). Besides, the estimation of NeuN-stained nuclei (mature neurons) and non-neuronal nuclei was verified in both brain regions and embryonic periods. Caffeine (1.0 g/L) decreased the body weight of embryos at E20. Cortical BDNF at E18 was decreased by caffeine (1.0 g/L), while it increased at E20, with no major effects on TrkB receptors. In the hippocampus, caffeine decreased TrkB receptor only at E18, with no effects on BDNF. Moderate and high doses of caffeine promoted an increase in Shh in both brain regions at E18, and in the hippocampus at E20. Caffeine (0.3g/L) decreased GAP-43 only in the hippocampus at E18. The NeuN-stained nuclei increased in the cortex at E20 by lower dose and in the hippocampus at E18 by moderate dose. Our data revealed that caffeine transitorily affect synaptic proteins during fetal brain development. The increased number of NeuN-stained nuclei by prenatal caffeine suggests a possible acceleration of the telencephalon maturation. Although some modifications in the synaptic proteins were transient, our data suggest that caffeine even in lower doses may alter the fetal brain development. PMID:24862851

  19. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sayer, R. Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F.; Tamer, Gregory G.; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A.; Talavage, Thomas M.; McCrory, Megan A.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m2; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults. PMID:26742068

  20. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults.

    PubMed

    Sayer, R Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F; Tamer, Gregory G; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J; Tregellas, Jason R; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A; Talavage, Thomas M; McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-01-01

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m²; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults.

  1. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults.

    PubMed

    Sayer, R Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F; Tamer, Gregory G; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J; Tregellas, Jason R; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A; Talavage, Thomas M; McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-01-01

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m²; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults. PMID:26742068

  2. Balanced intake of protein and carbohydrate maximizes lifetime reproductive success in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Rho, Myung Suk; Lee, Kwang Pum

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in insect gerontological and nutritional research have suggested that the dietary protein:carbohydrate (P:C) balance is a critical determinant of lifespan and reproduction in many insects. However, most studies investigating this important role of dietary P:C balance have been conducted using dipteran and orthopteran species. In this study, we used the mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), to test the effects of dietary P:C balance on lifespan and reproduction. Regardless of their reproductive status, both male and female beetles had the shortest lifespan at the protein-biased ratio of P:C 5:1. Mean lifespan was the longest at P:C 1:1 for males and at both P:C 1:1 and 1:5 for females. Mating significantly curtailed the lifespan of both males and females, indicating the survival cost of mating. Age-specific egg laying was significantly higher at P:C 1:1 than at the two imbalanced P:C ratios (1:5 or 5:1) at any given age throughout their lives, resulting in the highest lifetime reproductive success at P:C 1:1. When given a choice, beetles actively regulated their intake of protein and carbohydrate to a slightly carbohydrate-biased ratio (P:C 1:1.54-1:1.64 for males and P:C 1:1.3-1:1.36 for females). The self-selected P:C ratio was significantly higher for females than males, reflecting a higher protein requirement for egg production. Collectively, our results add to a growing body of evidence suggesting the key role played by dietary macronutrient balance in shaping lifespan and reproduction in insects. PMID:27405009

  3. Influence of crambe meal as a protein source on intake, site of digestion, ruminal fermentation, and microbial efficiency in beef steers fed grass hay.

    PubMed

    Caton, J S; Burke, V I; Anderson, V L; Burgwald, L A; Norton, P L; Olson, K C

    1994-12-01

    Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated beef steers (558 +/- 37 kg) were arranged in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate the influence of crambe meal as a protein source on intake, digestion, and microbial efficiency. Steers were offered chopped (10.2 cm) brome hay (6.2% CP) for ad libitum consumption and one of four supplements. Protein sources used were soybean and crambe meals (CM). Protein sources were blended to provide four levels of supplemental CM protein (0, 33, 67, and 100%). Protein supplements were fed to provide similar amounts of protein and energy. Amounts of supplements fed were 831, 885, 950, and 996 g of DM/steer daily for 0, 33, 67, and 100% CM treatments, respectively. Crambe meal represented 0, 2.00, 3.83, and 5.88% of the DM intake for respective treatments. Steers were allowed a 21-d adaptation to diets before each collection period. Supplements were offered at 0800 and forage at 0830. Crambe meal had no influence (P > .10) on forage and total DM intake (grams/kilogram of BW). Apparent total tract, ruminal, and postruminal digestion of OM, NDF, ADF, and N were unaffected (P > .10) by CM supplementation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Amino acids and proteins.

    PubMed

    van Goudoever, Johannes B; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R D

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional requirements are not met, resulting in a postnatal growth restriction. However, current knowledge on adequate levels of both amino acid as well as protein intake can avoid under nutrition in the direct postnatal phase, avoid the need for subsequent catch-up growth and improve later outcome.

  5. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  6. Increasing protein intake modulates lipid metabolism in healthy young men and women consuming a high-fat hypercaloric diet.

    PubMed

    Rietman, Annemarie; Schwarz, Jessica; Blokker, Britt A; Siebelink, Els; Kok, Frans J; Afman, Lydia A; Tomé, Daniel; Mensink, Marco

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing protein intake, at the expense of carbohydrates, on intrahepatic lipids (IHLs), circulating triglycerides (TGs), and body composition in healthy humans consuming a high-fat, hypercaloric diet. A crossover randomized trial with a parallel control group was performed. After a 2-wk run-in period, participants were assigned to either the control diet [n = 10; 27.8 energy percent (en%) fat, 16.9 en% protein, 55.3 en% carbohydrates] for 4 wk or a high-fat, hypercaloric diet (n = 17; >2 MJ/d) crossover trial with 2 periods of 2 wk, with either high-protein (HP) (37.7 en% fat, 25.7 en% protein, 36.6 en% carbohydrates) or normal-protein (NP) (39.4 en% fat, 15.4 en% protein, 45.2 en% carbohydrates) content. Measurements were performed after 2 wk of run-in (baseline), 2 wk of intervention (period 1), and 4 wk of intervention (period 2). A trend toward lower IHL and plasma TG concentrations during the HP condition compared with the NP condition was observed (IHL: 0.35 ± 0.04% vs. 0.51 ± 0.08%, P = 0.08; TG: 0.65 ± 0.03 vs. 0.77 ± 0.05 mmol/L, P = 0.07, for HP and NP, respectively). Fat mass was significantly lower (10.6 ± 1.72 vs. 10.9 ± 1.73 kg; P = 0.02) with the HP diet than with the NP diet, whereas fat-free mass was higher (55.7 ± 2.79 vs. 55.2 ± 2.80 kg; P = 0.003). This study indicated that an HP, high-fat, hypercaloric diet affects lipid metabolism. It tends to lower the IHL and circulating TG concentrations and significantly lowers fat mass and increases fat-free mass compared with an NP, high-fat, hypercaloric diet. This trail was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01354626.

  7. Renoprotective mechanisms of soy protein intake in the obese Zucker rat.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Joyce; Cruz, Cristino; Tovar, Armando; Vaidya, Vishal; Zambrano, Elena; Bonventre, Joseph V; Gamba, Gerardo; Torres, Nimbe; Bobadilla, Norma A

    2008-11-01

    We previously showed that long-term consumption of a soy protein diet (SoyP) reduces renal damage in obese Zucker (ObeseZ) rats by restoring urinary NO2 and NO3 excretion (UNO2/NO3V), suggesting that nitric oxide (NO) deficiency may contribute to the renal progression observed in this model. In addition, there is compelling evidence that hyperleptinemia produced deleterious effects on the kidney through its interaction with the short leptin receptor (ObRa). This study was designed to evaluate the contribution of the NO/endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) system, renal oxidative stress, and ObRa expression to the renoprotection conferred by the consumption of a SoyP in ObeseZ rats. Ten lean and ten male ObeseZ rats were included. One-half of each group was fed with a 20% SoyP and the other half with a 20% casein protein diet (CasP) over the course of 160 days. eNOS protein levels and phosphorylation, renal lipoperoxidation (rLPO), and antioxidant enzyme activity were assessed. In addition, renal ObRa, TGF-beta, and kidney injury molecule (Kim-1) mRNA levels, as well as urinary Kim-1 levels, were measured. Renal injury observed in ObeseZ rats fed with CasP was not associated with changes in eNOS expression or phosphorylation. However, this group did present with increased rLPO, reduced catalase activity, and upregulation of ObRa, TGF-beta1, and Kim-1. In contrast, ObeseZ rats fed with a SoyP exhibited a reduction in NOS-Thr495 phosphorylation and rLPO, as well as an enhanced catalase activity. These findings were associated with a significant reduction of ObRa, TGF-beta1, and Kim-1 mRNA levels and urinary Kim-1 protein. Our results show that renoprotection by SoyP in ObeseZ rats is in part mediated by increased NO availability secondary to a reduction in eNOS-T495 phosphorylation and oxidative stress, together with a significant reduction in ObRa and TGF-beta expression.

  8. A study on the relationship between the protein supplements intake satisfaction level and repurchase intention: Verification of mediation effects of word-of-mouth intention.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ill-Gwang

    2016-05-18

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the protein supplements intake satisfaction level and repurchase intention of university students majoring in physical education and verify the mediation effects of word-of-mouth intention. To achieve the purpose of this study, 700 university students majoring in physical education from 10 universities in Korea were selected from October 2013 to December 2013 as the target of this study through the cluster random sampling and data of 228 university students who had experience in the intake of protein supplements among them was analyzed. The composite reliability of each factor was in between 0.869 and 0.958, and the convergent validity and discriminant validity were verified. SPSS 18.0 and Amos 22.0 were utilized as data processing methods and the verification of significance on the medication effects and indirect effects of word-of-mouth intention was carried out using the frequency analysis, correlation analysis, CFA, SEM, and Amos bootstrapping. The result is as follows. The protein supplements intake satisfaction level had a positive effect on the word-of-mouth intention and the word-of-mouth intention had a positive effect on the repurchase intention. Also, it was shown that the word-of-mouth intention played a full mediation role between the intake satisfaction level and the repurchase intention.

  9. Cycling time trial performance may be impaired by whey protein and L-alanine intake during prolonged exercise.

    PubMed

    Schroer, Adam B; Saunders, Michael J; Baur, Daniel A; Womack, Christopher J; Luden, Nicholas D

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies reported that adding protein (PRO) to carbohydrate (CHO) solutions enhances endurance performance. The ergogenic effect may be a function of additional protein/amino acid calories, but this has not been examined. In addition, although supplemental L-alanine (ALA) is readily oxidized during exercise, the subsequent impact on metabolism and prolonged endurance performance is unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to independently gauge the impact of whey PRO hydrolysate and ALA supplementation on performance and various physiological parameters. Eight cyclists (age: 22.3 ± 5.6 yr, weight: 70.0 ± 8.0 kg, VO2max: 59.4 ± 4.9 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) performed 120 min of constant-load cycling (55% of peak power) followed by a 30-km time trial (TT) under placebo (PLA), PRO, and ALA conditions. Magnitude-based qualitative inferences were applied to evaluate treatment differences and data are presented as percent difference between treatments ± 90% confidence limit. Both ALA (2.1 ± 2.7%) and PRO intake (-2.1 ± 2.2%) possibly harmed performance compared with PLA. Of interest, heart rate was possibly lower with ALA than PLA at 20- (-2.7 ± 3.4%) and 120-min (-1.7 ± 2.9%) of constant-load cycling and the serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) response to 120 min of cycling was likely attenuated with PRO compared with PLA (PLA, 6.6 ± 3.7 fold vs. PRO, 2.9 ± 1.8 fold). In addition, blood glucose levels were lower with PRO than PLA at 20- (-8.8 ± 2.3%; very likely) and 120-min (-4.9 ± 4.6%; likely) of constant-load cycling. Although ALA intake appears to lower HR and PRO ingestion dampens the IL-6 response to exercise, the ingestion of PRO (without CHO) or ALA does not enhance, and may actually impair, performance following prolonged cycling.

  10. An increased need for dietary cysteine in support of glutathione synthesis may underlie the increased risk for mortality associated with low protein intake in the elderly.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2015-10-01

    Restricted dietary intakes of protein or essential amino acids tend to slow aging and boost lifespan in rodents, presumably because they downregulate IGF-I/Akt/mTORC1 signaling that acts as a pacesetter for aging and promotes cancer induction. A recent analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III cohort has revealed that relatively low protein intakes in mid-life (under 10 % of calories) are indeed associated with decreased subsequent risk for mortality. However, in those over 65 at baseline, such low protein intakes were associated with increased risk for mortality. This finding accords well with other epidemiology correlating relatively high protein intakes with lower risk for loss of lean mass and bone density in the elderly. Increased efficiency of protein translation reflecting increased leucine intake and consequent greater mTORC1 activity may play a role in this effect; however, at present there is little solid evidence that leucine supplementation provides important long-term benefits to the elderly. Aside from its potential pro-anabolic impact, higher dietary protein intakes may protect the elderly in another way-by providing increased amino acid substrate for synthesis of key protective factors. There is growing evidence, in both rodents and humans, that glutathione synthesis declines with increasing age, likely reflecting diminished function of Nrf2-dependent inductive mechanisms that boost expression of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), rate-limiting for glutathione synthesis. Intracellular glutathione blunts the negative impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on cell health and functions both by acting as an oxidant scavenger and by opposing the pro-inflammatory influence of hydrogen peroxide on cell signaling. Fortunately, since GCL's K m for cysteine is close to intracellular cysteine levels, increased intakes of cysteine-achieved from whole proteins or via supplementation with N-acetylcysteine (NAC)-can achieve a

  11. An increased need for dietary cysteine in support of glutathione synthesis may underlie the increased risk for mortality associated with low protein intake in the elderly.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2015-10-01

    Restricted dietary intakes of protein or essential amino acids tend to slow aging and boost lifespan in rodents, presumably because they downregulate IGF-I/Akt/mTORC1 signaling that acts as a pacesetter for aging and promotes cancer induction. A recent analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III cohort has revealed that relatively low protein intakes in mid-life (under 10 % of calories) are indeed associated with decreased subsequent risk for mortality. However, in those over 65 at baseline, such low protein intakes were associated with increased risk for mortality. This finding accords well with other epidemiology correlating relatively high protein intakes with lower risk for loss of lean mass and bone density in the elderly. Increased efficiency of protein translation reflecting increased leucine intake and consequent greater mTORC1 activity may play a role in this effect; however, at present there is little solid evidence that leucine supplementation provides important long-term benefits to the elderly. Aside from its potential pro-anabolic impact, higher dietary protein intakes may protect the elderly in another way-by providing increased amino acid substrate for synthesis of key protective factors. There is growing evidence, in both rodents and humans, that glutathione synthesis declines with increasing age, likely reflecting diminished function of Nrf2-dependent inductive mechanisms that boost expression of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), rate-limiting for glutathione synthesis. Intracellular glutathione blunts the negative impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on cell health and functions both by acting as an oxidant scavenger and by opposing the pro-inflammatory influence of hydrogen peroxide on cell signaling. Fortunately, since GCL's K m for cysteine is close to intracellular cysteine levels, increased intakes of cysteine-achieved from whole proteins or via supplementation with N-acetylcysteine (NAC)-can achieve a

  12. Influence of dietary protein intakes on the metabolism and DNA-binding of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in rat mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Singletary, K.; Milner, J.

    1986-03-05

    The influence of prior dietary protein intakes in rats on the ability of their isolated mammary cells to metabolize DMBA to intermediates that bind to intracellular DNA was examined. Female 40d old SD rats (30) were pair-fed isocaloric diets containing 7.5 or 15% protein (casein) for two weeks prior to sacrifice. Pooled cells were plated (0.9 mg protein) in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium containing antibiotics, insulin and 10% fetal calf serum, 1 h before adding 0.4 ..mu..g DMBA/ml. At 6 hours of incubation, cells from rats fed 15% protein metabolized 52.7% of the DMBA while those from rats fed 7.5% protein metabolized 43.7%. Extracellular water-soluble metabolites increased as dietary protein increased but accounted for only 14% of total metabolism. Binding of DMBA at 6 h to DNA from rats fed 15% protein was 19% higher than binding in rats fed 7.5% protein. These differences in binding increased with increasing doses of DMBA. The increased binding was associated with a proportional increase in both syn and anti- bay-region dihydrodiol-epoxide adducts. The bay-region syn-dihydrodiol-epoxide:deoxyadenosine adduct was the predominant adduct. Thus, increasing dietary protein intake leads to increased metabolism of DMBA and increased binding of bay-region dihydrodiol-epoxides to DNA.

  13. Evaluation of older Chinese people's macronutrient intake status: results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyue; Byles, Julie E; Shi, Zumin; Hall, John J

    2015-01-14

    Little is known about the macronutrient intake status of older Chinese people. The present study evaluated the macronutrient intake status of older Chinese people (aged ≥ 60 years), investigated whether they had intake levels that met the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and explored the associations between macronutrient intakes and age groups, sex, education levels, work status, BMI groups, urbanicity levels and four socio-economic regions of China (Northeast, East Coast, Central and Western). Dietary intake data of 2746 older Chinese with complete dietary intake data in the Longitudinal China Health and Nutrition Survey (2009 wave) carried out across four diverse regions were analysed. Dietary intake data were obtained by interviews using 24 h recalls over three consecutive days. The MUFA:SFA ratios were calculated based on the Chinese Food Composition Table. Less than one-third of the older Chinese people included in the present study had intake levels meeting the adequate intake for carbohydrate-energy and fat-energy; less than one-fifth had intake levels meeting the recommended nutrient intake for protein-energy; and more than half of the older people had fat-energy intakes higher than the DRI. There were strong associations between the proportions of energy from the three macronutrients and education levels, urbanicity levels and the four socio-economic regions of China, with older people living in the East Coast region having different patterns of macronutrient-energy intakes when compared with those living in the other three regions. Macronutrient intakes across different urbanicity levels in the four regions revealed considerable geographical variations in dietary patterns, which will affect the risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Clinical interventions and public health policies should recognise these regional differences in dietary patterns.

  14. Acute effects of protein composition and fibre enrichment of yogurt consumed as snacks on appetite sensations and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Tremblay, Angelo; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Rhéaume, Caroline; Cianflone, Katherine; Poursharifi, Pegah; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of protein composition and/or fibre enrichment of yogurt on appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. In this double-blind crossover study, 20 healthy men (aged 32.4 ± 9.1 years) were submitted to 5 randomized testing sessions, during which they had to consume 5 isocaloric and isonproteinemic yogurt snacks (120-g servings, ∼230 kJ, ∼4.5 g protein) differing by their casein-to-whey protein ratio (C:W) or dietary fibre content: (i) control C:W = 2.8:1; (ii) high whey (HW) C:W = 1.5:1, and fibre-enriched formulations using control; (iii) 2.4 g of inulin; (iv) 1.9 g of inulin and 0.5 g of β-glucan (+IN-βG); and (v) 0.5 g of β-glucan. Appetite sensations were assessed using 150-mm visual analog scales. Plasma variables (glucose, insulin, ghrelin) were measured at 30-min intervals post-yogurt consumption for 2 h. Finally, energy intakes during ad libitum lunches offered 2 h after yogurt snacks were recorded. None of the yogurts impacted appetite sensations. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different only between HW and control yogurts (-812 kJ; p = 0.03). Regarding post-yogurt plasma variables, a significant difference was found only between ghrelin area under the curve of the +IN-βG and the HW yogurts (-15 510 pmol/L per 120 min, p = 0.04). In conclusion, although appetite sensations were not influenced by variations in yogurts' protein compositions, a reduced energy intake was observed during the ad libitum lunch after the HW yogurt that may be attributable to its lower C:W. Surprisingly, the fibre enrichments studied did not exert effect on appetite sensations and energy intake.

  15. Acute effects of protein composition and fibre enrichment of yogurt consumed as snacks on appetite sensations and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Tremblay, Angelo; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Rhéaume, Caroline; Cianflone, Katherine; Poursharifi, Pegah; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of protein composition and/or fibre enrichment of yogurt on appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. In this double-blind crossover study, 20 healthy men (aged 32.4 ± 9.1 years) were submitted to 5 randomized testing sessions, during which they had to consume 5 isocaloric and isonproteinemic yogurt snacks (120-g servings, ∼230 kJ, ∼4.5 g protein) differing by their casein-to-whey protein ratio (C:W) or dietary fibre content: (i) control C:W = 2.8:1; (ii) high whey (HW) C:W = 1.5:1, and fibre-enriched formulations using control; (iii) 2.4 g of inulin; (iv) 1.9 g of inulin and 0.5 g of β-glucan (+IN-βG); and (v) 0.5 g of β-glucan. Appetite sensations were assessed using 150-mm visual analog scales. Plasma variables (glucose, insulin, ghrelin) were measured at 30-min intervals post-yogurt consumption for 2 h. Finally, energy intakes during ad libitum lunches offered 2 h after yogurt snacks were recorded. None of the yogurts impacted appetite sensations. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different only between HW and control yogurts (-812 kJ; p = 0.03). Regarding post-yogurt plasma variables, a significant difference was found only between ghrelin area under the curve of the +IN-βG and the HW yogurts (-15 510 pmol/L per 120 min, p = 0.04). In conclusion, although appetite sensations were not influenced by variations in yogurts' protein compositions, a reduced energy intake was observed during the ad libitum lunch after the HW yogurt that may be attributable to its lower C:W. Surprisingly, the fibre enrichments studied did not exert effect on appetite sensations and energy intake. PMID:26394259

  16. Dietary phosphate restriction and protein intake in dialysis patients: a misdirected focus.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Richard A

    2007-01-01

    Efforts at controlling hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients have been largely unsuccessful. Phosphate removal in thrice-weekly standard dialysis is limited due to the largely time-dependent basis for its removal. Phosphate binders, while highly useful, have not solved the problem. Dietary restriction of phosphate beyond dairy products and a few selected foodstuffs has been underemphasized. This is because of the incorrect belief that substantial reductions in dietary phosphate can only be achieved at the cost of potentially harmful levels of protein restriction. In fact, phosphate-containing food additives are a highly significant source of dietary phosphate and are absorbed to a much greater extent than organic phosphates, making them a target of great therapeutic potential. A considerable reduction in costs, morbidity, and mortality could result from a concerted effort to control this source of dietary phosphate. PMID:17244113

  17. Association between Low Dietary Protein Intake and Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Retrospective Single-Center Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kiuchi, Aki; Ohashi, Yasushi; Tai, Reibin; Aoki, Toshiyuki; Mizuiri, Sonoo; Ogura, Toyoko; Aikawa, Atsushi; Sakai, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary protein intake in malnourished patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be associated with adverse clinical outcomes, which may mask any efficacy of a low-protein diet. The study included 126 patients with CKD who attended a dedicated dietary counseling clinic in 2005–2009 and were systematically followed until January 2015. Of these patients, 20 (15.9%) had moderate or severe nutrition-related risk of geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) < 92; these patients were more likely to be older, have a greater proteinuria, and have lower body mass index and serum albumin concentration. Dietary protein intake was significantly lower in older patients (r = −0.33, p < 0.001) and those with lower glomerular filtration rate (r = 0.47, p < 0.001). The non-protein to nitrogen calorie ratio was independently associated with GNRI. Reduced GNRI was significantly associated with mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 4.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.61–15.42, p = 0.012) and cardiovascular events (HR = 9.37; 95% CI = 2.49–37.34, p = 0.006), but not with adverse renal outcomes. Restricting protein intake may be harmful to patients with any nutrition-related risk, suggesting that improvement of nutritional status should be a high priority. PMID:27782097

  18. Energy and protein intake and nutritional status in non-surgically treated patients with small cell anaplastic carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Enig, B; Winther, E; Hessov, I

    1986-01-01

    The spontaneous food intake and nutritional status was assessed in 23 patients with small cell anaplastic carcinoma of the lung before and two times during a treatment period of 6 weeks. Radiation therapy was given for 2 weeks followed by a course of chemotherapy and another 2 weeks of radiation therapy. The energy intake decreased during the treatment from 146 to 130 per cent of basal metabolic rate (p greater than 0.10). The protein intake remained unchanged (mean 0.9 g/kg body weight). There were insignificant and small losses of weight, body fat, free body mass and arm muscle circumference, and no changes were seen in serum albumin and serum transferrin. However, 6 patients suffered a weight loss of 5 per cent or more. No correlation existed between the nutritional parameters measured before treatment and the changes during treatment. Patients who suffered a loss of body weight could therefore not be singled out before the treatment.

  19. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate evidence. 85.900 Section 85.900 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support...

  20. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  1. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  2. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  3. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  4. Nutrient intake of children with intractable epilepsy compared with healthy children.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella L; Schall, Joan I; Gallagher, Paul R; Stallings, Virginia A; Bergqvist, A G Christina

    2007-06-01

    Growth retardation is common among children with epilepsy, and poor dietary intake may be one of the causes. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to compare the nutrient intake of children 1 to 8 years of age with intractable epilepsy to healthy children of the same age from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 to 2002 (N=1,718) and with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Children with intractable epilepsy were divided into two age groups: 1.0 to 3.9 and 4.0 to 8.9 years, to correspond with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Forty-three children with intractable epilepsy, mean age=4.7+/-2.2 years, had significantly lower intakes (P<0.05) of total energy; protein; carbohydrate; fat; dietary fiber; vitamins A, E, B-6, and B-12; riboflavin; niacin; folate; calcium; phosphorus; magnesium; zinc; copper; and selenium compared with healthy children. Thirty percent or more of the children with intractable epilepsy in both age groups had intakes below the Recommended Dietary Allowance or Adequate Intake for vitamins D, E, and K; folate; calcium; linoleic acid; and alpha-linolenic acid. Health care professionals caring for children with intractable epilepsy should be aware of this pattern of decreased nutrient intake and educate families to provide an adequate diet and/or consider vitamin/mineral supplementation. PMID:17524723

  5. The Environmental Pollutants Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Perfluorooctanoic Acid Upregulate Uncoupling Protein 1 (UCP1) in Brown-Fat Mitochondria Through a UCP1-Dependent Reduction in Food Intake.

    PubMed

    Shabalina, Irina G; Kramarova, Tatiana V; Mattsson, Charlotte L; Petrovic, Natasa; Rahman Qazi, Mousumi; Csikasz, Robert I; Chang, Shu-Ching; Butenhoff, John; DePierre, Joseph W; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2015-08-01

    The environmental pollutants perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) cause a dramatic reduction in the size of the major adipose tissue depots and a general body weight decrease when they are added to the food of mice. We demonstrate here that this is mainly due to a reduction in food intake; this reduction was not due to food aversion. Remarkably and unexpectedly, a large part of the effect of PFOA/PFOS on food intake was dependent on the presence of the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in the mice. Correspondingly, PFOA/PFOS treatment induced recruitment of brown adipose tissue mitochondria: increased oxidative capacity and increased UCP1-mediated oxygen consumption (thermogenesis). In mice pair-fed to the food intake during PFOA/PFOS treatment in wildtype mice, brown-fat mitochondrial recruitment was also induced. We conclude that we have uncovered the existence of a regulatory component of food intake that is dependent upon brown adipose tissue thermogenic activity. The possible environmental consequences of this novel PFOA/PFOS effect (a possible decreased fitness) are noted, as well as the perspectives of this finding on the general understanding of control of food intake control and its possible extension to combatting obesity.

  6. Estimates of food and macronutrient intake in a random sample of Northern Ireland adolescents.

    PubMed

    Strain, J J; Robson, P J; Livingstone, M B; Primrose, E D; Savage, J M; Cran, G W; Boreham, C A

    1994-09-01

    Estimates of food consumption and macronutrient intake were obtained from a randomly selected population sample (2%) of 1015 adolescents aged 12 and 15 years in Northern Ireland during the 1990/1991 school year. Dietary intake was assessed by diet history with photographic album to estimate portion size. Reported median energy intakes were 11.0 and 13.1 MJ/d for boys aged 12 and 15 years respectively and 9.2 and 9.1 MJ/d for girls of these ages. Protein, carbohydrate and total sugars intakes as a percentage of total energy varied little between the age and sex groups and were approximately 11, 49 and 20% respectively of daily total energy intakes. Median dietary fibre intakes were approximately 20 and 24 g/d for boys aged 12 and 15 years respectively and 18 and 19 g/d for girls of these ages. Major food sources of energy (as a percentage of total energy intakes) were bread and cereals (15-18%), cakes and biscuits (12-14%), chips and crisps (13-14%), dairy products (9-11%), meat and meat products (9-11%) and confectionery (9%). Fruit and vegetable intakes were low at about 2.5% and 1.5% respectively of total energy intakes. Median fat intakes were high at 39% of total daily energy intakes. Major food sources of fat as a percentage of total fat intakes were from the food groupings: chips and crisps (16-19%), meat and meat products (14-17%), fats and oils (14-16%), cakes and biscuits (13-16%) and dairy products (12-15%). Median intakes of saturated fatty acids were also high at approximately 15% of daily total energy intake while intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids averaged 12% of daily total energy intake. Median polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intakes were low, comprising 5.2 and 5.5% of daily total energy intake for boys aged 12 and 15 years respectively and were lower than the PUFA intakes (5.9 and 6.3% of daily total energy intake) for girls of these ages. About 1.3% for boys and 1.4% for girls of daily total energy intake was in the form of n-3 PUFA. Ca and

  7. Assessment of nutrient and water intake among adolescents from sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Eliene F; Da Costa, Teresa H M; Nogueira, Julia A D; Vivaldi, Lúcio J

    2008-06-01

    Adolescents aged 11-14 years (n 326), belonging to organized sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil were interviewed. Subjects (n 107) provided four non-consecutive days of food consumption and 219 subjects provided two non-consecutive days of intake. The objective was to assess their nutrient and water intake according to dietary reference intake values and their energy and macronutrient intake by sex and sports groups they were engaged in: endurance, strength-skill or mixed, according to the guidelines established by the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM). Dietary data were corrected for intra-individual variation. Total energy expenditure was higher among endurance athletes (P < 0.001) following their higher training time (P < 0.001) when compared to adolescents engaged in strength-skill or mixed sports. Total energy intake was only significantly higher among endurance-engaged females (P = 0.05). Protein intake of males was above the guidelines established by the ACSM for all sports groups. All male sport groups fulfilled the intake levels of carbohydrate per kg body weight but only females engaged in endurance sports fulfilled carbohydrate guidelines. Intakes of micronutrients with low prevalence of adequate intake were: vitamins B1, E and folate, magnesium and phosphorus. Few adolescents ( < 5 %) presented adequate intake for calcium, fibre, drinking water and beverages. For micronutrients, prevalence of adequacies were lower for females than males, except for liquids and water. Nutrition guidance is needed to help adolescents fulfil specific guidelines of macronutrient intake for their sports and to improve their intake of micronutrients and water. Special attention should be given to female adolescent athletes.

  8. The Melanocortin Receptor Accessory Protein 2 promotes food intake through inhibition of the Prokineticin Receptor-1

    PubMed Central

    Chaly, Anna L; Srisai, Dollada; Gardner, Ellen E; Sebag, Julien A

    2016-01-01

    The Melanocortin Receptor Accessory Protein 2 (MRAP2) is an important regulator of energy homeostasis and its loss causes severe obesity in rodents. MRAP2 mediates its action in part through the potentiation of the MC4R, however, it is clear that MRAP2 is expressed in tissues that do not express MC4R, and that the deletion of MRAP2 does not recapitulate the phenotype of Mc4r KO mice. Consequently, we hypothesized that other GPCRs involved in the control of energy homeostasis are likely to be regulated by MRAP2. In this study we identified PKR1 as the first non-melanocortin GPCR to be regulated by MRAP2. We show that MRAP2 significantly and specifically inhibits PKR1 signaling. We also demonstrate that PKR1 and MRAP2 co-localize in neurons and that Mrap2 KO mice are hypersensitive to PKR1 stimulation. This study not only identifies new partners of MRAP2 but also a new pathway through which MRAP2 regulates energy homeostasis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12397.001 PMID:26829592

  9. Whey protein preloads are more beneficial than soy protein preloads in regulating appetite, calorie intake, anthropometry, and body composition of overweight and obese men.

    PubMed

    Tahavorgar, Atefeh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Shidfar, Farzad; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Heydari, Iraj

    2014-10-01

    High-protein diets exert beneficial effects on appetite, anthropometry, and body composition; however, the effects of protein preloads depend on the amount, type, and time of consumption. Therefore, we hypothesized that long-term supplemental preloads of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and soy protein isolate (SPI) consumed 30 minutes before the largest meal would decrease appetite, calorie intake (CI), and anthropometry and improve body composition in overweight and obese men in free-living conditions. The subjects included 45 men with a body mass index between 25 and 40 kg/m(2) and who were randomly allocated to either the WPC (n = 26) or SPI (n = 19) groups. For 12 weeks, the subjects consumed 65 g WPC or 60 g SPI that was dissolved in 500 mL water 30 minutes before their ad libitum lunch. Appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition were assessed before and after the study and biweekly throughout. After 12 weeks, mean changes between the groups were significant for appetite (P = .032), CI (P = .045), anthropometry (body weight [P = .008], body mass index [P = .006], and waist circumference), and body composition (body fat mass and lean muscle [P < .001]). Relative to baseline, within-group mean changes from WPC were significant for appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition (P < .001). In the SPI group, mean changes were significant, relative to baseline, for all variables except lean muscle (P = .37). According to this 12-week study, WPC preloads conducted 30 minutes prior to the ad libitum main meal exerted stronger beneficial effects than did SPI preloads on appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition of free-living overweight and obese men.

  10. Combination of soya protein and polydextrose reduces energy intake and glycaemic response via modulation of gastric emptying rate, ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Soong, Yean Yean; Lim, Wen Xin; Leow, Melvin Khee Shing; Siow, Phei Ching; Teh, Ai Ling; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-06-01

    The short-term effect of soya protein, polydextrose and their combination on energy intake (EI) was investigated in Chinese. In total, twenty-seven healthy, normotensive and lean Chinese men aged 21-40 years were given four different soyabean curd preloads with or without polydextrose. The study was a repeated-measure, randomised, cross-over design. The consumption of high-protein soyabean curd alone or in addition with polydextrose as a preload led to greater reduction in EI at a subsequent meal. A similar observation was also found after intake of low-protein soyabean curd with polydextrose. The gut hormone responses mirrored the reduction in food intake. It appears that incorporation of polydextrose either with low- or high-protein soyabean curd could be a potential strategy to reduce EI and assist with weight management. The popular consumption of soyabean curd in Chinese makes it an ideal vehicle for incorporation of polydextrose. This evidence-based dietary approach can serve as a guideline for developing functional foods for weight reduction and weight maintenance. PMID:27185412

  11. Dietary Intake In Adult Female Coeliac Disease Patients In Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Mičetić-Turk, Dušanka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to assess dietary intake of coeliac disease (CD) patients and to determine if they are meeting the dietary reference values for a balanced diet. Subjects/Methods 40 women with CD, aged from 23 to 76 participated in our study. Total daily intake was assessed by a three-day food diary. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation. Considering physical activity level (PAL) 1.4, the recommended total energy expenditure (TEE) value was determined. The data was evaluated with professional evaluation software Prodi and statistically analysed. Results 40 participants returned the food diary. The average energy intake was significantly too low to ensure the meeting of all-day energy needs (p<0.05). The meals contained a recommended proportion of protein, but a statistically significantly higher proportion of fat (p<0.05), lower proportion of carbohydrates and a significantly lower intake of dietary fibre (p<0.05). Regarding macro-, micro- elements and vitamins, there was a significant lack in the intake of calcium and iodine, folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin A (p<0.05), meanwhile iron intake was at the lower limit of the recommended intake, whereas zinc, potassium and vitamin K intake were significantly higher according to the recommended values, but were comparable with the intake of the general population in the Central European area. Conclusion Even in subjects with adequate or low daily energy intake, their meals contained too much fat, too few carbohydrates and dietary fibre as well as inorganic substances. The patients with CD should get regular nutritional monitoring and education on the quality and balance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:27284377

  12. The effect of dietary intake of the acidic protein fraction of bovine colostrum on influenza A (H1N1) virus infection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mei Ling; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Chang, Don Yong; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2013-06-01

    Acidic protein levels in the milk decrease markedly as lactation progresses, suggesting that it is an important part of the colostrum. However, little attention has been paid to their biological function. In this study, we isolated the acidic protein fraction of bovine colostrum (AFC, isoelectric point <5) by anion-exchange chromatography, and investigated the effect of its dietary intake on influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. 100% of mice infected with 1 LD50 of the virus survived when administered AFC for 14 days prior to infection, compared with 33% survival when administered phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Moreover, consumption of AFC reduced the weight loss associated with infection. We propose that dietary intake of AFC has a prophylactic effect on influenza A virus infection. PMID:23620352

  13. [Bone and Nutrition. Bone and phosphorus intake].

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidekazu; Sakuma, Masae

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus is necessary for bone mineralization. Although adequate phosphorus intake is essential for skeletal mineralization, it is reported that excessive phosphorus intake can induce deleterious effect on bone. Recently, since the Japanese diet has been westernized, phosphorus intake by the meat and dairy products has increased. Furthermore, along with the development of processed foods, excessive intake of inorganic phosphorus from food additives has become a problem. An adverse effect on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from high phosphorus intake was seen only when calcium intake was inadequate. Dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio can be considered as one of the indicators that can predict the health of the bone.

  14. [Bone and Nutrition. Bone and phosphorus intake].

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidekazu; Sakuma, Masae

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus is necessary for bone mineralization. Although adequate phosphorus intake is essential for skeletal mineralization, it is reported that excessive phosphorus intake can induce deleterious effect on bone. Recently, since the Japanese diet has been westernized, phosphorus intake by the meat and dairy products has increased. Furthermore, along with the development of processed foods, excessive intake of inorganic phosphorus from food additives has become a problem. An adverse effect on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from high phosphorus intake was seen only when calcium intake was inadequate. Dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio can be considered as one of the indicators that can predict the health of the bone. PMID:26119308

  15. Plasma Free Amino Acid Responses to Intraduodenal Whey Protein, and Relationships with Insulin, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 and Energy Intake in Lean Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hutchison, Amy T; Soenen, Stijn; Steinert, Robert E; Clifton, Peter M; Horowitz, Michael; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2016-01-04

    This study determined the effects of increasing loads of intraduodenal (ID) dairy protein on plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations, and their relationships with serum insulin, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and energy intake. Sixteen healthy men had concentrations of AAs, GLP-1 and insulin measured in response to 60-min ID infusions of hydrolysed whey protein administered, in double-blinded and randomised order, at 2.1 (P2.1), 6.3 (P6.3) or 12.5 (P12.5) kJ/min (encompassing the range of nutrient emptying from the stomach), or saline control (C). Energy intake was quantified immediately afterwards. Compared with C, the concentrations of 19/20 AAs, the exception being cysteine, were increased, and this was dependent on the protein load. The relationship between AA concentrations in the infusions and the area under the curve from 0 to 60 min (AUC0-60 min) of each AA profile was strong for essential AAs (R² range, 0.61-0.67), but more variable for non-essential (0.02-0.54) and conditional (0.006-0.64) AAs. The AUC0-60 min for each AA was correlated directly with the AUC0-60 min of insulin (R² range 0.3-0.6), GLP-1 (0.2-0.6) and energy intake (0.09-0.3) (p < 0.05, for all), with the strongest correlations being for branched-chain AAs, lysine, methionine and tyrosine. These findings indicate that ID whey protein infused at loads encompassing the normal range of gastric emptying increases plasma concentrations of 19/20 AAs in a load-dependent manner, and provide novel information on the close relationships between the essential AAs, leucine, valine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, and the conditionally-essential AA, tyrosine, with energy intake, insulin and GLP-1.

  16. Effect of dietary protein on intake, nutrients utilization, nitrogen balance, blood metabolites, growth and puberty in growing Bhadawari buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sultan; Kushwaha, Badri Prasad; Maity, Subendu Bikas; Singh, Krishan Kunwar; Das, Nityanand

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen Bhadawari buffalo heifers of 207 ± 9.78 kg mean body weight were randomly distributed into three dietary groups to evaluate the effect of protein level on nutrient utilization, nitrogen (N) balance, growth rate, blood metabolites, and puberty. All animals were offered wheat straw-berseem diets supplemented with concentrate mixtures of similar energy (2.7 Mcal/kg) and different protein levels (14.3-22%). Animals of standard-protein group (SPG) were offered protein and energy as per requirement, while animals of low-protein group (LPG) and high-protein group (HPG) were fed 20% less and 20% more protein, respectively, than SPG. Feed dry matter (DM) and metabolizable energy (ME) intake (% body wt. and g/kg w(0.75)) were similar for all three diets; however, the crude protein (CP) and digestible crude protein (DCP) intake on percent body weight and per kilogram metabolic weight was higher (P < 0.05) in HPG than in SPG or LPG. Digestibility of CP, cellulose, and hemicellulose was higher (P < 0.05) in HPG versus LPG. Fecal N excretion was similar, while urinary N excretion was highest (P < 0.05) in HPG (74.83 g/day) compared with SPG (50.03 g/day) and LPG (47.88 g/day), which resulted in lower N retention in HPG than in the other dietary groups. Level of dietary N had no effect on blood metabolites viz. glucose, urea, and N. Digestible energy (DE) and ME contents of diets were identical, while DCP contents were higher (P < 0.05) in HPG than in LPG. Feed and nutrient (CP and ME) conversion efficiency to produce a unit kilogram weight gain was identical among the dietary groups. Dietary protein level had no effect on the heifer's weight and age at puberty. The mean growth rate of heifers at 240 days was higher (P > 0.05) in SPG (330.8 g/day) than in LPG (296.7 g/day), while the animals gained more weight in January to March months and the lowest weight in May to July months. Protein level had no effect on conception rate of heifers. Results

  17. Effect of dietary protein on intake, nutrients utilization, nitrogen balance, blood metabolites, growth and puberty in growing Bhadawari buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sultan; Kushwaha, Badri Prasad; Maity, Subendu Bikas; Singh, Krishan Kunwar; Das, Nityanand

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen Bhadawari buffalo heifers of 207 ± 9.78 kg mean body weight were randomly distributed into three dietary groups to evaluate the effect of protein level on nutrient utilization, nitrogen (N) balance, growth rate, blood metabolites, and puberty. All animals were offered wheat straw-berseem diets supplemented with concentrate mixtures of similar energy (2.7 Mcal/kg) and different protein levels (14.3-22%). Animals of standard-protein group (SPG) were offered protein and energy as per requirement, while animals of low-protein group (LPG) and high-protein group (HPG) were fed 20% less and 20% more protein, respectively, than SPG. Feed dry matter (DM) and metabolizable energy (ME) intake (% body wt. and g/kg w(0.75)) were similar for all three diets; however, the crude protein (CP) and digestible crude protein (DCP) intake on percent body weight and per kilogram metabolic weight was higher (P < 0.05) in HPG than in SPG or LPG. Digestibility of CP, cellulose, and hemicellulose was higher (P < 0.05) in HPG versus LPG. Fecal N excretion was similar, while urinary N excretion was highest (P < 0.05) in HPG (74.83 g/day) compared with SPG (50.03 g/day) and LPG (47.88 g/day), which resulted in lower N retention in HPG than in the other dietary groups. Level of dietary N had no effect on blood metabolites viz. glucose, urea, and N. Digestible energy (DE) and ME contents of diets were identical, while DCP contents were higher (P < 0.05) in HPG than in LPG. Feed and nutrient (CP and ME) conversion efficiency to produce a unit kilogram weight gain was identical among the dietary groups. Dietary protein level had no effect on the heifer's weight and age at puberty. The mean growth rate of heifers at 240 days was higher (P > 0.05) in SPG (330.8 g/day) than in LPG (296.7 g/day), while the animals gained more weight in January to March months and the lowest weight in May to July months. Protein level had no effect on conception rate of heifers. Results

  18. Vegetable protein and vegetable fat intakes in pre-adolescent and adolescent girls, and risk for benign breast disease in young women.

    PubMed

    Berkey, Catherine S; Willett, Walter C; Tamimi, Rulla M; Rosner, Bernard; Frazier, A Lindsay; Colditz, Graham A

    2013-09-01

    Previous investigations, of adolescent diet recalled in adulthood, found lower risk for benign breast disease (BBD) with higher intakes of vegetable fat and nuts during high school. We investigate whether vegetable protein and fat, derived from diets reported during pre-adolescence and adolescence, are associated with subsequent risk for BBD in young women. The Growing Up Today Study includes 9,039 females, 9-15 years in 1996, who completed questionnaires annually through 2001, and then in 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2010. Food frequency questionnaires (1996-2001) obtained intake data on a variety of foods. Beginning in 2005, women (18-30 years) reported whether they had ever been diagnosed with BBD that was confirmed by breast biopsy (n = 112 cases). Logistic regression estimated associations between intakes of vegetable protein and fat and biopsy-confirmed BBD. Those individual foods that were the largest contributors of protein and fat in this cohort were also investigated. In analyses of intakes from 1996 through 1998, when our cohort was youngest, vegetable fat (OR = 0.72/(10 gm/day), 95 % CI 0.53-0.98; p = 0.04) was inversely associated with BBD risk. The greatest sources of vegetable fat and protein in these girls were peanut butter, peanuts, nuts, beans (beans, lentils, and soybeans), and corn. A daily serving of any one of these was associated with lower risk (OR = 0.32/(serv/day), 95 % CI 0.13-0.79; p = 0.01). Peanut butter (and nuts) at age 11 years was inversely associated with risk (p = 0.01). In analyses of intakes at age 14 years, vegetable protein was associated with lower BBD risk (OR = 0.64/(10 gm/day), 95 % CI 0.43-0.95; p = 0.03). A daily serving at 14 years of any one of the foods was associated with lower risk (OR = 0.34, 95 % CI 0.16-0.75; p = 0.01), as was peanut butter (and nuts) (p = 0.02). Girls with a family history of breast cancer had significantly lower risk if they consumed these foods or vegetable fat. In conclusion, consumption of

  19. Influence of undegraded intake protein supplementation on milk production, weight gain, and reproductive performance in postpartum Brahman cows.

    PubMed

    Triplett, B L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1995-11-01

    Eighty first-calf Brahman heifers and 51 mature Brahman cows were allotted to one of three diets based on parity, sex of calf, and breed of calf sire (Angus, Brahman, or Tuli) to evaluate rumen undegraded intake protein's (UIP) influence on production characteristics and reproductive performance. Supplements contained either 38.1% (low), 56.3% (medium), or 75.6% (high) UIP. Supplements were given from d 7 to 119 after calving to dams grazing rye-ryegrass overseeded Coastal bermudagrass pastures and with access to Coastal bermudagrass hay. Dam and calf BW and dam body condition score were recorded on d 7, 35, 63, 91, and 119 after calving. Four-hour milk production was recorded on the above days for low (n = 18), medium (n = 19), and high (n = 18) UIP animals and on d 7 and 35 for the entire group. Blood for progesterone RIA was drawn weekly and on d 6, 8, 10, and 12 after an observed estrus. Medium UIP heifers produced more (P < .02) milk (1.18 +/- .07 kg/4 h) than high UIP heifers (.94 +/- .07 kg/4 h), but milk production in mature cows was not influenced by diet. Low UIP dams had lower (P < .04) first-service conception rates (29.2%) than medium (57.6%) and tended (P < .10) to have lower rates than high UIP dams (54.6%). Overall pregnancy rates tended (P < .10) to be higher in medium (61.5%) and high (56.4%) UIP groups than in the low (43.2%) UIP group. Supplementing UIP at the medium rate improved first-service conception rates and tended to improve pregnancy rates.

  20. Effects of limited and excess protein intakes of pregnant gilts on carcass quality and cellular properties of skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue in fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Rehfeldt, C; Stabenow, B; Pfuhl, R; Block, J; Nürnberg, G; Otten, W; Metges, C C; Kalbe, C

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary protein intake of gilts during gestation below (50%) or above (250%) recommendations affects body composition, carcass and meat quality, and properties of skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) in offspring at d 83 and 188 of age. German Landrace gilts were fed isoenergetic gestation diets (~13.7 MJ of ME/kg) containing a low (LP, 6.5%; n = 18), an adequate (AP, 12.1%; n = 20), or a high (HP, 30%; n = 16) protein content from mating until farrowing. Within 48 h of birth, offspring were cross-fostered to sows fed a standard diet. On d 83 of age, no effects of the LP diet on BW and body composition were detected, whereas HP pigs showed a slight growth delay (P = 0.06) associated with increased relative weights of small intestine (P < 0.01) and brain (P = 0.08), and reduced relative thymus weight (P < 0.01). On d 188 of age, BW was not different among the dietary groups. However, the carcass of LP pigs contained less (P = 0.01) lean and more (P = 0.07) fat compared with AP and HP pigs, which was only pronounced in pigs originating from large litters (P < 0.05). Like skeletal muscles (P = 0.06), the heart muscle weighed less (P = 0.02) in LP than AP pigs. Compared with AP pigs, LP pigs exhibited a fewer (P = 0.09) total number of myofibers in semitendinosus muscle plus LM both at d 83 and 188 of age, whereas total muscular DNA was less (P = 0.02) at d 188 only. The mRNA abundance of IGF2 measured on d 188 was reduced in SCAT (P = 0.03) and LM (P = 0.07) of LP compared with AP pigs. No changes in muscular fiber type frequency, capillary density, or creatine kinase activity, as well as SCAT adipocyte size and number, were observed at either stages of age. Meat quality characteristics remained unchanged at d 83, whereas Warner-Bratzler shear force value in LM was decreased (P = 0.03) in LP compared with AP pigs on d 188 of age. The results suggest that the maternal LP diet impairs prenatal myofiber

  1. Protein Needs of Preterm Infants: Why Are They So Difficult to Meet?

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Because of their exceedingly high rate of growth, premature infants have very high needs for all nutrients. Requirements have been estimated by the factorial method based on the body composition of the fetus. Failure to meet the high requirements for protein impairs growth and places the infant at risk of neurodevelopmental impairments. Human milk, the preferred feeding for premature infants because of its protective effects, does not provide adequate amounts of nutrients and must be fortified. On the basis of studies performed several decades ago using very high protein intakes, in the past it has been believed that protein intakes that met the high needs of premature babies are dangerous for premature babies. To prevent protein intakes from being too high, the protein content of fortifiers in the past has been kept low. Today, this fear of protein is still the reason why protein intakes tend to be kept low, with the result that protein intakes are often too low. PMID:27336165

  2. Dietary reporting errors on 24 h recalls and dietary questionnaires are associated with BMI across six European countries as evaluated with recovery biomarkers for protein and potassium intake.

    PubMed

    Freisling, Heinz; van Bakel, Marit M E; Biessy, Carine; May, Anne M; Byrnes, Graham; Norat, Teresa; Rinaldi, Sabina; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Grioni, Sara; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romaguera, Dora; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Crowe, Francesca L; Tumino, Rosario; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Boeing, Heiner; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H; Slimani, Nadia

    2012-03-01

    Whether there are differences between countries in the validity of self-reported diet in relation to BMI, as evaluated using recovery biomarkers, is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate BMI-related reporting errors on 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and on dietary questionnaires (DQ) using biomarkers for protein and K intake and whether the BMI effect differs between six European countries. Between 1995 and 1999, 1086 men and women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition completed a single 24-HDR, a DQ and one 24 h urine collection. In regression analysis, controlling for age, sex, education and country, each unit (1 kg/m²) increase in BMI predicted an approximately 1·7 and 1·3 % increase in protein under-reporting on 24-HDR and DQ, respectively (both P < 0·0001). Exclusion of individuals who probably misreported energy intake attenuated BMI-related bias on both instruments. The BMI effect on protein under-reporting did not differ for men and women and neither between countries on both instruments as tested by interaction (all P>0·15). In women, but not in men, the DQ yielded higher mean intakes of protein that were closer to the biomarker-based measurements across BMI groups when compared with 24-HDR. Results for K were similar to those of protein, although BMI-related under-reporting of K was of a smaller magnitude, suggesting differential misreporting of foods. Under-reporting of protein and K appears to be predicted by BMI, but this effect may be driven by 'low-energy reporters'. The BMI effect on under-reporting seems to be the same across countries.

  3. Intake of cooked tomato sauce preserves coronary endothelial function and improves apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein J protein profile in high-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Vilahur, Gemma; Cubedo, Judit; Padró, Teresa; Casaní, Laura; Mendieta, Guiomar; González, Alicia; Badimon, Lina

    2015-07-01

    Intake of tomatoes has been linked with healthy diets (eg, Mediterranean diet). However, it remains unknown whether tomato intake exerts protective effects on the vasculature. The aim of this study was to determine whether medium-term supplementation with cooked tomato sauce (CTS) Mediterranean style (sofrito) attenuates diet-induced coronary endothelial dysfunction in an animal model with clinical impact and explore the mechanisms behind the effects. Pigs (N = 18) were fed a 10-day hypercholesterolemic diet. Half of the animals were given a supplement of 100 g/d of CTS (21.5 mg lycopene per day). Coronary responses to escalating doses of vasoactive drugs (acetylcholine, calcium ionophore, and sodium nitroprusside) and L-NG-monomethylarginine (endothelial nitric oxide synthase [eNOS] inhibitor) were measured using flow Doppler. In the coronary arteries, we investigated eNOS gene expression and activation, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) expression, and oxidative DNA damage. In the circulation, we investigated lipoprotein resistance to oxidation and the differential proteomic protein profile. In dyslipidemic animals, CTS intake prevented diet-induced impairment of receptor-operated and nonreceptor-operated endothelial-dependent coronary vasodilation. These beneficial effects were associated with enhanced eNOS transcription and activation and diminished DNA damage in the coronary arteries. CTS-fed animals showed lower lipid peroxidation, higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) antioxidant potential and plasma lycopene levels of 0.16 mg/L. Interestingly, improved HDL functionality was associated with protein profile changes in apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein J. Lipids levels and MCP-1 expression were not affected by CTS. We report that CTS intake protects against low-density lipoprotein-induced coronary endothelial dysfunction by reducing oxidative damage, enhancing eNOS expression and activity, and improving HDL functionality.

  4. The hepatic Igf2/H19 locus is not altered in 1-day old pups born to obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats fed a low protein diet containing adequate folic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gong et al. (Epigenetics, 2010) found, using diets low in folic acid, that compared to an 18% protein diet a 9% protein diet fed to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats resulted in increased Igf2 and H19 gene expression in the liver of day 0 male offspring. In addition DNA methylation in the Imprinting Cont...

  5. Responses in growth, food intake and food conversion efficiency to different dietary protein concentrations in meat-type lines of Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Hyánková, L; Dĕdková, L; Knízetová, H; Klecker, D

    1997-12-01

    1. A total of 360 Japanese quail of 4 commercial meat-type lines and two diet treatments (260 and 216 g/kg or 238 and 195 g/kg of crude protein (CP) in the starter and grower diet, respectively) were used. 2. The positive effect of a high CP diet on body weight was significant only for the first 4 weeks after hatching. 3. The mean age at inflection point of the growth curve (t+) across lines and sexes was 1.4 d (0.6 to 2.8 d within line/sex groups) earlier for quail fed on a high CP diet than in quail receiving a low CP diet. The inflection (y+) and asymptotic (A) weights were similar under both dietary protein concentrations. Nevertheless, the shape of the growth curve, characterised by the ratio y+/A and parameter of the maturing rate k, was significantly influenced by diet. 4. A higher food intake and less efficient food conversion were found for quail fed on a high CP diet in the period from 15 to 28 d of age. 5. The fattening traits such as body weight, cumulative food intake and food conversion, were not affected by dietary CP content at the age of 5 weeks. 6. The effects of line on body weight, food intake and food conversion are discussed. PMID:9511002

  6. Plasma C-reactive protein and homocysteine concentrations are related to frequent fruit and vegetable intake in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white elders.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Bermudez, Odilia I; Tucker, Katherine L

    2004-04-01

    Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) and plasma total homocysteine (Hcy) were recently identified as risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, few studies have related fruit and vegetable consumption to these markers of inflammation and B vitamin deficiency, particularly in the Hispanic population. We examined the relation of fruit and vegetable intake with plasma CRP and Hcy concentrations in a cross-sectional study. Subjects were 445 Hispanic elders and 154 neighborhood-based non-Hispanic white elders living in Massachusetts. Diet was assessed with a FFQ designed for this population. There were significant inverse dose-response associations between fruit and vegetable intake and plasma CRP (P for trend = 0.010) and Hcy (P for trend = 0.033) concentrations, after adjustment for potential confounders. The prevalence of high plasma CRP (> 10 mg/L), and high Hcy (>10.4 micromol/L for women and >11.4 micromol/L for men), was significantly greater among subjects in the lowest quartile of fruit and vegetable consumption relative to those in the highest quartile, 17.9 vs. 9.1% and 58.7 vs. 44.4%, respectively. With each additional serving of fruit and vegetable intake, adjusted odd ratios for high plasma CRP and Hcy were 0.79 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.97) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72 to 0.96), respectively. Greater frequency of fruit and vegetable intake was associated with significantly lower plasma CRP and Hcy concentrations. Because both of these metabolites are known risk factors for CVD, these findings contribute to the evidence that a higher intake of fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of CVD.

  7. Are Dietary Intakes Related to Obesity in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Papandreou, Dimitrios; Makedou, Kali; Zormpa, Areti; Karampola, Maria; Ioannou, Anastasia; Hitoglou-Makedou, Areti

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to report obesity status and identify any dietary substances that may be related to obesity in healthy school children from Northern Greece. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty-five (n = 425) children were randomly selected to participate in the study. A 24-h recall of three days (two weekdays and one weekend day) was used to analyze the dietary data of the subjects. RESULTS: Out of 425 subjects, 146 (34.3%) of them were found to be overweight and obese. Energy, protein, carbohydrate and thiamin intake was statistically positively correlated with obesity while dietary iron intake was statistically negatively correlated with obesity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the children with dietary iron deficiency were 1.128 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.161 P < 0.031) times more likely of being obese compared to the normal group after adjustment for energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the dietary intakes of our subjects were adequate, special consideration should be given to energy, carbohydrate, protein, and sugar and iron intake especially and its relation to obesity. Furthermore, additional studies are required to investigate any possible relation of low dietary iron consumption and obesity. PMID:27335587

  8. Casein infusion rate influences feed intake differently depending on metabolizable protein balance in dairy cows: A multilevel meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Martineau, R; Ouellet, D R; Kebreab, E; Lapierre, H

    2016-04-01

    The effects of casein infusion have been investigated extensively in ruminant species. Its effect on responses in dry matter intake (DMI) has been reviewed and indicated no significant effect. The literature reviewed in the current meta-analysis is more extensive and limited to dairy cows fed ad libitum. A total of 51 studies were included in the meta-analysis and data were fitted to a multilevel model adjusting for the correlated nature of some studies. The effect size was the mean difference calculated by subtracting the means for the control from the casein-infused group. Overall, casein infusion [average of 333 g of dry matter (DM)/d; range: 91 to 1,092 g of DM/d] tended to increase responses in DMI by 0.18 kg/d (n=48 studies; 3 outliers). However, an interaction was observed between the casein infusion rate (IR) and the initial metabolizable protein (MP) balance [i.e., supply minus requirements (NRC, 2001)]. When control cows were in negative MP balance (n=27 studies), responses in DMI averaged 0.28 kg/d at mean MP balance (-264 g/d) and casein IR (336 g/d), and a 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean increased further responses by 0.14 kg/d (MP balance being constant), compared with cows not infused with casein. In contrast, when control cows were in positive MP balance (n=22 studies; 2 outliers), responses in DMI averaged -0.20 kg/d at mean casein IR (339 g/d), and a 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean further decreased responses by 0.33 kg/d, compared with cows not infused with casein. Responses in milk true protein yield at mean casein IR were greater (109 vs. 65 g/d) for cows in negative vs. positive MP balance, respectively, and the influence of the casein IR on responses was significant only for cows in negative MP balance. A 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean increased further responses in milk true protein yield by 25 g/d, compared with cows not infused with casein. Responses in blood urea concentration increased in

  9. Effect of palm kernel cake as protein source in a concentrate diet on intake, digestibility and live weight gain of goats fed Napier grass.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Mijanur; Abdullah, Ramli Bin; Wan Embong, Wan Khadijah; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Akashi, Ryo

    2013-03-01

    The effects of palm kernel cake (PKC) as a protein source in a concentrate diet (comprising 35 % crushed maize, 30 % rice bran, 32 % PKC, 2 % vitamin mineral premix and 1 % salt) were examined on intake, live weight (LW) gain and digestibility in female goats (average LW of 12.4 ± 2.6 kg). Four goats were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: (a) Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) offered ad libitum (T1), (b) T1 + concentrate at 0.5 % of LW (T2), (c) T1 + concentrate at 1.0 % of LW (T3) and (d) T1 + concentrate at 2.0 % of LW (T4). A 7-day digestibility trial and an 82-day growth experiment were conducted. No differences were observed among diets for intakes of roughage dry matter (DM), total DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The crude protein (CP) intake increased (P < 0.05) as the level of concentrate in the diets increased. Goats fed the T2, T3 and T4 diets gained 10.2, 34.1 and 52.5 g/head/day, respectively, while the control group (T1) lost weight (-12.7 g/head/day). The apparent digestibilities of DM, OM and CP were similar (P > 0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary NDF decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of concentrate, but there was no significant (P > 0.05) difference between T2 and T3 diets. Supplementing a basal diet of Napier grass with PKC-based concentrate improved CP intake and LW gain. The PKC-based concentrate diet can therefore be exploited for the use of local feed resources for goat production; however, further research is required to achieve the best growth response.

  10. Protein intake during gestation affects postnatal bovine skeletal muscle growth and relative expression of IGF1, IGF1R, IGF2 and IGF2R.

    PubMed

    Micke, G C; Sullivan, T M; McMillen, I C; Gentili, S; Perry, V E A

    2011-01-30

    Expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)1 and IGF2 and their receptor (IGF1R and IGF2R) mRNA in fetal skeletal muscle are changed by variations in maternal nutrient intake. The persistence of these effects into postnatal life and their association with phenotype in beef cattle is unknown. Here we report that the cross-sectional areas of longissimus dorsi and semitendinosus (ST) muscles were greater for mature male progeny born to heifers fed low protein diets (70% vs. 240% of recommended) during the first trimester. In ST, this was accompanied by greater IGF1, IGF2 and IGF2R mRNA at 680 d. Females exposed to low protein diets during the first trimester had decreased IGF2 mRNA in ST at 680 d, however this did not result in an effect to phenotype. Exposure to low protein diets during the second trimester increased IGF1R mRNA in ST of all progeny at 680 d. Changes to expression of IGF genes in progeny skeletal muscle resulting from variations to maternal protein intake during gestation may have permanent and sex-specific effect on postnatal skeletal muscle growth.

  11. Higher vitamin D intake in preterm infants fed an isocaloric, protein- and mineral-enriched postdischarge formula is associated with increased bone accretion.

    PubMed

    van de Lagemaat, Monique; Rotteveel, Joost; Schaafsma, Anne; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M; Lafeber, Harrie N

    2013-09-01

    During the first half of infancy, bone accretion in preterm infants fed an isocaloric, protein- and mineral-enriched postdischarge formula (PDF) is higher compared with those fed term formula (TF) or human milk (HM). This may be related to higher protein, calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D intakes. This study investigated serum calcium, phosphate, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in relation to bone mineral content (BMC) in PDF-, TF-, and HM-fed preterm infants between term age (40 wk postmenstrual age) and 6 mo corrected age (CA). Between term age and 6 mo CA, 52 preterm infants were fed PDF (per 100 mL: 67 kcal, 1.7 g protein, 65 mg calcium, 38 mg phosphorus, 56 IU vitamin D), 41 were fed TF (per 100 mL: 67 kcal, 1.47 g protein, 50 mg calcium, 30 mg phosphorus, 48 IU vitamin D), and 46 were fed HM. Serum calcium, phosphorus, and 25(OH)D were measured at term age and at 3 and 6 mo CA. BMC (g) was measured by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at term age and at 6 mo CA. Between term age and 6 mo CA, intakes of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D were significantly higher in PDF- compared with TF-fed infants, and PDF-fed infants reached significantly higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations at 6 mo CA (103 ± 24.3 vs. 92.8 ± 15.5 nmol/L, P = 0.003). Between term age and 6 mo CA, increases in serum 25(OH)D were associated with an increase in BMC (β = 0.001; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.003; P = 0.046). In conclusion, during the first 6 mo postterm, higher vitamin D intake and greater increase in serum 25(OH)D concentration in PDF-fed preterm infants were associated with increased bone accretion.

  12. [Study on the pathogenetic factors of the progression of renal insufficiency, with special reference to the effects of dietary protein intake].

    PubMed

    Tsugawa, Y

    1990-06-01

    The effects of dietary protein intake on the progression of renal insufficiency were studied in daunomycin (DMC) induced nephrotic rats (DMC rats) and also patients with chronic renal diseases. In the first study, the author examined which treatment among enalapril (E) and indomethacin (I) and dietary protein restriction was the most effective to prevent proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis, and then the effect of dietary protein restriction on renal content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in DMC rats. These rats were divided into four groups as follows: group PL and group PH were isocaloric diets containing either 5% or 24% protein, respectively and group PE and PI were given orally E (100 mg/l drinking water) or I (50 mg/l drinking water) with diets of 24% protein, respectively. In group PL, urinary protein excretion (U-Protein) rates and renal damage index were significantly lower than those in other three groups. In group PE, renal damage index was significantly improved although U-Protein showed no reduction in contrast with these in group PH. Renal MDA in group PL was lower than that in group PH was significantly lower than that in group PL. In this study dietary protein restriction was the most effective treatment for the prevention of progressive renal insufficiency. In the second study, patients with chronic renal diseases were divided into two groups according to their Ccr: group I; Ccr greater than or equal to 60 ml/min, group II; Ccr less than 60 ml/min. All patients orally received diets of high protein (1.4 g/kgBW) and subsequently of low protein (0.7 g/kgBW). Ccr, U-Protein, serum MDA and serum SOD were estimated at the end of each dietary period. In group I, Ccr was significantly lower on low protein diet than that on high protein diet, although these were no significant changes in Ccr in group II. The low protein diet caused a significant decrease in U-Protein in both groups. Serum MDA in group I was significantly lower on low

  13. Adaptive changes of pancreatic protease secretion to a short-term vegan diet: influence of reduced intake and modification of protein.

    PubMed

    Walkowiak, Jaroslaw; Mądry, Edyta; Lisowska, Aleksandra; Szaflarska-Popławska, Anna; Grzymisławski, Marian; Stankowiak-Kulpa, Hanna; Przysławski, Juliusz

    2012-01-01

    In our previous study, we demonstrated that abstaining from meat, for 1 month, by healthy omnivores (lacto-ovovegetarian model) resulted in a statistical decrease in pancreatic secretion as measured by faecal elastase-1 output. However, no correlation between relative and non-relative changes of energy and nutrient consumption and pancreatic secretion was documented. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to assess the changes of exocrine pancreatic secretion with a more restrictive dietetic modification, by applying a vegan diet. A total of twenty-one healthy omnivores (sixteen females and five males) participated in the prospective study lasting for 6 weeks. The nutrient intake and faecal output of pancreatic enzymes (elastase-1, chymotrypsin and lipase) were assessed twice during the study. Each assessment period lasted for 7 d: the first before the transition to the vegan diet (omnivore diet) and the second during the last week of the study (vegan diet). The dietary modification resulted in a significant decrease in faecal elastase-1 (P < 0·05) and chymotrypsin output (P < 0·04). The lipase excretion remained unchanged. The decrease in proteolytic enzymes was documented to be positively correlated with a decreased protein intake (P < 0·05). In addition, elastase-1 and chymotrypsin outputs were also related to the changes of protein type, plant v. animal (P < 0·04 and P < 0·03, respectively). It was concluded that significant reduction and modification of protein intake due to a short-term vegan diet resulted in an adaptation of pancreatic protease secretion in healthy volunteers.

  14. Plasma Free Amino Acid Responses to Intraduodenal Whey Protein, and Relationships with Insulin, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 and Energy Intake in Lean Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D.; Hutchison, Amy T.; Soenen, Stijn; Steinert, Robert E.; Clifton, Peter M.; Horowitz, Michael; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the effects of increasing loads of intraduodenal (ID) dairy protein on plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations, and their relationships with serum insulin, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and energy intake. Sixteen healthy men had concentrations of AAs, GLP-1 and insulin measured in response to 60-min ID infusions of hydrolysed whey protein administered, in double-blinded and randomised order, at 2.1 (P2.1), 6.3 (P6.3) or 12.5 (P12.5) kJ/min (encompassing the range of nutrient emptying from the stomach), or saline control (C). Energy intake was quantified immediately afterwards. Compared with C, the concentrations of 19/20 AAs, the exception being cysteine, were increased, and this was dependent on the protein load. The relationship between AA concentrations in the infusions and the area under the curve from 0 to 60 min (AUC0–60 min) of each AA profile was strong for essential AAs (R2 range, 0.61–0.67), but more variable for non-essential (0.02–0.54) and conditional (0.006–0.64) AAs. The AUC0–60 min for each AA was correlated directly with the AUC0–60 min of insulin (R2 range 0.3–0.6), GLP-1 (0.2–0.6) and energy intake (0.09–0.3) (p < 0.05, for all), with the strongest correlations being for branched-chain AAs, lysine, methionine and tyrosine. These findings indicate that ID whey protein infused at loads encompassing the normal range of gastric emptying increases plasma concentrations of 19/20 AAs in a load-dependent manner, and provide novel information on the close relationships between the essential AAs, leucine, valine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, and the conditionally-essential AA, tyrosine, with energy intake, insulin and GLP-1. PMID:26742062

  15. Dietary self-selection by broilers at normal and high temperature changes feed intake behavior, nutrient intake, and performance.

    PubMed

    Syafwan, S; Wermink, G J D; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A

    2012-03-01

    Self-selection assumes that at high ambient temperature, birds are able to select a diet from different sources to minimize the heat load associated with the ingested nutrient metabolism. The objective was to test the hypothesis that young chickens are able to compose an adequate ration by adjusting dietary nutrient intake from 3 different diets that vary in energy and in protein contents from a cafeteria system at high temperature (HT; 31-32°C) and at normal temperature (NT; 31-21°C). Night temperature was set at 25°C at HT and at 18°C at NT and 12 h dark:12 h light. Control birds were fed a standard control diet (CP: 215 g/kg; ME: 2,895 kcal/kg) for broiler chickens. The choice-fed birds could choose between the control diet, a high-protein diet (CP: 299 g/kg; ME: 2,780 kcal/kg), and a high-energy diet (CP: 150.7 g/kg; ME: 3,241 kcal/kg). The diets had similar pellet size and color. Birds had access to each diet in a separate feeding trough from 1 to 42 d of age. Results showed that broilers spent 3.3% more time eating at NT than at HT and showed 42% more panting behavior at HT than at NT. High temperature decreased feed intake, protein intake, energy intake, and BW gain. Choice-fed birds had similar feed intake and BW gain, 14% lower protein intake, and 6.4% higher energy intake than control-fed birds. Body temperature and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio were higher at HT than at NT. Water intake was 8% higher in control-fed birds than in choice-fed birds but similar at both temperature regimens. It can be concluded that broilers can compose a diet by selecting less protein but higher energy density from different diets compared with the control. Choice-fed birds had similar feed efficiency as control-fed birds at HT, indicating similar body composition for both groups. Extra energy intake of choice-fed birds at HT was used for panting activity.

  16. Protein and energy intakes affected amino acid concentrations in plasma, muscle, and liver, and cell signaling in the liver of growing dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Rius, A G; Weeks, H A; Cyriac, J; Akers, R M; Bequette, B J; Hanigan, M D

    2012-04-01

    The nutrient content of and feeding recommendations for milk replacers (MR) vary widely in North America, and acceleration of growth through manipulation of protein and energy intakes can reduce rearing costs of dairy operations. The effects of varying the protein and energy intake of MR on metabolite concentrations in plasma, liver, and muscle and the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase B (AKT) and ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) cell signals in liver and muscle were assessed. Twenty-four newborn Holstein calves were fed 1 of 4 MR for 9 wk (n=6/treatment): (1) a 20% crude protein (CP), 20% fat MR fed at 441 g of dry matter (DM)/d (CON); (2) a high-protein, medium-fat MR (HPMF; 28% CP, 20% fat) fed at 951 g of DM/d; (3) a high-protein, high-fat MR (HPHF; 27% CP, 28% fat) fed at 951 g of DM/d; and (4) HPHF fed at 1,431 g of DM/d (HPHF+). Water and starter (20% CP, 1.43% fat) were offered ad libitum and calves were fed MR twice daily. Plasma samples were obtained at 1, 5, and 9 wk of age. Calves were not weaned and were slaughtered after the last blood sampling. Liver and muscle tissues were collected and analyzed for metabolite concentrations and cell signaling activity. Calves fed all treatments had lower plasma concentrations of Phe and Tyr, and a trend for lower Leu, but greater concentrations of Thr relative to calves fed CON. Calves fed all treatments had increased muscle concentrations of Met and muscle to plasma ratios of Phe, Tyr, and branched-chain amino acids compared with CON. All treatments increased liver to plasma ratios of Phe and Tyr but diminished the ratios of Met compared with CON. Phosphorylation of protein kinase B was not affected by treatment; however, relative to calves fed HPHF, HPMF and HPHF+ diets increased phosphorylation ratios of ribosomal protein S6 in the liver. Therefore, the changes in plasma and tissue concentrations and plasma to tissue ratios of amino acids were associated with enhanced growth rates. However, cell signaling

  17. A Comparison by Milk Feeding Method of the Nutrient Intake of a Cohort of Australian Toddlers.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jane; Davey, Kristina; Ahwong, Ellen; Devenish, Gemma; Ha, Diep; Do, Loc

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is recommended beyond 12 months of age, but little is known about the contribution of breastmilk and infant formula to the nutritional intake of toddlers as they transition to a family diet in the second year of life. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a birth cohort study in Adelaide, Australia. Dietary intake data were collected when children were approximately 1 year of age by an interviewer-administered multi-pass 24 h recall and a mother-completed 2 days food diary. Children were categorized according to their milk feeding method, i.e., breastmilk, infant formula, combination or other, and their nutrient intakes compared with recommended nutrient reference values. Complete data were available for 832 children, of which 714 had plausible energy intakes. Breastmilk and formula made a substantial contribution to the nutrient intake of those toddlers, contributing 28% and 34% of total energy, and 16% and 26% of protein intake, respectively when not drunk in combination. In general, Australian toddlers transitioning to the family diet consumed nutritionally adequate diets, although almost one quarter of all children and half of breastfed children with plausible intakes had iron intakes below the estimated average requirement, placing them at risk of iron deficiency. PMID:27537910

  18. A Comparison by Milk Feeding Method of the Nutrient Intake of a Cohort of Australian Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jane; Davey, Kristina; Ahwong, Ellen; Devenish, Gemma; Ha, Diep; Do, Loc

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is recommended beyond 12 months of age, but little is known about the contribution of breastmilk and infant formula to the nutritional intake of toddlers as they transition to a family diet in the second year of life. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a birth cohort study in Adelaide, Australia. Dietary intake data were collected when children were approximately 1 year of age by an interviewer-administered multi-pass 24 h recall and a mother-completed 2 days food diary. Children were categorized according to their milk feeding method, i.e., breastmilk, infant formula, combination or other, and their nutrient intakes compared with recommended nutrient reference values. Complete data were available for 832 children, of which 714 had plausible energy intakes. Breastmilk and formula made a substantial contribution to the nutrient intake of those toddlers, contributing 28% and 34% of total energy, and 16% and 26% of protein intake, respectively when not drunk in combination. In general, Australian toddlers transitioning to the family diet consumed nutritionally adequate diets, although almost one quarter of all children and half of breastfed children with plausible intakes had iron intakes below the estimated average requirement, placing them at risk of iron deficiency. PMID:27537910

  19. Anthropometric indices and selected nutrient intakes of young children in Kwangju, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Nam; Cho, Youn-Ok

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of children's nutritional intakes is important because any nutritional inadequacies or toxicities may have adverse consequences. Studies on the nutritional intakes of Korean children are limited. The aims of this study were to determine anthropometric indices, estimate selected nutrient intakes of young Korean children, and compare these intakes with current Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. This study included 136 healthy children (65 boys, 71 girls), 2-6 y old, living in Kwangju, Korea. Weights and heights were measured. Three consecutive 24-h food recalls were obtained. According to International Obesity TaskForce BMI cutoffs, 8% were overweight and 2% were obese. The energy intakes of 40% were < Korean Estimated Energy Requirements, while all subjects consumed ≥ Korean Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for protein. The majority of the children consumed > Korean EAR for iron, zinc, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and niacin. Vitamin E intakes of 65% of the Korean children were < Korean Adequate Intake, and approximately half of the subjects had < Korean EAR for calcium and for folate. Many young children in Kwangju, Korea, likely have inadequate status of calcium, folate, and vitamin E. PMID:20126604

  20. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  1. Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been hypothesized that insufficient intake of vitamin K may increase soft tissue calcification due to impaired gamma-carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (MGP). The evidence to support this putative role of vitamin K intake in atherosclerosis is ...

  2. A Study on the Dietary Intake and the Nutritional Status among the Pancreatic Cancer Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon Seong; Yoon, Dong Sup; Kim, Woo Jeong; Chung, Hae-yun

    2016-01-01

    The adequate dietary intake is important to maintain the nutritional status of the patients after pancreatic cancer surgery. This prospective study was designed to investigate the dietary intake and the nutritional status of the patients who had pancreatic cancer surgery. Thirty-one patients (15 men, 16 women) were enrolled and measured body weight, body mass index (BMI), nutritional risk index (NRI), and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). Actual oral intake with nutritional impact symptoms recorded on the clinical research foam at every meal and medical information were collected from electronic medical charts. The rates of malnutrition at admission were 45.1% (14/31) and 28.9% (9/31) by NRI and MUST method, respectively, but those were increased to 87% (27/31) and 86.6% (26/31) after operation on discharge. The median values of daily intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat, and protein were 588.1 kcal, 96.0 g, 11.8 g, and 27.0 g, respectively. Most patients (n = 20, 64.5%) experienced two or more symptoms such as anorexia, abdominal bloating and early satiety. There were negative correlations between C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the intake of total energy, protein, fat, and zinc. The rates of malnutrition were increased sharply after surgery and the dietary intake also influenced the inflammatory indicators. The results suggested that need of considering special therapeutic diets for the patients who received pancreatic surgery. PMID:27812517

  3. Supervision of Student Teachers: How Adequate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Ken

    This study attempted to ascertain how adequately student teachers are supervised by college supervisors and supervising teachers. Questions to be answered were as follows: a) How do student teachers rate the adequacy of supervision given them by college supervisors and supervising teachers? and b) Are there significant differences between ratings…

  4. Small Rural Schools CAN Have Adequate Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Martha

    The small rural school's foremost and largest problem is providing an adequate curriculum for students in a changing world. Often the small district cannot or is not willing to pay the per-pupil cost of curriculum specialists, specialized courses using expensive equipment no more than one period a day, and remodeled rooms to accommodate new…

  5. Toward More Adequate Quantitative Instructional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1986-01-01

    Sets an agenda for improving instructional research conducted with classical quantitative experimental or quasi-experimental methodology. Includes guidelines regarding the role of a social perspective, adequate conceptual and operational definition, quality instrumentation, control of threats to internal and external validity, and the use of…

  6. An Adequate Education Defined. Fastback 476.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Donald; Davis, E. E. (Gene)

    Court decisions historically have dealt with educational equity; now they are helping to establish "adequacy" as a standard in education. Legislatures, however, have been slow to enact remedies. One debate over education adequacy, though, is settled: Schools are not financed at an adequate level. This fastback is divided into three sections.…

  7. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  8. Effect of the Ratio of Non-fibrous Carbohydrates to Neutral Detergent Fiber and Protein Structure on Intake, Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation, and Nitrogen Metabolism in Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Ma, T.; Tu, Y.; Zhang, N. F.; Deng, K. D.; Diao, Q. Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of the ratio of non-fibrous carbohydrates to neutral detergent fibre (NFC/NDF) and undegraded dietary protein (UDP) on rumen fermentation and nitrogen metabolism in lambs. Four Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred lambs, averaging 62.3±1.9 kg of body weight and 10 mo of age, were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments of combinations of two levels of NFC/NDF (1.0 and 1.7) and two levels of UDP (35% and 50% of crude protein [CP]). Duodenal nutrient flows were measured with dual markers of Yb and Co, and microbial N (MN) synthesis was estimated using 15N. High UDP decreased organic matter (OM) intake (p = 0.002) and CP intake (p = 0.005). Ruminal pH (p<0.001), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N; p = 0.008), and total volatile fatty acids (p<0.001) were affected by dietary NFC/NDF. The ruminal concentration of NH3-N was also affected by UDP (p<0.001). The duodenal flow of total MN (p = 0.007) was greater for lambs fed the high NFC/NDF diet. The amount of metabolisable N increased with increasing dietary NFC:NDF (p = 0.02) or UDP (p = 0.04). In conclusion, the diets with high NFC/NDF (1.7) and UDP (50% of CP) improved metabolisable N supply to lambs. PMID:26323398

  9. Dietary intakes and nutrient status of vegetarian preschool children from a British national survey.

    PubMed

    Thane, C.W.; Bates, C.J.

    2000-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary intakes and nutrient status were compared in meat-eaters and non-meat-eaters from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of children aged 1.5-4.5 years. METHODS: Children (n = 1351) were categorized as 'omnivores' or 'vegetarians', according to whether they consumed meat or meat products during a 4-day dietary record. Blood samples were also obtained for analysis of haematological and biochemical nutrient status. RESULTS: Three per cent of children were 'vegetarian'. They consumed higher proportions of milk and milk products, although this was significant only in older children (P = 0.007), owing to high consumption by the high proportion of Asian children. In vegetarians, energy intakes tended to be lower in both age groups. Percentage energy from protein and fat were lower, while that from carbohydrate was higher compared with omnivores. Cholesterol intakes were lower, significantly so for younger children (P < 0.001). Intakes of micronutrients were either higher (vitamins C and E, potassium) or lower (niacin and sodium) in younger vegetarians compared with omnivores. Energy-adjusted intakes of iron and zinc did not differ significantly from those of omnivores, although both intakes were low in many children (6-20% < LRNI), particularly in the younger group. Haematological and biochemical nutrient status indices showed few differences. Serum ferritin was lower in vegetarians, significantly so in younger children (P = 0.002). Antioxidant vitamin (A, C and E) status tended to be higher in vegetarians, while vitamin B12 intakes and status were more than adequate. Apart from poorer vitamin D intake and status in older Asian vegetarians, very few ethnic differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Nutrient intakes and status were generally adequate in preschool children who did not eat meat. Although serum ferritin levels were inferior (particularly in vegetarians under 3 years old), the lower intakes of fat, cholesterol and sodium, and higher

  10. Effects of supplemental protein type on intake, nitrogen balance, and site, and extent of digestion in whiteface wethers consuming low-quality grass hay.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, M W; Krehbiel, C R; Ross, T T; Schultz, C L; Melton, L L

    2004-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of supplementing ruminally degradable intake protein (DIP) or ruminally undegradable intake protein (UIP) on N balance (Exp. 1; n = 6 wethers; initial BW = 48.7 +/- 4.6 kg) and site and extent of digestion (Exp. 2; n = 5 wethers; initial BW = 36.9 +/- 3.1 kg) in whiteface wethers consuming (as-fed basis) 69% blue grama and 31% love grass hay (mixture = 7.5% CP, 73.0% NDF, 36.0% ADF [DM basis]). Treatments were 1) no supplement (Control), 2) a supplement (219 g/d, as-fed basis) low in UIP (70 g/d of CP; 24.8 g/d of UIP), and 3) a supplement (219 g/d, as-fed basis) high in UIP (70 g/d of CP; 37.1 g/d of UIP). Both experiments were replicated 3 x 3 Latin square designs, with identical feeding and supplementation. Wethers had ad libitum access to the forage mixture and fresh water, and received supplement once daily. In Exp.1, forage intake (percentage of BW) was greatest (P = 0.04) for control, but total DMI (g/d) was greatest (P = 0.05) for lambs consuming supplement. Apparent total-tract OM digestibility was numerically greater (P = 0.11) for supplemented wethers than for controls, whereas total-tract ADF digestibility tended (P = 0.08) to be greater for control wethers. Lambs fed supplements consumed and retained more (P < or = 0.01) N (% of N intake) compared with controls, but no difference (P = 0.22) was observed between low and high UIP treatments. Similar to Exp. 1, forage intake (percentage of BW) tended (P = 0.06) to be greater for control than for supplemented wethers in Exp. 2. Ruminal NDF digestibility was 16.3% greater (P = 0.02) for supplemented wethers than for controls. Postruminal NDF and N digestibilities were greatest (P < or = 0.03) for controls, but apparent OM digestibility did not differ among treatments at all sites. Duodenal N flow was greatest (P = 0.05) for high UIP and least for control wethers. Nonmicrobial N flow was greater (P = 0.02) for high UIP compared with low UIP or controls

  11. Co-dependence of genotype and dietary protein intake to affect expression on amino acid/peptide transporters in porcine skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Kong, X; Li, F; Tan, B; Li, Y; Duan, Y; Yin, Y; He, J; Hu, C; Blachier, F; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    A total of 96 barrows (48 pure-bred Bama mini-pigs representing fatty genotype, and 48 Landrace pigs representing lean genotype) were randomly assigned to either a low- or adequate-protein treatment diet. The experimental period commenced at 5 weeks of age and extended to the finishing period. After euthanasia, blood and skeletal muscle samples were collected from pigs at the nursery, growing, and finishing phases. Our results indicate that the concentrations of free AAs in the plasma and muscle decreased as the age of the pigs increased. In addition, a strain × growth phase interaction (P < 0.05) was observed for the free AA pool in the plasma and muscle. The low-protein diet upregulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA levels for T1R1/T1R3 involved in glutamate binding, but downregulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA levels for PAT1, PAT2, and ASCT2, which transport neutral AAs into muscles. Bama mini-pigs had higher (P < 0.05) mRNA levels for LAT1, SNAT2, and EAAC1, but a lower (P < 0.05) mRNA level for PepT1, compared with Landrace pigs. Collectively, our findings indicate that adequate provision of dietary protein plays an important role in regulating profiles of free AA pools and expression of key AA/peptide transporters/transceptors in a genotype- and tissue-specific manner.

  12. Changes in intake of protein foods, carbohydrate amount and quality, and long-term weight change: results from 3 prospective cohorts1234

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Tao; Ludwig, David S; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter; Hu, Frank B; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary guidelines recommend interchanging protein foods (e.g., chicken for red meat), but they may be exchanged for carbohydrate-rich foods varying in quality [glycemic load (GL)]. Whether such exchanges occur and how they influence long-term weight gain are not established. Objective: Our objective was to determine how changes in intake of protein foods, GL, and their interrelationship influence long-term weight gain. Design: We investigated the association between 4-y changes in consumption of protein foods, GL, and their interaction with 4-y weight change over a 16- to 24-y follow-up, adjusted for other lifestyle changes (smoking, physical activity, television watching, sleep duration), body mass index, and all dietary factors simultaneously in 3 prospective US cohorts (Nurses’ Health Study, Nurses’ Health Study II, and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study) comprising 120,784 men and women free of chronic disease or obesity at baseline. Results: Protein foods were not interchanged with each other (intercorrelations typically <|0.05|) but with carbohydrate (negative correlation as low as −0.39). Protein foods had different relations with long-term weight gain, with positive associations for meats, chicken with skin, and regular cheese (per increased serving/d, 0.13–1.17 kg; P = 0.02 to P < 0.001); no association for milk, legumes, peanuts, or eggs (P > 0.40 for each); and relative weight loss for yogurt, peanut butter, walnuts, other nuts, chicken without skin, low-fat cheese, and seafood (−0.14 to −0.71 kg; P = 0.01 to P < 0.001). Increases in GL were independently associated with a 0.42-kg greater weight gain per 50-unit increase (P < 0.001). Significant interactions (P-interaction < 0.05) between changes in protein foods and GL were identified; for example, increased cheese intake was associated with weight gain when GL increased, with weight stability when GL did not change, and with weight loss when exchanged for GL (i.e., decrease

  13. Effects of perinatal protein malnutrition and fenfluramine action on food intake and neuronal activation in the hypothalamus and raphe nuclei of neonate rats.

    PubMed

    Ferro Cavalcante, Taisy Cinthia; Marcelino da Silva, Amanda Alves; Amaral Almeida, Larissa Cavalcanti do; Tavares, Gabriel Araújo; de Farias Campina, Renata Cristinny; do Nascimento, Elizabeth; Lopes de Souza, Sandra

    2016-10-15

    In neonatal rats, hunger and satiety responses occur particularly via dehydration and gastric distention, respectively. The control of food intake in newborns is yet to be fully consolidated, particularly with respect to the participation of the hypothalamic nuclei and their relationship with the serotonergic pathway. Moreover, it is unclear how the environmental stressors in early life, like undernutrition, interfere in these events. Therefore, this study examined the serotonin-system's impact on food intake in rat neonates at postnatal day (P) 10 and P18 and the manner in which protein undernutrition during pregnancy and lactation interferes in this behavior. To accomplish this, Wistar rats were used, nutritionally manipulated by a diet having two protein levels, (8% and 17%) during pregnancy and lactation, to form the Control (n=10) and Low protein groups (n=10). At 10 and 18 postnatal days pups received an acute dose of fenfluramine (3mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl) and subjected to milk consumption testing and then perfused to obtain the brains for the analysis of cell activation of the immunoreactive c-Fos in the hypothalamic and raphe nuclei. At 10days a reduction in weight gain was observed in both groups. On comparison of the neuronal activation for the paraventricular nucleus, an increased activation in response to fenfluramine was observed. At 18days, the weight gain percentage differed between the groups according to the nutritional manipulation, in which the control animals had no significant change while the undernourished presented increased weight gain with the use of fenfluramine. The marking of c-Fos in response to fenfluramine in the hypothalamic and raphe nuclei revealed, an especially lower activation of the PVN, MnR and DR compared intra-group. However when evaluating the effect of undernutrition, marking activation was observed to increase in all the nuclei analyzed, in the hypothalamus and raphe. Data from this study indicate that the action of

  14. Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Cristiane Franco; da Silveira, Carla Rosane; Beghetto, Mariur; de Mello, Paula Daniel; de Mello, Elza Daniel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake. METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg) or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg), parametric and nonparametric tests were used. RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg) and only 25 students (11.7%) had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ≥3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence. PMID:25119753

  15. “Associations of Serum Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-I) and IGFBP-3 Levels Biomarker-Calibrated Protein, Dairy, and Milk Intake in the Women's Health Initiative”1

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Jeannette M.; Gunter, Marc J.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Prentice, Ross L.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Strickler, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    It is well-established that protein-energy malnutrition decreases serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) levels, and supplementation of 30 grams of whey protein daily increased serum IGF-1 levels by 8% after 2 years in a clinical trial(1). Cohort studies provide the opportunity to assess associations between dietary protein intake and the IGF-axis under more typical eating conditions. We studied the associations of circulating IGF-axis protein levels (ELISA, Diagnostic Systems Laboratories) with total biomarker-calibrated protein intake, as well as dairy and milk intake, among postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (n=747). Analyses were conducted using multivariate linear regression models that adjusted for age, BMI, race/ethnicity, education, biomarker-calibrated energy, alcohol, smoking, physical activity, and hormone therapy use. There was a positive association between milk intake and free-IGF-1. A 3 serving increase in milk intake per day (~30 grams of protein) was associated with an estimated average 18.6% higher increase in free IGF-1 (95% CI 0.9% to 39.3%). Total IGF-I and IGFBP-3, however, were not associated with milk consumption, nor were there associations between biomarker-calibrated protein intake, biomarker-calibrated energy, and free IGF-I, total IGF-I, or IGFBP-3. This study of postmenopausal women is consistent with clinical trial data suggesting a specific relationship between milk consumption and serum IGF-I levels; albeit, in our dataset, this association was only statistically significant for free, but not total, IGF-I nor IGFBP-3. PMID:24094144

  16. Recommended energy and nutrient intakes for Filipinos 2002.

    PubMed

    Barba, Corazon V C; Cabrera, Ma Isabel Z

    2008-01-01

    The Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), as in the past, led the review and revision of the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Filipinos, a vital and essential tool recognized in the nutrition and health community as the source of information on recommended energy and nutrient intakes for the maintenance of good health. This set of dietary standards is periodically evaluated and updated to keep pace with new knowledge on energy and nutrient requirements and metabolism. The set of updated standards is now called Recommended Energy and Nutrient Intakes (RENIs), defined as levels of intakes of energy and nutrients which, on the basis of current scientific knowledge, are considered adequate for the maintenance of good health and well-being of nearly all healthy Filipinos. As in the 1989 edition, intakes of energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, iodine, zinc, vitamins A, C, D and E, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, pyridoxine, water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride) are recommended in this new edition. The desirable proportions of protein, fats, carbohydrates as well as fiber are also provided, in addition to information on recommended intake levels for selenium, magnesium, manganese, fluoride, cobalamin, and vitamin K. These recommendations were derived from a review of current evidences, principally the UN-FAO/WHO's 2002 human vitamin and mineral requirements and the US-Institute of Medicine-Food and Nutrition Board (IOM-FNB)'s series of Dietary Reference Intakes, taking into consideration applicability in and achievability among specific population groups. PMID:18460438

  17. Feed intake and production parameters of lactating crossbred cows fed maize-based diets of stover, silage or quality protein silage

    PubMed Central

    Gebrehawariat, Efrem; Tegegne, Azage

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-six Boran × Friesian dairy cows (392 ± 12 kg; mean ± SD) in early parity were used in a randomised complete block design. Cows were blocked by parity into three blocks of 12 animals and offered normal maize (NM) stover (T1), NM silage (T2) or quality protein maize (QPM) silage (T3) basal diets supplemented with a similar concentrate mix. Feed intake, body weight and condition changes and milk yield and composition were assessed. The daily intake of DM, OM, NDF and ADF for cows fed the NM stover-based diet was higher (P < 0.05) than for the cows fed the NM silage and QPM silage-based diets. However, the daily intake of DOM (9.3 kg) and ME (140.8 MJ) for cows on QPM silage-based diet was higher (P < 0.05) than for cows on NM stover-based diet (8.4 kg and 124.2 MJ) and NM silage-based diet (7.9 kg and 119.1 MJ). Body weight of cows was affected (P < 0.05) by the diet, but diet had no effect (P > 0.05) on body condition score, milk yield and milk composition. The digestible organic matter in the NM stover-based diet (724 g/kg DM) was lower (P < 0.05) than that in the NM (770 g/kg DM) and QPM silage-based diet (762 g/kg DM). It was concluded that the performances of the cows on the NM silage and QPM silage diets were similar and were not superior to that of the NM stover-based diet. PMID:20577806

  18. Pasta supplemented with isolated lupin protein fractions reduces body weight gain and food intake of rats and decreases plasma glucose concentration upon glucose overload trial.

    PubMed

    Capraro, Jessica; Magni, Chiara; Scarafoni, Alessio; Caramanico, Rosita; Rossi, Filippo; Morlacchini, Mauro; Duranti, Marcello

    2014-02-01

    The supplementation of foods with biologically active compounds can be a powerful approach for improving diet and well being. In this study we separately included in pasta matrices a concentrate of γ-conglutin, a glucose-lowering protein from Lupinus albus seeds, an isolate of the other main lupin storage proteins and ovalbumin, at a ratio corresponding to 125 mg of pure protein in 100 g of pasta. With these products we fed rats made hyperglycaemic, for 3 weeks. Among the most relevant changes measured in body and blood parameters were: (i) a significant reduction in food intake of rats fed γ-conglutin concentrate supplemented pasta and a significant limitation in the body weight increase in rats fed α, β and δ-conglutin isolate supplemented pasta, while the food conversion indices were unchanged; (ii) a reduction in glycaemia upon glucose overload trial, especially in the γ-conglutin concentrate supplemented pasta fed animals, at a dose of 45 mg per kg body weight. The correlations among the measured parameters are discussed. Overall, the results evidence the potentiality of supplementing traditional foods with exogenous nutraceutical seed proteins to control body weight gain and glycaemia.

  19. The energy and nutrient intakes of different types of vegetarian: a case for supplements?

    PubMed

    Draper, A; Lewis, J; Malhotra, N; Wheeler, E

    1993-01-01

    Vegetarians of three types were studied in Greater London: thirty-four meat-avoiders, fifty-two lacto-ovo-vegetarians, and thirty-eight vegans. Weighed dietary intake measures were made over 3 d. Cereals were the mainstay of the diet, supplemented by dairy products (demi-vegetarians and lacto-ovo-vegetarians), vegetables and fruit, and soya-bean products (vegans). Many vegans progressed by stages to complete avoidance of animal foods; some had retreated, but most were highly committed. Demi-vegetarians were the least involved in a 'vegetarian lifestyle'. All groups had mean energy intakes close to the current dietary reference values (DRV), with adequate protein intakes. Only vegans had fat intakes close to current recommendations; all groups had high dietary polyunsaturated:saturated fatty acid ratios. Mean intakes of all micronutrients studied for demi- and lacto-ovo-vegetarians met the UK DRV. Intakes of iodine, riboflavin, and vitamin B12 for vegans were below DRV; more than half considered their diets supplied all necessary vitamins. About 25% took some type of dietary supplement during the survey. The impact of low I intakes should be further studied, and it is recommended that 'new' vegetarians and vegans should use appropriate dietary supplements.

  20. [Intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Tijerina Sáenz, Alexandra; Ramírez López, Erik; Meneses Valderrama, Víctor Manuel; Martínez Garza, Nancy Edith

    2014-09-01

    Descriptive and transversal study, first to report the dietary intake of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico. Convenience sample of 125 pregnant women (15-45 years of age) in the third trimester, who were prenatal patients in the Hospital Regional Materno Infantil, Nuevo León, Mexico. It was reported the level of studies, marital and professional status, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). Diet was evaluated by 24-hour food recalls, in 3 non-consecutive days. There were analyzed the intake of energy and the percentage contribution of calories from macronutrients according to the recommendations of intake of pregnant women. Intake of energy was 1683,8 Cal/day. The caloric contribution of saturated fat was higher than the recommendation in 53.6% of women. 76.8% of participants ate more than 55% of energy from carbohydrates, while 86.4% ate more sugars than the amount suggested. The median intake of protein was 12.0% of total energy intake. 75% of participants consumed less than 22,5 g of total dietary fiber. The relevance of knowing the intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women may be due to the possible influence of diet over the child's appetite and maternal complications. Results of this study suggest the need to provide women with adequate nutritional recommendations since the first trimester of gestation, according to their nutritional status and social environment.

  1. Health risk assessment of trace elements via dietary intake of 'non-piscine protein source' foodstuffs (meat, milk and egg) in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Nazma; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Islam, Md Saiful; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Tukun, Avonti Basak; Islam, Saiful; M A Rahim, Abu Torab

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of six trace elements [chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As)] were assessed in 'non-piscine protein source' foodstuffs (meat, milk and eggs) to evaluate contamination level and human health risks in Bangladesh. The range of Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb and As in the investigated foodstuffs was 1.24-2.17, 1.29-2.56, 0.92-2.31, 0.12-0.44, 0.15-0.48 and 0.14-0.57 mg kg fresh weight(-1), respectively. The estimated mean levels of most of the elements were higher than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) for dietary foods. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of Cr and Cd were higher than the maximum tolerable daily intake (MTDI) for children, indicating that they are more susceptible to toxic elements through food consumption. The target hazard quotients (THQs) and target carcinogenic risk (TCR) of As (THQ > 1 and TCR > 10(-4)) for both the adults and children suggest that the consumers of non-piscine foodstuffs (especially cow milk and chicken meat) are exposed chronically to metal pollution with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health consequences. PMID:26755177

  2. In vivo stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase enhanced tubuloglomerular feedback but reduced tubular sodium transport during high dietary NaCl intake.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dan Yang; Gao, Huanhuan; Boini, Krishna M; Osswald, Hartmut; Nürnberg, Bernd; Lang, Florian

    2010-06-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is expressed in the apical membrane of cortical thick ascending limb, distal, and collecting tubules as well as macula densa cells of the kidneys. AMPK is an active modulator of epithelial Na(+) channels, Na(+)-2Cl(-)-K(+) cotransporter, and the ATP-dependent potassium channel. The present experiments explored whether AMPK participates in the regulation of tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) and renal tubular sodium handling. To this end, renal clearance and micropuncture experiments were performed in anesthetized rats. Under normal NaCl diet, neither TGF response nor renal fluid and sodium excretion were altered by pharmacological activation of AMPK in vivo. However, under high NaCl diet, the TGF response was significantly enhanced after intravenous or intratubular application of the AMPK activator AICAR. Moreover, AICAR application significantly increased fractional delivery of fluid and sodium to the end of the proximal tubule. High dietary NaCl intake increased the renal transcript levels encoding the AMPK-alpha1 subunit, while it decreased the expression of AMPK-beta1 and AMPK-gamma2 subunits. Immunoblots revealed that high dietary NaCl intake reduced renal expression of activated AMPK by about three times compared to normal NaCl diet whereas additional AICAR application increased AMPK activity. Our results suggest that AMPK regulates tubuloglomerular balance as well as tubular transport upon change of renal work load.

  3. Health risk assessment of trace elements via dietary intake of 'non-piscine protein source' foodstuffs (meat, milk and egg) in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Nazma; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Islam, Md Saiful; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Tukun, Avonti Basak; Islam, Saiful; M A Rahim, Abu Torab

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of six trace elements [chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As)] were assessed in 'non-piscine protein source' foodstuffs (meat, milk and eggs) to evaluate contamination level and human health risks in Bangladesh. The range of Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb and As in the investigated foodstuffs was 1.24-2.17, 1.29-2.56, 0.92-2.31, 0.12-0.44, 0.15-0.48 and 0.14-0.57 mg kg fresh weight(-1), respectively. The estimated mean levels of most of the elements were higher than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) for dietary foods. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of Cr and Cd were higher than the maximum tolerable daily intake (MTDI) for children, indicating that they are more susceptible to toxic elements through food consumption. The target hazard quotients (THQs) and target carcinogenic risk (TCR) of As (THQ > 1 and TCR > 10(-4)) for both the adults and children suggest that the consumers of non-piscine foodstuffs (especially cow milk and chicken meat) are exposed chronically to metal pollution with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health consequences.

  4. Acute effects of pea protein and hull fibre alone and combined on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake in healthy young men--a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Smith, Christopher; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-12-01

    Whether pulse components can be used as value-added ingredients in foods formulated for blood glucose (BG) and food intake (FI) control requires investigation. The objective of this study was to examine of the effects of pea components on FI at an ad libitum meal, as well as appetite and BG responses before and after the meal. In a repeated-measures crossover trial, men (n = 15) randomly consumed (i) pea hull fibre (7 g), (ii) pea protein (10 g), (iii) pea protein (10 g) plus hull fibre (7 g), (iv) yellow peas (406 g), and (v) control. Pea hull fibre and protein were served with tomato sauce and noodles, while yellow peas were served with tomato sauce. Control was noodles and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal (135 min). Appetite and BG were measured pre-pizza (0-135 min) and post-pizza (155-215 min). Protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower pre-pizza BG area under the curve compared with fibre and control. At 30 min, BG was lower after protein plus fibre and yellow peas compared with fibre and control, whereas at 45 and 75 min, protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p < 0.05). Following the pizza meal (155 min), yellow peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p < 0.05). No differences were observed in FI or appetite. This trial supports the use of pea components as value-added ingredients in foods designed to improve glycemic control.

  5. Effect of a hypocaloric diet, increased protein intake and resistance training on lean mass gains and fat mass loss in overweight police officers.

    PubMed

    Demling, R H; DeSanti, L

    2000-01-01

    We compare the effects of a moderate hypocaloric, high-protein diet and resistance training, using two different protein supplements, versus hypocaloric diet alone on body compositional changes in overweight police officers. A randomized, prospective 12-week study was performed comparing the changes in body composition produced by three different treatment modalities in three study groups. One group (n = 10) was placed on a nonlipogenic, hypocaloric diet alone (80% of predicted needs). A second group (n = 14) was placed on the hypocaloric diet plus resistance exercise plus a high-protein intake (1.5 g/kg/day) using a casein protein hydrolysate. In the third group (n = 14) treatment was identical to the second, except for the use of a whey protein hydrolysate. We found that weight loss was approximately 2.5 kg in all three groups. Mean percent body fat with diet alone decreased from a baseline of 27 +/- 1.8 to 25 +/- 1.3% at 12 weeks. With diet, exercise and casein the decrease was from 26 +/- 1.7 to 18 +/- 1.1% and with diet, exercise and whey protein the decrease was from 27 +/- 1.6 to 23 +/- 1.3%. The mean fat loss was 2. 5 +/- 0.6, 7.0 +/- 2.1 and 4.2 +/- 0.9 kg in the three groups, respectively. Lean mass gains in the three groups did not change for diet alone, versus gains of 4 +/- 1.4 and 2 +/- 0.7 kg in the casein and whey groups, respectively. Mean increase in strength for chest, shoulder and legs was 59 +/- 9% for casein and 29 +/- 9% for whey, a significant group difference. This significant difference in body composition and strength is likely due to improved nitrogen retention and overall anticatabolic effects caused by the peptide components of the casein hydrolysate. PMID:10838463

  6. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Capra, Sandra; Bauer, Judy; Raymond, Kyle; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2016-05-01

    Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older adult Danes. Dietary leucine intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years in men and women, aged 35-65 years, participating in the Danish cohort of the WHO-MONICA (Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) study (n 368). Changes in LBM over the 6 years were measured by bioelectrical impedance using equations developed for this Danish population. The association between leucine and LBM changes was examined using multivariate linear regression and ANCOVA analyses adjusted for potential confounders. After adjustment for baseline LBM, sex, age, energy intake and physical activity, leucine intake was associated with LBM change in those older than 65 years (n 79), with no effect seen in those younger than 65 years. Older participants in the highest quartile of leucine intake (7·1 g/d) experienced LBM maintenance, whereas lower intakes were associated with LBM loss over 6 years (for trend: β=0·434, P=0·03). Sensitivity analysis indicated no effect modification of sex or the presence of CVD. Greater leucine intake in conjunction with adequate total protein intake was associated with long-term LBM retention in a healthy older Danish population. This study corroborates findings from laboratory investigations in relation to protein and leucine intakes and LBM change. A more diverse and larger sample is needed for confirmation of these results. PMID:26979049

  7. Enteral B-hydroxy-B-methylbutyrate supplementation increases protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many low-birth weight infants are at risk for poor growth due to an inability to achieve adequate protein intake. Administration of the amino acid leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonates. To determine the effects of enteral supplementation of the leucine metabolite B-hydr...

  8. Dietary Micronutrient Intake in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: Relationship with Nutrition and Inflammation Status

    PubMed Central

    Martín-del-Campo, Fabiola; Batis–Ruvalcaba, Carolina; González–Espinoza, Liliana; Rojas–Campos, Enrique; Ángel, Juan R.; Ruiz, Norma; González, Juana; Pazarín, Leonardo; Cueto–Manzano, Alfonso M.

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Objective: To compare dietary intake of micronutrients by peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients according to their nutrition and inflammatory statuses. ♦ Design: This cross-sectional study evaluated 73 patients using subjective global assessment, 24-hour dietary recall, and markers of inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin 6]. ♦ Results: Half the patients had an inadequate micronutrient intake. Compared with dietary reference intakes, malnourished patients had lower intakes of iron (11 mg) and of vitamins C (45 mg) and B6 (0.8 mg). Malnourished and well-nourished patients both had lower intakes of sodium (366 mg, 524 mg respectively), potassium (1555 mg, 1963 mg), zinc (5 mg, 7 mg), calcium (645 mg, 710 mg), magnesium (161 mg, 172 mg), niacin (8 mg, 9 mg), folic acid (0.14 mg, 0.19 mg), and vitamin A (365 μg, 404 μg). Markers of inflammation were higher in malnourished than in well-nourished subjects. Compared with patients in lower quartiles, patients in the highest CRP quartile had lower intakes (p < 0.05) of sodium (241 mg vs 404 mg), calcium (453 mg vs 702 mg), vitamin B2 (0.88 mg vs 1.20 mg), and particularly vitamin A (207 μg vs 522 μg). ♦ Conclusions: Among PD patients, half had inadequate dietary intakes of iron, zinc, calcium and vitamins A, B6, C, niacin, and folic acid. Lower micronutrient intakes were associated with malnutrition and inflammation. Patients with inflammation had lower intakes of sodium, calcium, and vitamins A and B2. Micronutrient intake must be investigated in various populations so as to tailor adequate supplementation. PMID:21804135

  9. Back to the future: restricted protein intake for conservative management of CKD, triple goals of renoprotection, uremia mitigation, and nutritional health.

    PubMed

    Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2016-05-01

    Lowering dietary protein intake (DPI) to approximately 0.6-0.8 g/kgBW/day may be renoprotective through various mechanisms, and it has been recommended in patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) as a means to also control various metabolic consequences of advanced CKD, such as uremic symptoms, hyperparathyroidism, hypertension, hyperkalemia, and hyperphosphatemia. A meta-analysis in this issue of the Journal suggests that low-protein diet is effective and safe when used to retard progression of CKD and alleviate uremic complications. A potential deleterious consequence of lowering DPI in this population is the development or worsening of protein-energy wasting (PEW), which can contribute to poor clinical outcomes such as higher mortality and morbidity. There is currently insufficient high-level evidence to determine the ideal level of DPI in patients with NDD-CKD with high risk of PEW. For the time being we recommend a DPI of 0.6-0.8 g/kgBW/day, and increasing this as needed on an individual basis in patients with PEW. Further examination of this dilemma in randomized controlled clinical trials will be necessary. PMID:26886110

  10. Feed intake and brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) gene expression in juvenile cobia fed plant-based protein diets with different lysine to arginine ratios.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Van; Jordal, Ann-Elise Olderbakk; Espe, Marit; Buttle, Louise; Lai, Hung Van; Rønnestad, Ivar

    2013-07-01

    Cobia (Rachycentron canadum, Actinopterygii, Perciformes;10.5±0.1g) were fed to satiation with three plant-based protein test diets with different lysine (L) to arginine (A) ratios (LL/A, 0.8; BL/A, 1.1; and HL/A, 1.8), using a commercial diet as control for six weeks. The test diets contained 730 g kg(-1) plant ingredients with 505-529 g protein, 90.2-93.9 g lipid kg(-1) dry matter; control diet contained 550 g protein and 95 g lipid kg(-1) dry matter. Periprandial expression of brain NPY and CCK (npy and cck) was measured twice (weeks 1 and 6). At week one, npy levels were higher in pre-feeding than postfeeding cobia for all diets, except LL/A. At week six, npy levels in pre-feeding were higher than in postfeeding cobia for all diets. cck in pre-feeding cobia did not differ from that in postfeeding for all diets, at either time point. Cobia fed LL/A had lower feed intake (FI) than cobia fed BL/A and control diet, but no clear correlations between dietary L/A ratio and FI, growth and expression of npy and cck were detected. The data suggest that NPY serves as an orexigenic factor, but further studies are necessary to describe links between dietary L/A and regulation of appetite and FI in cobia.

  11. Protein metabolism and requirements.

    PubMed

    Biolo, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle adaptation to critical illness includes insulin resistance, accelerated proteolysis, and increased release of glutamine and the other amino acids. Such amino acid efflux from skeletal muscle provides precursors for protein synthesis and energy fuel to the liver and to the rapidly dividing cells of the intestinal mucosa and the immune system. From these adaptation mechanisms, severe muscle wasting, glutamine depletion, and hyperglycemia, with increased patient morbidity and mortality, may ensue. Protein/amino acid nutrition, through either enteral or parenteral routes, plays a pivotal role in treatment of metabolic abnormalities in critical illness. In contrast to energy requirement, which can be accurately assessed by indirect calorimetry, methods to determine individual protein/amino acid needs are not currently available. In critical illness, a decreased ability of protein/amino acid intake to promote body protein synthesis is defined as anabolic resistance. This abnormality leads to increased protein/amino acid requirement and relative inefficiency of nutritional interventions. In addition to stress mediators, immobility and physical inactivity are key determinants of anabolic resistance. The development of mobility protocols in the intensive care unit should be encouraged to enhance the efficacy of nutrition. In critical illness, protein/amino acid requirement has been defined as the intake level associated with the lowest rate of catabolism. The optimal protein-sparing effects in patients receiving adequate energy are achieved when protein/amino acids are administered at rates between 1.3 and 1.5 g/kg/day. Extra glutamine supplementation is required in conditions of severe systemic inflammatory response. Protein requirement increases during hypocaloric feeding and in patients with acute renal failure on continuous renal replacement therapy. Evidence suggests that receiving adequate protein/amino acid intake may be more important than achieving

  12. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Rubingh, Carina M.; Lanting, Caren I.; Joosten, Koen F. M.

    2016-01-01

    The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10–48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diaries by caregivers at the day nursery and by parents at home on days that the children attended the daycare center. According to national and European reference values, the children had an adequate nutrient intake with exception of low intakes of total fat, n-3 fatty acids from fish and possibly iron. Intakes of energy and protein were substantially higher than recommended and part of the population exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for sodium, zinc and retinol. Consumption of fruit, fats, fish, and fluids was substantially less than recommended. The children used mostly (semi-)skimmed milk products and non-refined bread and cereals, as recommended. Two thirds of the consumed beverages, however, contained sugar and contributed substantially to energy intake. In young children, low intakes of n-3 fatty acids and iron are a potential matter of concern, as are the high intakes of energy, protein, sugared beverages, and milk, since these may increase the risk of becoming overweight. PMID:27428995

  13. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Rubingh, Carina M; Lanting, Caren I; Joosten, Koen F M

    2016-01-01

    The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10-48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diaries by caregivers at the day nursery and by parents at home on days that the children attended the daycare center. According to national and European reference values, the children had an adequate nutrient intake with exception of low intakes of total fat, n-3 fatty acids from fish and possibly iron. Intakes of energy and protein were substantially higher than recommended and part of the population exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for sodium, zinc and retinol. Consumption of fruit, fats, fish, and fluids was substantially less than recommended. The children used mostly (semi-)skimmed milk products and non-refined bread and cereals, as recommended. Two thirds of the consumed beverages, however, contained sugar and contributed substantially to energy intake. In young children, low intakes of n-3 fatty acids and iron are a potential matter of concern, as are the high intakes of energy, protein, sugared beverages, and milk, since these may increase the risk of becoming overweight. PMID:27428995

  14. Higher Dietary Acidity is Associated with Lower Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Iranian Women, Independent of Dietary Calcium Intake.

    PubMed

    Shariati-Bafghi, Seyedeh-Elaheh; Nosrat-Mirshekarlou, Elaheh; Karamati, Mohsen; Rashidkhani, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    Findings of studies on the link between dietary acid-base balance and bone mass are relatively mixed. We examined the association between dietary acid-base balance and bone mineral density (BMD) in a sample of Iranian women, hypothesizing that a higher dietary acidity would be inversely associated with BMD, even when dietary calcium intake is adequate. In this cross-sectional study, lumbar spine and femoral neck BMDs of 151 postmenopausal women aged 50-85 years were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Renal net acid excretion (RNAE), an estimate of acid-base balance, was then calculated indirectly from the diet using the formulae of Remer (based on dietary intakes of protein, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium; RNAERemer) and Frassetto (based on dietary intakes of protein and potassium; RNAEFrassetto), and was energy adjusted by the residual method. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariable adjusted means of the lumbar spine BMD of women in the highest tertiles of RNAERemer and RNAEFrassetto were significantly lower than those in the lowest tertiles (for RNAERemer: mean difference -0.084 g/cm2; P=0.007 and for RNAEFrassetto: mean difference -0.088 g/cm2; P=0.004). Similar results were observed in a subgroup analysis of subjects with dietary calcium intake of >800 mg/day. In conclusion, a higher RNAE (i. e. more dietary acidity), which is associated with greater intake of acid-generating foods and lower intake of alkali-generating foods, may be involved in deteriorating the bone health of postmenopausal Iranian women, even in the context of adequate dietary calcium intake.

  15. Protein Requirements and Recommendations for Older People: A Review.

    PubMed

    Nowson, Caryl; O'Connell, Stella

    2015-08-01

    Declines in skeletal muscle mass and strength are major contributors to increased mortality, morbidity and reduced quality of life in older people. Recommended Dietary Allowances/Intakes have failed to adequately consider the protein requirements of the elderly with respect to function. The aim of this paper was to review definitions of optimal protein status and the evidence base for optimal dietary protein. Current recommended protein intakes for older people do not account for the compensatory loss of muscle mass that occurs on lower protein intakes. Older people have lower rates of protein synthesis and whole-body proteolysis in response to an anabolic stimulus (food or resistance exercise). Recommendations for the level of adequate dietary intake of protein for older people should be informed by evidence derived from functional outcomes. Randomized controlled trials report a clear benefit of increased dietary protein on lean mass gain and leg strength, particularly when combined with resistance exercise. There is good consistent evidence (level III-2 to IV) that consumption of 1.0 to 1.3 g/kg/day dietary protein combined with twice-weekly progressive resistance exercise reduces age-related muscle mass loss. Older people appear to require 1.0 to 1.3 g/kg/day dietary protein to optimize physical function, particularly whilst undertaking resistance exercise recommendations. PMID:26287239

  16. Protein Requirements and Recommendations for Older People: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nowson, Caryl; O’Connell, Stella

    2015-01-01

    Declines in skeletal muscle mass and strength are major contributors to increased mortality, morbidity and reduced quality of life in older people. Recommended Dietary Allowances/Intakes have failed to adequately consider the protein requirements of the elderly with respect to function. The aim of this paper was to review definitions of optimal protein status and the evidence base for optimal dietary protein. Current recommended protein intakes for older people do not account for the compensatory loss of muscle mass that occurs on lower protein intakes. Older people have lower rates of protein synthesis and whole-body proteolysis in response to an anabolic stimulus (food or resistance exercise). Recommendations for the level of adequate dietary intake of protein for older people should be informed by evidence derived from functional outcomes. Randomized controlled trials report a clear benefit of increased dietary protein on lean mass gain and leg strength, particularly when combined with resistance exercise. There is good consistent evidence (level III-2 to IV) that consumption of 1.0 to 1.3 g/kg/day dietary protein combined with twice-weekly progressive resistance exercise reduces age-related muscle mass loss. Older people appear to require 1.0 to 1.3 g/kg/day dietary protein to optimize physical function, particularly whilst undertaking resistance exercise recommendations. PMID:26287239

  17. Protein Requirements and Recommendations for Older People: A Review.

    PubMed

    Nowson, Caryl; O'Connell, Stella

    2015-08-14

    Declines in skeletal muscle mass and strength are major contributors to increased mortality, morbidity and reduced quality of life in older people. Recommended Dietary Allowances/Intakes have failed to adequately consider the protein requirements of the elderly with respect to function. The aim of this paper was to review definitions of optimal protein status and the evidence base for optimal dietary protein. Current recommended protein intakes for older people do not account for the compensatory loss of muscle mass that occurs on lower protein intakes. Older people have lower rates of protein synthesis and whole-body proteolysis in response to an anabolic stimulus (food or resistance exercise). Recommendations for the level of adequate dietary intake of protein for older people should be informed by evidence derived from functional outcomes. Randomized controlled trials report a clear benefit of increased dietary protein on lean mass gain and leg strength, particularly when combined with resistance exercise. There is good consistent evidence (level III-2 to IV) that consumption of 1.0 to 1.3 g/kg/day dietary protein combined with twice-weekly progressive resistance exercise reduces age-related muscle mass loss. Older people appear to require 1.0 to 1.3 g/kg/day dietary protein to optimize physical function, particularly whilst undertaking resistance exercise recommendations.

  18. Intake of branched-chain amino acids influences the levels of MAFbx mRNA and MuRF-1 total protein in resting and exercising human muscle.

    PubMed

    Borgenvik, Marcus; Apró, William; Blomstrand, Eva

    2012-03-01

    Resistance exercise and amino acids are two major factors that influence muscle protein turnover. Here, we examined the effects of resistance exercise and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), individually and in combination, on the expression of anabolic and catabolic genes in human skeletal muscle. Seven subjects performed two sessions of unilateral leg press exercise with randomized supplementation with BCAA or flavored water. Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscle of both the resting and exercising legs before and repeatedly after exercise to determine levels of mRNA, protein phosphorylation, and amino acid concentrations. Intake of BCAA reduced (P < 0.05) MAFbx mRNA by 30 and 50% in the resting and exercising legs, respectively. The level of MuRF-1 mRNA was elevated (P < 0.05) in the exercising leg two- and threefold under the placebo and BCAA conditions, respectively, whereas MuRF-1 total protein increased by 20% (P < 0.05) only in the placebo condition. Phosphorylation of p70(S6k) increased to a larger extent (∼2-fold; P < 0.05) in the early recovery period with BCAA supplementation, whereas the expression of genes regulating mTOR activity was not influenced by BCAA. Muscle levels of phenylalanine and tyrosine were reduced (13-17%) throughout recovery (P < 0.05) in the placebo condition and to a greater extent (32-43%; P < 0.05) following BCAA supplementation in both resting and exercising muscle. In conclusion, BCAA ingestion reduced MAFbx mRNA and prevented the exercise-induced increase in MuRF-1 total protein in both resting and exercising leg. Further-more, resistance exercise differently influenced MAFbx and MuRF-1 mRNA expression, suggesting both common and divergent regulation of these two ubiquitin ligases.

  19. Body composition and nutrient intakes of college men and women basketball players.

    PubMed

    Nowak, R K; Knudsen, K S; Schulz, L O

    1988-05-01

    Computer analysis of diet records was used to compare adequacy of nutrient intake for 16 male and 10 female intercollegiate basketball players. Significant differences (p less than .05) between men and women were observed for the provision of nutrients from food alone; mean percent RDAs of all nutrients except vitamins A and D was greater for men. This was due primarily to caloric intakes by the men, which averaged twice those of the women. Nutrient supplements had a significant effect on the women's total intake. With the exceptions of energy, protein, and vitamin C, differences between men and women in percent RDAs were eliminated when the contribution of nutrient supplements was included. The data made apparent the need for dietitians familiar with sports nutrition to counsel female athletes on means of obtaining nutrients via an adequate diet.

  20. Effects of canola seed supplementation on intake, digestion, duodenal protein supply, and microbial efficiency in steers fed forage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Leupp, J L; Lardy, G P; Soto-Navarro, S A; Bauer, M L; Caton, J S

    2006-02-01

    Fourteen Holstein steers (446 +/- 4.4 kg of initial BW) with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate effects of whole or ground canola seed (23.3% CP and 39.6% ether extract; DM basis) on intake, digestion, duodenal protein supply, and microbial efficiency in steers fed low-quality hay. Our hypothesis was that processing would be necessary to optimize canola use in diets based on low-quality forage. The basal diet consisted of ad libitum access to switchgrass hay (5.8% CP; DM basis) offered at 0700 daily. Treatments consisted of hay only (control), hay plus whole canola (8% of dietary DM), or hay plus ground canola (8% of dietary DM). Supplemental canola was provided based on the hay intake of the previous day. Steers were adapted to diets for 14 d followed by a 7-d collection period. Total DMI, OM intake, and OM digestibility were not affected (P > or = 0.31) by treatment. Similarly, no differences (P > or = 0.62) were observed for NDF or ADF total tract digestion. Bacterial OM at the duodenum increased (P = 0.01) with canola-containing diets compared with the control diet and increased (P = 0.08) in steers consuming ground canola compared with whole canola. Apparent and true ruminal CP digestibilities were increased (P = 0.01) with canola supplementation compared with the control diet. Canola supplementation decreased ruminal pH (P = 0.03) compared with the control diet. The molar proportion of acetate in the rumen tended (P = 0.10) to decrease with canola supplementation. The molar proportion of acetate in ruminal fluid decreased (P = 0.01), and the proportion of propionate increased (P = 0.01), with ground canola compared with whole canola. In situ disappearance rate of hay DM, NDF, and ADF were not altered by treatment (P > or = 0.32). In situ disappearance rate of canola DM, NDF, and ADF increased (P = 0.01) for ground canola compared with whole canola. Similarly, ground canola had greater (P = 0

  1. Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) juice intake protects against alterations to proteins involved in inflammatory and lipolysis pathways in the adipose tissue of obese mice fed a cafeteria diet

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity has been studied as a metabolic and an inflammatory disease and is characterized by increases in the production of pro-inflammatory adipokines in the adipose tissue. To elucidate the effects of natural dietary components on the inflammatory and metabolic consequences of obesity, we examined the effects of unripe, ripe and industrial acerola juice (Malpighia emarginata DC.) on the relevant inflammatory and lipolysis proteins in the adipose tissue of mice with cafeteria diet-induced obesity. Materials/methods Two groups of male Swiss mice were fed on a standard diet (STA) or a cafeteria diet (CAF) for 13 weeks. Afterwards, the CAF-fed animals were divided into five subgroups, each of which received a different supplement for one further month (water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, or vitamin C) by gavage. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blotting, a colorimetric method and histology were utilized to assess the observed data. Results The CAF water (control obese) group showed a significant increase in their adiposity indices and triacylglycerol levels, in addition to a reduced IL-10/TNF-α ratio in the adipose tissue, compared with the control lean group. In contrast, acerola juice and Vitamin C intake ameliorated the weight gain, reducing the TAG levels and increasing the IL-10/TNF-α ratio in adipose tissue. In addition, acerola juice intake led to reductions both in the level of phosphorylated JNK and to increases in the phosphorylation of IκBα and HSLser660 in adipose tissue. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that acerola juice reduces low-grade inflammation and ameliorates obesity-associated defects in the lipolytic processes. PMID:24495336

  2. Effect of protein level and urea in concentrate mixture on feed intake and rumen fermentation in swamp buffaloes fed rice straw-based diet.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sungchhang; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Norrapoke, Thitima

    2015-04-01

    Four rumen-fistulated Thai native swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to assess the effect of protein (CP) level and urea (U) source in concentrate diet on feed utilization and rumen ecology. The treatments were as follows: concentrate containing CP at 120 g/kg (soybean meal, SBM) (T1), 160 g/kg (SBM) (T2), 120 g/kg (U) (T3), and 160 g/kg (U) (T4), respectively. All buffaloes were fed concentrate at 10 g/kg of body weight, and rice straw was offered ad libitum. Feed intake and digestibilities of CP, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber increased (P < 0.05) in treatments with higher level of CP especially with U source (P < 0.05). In contrast, CP level and source in concentrate did not affect on ruminal pH and temperature (P > 0.05), while concentration of ruminal ammonia (N), blood urea (U), volatile fatty acids profile, microorganism populations, and variable bacterial growth increased in buffaloes consumed concentrate containing CP at 160 g/kg (T2 and T4; P < 0.05). Fecal and urinary N excretions decreased in buffaloes consumed concentrate containing higher CP level especially with U source while purine derivatives increased which resulted in a higher N balance as compared to lower CP level and SBM source treatments (P < 0.05). In summary, higher CP level in concentrate improved feed intake, nutrient digestibility, purine derivatives, and rumen ecology, and U had shown better result than SBM. Concentrate mixtures containing 16 g/kg CP with U 40 g/kg could improved nutrients utilization with no adverse effects for swamp buffaloes fed on rice straw. PMID:25686554

  3. Peptides and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  4. Peptides and food intake.

    PubMed

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  5. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8-10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100-199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  6. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  7. Contrasts in livelihoods and protein intake between commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunters in two villages on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Vega, María Grande; Carpinetti, Bruno; Duarte, Jesús; Fa, John E

    2013-06-01

    Across West and Central Africa, wildlife provides a source of food and income. We investigated the relation between bushmeat hunting and household wealth and protein consumption in 2 rural communities in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. One village was dedicated to commercial hunting, the other trapped game primarily for food. We tested whether commercial-hunter households were nutritionally advantaged over subsistence-hunter households due to their higher income from the bushmeat trade and greater access to wild-animal protein. We conducted bushmeat-offtake surveys in both villages (captures by hunters and carcasses arriving to each village). Mammals (including threatened primates: black colobus [Colobus satanas], Preussi's guenon [Allochrocebus preussi], and russet-eared guenon [Cercopithecus erythrotis]), birds, and reptiles were hunted. The blue duiker (Philantomba monticola), giant pouched rat (Cricetomys emini), and brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus) contributed almost all the animal biomass hunted, consumed, or sold in both villages. Monkeys and Ogilbyi's duikers (Cephalophus ogilbyi) were hunted only by commercial hunters. Commercial hunters generated a mean of US$2000/year from bushmeat sales. Households with commercial hunters were on average wealthier, generated more income, spent more money on nonessential goods, and bought more products they did not grow. By contrast, households with subsistence hunters spent less on market items, spent more on essential products, and grew more of their own food. Despite these differences, average consumption of vegetable protein and domestic meat and bushmeat protein did not differ between villages. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the socioeconomic and nutritional context of commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunting to correctly interpret ways of reducing their effects on threatened species and to enable the sustainable offtake of more productive taxa.

  8. Skeletal effect of casein and whey protein intake during catch-up growth in young male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Masarwi, Majdi; Gabet, Yankel; Dolkart, Oleg; Brosh, Tamar; Shamir, Raanan; Phillip, Moshe; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the type of protein ingested influences the efficiency of catch-up (CU) growth and bone quality in fast-growing male rats. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were either fed ad libitum (controls) or subjected to 36 d of 40 % food restriction followed by 24 or 40 d of re-feeding with either standard rat chow or iso-energetic, iso-protein diets containing milk proteins - casein or whey. In terms of body weight, CU growth was incomplete in all study groups. Despite their similar food consumption, casein-re-fed rats had a significantly higher body weight and longer humerus than whey-re-fed rats in the long term. The height of the epiphyseal growth plate (EGP) in both casein and whey groups was greater than that of rats re-fed normal chow. Microcomputed tomography yielded significant differences in bone microstructure between the casein and whey groups, with the casein-re-fed animals having greater cortical thickness in both the short and long term in addition to a higher trabecular bone fraction in the short term, although this difference disappeared in the long term. Mechanical testing confirmed the greater bone strength in rats re-fed casein. Bone quality during CU growth significantly depends on the type of protein ingested. The higher EGP in the casein- and whey-re-fed rats suggests a better growth potential with milk-based diets. These results suggest that whey may lead to slower bone growth with reduced weight gain and, as such, may serve to circumvent long-term complications of CU growth.

  9. Skeletal effect of casein and whey protein intake during catch-up growth in young male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Masarwi, Majdi; Gabet, Yankel; Dolkart, Oleg; Brosh, Tamar; Shamir, Raanan; Phillip, Moshe; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the type of protein ingested influences the efficiency of catch-up (CU) growth and bone quality in fast-growing male rats. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were either fed ad libitum (controls) or subjected to 36 d of 40 % food restriction followed by 24 or 40 d of re-feeding with either standard rat chow or iso-energetic, iso-protein diets containing milk proteins - casein or whey. In terms of body weight, CU growth was incomplete in all study groups. Despite their similar food consumption, casein-re-fed rats had a significantly higher body weight and longer humerus than whey-re-fed rats in the long term. The height of the epiphyseal growth plate (EGP) in both casein and whey groups was greater than that of rats re-fed normal chow. Microcomputed tomography yielded significant differences in bone microstructure between the casein and whey groups, with the casein-re-fed animals having greater cortical thickness in both the short and long term in addition to a higher trabecular bone fraction in the short term, although this difference disappeared in the long term. Mechanical testing confirmed the greater bone strength in rats re-fed casein. Bone quality during CU growth significantly depends on the type of protein ingested. The higher EGP in the casein- and whey-re-fed rats suggests a better growth potential with milk-based diets. These results suggest that whey may lead to slower bone growth with reduced weight gain and, as such, may serve to circumvent long-term complications of CU growth. PMID:27189324

  10. Contrasts in livelihoods and protein intake between commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunters in two villages on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Vega, María Grande; Carpinetti, Bruno; Duarte, Jesús; Fa, John E

    2013-06-01

    Across West and Central Africa, wildlife provides a source of food and income. We investigated the relation between bushmeat hunting and household wealth and protein consumption in 2 rural communities in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. One village was dedicated to commercial hunting, the other trapped game primarily for food. We tested whether commercial-hunter households were nutritionally advantaged over subsistence-hunter households due to their higher income from the bushmeat trade and greater access to wild-animal protein. We conducted bushmeat-offtake surveys in both villages (captures by hunters and carcasses arriving to each village). Mammals (including threatened primates: black colobus [Colobus satanas], Preussi's guenon [Allochrocebus preussi], and russet-eared guenon [Cercopithecus erythrotis]), birds, and reptiles were hunted. The blue duiker (Philantomba monticola), giant pouched rat (Cricetomys emini), and brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus) contributed almost all the animal biomass hunted, consumed, or sold in both villages. Monkeys and Ogilbyi's duikers (Cephalophus ogilbyi) were hunted only by commercial hunters. Commercial hunters generated a mean of US$2000/year from bushmeat sales. Households with commercial hunters were on average wealthier, generated more income, spent more money on nonessential goods, and bought more products they did not grow. By contrast, households with subsistence hunters spent less on market items, spent more on essential products, and grew more of their own food. Despite these differences, average consumption of vegetable protein and domestic meat and bushmeat protein did not differ between villages. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the socioeconomic and nutritional context of commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunting to correctly interpret ways of reducing their effects on threatened species and to enable the sustainable offtake of more productive taxa. PMID:23692021

  11. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise.

  12. NOVEL INSIGHTS ON INTAKE OF MEAT AND PREVENTION OF SARCOPENIA: ALL REASONS FOR AN ADEQUATE CONSUMPTION.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena Anna; Peroni, Gabriella; Infantino, Vittoria; Pozzi, Raffaella

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: la sarcopenia se define como un síndrome caracterizado por la pérdida progresiva y generalizada de la masa muscular y de la fuerza. La principal causa de la sarcopenia es la alteración del metabolismo de las proteínas, en la que los procesos proteolíticos no van acompañados de una síntesis de proteínas y células musculares adecuadas, con lo que se pierde progresivamente la sensibilidad al estímulo anabólico. El enfoque más racional para retrasar la progresión de la sarcopenia y contrarrestar la resistencia anabólica es una nutrición adecuada. La carne contiene compuestos biológicamente activos, tales como creatina, carnitina y ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA) que tienen impactos significativos sobre el metabolismo de la proteína humana. Métodos: se realizó una revisión de la literatura narrativa para evaluar la evidencia hasta ahora, en relación con: 1. ingesta adecuada de carne en ancianos como prevención de la sarcopenia; 2. la ingesta correcta de compuestos biológicamente activos que contiene la carne, que tienen impactos significativos sobre el metabolismo de la proteína humana y para así obtener efectos beneficiosos en la prevención de la sarcopenia. Esta revisión incluyó 62 estudios elegibles. Resultados: los resultados demostraron que en personas de edad avanzada la terapia óptima con dieta para la prevención y tratamiento de la sarcopenia, que debe apuntar al logro de los objetivos metabólicos específicos, debe recomendar el consumo de 113 g de carne (220 kcal; 30 g de proteínas) cinco veces a la semana. Conclusión: en una dieta variada y equilibrada, para prevenir la sarcopenia, se recomienda consumir la carne 4-5 veces a la semana (carne blanca 2 veces por semana, carne roja magra menos de 2 veces por semana, carne procesada menos de 1 vez por semana), como se sugiere en la pirámide de la dieta para personas mayores.

  13. Applications of Dietary Reference Intakes in dietary assessment and planning.

    PubMed

    Barr, Susan I

    2006-02-01

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are used for assessing and planning diets of individuals and groups. Assessing individual intakes is complicated by the fact that neither the individual's usual nutrient intake nor their individual requirement is known. However, the degree of confidence that intakes are adequate or excessive can be estimated. Assessing diets of groups requires information on the group's usual nutrient intake distribution, which can be obtained by statistically adjusting 1 d intake distributions to remove within-person variability. For most nutrients with an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), the group prevalence of inadequate intakes can be approximated by the percent whose usual intakes are less than the EAR. However, the prevalence of inadequacy cannot be determined for nutrients with an Adequate Intake (AI). The goals of planning are a low risk (for individuals) or low prevalence (for groups) of inadequate or excessive nutrient intakes. For individuals, these goals are met by planning intakes that meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or AI, are below the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), and fall within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs). For groups, planning involves estimating a "target" usual intake distribution with an acceptably low prevalence less than the EAR and greater than the UL, planning menus to achieve the target distribution, and assessing the results.

  14. A preliminary study on nutritional status and intake in Chinese children with autism.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Zhou, Yanjuan; Sun, Caihong; Wang, Jia; Wu, Lijie

    2010-10-01

    Parents of children with autism often report gastrointestinal problems as well as picky eating and selective eating in their children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status and the nutrient intake in 111 Chinese children with autism, aged between 2 and 9 years. Anthropometric data were expressed as Z scores. A 3-day dietary recall was provided by the parents, and the data were compared with the national Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) standards for Chinese children. The results showed that only nine of the autistic children (8.1%) were acute or chronically malnourished. From the remaining 102 patients, 67 (60.4%) were eutrophic and 35 (31.5%) had either overweight or obesity. Intakes of both calories and proteins were adequate in the vast majority of these children, but the calories from fat was lower than DRI in the same age group. The average intake of vitamin E and niacin exceeded 100% of DRI, and the intakes of vitamin B1 and B2, magnesium, and iron were between 80% and 90% of DRI range. However, the following nutrients did not meet the DRI requirements at all: vitamins A, B6 and C, folic acid, calcium, and zinc. Although growth was satisfactory in the vast majority of these children with autistic disorder, this study revealed serious deficiencies in the intakes of several vitamins and essential nutrients.

  15. Effects of low protein intake on the development of the remaining kidney in subtotally nephrectomized immature rats: apoptosis and epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed

    Mino, Masaki; Nakamura, Jun; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Morioka, Hiroshi; Morikawa, Yoshio; Okada, Toshiya

    2007-03-01

    Effects of low protein intake on the development of the remaining kidney in subtotally (5/6) nephrectomized immature rats were examined. Three week-old weaning rats were kept on a diet containing either 12% (Lp rats) or 18% (Np rats) protein for 4 or 8 weeks after subtotal nephrectomy. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration was determined at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy. At 4 or 8 weeks after the operation, glomerular sclerosis and tubulointerstitial damage were assessed by a standard semiquantitative analysis and were expressed as the glomerular sclerosis index (GSI) and interstitial fibrosis score (IFS), respectively. The localization of DNA fragmented cells in the kidney was examined by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) -mediated d-UTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method and the localization of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) by immunohistochemical methods. BUN concentration was significantly lower in the Lp rats compared with that in the Np rats. Both 4 and 8 weeks after subtotal nephrectomy, GSI and incidence of TUNEL positive cells in the distal tubules were significantly lower in the Lp rats than in the Np rats. Four weeks after the operation, IFS was significantly lower in the Lp rats than in the Np rats. Four and 8 weeks after the operation, EGF positive cells in the distal tubules were more observed in the Lp rats than in the Np rats. These findings reveal that protein restriction is effective in preventing renal tubular scarring in immature rats and that EGF is involved in the process of this prevention.

  16. Mammary arteriovenous differences of glucose, insulin, prolactin and IGF-I in lactating sows under different protein intake levels.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Chantal; Guan, Xinfu; Trottier, Nathalie L

    2008-01-01

    Mammary uptake of nutrients is dependent on their availability in the circulation but the role of hormones in that process is not known. Arteriovenous differences (AVD) of glucose and key hormones across the mammary glands were therefore determined in sows fed varying levels of protein. Sixteen lactating sows (four/dietary treatment) were fed a 7.8, 13.0, 18.2 or 23.5% crude protein (CP) isocaloric diet throughout lactation and their litters were standardized to 11 pigs within 48 h of birth. The anterior main mammary vein and a carotid artery were cannulated on day 4+/-1 of lactation and blood samples were collected every 30 min over 6h on days 10, 14, 18 and 22 of lactation to measure glucose, insulin, IGF-I, and prolactin (PRL) concentrations. Amino acid data from these sows were previously published and used here to determine residual correlations. Dietary treatments had no effect on any of the insulin or PRL variables measured (P>0.1) and, on day 18 only, IGF-I AVD was greater (P=0.05) for sows on the 23.5% compared to the 18.2% diet. On days 18 and 22, sows fed the 13% CP diet had greater arterial, venous and AVD glucose concentrations than sows fed other diets (P<0.05). Total arterial amino acid concentrations were correlated to arterial insulin (P<0.001) and PRL (P<0.05) concentrations, but not to those of IGF-I (P>0.1). Mammary AVD for total (P<0.001) and essential amino acids (P<0.05) were correlated to arterial concentrations of insulin, but not to those of IGF-I (P>0.1) or PRL (P>0.1). Mammary AVD of both total (P<0.01) and essential (P<0.05) amino acids were also correlated to mammary PRL AVD. In conclusion, dietary protein level did not affect mammary AVD and circulating lactogenic hormone concentrations. Yet, amino acid utilization by the sow mammary gland seems to be regulated via both circulating insulin concentrations and PRL binding to and uptake by porcine mammary cells.

  17. Carbohydrate intake.

    PubMed

    Leturque, Armelle; Brot-Laroche, Edith; Le Gall, Maude

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates represent more than 50% of the energy sources present in most human diets. Sugar intake is regulated by metabolic, neuronal, and hedonic factors, and gene polymorphisms are involved in determining sugar preference. Nutrigenomic adaptations to carbohydrate availability have been evidenced in metabolic diseases, in the persistence of lactose digestion, and in amylase gene copy number. Furthermore, dietary oligosaccharides, fermentable by gut flora, can modulate the microbiotal diversity to the benefit of the host. Genetic diseases linked to mutations in the disaccharidase genes (sucrase-isomaltase, lactase) and in sugar transporter genes (sodium/glucose cotransporter 1, glucose transporters 1 and 2) severely impact carbohydrate intake. These diseases are revealed upon exposure to food containing the offending sugar, and withdrawal of this sugar from the diet prevents disease symptoms, failure to thrive, and premature death. Tailoring the sugar composition of diets to optimize wellness and to prevent the chronic occurrence of metabolic diseases is a future goal that may yet be realized through continued development of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics approaches. PMID:22656375

  18. Adequate mathematical modelling of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    In environmental observations and laboratory visualization both large scale flow components like currents, jets, vortices, waves and a fine structure are registered (different examples are given). The conventional mathematical modeling both analytical and numerical is directed mostly on description of energetically important flow components. The role of a fine structures is still remains obscured. A variety of existing models makes it difficult to choose the most adequate and to estimate mutual assessment of their degree of correspondence. The goal of the talk is to give scrutiny analysis of kinematics and dynamics of flows. A difference between the concept of "motion" as transformation of vector space into itself with a distance conservation and the concept of "flow" as displacement and rotation of deformable "fluid particles" is underlined. Basic physical quantities of the flow that are density, momentum, energy (entropy) and admixture concentration are selected as physical parameters defined by the fundamental set which includes differential D'Alembert, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations and closing equation of state. All of them are observable and independent. Calculations of continuous Lie groups shown that only the fundamental set is characterized by the ten-parametric Galilelian groups reflecting based principles of mechanics. Presented analysis demonstrates that conventionally used approximations dramatically change the symmetries of the governing equations sets which leads to their incompatibility or even degeneration. The fundamental set is analyzed taking into account condition of compatibility. A high order of the set indicated on complex structure of complete solutions corresponding to physical structure of real flows. Analytical solutions of a number problems including flows induced by diffusion on topography, generation of the periodic internal waves a compact sources in week-dissipative media as well as numerical solutions of the same

  19. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kaganov, Boris; Caroli, Margherita; Mazur, Artur; Singhal, Atul; Vania, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population. PMID:25984741

  20. Longevity and skeletal muscle mass: the role of IGF signalling, the sirtuins, dietary restriction and protein intake.

    PubMed

    Sharples, Adam P; Hughes, David C; Deane, Colleen S; Saini, Amarjit; Selman, Colin; Stewart, Claire E

    2015-08-01

    Advancing age is associated with a progressive loss of skeletal muscle (SkM) mass and function. Given the worldwide aging demographics, this is a major contributor to morbidity, escalating socio-economic costs and ultimately mortality. Previously, it has been established that a decrease in regenerative capacity in addition to SkM loss with age coincides with suppression of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling pathways. However, genetic or pharmacological modulations of these highly conserved pathways have been observed to significantly enhance life and healthspan in various species, including mammals. This therefore provides a controversial paradigm in which reduced regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle tissue with age potentially promotes longevity of the organism. This paradox will be assessed and considered in the light of the following: (i) the genetic knockout, overexpression and pharmacological models that induce lifespan extension (e.g. IRS-1/s6K KO, mTOR inhibition) versus the important role of these signalling pathways in SkM growth and adaptation; (ii) the role of the sirtuins (SIRTs) in longevity versus their emerging role in SkM regeneration and survival under catabolic stress; (iii) the role of dietary restriction and its impact on longevity versus skeletal muscle mass regulation; (iv) the crosstalk between cellular energy metabolism (AMPK/TSC2/SIRT1) and survival (FOXO) versus growth and repair of SkM (e.g. AMPK vs. mTOR); and (v) the impact of protein feeding in combination with dietary restriction will be discussed as a potential intervention to maintain SkM mass while increasing longevity and enabling healthy aging. PMID:25866088

  1. Longevity and skeletal muscle mass: the role of IGF signalling, the sirtuins, dietary restriction and protein intake

    PubMed Central

    Sharples, Adam P; Hughes, David C; Deane, Colleen S; Saini, Amarjit; Selman, Colin; Stewart, Claire E

    2015-01-01

    Advancing age is associated with a progressive loss of skeletal muscle (SkM) mass and function. Given the worldwide aging demographics, this is a major contributor to morbidity, escalating socio-economic costs and ultimately mortality. Previously, it has been established that a decrease in regenerative capacity in addition to SkM loss with age coincides with suppression of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling pathways. However, genetic or pharmacological modulations of these highly conserved pathways have been observed to significantly enhance life and healthspan in various species, including mammals. This therefore provides a controversial paradigm in which reduced regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle tissue with age potentially promotes longevity of the organism. This paradox will be assessed and considered in the light of the following: (i) the genetic knockout, overexpression and pharmacological models that induce lifespan extension (e.g. IRS-1/s6K KO, mTOR inhibition) versus the important role of these signalling pathways in SkM growth and adaptation; (ii) the role of the sirtuins (SIRTs) in longevity versus their emerging role in SkM regeneration and survival under catabolic stress; (iii) the role of dietary restriction and its impact on longevity versus skeletal muscle mass regulation; (iv) the crosstalk between cellular energy metabolism (AMPK/TSC2/SIRT1) and survival (FOXO) versus growth and repair of SkM (e.g. AMPK vs. mTOR); and (v) the impact of protein feeding in combination with dietary restriction will be discussed as a potential intervention to maintain SkM mass while increasing longevity and enabling healthy aging. PMID:25866088

  2. Longevity and skeletal muscle mass: the role of IGF signalling, the sirtuins, dietary restriction and protein intake.

    PubMed

    Sharples, Adam P; Hughes, David C; Deane, Colleen S; Saini, Amarjit; Selman, Colin; Stewart, Claire E

    2015-08-01

    Advancing age is associated with a progressive loss of skeletal muscle (SkM) mass and function. Given the worldwide aging demographics, this is a major contributor to morbidity, escalating socio-economic costs and ultimately mortality. Previously, it has been established that a decrease in regenerative capacity in addition to SkM loss with age coincides with suppression of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling pathways. However, genetic or pharmacological modulations of these highly conserved pathways have been observed to significantly enhance life and healthspan in various species, including mammals. This therefore provides a controversial paradigm in which reduced regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle tissue with age potentially promotes longevity of the organism. This paradox will be assessed and considered in the light of the following: (i) the genetic knockout, overexpression and pharmacological models that induce lifespan extension (e.g. IRS-1/s6K KO, mTOR inhibition) versus the important role of these signalling pathways in SkM growth and adaptation; (ii) the role of the sirtuins (SIRTs) in longevity versus their emerging role in SkM regeneration and survival under catabolic stress; (iii) the role of dietary restriction and its impact on longevity versus skeletal muscle mass regulation; (iv) the crosstalk between cellular energy metabolism (AMPK/TSC2/SIRT1) and survival (FOXO) versus growth and repair of SkM (e.g. AMPK vs. mTOR); and (v) the impact of protein feeding in combination with dietary restriction will be discussed as a potential intervention to maintain SkM mass while increasing longevity and enabling healthy aging.

  3. Validation of soy protein estimates from a food-frequency questionnaire with repeated 24-h recalls and isoflavonoid excretion in overnight urine in a Western population with a wide range of soy intakes2

    PubMed Central

    Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fraser, Gary E; Chan, Jacqueline; Franke, Adrian; Sabaté, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence of the benefits of soy on cancer risk in Western populations is inconsistent, in part because of the low intake of soy in these groups. Objective We assessed the validity of soy protein estimates from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) in a sample of Adventist Health Study-2 participants with a wide range of soy intakes. Design We obtained dietary intake data from 100 men and women (43 blacks and 57 nonblacks). Soy protein estimates from FFQs were compared against repeated 24-h recalls and urinary excretion of daidzein, genistein, total isoflavonoids (TIFLs), and equol (measured by HPLC/photodiode array/mass spectrometry) as reference criteria. We calculated Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients (with 95% CIs) for FFQ–24-h recall, 24 h-recall–urinary excretion, and FFQ–urinary excretion pairs. Results Among soy users, mean (± SD) soy protein values were 12.12 ± 10.80 g/d from 24-h recalls and 9.43 ± 7.83 g/d from FFQs. The unattenuated correlation (95% CI) between soy protein estimates from 24-h recalls and FFQs was 0.57 (0.32, 0.75). Correlation coefficients between soy protein intake from 24-h recalls and urinary isoflavonoids were 0.72 (0.43, 0.96) for daidzein, 0.67 (0.43, 0.91) for genistein, and 0.72 (0.47, 0.98) for TIFLs. Between FFQs and urinary excretion, these were 0.50 (0.32, 0.65), 0.48 (0.29, 0.61), and 0.50 (0.32, 0.64) for daidzein, genistein, and TIFLs, respectively. Conclusions Soy protein estimates from questionnaire were significantly correlated with soy protein from 24-h recalls and urinary excretion of daidzein, genistein, and TIFLs. The Adventist Health Study-2 FFQ is a valid instrument for assessing soy protein in a population with a wide range of soy intakes. PMID:18469267

  4. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin P; Erdman, Kelly A

    2016-01-01

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11-18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717-2437) in 11-13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291-3483) in 14-18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1-10.5); 2.4 (1.6-3.4) in males 11-13 years, 5.7 (4.5-7.9); 2.0 (1.4-2.6) in females 11-13 years, 5.3 (4.3-7.4); 2.0 (1.5-2.4) in males 14-18 y and 4.9 (4.4-6.2); 1.7 (1.3-2.0) in females 14-18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14-18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72-112), folate 89% (61-114) and calcium 84% (48-106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary.

  5. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin P; Erdman, Kelly A

    2016-01-01

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11-18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717-2437) in 11-13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291-3483) in 14-18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1-10.5); 2.4 (1.6-3.4) in males 11-13 years, 5.7 (4.5-7.9); 2.0 (1.4-2.6) in females 11-13 years, 5.3 (4.3-7.4); 2.0 (1.5-2.4) in males 14-18 y and 4.9 (4.4-6.2); 1.7 (1.3-2.0) in females 14-18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14-18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72-112), folate 89% (61-114) and calcium 84% (48-106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary. PMID:27571101

  6. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Jill A.; Wiens, Kristin P.; Erdman, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11–18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717–2437) in 11–13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291–3483) in 14–18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1–10.5); 2.4 (1.6–3.4) in males 11–13 years, 5.7 (4.5–7.9); 2.0 (1.4–2.6) in females 11–13 years, 5.3 (4.3–7.4); 2.0 (1.5–2.4) in males 14–18 y and 4.9 (4.4–6.2); 1.7 (1.3–2.0) in females 14–18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14–18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72–112), folate 89% (61–114) and calcium 84% (48–106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary. PMID:27571101

  7. An energy-reduced dietary pattern, including moderate protein and increased nonfat dairy intake combined with walking promotes beneficial body composition and metabolic changes in women with excess adiposity: a randomized comparative trial

    PubMed Central

    Shlisky, Julie D; Durward, Carrie M; Zack, Melissa K; Gugger, Carolyn K; Campbell, Jessica K; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M

    2015-01-01

    Moderate protein and nonfat dairy intake within an energy-reduced diet (ERD) may contribute to health benefits achieved with body weight (BW) loss. The current study examined the effectiveness of a weight-loss/weight-loss maintenance intervention using an ERD with moderate dietary protein (30% of kcals) and increased nonfat dairy intake (4–5 svg/d), including yogurt (INT group) and daily walking compared to an ERD with standard protein (16–17% of kcals) and standard nonfat dairy intake (3 svg/d) (COM group) with daily walking. A randomized comparative trial with 104 healthy premenopausal women with overweight/obesity was conducted in a university setting. Women were randomized to INT group or COM group. Anthropometric measurements, as well as dietary intake, selected vital signs, resting energy expenditure, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, and selected adipose-derived hormones were measured at baseline, and weeks 2, 12, and 24. Targets for dietary protein and nonfat dairy intake, while initially achieved, were not sustained in the INT group. There were no significant effects of diet group on anthropometric measurements. Women in the INT group and COM group, respectively, reduced BW (−4.9 ± 3.2 and −4.3 ± 3.3 kg, P < 0.001) and fat mass (−3.0 ± 2.2 and −2.3 ± 2.3 kg, P < 0.001) during the 12-week weight-loss phase and maintained these losses at 24 weeks. Both groups experienced significant decreases in body mass index, fat-free soft tissue mass, body fat percentage, waist and hip circumferences and serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and leptin (all P < 0.001). Healthy premenopausal women with excess adiposity effectively lost BW and fat mass and improved some metabolic risk factors following an ERD with approximately 20% protein and 3 svg/d of nonfat dairy intake. PMID:26405524

  8. Free Maillard Reaction Products in Milk Reflect Nutritional Intake of Glycated Proteins and Can Be Used to Distinguish "Organic" and "Conventionally" Produced Milk.

    PubMed

    Schwarzenbolz, Uwe; Hofmann, Thomas; Sparmann, Nina; Henle, Thomas

    2016-06-22

    Using LC-MS/MS and isotopically labeled standard substances, quantitation of free Maillard reaction products (MRPs), namely, N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), 5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (pyrraline, PYR), N(δ)-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H), and N(ε)-fructosyllysine (FL), in bovine milk was achieved. Considerable variations in the amounts of the individual MRPs were found, most likely as a consequence of the nutritional uptake of glycated proteins. When comparing commercial milk samples labeled as originating from "organic" or "conventional" farming, respectively, significant differences in the content of free PYR (organic milk, 20-300 pmol/mL; conventional milk, 400-1000 pmol/mL) were observed. An analysis of feed samples indicated that rapeseed and sugar beet are the main sources for MRPs in conventional farming. Furthermore, milk of different dairy animals (cow, buffalo, donkey, goat, ewe, mare, camel) as well as for the first time human milk was analyzed for free MRPs. The distribution of their concentrations, with FL and PYR as the most abundant in human milk and with a high individual variability, also points to a nutritional influence. As the components of concentrated feed do not belong to the natural food sources of ruminants and equidae, free MRPs in milk might serve as indicators for an adequate animal feeding in near-natural farming and can be suitable parameters to distinguish between an "organic" and "conventional" production method of milk. PMID:27213835

  9. Feed Intake, Digestibility, and N Retention in Cattle Fed Rice Straw and Para Grass Combined with Different Levels of Protein Derived from Cassava Foliage

    PubMed Central

    Sath, K.; Sokun, K.; Pauly, T.; Holtenius, K.

    2012-01-01

    Eight male cattle of Local Yellow breed with an average live weight of 121 kg and an average age of 18 months were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of sun-dried cassava foliage supplementation (Manihot esculenta) on intake, digestibility and N retention. Rice straw ad libitum and para grass (Brachiaria mutica) at 1% DM of BW comprised the basal diet. The study was arranged as a 4×4 double Latin square design, with cassava foliage contributing 0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 g CP/kg BW. The cattle selected cassava leaves in preference to petioles. Petiole intake decreased from 64 to 48% of offered petioles when the cassava foliage proportion increased from the lowest to the highest level. The cattle consumed all the leaves at the two lower levels of cassava foliage inclusion and 91% at the highest level. Rice straw intake decreased significantly as the level of cassava foliage increased. Intake of DM, OM, NDF, and ADF increased significantly with increasing intake of cassava foliage. Daily DM intake per 100 kg BW increased from 2.7 to 3.2 kg with increasing cassava foliage intake. No effect on CP digestibility was detected when the level of cassava foliage increased. Digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and ADF was significantly higher in the group fed no cassava foliage than in the other groups. N retention increased from 16 to 28 g/d with the first level of cassava foliage inclusion, but levelled out at the two highest levels. N excretion increased in both faeces and urine as a response to higher intake of cassava foliage. Maximum N retention occurred when 40% of total N intake came from cassava foliage (equivalent to 1.3 g CP/kg BW). PMID:25049650

  10. The nature of the growth pattern and of the metabolic response to fasting in the rat are dependent upon the dietary protein and folic acid intakes of their pregnant dams and post-weaning fat consumption.

    PubMed

    Burdge, Graham C; Lillycrop, Karen A; Jackson, Alan A; Gluckman, Peter D; Hanson, Mark A

    2008-03-01

    The nutritional cues which induce different phenotypes from a single genotype in developing offspring are poorly understood. How well prenatal nutrient availability before birth predicts that after birth may also determine the offspring's response to later metabolic challenge. We investigated the effect of feeding pregnant rats diets containing protein at 180 g/kg (Control) or 90 g/kg (protein-restricted, PR) and either 1 or 5 mg folic acid/kg on growth and metabolic response to fasting in their offspring, and also the effect of diets with different fat contents (40 g/kg (Fat(4)) or 100 g/kg (Fat(10))) after weaning. Offspring of dams fed the PR diet with 5 mg/kg folic acid were significantly lighter than other offspring. The PR offspring fed the Fat(4) diet had lower plasma TAG than the Control offspring, but this relationship was reversed when offspring were fed Fat(10). Increasing the folic acid content of the Control or PR maternal diets induced opposing effects on plasma TAG, NEFA, beta-hydroxybutyrate and glucose concentrations in offspring fed Fat(4). The effect was accentuated in offspring fed the Fat(10) diet such that these metabolites were increased in the Control offspring, but reduced in the PR offspring. These data show for the first time that maternal dietary folic acid intake alters offspring phenotype depending upon dietary protein intake, and that this effect is modified by fat intake after weaning. Prevention by increased folic acid intake of an altered metabolic phenotype by maternal protein-restriction may be at the expense of somatic growth.

  11. Protein and older adults.

    PubMed

    Chernoff, Ronni

    2004-12-01

    Body composition changes as people get older. One of the noteworthy alterations is the reduction in total body protein. A decrease in skeletal muscle is the most noticeable manifestation of this change but there is also a reduction in other physiologic proteins such as organ tissue, blood components, and immune bodies as well as declines in total body potassium and water. This contributes to impaired wound healing, loss of skin elasticity, and an inability to fight infection. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for adults for protein is 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight. Protein tissue accounts for 30% of whole-body protein turnover but that rate declines to 20% or less by age 70. The result of this phenomenon is that older adults require more protein/kilogram body weight than do younger adults. Recently, it has become clear that the requirement for exogenous protein is at least 1.0 gram/kilogram body weight. Adequate dietary intake of protein may be more difficult for older adults to obtain. Dietary animal protein is the primary source of high biological value protein, iron, vitamin B(12), folic acid, biotin and other essential nutrients. In fact, egg protein is the standard against which all other proteins are compared. Compared to other high-quality protein sources like meat, poultry and seafood, eggs are the least expensive. The importance of dietary protein cannot be underestimated in the diets of older adults; inadequate protein intake contributes to a decrease in reserve capacity, increased skin fragility, decreased immune function, poorer healing, and longer recuperation from illness.

  12. Salt intake and kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Boero, Roberto; Pignataro, Angelo; Quarello, Francesco

    2002-01-01

    We have reviewed the role of salt intake in kidney diseases, particularly in relation to renal hemodynamics, renal excretion of proteins, renal morphological changes and progression of chronic renal failure. High salt intake may have detrimental effects on glomerular hemodynamics, inducing hyperfiltration and increasing the filtration fraction and glomerular pressure. This may be particularly important in elderly, obese, diabetic or black patients, who have a high prevalence of salt-sensitivity. Changes in salt intake may influence urinary excretion of proteins in patients with essential hypertension, or diabetic and non diabetic nephropathies. Moreover, high sodium intake may blunt the antiproteinuric effect of various drugs, including angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and calcium antagonists. Experimental studies show a direct tissue effect of salt on the kidney, independent of its ability to increase blood pressure, inducing hypertrophy, fibrosis and a decrease in glomerular basement membrane anionic sites. However, no firm conclusion can be drawn about the relationship between salt consumption and progression of chronic renal failure, because most information comes from conflicting, small, retrospective, observational studies. In conclusion, it would appear that restriction of sodium intake is an important preventive and therapeutic measure in patients with chronic renal diseases of various origin, or at risk of renal damage, such as hypertensive or diabetic patients.

  13. Salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: what is the most adequate preventive strategy? A Swiss perspective

    PubMed Central

    Burnier, Michel; Wuerzner, Gregoire; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-01-01

    Among the various strategies to reduce the incidence of non-communicable diseases reduction of sodium intake in the general population has been recognized as one of the most cost-effective means because of its potential impact on the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Yet, this strategic health recommendation of the WHO and many other international organizations is far from being universally accepted. Indeed, there are still several unresolved scientific and epidemiological questions that maintain an ongoing debate. Thus what is the adequate low level of sodium intake to recommend to the general population and whether national strategies should be oriented to the overall population or only to higher risk fractions of the population such as salt-sensitive patients are still discussed. In this paper, we shall review the recent results of the literature regarding salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk and we present the recommendations recently proposed by a group of experts of Switzerland. The propositions of the participating medical societies are to encourage national health authorities to continue their discussion with the food industry in order to reduce the sodium intake of food products with a target of mean salt intake of 5–6 grams per day in the population. Moreover, all initiatives to increase the information on the effect of salt on health and on the salt content of food are supported. PMID:26321959

  14. A study of calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescent boys and girls from two socioeconomic strata, in Pune, India.

    PubMed

    Sanwalka, Neha J; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Mughal, M Zulf; Sayyad, Mehmood G; Khadilkar, Vaman V; Shirole, Shilpa C; Divate, Uma P; Bhandari, Dhanshari R

    2010-01-01

    Adequate intake of calcium is important for skeletal growth. Low calcium intake during childhood and adolescence may lead to decreased bone mass accrual thereby increasing the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Our aim was to study dietary calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescents from lower and upper economic strata in Pune, India. We hypothesized that children from lower economic strata would have lower intakes of calcium, which would predominantly be derived from non-dairy sources. Two hundred male and female adolescents, from lower and upper economic stratum were studied. Semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate intakes of calcium, phosphorus, oxalic acid, phytin, energy and protein. The median calcium intake was significantly different in all four groups, with maximum intake in the upper economic strata boys (893 mg, 689-1295) and lowest intake in lower economic strata girls (506 mg, 380-674). The median calcium intake in lower economic strata boys was 767 mg (585-1043) and that in upper economic strata girls was 764 mg (541-959). The main source of calcium was dairy products in upper economic strata adolescents while it was dark green leafy vegetables in lower economic strata adolescents. The median calcium intake was much lower in lower economic strata than in the upper economic strata both in boys and girls. Girls from both groups had less access to dairy products as compared to boys. Measures need to be taken to rectify low calcium intake in lower economic strata adolescents and to address gender inequality in distribution of dairy products in India.

  15. Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A secondary aim was to characterize the study population in terms of determinants of the total fluid intake requirements. Methods A child friendly “fluids and liquid food” diary was used to prospectively record the volume and frequency of beverage consumption over 7 days from 1045 schoolchildren. This diary also recorded the practice of physical activity. An adequate fluid intake was defined as an intake ≥ 75% of the age-specific adequate intake recommended by the EFSA. Results The median (P25-P75) of habitual daily fluid intake was 864 (608–1104) ml/day, with 355 (194–579) coming from drinking water. This habitual daily fluid intake varied significantly among the three investigated EFSA groups (girls and boys aged from 8 years, girls from 9 to 13 and boys from 9 to 13), except for the drinking water (P = 0.906). The highest medians of fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and milk and derivatives were found among boys of 9–13. Only 9.5% of the children had an adequate fluid intake, with a value of 19.2% among the 8 years old girls and boys, 7.0% among girls of 9–13 and 8.4% among boys of 9–13. In the whole sample, 27.7% of the children declared to drink less than 3-4x/day, 56% drunk water less than 2x/day and 7.7% drunk no water at all. Every day, 27.1% and 34.1% of the children drank respectively one fruit juice and one sugar-sweetened beverage. Conclusion Belgian schoolchildren have an inadequate total fluid intake. Given the potential health

  16. The role of dietary protein and vitamin D in maintaining musculoskeletal health in postmenopausal women: a consensus statement from the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO).

    PubMed

    Rizzoli, René; Stevenson, John C; Bauer, Jürgen M; van Loon, Luc J C; Walrand, Stéphane; Kanis, John A; Cooper, Cyrus; Brandi, Maria-Luisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2014-09-01

    From 50 years of age, postmenopausal women are at an increased risk of developing sarcopenia and osteoporosis as a result of deterioration of musculoskeletal health. Both disorders increase the risk of falls and fractures. The risk of developing sarcopenia and osteoporosis may be attenuated through healthy lifestyle changes, which include adequate dietary protein, calcium and vitamin D intakes, and regular physical activity/exercise, besides hormone replacement therapy when appropriate. Protein intake and physical activity are the main anabolic stimuli for muscle protein synthesis. Exercise training leads to increased muscle mass and strength, and the combination of optimal protein intake and exercise produces a greater degree of muscle protein accretion than either intervention alone. Similarly, adequate dietary protein intake and resistance exercise are important contributors to the maintenance of bone strength. Vitamin D helps to maintain muscle mass and strength as well as bone health. These findings suggest that healthy lifestyle measures in women aged >50 years are essential to allow healthy ageing. The European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) recommends optimal dietary protein intake of 1.0-1.2g/kgbodyweight/d with at least 20-25g of high-quality protein at each main meal, with adequate vitamin D intake at 800IU/d to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels >50nmol/L as well as calcium intake of 1000mg/d, alongside regular physical activity/exercise 3-5 times/week combined with protein intake in close proximity to exercise, in postmenopausal women for prevention of age-related deterioration of musculoskeletal health.

  17. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-07-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record.

  18. Dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chin-En; Yen, Chi-Hua; Huang, Men-Chung; Cheng, Chien-Hsiang; Huang, Yi-Chia

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and compare dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents. Fifty-six omnivores (28 children and 28 parents) and 42 vegetarians (21 preschool children with 18 lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 3 ovo-vegetarians; 21 parents with 16 lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 2 ovo-vegetarians, 1 lacto-vegetarian, and 2 vegans) were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were taken; body mass index and weight-for-height index (WHI) were calculated. Nutrient intake was recorded using 3-day dietary records. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained to estimate hematologic and vitamin status parameters. Height, weight, body mass index, WHI, and triceps skinfold thickness value differences between omnivores and vegetarians in both parent and child groups were not found. Both omnivorous parents and their children had significantly higher fat and lower fiber intakes than vegetarian parents and children. Omnivorous children had significantly higher protein and lower vitamin C intakes than vegetarian children, whereas omnivorous parents had significantly lower vitamin A and iron intakes than vegetarian parents. Vegetarians and omnivores in both parent and child groups had mean calcium consumption less than 75% of the Taiwan dietary intakes. All mean hematologic and biochemical nutrient status indices were within the reference range in any groups. However, both vegetarian parents and children had significantly lower mean total cholesterol and serum ferritin concentrations than those of omnivorous parents and children. Our vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children had normal growth and adequate nutritional status. However, both parents and children had inadequate calcium intakes, which may potentially affect bone health, especially for preschool children in the growing stage.

  19. JTT-130, a novel intestine-specific inhibitor of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, suppresses food intake and gastric emptying with the elevation of plasma peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1 in a dietary fat-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Hata, Takahiro; Mera, Yasuko; Ishii, Yukihito; Tadaki, Hironobu; Tomimoto, Daisuke; Kuroki, Yukiharu; Kawai, Takashi; Ohta, Takeshi; Kakutani, Makoto

    2011-03-01

    The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) takes part in the mobilization and secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from enterocytes and hepatocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of diethyl-2-({3-dimethylcarbamoyl-4-[(4'-trifluoromethylbiphenyl-2-carbonyl) amino] phenyl}acetyloxymethyl)-2-phenylmalonate (JTT-130), a novel intestine-specific MTP inhibitor, on food intake, gastric emptying, and gut peptides using Sprague-Dawley rats fed 3.1% fat, 13% fat, or 35% fat diets. JTT-130 treatment suppressed cumulative food intake and gastric emptying in rats fed a 35% fat diet, but not a 3.1% fat diet. In rats fed a 13% fat diet, JTT-130 treatment decreased cumulative food intake but not gastric emptying. In addition, treatment with orlistat, a lipase inhibitor, completely abolished the reduction of food intake and gastric emptying by JTT-130 in rats fed a 35% fat diet. On the other hand, JTT-130 treatment increased the plasma concentrations of gut peptides, peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) but not cholecystokinin, in the portal vein in rats fed a 35% fat diet. These elevations in PYY and GLP-1 were also abolished by treatment with orlistat. Furthermore, JTT-130 treatment in rats fed a 35% fat diet increased the contents of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the intestinal lumen, which might contribute to the elevation of PYY and GLP-1 levels. The present findings indicate that JTT-130 causes satiety responses, decreased food intake, and gastric emptying in a dietary fat-dependent manner, with enhanced production of gut peptides such as PYY and GLP-1 from the intestine.

  20. Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids to a reduced-protein diet improves growth performance in piglets: involvement of increased feed intake and direct muscle growth-promoting effect.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liufeng; Wei, Hongkui; Cheng, Chuanshang; Xiang, Quanhang; Pang, Jiaman; Peng, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementing branched-chain amino acids (AA) (BCAA) along with a reduced-protein diet increases piglet growth, and whether elevated feed intake and muscle growth-promoting effect contribute to this improvement. In Expt 1, twenty-eight weanling piglets were randomly fed one of the following four diets: a positive control (PC) diet, a reduced-protein negative control (NC) diet, an NC diet supplemented with BCAA to the same levels as in the PC diet (test 1 (T1)) and an NC diet supplemented with a 2-fold dose of BCAA in T1 diet (test 2 (T2)) for 28 d. In Expt 2, twenty-one weanling piglets were randomly assigned to NC, T1 and pair-fed T1 (P) groups. NC and T1 diets were the same as in Expt 1, whereas piglets in the P group were individually pair-fed with the NC group. In Expt 1, the NC group had reduced piglet growth and feed intake compared with the PC group, which were restored in T1 and T2 groups, but no differences were detected between T1 and T2 groups. In Expt 2, T1 and P groups showed increases in growth and mass of some muscles compared with the NC group. Increased feed intake after BCAA supplementation was associated with increased mRNA expressions of agouti-related peptide and co-express neuropeptide Y (NPY) and phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), as well as decreased mRNA expressions of melanocortin-4 receptor and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α in the hypothalamus. No differences were observed among PC, T1 and T2 groups except for higher NPY mRNA expression in the T2 group than in the PC group (Expt 1). Phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 in muscle was enhanced after BCAA supplementation, which was independent of change in feed intake (Expt 2). In conclusion, supplementing BCAA to reduced-protein diets increases feed intake and muscle mass, and contributes to better growth

  1. Acute ethanol intake induces superoxide anion generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat aorta: A role for angiotensin type 1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Yogi, Alvaro; Callera, Glaucia E.; Mecawi, André S.; Batalhão, Marcelo E.; Carnio, Evelin C.; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Queiroz, Regina H.; Touyz, Rhian M.; Tirapelli, Carlos R.

    2012-11-01

    Ethanol intake is associated with increase in blood pressure, through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that acute ethanol intake enhances vascular oxidative stress and induces vascular dysfunction through renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Ethanol (1 g/kg; p.o. gavage) effects were assessed within 30 min in male Wistar rats. The transient decrease in blood pressure induced by ethanol was not affected by the previous administration of losartan (10 mg/kg; p.o. gavage), a selective AT{sub 1} receptor antagonist. Acute ethanol intake increased plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin I (ANG I) and angiotensin II (ANG II) levels. Ethanol induced systemic and vascular oxidative stress, evidenced by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels, NAD(P)H oxidase‐mediated vascular generation of superoxide anion and p47phox translocation (cytosol to membrane). These effects were prevented by losartan. Isolated aortas from ethanol-treated rats displayed increased p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Losartan inhibited ethanol-induced increase in the phosphorylation of these kinases. Ethanol intake decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxation and increased phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aortas. Ethanol significantly decreased plasma and aortic nitrate levels. These changes in vascular reactivity and in the end product of endogenous nitric oxide metabolism were not affected by losartan. Our study provides novel evidence that acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and induces vascular oxidative stress and redox-signaling activation through AT{sub 1}-dependent mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of RAS in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage. -- Highlights: ► Acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and vascular oxidative stress. ► RAS plays a role in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage via AT{sub 1} receptor activation.

  2. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  3. Total protein, animal protein and physical activity in relation to muscle mass in middle-aged and older Americans.

    PubMed

    Morris, Martha Savaria; Jacques, Paul F

    2013-04-14

    Resistance training is recognised as a good strategy for retarding age-related declines in muscle mass and strength. Recent studies have also highlighted the potential value of protein intakes in excess of present recommendations. The roles that leisure-time physical activity and protein quality play in the preservation of skeletal muscle during ageing, and how such influences interact in free-living people are unclear. We sought to clarify these issues using data collected on 2425 participants aged ≥ 50 years in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006). We estimated subjects' usual intakes of total protein and beef from two 24 h diet recalls and computed the appendicular skeletal muscle mass index from anthropometric measures. Participants self-reported their physical activity levels. Analyses accounted for demographic factors and smoking. The association between muscle-strengthening activity and the appendicular skeletal muscle mass index varied with protein intake. Furthermore, among obese subjects with protein intakes < 70 g/d, those who performed such activities had a lower appendicular skeletal muscle mass index than those who were physically inactive. Protein intakes above the present recommendations were associated with benefits to obese subjects only. The appendicular skeletal muscle mass index of non-obese subjects who performed vigorous aerobic activities was consistently high; in obese subjects, it varied with protein intake. High-protein intake was associated with a modest increase in the appendicular skeletal muscle mass index in non-obese, physically inactive subjects. The present findings reinforce the idea that muscle-strengthening exercise preserves muscle when combined with adequate dietary protein. Vigorous aerobic activity may also help.

  4. Delay of natural bone loss by higher intakes of specific minerals and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Schaafsma, A; de Vries, P J; Saris, W H

    2001-05-01

    For early prevention or inhibition of postmenopausal and age-related bone loss, nutritional interventions might be a first choice. For some vitamins and minerals an important role in bone metabolism is known or suggested. Calcium and vitamin D support bone mineral density and are basic components in most preventive strategies. Magnesium is involved in a number of activities supporting bone strength, preservation, and remodeling. Fluorine and strontium have bone-forming effects. However, high amounts of both elements may reduce bone strength. Boron is especially effective in case of vitamin D, magnesium, and potassium deficiency. Vitamin K is essential for the activation of osteocalcin. Vitamin C is an important stimulus for osteoblast-derived proteins. Increasing the recommended amounts (US RDA 1989), adequate intakes (US DRI 1997), or assumed normal intakes of mentioned food components may lead to a considerable reduction or even prevention of bone loss, especially in late postmenopausal women and the elderly. PMID:11401244

  5. Assessment of protein nutritional status in children.

    PubMed

    Pencharz, Paul B

    2008-02-01

    When considering the effects of disease on nutritional status it is useful to think of the body consisting of lean mass and fat mass. The latter relates to energy status and the former to protein nutritional status. In addition, childhood growth in length/height is to a high degree dependent upon having an adequate protein intake. If insufficient non-protein energy is fed, then protein is used to help meet energy needs. Hence achieving an optimum protein nutritional status also requires receiving sufficient energy. Assessment of protein nutritional status starts with measurement of length/height and weight in relationship to growth standards. Next comes using mid-upper arm parameters in which the measurement of muscle area or circumference is a reflection of protein nutritional status while triceps skin-fold thickness is a measurement of energy status. Serum albumin remains the number one short term parameter reflecting protein nutritional status followed by serum transferrin. Plasma amino acid profiles can be measured but are mostly dependent on recent dietary intake and so are hard to interpret. Classically, nitrogen balance has been used as a reflection of dietary protein intake. While it has been used extensively on a research basis its clinical applicability is limited.

  6. Increased food intake in growth hormone-transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) may be mediated by upregulating Agouti-related protein (AgRP).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chengrong; Song, Yanlong; Wang, Yaping; Zhang, Tanglin; Duan, Ming; Li, Yongming; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2013-10-01

    In fish, food intake and feeding behavior are crucial for survival, competition, growth and reproduction. Growth hormone (GH)-transgenic common carp exhibit an enhanced growth rate, increased food intake and higher feed conversion rate. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of feeding regulation in GH-transgenic (TG) fish are not clear. In this study, we observed feeding behavior of TG and non-transgenic (NT) common carp, and analyzed the mRNA expression levels of NPY, AgRP I, orexin, POMC, CCK, and CART I in the hypothalamus and telencephalon after behavioral observation. We detected similar gene expression levels in the hypothalamus of TG and NT common carp, which had been cultured in the field at the same age. Furthermore, we tested the effects of GH on hypothalamus fragments in vitro to confirm our findings. We demonstrated that TG common carp displayed increased food intake and reduced food consumption time, which were associated with a marked increase in hypothalamic AgRP I mRNA expression. Our results suggest that elevated GH levels may influence food intake and feeding behavior by upregulating the hypothalamic orexigenic factor AgRP I in GH-transgenic common carp. PMID:23583469

  7. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  8. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  9. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  10. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  11. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order to... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for...

  12. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  13. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  14. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  15. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  16. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  17. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  18. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  19. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  20. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  1. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  2. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  3. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  4. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  5. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  6. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  7. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  8. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  9. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  10. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital...

  11. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  12. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  13. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  14. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  15. Acute ethanol intake induces superoxide anion generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat aorta: a role for angiotensin type 1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Yogi, Alvaro; Callera, Glaucia E; Mecawi, André S; Batalhão, Marcelo E; Carnio, Evelin C; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Queiroz, Regina H; Touyz, Rhian M; Tirapelli, Carlos R

    2012-11-01

    Ethanol intake is associated with increase in blood pressure, through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that acute ethanol intake enhances vascular oxidative stress and induces vascular dysfunction through renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Ethanol (1 g/kg; p.o. gavage) effects were assessed within 30 min in male Wistar rats. The transient decrease in blood pressure induced by ethanol was not affected by the previous administration of losartan (10 mg/kg; p.o. gavage), a selective AT₁ receptor antagonist. Acute ethanol intake increased plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin I (ANG I) and angiotensin II (ANG II) levels. Ethanol induced systemic and vascular oxidative stress, evidenced by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels, NAD(P)H oxidase-mediated vascular generation of superoxide anion and p47phox translocation (cytosol to membrane). These effects were prevented by losartan. Isolated aortas from ethanol-treated rats displayed increased p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Losartan inhibited ethanol-induced increase in the phosphorylation of these kinases. Ethanol intake decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxation and increased phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aortas. Ethanol significantly decreased plasma and aortic nitrate levels. These changes in vascular reactivity and in the end product of endogenous nitric oxide metabolism were not affected by losartan. Our study provides novel evidence that acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and induces vascular oxidative stress and redox-signaling activation through AT₁-dependent mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of RAS in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage.

  16. Interaction between orexin A and cannabinoid system in the lateral hypothalamus of rats and effects of subchronic intraperitoneal administration of cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist on food intake and the nutritive utilization of protein.

    PubMed

    Merroun, I; El Mlili, N; Martinez, R; Porres, J M; Llopis, J; Ahabrach, H; Aranda, P; Sanchez Gonzalez, C; Errami, M; Lopez-Jurado, M

    2015-04-01

    Crosstalk may occur between cannabinoids and other systems controlling appetite, since cannabinoid receptors are present in hypothalamic circuits involved in feeding regulation, and likely to interact with orexin. In this study, an immunohistochemical approach was used to examine the effect of the intracerebroventricular administration of cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist AM 251 on orexin neuropeptide in the hypothalamic system. AM-activated neurons were identified using c-Fos as a marker of neuronal activity. The results obtained show that AM 251 decreases orexin A immunoreactivity, and that it increases c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons within the hypothalamus when compared with the vehicle-injected control group. We also studied the effects of subchronic intraperitoneal administration of AM 251 on food intake, body weight, and protein utilization. The administration of AM 251 at 1, 2, or 5 mg/kg led to a significant reduction in food intake, along with a significant decrease in the digestive utilization of protein in the groups injected with 1 and 2 mg/kg. There was a dose-related slowdown in weight gain, especially at the doses of 2 and 5 mg/kg, during the initial days of the trial. The absence of this effect in the pair-fed group reveals that any impairment to digestibility was the result of administering AM 251. These data support our conclusion that hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptides are involved in the reduction of appetite and mediated by the cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist. Furthermore, the subchronic administration of AM 251, in addition to its effect on food intake, has significant effects on the digestive utilization of protein.

  17. Interaction between orexin A and cannabinoid system in the lateral hypothalamus of rats and effects of subchronic intraperitoneal administration of cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist on food intake and the nutritive utilization of protein.

    PubMed

    Merroun, I; El Mlili, N; Martinez, R; Porres, J M; Llopis, J; Ahabrach, H; Aranda, P; Sanchez Gonzalez, C; Errami, M; Lopez-Jurado, M

    2015-04-01

    Crosstalk may occur between cannabinoids and other systems controlling appetite, since cannabinoid receptors are present in hypothalamic circuits involved in feeding regulation, and likely to interact with orexin. In this study, an immunohistochemical approach was used to examine the effect of the intracerebroventricular administration of cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist AM 251 on orexin neuropeptide in the hypothalamic system. AM-activated neurons were identified using c-Fos as a marker of neuronal activity. The results obtained show that AM 251 decreases orexin A immunoreactivity, and that it increases c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons within the hypothalamus when compared with the vehicle-injected control group. We also studied the effects of subchronic intraperitoneal administration of AM 251 on food intake, body weight, and protein utilization. The administration of AM 251 at 1, 2, or 5 mg/kg led to a significant reduction in food intake, along with a significant decrease in the digestive utilization of protein in the groups injected with 1 and 2 mg/kg. There was a dose-related slowdown in weight gain, especially at the doses of 2 and 5 mg/kg, during the initial days of the trial. The absence of this effect in the pair-fed group reveals that any impairment to digestibility was the result of administering AM 251. These data support our conclusion that hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptides are involved in the reduction of appetite and mediated by the cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist. Furthermore, the subchronic administration of AM 251, in addition to its effect on food intake, has significant effects on the digestive utilization of protein. PMID:25903949

  18. Nutrient Intake in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; O’Brien, Marian C.; Clark, Patricia C.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Research Objective Approximately 50% of heart failure (HF) patients are thought to be malnourished, and macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies may potentially aggravate HF symptoms. Thus, concerns have been raised about the overall nutrient composition of diets in HF populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the macronutrient and micronutrient intake by caloric adequacy among community-dwelling adults with HF. Participants and Methods A secondary analysis of baseline data of participants in an HF lifestyle intervention study was conducted. Participants (n = 45) were predominantly male (55.6%), white, and non-Hispanic (64.4%); had a mean age of 61 years (SD, 11 years) and mean body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2 (SD, 7.3 kg/m2); were of New York Heart Association functional classes II and III (77.8%); and had a mean ejection fraction of 31.9% (SD,13.2%); and 69% had a college or higher level of education. The Block Food Habits Questionnaire was used to assess the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and Conclusions Individuals reporting inadequate daily caloric intake reported a lower intake of macronutrients and micronutrients as well as other differences in dietary patterns compared with individuals reporting adequate daily caloric intake. More than half of the individuals reporting adequate caloric intake did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and vitamin E. Interventions aimed at increasing overall intake and nutrient density are suggested. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between dietary factors and outcomes in HF. PMID:18596500

  19. Jersey calf performance in response to high-protein, high-fat liquid feeds with varied fatty acid profiles: intake and performance.

    PubMed

    Bowen Yoho, W S; Swank, V A; Eastridge, M L; O'Diam, K M; Daniels, K M

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether altering the fatty acid (FA) profile of milk replacer (MR) with coconut oil, which contains a high concentration of medium-chain FA, to more closely match the FA profile typically found in whole milk from Jersey cows, would improve Jersey calf performance. Male (n=18) and female (n=32) Jersey calves were assigned at birth to 1 of 4 liquid diets: (1) pasteurized Jersey saleable whole milk [pSWM; 27.9% crude protein (CP) and 33.5% fat]; (2) 29.3% CP and 29.1% fat MR, containing 100% of fat as edible lard (100:00); (3) 28.2% CP and 28.0% fat MR, containing 80% of fat as lard and 20% as coconut oil (80:20); and (4) 28.2% CP and 28.3% fat MR, containing 60% of the fat as lard and 40% as coconut oil (60:40). Calves were fed their respective liquid diet twice daily during wk 1 through 7 and once daily until weaning (approximately wk 8). Calves had ad libitum access to grain and water, and calves were monitored 1 wk postweaning. Average daily gain and body weight did not differ by treatment. Calves fed pSWM tended to have greater hip height (HH) than calves fed 80:20 (80.5 vs. 79.7 cm). Coconut oil tended to have a quadratic effect on HH, with calves fed 100:00, 80:20, and 60:40 at 79.2, 79.7, and 78.5 cm, respectively. No difference was observed in withers height between pSWM and 80:20. Coconut oil had a quadratic effect on withers height, with calves fed 100:00, 80:20, and 60:40 at 76.6, 77.5, and 76.5 cm, respectively. Change in HH from birth to 9 wk tended to be greater for calves fed pSWM than calves fed 80:20 (0.218 vs. 0.194 cm/d). Calves fed pSWM had higher milk dry matter intake (DMI) than calves fed 80:20 (0.580 vs. 0.518 kg/d). No effect of coconut oil was observed on milk DMI. Grain DMI and total DMI did not differ among treatments. Calves fed pSWM had an increase in days with a fecal score >2 compared with calves fed 80:20 (4.24 vs. 2.00 d). Coconut oil had a quadratic effect on fecal score, with calves fed

  20. Jersey calf performance in response to high-protein, high-fat liquid feeds with varied fatty acid profiles: intake and performance.

    PubMed

    Bowen Yoho, W S; Swank, V A; Eastridge, M L; O'Diam, K M; Daniels, K M

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether altering the fatty acid (FA) profile of milk replacer (MR) with coconut oil, which contains a high concentration of medium-chain FA, to more closely match the FA profile typically found in whole milk from Jersey cows, would improve Jersey calf performance. Male (n=18) and female (n=32) Jersey calves were assigned at birth to 1 of 4 liquid diets: (1) pasteurized Jersey saleable whole milk [pSWM; 27.9% crude protein (CP) and 33.5% fat]; (2) 29.3% CP and 29.1% fat MR, containing 100% of fat as edible lard (100:00); (3) 28.2% CP and 28.0% fat MR, containing 80% of fat as lard and 20% as coconut oil (80:20); and (4) 28.2% CP and 28.3% fat MR, containing 60% of the fat as lard and 40% as coconut oil (60:40). Calves were fed their respective liquid diet twice daily during wk 1 through 7 and once daily until weaning (approximately wk 8). Calves had ad libitum access to grain and water, and calves were monitored 1 wk postweaning. Average daily gain and body weight did not differ by treatment. Calves fed pSWM tended to have greater hip height (HH) than calves fed 80:20 (80.5 vs. 79.7 cm). Coconut oil tended to have a quadratic effect on HH, with calves fed 100:00, 80:20, and 60:40 at 79.2, 79.7, and 78.5 cm, respectively. No difference was observed in withers height between pSWM and 80:20. Coconut oil had a quadratic effect on withers height, with calves fed 100:00, 80:20, and 60:40 at 76.6, 77.5, and 76.5 cm, respectively. Change in HH from birth to 9 wk tended to be greater for calves fed pSWM than calves fed 80:20 (0.218 vs. 0.194 cm/d). Calves fed pSWM had higher milk dry matter intake (DMI) than calves fed 80:20 (0.580 vs. 0.518 kg/d). No effect of coconut oil was observed on milk DMI. Grain DMI and total DMI did not differ among treatments. Calves fed pSWM had an increase in days with a fecal score >2 compared with calves fed 80:20 (4.24 vs. 2.00 d). Coconut oil had a quadratic effect on fecal score, with calves fed

  1. Nutrient intake of highly competitive male and female collegiate karate players.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Kaori; Imamura, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Nishimura, Seiji; Miyamoto, Noriko; Yamauchi, Yoichi; Hori, Hitoshi; Moriwaki, Chinatsu; Shirota, Tomoko

    2002-07-01

    Nutrient intake of 29 male (M Group) and 16 female (F Group) highly competitive collegiate karate players were compared. The results were also compared with the daily energy expenditure (DEE), Japanese recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate dietary intakes (ADIs). Dietary information was collected using a 3-weekday diet record. Although the M Group showed significantly higher mean %RDAs or %ADIs in iron, vitamin B1, phosphorus, magnesium, and sodium than the F Group, many of the mean %RDAs or %ADIs were below RDAs or ADIs in both groups. The subjects who skipped meals tended to show lower mean %DEE, Japanese %RDAs or %ADIs in minerals and vitamins than the subjects who did not skip in both M and F Groups. The consumption of green and other vegetables and milk and dairy products in both M and F Groups were low. It is concluded that the male and female highly competitive karate players studied in the present study may be at risk of sub-optimal nutrient intake, which increases the potential for nutrient deficiency. The subjects were advised not to skip meals, and to consume a balanced high-carbohydrate, moderate-protein, low-fat diet with increasing green and other vegetables and milk and dairy products to increase mineral, vitamin and dietary fiber intakes.

  2. [Bone and Nutrition. Vitamin D intake and bone].

    PubMed

    Tsugawa, Naoko

    2015-07-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is one of the risk factors of osteoporosis. To know the vitamin D intake for the prevention of bone loss and fracture, it is necessary to evaluate the appropriate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-D) concentration for bone health, and the vitamin D intake to maintain its concentration. Although vitamin D intake 15 and 20 μg/d have been set as RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance) in USA/Canada DRIs (Dietary reference intakes), 5.5 μg/d has been set as AI (adequate intake) in Japanese DRIs (2015). While reference values in Japan and USA/Canada were quite different, both DRIs are common in that it aim to maintain the serum 25-D concentration to more than 50 nmol/L. In the present review, vitamin D intakes and bone health, vitamin D status in Japanese people, DRIs for vitamin D and improvement of vitamin D insufficiency are reviewed. PMID:26119309

  3. Effects of replacing rapeseed meal with fava bean at 2 concentrate crude protein levels on feed intake, nutrient digestion, and milk production in cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Puhakka, L; Jaakkola, S; Simpura, I; Kokkonen, T; Vanhatalo, A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the production and physiological responses of dairy cows to the substitution of fava bean for rapeseed meal at 2 protein supplementation levels in grass silage-based diets. We used 6 primiparous and 6 multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows in a cyclic changeover trial with a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. The experimental diets consisted of formic acid-treated timothy-meadow fescue silage and 3 isonitrogenous concentrates containing either rapeseed meal, fava bean, or a 1:1 mixture of rapeseed meal and fava bean at low and high inclusion rates, resulting in concentrate crude protein (CP) levels of 15.4 and 19.0% in dry matter. Silage dry matter intake decreased linearly when rapeseed meal was replaced with fava bean, the negative effect being more distinct at the high CP level than the low (-2.3 vs. -0.9kg/d, respectively). Similarly, milk and milk protein yields decreased linearly with fava bean, the change tending to be greater at the high CP level than the low. Yield of milk fat was lower for fava bean compared with rapeseed meal, the difference showing no interaction with CP level. Especially at the high CP level, milk urea concentration was higher with fava bean compared with rapeseed meal indicating better utilization of protein from the rapeseed meal. The apparent total-tract organic matter digestibility did not differ between treatments at the low CP level, but digestibility was higher for fava bean than for rapeseed meal at the high CP level. Plasma concentrations of essential amino acids, including methionine and lysine, were lower for fava bean than for rapeseed meal. Compared with rapeseed meal, the use of fava bean in dairy cow diets as the sole protein supplement decreased silage intake and milk production in highly digestible formic acid-treated grass silage-based diets. PMID:27522411

  4. Effects of replacing rapeseed meal with fava bean at 2 concentrate crude protein levels on feed intake, nutrient digestion, and milk production in cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Puhakka, L; Jaakkola, S; Simpura, I; Kokkonen, T; Vanhatalo, A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the production and physiological responses of dairy cows to the substitution of fava bean for rapeseed meal at 2 protein supplementation levels in grass silage-based diets. We used 6 primiparous and 6 multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows in a cyclic changeover trial with a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. The experimental diets consisted of formic acid-treated timothy-meadow fescue silage and 3 isonitrogenous concentrates containing either rapeseed meal, fava bean, or a 1:1 mixture of rapeseed meal and fava bean at low and high inclusion rates, resulting in concentrate crude protein (CP) levels of 15.4 and 19.0% in dry matter. Silage dry matter intake decreased linearly when rapeseed meal was replaced with fava bean, the negative effect being more distinct at the high CP level than the low (-2.3 vs. -0.9kg/d, respectively). Similarly, milk and milk protein yields decreased linearly with fava bean, the change tending to be greater at the high CP level than the low. Yield of milk fat was lower for fava bean compared with rapeseed meal, the difference showing no interaction with CP level. Especially at the high CP level, milk urea concentration was higher with fava bean compared with rapeseed meal indicating better utilization of protein from the rapeseed meal. The apparent total-tract organic matter digestibility did not differ between treatments at the low CP level, but digestibility was higher for fava bean than for rapeseed meal at the high CP level. Plasma concentrations of essential amino acids, including methionine and lysine, were lower for fava bean than for rapeseed meal. Compared with rapeseed meal, the use of fava bean in dairy cow diets as the sole protein supplement decreased silage intake and milk production in highly digestible formic acid-treated grass silage-based diets.

  5. Dietary reference intakes for DHA and EPA.

    PubMed

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Grieger, Jessica A; Etherton, Terry D

    2009-01-01

    Various organizations worldwide have made dietary recommendations for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and fish intake that are primarily for coronary disease risk reduction and triglyceride (TG) lowering. Recommendations also have been made for DHA intake for pregnant women, infants, and vegetarians/vegans. A Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), specifically, an Adequate Intake (AI), has been set for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of The National Academies. This amount is based on an intake that supports normal growth and neural development and results in no nutrient deficiency. Although there is no DRI for EPA and DHA, the National Academies have recommended that approximately 10% of the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for ALA can be consumed as EPA and/or DHA. This recommendation represents current mean intake for EPA and DHA in the United States ( approximately 100mg/day), which is much lower than what many groups worldwide are currently recommending. Global recommendations for long-chain omega-3 fatty acids underscore the pressing need to establish DRIs for DHA and EPA because DRIs are recognized as the "official" standard by which federal agencies issue dietary guidance or policy directives for the health and well-being of individuals in the United States and Canada. Because of the many health benefits of DHA and EPA, it is important and timely that the National Academies establish DRIs for the individual long-chain (20 carbons or greater) omega-3 fatty acids.

  6. Epidemiology of dietary nutrient intake in ESRD.

    PubMed

    Kovesdy, Csaba P; Shinaberger, Christian S; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2010-01-01

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is one of the strongest risk factors of adverse outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease including those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who undergo maintenance dialysis treatment. One important determinant of PEW in this patient population is an inadequate amount of protein and energy intake. Compounding the problem are the many qualitative nutritional deficiencies that arise because of the altered dietary habits of dialysis patients. Many of these alterations are iatrogenically induced, and albeit well intentioned, they could induce unintended harmful effects. In order to determine the best possible diet in ESRD patients, one must first understand the complex interplay between the quantity and quality of nutrient intake in these patients, and their impact on relevant clinical outcomes. We review available studies examining the association of nutritional intake with clinical outcomes in ESRD, stressing the complicated and often difficult-to-study inter-relationship between quantitative and qualitative aspects of nutrient intake in nutritional epidemiology. The currently recommended higher protein intake of 1.2 g/kg/day may be associated with a higher phosphorus and potassium burden and with worsening hyperphosphatemia and hyperkalemia, whereas dietary control of phosphorus and potassium by restricting protein intake may increase the risk of PEW. We assess the relevance of associative studies by examining the biologic plausibility of underlying mechanisms of action and emphasize areas in need of further research.

  7. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6-9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study.

    PubMed

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-12-18

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6-9 years) in 2013-2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children's dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson's chi-square and Student's t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies.

  8. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6–9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6–9 years) in 2013–2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children’s dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson’s chi-square and Student’s t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443

  9. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6-9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study.

    PubMed

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-12-01

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6-9 years) in 2013-2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children's dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson's chi-square and Student's t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443

  10. [Effect water intake on body weight].

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska, Klaudia; Kurowska, Ewa; Okręglicka, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Water is essential for life. There wouldn't be the proper functioning of body processes without it. An inadequate water intake relative to recommendation contributes to the decline in physical capacity and adversely effects on cognitive function and mood. On the other hand, an adequate water intake helps maintain the balance between total energy intake and daily energy expenditure and determines the correct rate of fat oxidation. This might be useful and commonly used in weight reduction and thus might favorably affect on body composition in overweight and obese people by increasing the total body water and lean muscle mass and might contribute to a decrease in body fat. Research results indicate clearly that drinking water instead of caloric beverages might be an effective way to reduce daily total energy consumption and in this way might may contribute to the reduction of weight, body circumferences and body fat.

  11. Mineral intake and blood levels in vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Levin, N; Rattan, J; Gilat, T

    1986-02-01

    Concern has been raised that a long-term high-fiber diet may lead to mineral deficiencies. In this study, mineral intake and blood levels were investigated in 92 ovolacto vegetarians and 113 omnivores. The intake of iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium was adequate in both groups. The intake of iron and magnesium was significantly higher in the vegetarians. Mean blood levels of iron, iron binding capacity, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, zinc and magnesium were within normal limits in both groups. Serum magnesium levels were significantly higher in male vegetarians. Iron binding capacity was significantly lower in vegetarians of both sexes. It is concluded that a long-term ovolacto vegetarian diet does not lead to mineral deficiencies.

  12. Misreporting of dietary intake affects estimated nutrient intakes in low-income Spanish-speaking women.

    PubMed

    Banna, Jinan C; Fialkowski, Marie K; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2015-07-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue.

  13. Misreporting of Dietary Intake Affects Estimated Nutrient Intakes in Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Women

    PubMed Central

    Banna, Jinan C.; Fialkowski, Marie K.; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  14. Simulation model accurately estimates total dietary iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; van 't Veer, Pieter; Ocké, Marga C

    2009-07-01

    One problem with estimating iodine intake is the lack of detailed data about the discretionary use of iodized kitchen salt and iodization of industrially processed foods. To be able to take into account these uncertainties in estimating iodine intake, a simulation model combining deterministic and probabilistic techniques was developed. Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (1997-1998) and an update of the Food Composition database were used to simulate 3 different scenarios: Dutch iodine legislation until July 2008, Dutch iodine legislation after July 2008, and a potential future situation. Results from studies measuring iodine excretion during the former legislation are comparable with the iodine intakes estimated with our model. For both former and current legislation, iodine intake was adequate for a large part of the Dutch population, but some young children (<5%) were at risk of intakes that were too low. In the scenario of a potential future situation using lower salt iodine levels, the percentage of the Dutch population with intakes that were too low increased (almost 10% of young children). To keep iodine intakes adequate, salt iodine levels should not be decreased, unless many more foods will contain iodized salt. Our model should be useful in predicting the effects of food reformulation or fortification on habitual nutrient intakes.

  15. Micronutrient Intakes from Food and Supplements in Australian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Caroline M.; Black, Lucinda J.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n = 991). We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements), along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) where appropriate. Results: Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Conclusions: Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements. PMID:24424459

  16. Patterns of food intake and self-selection of macronutrients in rats during short-term deprivation of dietary zinc.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Philip G

    2003-04-01

    Although it has been known for more than 50 years that zinc (Zn) deficiency regularly and consistently causes anorexia in many animal species, the basic mechanism(s) that cause this phenomenon still remain(s) an enigma. The following studies describe feeding behavior in the early stages of zinc deficiency in the rat model. In one experiment, we used computerized feeding monitors that measured the intake of individual rats at 10-min intervals over 24-hr periods. Male rats were acclimated to the cages and fed a Zn-adequate egg-white-based diet, or a similar diet with <1.0 mg Zn/kg. Food intake was monitored for seven, consecutive 24-hr periods. The 24-hr food intake pattern of the Zn-deprived rats did not differ from the controls; they simply ate less food, mainly during the night hours, with no differences between groups during the day. Although Zn-deprived rats ate less food than controls, the percentage of total diet consumed during night and day did not differ between groups. In another experiment, we simultaneously offered male rats three isocaloric diets with different macronutrient compositions and with or without adequate Zn, and measured the amount of each diet selected during seven, 24-hr periods. The three diets contained either 57% protein from egg white, 30% fat from soybean oil, or 80% carbohydrate from a combination of starch, hydrolyzed starch, and sucrose. For the first four days on experiment, rats selected similar amounts of each diet. Then the Zn-deprived rats began to select only 50% as much of the protein diet as the controls. Similar results were obtained when the data were expressed on the basis of each macronutrient as a percentage of the total diet selected. Zn-deprived rats selected a diet that contained 8% protein, 73% carbohydrate, and 6% fat while the Zn-adequate rats selected 12% protein, 69% carbohydrate, and 6% fat. Fat intake was not affected by Zn-deprivation. The results confirm our previous findings, and are discussed in terms of

  17. Preprandial ghrelin is not affected by macronutrient intake, energy intake or energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Paul, David R; Kramer, Matthew; Rhodes, Donna G; Rumpler, William V

    2005-01-01

    Background Ghrelin, a peptide secreted by endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract, is a hormone purported to have a significant effect on food intake and energy balance in humans. The influence of factors related to energy balance on ghrelin, such as daily energy expenditure, energy intake, and macronutrient intake, have not been reported. Secondly, the effect of ghrelin on food intake has not been quantified under free-living conditions over a prolonged period of time. To investigate these effects, 12 men were provided with an ad libitum cafeteria-style diet for 16 weeks. The macronutrient composition of the diets were covertly modified with drinks containing 2.1 MJ of predominantly carbohydrate (Hi-CHO), protein (Hi-PRO), or fat (Hi-FAT). Total energy expenditure was measured for seven days on two separate occasions (doubly labeled water and physical activity logs). Results Preprandial ghrelin concentrations were not affected by macronutrient intake, energy expenditure or energy intake (all P > 0.05). In turn, daily energy intake was significantly influenced by energy expenditure, but not ghrelin. Conclusion Preprandial ghrelin does not appear to be influenced by macronutrient composition, energy intake, or energy expenditure. Similarly, ghrelin does not appear to affect acute or chronic energy intake under free-living conditions. PMID:15745452

  18. Interaction of dietary calcium and protein in bone health in humans.

    PubMed

    Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2003-03-01

    Protein has both positive and negative effects on calcium balance, and the net effect of dietary protein on bone mass and fracture risk may be dependent on the dietary calcium intake. In addition to providing substrate for bone matrix, dietary protein stimulates the production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a factor that promotes osteoblast-mediated bone formation. Protein also increases urinary calcium losses, by several proposed mechanisms. Increasing calcium intake may offset the negative impact of dietary protein on urinary calcium losses, allowing the favorable effect of protein on the IGF-1 axis to dominate. Several, although not all, studies are either compatible with or support this hypothesis. Protein supplements significantly reduced bone loss in elderly hip-fracture patients in a study in which both the protein and control groups received supplemental calcium. In an observational study, total protein intake was positively associated with favorable 3-y changes in femoral neck and total body bone mineral density in volunteers who received supplemental calcium citrate malate and vitamin D, but not in volunteers taking placebos. In conclusion, an adequate calcium intake may help promote a favorable effect of dietary protein on the skeleton in older individuals.

  19. Intake of intense sweeteners in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bär, A; Biermann, C

    1992-03-01

    values. No subject exceeded the ADI of aspartame or saccharin on any day of the study. For cyclamate, the mean daily intake over the 7-day period exceeded the ADI in 4 subjects. The results indicate that at the time of the study the then valid German sweetener regulation protected the consumer adequately, and that the sweetener intake was in 99.8% of all examined persons within recommended limits.

  20. Adequate iron stores and the 'Nil nocere' principle.

    PubMed

    Hollán, S; Johansen, K S

    1993-01-01

    There is a need to change the policy of unselective iron supplementation during periods of life with physiologically increased cell proliferation. Levels of iron stores to be regarded as adequate during infancy and pregnancy are still not well established. Recent data support the view that it is not justified to interfere with physiological adaptations developed through millions of years by sophisticated and precisely coordinated regulation of iron absorption, utilization and storage. Recent data suggest that the chelatable intracellular iron pool regulates the expression of proteins with central importance in cellular iron metabolism (TfR, ferritin, and erythroid 5-aminolevulinic synthetase) in a coordinately controlled way through an iron dependent cytosolic mRNA binding protein, the iron regulating factor (IRF). This factor is simultaneously a sensor and a regulator of iron levels. The reduction of ferritin levels during highly increased cell proliferation is a mirror of the increased density of TfRs. An abundance of data support the vigorous competition for growth-essential iron between microbial pathogens and their vertebrate hosts. The highly coordinated regulation of iron metabolism is probably crucial in achieving a balance between the blockade of readily accessible iron to invading organisms and yet providing sufficient iron for the immune system of the host. The most evident adverse clinical effects of excess iron have been observed in immunodeficient patients in tropical countries and in AIDS patients. Excess iron also increases the risk of initiation and promotion of malignant processes by iron binding to DNA and by the iron-catalysed release of free radicals. Oxygen radicals were shown to damage critical biomolecules leading, apart from cancer, to a variety of human disease states, including inflammation and atherosclerosis. They are also involved in processes of aging and thrombosis. Recent clinical trials have suggested that the use of iron

  1. Dietary protein and resistance training effects on muscle and body composition in older persons.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Wayne W; Leidy, Heather J

    2007-12-01

    The regular performance of resistance exercises and the habitual ingestion of adequate amounts of dietary protein from high-quality sources are two important ways for older persons to slow the progression of and treat sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. Resistance training can help older people gain muscle strength, hypertrophy muscle, and increase whole body fat-free mass. It can also help frail elderly people improve balance and physical functioning capabilities. Inadequate protein intake will cause adverse metabolic and physiological accommodation responses that include the loss of fat-free mass and muscle strength and size. Findings from controlled feeding studies show that older persons retain the capacity to metabolically adjust to lower protein intakes by increasing the efficiency of nitrogen retention and amino acid utilization. However, they also suggest that the recommended dietary allowance of 0.8 g protein x kg(-1) x d(-1) might not be sufficient to prevent subtle accommodations and blunt desired changes in body composition and muscle size with resistance training. Most of the limited research suggests that resistance training-induced improvements in body composition, muscle strength and size, and physical functioning are not enhanced when older people who habitually consume adequate protein (modestly above the RDA) increase their protein intake by either increasing the ingestion of higher-protein foods or consuming protein-enriched nutritional supplements. PMID:18187436

  2. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation Rates.…

  3. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  4. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  5. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  6. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  7. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  8. Adequate Schools and Inadequate Education: An Anthropological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolcott, Harry F.

    To illustrate his claim that schools generally do a remarkably good job of schooling while the society makes inadequate use of other means to educate young people, the author presents a case history of a young American (identified pseudonymously as "Brad") whose schooling was adequate but whose education was not. Brad, jobless and homeless,…

  9. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  10. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan,...

  11. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  12. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... identifiable personal data and automated systems shall be adequately trained in the security and privacy of... records in which identifiable personal data are processed or maintained, including all reports and output... personal records or data; must minimize, to the extent practicable, the risk that skilled technicians...

  13. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  14. Dietary Reference Intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as ...

  15. Nutritional intake and anthropometric changes of professional road cyclists during a 4-day competition.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Muñoz, C; Zabala, M; Muros, J J

    2016-07-01

    Appropriate nutrition through adequate dietary intake of total calories, macronutrients, and micronutrients is an essential component of optimizing the performance of all elite athletes. The aim of this study was to describe the food intake, body composition, and biochemical profile of professional cyclists during the Tour of Andalusia, a four-stage race covering a total distance of 647.6 km. Nutritional data were collected by trained investigators who weighed all of the food and fluid ingested by the cyclists. The nutritional intake of the cyclists was as follows: CHO, 12.8 ± 1.7 g/kg of body weight (BW; 62.3%); fat, 2.1 ± 0.2 g/kg BW (23.2%); proteins, 3.0 ± 0.3 g/kg BW (14.5%); total kcal was 5644.3 ± 593.1. Intake of all micronutrients, except for folate and potassium [which were 93.7% and 91.3% of Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)] exceeded the RDA/I. Percentage of body fat and fat weight significantly decreased (P < 0.05) while weight of muscle mass remained unchanged after the Tour. Concentrations of urea, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, myoglobin, and high-density lipoproteins significantly increased (P < 0.05) after the Tour. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe both nutritional intake and the body and biochemical composition of a sample of professional road cyclists during a top-class cycling race.

  16. Influence of milk production potential on forage dry matter intake by multiparous and primiparous Brangus females.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C R; Lalman, D L; Brown, M A; Appeddu, L A; Buchanan, D S; Wettemann, R P

    2003-07-01

    Brangus cows (n = 29) were used in three experiments to evaluate the effects of parity (multiparous vs. primiparous) and potential genetic merit for milk production (high vs. low) on forage intake during late gestation, early lactation, and late lactation. Cows were selected for milk production based on their sire's EPD for milk production (MEPD). Cows had ad libitum access to (130% of previous 2-d average intake) low-quality hay (5.3% CP and 76% NDF), and cottonseed meal was supplemented to ensure adequate degradable intake protein. All females were adapted to diets for at least 7 d, and individual intake data were collected for 9 d. During the lactation trials, actual milk production was determined using a portable milking machine following a 12-h separation from calves. During late gestation, multiparous cows consumed 24% more (P = 0.01) forage DM (kg/d) than primiparous cows; however, parity class did not influence forage intake when intake was expressed relative to BW. Furthermore, MEPD did not influence forage intake during late gestation. During early lactation, multiparous cows produced 66% more (P < 0.001) milk than primiparous cows, and high MEPD tended (P = 0.10) to produce more milk than low MEPD. Multiparous cows consumed 19% more (P < 0.0001) forage DM than did primiparous cows when expressed on an absolute basis, but not when expressed on a BW basis. High-MEPD cows consumed 8% more (P < 0.05) forage DM than did low-MEPD cows. During late lactation, multiparous cows produced 84% more milk than primiparous cows, although MEPD did not influence (P = 0.40) milk yield. In addition, multiparous cows consumed 17% more (P < 0.01) forage DM per day than primiparous cows, but when intake was expressed relative to BW, neither parity nor MEPD influenced forage DMI during late lactation. Milk yield and BW explained significant proportions of the variation in forage DMI during early and late lactation. Each kilogram increase in milk yield was associated with a 0

  17. Are the current Australian sun exposure guidelines effective in maintaining adequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D?

    PubMed

    Kimlin, Michael; Sun, Jiandong; Sinclair, Craig; Heward, Sue; Hill, Jane; Dunstone, Kimberley; Brodie, Alison

    2016-01-01

    An adequate vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, is important in humans for maintenance of healthy bones and muscle function. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed in participants from Melbourne, Australia (37.81S, 144.96E), who were provided with the current Australian guidelines on sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy (25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L). Participants were interviewed in February (summer, n=104) and August (winter, n=99) of 2013. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was examined as a function of measures of sun exposure and sun protection habits with control of key characteristics such as dietary intake of vitamin D, body mass index (BMI) and skin colour, that may modify this relationship. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in participants who complied with the current sun exposure guidelines was 67.3 nmol/L in summer and 41.9 nmol/L in winter. At the end of the study, 69.3% of participants who complied with the summer sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate, while only 27.6% of participants who complied with the winter sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate at the end of the study. The results suggest that the current Australian guidelines for sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy are effective for most in summer and ineffective for most in winter. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  18. Calcium intake is not associated with increased coronary artery calcification: The Framingham Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate calcium intake is known to protect the skeleton. However, studies that have reported adverse effects of calcium supplementation on vascular events have raised widespread concern. We assessed the association between calcium intake (from diet and supplements) and coronary artery calcification...

  19. Food restriction retards body growth and prevents end-stage renal pathology in remnant kidneys of rats regardless of protein intake.

    PubMed

    Tapp, D C; Wortham, W G; Addison, J F; Hammonds, D N; Barnes, J L; Venkatachalam, M A

    1989-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of food restriction (without protein or phosphorus restriction) and protein restriction (without the restriction of other nutrients or calories) on the outcome of the remnant kidney model of chronic renal failure in rats. After 5/6 nephrectomy, rats were assigned to one of the following dietary groups: group I (control-ad libitum) consumed a 21% casein diet ad libitum; group II (food restriction with protein restriction) consumed 36% less calories, protein and minerals than group I; group III (food restriction without protein restriction) consumed 36% less calories and minerals than group I, but equivalent amounts of protein; group IV (protein restriction) consumed 38% less protein than group I, but equivalent amounts of calories and minerals; group V (NaCl restriction) consumed 40% less sodium chloride than group I, but equivalent amounts of all other nutrients. All groups consumed equivalent amounts of calcium, phosphorus and vitamins. Groups II and III experienced retardation of growth in comparison to groups I, IV and V. The food-restricted groups II and III, but not groups IV and V, had less proteinuria than group I 20 weeks postablation. By 21 weeks postablation, the kidneys from group I showed severe parenchymal damage, characteristic of end-stage renal pathology. These changes were prevented in the food-restricted groups II and III, but not in groups IV and V. The percentage of glomeruli with severe structural damage was less in groups II (27.3 +/- 8.8) and III (26.9 +/- 7.5) compared with group I (72.4 +/- 7.8). In contrast, the corresponding values in groups IV and V were not significantly different from group I. Interstitial volume (the percentage of tubulointerstitium which is interstitium) which was proportional to the severity of tubular damage was significantly lower in groups II (25.1 +/- 4.5) and III (20.4 +/- 2.8) when compared with groups I (48.1 +/- 3.0), IV (44.4 +/- 6.6), or V (41

  20. Effect of concentrate crude protein level on grass silage intake, milk yield and nutrient utilisation by dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Kokkonen, T; Tesfa, A Tsehai; Tuori, M; Yrjänen, S; Syrjälä-Qvist, L

    2002-06-01

    Twenty-one multiparous dairy cows were fed concentrates containing three levels (119, 154 and 191 g/kg DM) of crude protein (CP) during the first ten weeks of lactation. Part of the grain and molassed sugar beat pulp was substituted with 0% (RSM0), 15% (RSM15) or 30% (RSM30) repeseed meal. Wilted grass silage was fed ad libitum after calving. The average response between RSM0 and RSM15 was +1.66 kg milk/d per percentage unit change in concentrate CP content. No further response occurred between RSM15 and RSM30. The positive effect of RSM inclusion was seen throughout the experimental period and was associated with increased plasma non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and decreased plasma insulin concentration one week after calving, and higher efficiency of metabolisable energy utilisation for milk production. Digestibility of the diet remained unaffected. Milk and plasma urea tended to increase with RSM30 indicating excessive supply of rumen degradable protein. Because of the limited potential of cows to compensate for a deficit in feed protein supply by mobilising tissue protein, a substantial milk yield response can be achieved with a moderate level of protein supplementation during early lactation.

  1. Dietary Reference Intakes for the macronutrients and energy: considerations for physical activity.

    PubMed

    Zello, Gordon A

    2006-02-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are the North American reference standards for nutrients in the diets of healthy individuals. The macronutrient DRI report includes the standards for energy, fat and fatty acids, carbohydrate and fiber, and protein and amino acids. Equations used to identify the Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) were also developed based on individual characteristics including levels of physical activity. The DRIs for the macronutrients are presented as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) or Adequate Intakes (AIs), as well as Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs), and were arrived at by considering both nutrient inadequacies and excesses. In addition, recommendations are made that would reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as setting intake limits for added sugar; reducing cholesterol, saturated, and trans fatty acids consumption; and increasing levels of physical activity. As healthy individuals include those engaged in various levels of physical activity, the DRIs should apply to the athlete and address their macronutrient and energy needs. This paper summarizes the macronutrient DRI report as applied to the adult, with discussion of the dietary needs of those engaged in various levels of physical activity, including the athlete.

  2. Calcium Intake, Major Dietary Sources and Bone Health Indicators in Iranian Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Nasrin; Neyestani, Tirang-Reza; Hajifaraji, Majid; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Armin, Saloumeh; Haidari, Homa; Zowghi, Telma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate calcium intake may have a crucial role with regards to prevention of many chronic diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, different types of cancer, obesity and osteoporosis. In children, sufficient calcium intake is especially important to support the accelerated growth spurt during the preteen and teenage years and to increase bone mineral mass to lay the foundation for older age. Objectives: This study aimed to assess daily calcium intake in school-age children to ensure whether they fulfill the FGP dairy serving recommendations, the recommended levels of daily calcium intake and to assess the relationship between dietary calcium intake and major bone health indicators. Patients and Methods: A total of 501 Iranian school-age children were randomly selected. Calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone health indicators were also assessed. Results: Dairy products contributed to 69.3% of the total calcium intake of the children. Daily adequate intake of calcium was achieved by 17.8% of children. Only 29.8% met the Food guide pyramid recommendations for dairy intake. Dietary calcium intake was not significantly correlated with serum calcium and other selected biochemical indicators of bone health. Conclusions: The need for planning appropriate nutrition strategies for overcoming inadequate calcium intake in school age children in the city of Tehran is inevitable. PMID:26199684

  3. Micronutrient Intake in Healthy Toddlers: A Multinational Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hilger, Jennifer; Goerig, Tatiana; Weber, Peter; Hoeft, Birgit; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Costa Carvalho, Nina; Goldberger, Ursula; Hoffmann, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Adequate nutrient intake during early childhood is of particular importance for optimal growth and future health. However, cross-national comparative research on nutrient intake of toddlers is still limited. We conducted a literature review to examine the nutrient intake in healthy toddlers from some of the world’s most populous nations currently on different stages of socioeconomic development: Brazil, Germany, Russia and the United States. We aimed to identify national surveys reporting mean intakes of the following nutrients: vitamins A, D, E, folate, calcium, iron and zinc. To calculate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake, we used a modified version of the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Overall, five studies with 6756 toddlers were eligible for inclusion in this review. In countries where data were available, a prevalence of inadequate intake higher than 20% was found for vitamins A, D, E and calcium. In Germany, folate intake also appeared to be inadequate. The results of our review indicate that inadequate micronutrient intake in toddlers might be a global challenge affecting also affluent countries. However, to explore the full scope of this important public health issue joint efforts of researchers worldwide are needed to combine existing data and fill in data gaps. PMID:26295254

  4. Role of protein and amino acids in promoting lean mass accretion with resistance exercise and attenuating lean mass loss during energy deficit in humans.

    PubMed

    Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Murphy, Caoileann H; Longland, Thomas M; Phillips, Stuart M

    2013-08-01

    Amino acids are major nutrient regulators of muscle protein turnover. After protein ingestion, hyperaminoacidemia stimulates increased rates of skeletal muscle protein synthesis, suppresses muscle protein breakdown, and promotes net muscle protein accretion for several hours. These acute observations form the basis for strategized protein intake to promote lean mass accretion, or prevent lean mass loss over the long term. However, factors such as protein dose, protein source, and timing of intake are important in mediating the anabolic effects of amino acids on skeletal muscle and must be considered within the context of evaluating the reported efficacy of long-term studies investigating protein supplementation as part of a dietary strategy to promote lean mass accretion and/or prevent lean mass loss. Current research suggests that dietary protein supplementation can augment resistance exercise-mediated gains in skeletal muscle mass and strength and can preserve skeletal muscle mass during periods of diet-induced energy restriction. Perhaps less appreciated, protein supplementation can augment resistance training-mediated gains in skeletal muscle mass even in individuals habitually consuming 'adequate' (i.e., >0.8 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹) protein. Additionally, overfeeding energy with moderate to high-protein intake (15-25 % protein or 1.8-3.0 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹) is associated with lean, but not fat mass accretion, when compared to overfeeding energy with low protein intake (5 % protein or ~0.68 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹). Amino acids represent primary nutrient regulators of skeletal muscle anabolism, capable of enhancing lean mass accretion with resistance exercise and attenuating the loss of lean mass during periods of energy deficit, although factors such as protein dose, protein source, and timing of intake are likely important in mediating these effects.

  5. [Abdominal cure procedures. Adequate use of Nobecutan Spray].

    PubMed

    López Soto, Rosa María

    2009-12-01

    Open abdominal wounds, complicated by infection and/or risk of eventration tend to become chronic and usually require frequent prolonged cure. Habitual changing of bandages develop into one of the clearest risk factors leading to the deterioration of perilesional cutaneous integrity. This brings with it new complications which draw out the evolution of the process, provoking an important deterioration in quality of life for the person who suffers this and a considerable increase in health costs. What is needed is a product and a procedure which control the risk of irritation, which protect the skin, which favor a patient's comfort and which shorten treatment requirements while lowering health care expenses. This report invites medical personnel to think seriously about the scientific rationale, and treatment practice, as to why and how to apply Nobecutan adequately, this reports concludes stating the benefits in the adequate use of this product. The objective of this report is to guarantee the adequate use of this product in treatment of complicated abdominal wounds. This product responds to the needs which are present in these clinical cases favoring skin care apt isolation and protection, while at the same time, facilitating the placement and stability of dressings and bandages used to cure wounds. In order for this to happen, the correct use of this product is essential; medical personnel must pay attention to precautions and recommendations for proper application. The author's experiences in habitual handling of this product during various years, included in the procedures for standardized cures for these wounds, corroborates its usefulness; the author considers use of this product to be highly effective while being simple to apply; furthermore, one succeeds in providing quality care and optimizes resources employed.

  6. Estimated nutrient intakes from food generally do not meet dietary reference intakes among adult members of Pacific Northwest tribal nations.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie K; McCrory, Megan A; Roberts, Sparkle M; Tracy, J Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M; Boushey, Carol J

    2010-05-01

    Diet is influential in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations including Native Americans. The objective of this report is to present the first comprehensive dietary survey, to our knowledge, of a representative sample of nonpregnant adults from Pacific Northwest tribal nations participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Only participants who completed 1-4 d of dietary records and had weights and heights measured in the laboratory were eligible for this analysis (n = 418). Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by gender for the total sample, those with plausibly reported energy intakes (rEI), and those with implausibly rEI. Estimates of nutrient intakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Nutrient estimates from NHANES 2001-2002 were used as a reference. Among both men and women, total fat contributed 34-37% of energy intake and saturated fat contributed 11-12% of energy intake. Daily cholesterol intakes ranged from 262 to 442 mg. A majority of men and women were not meeting recommendations for vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, and sodium. For a majority of the nutrients examined, plausibility resulted in higher mean estimates. The CoASTAL cohort nutrient profile is similar to NHANES 2001-2002, with a majority of DRI recommendations not being met. Adequate dietary intake information may be more important for this population, because Native Americans experience a disproportionate burden for diseases.

  7. Estimated nutrient intakes from food generally do not meet dietary reference intakes among adult members of Pacific Northwest tribal nations.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie K; McCrory, Megan A; Roberts, Sparkle M; Tracy, J Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M; Boushey, Carol J

    2010-05-01

    Diet is influential in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations including Native Americans. The objective of this report is to present the first comprehensive dietary survey, to our knowledge, of a representative sample of nonpregnant adults from Pacific Northwest tribal nations participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Only participants who completed 1-4 d of dietary records and had weights and heights measured in the laboratory were eligible for this analysis (n = 418). Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by gender for the total sample, those with plausibly reported energy intakes (rEI), and those with implausibly rEI. Estimates of nutrient intakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Nutrient estimates from NHANES 2001-2002 were used as a reference. Among both men and women, total fat contributed 34-37% of energy intake and saturated fat contributed 11-12% of energy intake. Daily cholesterol intakes ranged from 262 to 442 mg. A majority of men and women were not meeting recommendations for vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, and sodium. For a majority of the nutrients examined, plausibility resulted in higher mean estimates. The CoASTAL cohort nutrient profile is similar to NHANES 2001-2002, with a majority of DRI recommendations not being met. Adequate dietary intake information may be more important for this population, because Native Americans experience a disproportionate burden for diseases. PMID:20237069

  8. Sex, but not maternal protein or folic acid intake, determines the fatty acid composition of hepatic phospholipids, but not of triacylglycerol, in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Burdge, G C; Slater-Jefferies, J L; Grant, R A; Chung, W-S; West, A L; Lillycrop, K A; Hanson, M A; Calder, P C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the protein and folic acid content of the maternal diet and the sex of the offspring alter the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of hepatic phospholipids and triacylglycerol (TAG). Pregnant rats were fed diets containing 18% or 9% protein with either 1 or 5mg/kg folic acid. Maternal diet did not alter hepatic lipid composition in the adult offspring. Data from each maternal dietary group were combined and reanalysed. The proportion of 18:0, 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 in liver phospholipids was higher in females than in males, while hepatic TAG composition did not differ between sexes. Delta5 Desaturase expression was higher in females than in males. Neither Delta5 nor Delta6 desaturase expression was related to polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations. These results suggest that sex differences in liver phospholipid fatty acid composition may reflect primary differences in the specificity of phospholipid biosynthesis.

  9. Macronutrient Supplementation for Malnourished HIV-infected Adults: A Review of the Evidence in Resource-Adequate and Resource-Constrained Settings

    PubMed Central

    Koethe, John R.; Chi, Benjamin H.; Megazzini, Karen M.; Heimburger, Douglas C.; Stringer, Jeffrey S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection has expanded rapidly throughout sub-Saharan Africa, but malnutrition and food insecurity have emerged as major barriers to program success. Protein-calorie malnutrition (a common form in the region) hastens HIV disease progression, and food insecurity is a barrier to medication adherence. Analyses of patient outcomes have identified a low body mass index (BMI) at ART initiation as an independent predictor of early mortality, but the causes of low BMI are multi-factorial may represent normal anthropometric variation, chronic inadequate food intake, or wasting associated with HIV and other infections. While there is much experience population-level humanitarian food assistance, few data exist to measure the effectiveness of macronutrient supplementation or to identify individuals most likely to benefit. In this report, we review the current evidence supporting macronutrient supplementation for HIV-infected adults; clinical trials in resource-adequate and resource-constrained settings; and highlight priority areas for future research. PMID:19624276