Science.gov

Sample records for adequate respiratory protection

  1. MSFC Respiratory Protection Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    CoVan, James P.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Marshall Space Flight Center Respiratory Protection program is provided in this poster display. Respiratory protection personnel, building, facilities, equipment, customers, maintenance and operational activities, and Dynatech fit testing details are described and illustrated.

  2. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  3. 46 CFR 154.1405 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 154.1405 Section 154.1405... Equipment § 154.1405 Respiratory protection. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have: (a) Respiratory protection equipment for each person on board that protects...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1405 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 154.1405 Section 154.1405... Equipment § 154.1405 Respiratory protection. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have: (a) Respiratory protection equipment for each person on board that protects...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1405 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 154.1405 Section 154.1405... Equipment § 154.1405 Respiratory protection. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have: (a) Respiratory protection equipment for each person on board that protects...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1405 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 154.1405 Section 154.1405... Equipment § 154.1405 Respiratory protection. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have: (a) Respiratory protection equipment for each person on board that protects...

  7. 46 CFR 154.1405 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 154.1405 Section 154.1405... Equipment § 154.1405 Respiratory protection. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have: (a) Respiratory protection equipment for each person on board that protects...

  8. 29 CFR 1915.154 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1915.154 Section 1915.154 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... (PPE) § 1915.154 Respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered...

  9. 33 CFR 127.1209 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 127.1209... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1209 Respiratory protection. Each waterfront facility handling LHG must provide equipment for respiratory protection for each employee of...

  10. Respiratory Protection Performance: Impact of Helmet Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    helmet system .1 The objective of this effort was to determine the respiratory protection impact of integrating the helmet and respirator into one...demonstrate that integrated helmet respirator systems that use ballistic protective materials with greater mass can achieve similar levels of respiratory ...ECBC-TR-1418 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PERFORMANCE: IMPACT OF HELMET INTEGRATION Daniel J. Barker Corey M. Grove RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY

  11. 33 CFR 127.1209 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 127.1209... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1209 Respiratory protection. Each waterfront facility handling LHG must provide equipment for respiratory protection for each employee of...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.154 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1915.154 Section 1915.154 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... (PPE) § 1915.154 Respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered...

  13. 33 CFR 127.1209 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 127.1209... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1209 Respiratory protection. Each waterfront facility handling LHG must provide equipment for respiratory protection for each employee of...

  14. 33 CFR 127.1209 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 127.1209... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1209 Respiratory protection. Each waterfront facility handling LHG must provide equipment for respiratory protection for each employee of...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.154 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1915.154 Section 1915.154 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... (PPE) § 1915.154 Respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.154 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1915.154 Section 1915.154 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... (PPE) § 1915.154 Respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.154 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1915.154 Section 1915.154 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... (PPE) § 1915.154 Respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered...

  18. 33 CFR 127.1209 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 127.1209... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1209 Respiratory protection. Each waterfront facility handling LHG must provide equipment for respiratory protection for each employee of...

  19. 29 CFR 1917.92 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1917.92 Section 1917.92 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.92 Respiratory protection. (See § 1917.1(a)(2)(x))....

  20. 29 CFR 1910.134 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1910.134 Section 1910.134 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.134 Respiratory protection. This section applies to...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.134 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1910.134 Section 1910.134 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.134 Respiratory protection. This section applies to...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.134 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1910.134 Section 1910.134 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.134 Respiratory protection. This section applies to...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.134 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1910.134 Section 1910.134 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.134 Respiratory protection. This section applies to...

  4. 29 CFR 1917.92 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1917.92 Section 1917.92 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.92 Respiratory protection. (See § 1917.1(a)(2)(x))....

  5. 29 CFR 1917.92 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1917.92 Section 1917.92 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.92 Respiratory protection. (See § 1917.1(a)(2)(x))....

  6. 29 CFR 1917.92 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1917.92 Section 1917.92 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.92 Respiratory protection. (See § 1917.1(a)(2)(x))....

  7. 29 CFR 1917.92 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1917.92 Section 1917.92 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.92 Respiratory protection. (See § 1917.1(a)(2)(x))....

  8. 46 CFR 197.550 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.550 Respiratory protection. (a) General. When the use of respirators in... organic vapors or benzene. (2) The employer shall provide affected employees with the appropriate... section that is appropriate for the exposure. Table 197.550(b)—Respiratory Protection for Benzene...

  9. 46 CFR 197.550 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.550 Respiratory protection. (a) General. When the use of respirators in... organic vapors or benzene. (2) The employer shall provide affected employees with the appropriate... section that is appropriate for the exposure. Table 197.550(b)—Respiratory Protection for Benzene...

  10. 46 CFR 197.550 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.550 Respiratory protection. (a) General. When the use of respirators in... organic vapors or benzene. (2) The employer shall provide affected employees with the appropriate... section that is appropriate for the exposure. Table 197.550(b)—Respiratory Protection for Benzene...

  11. 46 CFR 197.550 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.550 Respiratory protection. (a) General. When the use of respirators in... organic vapors or benzene. (2) The employer shall provide affected employees with the appropriate... section that is appropriate for the exposure. Table 197.550(b)—Respiratory Protection for Benzene...

  12. 46 CFR 197.550 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.550 Respiratory protection. (a) General. When the use of respirators in... organic vapors or benzene. (2) The employer shall provide affected employees with the appropriate... section that is appropriate for the exposure. Table 197.550(b)—Respiratory Protection for Benzene...

  13. 29 CFR 1918.102 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1918.102 Section 1918.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Respiratory protection. (See § 1918.1(b)(8))....

  14. 29 CFR 1926.103 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1926.103 Section 1926.103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.103 Respiratory protection. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under...

  15. 29 CFR 1918.102 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1918.102 Section 1918.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Respiratory protection. (See § 1918.1(b)(8))....

  16. 29 CFR 1918.102 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1918.102 Section 1918.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Respiratory protection. (See § 1918.1(b)(8))....

  17. 29 CFR 1918.102 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1918.102 Section 1918.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Respiratory protection. (See § 1918.1(b)(8))....

  18. 29 CFR 1926.103 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1926.103 Section 1926.103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.103 Respiratory protection. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.103 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1926.103 Section 1926.103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.103 Respiratory protection. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.103 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1926.103 Section 1926.103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.103 Respiratory protection. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under...

  1. 29 CFR 1918.102 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1918.102 Section 1918.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Respiratory protection. (See § 1918.1(b)(8))....

  2. 29 CFR 1926.103 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1926.103 Section 1926.103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.103 Respiratory protection. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under...

  3. Perceived Competence and Comfort in Respiratory Protection

    PubMed Central

    Burgel, Barbara J.; Novak, Debra; Burns, Candace M.; Byrd, Annette; Carpenter, Holly; Gruden, MaryAnn; Lachat, Ann; Taormina, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In response to the Institute of Medicine (2011) report Occupational Health Nurses and Respiratory Protection: Improving Education and Training, a nationwide survey was conducted in May 2012 to assess occupational health nurses’ educational preparation, roles, responsibilities, and training needs in respiratory protection. More than 2,000 occupational health nurses responded; 83% perceived themselves as competent, proficient, or expert in respiratory protection, reporting moderate comfort with 12 respiratory program elements. If occupational health nurses had primary responsibility for the respiratory protection program, they were more likely to perceive higher competence and more comfort in respiratory protection, after controlling for occupational health nursing experience, highest education, occupational health nursing certification, industry sector, Association of Occupational Health Professionals in Healthcare membership, taking a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health spirometry course in the prior 5 years, and perceiving a positive safety culture at work. These survey results document high perceived competence and comfort in respiratory protection. These findings support the development of targeted educational programs and interprofessional competencies for respiratory protection. PMID:23429638

  4. Laryngeal and respiratory protective reflexes.

    PubMed

    Altschuler, S M

    2001-12-03

    Swallowing is a complex motor behavior that relies on an interneuronal network of premotor neurons (PMNs) to organize the sequential activity of motor neurons that are active during the buccopharyngeal and esophageal phases. Swallowing PMNs are highly interconnected to multiple areas of the brain stem and the central nervous system and provide a potential anatomic substrate integration of swallowing activity with airway protective reflexes. Because these neurons have synaptic contact with both afferent inputs and motor neurons and exhibit a true central activity, they appear to constitute the swallowing central pattern generator. We studied the viscerotopic organization of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the nucleus ambiguus (NA), the dorsal motor nucleus (DMN), and the hypoglossal nucleus (XII) using cholera toxin horseradish peroxidase (CT-HRP), a sensitive antegrade and retrograde tracer that effectively labels afferent terminal fields within the NTS as well as swallowing motor neurons and their dendritic fields within the NA, DMN, and XII. We used CT-HRP to provide a comprehensive description of the dendritic architecture of NA motor neurons innervating swallowing muscles. We also conducted studies using pseudorabies virus (PRV), a swine alpha-herpesvirus, to map central neural circuits after injection in the peripheral or central nervous systems. One attenuated vaccine strain, Bartha PRV, has preferential affinity for sites of afferent synaptic contact on the cell body and dendrites and a reactive gliosis that effectively isolates the infected neurons and provides a barrier to the nonspecific spread to adjacent neurons. The findings provide a basis for the central integration of swallowing and respiratory protective reflexes.

  5. Are hotspots of evolutionary potential adequately protected in southern California?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergast, A.G.; Bohonak, A.J.; Hathaway, S.A.; Boys, J.; Fisher, R.N.

    2008-01-01

    Reserves are often designed to protect rare habitats, or "typical" exemplars of ecoregions and geomorphic provinces. This approach focuses on current patterns of organismal and ecosystem-level biodiversity, but typically ignores the evolutionary processes that control the gain and loss of biodiversity at these and other levels (e.g., genetic, ecological). In order to include evolutionary processes in conservation planning efforts, their spatial components must first be identified and mapped. We describe a GIS-based approach for explicitly mapping patterns of genetic divergence and diversity for multiple species (a "multi-species genetic landscape"). Using this approach, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA datasets from 21 vertebrate and invertebrate species in southern California to identify areas with common phylogeographic breaks and high intrapopulation diversity. The result is an evolutionary framework for southern California within which patterns of genetic diversity can be analyzed in the context of historical processes, future evolutionary potential and current reserve design. Our multi-species genetic landscapes pinpoint six hotspots where interpopulation genetic divergence is consistently high, five evolutionary hotspots within which genetic connectivity is high, and three hotspots where intrapopulation genetic diversity is high. These 14 hotspots can be grouped into eight geographic areas, of which five largely are unprotected at this time. The multi-species genetic landscape approach may provide an avenue to readily incorporate measures of evolutionary process into GIS-based systematic conservation assessment and land-use planning.

  6. 33 CFR 142.39 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 142.39 Section 142.39 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment §...

  7. A new theoretical framework for modeling respiratory protection based on the beta distribution.

    PubMed

    Klausner, Ziv; Fattal, Eyal

    2014-08-01

    The problem of modeling respiratory protection is well known and has been dealt with extensively in the literature. Often the efficiency of respiratory protection is quantified in terms of penetration, defined as the proportion of an ambient contaminant concentration that penetrates the respiratory protection equipment. Typically, the penetration modeling framework in the literature is based on the assumption that penetration measurements follow the lognormal distribution. However, the analysis in this study leads to the conclusion that the lognormal assumption is not always valid, making it less adequate for analyzing respiratory protection measurements. This work presents a formulation of the problem from first principles, leading to a stochastic differential equation whose solution is the probability density function of the beta distribution. The data of respiratory protection experiments were reexamined, and indeed the beta distribution was found to provide the data a better fit than the lognormal. We conclude with a suggestion for a new theoretical framework for modeling respiratory protection.

  8. The Human Right to Adequate Housing: A Tool for Promoting and Protecting Individual and Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Bret

    2002-01-01

    The human right to adequate housing is enshrined in international law. The right to adequate housing can be traced to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was unanimously adopted by the world community in 1948. Since that time, the right to adequate housing has been reaffirmed on numerous occasions and further defined and elaborated. A key component of this right is habitability of housing, which should comply with health and safety standards. Therefore, the right to adequate housing provides an additional tool for advocates and others interested in promoting healthful housing and living conditions and thereby protecting individual and community health. PMID:11988432

  9. 33 CFR 142.39 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Respiratory protection. (a) Personnel in an atmosphere specified under ANSI Z88.2, requiring the use of....2 for that atmosphere. (b) Before personnel enter an atmosphere specified under ANSI Z88.2 requiring... personnel entering the atmosphere— (1) Follow the procedures stated in section 6 of ANSI Z88.2...

  10. 33 CFR 142.39 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Respiratory protection. (a) Personnel in an atmosphere specified under ANSI Z88.2, requiring the use of....2 for that atmosphere. (b) Before personnel enter an atmosphere specified under ANSI Z88.2 requiring... personnel entering the atmosphere— (1) Follow the procedures stated in section 6 of ANSI Z88.2...

  11. 33 CFR 142.39 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Respiratory protection. (a) Personnel in an atmosphere specified under ANSI Z88.2, requiring the use of....2 for that atmosphere. (b) Before personnel enter an atmosphere specified under ANSI Z88.2 requiring... personnel entering the atmosphere— (1) Follow the procedures stated in section 6 of ANSI Z88.2...

  12. 33 CFR 142.39 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Respiratory protection. (a) Personnel in an atmosphere specified under ANSI Z88.2, requiring the use of....2 for that atmosphere. (b) Before personnel enter an atmosphere specified under ANSI Z88.2 requiring... personnel entering the atmosphere— (1) Follow the procedures stated in section 6 of ANSI Z88.2...

  13. 10 CFR 850.28 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.28... workers who: (1) Are exposed to an airborne concentration of beryllium at or above the action level, or (2... level. (c) The responsible employer must include in the respiratory protection program any...

  14. 10 CFR 850.28 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.28... workers who: (1) Are exposed to an airborne concentration of beryllium at or above the action level, or (2... level. (c) The responsible employer must include in the respiratory protection program any...

  15. 10 CFR 850.28 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.28... workers who: (1) Are exposed to an airborne concentration of beryllium at or above the action level, or (2... level. (c) The responsible employer must include in the respiratory protection program any...

  16. 10 CFR 850.28 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.28... workers who: (1) Are exposed to an airborne concentration of beryllium at or above the action level, or (2... level. (c) The responsible employer must include in the respiratory protection program any...

  17. 10 CFR 850.28 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.28... workers who: (1) Are exposed to an airborne concentration of beryllium at or above the action level, or (2... level. (c) The responsible employer must include in the respiratory protection program any...

  18. Reliable Detection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Children for Adequate Hospital Infection Control Management

    PubMed Central

    Abels, Susanne; Nadal, David; Stroehle, Angelika; Bossart, Walter

    2001-01-01

    By using a rapid test for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) detection (Abbott TestPack RSV), a number of patients were observed, showing repeatedly positive results over a period of up to 10 weeks. A prospective study was initiated to compare the rapid test with an antigen capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and a nested reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) protocol for detection of RSV serotypes A and B. Only respiratory samples from children exhibiting the prolonged presence of RSV (≥5 days) as determined by the rapid test were considered. A total of 134 specimens from 24 children was investigated by antigen capture EIA and nested RT-PCR. Using RT-PCR as the reference method, we determined the RSV rapid test to have a specificity of 63% and a sensitivity of 66% and the antigen capture EIA to have a specificity of 96% and a sensitivity of 69% for acute-phase samples and the homologous virus serotype A. In 7 (29%) of 24 patients, the positive results of the RSV rapid test could not be confirmed by either nested RT-PCR or antigen capture EIA. In these seven patients a variety of other respiratory viruses were detected. For general screening the RSV rapid test was found to be a reasonable tool to get quick results. However, its lack of specificity in some patients requires confirmation by additional tests to rule out false-positive results and/or detection of other respiratory viruses. PMID:11526141

  19. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America.

  20. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  1. 75 FR 69648 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... ENERGY Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers... designed to hold firmly in place. 10 CFR Part 830 imposes a requirement that a documented safety analysis... provide guidance on meeting the requirements imposed by DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis...

  2. Nebulized antibiotics. An adequate option for treating ventilator-associated respiratory infection?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Barcenilla, F

    2015-03-01

    Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) is a frequent complication in critical patients. The 90% of those who develop it receive broad-spectrum antibiotic (ATB) treatment, without any strong evidence of its favorable impact. The use of nebulized ATB could be a valid treatment option, to reduce the use of systemic ATB and the pressure of selection on the local flora. Several studies suggest that an adequate nebulization technique can ensure high levels of ATB even in areas of lung consolidation, and to obtain clinical and microbiological cure. New studies are needed to properly assess the impact of treatment with nebulized ATB on the emergence of resistance.

  3. Respiratory protection against airborne nanoparticles: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Ronald E.; Rengasamy, Samy

    2009-10-01

    As a precautionary measure, it is often recommended that workers take steps to reduce their exposure to airborne nanoparticles through the use of respiratory protective devices. The purpose of this study was to provide a review and analysis of the research literature and current recommendations on respirators used for protection against nanoparticles. Key research findings were that studies with particles as small as 4 nm have shown that conventional single-fiber filtration theory can be used to describe the filtration performance of respirators and that the most penetrating particle size for respirators equipped with commonly used electrostatic filter media is in the range of 30-100 nm. Future research needs include human laboratory and workplace protection factor studies to measure the respirator total inward leakage of nanoparticles. Industrial hygienists and safety professionals should continue to use traditional respirator selection guidance for workers exposed to nanoparticles.

  4. Army Programs: The Army Respiratory Protection Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    leak testing • 3–5, page 4 Maintenance and care of respirators • 3–6, page 4 Procedures for routine worksite inspections • 3–7, page 4 Air quality • 3–8...training provided the DA safety policy for training in smoke is observed. (b) When training and field operations require entrance into con- fined spaces...the Army Respiratory Protection Program as required by law and AR 385–10. 2–3. Commanders of major Army commands Commanders of major Army commands

  5. Measurement of protection factor of respiratory protective devices toward nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Brochot, C; Michielsen, N; Chazelet, S; Thomas, D

    2012-07-01

    The use of nanoparticles in industry has increased spectacularly over the past few years. Additionally, nanoscale particles seem to be the cause of new professional exposure situations. Due to their size, these particles may build up within the respiratory tract and may even reach the nervous system via the nasal passages; for this reason, it is generally recommended to wear respiratory protective devices (RPDs) in situations where collective protection is impossible to implement or inadequate. Here, we present the test bench ETNA designed to study the efficiency of RPDs in the presence of nanoparticles. The results of the efficiency measurement of two RPDs for two positions (sealed and unsealed) on a Sheffield head, for two inhalation configurations (constant flow and cyclic flow), and for two different particle size distributions of NaCl aerosol (one centered on 13 nm and the other on 59 nm) are presented below. The measurements indicate that when the leaks are negligible at the interface mask/head, the efficiency of RPD is greater for nanoparticles. For major leaks, the device's protection factor changes independently of the size of the particles. Furthermore, no trends with respect to the effect of the respiration type (constant-flow and cyclic-flow tests) have been shown on the device's protection factor.

  6. Respiratory Protection Program medical clearance for respirator use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on occupational exposure to various inhalents is discussed including on-site hazard control measures, procedures, physiological effects, and interpretation of results for the medical clearance of employee for use of personal respiratory protection devices. The purpose of the Respiratory Protection Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Respiratory Protection at LeRC are discussed.

  7. When one is not enough: prevalence and characteristics of homes not adequately protected by smoke alarms

    PubMed Central

    Peek-Asa, C; Allareddy, V; Yang, J; Taylor, C; Lundell, J; Zwerling, C

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has specific recommendations about the number, location, and type of smoke alarms that are needed to provide maximum protection for a household. No previous studies have examined whether or not homes are completely protected according to these guidelines. The authors describe the prevalence and home characteristics associated with compliance to recommendations for smoke alarm installation by the NFPA. Design, setting, and subjects: Data are from the baseline on-site survey of a randomized trial to measure smoke alarm effectiveness. The trial was housed in a longitudinal cohort study in a rural Iowa county. Of 1005 homes invited, 691 (68.8%) participated. Main outcome measures: Information about smoke alarm type, placement, and function, as well as home and occupant characteristics, was collected through an on-site household survey. Results: Although 86.0% of homes had at least one smoke alarm, only 22.3% of homes (approximately one in five) were adequately protected according to NFPA guidelines. Fourteen percent of homes had no functioning smoke alarms. More than half of the homes with smoke alarms did not have enough of them or had installed them incorrectly, and 42.4% of homes with alarms had at least one alarm that did not operate. Homes with at least one high school graduate were nearly four times more likely to be fully protected. Homes that had multiple levels, a basement, or were cluttered or poorly cleaned were significantly less likely to be fully protected. Conclusion: These findings indicate that consumers may not be knowledgeable about the number of alarms they need or how to properly install them. Occupants are also not adequately maintaining the alarms that are installed. PMID:16326772

  8. Use of personal protective equipment for respiratory protection.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Edward V; Gallo, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Management of hazards in biomedical research facilities requires the application of the traditional industrial hygiene responsibilities of anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and control to characterize the work environment, evaluate tasks and equipment, identify hazards, define exposure groups, and recommend controls. Generally, the diversity and unique characteristics of hazards faced by laboratory and animal facility employees and the short-term and low-level nature of the exposures factor into the selection of proper exposure control measures in the laboratory. The proper selection of control measures is based on a hierarchy of elimination and minimization by engineering controls, followed last by personal protective equipment when exposures cannot be eliminated. Once it is decided that personal protective equipment is needed, specific regulations and guidelines define safety standards for research facilities, including the elements of a sound respiratory protection program. These elements include respirator selection (including appropriate protection factors), medical evaluation, fit testing, training, inspection, maintenance and care, quality, quantity and flow of breathing air, and routine and emergency use procedures.

  9. Perinatal substance abuse and human subjects research: are privacy protections adequate?

    PubMed

    Marshall, Mary Faith; Menikoff, Jerry; Paltrow, Lynn M

    2003-01-01

    moral responsibility to understand local, state and national policies and laws governing perinatal substance abuse. Investigators and IRB members should balance the harms of punitive interventions against the protections that may, or may not be afforded to prospective research subjects as well as the prospective benefits, individual and social, of the research. In situations where criminal or punitive policies are in effect, investigators and IRB members should consider whether adequate protections can be achieved. In the context of inadequate protections, potential risks to prospective research subjects and their families may outweigh the individual or social benefits that accrue from the research. Clinical researchers are professionally obligated to work toward amending laws and policies that are not in the best interests of prospective research subjects.

  10. 33 CFR 150.618 - What are the requirements for respiratory protection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... respiratory protection? 150.618 Section 150.618 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Respiratory Protection § 150.618 What are the requirements for respiratory protection? (a) The deepwater port operator must ensure that respiratory protection measures are taken in compliance with 29 CFR...

  11. 33 CFR 150.618 - What are the requirements for respiratory protection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... respiratory protection? 150.618 Section 150.618 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Respiratory Protection § 150.618 What are the requirements for respiratory protection? (a) The deepwater port operator must ensure that respiratory protection measures are taken in compliance with 29 CFR...

  12. 33 CFR 150.618 - What are the requirements for respiratory protection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... respiratory protection? 150.618 Section 150.618 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Respiratory Protection § 150.618 What are the requirements for respiratory protection? (a) The deepwater port operator must ensure that respiratory protection measures are taken in compliance with 29 CFR...

  13. 33 CFR 150.618 - What are the requirements for respiratory protection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... respiratory protection? 150.618 Section 150.618 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Respiratory Protection § 150.618 What are the requirements for respiratory protection? (a) The deepwater port operator must ensure that respiratory protection measures are taken in compliance with 29 CFR...

  14. 33 CFR 150.618 - What are the requirements for respiratory protection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... respiratory protection? 150.618 Section 150.618 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Respiratory Protection § 150.618 What are the requirements for respiratory protection? (a) The deepwater port operator must ensure that respiratory protection measures are taken in compliance with 29 CFR...

  15. Small Entity Compliance Guide for the Revised Respiratory Protection Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-30

    determine compliance responsibilities, which are set forth in Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards and the Occupational Safety and... Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission and the courts. The Respiratory Protection standard will protect an estimated 5 million respirator wearers.

  16. 68 FR 75776 - Respiratory Protection for M. Tuberculosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-12-31

    .... Tuberculosis AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Final rule; revocation. SUMMARY: OSHA is revoking ``Respiratory Protection for M. Tuberculosis'' (29 CFR 1910.139) which... Protection for M. tuberculosis''. However, in a document published elsewhere in this separate part of...

  17. Aircrew Eye/Respiratory Protection (AERP): 16-Hour Extended Wear Evaluation of Chemical Protective Equipment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    Respiratory Protection (AERP) and associated clothing and equipment. Two subjects each carried out simulated tanker/transport and fighter/attack scenarios. No...AD A277 288 N•.• AL-TP-1 993-0014 ý’vI~~I~ 11~ II~I AIRCREW EYE/ RESPIRATORY PROTECTION (AERP): 16-HOUR EXTENDED WEAR EVALUATION OF R CHEMICAL...S. FUNDING NUMBERS ’Aircrew Eye/ Respiratory Protection (AERP): 16-Hour Extended PE - 62202F Wear Evaluation of Chemical Protective Equipment PR

  18. Does the new EU Regulation on clinical trials adequately protect vulnerable research participants?

    PubMed

    Gennet, Éloïse; Andorno, Roberto; Elger, Bernice

    2015-07-01

    Vulnerable research participants deserve special protection because of their increased risks of being wronged. Yet, paradoxically, the conduct of trials involving vulnerable groups is sometimes inescapable to develop safe and efficient therapies suitable to these groups. The key question is therefore how to protect vulnerable research participants from harm and exploitation without excluding the populations they belong to from the benefits of research. The European Union faced this challenge in April 2014 when adopting the new Regulation on clinical trials, which will replace the currently applicable 2001 Clinical Trials Directive in 2016. In order to assess the protection of vulnerable persons in the new Regulation, this paper makes four suggestions: first, the need to adopt a risk-based approach to vulnerability in biomedical research; second, to better distinguish between decisional vulnerabilities and health-related vulnerabilities; third, to emphasise the need to preserve the freedom of consent of subjects with decisional vulnerability, who are more susceptible to undue influence; and finally to assert the need of actively promoting specific clinical trials involving people with physical or psychological vulnerabilities. In conclusion, this paper claims that the protection of vulnerable subjects still needs to be improved in the new EU Regulation.

  19. Movement and spawning migration patterns suggest small marine reserves can offer adequate protection for exploited emperorfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, B. M.; Mills, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    A critical feature of effective marine reserves is to be large enough to encompass home ranges of target species, thereby allowing a significant portion of the population to persist without the threat of exploitation. In this study, patterns of movement and home range for Lethrinus harak and Lethrinus obsoletus were quantified using an array of 33 acoustic receivers that covered approximately three quarters of Piti Marine Reserve in the Pacific island of Guam. This array was designed to ensure extensive overlap of receiver ranges throughout the study area. Eighteen individuals (12 L. harak and 6 L. obsoletus) were surgically implanted with ultrasonic transmitters and passively tracked for 4 months. Both species displayed high site fidelity and had relatively small home ranges. The home ranges of L. harak expanded with increasing body size. Feeding of fish by humans, which was common but restricted to a small area within the study site, had little effect on the distribution of the resident populations. L. harak made nightly spawning migrations within the reserve between full moon and last quarter moon of each lunar cycle, coinciding with a strong ebbing tide. Results indicate that even small reserves can include many individual home ranges of these emperorfishes and can protect spawning sites for L. harak. These species are heavily targeted in Guam, and there are major demographic differences between fished and protected sites. This study shows the potential for protected areas to sustain reproductive viability in exploited populations.

  20. Best strategy for cerebral protection in arch surgery - antegrade selective cerebral perfusion and adequate hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Friedrich W.; Etz, Christian D.

    2013-01-01

    Aortic arch surgery remains a complex surgical operation that necessitates specific neuroprotection strategies. Various approaches, such as hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA), retrograde cerebral perfusion, and antegrade selective cerebral perfusion (aSCP), have each enjoyed periods of popularity. However, while the overall surgical approach tend to favour HCA with aSCP, technical factors, such as perfusion site, perfusate temperature and flow rate and pH management, have not been conclusively elucidated. The optimal extent of hypothermia during circulatory arrest is also unclear, particularly with recent partiality for warmer temperatures. The following perspective details the preferred surgical practice for cerebral protection in aortic arch surgery, based on existing evidence. PMID:23977602

  1. Protective roles of free avian respiratory macrophages in captive birds.

    PubMed

    Mutua, Mbuvi P; Muya, Shadrack; Gicheru, Muita M

    2016-06-16

    In the mammalian lung, respiratory macrophages provide front line defense against invading pathogens and particulate matter. In birds, respiratory macrophages are known as free avian respiratory macrophages (FARM) and a dearth of the cells in the avian lung has been purported to foreordain a weak first line of pulmonary defense, a condition associated with high mortality of domestic birds occasioned by respiratory inflictions. Avian pulmonary mechanisms including a three tiered aerodynamic filtration system, tight epithelial junctions and an efficient mucociliary escalator system have been known to supplement FARM protective roles. Current studies, however, report FARM to exhibit an exceptionally efficient phagocytic capacity and are effective in elimination of invading pathogens. In this review, we also report on effects of selective synthetic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) agonists on non phlogistic phagocytic properties in the FARM. To develop effective therapeutic interventions targeting FARM in treatment and management of respiratory disease conditions in the poultry, further studies are required to fully understand the role of FARM in innate and adaptive immune responses.

  2. Use of respiratory protection among responders at the World Trade Center site--New York City, September 2001.

    PubMed

    2002-09-11

    The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11,2001, created an occupational health and safety challenge for New York City (NYC) firefighters and rescue workers responding to the disaster. Immediate respiratory hazards included explosions, fire, falling debris, and dust clouds containing particulate matter comprised of pulverized building materials. Ongoing risks included lingering particulate matter in the air and intermittent combustion products from initial and persistent fires beneath the rubble pile. Because the nature and extent of exposures in disaster situations are complex and difficult to characterize, the use of adequate personal protective equipment (PPE), including respiratory protection, is essential in protecting the health of firefighters and other rescue workers. During the weeks after September 11, the NYC Fire Department's Bureau of Health Services (FDNY-BHS) and CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) organized a collaborative study to evaluate occupational hazards and exposures for these workers, including their use of respiratory protection. This report summarizes the results of that study, which indicate that the majority of firefighters did not use adequate respiratory protection during the first week of the rescue/recovery operation.

  3. 10 CFR 20.1704 - Further restrictions on the use of respiratory protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Further restrictions on the use of respiratory protection... RADIATION Respiratory Protection and Controls To Restrict Internal Exposure in Restricted Areas § 20.1704 Further restrictions on the use of respiratory protection equipment. The Commission may...

  4. 10 CFR 20.1704 - Further restrictions on the use of respiratory protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Further restrictions on the use of respiratory protection... RADIATION Respiratory Protection and Controls To Restrict Internal Exposure in Restricted Areas § 20.1704 Further restrictions on the use of respiratory protection equipment. The Commission may...

  5. 10 CFR 20.1704 - Further restrictions on the use of respiratory protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Further restrictions on the use of respiratory protection... RADIATION Respiratory Protection and Controls To Restrict Internal Exposure in Restricted Areas § 20.1704 Further restrictions on the use of respiratory protection equipment. The Commission may...

  6. 10 CFR 20.1704 - Further restrictions on the use of respiratory protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Further restrictions on the use of respiratory protection... RADIATION Respiratory Protection and Controls To Restrict Internal Exposure in Restricted Areas § 20.1704 Further restrictions on the use of respiratory protection equipment. The Commission may...

  7. [Ventilation in acute respiratory distress. Lung-protective strategies].

    PubMed

    Bruells, C S; Rossaint, R; Dembinski, R

    2012-11-01

    Ventilation of patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with protective ventilator settings is the standard in patient care. Besides the reduction of tidal volumes, the adjustment of a case-related positive end-expiratory pressure and preservation of spontaneous breathing activity at least 48 h after onset is part of this strategy. Bedside techniques have been developed to adapt ventilatory settings to the individual patient and the different stages of ARDS. This article reviews the pathophysiology of ARDS and ventilator-induced lung injury and presents current evidence-based strategies for ventilator settings in ARDS.

  8. Respiratory protective device design using control system techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, W. A.; Yankovich, D.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of a control system analysis approach to provide a design base for respiratory protective devices is considered. A system design approach requires that all functions and components of the system be mathematically identified in a model of the RPD. The mathematical notations describe the operation of the components as closely as possible. The individual component mathematical descriptions are then combined to describe the complete RPD. Finally, analysis of the mathematical notation by control system theory is used to derive compensating component values that force the system to operate in a stable and predictable manner.

  9. Universal and reusable virus deactivation system for respiratory protection

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Fu-Shi; Rubino, Ilaria; Lee, Su-Hwa; Koch, Brendan; Choi, Hyo-Jick

    2017-01-01

    Aerosolized pathogens are a leading cause of respiratory infection and transmission. Currently used protective measures pose potential risk of primary/secondary infection and transmission. Here, we report the development of a universal, reusable virus deactivation system by functionalization of the main fibrous filtration unit of surgical mask with sodium chloride salt. The salt coating on the fiber surface dissolves upon exposure to virus aerosols and recrystallizes during drying, destroying the pathogens. When tested with tightly sealed sides, salt-coated filters showed remarkably higher filtration efficiency than conventional mask filtration layer, and 100% survival rate was observed in mice infected with virus penetrated through salt-coated filters. Viruses captured on salt-coated filters exhibited rapid infectivity loss compared to gradual decrease on bare filters. Salt-coated filters proved highly effective in deactivating influenza viruses regardless of subtypes and following storage in harsh environmental conditions. Our results can be applied in obtaining a broad-spectrum, airborne pathogen prevention device in preparation for epidemic and pandemic of respiratory diseases. PMID:28051158

  10. Universal and reusable virus deactivation system for respiratory protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Fu-Shi; Rubino, Ilaria; Lee, Su-Hwa; Koch, Brendan; Choi, Hyo-Jick

    2017-01-01

    Aerosolized pathogens are a leading cause of respiratory infection and transmission. Currently used protective measures pose potential risk of primary/secondary infection and transmission. Here, we report the development of a universal, reusable virus deactivation system by functionalization of the main fibrous filtration unit of surgical mask with sodium chloride salt. The salt coating on the fiber surface dissolves upon exposure to virus aerosols and recrystallizes during drying, destroying the pathogens. When tested with tightly sealed sides, salt-coated filters showed remarkably higher filtration efficiency than conventional mask filtration layer, and 100% survival rate was observed in mice infected with virus penetrated through salt-coated filters. Viruses captured on salt-coated filters exhibited rapid infectivity loss compared to gradual decrease on bare filters. Salt-coated filters proved highly effective in deactivating influenza viruses regardless of subtypes and following storage in harsh environmental conditions. Our results can be applied in obtaining a broad-spectrum, airborne pathogen prevention device in preparation for epidemic and pandemic of respiratory diseases.

  11. Respiratory Protection Provided by Five New Contagion Masks

    PubMed Central

    Guyton, H. Gerald; Decker, Herbert M.

    1963-01-01

    The effectiveness of five recently developed contagion masks in filtering air-borne particles (1 to 5 μ diam) has been reported. One mask, available in four sizes, was 99% efficient. This mask can be reused after sterilization. The other four masks are available in only one size and are intended to be used one time only. Two of these four disposable types were more than 90% efficient but the variability of their respective test results was much greater than that for the reusable mask. The two remaining disposable types were less than 80% efficient. Two of these contagion-mask types were worn by hospital personnel for periods of up to 8 hr to determine the effect of such prolonged use on aerosol filtration efficiency. No significant decrease in filtration efficiency was noted. Physicians, nurses, and other hospital personnel who wear masks will benefit from the increased individual respiratory protection afforded by improved contagion masks. Concurrently, the incidence of hospital patient air-borne infections should be greatly reduced. Images FIG. 1 PMID:13951516

  12. Crowding: risk factor or protective factor for lower respiratory disease in young children?

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Cousens, Simon Nicholas; de Góes Siqueira, Luiz Fernando; Alves, Fátima Maria; D'Angelo, Luiz Antônio V

    2004-01-01

    Background To study the effects of household crowding upon the respiratory health of young children living in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods Case-control study with children aged from 2 to 59 months living within the boundaries of the city of São Paulo. Cases were children recruited from 5 public hospitals in central São Paulo with an acute episode of lower respiratory disease. Children were classified into the following diagnostic categories: acute bronchitis, acute bronchiolitis, pneumonia, asthma, post-bronchiolitis wheezing and wheezing of uncertain aetiology. One control, crudely matched to each case with regard to age (<2, 2 years old or more), was selected among healthy children living in the neighborhood of the case. All buildings were surveyed for the presence of environmental contaminants, type of construction and building material. Plans of all homes, including measurements of floor area, height of walls, windows and solar orientation, was performed. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 313 pairs of children were studied. Over 70% of the cases had a primary or an associated diagnosis of a wheezing illness. Compared with controls, cases tended to live in smaller houses with less adequate sewage disposal. Cases and controls were similar with respect to the number of people and the number of children under five living in the household, as well the number of people sharing the child's bedroom. After controlling for potential confounders, no evidence of an association between number of persons sharing the child's bedroom and lower respiratory disease was identified when all cases were compared with their controls. However, when two categories of cases were distinguished (infections, asthma) and each category compared separately with their controls, crowding appeared to be associated with a 60% reduction in the incidence of asthma but with 2 1/2-fold increase in the incidence of lower respiratory tract

  13. 42 CFR 84.1151 - DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide... filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an...

  14. 42 CFR 84.1151 - DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide... filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1151 - DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide... filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an...

  16. Evaluation of Lightweight and Low Profile Communications Devices for Respiratory Protective System 21 (RESPO 21)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    AD-A253 393 Ir ic EREP ORT ELECTE" S JUL2,3 992 C FINAL REPORT Evaluation of Lightweight and Low Profile Communications Devices for Respiratory ...Evaluation of Lightweight and Low Profile Communications Devices for Respiratory Protective System 21 (RESPO21) to U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development...1 INTRODUCTION The Chemical Research, Development, and Engineering Center (CRDEC) is entering development of the next generation of respiratory

  17. Utility of Respiratory Vaccination With Recombinant Subunit Vaccines for Protection Against Pneumonic Plague

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Immunity at mucosal sites can prevent pathogen infection of the host. A) oral poliovirus vaccine B) inhaled influenza vaccine C) kennel cough & Newcastle...Utility of respiratory vaccination with recombinant subunit vaccines for protection against pneumonic plague. Douglas S. Reed & Jennifer Smoll...2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Utility of respiratory vaccination with recombinant subunit vaccines for

  18. 42 CFR 84.1148 - Tests for respirators designed for respiratory protection against more than one type of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tests for respirators designed for respiratory... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide... for respirators designed for respiratory protection against more than one type of dispersoid;...

  19. 42 CFR 84.1148 - Tests for respirators designed for respiratory protection against more than one type of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tests for respirators designed for respiratory... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide... for respirators designed for respiratory protection against more than one type of dispersoid;...

  20. 42 CFR 84.1148 - Tests for respirators designed for respiratory protection against more than one type of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tests for respirators designed for respiratory... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide... for respirators designed for respiratory protection against more than one type of dispersoid;...

  1. 42 CFR 84.1148 - Tests for respirators designed for respiratory protection against more than one type of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tests for respirators designed for respiratory... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide... for respirators designed for respiratory protection against more than one type of dispersoid;...

  2. 42 CFR 84.1148 - Tests for respirators designed for respiratory protection against more than one type of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tests for respirators designed for respiratory... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide... for respirators designed for respiratory protection against more than one type of dispersoid;...

  3. Development of a respiratory protection survey instrument for occupational health nurses: an educational project.

    PubMed

    Taormina, Deborah; Burgel, Barbara J

    2013-02-01

    The Institute of Medicine (2011) report Occupational Health Nurses and Respiratory Protection: Improving Education and Training outlined seven recommendations to improve the competency of occupational health nurses in respiratory protection. An advisory group was convened in December 2011, with stakeholder representation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health/National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory, American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, Inc., American Board for Occupational Health Nurses, Inc., Association of Occupational Health Professionals in Healthcare, American Nurses Association, and Institute of Medicine Standing Committee on Personal Protective Equipment for Workplace Safety and Health. The initial work of the advisory group included developing and administering a survey to assess current occupational health nurse roles and responsibilities relevant to respiratory protection. Development of the survey was led by a master's student and advisor who worked with the advisory group. The process of tool development and preliminary findings are presented in this article.

  4. Evaluation of RPE-Select: A Web-Based Respiratory Protective Equipment Selector Tool

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Nick; Rajan-Sithamparanadarajah, Bob; Atkinson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of an open-access web-based respiratory protective equipment selector tool (RPE-Select, accessible at http://www.healthyworkinglives.com/rpe-selector). This tool is based on the principles of the COSHH-Essentials (C-E) control banding (CB) tool, which was developed for the exposure risk management of hazardous chemicals in the workplace by small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and general practice H&S professionals. RPE-Select can be used for identifying adequate and suitable RPE for dusts, fibres, mist (solvent, water, and oil based), sprays, volatile solids, fumes, gases, vapours, and actual or potential oxygen deficiency. It can be applied for substances and products with safety data sheets as well as for a large number of commonly encountered process-generated substances (PGS), such as poultry house dusts or welding fume. Potential international usability has been built-in by using the Hazard Statements developed for the Globally Harmonised System (GHS) and providing recommended RPE in picture form as well as with a written specification. Illustration helps to compensate for the variabilities in assigned protection factors across the world. RPE-Select uses easily understandable descriptions/explanations and an interactive stepwise flow for providing input/answers at each step. The output of the selection process is a report summarising the user input data and a selection of RPE, including types of filters where applicable, from which the user can select the appropriate one for each wearer. In addition, each report includes ‘Dos’ and ‘Don’ts’ for the recommended RPE. RPE-Select outcomes, based on up to 20 hypothetical use scenarios, were evaluated in comparison with other available RPE selection processes and tools, and by 32 independent users with a broad range of familiarities with industrial use scenarios in general and respiratory protection in particular. For scenarios involving substances having safety

  5. 10 CFR 20.1704 - Further restrictions on the use of respiratory protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Further restrictions on the use of respiratory protection equipment. 20.1704 Section 20.1704 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST... instead of process or other engineering controls....

  6. The Revised International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, W.J.

    1991-09-01

    The new respiratory tract model is based on the premise that the large differences in radiation sensitivity of respiratory tract tissues, and the wide range of doses they receive, argue for calculating specific tissue doses rather than average lung doses for radiation protection purposes. The new model is more complex than the current lung model because it describes deposition of inhaled radioactive material in the clearance from several tissues and regions of the respiratory tract and is applicable to the worldwide population of both workers and the public. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Activated mouse eosinophils protect against lethal respiratory virus infection.

    PubMed

    Percopo, Caroline M; Dyer, Kimberly D; Ochkur, Sergei I; Luo, Janice L; Fischer, Elizabeth R; Lee, James J; Lee, Nancy A; Domachowske, Joseph B; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2014-01-30

    Eosinophils are recruited to the airways as a prominent feature of the asthmatic inflammatory response where they are broadly perceived as promoting pathophysiology. Respiratory virus infections exacerbate established asthma; however, the role of eosinophils and the nature of their interactions with respiratory viruses remain uncertain. To explore these questions, we established acute infection with the rodent pneumovirus, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), in 3 distinct mouse models of Th2 cytokine-driven asthmatic inflammation. We found that eosinophils recruited to the airways of otherwise naïve mice in response to Aspergillus fumigatus, but not ovalbumin sensitization and challenge, are activated by and degranulate specifically in response to PVM infection. Furthermore, we demonstrate that activated eosinophils from both Aspergillus antigen and cytokine-driven asthma models are profoundly antiviral and promote survival in response to an otherwise lethal PVM infection. Thus, although activated eosinophils within a Th2-polarized inflammatory response may have pathophysiologic features, they are also efficient and effective mediators of antiviral host defense.

  8. Mammalian Cell-Derived Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Like Particles Protect the Lower as well as the Upper Respiratory Tract.

    PubMed

    Walpita, Pramila; Johns, Lisa M; Tandon, Ravi; Moore, Martin L

    2015-01-01

    Globally, Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children less than one year of age and in USA alone, between 85,000 and 144,000 infants are hospitalized every year. To date, there is no licensed vaccine. We have evaluated vaccine potential of mammalian cell-derived native RSV virus-like particles (RSV VLPs) composed of the two surface glycoproteins G and F, and the matrix protein M. Results of in vitro testing showed that the VLPs were functionally assembled and immunoreactive, and that the recombinantly expressed F protein was cleaved intracellularly similarly to the virus-synthesized F protein to produce the F1 and F2 subunits; the presence of the F1 fragment is critical for vaccine development since all the neutralizing epitopes present in the F protein are embedded in this fragment. Additional in vitro testing in human macrophage cell line THP-1 showed that both virus and the VLPs were sensed by TLR-4 and induced a Th1-biased cytokine response. Cotton rats vaccinated with RSV VLPs adjuvanted with alum and monophosphoryl lipid A induced potent neutralizing antibody response, and conferred protection in the lower as well as the upper respiratory tract based on substantial virus clearance from these sites. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first VLP/virosome vaccine study reporting protection of the lower as well as the upper respiratory tract: Prevention from replication in the nose is an important consideration if the target population is infants < 6 months of age. This is because continued virus replication in the nose results in nasal congestion and babies at this age are obligate nose breathers. In conclusion, these results taken together suggest that our VLPs show promise to be a safe and effective vaccine for RSV.

  9. 42 CFR 84.1142 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory protection against dusts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less... dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05 milligram per cubic meter,...

  10. 42 CFR 84.1142 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory protection against dusts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less... dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05 milligram per cubic meter,...

  11. 42 CFR 84.1142 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory protection against dusts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... than 0.05 milligram per cubic meter, or against radionuclides; minimum requirements. 84.1142 Section 84.1142 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... Masks § 84.1142 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory protection...

  12. 42 CFR 84.1142 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory protection against dusts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... than 0.05 milligram per cubic meter, or against radionuclides; minimum requirements. 84.1142 Section 84.1142 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... Masks § 84.1142 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory protection...

  13. 42 CFR 84.1142 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory protection against dusts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... than 0.05 milligram per cubic meter, or against radionuclides; minimum requirements. 84.1142 Section 84.1142 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... Masks § 84.1142 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory protection...

  14. Implementation of Individual System Qualification (ISQ) in a CBRN Respiratory Protection Program, Part B: Standard Operating Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    first responders on proper use of respiratory protection programs, donning of respirators , sizing, doffing, maintenance through standard operating...respiratory protection programs (RPP) based on Z1610-11 for CBRN respirators . Prepare and provide standard operating procedures, which standardize...81 F.6 Editing the respirator table

  15. Protective Efficacy of Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Delivering Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Volz, Asisa; Kupke, Alexandra; Song, Fei; Jany, Sylvia; Fux, Robert; Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Schmidt, Jörg; Becker, Christin; Eickmann, Markus; Becker, Stephan; Sutter, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory disease in humans. We tested a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vaccine expressing full-length MERS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein by immunizing BALB/c mice with either intramuscular or subcutaneous regimens. In all cases, MVA-MERS-S induced MERS-CoV-specific CD8(+) T cells and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Vaccinated mice were protected against MERS-CoV challenge infection after transduction with the human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 receptor. This MERS-CoV infection model demonstrates the safety and efficacy of the candidate vaccine.

  16. Expedient methods of respiratory protection. II. Leakage tests. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, D.W.; Hinds, W.C.; Price, J.M.; Weker, R.; Yee, H.S.

    1983-07-01

    The following readily-available materials were tested on a manikin connected to a breathing simulator to determine the fraction of an approximately 2-..mu..m-diameter aerosol that would leak around the seal of the materials to the manikin's face: cotton/polyester shirt material, cotton handkerchief material, toweling (a wash cloth), a surgical mask (Johnson and Johnson Co., model HRI 8137), and a NIOSH-approved disposable face mask (3M, model number 8710). The leakage tests were performed to supplement the measurements of penetration through the materials, conducted as the first phase of this investigation. The leakage tests were performed with the materials held on to the face by three methods, leakage fractions being determined from comparisons with the penetration of the same aerosol for the materials fully taped to the face. At a breathing rate of 37 liters per minute, mean leakages ranged from 0.0 percent to 63 percent. Mean penetrations exclusive of leakage ranged from 0.6 percent to 39 percent. Use of nylon hosiery material (panty hose) to hold the handkerchief material or the disposable face mask to the face was found to be very effective in preventing leakage. Such a combination could be expected to reduce leakage around the handkerchief to about ten percent or less in practice, and around the mask to less than one percent, offering substantial protection from accidentally generated aerosols. The reduction in leakage around the mask provided by the hosiery material suggests the adaptation and use of such an approach in regular industrial hygiene practice. The third and final phase of this investigation is underway, in which the penetration of the materials by particles with diameters between 0.05 and 0.5 ..mu..m is being measured and the effectiveness of the methods for dose reduction in the presence of radioactive aerosols is being modeled.

  17. Protection of human upper respiratory tract cell lines against sulphur mustard toxicity by hexamethylenetetramine (HMT).

    PubMed

    Andrew, D J; Lindsay, C D

    1998-07-01

    1. Sulphur mustard ('mustard gas', HD) is a highly toxic chemical warfare agent which affects the skin and respiratory tract. The primary targets of inhaled HD are the epithelia of the upper respiratory tract. Hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) has been shown to protect human lung cells against HD toxicity and has also been shown to be effective in vivo against the chemical warfare agent phosgene. The ability of HMT to protect against the toxicity of HD was investigated in the human upper respiratory tract cell lines BEAS-2B and RPMI 2650. 2. HD was highly toxic to both cell lines, with LC50 values of 15-30 microM. HMT, at a concentration of 10 mM, was shown to protect the cell lines against the toxic effects of 20 microM and 40 microM HD. Results demonstrated that it was necessary for HMT to be in situ at the time of exposure to HD for effective cytoprotection. No protection was seen when cells were treated with HMT following exposure to HD, or where HMT was removed prior to HD exposure. 3. Results suggest that HMT may be effective prophylaxis for exposure to HD by inhalation.

  18. Preexposure to CpG Protects against the Delayed Effects of Neonatal Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Yuko; Harker, James A.; Wang, Belinda; Openshaw, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Severe respiratory viral infection in early life is associated with recurrent wheeze and asthma in later childhood. Neonatal immune responses tend to be skewed toward T helper 2 (Th2) responses, which may contribute to the development of a pathogenic recall response to respiratory infection. Since neonatal Th2 skewing can be modified by stimulation with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, we investigated the effect of exposure to CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (TLR9 ligands) prior to neonatal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in mice. CpG preexposure was protective against enhanced disease during secondary adult RSV challenge, with a reduction in viral load and an increase in Th1 responses. A similar Th1 switch and reduction in disease were observed if CpG was administered in the interval between neonatal infection and challenge. In neonates, CpG pretreatment led to a transient increase in expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) and CD80 on CD11c-positive cells and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production by NK cells after RSV infection, suggesting that the protective effects may be mediated by antigen-presenting cells (APC) and NK cells. We conclude that the adverse effects of early-life respiratory viral infection on later lung health might be mitigated by conditions that promote TLR activation in the infant lung. PMID:22811525

  19. Intranasal DNA Vaccine for Protection against Respiratory Infectious Diseases: The Delivery Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yingying; Yuen, Pak-Wai; Lam, Jenny Ka-Wing

    2014-01-01

    Intranasal delivery of DNA vaccines has become a popular research area recently. It offers some distinguished advantages over parenteral and other routes of vaccine administration. Nasal mucosa as site of vaccine administration can stimulate respiratory mucosal immunity by interacting with the nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT). Different kinds of DNA vaccines are investigated to provide protection against respiratory infectious diseases including tuberculosis, coronavirus, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) etc. DNA vaccines have several attractive development potential, such as producing cross-protection towards different virus subtypes, enabling the possibility of mass manufacture in a relatively short time and a better safety profile. The biggest obstacle to DNA vaccines is low immunogenicity. One of the approaches to enhance the efficacy of DNA vaccine is to improve DNA delivery efficiency. This review provides insight on the development of intranasal DNA vaccine for respiratory infections, with special attention paid to the strategies to improve the delivery of DNA vaccines using non-viral delivery agents. PMID:25014738

  20. Adequate Wound Care and Use of Bed Nets as Protective Factors against Buruli Ulcer: Results from a Case Control Study in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Landier, Jordi; Boisier, Pascal; Fotso Piam, Félix; Noumen-Djeunga, Blanbin; Simé, Joseph; Wantong, Fidèle Gaetan; Marsollier, Laurent; Fontanet, Arnaud; Eyangoh, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease involving the skin, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Its exact transmission mechanism remains unknown. Several arguments indicate a possible role for insects in its transmission. A previous case-control study in the Nyong valley region in central Cameroon showed an unexpected association between bed net use and protection against Buruli ulcer. We investigated whether this association persisted in a newly discovered endemic Buruli ulcer focus in Bankim, northwestern Cameroon. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a case-control study on 77 Buruli ulcer cases and 153 age-, gender- and village-matched controls. Participants were interviewed about their activities and habits. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis identified systematic use of a bed net (Odds-Ratio (OR) = 0.4, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI] = [0.2–0.9], p-value (p) = 0.04), cleansing wounds with soap (OR [95%CI] = 0.1 [0.03–0.3], p<0.0001) and growing cassava (OR [95%CI] = 0.3 [0.2–0.7], p = 0.005) as independent protective factors. Independent risk factors were bathing in the Mbam River (OR [95%CI] = 6.9 [1.4–35], p = 0.02) and reporting scratch lesions after insect bites (OR [95%CI] = 2.7 [1.4–5.4], p = 0.004). The proportion of cases that could be prevented by systematic bed net use was 32%, and by adequate wound care was 34%. Conclusions/Significance Our study confirms that two previously identified factors, adequate wound care and bed net use, significantly decreased the risk of Buruli ulcer. These associations withstand generalization to different geographic, climatic and epidemiologic settings. Involvement of insects in the household environment, and the relationship between wound hygiene and M. ulcerans infection should now be investigated. PMID:22087346

  1. Comparison of performance of three different types of respiratory protection devices.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Robert B; Duling, Matthew G; Calvert, Catherine A; Coffey, Christopher C

    2006-09-01

    Respiratory protection is offered to American workers in a variety of ways to guard against potential inhalation hazards. Two of the most common ways are elastomeric N95 respirators and N95 filtering-facepiece respirators. Some in the health care industry feel that surgical masks provide an acceptable level of protection in certain situations against particular hazards. This study compared the performance of these types of respiratory protection during a simulated workplace test that measured both filter penetration and face-seal leakage. A panel of 25 test subjects with varying face sizes tested 15 models of elastomeric N95 respirators, 15 models of N95 filtering-facepiece respirators, and 6 models of surgical masks. Simulated workplace testing was conducted using a TSI PORTACOUNT Plus model 8020, and consisted of a series of seven exercises. Six simulated workplace tests were performed with redonning of the respirator/mask occurring between each test. The results of these tests produced a simulated workplace protection factor (SWPF). The geometric mean (GM) and the 5th percentile values of the SWPFs were computed by category of respiratory protection using the six overall SWPF values. The level of protection provided by each of the three respiratory protection types was compared. The GM and 5th percentile SWPF values without fit testing were used for the comparison, as surgical masks were not intended to be fit tested. The GM values were 36 for elastomeric N95 respirators, 21 for N95 filtering-facepiece respirators, and 3 for surgical masks. An analysis of variance demonstrated a statistically significant difference between all three. Elastomeric N95 respirators had the highest 5th percentile SWPF of 7. N95 filtering-facepiece respirators and surgical masks had 5th percentile SWPFs of 3 and 1, respectively. A Fisher Exact Test revealed that the 5th percentile SWPFs for all three types of respiratory protection were statistically different. In addition, both

  2. Respiratory protection from isocyanate exposure in the autobody repair and refinishing industry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Youcheng; Stowe, Meredith H; Bello, Dhimiter; Woskie, Susan R; Sparer, Judy; Gore, Rebecca; Youngs, Fred; Cullen, Mark R; Redlich, Carrie A

    2006-05-01

    This study, part of the Survey of Painters and Repairers of Auto bodies by Yale (SPRAY), evaluated the effectiveness of respiratory protection against exposure to aliphatic polyisocyanates. A total of 36 shops were assessed for respiratory protection program completeness; 142 workers were measured for respirator fit factor (FF) using PortaCount Plus respirator fit tester. Twenty-two painters from 21 shops were sampled using NIOSH method 5525 to determine the workplace protection factor (WPF) of negative pressure, air-purifying half-facepiece respirators equipped with organic vapor cartridges and paint prefilters during spray-painting and priming activities. Only 11 shops (30%) had written respiratory protection programs. Eighty percent of all fit tested workers passed the test on the first try with FF >or= 100, and 92% passed the second test after respirator use training. Overall geometric mean (GM) FF was 1012 for all fit tested workers. Significant differences on pass rate (92% vs. 72%) and on FF (1990 vs. 736) were found between previously fit tested workers vs. nontested workers. Twenty-nine WPF samples were collected. The outside facepiece GM concentration of total isocyanate group (NCO) was 378.4 micro g NCO/m(3) with 96% concentrations exceeding the U.K. short-term exposure limit, 70 micro g NCO/m(3), but no in-facepiece concentrations exceeded the limit. The GM WPF of total NCO was 319 (GSD 4) and the 5th percentile was 54. WPF of total NCO was positively correlated with the duration of painting task. FF positively correlated with WPF when FF was 450. We conclude that negative pressure, air-purifying half-facepiece respirators equipped with organic vapor cartridges and paint prefilters provide effective protection against isocyanate exposure in spray and priming operations if workers are properly trained and fitted.

  3. An inactivated influenza D virus vaccine partially protects cattle from respiratory disease caused by homologous challenge.

    PubMed

    Hause, Ben M; Huntimer, Lucas; Falkenberg, Shollie; Henningson, Jamie; Lechtenberg, Kelly; Halbur, Tom

    2017-02-01

    Originally isolated from swine, the proposed influenza D virus has since been shown to be common in cattle. Inoculation of IDV to naïve calves resulted in mild respiratory disease histologically characterized by tracheitis. As several studies have associated the presence of IDV with acute bovine respiratory disease (BRD), we sought to investigate the efficacy of an inactivated IDV vaccine. Vaccinated calves seroconverted with hemagglutination inhibition titers 137-169 following two doses. Non-vaccinated calves challenged with a homologous virus exhibited signs of mild respiratory disease from days four to ten post challenge which was significantly different than negative controls at days five and nine post challenge. Peak viral shedding of approximately 5 TCID50/mL was measured in nasal and tracheal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids four to six days post challenge. Viral titers were significantly (P<0.05) decreased 1.4 TCID50/mL, 3.6 TCID50/mL and 5.0 TCID50/mL, respectively, in the aforementioned samples collected from vaccinated animals compared to non-vaccinated controls at peak shedding. Viral antigen was detected in the respiratory epithelium of the nasal turbinates and trachea by immunohistochemistry from all unvaccinated calves but in significantly fewer vaccinates. Inflammation characterized by neutrophils was observed in the nasal turbinate and trachea but not appreciably in lungs. Together these results support an etiologic role for IDV in BRD and demonstrate that partial protection is afforded by an inactivated vaccine.

  4. Protective effects of aerosolized scopolamine against soman-induced acute respiratory toxicity in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Michael W; Pierre, Zdenka; Rezk, Peter; Song, Jian; Oguntayo, Samuel; Morthole, Venee; Sciuto, Alfred M; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2011-12-01

    The protective efficacy of the antimuscarinic agent scopolamine was evaluated against soman (o-pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate [GD])-induced respiratory toxicity in guinea pigs. Anesthetized animals were exposed to GD (841 mg/m(3)) by microinstillation inhalation exposure and treated 30 seconds later with endotracheally aerosolized scopolamine (0.25 mg/kg) and allowed to recover for 24 hours. Treatment with scopolamine significantly increased survival and reduced clinical signs of toxicity and body weight loss in GD-exposed animals. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid showed normalization of GD-induced increased cell death, total cell count, and protein following scopolamine treatment. The BAL fluid acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase levels were also increased by scopolamine treatment. Respiratory dynamics parameters were normalized at 4 and 24 hours post-GD exposure in scopolamine-treated animals. Lung histology showed that scopolamine treatment reduced bronchial epithelial and subepithelial inflammation and multifocal alveolar septal edema. These results suggest that aerosolized scopolamine considerably protects against GD-induced respiratory toxicity.

  5. Oral vaccination with a liposome-encapsulated influenza DNA vaccine protects mice against respiratory challenge infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Wu, Jianqi; Wang, Bing; Zeng, Sheng; Qi, Feifei; Lu, Changlong; Kimura, Yoshinobu; Liu, Beixing

    2014-05-01

    It is well accepted that vaccination by oral administration has many advantages over injected parenteral immunization. The present study focuses on whether oral vaccination with a DNA vaccine could induce protective immunity against respiratory challenge infection. The M1 gene of influenza A virus was used to construct DNA vaccine using pcDNA 3.1(+) plasmid, a eukaryotic expression vector. The cationic liposomes were used to deliver the constructed DNA vaccine. In vitro and in vivo expression of M1 gene was observed in the cell line and in the intestine of orally vaccinated C57BL/6 mice, respectively. It became clear that this type of oral DNA vaccination was capable of inducing both humoral and cellular immune responses, together with an augmentation of IFN-γ production. In addition, oral vaccination with liposome-encapsulated DNA vaccine could protect the mice against respiratory challenge infection. These results suggest that gastrointestinal tract, a constituent member of the common mucosal immune system, is a potent candidate applicable as a DNA vaccine route against virus respiratory diseases.

  6. Enhanced Mucosal Antibody Production and Protection against Respiratory Infections Following an Orally Administered Bacterial Extract

    PubMed Central

    Pasquali, Christian; Salami, Olawale; Taneja, Manisha; Gollwitzer, Eva S.; Trompette, Aurelien; Pattaroni, Céline; Yadava, Koshika; Bauer, Jacques; Marsland, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary bacterial infections following influenza infection are a pressing problem facing respiratory medicine. Although antibiotic treatment has been highly successful over recent decades, fatalities due to secondary bacterial infections remain one of the leading causes of death associated with influenza. We have assessed whether administration of a bacterial extract alone is sufficient to potentiate immune responses and protect against primary infection with influenza, and secondary infections with either Streptococcus pneumoniae or Klebsiella pneumoniae in mice. We show that oral administration with the bacterial extract, OM-85, leads to a maturation of dendritic cells and B-cells characterized by increases in MHC II, CD86, and CD40, and a reduction in ICOSL. Improved immune responsiveness against influenza virus reduced the threshold of susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections, and thus protected the mice. The protection was associated with enhanced polyclonal B-cell activation and release of antibodies that were effective at neutralizing the virus. Taken together, these data show that oral administration of bacterial extracts provides sufficient mucosal immune stimulation to protect mice against a respiratory tract viral infection and associated sequelae. PMID:25593914

  7. Burkholderia mallei CLH001 Attenuated Vaccine Strain Is Immunogenic and Protects against Acute Respiratory Glanders

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, Christopher L.; Mott, Tiffany M.; Muruato, Laura A.; Sbrana, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is the causative agent of glanders, an incapacitating disease with high mortality rates in respiratory cases. Its endemicity and ineffective treatment options emphasize its public health threat and highlight the need for a vaccine. Live attenuated vaccines are considered the most viable vaccine strategy for Burkholderia, but single-gene-deletion mutants have not provided complete protection. In this study, we constructed the select-agent-excluded B. mallei ΔtonB Δhcp1 (CLH001) vaccine strain and investigated its ability to protect against acute respiratory glanders. Here we show that CLH001 is attenuated, safe, and effective at protecting against lethal B. mallei challenge. Intranasal administration of CLH001 to BALB/c and NOD SCID gamma (NSG) mice resulted in complete survival without detectable colonization or abnormal organ histopathology. Additionally, BALB/c mice intranasally immunized with CLH001 in a prime/boost regimen were fully protected against lethal challenge with the B. mallei lux (CSM001) wild-type strain. PMID:27271739

  8. Occupational health nurses’ achievement of competence and comfort in respiratory protection and preferred learning methods results of a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Burgel, Barbara J; Novak, Debra A; Carpenter, Holly Elizabeth; Gruden, MaryAnn; Lachat, Ann M; Taormina, Deborah

    2014-02-01

    Additional findings are presented from a 2012 nationwide survey of 2,072 occupational health nurses regarding how they achieved competence in respiratory protection, their preferred methods of learning, and how they motivated employees to use respiratory protection. On-the-job training, taking a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health spirometry course, or attending professional conferences were the primary ways occupational health nurses gained respiratory protection knowledge. Attending professional conferences was the preferred method of learning, varying by type of industry and years of occupational health nurse experience. Employee motivational strategies were not widely used; the most common strategy was to tailor respiratory protection training to workplace culture. Designing training methods that match learning preferences, within the context of the organization's safety and quality improvement culture, is a key recommendation supported by the literature and these findings. Including respiratory protection content and competencies in all levels of academic nursing education is an additional recommendation. Additional research is needed to link training strategies with consistent and correct use of respiratory protection by employees.

  9. Inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine adjuvanted with Montanide™ Gel 01 ST elicits virus-specific cross-protective inter-genotypic response in piglets.

    PubMed

    Tabynov, Kairat; Sansyzbay, Abylay; Tulemissova, Zhanara; Tabynov, Kaissar; Dhakal, Santosh; Samoltyrova, Aigul; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Mambetaliyev, Muratbay

    The efficacy of a novel BEI-inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) candidate vaccine in pigs, developed at RIBSP Republic of Kazakhstan and delivered with an adjuvant Montanide™ Gel 01 ST (D/KV/ADJ) was compared with a commercial killed PRRSV vaccine (NVDC-JXA1, C/KV/ADJ) used widely in swine herds of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Clinical parameters (body temperature and respiratory disease scores), virological and immunological profiles [ELISA and virus neutralizing (VN) antibody titers], macroscopic lung lesions and viral load in the lungs (quantitative real-time PCR and cell culture assay) were assessed in vaccinated and both genotype 1 and 2 PRRSV challenged pigs. Our results showed that the commercial vaccine failed to protect pigs adequately against the clinical disease, viremia and lung lesions caused by the challenged field isolates, Kazakh strains of PRRSV type 1 and type 2 genotypes. In contrast, clinical protection, absence of viremia and lung lesions in D/KV/ADJ vaccinated pigs was associated with generation of VN antibodies in both homologous vaccine strain LKZ/2010 (PRRSV type 2) and a heterogeneous type 1 PRRSV strain (CM/08) challenged pigs. Thus, our data indicated the induction of cross-protective VN antibodies by D/KV/ADJ vaccine, and importantly demonstrated that an inactivated PRRSV vaccine could also induce cross-protective response across the viral genotype.

  10. A description of factors affecting hazardous waste workers' use of respiratory protective equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, M.K.; Takaro, T.K.; Connon, C.; Ertell, K.; Pappas, G.; Barnhart, S.

    1999-07-01

    This article describes the first phase of a study that was designed to gain an understanding of hazardous waste workers' attitudes and beliefs about the use of respiratory protective equipment. Exploratory, open-ended interviews were conducted among 28 respirator users at a US Department of Energy facility. Subjects were asked to describe their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about their risks to hazards at their worksites and to discuss their use of respiratory protective equipment. A detailed content analysis of the interviews resulted in the generation of a taxonomy of issues and concerns which fell into three general categories: (1) Knowledge, Beliefs, and Attitudes, (2) Physical and Psychological Effects, and (3) External Influences. Knowledge, Beliefs, and Attitudes included Training, Fit Testing, Medical Clearance, Work Exposures, Respirator Use, and Vulnerability to Disease. Physical and Psychological Effects included Somatic/Health Effects, Personal Comfort, Visual Effects, Fatigue, Communication, and Anxiety. External Influences included Structural Environment, Quality and Availability of Equipment, Other PPEs, Co-Worker Influence, Supervisor Influence, and Organizational Culture. The findings from this study have important implications to training and education programs. Effective respiratory protection programs depend on a knowledge of the factors that affect workers' use of equipment. This study suggests that efforts to assure equipment comfort and fit, to assist workers who see and hear less well as a result of their equipment, and to develop strategies to allay worker anxiety when wearing equipment should all be components of a program. An organizational culture that supports and abets the appropriate use of equipment is also a critical element in a successful program.

  11. Respiratory Protection Behavior and Respiratory Indices among Poultry House Workers on Small, Family-Owned Farms in North Carolina: A Pilot Project.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Gregory D; Gallagher, Barbara; Shaw, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate respiratory behavior and respiratory indices of poultry workers on family-owned, poultry farms with 10 or less employees in North Carolina. A field study was conducted to collect data on participants (N = 24) using spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (Feno), and an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The majority of workers (76%) ranked respiratory protection as being important, yet 48% reported never or rarely wearing respiratory protection when working in dusty conditions. A large percent of workers reported eye (55%) and nasal (50%) irritation and dry cough (50%). On average, pulmonary lung function and Feno tests were normal among nonsmokers. In bivariate analysis, significant associations were identified between working 7 days on the farm (P = .01), with eye irritation, and working 5 or fewer years in poultry farming (P = .01). Poultry workers on family-owned farms spend a considerable amount of work time in poultry houses and report acute respiratory-related health symptoms. Administrative controls among small, family-owned poultry farms are necessary to improve and promote safety and health to its employees.

  12. An Epithelial Integrin Regulates the Amplitude of Protective Lung Interferon Responses against Multiple Respiratory Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Van de Velde, Nicholas C.; Karlsson, Erik A.; Neale, Geoff; Vogel, Peter; Sharma, Shalini; Duan, Susu; Surman, Sherri L.; Jones, Bart G.; Johnson, Michael D. L.; Bosio, Catharine; Jolly, Lisa; Jenkins, R. Gisli; Hurwitz, Julia L.; Rosch, Jason W.; Sheppard, Dean; Thomas, Paul G.; Murray, Peter J.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2016-01-01

    The healthy lung maintains a steady state of immune readiness to rapidly respond to injury from invaders. Integrins are important for setting the parameters of this resting state, particularly the epithelial-restricted αVβ6 integrin, which is upregulated during injury. Once expressed, αVβ6 moderates acute lung injury (ALI) through as yet undefined molecular mechanisms. We show that the upregulation of β6 during influenza infection is involved in disease pathogenesis. β6-deficient mice (β6 KO) have increased survival during influenza infection likely due to the limited viral spread into the alveolar spaces leading to reduced ALI. Although the β6 KO have morphologically normal lungs, they harbor constitutively activated lung CD11b+ alveolar macrophages (AM) and elevated type I IFN signaling activity, which we traced to the loss of β6-activated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Administration of exogenous TGF-β to β6 KO mice leads to reduced numbers of CD11b+ AMs, decreased type I IFN signaling activity and loss of the protective phenotype during influenza infection. Protection extended to other respiratory pathogens such as Sendai virus and bacterial pneumonia. Our studies demonstrate that the loss of one epithelial protein, αVβ6 integrin, can alter the lung microenvironment during both homeostasis and respiratory infection leading to reduced lung injury and improved survival. PMID:27505057

  13. Assessing Respiratory System Mechanical Function.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Ruben D; Serrato, Diana M; Adasme, Rodrigo

    2016-12-01

    The main goals of assessing respiratory system mechanical function are to evaluate the lung function through a variety of methods and to detect early signs of abnormalities that could affect the patient's outcomes. In ventilated patients, it has become increasingly important to recognize whether respiratory function has improved or deteriorated, whether the ventilator settings match the patient's demand, and whether the selection of ventilator parameters follows a lung-protective strategy. Ventilator graphics, esophageal pressure, intra-abdominal pressure, and electric impedance tomography are some of the best-known monitoring tools to obtain measurements and adequately evaluate the respiratory system mechanical function.

  14. Influence of Respiratory Syncytial Virus F Glycoprotein Conformation on Induction of Protective Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Palomo, Concepción; Mas, Vicente; Thom, Michelle; Vázquez, Mónica; Cano, Olga; Terrón, María C.; Luque, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) vaccine development has received new impetus from structure-based studies of its main protective antigen, the fusion (F) glycoprotein. Three soluble forms of F have been described: monomeric, trimeric prefusion, and trimeric postfusion. Most human neutralizing antibodies recognize epitopes found exclusively in prefusion F. Although prefusion F induces higher levels of neutralizing antibodies than does postfusion F, postfusion F can also induce protection against virus challenge in animals. However, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the three forms of F have not hitherto been directly compared. Hence, BALB/c mice were immunized with a single dose of the three proteins adjuvanted with CpG and challenged 4 weeks later with virus. Serum antibodies, lung virus titers, weight loss, and pulmonary pathology were evaluated after challenge. Whereas small amounts of postfusion F were sufficient to protect mice, larger amounts of monomeric and prefusion F proteins were required for protection. However, postfusion and monomeric F proteins were associated with more pathology after challenge than was prefusion F. Antibodies induced by all doses of prefusion F, in contrast to other F protein forms, reacted predominantly with the prefusion F conformation. At high doses, prefusion F also induced the highest titers of neutralizing antibodies, and all mice were protected, yet at low doses of the immunogen, these antibodies neutralized virus poorly, and mice were not protected. These findings should be considered when developing new hRSV vaccine candidates. IMPORTANCE Protection against hRSV infection is afforded mainly by neutralizing antibodies, which recognize mostly epitopes found exclusively in the viral fusion (F) glycoprotein trimer, folded in its prefusion conformation, i.e., before activation for membrane fusion. Although prefusion F is able to induce high levels of neutralizing antibodies, highly stable postfusion

  15. Intranasal nanoemulsion-based inactivated respiratory syncytial virus vaccines protect against viral challenge in cotton rats.

    PubMed

    O'Konek, Jessica J; Makidon, Paul E; Landers, Jeffrey J; Cao, Zhengyi; Malinczak, Carrie-Anne; Pannu, Jessie; Sun, Jennifer; Bitko, Vira; Ciotti, Susan; Hamouda, Tarek; Wojcinski, Zbigniew W; Lukacs, Nicholas W; Fattom, Ali; Baker, James R

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus is a leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants, the elderly and individuals with compromised immune systems. Despite decades of research, there is currently no available vaccine for RSV. Our group has previously demonstrated that intranasal immunization of mice with RSV inactivated by and adjuvanted with W805EC nanoemulsion elicits robust humoral and cellular immune responses, resulting in protection against RSV infection. This protection was achieved without the induction of airway hyper-reactivity or a Th2-skewed immune response. The cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus has been used for years as an excellent small animal model of RSV disease. Thus, we extended these rodent studies to the more permissive cotton rat model. Intranasal immunization of the nanoemulsion-adjuvanted RSV vaccines induced high antibody titers and a robust Th1-skewed cellular response. Importantly, vaccination provided sterilizing cross-protective immunity against a heterologous RSV challenge and did not induce marked or severe histological effects or eosinophilia in the lung after viral challenge. Overall, these data demonstrate that nanoemulsion-formulated whole RSV vaccines are both safe and effective for immunization in multiple animal models.

  16. Prevalence of Respiratory Protective Devices in U.S. Health Care Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Wizner, Kerri; Stradtman, Lindsay; Novak, Debra; Shaffer, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    An online questionnaire was developed to explore respiratory protective device (RPD) prevalence in U.S. health care facilities. The survey was distributed to professional nursing society members in 2014 and again in 2015 receiving 322 and 232 participant responses, respectively. The purpose of this study was to explore if the emergency preparedness climate associated with Ebola virus disease changed the landscape of RPD use and awareness. Comparing response percentages from the two sampling time frames using bivariate analysis, no significant changes were found in types of RPDs used in health care settings. N95 filtering facepiece respirators continue to be the most prevalent RPD used in health care facilities, but powered air-purifying respirators are also popular, with regional use highest in the West and Midwest. Understanding RPD use prevalence could ensure that health care workers receive appropriate device trainings as well as improve supply matching for emergency RPD stockpiling. PMID:27462029

  17. 42 CFR 84.1151 - DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05... contamination level less than 0.05 milligram per cubic meter and against radionuclides; minimum requirements....

  18. 42 CFR 84.1151 - DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05... contamination level less than 0.05 milligram per cubic meter and against radionuclides; minimum requirements....

  19. Efficiency of different respiratory protective devices for removal of particulate and gaseous reactive oxygen species from welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Chung, Shih-Hsiang; Jhuo, Ming-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light inherent to welding processes generates ozone (O(3)) with subsequent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through photochemical reactions when UV light is present with O(3). This study aimed to determine the performance of filters used as respiratory protective devices by welding personnel to simultaneously mitigate particulate and gaseous inhalation hazards. Four respiratory protective devices were selected for this study, including a surgical facemask, a cotton-fabric facemask, an activated-carbon facemask, and an N95 respirator. The removal efficiencies for the particulates in welding fumes were all above 98%. For particulate-phase ROS, the removal efficiencies of the different respiratory protective devices ranged from 83.5% to 94.1%; however, the removal efficiencies for gaseous ROS were only 1.3% (active carbon facemask) to 21.1% (N95 respirator). The data indicated that the respiratory protective devices commercially available cannot block the passage of the gas-phase ROS found in welding fumes.

  20. Ginseng Protects Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus by Modulating Multiple Immune Cells and Inhibiting Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Yu-Na; Lee, Young-Tae; Hwang, Hye Suk; Kim, Ki-Hye; Ko, Eun-Ju; Kim, Min-Chul; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng has been used in humans for thousands of years but its effects on viral infection have not been well understood. We investigated the effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection using in vitro cell culture and in vivo mouse models. RGE partially protected human epithelial (HEp2) cells from RSV-induced cell death and viral replication. In addition, RGE significantly inhibited the production of RSV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) in murine dendritic and macrophage-like cells. More importantly, RGE intranasal pre-treatment prevented loss of mouse body weight after RSV infection. RGE treatment improved lung viral clearance and enhanced the production of interferon (IFN-γ) in bronchoalveolar lavage cells upon RSV infection of mice. Analysis of cellular phenotypes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids showed that RGE treatment increased the populations of CD8+ T cells and CD11c+ dendritic cells upon RSV infection of mice. Taken together, these results provide evidence that ginseng has protective effects against RSV infection through multiple mechanisms, which include improving cell survival, partial inhibition of viral replication and modulation of cytokine production and types of immune cells migrating into the lung. PMID:25658239

  1. Expedient Respiratory and Physical Protection: Does a Wet Towel Work to Prevent Chemical Warfare Agent Vapor Infiltration?

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.H.

    2002-08-30

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of expedient protection strategies to reduce exposure to vapors from chemical warfare agents. This includes an examination of the physical and the psychological effectiveness of measures such as using a wet towel to seal a door jam against the infiltration of chemicals while sheltering in place or to provide expedient respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for civilians has never been considered a viable option for population protection in the CSEPP. Problems of storage, ability to effectively don respirators, and questionable fit have been primary factors in rejecting this option. Expedient respiratory protection seems to offer little benefits for population protection for chemical agent vapors. Furthermore, using wet towels as a vapor barrier at the bottom of a door should be discouraged. The wetted towel provides no vapor filtration and its effectiveness in infiltration reduction is unknown. Taping the bottom of the door will still likely provide greater infiltration reduction and is recommended as the current method for use in sheltering.

  2. S-CMC-Lys protective effects on human respiratory cells during oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Garavaglia, Maria Lisa; Bononi, Elena; Dossena, Silvia; Mondini, Anna; Bazzini, Claudia; Lanata, Luigi; Balsamo, Rossella; Bagnasco, Michela; Conese, Massimo; Bottà, Guido; Paulmichl, Markus; Meyer, Giuliano

    2008-01-01

    The mucoactive drug S-carbocysteine lysine salt monohydrate (S-CMC-Lys) stimulates glutathione (GSH) efflux from respiratory cells. Since GSH is one of the most important redox regulatory mechanisms, the aim of this study was to evaluate the S-CMC-Lys effects on GSH efflux and intracellular concentration during an oxidative stress induced by the hydroxyl radical (xOH). Experiments were performed on cultured human respiratory WI-26VA4 cells by means of patch-clamp experiments in whole-cell configuration and of fluorimetric analyses at confocal microscope. xOH exposure induced an irreversible inhibition of the GSH and chloride currents that was prevented if the cells were incubated with S-CMC-Lys. In this instance, the currents were inhibited by the specific blocker CFTR(inh)-172. CFT1-C2 cells, which lack a functional CFTR channel, were not responsive to S-CMC-Lys, but the stimulatory effect of the drug was restored in LCFSN-infected CFT1 cells, functionally corrected to express CFTR. Fluorimetric measurements performed on the S-CMC-Lys-incubated cells revealed a significant increase of the GSH concentration that was completely hindered after oxidative stress and abolished by CFTR(inh)-172. The cellular content of reactive oxygen species was significantly lower in the S-CMC-Lys-treated cells either before or after xOH exposure. As a conclusion, S-CMC-Lys could exert a protective function during oxidative stress, therefore preventing or reducing the ROS-mediated inflammatory response.

  3. Heme Oxygenase-1 Protects Corexit 9500A-Induced Respiratory Epithelial Injury across Species

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Octavio M.; Karki, Suman; Surolia, Ranu; Wang, Zheng; Watson, R. Douglas; Thannickal, Victor J.; Powell, Mickie; Watts, Stephen; Kulkarni, Tejaswini; Batra, Hitesh; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Agarwal, Anupam; Antony, Veena B.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Corexit 9500A (CE) on respiratory epithelial surfaces of terrestrial mammals and marine animals are largely unknown. This study investigated the role of CE-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cytoprotective enzyme with anti-apoptotic and antioxidant activity, in human bronchial airway epithelium and the gills of exposed aquatic animals. We evaluated CE-mediated alterations in human airway epithelial cells, mice lungs and gills from zebrafish and blue crabs. Our results demonstrated that CE induced an increase in gill epithelial edema and human epithelial monolayer permeability, suggesting an acute injury caused by CE exposure. CE induced the expression of HO-1 as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), which are associated with ROS production. Importantly, CE induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent apoptosis of epithelial cells. The expression of the intercellular junctional proteins, such as tight junction proteins occludin, zonula occludens (ZO-1), ZO-2 and adherens junctional proteins E-cadherin and Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), were remarkably inhibited by CE, suggesting that these proteins are involved in CE-induced increased permeability and subsequent apoptosis. The cytoskeletal protein F-actin was also disrupted by CE. Treatment with carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) significantly inhibited CE-induced ROS production, while the addition of HO-1 inhibitor, significantly increased CE-induced ROS production and apoptosis, suggesting a protective role of HO-1 or its reaction product, CO, in CE-induced apoptosis. Using HO-1 knockout mice, we further demonstrated that HO-1 protected against CE-induced inflammation and cellular apoptosis and corrected CE-mediated inhibition of E-cadherin and FAK. These observations suggest that CE activates CRP and NOX4-mediated ROS production, alters permeability by inhibition of junctional proteins, and leads to caspase-3 dependent apoptosis of epithelial cells, while HO-1 and its

  4. Vaccination of Elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes Does Not Induce Adequate Protection against Experimental Brucella abortus Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Nol, Pauline; Olsen, Steven C.; Rhyan, Jack C.; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; McCollum, Matthew P.; Hennager, Steven G.; Pavuk, Alana A.; Sprino, Phillip J.; Boyle, Stephen M.; Berrier, Randall J.; Salman, Mo D.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further, work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk. PMID:26904509

  5. Vaccination of Elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes Does Not Induce Adequate Protection against Experimental Brucella abortus Challenge.

    PubMed

    Nol, Pauline; Olsen, Steven C; Rhyan, Jack C; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; McCollum, Matthew P; Hennager, Steven G; Pavuk, Alana A; Sprino, Phillip J; Boyle, Stephen M; Berrier, Randall J; Salman, Mo D

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further, work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk.

  6. Breakthrough curves for toluene adsorption on different types of activated carbon fibers: application in respiratory protection.

    PubMed

    Balanay, Jo Anne G; Floyd, Evan L; Lungu, Claudiu T

    2015-05-01

    Activated carbon fibers (ACF) are considered viable alternative adsorbent materials in respirators because of their larger surface area, lighter weight, and fabric form. The purpose of this study was to characterize the breakthrough curves of toluene for different types of commercially available ACFs to understand their potential service lives in respirators. Two forms of ACF, cloth (AC) and felt (AF), with three surface areas each were tested. ACFs were challenged with six toluene concentrations (50-500 p.p.m.) at constant air temperature (23°C), relative humidity (50%), and air flow (16 l min-1) at different bed depths. Breakthrough data were obtained using continuous monitoring by gas chromatography using a gas sampling valve. The ACF specific surface areas were measured by an automatic physisorption analyzer. Results showed unique shapes of breakthrough curves for each ACF form: AC demonstrated a gradual increase in breakthrough concentration, whereas AF showed abrupt increase in concentration from the breakpoint, which was attributed to the difference in fiber density between the forms. AF has steeper breakthrough curves compared with AC with similar specific surface area. AC exhibits higher 10% breakthrough times for a given bed depth due to higher mass per bed depth compared with AF, indicating more adsorption per bed depth with AC. ACF in respirators may be appropriate for use as protection in environments with toluene concentration at the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Permissible Exposure Limit, or during emergency escape for higher toluene concentrations. ACF has shown great potential for application in respiratory protection against toluene and in the development of thinner, lighter, and more efficient respirators.

  7. The American Association of Occupational Health Nurses' Respiratory Protection Education Program and Resources Webkit for Occupational Health Professionals.

    PubMed

    Pompeii, Lisa; Byrd, Annette; Delclos, George L; Conway, Sadie H

    2016-12-01

    Organizations are required to adhere to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Respiratory Protection Standard (29 CFR 1910.134) if they have workers that wear a respirator on the job. They must also have an employee "suitably trained" to administer their program. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and its National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory have worked to champion the occupational health nurse in this role by collaborating with the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses to develop free, online respiratory protection training and resources (RPP Webkit). This article describes the development, content, and success of this training. To date, 724 participants have completed the training, 32.6% of whom lead their organization's respiratory protection program, 15.3% who indicated they will lead a program in the near future, and 52% who did not lead a program, but indicated that the training was relevant to their work. The majority "strongly agreed" the training was applicable to their work and it enhanced their professional expertise.

  8. A Meta-Analysis of the Association between Gender and Protective Behaviors in Response to Respiratory Epidemics and Pandemics

    PubMed Central

    Del Valle, Sara Y.

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory infectious disease epidemics and pandemics are recurring events that levy a high cost on individuals and society. The health-protective behavioral response of the public plays an important role in limiting respiratory infectious disease spread. Health-protective behaviors take several forms. Behaviors can be categorized as pharmaceutical (e.g., vaccination uptake, antiviral use) or non-pharmaceutical (e.g., hand washing, face mask use, avoidance of public transport). Due to the limitations of pharmaceutical interventions during respiratory epidemics and pandemics, public health campaigns aimed at limiting disease spread often emphasize both non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical behavioral interventions. Understanding the determinants of the public’s behavioral response is crucial for devising public health campaigns, providing information to parametrize mathematical models, and ultimately limiting disease spread. While other reviews have qualitatively analyzed the body of work on demographic determinants of health-protective behavior, this meta-analysis quantitatively combines the results from 85 publications to determine the global relationship between gender and health-protective behavioral response. The results show that women in the general population are about 50% more likely than men to adopt/practice non-pharmaceutical behaviors. Conversely, men in the general population are marginally (about 12%) more likely than women to adopt/practice pharmaceutical behaviors. It is possible that factors other than pharmaceutical/non-pharmaceutical status not included in this analysis act as moderators of this relationship. These results suggest an inherent difference in how men and women respond to epidemic and pandemic respiratory infectious diseases. This information can be used to target specific groups when developing non-pharmaceutical public health campaigns and to parameterize epidemic models incorporating demographic information. PMID:27768704

  9. A meta-analysis of the association between gender and protective behaviors in response to respiratory epidemics

    DOE PAGES

    Moran, Kelly Renee; Del Valle, Sara Yermimah

    2016-10-21

    Respiratory infectious disease epidemics and pandemics are recurring events that levy a high cost on individuals and society. The health-protective behavioral response of the public plays an important role in limiting respiratory infectious disease spread. Health-protective behaviors take several forms. Behaviors can be categorized as pharmaceutical (e.g., vaccination uptake, antiviral use) or non-pharmaceutical (e.g., hand washing, face mask use, avoidance of public transport). Due to the limitations of pharmaceutical interventions during respiratory epidemics and pandemics, public health campaigns aimed at limiting disease spread often emphasize both non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical behavioral interventions. Understanding the determinants of the public’s behavioral response ismore » crucial for devising public health campaigns, providing information to parametrize mathematical models, and ultimately limiting disease spread. While other reviews have qualitatively analyzed the body of work on demographic determinants of health-protective behavior, this meta-analysis quantitatively combines the results from 85 publications to determine the global relationship between gender and health-protective behavioral response. The results show that women in the general population are about 50% more likely than men to adopt/practice non-pharmaceutical behaviors. Conversely, men in the general population are marginally (about 12%) more likely than women to adopt/practice pharmaceutical behaviors. It is possible that factors other than pharmaceutical/non-pharmaceutical status not included in this analysis act as moderators of this relationship. We find these results suggest an inherent difference in how men and women respond to epidemic and pandemic respiratory infectious diseases. In conclusion, this information can be used to target specific groups when developing non-pharmaceutical public health campaigns and to parameterize epidemic models incorporating demographic

  10. A meta-analysis of the association between gender and protective behaviors in response to respiratory epidemics

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, Kelly Renee; Del Valle, Sara Yermimah

    2016-10-21

    Respiratory infectious disease epidemics and pandemics are recurring events that levy a high cost on individuals and society. The health-protective behavioral response of the public plays an important role in limiting respiratory infectious disease spread. Health-protective behaviors take several forms. Behaviors can be categorized as pharmaceutical (e.g., vaccination uptake, antiviral use) or non-pharmaceutical (e.g., hand washing, face mask use, avoidance of public transport). Due to the limitations of pharmaceutical interventions during respiratory epidemics and pandemics, public health campaigns aimed at limiting disease spread often emphasize both non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical behavioral interventions. Understanding the determinants of the public’s behavioral response is crucial for devising public health campaigns, providing information to parametrize mathematical models, and ultimately limiting disease spread. While other reviews have qualitatively analyzed the body of work on demographic determinants of health-protective behavior, this meta-analysis quantitatively combines the results from 85 publications to determine the global relationship between gender and health-protective behavioral response. The results show that women in the general population are about 50% more likely than men to adopt/practice non-pharmaceutical behaviors. Conversely, men in the general population are marginally (about 12%) more likely than women to adopt/practice pharmaceutical behaviors. It is possible that factors other than pharmaceutical/non-pharmaceutical status not included in this analysis act as moderators of this relationship. We find these results suggest an inherent difference in how men and women respond to epidemic and pandemic respiratory infectious diseases. In conclusion, this information can be used to target specific groups when developing non-pharmaceutical public health campaigns and to parameterize epidemic models incorporating demographic

  11. Polydatin protects the respiratory system from PM2.5 exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Qi-Ming; Tie, Cai; Jin, Hong-Tao; Han, Yan-Xing; Zhang, Jin-Lan; Yu, Xiao-Ming; Hou, Qi; Zhang, Piao-Piao; Wang, Ai-Ping; Zhang, Pei-Cheng; Gao, Zhonggao; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric particle is one of the risk factors for respiratory disease; however, their injury mechanisms are poorly understood, and prevention methods are highly desirable. We constructed artificial PM2.5 (aPM2.5) particles according to the size and composition of actual PM2.5 collected in Beijing. Using these artificial particles, we created an inhalation-injury animal model. These aPM2.5 particles simulate the physical and chemical characteristics of the actual PM2.5, and inhalation of the aPM2.5 in rat results in a time-dependent change in lung suggesting a declined lung function, injury from oxidative stress and inflammation in lung. Thus, this aPM2.5-caused injury animal model may mimic that of the pulmonary injury in human exposed to airborne particles. In addition, polydatin (PD), a resveratrol glucoside that is rich in grapes and red wine, was found to significantly decrease the oxidative potential (OP) of aPM2.5 in vitro. Treating the model rats with PD prevented the lung function decline caused by aPM2.5, and reduced the level of oxidative damage in aPM2.5-exposed rats. Moreover, PD inhibited aPM2.5-induced inflammation response, as evidenced by downregulation of white blood cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), inflammation-related lipids and proinflammation cytokines in lung. These results provide a practical means for self-protection against particulate air pollution.

  12. Adsorption characteristics of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) for toluene: application in respiratory protection.

    PubMed

    Balanay, Jo Anne G; Bartolucci, Alfred A; Lungu, Claudiu T

    2014-01-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) is currently the standard adsorbent in respirators against several gases and vapors because of its efficiency, low cost, and available technology. However, a drawback of GAC due to its granular form is its need for containment, adding weight and bulkiness to respirators. This makes respirators uncomfortable to wear, resulting in poor compliance in their use. Activated carbon fibers (ACF) are considered viable alternative adsorbent materials for developing thinner, light-weight, and efficient respirators because of their larger surface area, lighter weight, and fabric form. This study aims to determine the critical bed depth and adsorption capacity of different types of commercially available ACFs for toluene to understand how thin a respirator can be and the service life of the adsorbents, respectively. ACF in cloth (ACFC) and felt (ACFF) forms with three different surface areas per form were tested. Each ACF type was challenged with six concentrations of toluene (50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 ppm) at constant air temperature (23°C), relative humidity (50%), and airflow (16 LPM) at different adsorbent weights and bed depths. Breakthrough data were obtained for each adsorbent using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. The ACFs' surface areas were measured by an automatic physisorption analyzer. The results showed that ACFC has a lower critical bed depth and higher adsorption capacity compared to ACFF with similar surface area for each toluene concentration. Among the ACF types, ACFC2000 (cloth with the highest measured surface area of 1614 ± 5 m(2)/g) has one of the lowest critical bed depths (ranging from 0.11-0.22 cm) and has the highest adsorption capacity (ranging from 595-878 mg/g). Based on these studied adsorption characteristics, it is concluded that ACF has great potential for application in respiratory protection against toluene, particularly the ACFC2000, which is the best candidate for developing thinner and

  13. Social marketing campaign promoting the use of respiratory protection devices among farmers.

    PubMed

    Pounds, Lea; Duysen, Ellen; Romberger, Debra; Cramer, Mary E; Wendl, Mary; Rautiainen, Risto

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the formal use of marketing concepts in a systematic approach to influence farmers to voluntarily increase respiratory protective device (RPD) use. The planning process for the project incorporated six key decision or action points, each informed by formative research or health behavior theory. The planning process included developing behavior change strategies based on a 4P model (product, price, place, and promotion). The resulting campaign elements included print and e-mail messages that leveraged motivators related to family and health in order to increase farmers' knowledge about the risks of exposure to dusty environments, four instructional videos related to the primary barriers identified in using RPDs, and a brightly colored storage bag to address barriers to using RPDs related to mask storage. Campaign implementation included a series of e-mails using a bulk e-mail subscription service, use of social media in the form of posting instructional videos on a YouTube channel, and in-person interactions with members of the target audience at farm shows throughout the Central States Center for Agricultural Safety and Health seven-state region. Evaluation of the e-mail campaigns indicated increased knowledge about RPD use and intent to use RPDs in dusty conditions. YouTube analytic data indicated continuing exposure of the instructional videos beyond the life of the campaign. The project demonstrates the efficacy of a planning process that incorporates formative research and clear decision points throughout. This process could be used to plan health behavior change interventions to address other agriculture-related health and safety issues.

  14. Polydatin protects the respiratory system from PM2.5 exposure

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Qi-Ming; Tie, Cai; Jin, Hong-Tao; Han, Yan-Xing; Zhang, Jin-Lan; Yu, Xiao-Ming; Hou, Qi; Zhang, Piao-Piao; Wang, Ai-Ping; Zhang, Pei-Cheng; Gao, Zhonggao; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric particle is one of the risk factors for respiratory disease; however, their injury mechanisms are poorly understood, and prevention methods are highly desirable. We constructed artificial PM2.5 (aPM2.5) particles according to the size and composition of actual PM2.5 collected in Beijing. Using these artificial particles, we created an inhalation-injury animal model. These aPM2.5 particles simulate the physical and chemical characteristics of the actual PM2.5, and inhalation of the aPM2.5 in rat results in a time-dependent change in lung suggesting a declined lung function, injury from oxidative stress and inflammation in lung. Thus, this aPM2.5-caused injury animal model may mimic that of the pulmonary injury in human exposed to airborne particles. In addition, polydatin (PD), a resveratrol glucoside that is rich in grapes and red wine, was found to significantly decrease the oxidative potential (OP) of aPM2.5 in vitro. Treating the model rats with PD prevented the lung function decline caused by aPM2.5, and reduced the level of oxidative damage in aPM2.5-exposed rats. Moreover, PD inhibited aPM2.5-induced inflammation response, as evidenced by downregulation of white blood cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), inflammation-related lipids and proinflammation cytokines in lung. These results provide a practical means for self-protection against particulate air pollution. PMID:28067267

  15. Effective Partnership is an underpinning of ANSI/ASSE Z88.2–2015 Practices for Respiratory Protection

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, Richard W.; Spelce, David; Johnson, James S.; Rehak, Timothy R

    2016-01-01

    In the U.S., respiratory protection is broadly supported by a system of coordinated efforts among governmental organizations, professional associations, researchers, industrial hygienists, manufacturers, and others who produce knowledge, best practice guidance, standards, regulations, technologies, and products to assure workers can be effectively protected. Ultimately, the work of these partners is applied by employers in establishing and implementing an effective ANSI/ASSE Z88.2–2015 conforming respirator program. This article describes key partners and their activities and/or responsibilities to assure an effective respirator program. PMID:27563169

  16. Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin: evaluation as a protective antigen and colonization factor in a mouse respiratory infection model.

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, A; Mountzouros, K T; Relman, D A; Falkow, S; Cowell, J L

    1990-01-01

    Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) is a cell surface protein of Bordetella pertussis which functions as an adhesin for this organism. It is a component of many new acellular pertussis vaccines. The proposed role of FHA in immunity to pertussis is based on animal studies which have produced some conflicting results. To clarify this situation, we reexamined the protective activity of FHA in an adult mouse respiratory infection model. Four-week-old BALB/c mice were immunized with one or two doses of 4 or 8 micrograms of FHA and then aerosol challenged with B. pertussis Tohama I. In control mice receiving tetanus toxoid, the CFU in the lungs increased from 10(5) immediately following infection to greater than 10(6) by days 5 and 9 after challenge. Mice immunized with FHA by the intraperitoneal or intramuscular route had significantly reduced bacterial colonization in the lungs. A decrease in colonization of the trachea was also observed in FHA-immunized mice. Evaluation of antibody responses in these mice revealed high titers of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM to FHA in sera and of IgG to FHA in lung lavage fluids. No IgA to FHA was detected. BALB/c mice were also passively immunized intravenously with either goat or rat antibodies to FHA and then aerosol challenged 24 h later, when anti-FHA antibodies were detected in the respiratory tract. Lung and tracheal colonization was markedly reduced in mice immunized with FHA-specific antibodies compared with those receiving control antibodies. In additional studies, the role of FHA in the colonization of the mouse respiratory tract was evaluated by using strain BP101, an FHA mutant of B. pertussis. FHA was important in the initial colonization of the mouse trachea, but was not required for colonization of the trachea later in the infection. FHA was not a factor in colonization of the lungs. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate (i) that systemic immunization with FHA can provide significant protection against B. pertussis

  17. Warm preconditioning protects against acute heat-induced respiratory dysfunction and delays bleaching in a symbiotic sea anemone.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Thomas D; Warner, Mark E

    2017-03-15

    Preconditioning to non-stressful warming can protect some symbiotic cnidarians against the high temperature-induced collapse of their mutualistic endosymbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.), a process known as bleaching. Here, we sought to determine whether such preconditioning is underpinned by differential regulation of aerobic respiration. We quantified in vivo metabolism and mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activity in the naturally symbiotic sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida preconditioned to 30°C for >7 weeks as well as anemones kept at 26°C. Preconditioning resulted in increased Symbiodinium photosynthetic activity and holobiont (host+symbiont) respiration rates. Biomass-normalised activities of host respiratory enzymes [citrate synthase and the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) complexes I and IV] were higher in preconditioned animals, suggesting that increased holobiont respiration may have been due to host mitochondrial biogenesis and/or enlargement. Subsequent acute heating of preconditioned and 'thermally naive' animals to 33°C induced dramatic increases in host mETC complex I and Symbiodinium mETC complex II activities only in thermally naive E. pallida These changes were not reflected in the activities of other respiratory enzymes. Furthermore, bleaching in preconditioned E. pallida (defined as the significant loss of symbionts) was delayed by several days relative to the thermally naive group. These findings suggest that changes to mitochondrial biogenesis and/or function in symbiotic cnidarians during warm preconditioning might play a protective role during periods of exposure to stressful heating.

  18. Bactericidal/Permeability-Increasing Protein Fold–Containing Family Member A1 in Airway Host Protection and Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Britto, Clemente J.

    2015-01-01

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein fold–containing family member A1 (BPIFA1), formerly known as SPLUNC1, is one of the most abundant proteins in respiratory secretions and has been identified with increasing frequency in studies of pulmonary disease. Its expression is largely restricted to the respiratory tract, being highly concentrated in the upper airways and proximal trachea. BPIFA1 is highly responsive to airborne pathogens, allergens, and irritants. BPIFA1 actively participates in host protection through antimicrobial, surfactant, airway surface liquid regulation, and immunomodulatory properties. Its expression is modulated in multiple lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respiratory malignancies, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. However, the role of BPIFA1 in pulmonary pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. This review highlights the versatile properties of BPIFA1 in antimicrobial protection and its roles as a sensor of environmental exposure and regulator of immune cell function. A greater understanding of the contribution of BPIFA1 to disease pathogenesis and activity may clarify if BPIFA1 is a biomarker and potential drug target in pulmonary disease. PMID:25265466

  19. Effectiveness of Personal Protective Equipment and Isolation Precautions in Protecting Healthcare Workers from Acquiring Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    SARS outbreak revealed that inapparent infection with SARS was uncommon. 34-37 6 In response to this new disease, SARS infection control guidelines were... pneumonia , 12 March 2003. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/ news /releases/2003/pr22/en/. Accessed June 15, 2005. 3. World Health Organization...is another area deserving of attention. 2 INTRODUCTION The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged as a new syndrome due to a novel human

  20. Neonatal Immunization with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Glycoprotein Fragment Induces Protective Immunity in the Presence of Maternal Antibodies in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Youran; Shim, Byoung-Shik; Cheon, In Su; Rho, Semi; Kim, Hee Joo; Choi, Youngjoo; Kang, Chang-Yuil; Chang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections in infants and the elderly worldwide. The significant morbidity and mortality associated with this infection underscores the urgent need for development of RSV vaccine. In this study, we first show that intranasal administration of RSV glycoprotein core fragment (Gcf) to neonatal mice can induce systemic humoral immune responses and protective immunity against RSV without causing lung eosinophilia, although antibody response was shifted to a Th2 response. Next, we examined whether the presence of maternal anti-RSV antibodies would affect the responsiveness and protection efficacy of Gcf in newborn mice, since infants can possess RSV-specific maternal antibodies due to frequent RSV re-infections to adults. Intranasal administration of Gcf induced antibody response and increased IFNγ secretion and protected mice against RSV challenge without severe lung eosinophilia, even in the presence of high levels of RSV-specific maternal antibodies. Thus, our findings suggest that Gcf may be an effective and safe RSV vaccine during the neonatal period. PMID:23869549

  1. An inactivated influenza D virus vaccine partially protects cattle from respiratory disease caused by homologous challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Originally isolated from swine, the proposed influenza D virus has since been shown to be common in cattle. Inoculation of IDV to naïve calves resulted in mild respiratory disease histologically characterized by tracheitis. As several studies have associated the presence of IDV with acute bovine r...

  2. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  3. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  4. Hypercapnic respiratory acidosis: a protective or harmful strategy for critically ill newborn foals?

    PubMed

    Vengust, Modest

    2012-10-01

    This paper reviews both the beneficial and adverse effects of permissive hypercapnic respiratory acidosis in critically ill newborn foals. It has been shown that partial carbon dioxide pressure (PCO2) above the traditional safe range (hypercapnia), has beneficial effects on the physiology of the respiratory, cardiovascular, and nervous system in neonates. In human neonatal critical care medicine permissive hypercapnic acidosis is generally well-tolerated by patients and is more beneficial to their wellbeing than normal carbon dioxide (CO2) pressure or normocapnia. Even though adverse effects of hypercapnia have been reported, especially in patients with central nervous system pathology and/or chronic infection, critical care clinicians often artificially increase PCO2 to take advantage of its positive effects on compromised neonate tissues. This is referred to as therapeutic hypercapnia. Hypercapnic respiratory acidosis is common in critically ill newborn foals and has traditionally been considered as not beneficial. A search of online scientific databases was conducted to survey the literature on the effects of hypercapnia in neonates, with emphasis on newborn foals. The dynamic status of safety levels of PCO2 and data on the effectiveness of different carbon dioxide levels are not available for newborn foals and should be scientifically determined. Presently, permissive hypercapnia should be implemented or tolerated cautiously in compromised newborn foals and its use should be based on relevant data from adult horses and other species.

  5. Protective B-cell epitopes of Francisella tularensis O-polysaccharide in a mouse model of respiratory tularaemia

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhaohua; Madico, Guillermo; Roche, Marly I; Wang, Qi; Hui, Julia H; Perkins, Hillary M; Zaia, Joseph; Costello, Catherine E; Sharon, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Francisella tularensis have been shown to be protective against respiratory tularaemia in mouse models, and we have previously described mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to non-overlapping terminal and internal epitopes of the F. tularensis LPS O-polysaccharide (OAg). In the current study, we used F. tularensis LPS oligosaccharides of defined OAg repeat length as molecular rulers in competition ELISA to demonstrate that the epitope targeted by the terminal OAg-binding mAb FB11 is contained within one tetrasaccharide repeat whereas the epitope targeted by the internal OAg-binding mAb Ab52 spans two tetrasaccharide repeats. Both mAbs conferred survival to BALB/c mice infected intranasally with the F. tularensis type B live vaccine strain and prolonged survival of BALB/c mice infected intranasally with the highly virulent F. tularensis type A strain SchuS4. The protective effects correlated with reduced bacterial burden in mAb-treated infected mice. These results indicate that an oligosaccharide with two OAg tetrasaccharide repeats covers both terminal and internal protective OAg epitopes, which may inform the design of vaccines for tularaemia. Furthermore, the FB11 and Ab52 mAbs could serve as reporters to monitor the response of vaccine recipients to protective B-cell epitopes of F. tularensis OAg. PMID:22486311

  6. The Respiratory Syncytial Virus G Protein Conserved Domain Induces a Persistent and Protective Antibody Response in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thien N.; Power, Ultan F.; Robert, Alain; Haeuw, Jean-François; Helffer, Katia; Perez, Amadeo; Asin, Miguel-Angel; Corvaia, Nathalie; Libon, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of severe upper and lower respiratory disease in infants and in the elderly. There are 2 main RSV subtypes A and B. A recombinant vaccine was designed based on the central domain of the RSV-A attachment G protein which we had previously named G2Na (aa130–230). Here we evaluated immunogenicity, persistence of antibody (Ab) response and protective efficacy induced in rodents by: (i) G2Na fused to DT (Diphtheria toxin) fragments in cotton rats. DT fusion did not potentiate neutralizing Ab responses against RSV-A or cross-reactivity to RSV-B. (ii) G2Nb (aa130–230 of the RSV-B G protein) either fused to, or admixed with G2Na. G2Nb did not induce RSV-B-reactive Ab responses. (iii) G2Na at low doses. Two injections of 3 µg G2Na in Alum were sufficient to induce protective immune responses in mouse lungs, preventing RSV-A and greatly reducing RSV-B infections. In cotton rats, G2Na-induced RSV-reactive Ab and protective immunity against RSV-A challenge that persisted for at least 24 weeks. (iv) injecting RSV primed mice with a single dose of G2Na/Alum or G2Na/PLGA [poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide]. Despite the presence of pre-existing RSV-specific Abs, these formulations effectively boosted anti-RSV Ab titres and increased Ab titres persisted for at least 21 weeks. Affinity maturation of these Abs increased from day 28 to day 148. These data indicate that G2Na has potential as a component of an RSV vaccine formulation. PMID:22479601

  7. Active and Passive Immunizations with Bordetella Colonization Factor A Protect Mice against Respiratory Challenge with Bordetella bronchiseptica▿

    PubMed Central

    Sukumar, Neelima; Love, Cheraton F.; Conover, Matt S.; Kock, Nancy D.; Dubey, Purnima; Deora, Rajendar

    2009-01-01

    Bordetella colonization factor A (BcfA) is an outer membrane immunogenic protein, which is critical for efficient colonization of the murine respiratory tract. These properties of BcfA prompted us to examine its utility in inducing a protective immune response against Bordetella bronchiseptica in a mouse model of intranasal infection. Mice vaccinated with BcfA demonstrated reduced pathology in the lungs and harbored lower bacterial burdens in the respiratory tract. Immunization with BcfA led to the generation of BcfA-specific antibodies in both the sera and lungs, and passive immunization led to the reduction of B. bronchiseptica in the tracheas and lungs. These results suggest that protection after immunization with BcfA is mediated in part by antibodies against BcfA. To further investigate the mechanism of BcfA-induced immune clearance, we examined the role of neutrophils and macrophages. Our results demonstrate that neutrophils are critical for anti-BcfA antibody-mediated clearance and that opsonization with anti-BcfA serum enhances phagocytosis of B. bronchiseptica by murine macrophages. We show that immunization with BcfA results in the production of gamma interferon and subclasses of immunoglobulin G antibodies that are consistent with the induction of a Th1-type immune response. In combination, our findings suggest that the mechanism of BcfA-mediated immunity involves humoral and cellular responses. Expression of BcfA is conserved among multiple clinical isolates of B. bronchiseptica. Our results demonstrate the striking protective efficacy of BcfA-mediated immunization, thereby highlighting its utility as a potential vaccine candidate. These results also provide a model for the development of cell-free vaccines against B. bronchiseptica. PMID:19064638

  8. Relationships among Dissemination of Primary Parainfluenza Virus Infection in the Respiratory Tract, Mucosal and Peripheral Immune Responses, and Protection from Reinfection: a Noninvasive Bioluminescence-Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Crystal W.; Li, Mei; Hurwitz, Julia L.; Vogel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Respiratory paramyxoviruses such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) to HPIV4 infect virtually all children by the age of 2 to 5 years, leading to partial but incomplete protection from reinfection. Here, we used luciferase-expressing reporter Sendai viruses (the murine counterpart of HPIV1) to noninvasively measure primary infection, immune responses, and protection from reinfection by either a lethal challenge or natural transmission in living mice. Both nonattenuated and attenuated reporter Sendai viruses were used, and three inoculation strategies were employed: intramuscular (i.m.), intranasal (i.n.) at a low dose and low volume, and i.n. at a high dose and high volume. High-dose, high-volume i.n. inoculation resulted in the highest levels of antibody responses and protection from reinfection. Low-dose, low-volume i.n. inoculation afforded complete protection from contact transmission and protection from morbidity, mortality, and viral growth during lethal challenge. i.m. inoculation was inferior to i.n. inoculation at inducing antibody responses and protection from challenge. For individual mice and across groups, the levels of serum binding and neutralizing antibody responses correlated with primary infection and protection from reinfection in the lungs. Contact transmission, the predominant mode of parainfluenza virus transmission, was modeled accurately by direct i.n. inoculation of Sendai virus at a low dose and low volume and was completely preventable by i.n. vaccination of an attenuated virus at a low dose and low volume. The data highlight differences in infection and protection from challenge in the upper versus lower respiratory tract and bear upon live attenuated vaccine development. IMPORTANCE There are currently no licensed vaccines against HPIVs and human RSV (HRSV), important respiratory pathogens of infants and children. Natural infection leads to partial but incomplete protective immunity

  9. Evaluation of reported fatality data associated with workers using respiratory protection in the United States (1990-2012).

    PubMed

    Cowan, Dallas M; Benson, Stacey M; Cheng, Thales J; Hecht, Shelby; Boulos, Nancy M; Henshaw, John

    2016-06-24

    OSHA revised the 1971 respiratory protection standard in 1998 to add guidance for selecting and maintaining respirators. Fatality reports from 1990 to 2012 were used to characterize historical trends in fatalities associated with respirators. Industry- and time-specific trends were evaluated to determine the effect of the revision to the standard on respirator-related fatalities; 174 respirator-related deaths were reported. The majority of fatalities were associated with using an airline respirator (n = 34) or the absence of using a respirator in required spaces (n = 38). Overall, 79% of fatalities were associated with asphyxia. Fatalities were associated with improper employee use or lack of employer compliance. Reductions in fatality rates over time appeared to be associated with the revisions to the respirator standard, although other variables may influence rates (eg, controls). Recommendations for employers and employees regarding maintaining safe use of respirators are provided.

  10. Evaluation of the efficiency of respiratory protective equipment based on the biological monitoring of styrene in fibreglass reinforced plastics industries.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shoji; Nishide, Tadashi; Horike, Tokushi; Kishimoto, Takumi; Kira, Shohei

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the efficiency of respiratory protective equipment in a fibreglass reinforced plastic factory by comparing results of environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to styrene. Five factories including 39 workers were investigated. Three types of respiratory protective equipment were tested: one was a half-mask air-purifying respirator equipped with a cartridge for organic solvents, another was a disposable gauze respirator impregnated with charcoal filter, and the third was a dust-proof respirator. The frequency of cartridge exchange of a half-mask respirator was twice a day only at one factory, and that was less than once a month at other factories. The site concentrations exceeded 20 ppm at 10 of the 82 sampling points (12.2%), and 22 of the 39 workers' (56.4%) personal exposure exceeded 20 ppm which is the current occupational exposure limit recommended by the Japan Society for Occupational Health. The efficiency of disposable gauze respirators and dust-proof respirators was low or rather zero. The average efficiency of half-mask respirators in which cartridges were exchanged twice a day and once a month was 83.6% and 46.6%, respectively. There was a significant disparity in the efficiency of the respirator depending on the frequency of cartridge exchange (p<0.05). Overall this study showed that even though a half-mask respirator is used and its cartridge is exchanged every half a day, workers exposed to a styrene concentration at or over 122 ppm are expected to inhale more than 20 ppm of styrene.

  11. Alum Adjuvant Enhances Protection against Respiratory Syncytial Virus but Exacerbates Pulmonary Inflammation by Modulating Multiple Innate and Adaptive Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Hye; Lee, Young-Tae; Hwang, Hye Suk; Kwon, Young-Man; Jung, Yu-Jin; Lee, Youri; Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Yu-Na; Park, Soojin; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is well-known for inducing vaccine-enhanced respiratory disease after vaccination of young children with formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) in alum formulation. Here, we investigated alum adjuvant effects on protection and disease after FI-RSV immunization with or without alum in comparison with live RSV reinfections. Despite viral clearance, live RSV reinfections caused weight loss and substantial pulmonary inflammation probably due to high levels of RSV specific IFN-γ+IL4-, IFN-γ-TNF-α+, IFN-γ+TNF-α- effector CD4 and CD8 T cells. Alum adjuvant significantly improved protection as evidenced by effective viral clearance compared to unadjuvanted FI-RSV. However, in contrast to unadjuvanted FI-RSV, alum-adjuvanted FI-RSV (FI-RSV-A) induced severe vaccine-enhanced RSV disease including weight loss, eosinophilia, and lung histopathology. Alum adjuvant in the FI-RSV-A was found to be mainly responsible for inducing high levels of RSV-specific IFN-γ-IL4+, IFN-γ-TNF-α+ CD4+ T cells, and proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-4 as well as B220+ plasmacytoid and CD4+ dendritic cells, and inhibiting the induction of IFN-γ+CD8 T cells. This study suggests that alum adjuvant in FI-RSV vaccines increases immunogenicity and viral clearance but also induces atypical T helper CD4+ T cells and multiple inflammatory dendritic cell subsets responsible for vaccine-enhanced severe RSV disease. PMID:26468884

  12. Differential Gender Response to Respiratory Infections and to the Protective Effect of Breast Milk in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Klein, M. Inés; Bergel, Eduardo; Gibbons, Luz; Coviello, Silvina; Bauer, Gabriela; Benitez, Alicia; Serra, M. Elina; Delgado, M. Florencia; Melendi, Guillermina A.; Rodríguez, Susana; Kleeberger, Steven R.; Polack, Fernando P.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The protective role of breastfeeding against severe acute lung disease in infants is well established, but its mechanism is unclear. Most hypotheses assume that breastfeeding confers similar passive protection to every infant; however, a few observations have suggested that the benefits of breast milk against severe lung disease may differ according to gender. The objective of this study was to determine whether the effect of breastfeeding on susceptibility to severe acute lung disease among infants at high risk is different for girls and boys. METHODS A cohort was analyzed prospectively by use of 2 different strategies: (1) predictors of first episode of rehospitalization by univariate and multivariate analyses using robust Poisson regression and (2) mean number of rehospitalizations between groups using multiple regression negative binomial models. RESULTS A total of 119 high-risk, very low birth weight infants were enrolled. Breast milk protected girls but not boys against severe acute lung disease. The interaction between breastfeeding and gender was clinically and statistically significant, even after adjustment for variables that can affect severity of acute lung disease. Disease was most severe in formula-fed girls (versus formula-fed boys). CONCLUSIONS Breastfeeding decreased the risk for severe acute lung disease in girls but not in boys. These findings suggest that breast milk protection is not universally conferred by passive transfer of humoral immunity (which should be gender indifferent), show that respiratory symptoms may be amenable to nonspecific modulation, and identify nonbreastfed preterm infant girls as an at-risk group for severe acute lung disease. PMID:18519454

  13. Cattle with increased severity of bovine respiratory disease complex exhibit decreased capacity to protect against histone cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Matera, J A; Wilson, B K; Hernandez Gifford, J A; Step, D L; Krehbiel, C R; Gifford, C A

    2015-04-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. Significant inflammation and lesions are often observed in lungs of infected cattle. During acute inflammatory responses, histones contribute to mortality in rodents and humans and serum proteins can protect against histone-induced cytotoxicity. We hypothesized that cattle experiencing chronic or fatal cases of BRDC have reduced ability to protect against cytotoxic effects of histones. Serum samples were collected from 66 bull calves at the time of normal feedlot processing procedures. Animals were retrospectively assigned to groups consisting of calves never treated for BRDC (control [CONT]; n = 10), calves treated with antimicrobials once for BRDC (1T; n = 16), calves treated twice for BRDC (2T; n = 13), calves treated 3 times for BRDC (3T; n = 14), or calves treated 4 times for BRDC (4T; n = 13). Samples were also collected each time animals received antimicrobial treatment; animals within a group were further sorted by calves that recovered and calves that died to test histone cytotoxicity. Bovine kidney cells were cultured in duplicate in 96-well plates and exposed to 0 or 50 μg/mL of total histones for 18 h with 1% serum from each animal. Cell viability was assessed by the addition of resazurin for 6 h followed by fluorescent quantification. Fluorescent values from serum alone were subtracted from values obtained for histone treatment for each animal. Serum from CONT, 1T, and 2T at initial processing all exhibited a similar (P > 0.10) response to histone treatment with fluorescent values of -312 ± 557, -1,059 ± 441, and -975 ± 489, respectively. However, 3T and 4T demonstrated an impaired capacity (P < 0.05) to protect against histones (-2,778 ± 471 and -3,026 ± 489) at initial processing when compared to the other groups. When sorted by mortality within group, calves that were treated twice and recovered (-847 ± 331) demonstrated a greater (P

  14. Protective effect of antibiotics on mortality risk from acute respiratory infections in Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, V M; Koopman, J S; Garrido, F J; Bazúa, L F; Ibarra, J M; Stetler, H C

    1992-01-01

    A case-control study of mortality from acute respiratory infections (ARI) among children under five years of age was conducted in Naucalpan, an urban-suburban area of Mexico City, and in rural localities of Tlaxcala, Mexico. The study found that ARI deaths tended to occur in the poorest neighborhoods; 78% of the deceased study subjects were infants under six months old; and 68% of the deaths occurred at home. Comparison of the data for cases (fatalities) and control children who had severe ARI but recovered showed that failure to receive antibiotics was associated with death (odds ratio 28.5, 95% confidence interval 2.1-393.4). This antibiotic effect was controlled for numerous potentially confounding factors. It is evident that antibiotics had a much greater effect in the early days of the illness than later on. In general, the findings strongly support PAHO/WHO primary health care strategies--including such strategies as standardized management of severe ARI cases--that seek to reduce childhood ARI mortality.

  15. Assaying Benefits of Poly[styrene-4-(trimethylammonium)methyl Triiodide] in Respiratory Protection Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    common laboratory mouse, Mus musculus , and treated and mechanically equivalent untreated filter media to measure infection rates as a function of...to determine viable counts. Data noise in the control experiment prevented drawing a firm conclusion but loss of viability in the aerosol phase ...protection, Triosyn U U U UU 35 Joseph Wander Reset iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Page 1.0 Overview

  16. Chimeric porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus containing shuffled multiple envelope genes confers cross-protection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Tian, Debin; Ni, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Lei; Opriessnig, Tanja; Cao, Dianjun; Piñeyro, Pablo; Yugo, Danielle M; Overend, Christopher; Cao, Qian; Lynn Heffron, C; Halbur, Patrick G; Pearce, Douglas S; Calvert, Jay G; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2015-11-01

    The extensive genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains is a major obstacle for vaccine development. We previously demonstrated that chimeric PRRSVs in which a single envelope gene (ORF3, ORF4, ORF5 or ORF6) was shuffled via DNA shuffling had an improved heterologous cross-neutralizing ability. In this study, we incorporate all of the individually-shuffled envelope genes together in different combinations into an infectious clone backbone of PRRSV MLV Fostera(®) PRRS. Five viable progeny chimeric viruses were rescued, and their growth characteristics were characterized in vitro. In a pilot pig study, two chimeric viruses (FV-SPDS-VR2,FV-SPDS-VR5) were found to induce cross-neutralizing antibodies against heterologous strains. A subsequent vaccination/challenge study in 72 pigs revealed that chimeric virus FV-SPDS-VR2 and parental virus conferred partial cross-protection when challenged with heterologous strains NADC20 or MN184B. The results have important implications for future development of an effective PRRSV vaccine that confers heterologous protection.

  17. AdHu5Ag85A Respiratory Mucosal Boost Immunization Enhances Protection against Pulmonary Tuberculosis in BCG-Primed Non-Human Primates.

    PubMed

    Jeyanathan, Mangalakumari; Shao, Zhongqi; Yu, Xuefeng; Harkness, Robin; Jiang, Rong; Li, Junqiang; Xing, Zhou; Zhu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Persisting high global tuberculosis (TB) morbidity and mortality and poor efficacy of BCG vaccine emphasizes an urgent need for developing effective novel boost vaccination strategies following parenteral BCG priming in humans. Most of the current lead TB vaccine candidates in the global pipeline were developed for parenteral route of immunization. Compelling evidence indicates respiratory mucosal delivery of vaccine to be the most effective way to induce robust local mucosal protective immunity against pulmonary TB. However, despite ample supporting evidence from various animal models, there has been a lack of evidence supporting the safety and protective efficacy of respiratory mucosal TB vaccination in non-human primates (NHP) and humans. By using a rhesus macaque TB model we have evaluated the safety and protective efficacy of a recombinant human serotype 5 adenovirus-based TB vaccine (AdHu5Ag85A) delivered via the respiratory mucosal route. We show that mucosal AdHu5Ag85A boost immunization was safe and well tolerated in parenteral BCG-primed rhesus macaques. A single AdHu5Ag85A mucosal boost immunization in BCG-primed rhesus macaques enhanced the antigen-specific T cell responses. Boost immunization significantly improved the survival and bacterial control following M.tb challenge. Furthermore, TB-related lung pathology and clinical outcomes were lessened in BCG-primed, mucosally boosted animals compared to control animals. Thus, for the first time we show that a single respiratory mucosal boost immunization with a novel TB vaccine enhances protection against pulmonary TB in parenteral BCG-primed NHP. Our study provides the evidence for the protective potential of AdHu5Ag85A as a respiratory mucosal boost TB vaccine for human application.

  18. Attenuated Bordetella pertussis Vaccine Protects against Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease via an IL-17–Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Schnoeller, Corinna; Roux, Xavier; Sawant, Devika; Raze, Dominique; Olszewska, Wieslawa; Locht, Camille

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: We attenuated virulent Bordetella pertussis by genetically eliminating or detoxifying three major toxins. This strain, named BPZE1, is being developed as a possible live nasal vaccine for the prevention of whooping cough. It is immunogenic and safe when given intranasally in adult volunteers. Objectives: Before testing in human infants, we wished to examine the potential effect of BPZE1 on a common pediatric infection (respiratory syncytial virus [RSV]) in a preclinical model. Methods: BPZE1 was administered before or after RSV administration in adult or neonatal mice. Pathogen replication, inflammation, immune cell recruitment, and cytokine responses were measured. Measurements and Main Results: BPZE1 alone did not cause overt disease, but induced efflux of neutrophils into the airway lumen and production of IL-10 and IL-17 by mucosal CD4+ T cells. Given intranasally before RSV infection, BPZE1 markedly attenuated RSV, preventing weight loss, reducing viral load, and attenuating lung cell recruitment. Given neonatally, BPZE1 also protected against RSV-induced weight loss even through to adulthood. Furthermore, it markedly increased IL-17 production by CD4+ T cells and natural killer cells and recruited regulatory cells and neutrophils after virus challenge. Administration of anti–IL-17 antibodies ablated the protective effect of BPZE1 on RSV disease. Conclusions: Rather than enhancing RSV disease, BPZE1 protected against viral infection, modified viral responses, and enhanced natural mucosal resistance. Prevention of RSV infection by BPZE1 seems in part to be caused by induction of IL-17. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01188512). PMID:24261996

  19. Lactobacillus priming of the respiratory tract: heterologous immunity and protection against lethal pneumovirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Crespo, Katia E.; Chan, Calvin C.; Gabryszewski, Stanislaw J.; Percopo, Caroline M.; Rigaux, Peter; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2013-01-01

    We showed previously that wild-type mice primed via intranasal inoculation with live or heat-inactivated Lactobacillus species were fully (100%) protected against the lethal sequelae of infection with the virulent pathogen, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), a response that is associated with diminished expression of proinflammatory cytokines and diminished virus recovery. We show here that 40% of the mice primed with live Lactobacillus survived when PVM challenge was delayed for 5 months. This robust and sustained resistance to PVM infection resulting from prior interaction with an otherwise unrelated microbe is a profound example of heterologous immunity. We undertook the present study in order to understand the nature and unique features of this response. We found that intranasal inoculation with L. reuteri elicited rapid, transient neutrophil recruitment in association with proinflammatory mediators (CXCL1, CCL3, CCL2, CXCL10, TNF-alpha and IL-17A) but not Th1 cytokines. IFNγ does not contribute to survival promoted by Lactobacillus-priming. Live L. reuteri detected in lung tissue underwent rapid clearance, and was undetectable at 24 hrs after inoculation. In contrast, L. reuteri peptidoglycan (PGN) and L. reuteri genomic DNA (gDNA) were detected at 24 and 48 hours after inoculation, respectively. In contrast to live bacteria, intranasal inoculation with isolated L. reuteri gDNA elicited no neutrophil recruitment, had minimal impact on virus recovery and virus-associated production of CCL3, and provided no protection against the negative sequelae of virus infection. Isolated PGN elicited neutrophil recruitment and proinflammatory cytokines but did not promote sustained survival in response to subsequent PVM infection. Overall, further evaluation of the responses leading to Lactobacillus-mediated heterologous immunity may provide insight into novel antiviral preventive modalities. PMID:23274789

  20. Recombinant respiratory syncytial virus lacking secreted glycoprotein G is attenuated, non-pathogenic but induces protective immunity.

    PubMed

    Maher, Caroline F; Hussell, Tracy; Blair, Edward; Ring, Christopher J A; Openshaw, Peter J M

    2004-10-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes intense pulmonary inflammatory responses in some infected infants. The surface attachment protein 'G' of RSV has membrane-bound and secreted forms and shows homology to the CX3C chemokine fractalkine. Using recombinant techniques, we generated replication-competent recombinant clonal RSV expressing normal G proteins ('rRSV') or only the membrane-bound form of G ('Gmem rRSV'). Both recombinants grew well in HEp-2 cells, but after primary intranasal infection in mice, pulmonary Gmem rRSV replication was reduced tenfold compared to parental or rRSV; moreover, CCL2 and CCL5 production was greatly reduced and no apparent disease or pulmonary cellular infiltration was observed. However, Gmem rRSV-infected mice developed good antibody responses and were fully protected against subsequent intranasal challenge with parental virus. Even in mice sensitized to G by cutaneous infection with recombinant vaccinia expressing G, intranasal challenge with Gmem rRSV caused insignificant disease. We conclude that secreted G is a key viral product assisting virus replication in vivo, enhancing CCL2 and CCL5 production and promoting illness. Engineered RSV mutants lacking the ability to secrete G are thus promising vaccine candidates.

  1. The education and practice program for medical students with quantitative and qualitative fit test for respiratory protective equipment

    PubMed Central

    MYONG, Jun-Pyo; BYUN, JunSu; CHO, YounMo; SEO, Hye-Kyung; BAEK, Jung-Eun; KOO, Jung-Wan; KIM, Hyunwook

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis infection is prevalent in Korea and health care workers are vulnerable to tuberculosis infection in the hospital. The aims of this study were to develop and validate an education program that teaches senior medical students how to wear and choose the proper size and type of respiratory protective equipment (RPE), which may help reduce the risk of contracting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) from patients. Overall, 50 senior medical students participated in this education program. Methods of choosing the proper type of RPE, performing a fit check of the RPE, and choosing a suitable mask size were taught by certified instructors using the real-time quantitative fit test (QNFT). The validity of education program was evaluated with qualitative fit test (QLFT) before and after the education as pass or fail. The education program was effective, as shown by the significantly pass rate (increased 30 to 74%) in the QLFT after the education program (p<0.05). Among study participants, changing mask size from medium to small significantly increased the pass rate (p<0.001). Incorporation of this program into the medical school curriculum may help reduce risk of MTB infection in medical students working in the hospital. PMID:26538001

  2. Virus-like nanoparticle and DNA vaccination confers protection against respiratory syncytial virus by modulating innate and adaptive immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Eun-Ju; Kwon, Young-Man; Lee, Jong Seok; Hwang, Hye Suk; Yoo, Si-Eun; Lee, Yu-Na; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Min-Chul; Cho, Min Kyoung; Lee, You Ri; Quan, Fu-Shi; Song, Jae-Min; Lee, Sujin; Moore, Martin L.; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important human pathogen. Expression of virus structural proteins produces self-assembled virus-like nanoparticles (VLP). We investigated immune phenotypes after RSV challenge of immunized mice with VLP containing RSV F and G glycoproteins mixed with F-DNA (FdFG VLP). In contrast to formalin-inactivated RSV (FIRSV) causing vaccination-associated eosinophilia, FdFG VLP immunization induced low bronchoalveolar cellularity, higher ratios of CD11c+ versus CD11b+ phenotypic cells and CD8+ T versus CD4+ T cells secreting interferon (IFN)-γ, T helper type-1 immune responses, and no sign of eosinophilia upon RSV challenge. Furthermore, RSV neutralizing activity, lung viral clearance, and histology results suggest that FdFG VLP can be comparable to live RSV in conferring protection against RSV and in preventing RSV disease. This study provides evidence that a combination of recombinant RSV VLP and plasmid DNA may have a potential anti-RSV prophylactic vaccine inducing balanced innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:25109662

  3. Evaluation of the Survivability of Microorganisms Deposited on Filtering Respiratory Protective Devices under Varying Conditions of Humidity

    PubMed Central

    Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Skóra, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Bioaerosols are common biological factors in work environments, which require routine use of filtering respiratory protective devices (FRPDs). Currently, no studies link humidity changes in the filter materials of such devices, during use, with microorganism survivability. Our aim was to determine the microclimate inside FRPDs, by simulating breathing, and to evaluate microorganism survivability under varying humidity conditions. Breathing was simulated using commercial filtering facepiece respirators in a model system. Polypropylene melt-blown nonwoven fabrics with moisture contents of 40%, 80%, and 200%, were used for assessment of microorganisms survivability. A modified AATCC 100-2004 method was used to measure the survivability of ATCC and NCAIM microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. During simulation relative humidity under the facepiece increased after 7 min of usage to 84%–92% and temperature increased to 29–30 °C. S. aureus survived the best on filter materials with 40%–200% moisture content. A decrease in survivability was observed for E. coli and C. albicans when mass humidity decreased. We found that B. subtilis and A. niger proliferated for 48–72 h of incubation and then died regardless of the moisture content. In conclusion, our tests showed that the survivability of microorganisms on filter materials depends on the amount of accumulated moisture and microorganism type. PMID:26742049

  4. Evaluation of the Survivability of Microorganisms Deposited on Filtering Respiratory Protective Devices under Varying Conditions of Humidity.

    PubMed

    Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Skóra, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-01-04

    Bioaerosols are common biological factors in work environments, which require routine use of filtering respiratory protective devices (FRPDs). Currently, no studies link humidity changes in the filter materials of such devices, during use, with microorganism survivability. Our aim was to determine the microclimate inside FRPDs, by simulating breathing, and to evaluate microorganism survivability under varying humidity conditions. Breathing was simulated using commercial filtering facepiece respirators in a model system. Polypropylene melt-blown nonwoven fabrics with moisture contents of 40%, 80%, and 200%, were used for assessment of microorganisms survivability. A modified AATCC 100-2004 method was used to measure the survivability of ATCC and NCAIM microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. During simulation relative humidity under the facepiece increased after 7 min of usage to 84%-92% and temperature increased to 29-30 °C. S. aureus survived the best on filter materials with 40%-200% moisture content. A decrease in survivability was observed for E. coli and C. albicans when mass humidity decreased. We found that B. subtilis and A. niger proliferated for 48-72 h of incubation and then died regardless of the moisture content. In conclusion, our tests showed that the survivability of microorganisms on filter materials depends on the amount of accumulated moisture and microorganism type.

  5. Exposure to maternal smoking in the first year of life interferes in breast-feeding protective effect against the onset of respiratory allergy from birth to 5 yr.

    PubMed

    Guedes, H T V; Souza, L S F

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction between the exclusive breast-feeding protective effect and the exposure to tobacco smoke at domicile in the first year of life, on the onset of respiratory allergy (asthma and rhinitis) in children until 5 yr of age. This is prospective cohort study, observational, institutional based. Three hundred children born in a public hospital of Salvador-Bahia (Brazil) were followed from birth to 5 yr of age. Data from 268 children at 60 months of life were analyzed. Occurrence of allergic symptoms were studied and correlated with gender, allergic relatives in first degree, exclusive breast-feeding duration, smoking mother, and presence of other smoker at home, considering the first year of life. Exclusive breast-feeding for at least 6 months showed a protection effect against the onset of respiratory allergy in children from birth to 5 yr (p < 0.05); odds ratio (OR): 0.33 (95% CI: 0.18-0.59). Breast-fed children for less then 6 months compared with those breast-fed for 6 months or more, presented a higher risk (OR: 2.34-95% CI: 1.4-3.74) for developing allergic respiratory symptoms just to 5 yr. The protective effect of exclusive prolonged breast-feeding on the onset of respiratory allergy in children from birth until 5 yr was lost when their mothers were smokers (OR: 2.50-95% CI 1.19-5.19). Therefore, the protective effect of breast-feeding in the first year of life on the onset of allergic symptoms until the age of 5 yr was confirmed. This study proposes a confounding effect of maternal smoking on this protection, exposed by a higher risk for present allergic symptoms until the age of 5 yr, in children exclusively breast-fed for 6 months or more, when their mothers smoked.

  6. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  7. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  8. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  9. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  10. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  11. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  12. Region 2: New Jersey Adequate Letter (5/23/2002)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This April 22, 2002 letter from EPA to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection determined 2007 and 2014 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Mobile Source Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal

  13. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  14. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  15. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  16. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  17. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  18. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  19. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  20. Intranasal Protollin(Trademark)/F1-V Vaccine Elicits Respiratory and Serum Antibody Responses and Protects Mice Against Lethal Aerosolized Plague Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-07

    specific serum antibody responses [30]; ironically in this same study, an intranasal prime-boost reg- imen proved that two doses of F1-V plus LT were...Vaccine 24 (2006) 1625–1632 Intranasal ProtollinTM/F1-V vaccine elicits respiratory and serum antibody responses and protects mice against lethal... Intranasal immunization of mice with F1-V formulated with a Proteosome- ased adjuvant (ProtollinTM), elicited high titers of specific IgA in lungs whereas

  1. Intranasal Protollin(Trademark)/F1-V Vaccine Elicits Respiratory and Serum Antibody Responses and Protects Mice Against Lethal Aerosolized Plague Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-29

    elicited modest specific serum antibody responses [30]; ironically in this same study, an intranasal prime-boost reg- imen proved that two doses of...Vaccine 24 (2006) 1625–1632 Intranasal ProtollinTM/F1-V vaccine elicits respiratory and serum antibody responses and protects mice against lethal... Intranasal immunization of mice with F1-V formulated with a Proteosome- ased adjuvant (ProtollinTM), elicited high titers of specific IgA in lungs whereas

  2. Novel recombinant DNA vaccine candidates for human respiratory syncytial virus: Preclinical evaluation of immunogenicity and protection efficiency.

    PubMed

    Farrag, Mohamed A; Amer, Haitham M; Öhlschläger, Peter; Hamad, Maaweya E; Almajhdi, Fahad N

    2017-03-08

    The development of safe and potent vaccines for human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is still a challenge for researchers worldwide. DNA-based immunization is currently a promising approach that has been used to generate human vaccines for different age groups. In this study, novel HRSV DNA vaccine candidates were generated and preclinically tested in BALB/c mice. Three different versions of the codon-optimized HRSV fusion (F) gene were individually cloned into the pPOE vector. The new recombinant vectors either express full-length (pPOE-F), secretory (pPOE-TF), or M282-90 linked (pPOE-FM2) forms of the F protein. Distinctive expression of the F protein was identified in HEp-2 cells transfected with the different recombinant vectors using ELISA and immunofluorescence. Mice immunization verified the potential for recombinant vectors to elicit significant levels of neutralizing antibodies and CD8(+) T-cell lymphocytes. pPOE-TF showed higher levels of gene expression in cell culture and better induction of the humoral and cellular immune responses. Following virus challenge, mice that had been immunized with the recombinant vectors were able to control virus replication and displayed lower inflammation compared with mice immunized with empty pPOE vector or formalin-inactivated HRSV vaccine. Moreover, pulmonary cytokine profiles of mice immunized with the 3 recombinant vectors were similar to those of the mock infected group. In conclusion, recombinant pPOE vectors are promising HRSV vaccine candidates in terms of their safety, immunogenicity and protective efficiency. These data encourage further evaluation in phase I clinical trials.

  3. A Highly Immunogenic and Protective Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Vaccine Based on a Recombinant Measles Virus Vaccine Platform

    PubMed Central

    Malczyk, Anna H.; Kupke, Alexandra; Prüfer, Steffen; Scheuplein, Vivian A.; Hutzler, Stefan; Kreuz, Dorothea; Beissert, Tim; Bauer, Stefanie; Hubich-Rau, Stefanie; Tondera, Christiane; Eldin, Hosam Shams; Schmidt, Jörg; Vergara-Alert, Júlia; Süzer, Yasemin; Seifried, Janna; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Kalinke, Ulrich; Herold, Susanne; Sahin, Ugur; Cichutek, Klaus; Waibler, Zoe; Eickmann, Markus; Becker, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 2012, the first cases of infection with the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) were identified. Since then, more than 1,000 cases of MERS-CoV infection have been confirmed; infection is typically associated with considerable morbidity and, in approximately 30% of cases, mortality. Currently, there is no protective vaccine available. Replication-competent recombinant measles virus (MV) expressing foreign antigens constitutes a promising tool to induce protective immunity against corresponding pathogens. Therefore, we generated MVs expressing the spike glycoprotein of MERS-CoV in its full-length (MERS-S) or a truncated, soluble variant of MERS-S (MERS-solS). The genes encoding MERS-S and MERS-solS were cloned into the vaccine strain MVvac2 genome, and the respective viruses were rescued (MVvac2-CoV-S and MVvac2-CoV-solS). These recombinant MVs were amplified and characterized at passages 3 and 10. The replication of MVvac2-CoV-S in Vero cells turned out to be comparable to that of the control virus MVvac2-GFP (encoding green fluorescent protein), while titers of MVvac2-CoV-solS were impaired approximately 3-fold. The genomic stability and expression of the inserted antigens were confirmed via sequencing of viral cDNA and immunoblot analysis. In vivo, immunization of type I interferon receptor-deficient (IFNAR−/−)-CD46Ge mice with 2 × 105 50% tissue culture infective doses of MVvac2-CoV-S(H) or MVvac2-CoV-solS(H) in a prime-boost regimen induced robust levels of both MV- and MERS-CoV-neutralizing antibodies. Additionally, induction of specific T cells was demonstrated by T cell proliferation, antigen-specific T cell cytotoxicity, and gamma interferon secretion after stimulation of splenocytes with MERS-CoV-S presented by murine dendritic cells. MERS-CoV challenge experiments indicated the protective capacity of these immune responses in vaccinated mice. IMPORTANCE Although MERS-CoV has not yet acquired extensive distribution

  4. Mild hypothermia reduces ventilator-induced lung injury, irrespective of reducing respiratory rate.

    PubMed

    Aslami, Hamid; Kuipers, Maria T; Beurskens, Charlotte J P; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Schultz, Marcus J; Juffermans, Nicole P

    2012-02-01

    In the era of lung-protective mechanical ventilation using limited tidal volumes, higher respiratory rates are applied to maintain adequate minute volume ventilation. However, higher respiratory rates may contribute to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Induced hypothermia reduces carbon dioxide production and might allow for lower respiratory rates during mechanical ventilation. We hypothesized that hypothermia protects from VILI and investigated whether reducing respiratory rates enhance lung protection in an in vivo model of VILI. During 4 h of mechanical ventilation, VILI was induced by tidal volumes of 18 mL/kg in rats, with respiratory rates set at 15 or 10 breaths/min in combination with hypothermia (32°C) or normothermia (37°C). Hypothermia was induced by external cooling. A physiologic model was established. VILI was characterized by increased pulmonary neutrophil influx, protein leak, wet weights, histopathology score, and cytokine levels compared with lung protective mechanical ventilation. Hypothermia decreased neutrophil influx, pulmonary levels, systemic interleukin-6 levels, and histopathology score, and it tended to decrease the pulmonary protein leak. Reducing the respiratory rate in combination with hypothermia did not reduce the parameters of the lung injury. In conclusion, hypothermia protected from lung injury in a physiologic VILI model by reducing inflammation. Decreasing the respiratory rate mildly did not enhance protection.

  5. Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. The Respiratory System The respiratory system is made up of organs ... vessels, and the muscles that enable breathing. The Respiratory System Figure A shows the location of the respiratory ...

  6. An innovative approach to induce cross-protective immunity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in the lungs of pigs through adjuvanted nanotechnology-based vaccination.

    PubMed

    Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Ouyang, Kang; Torrelles, Jordi B; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically devastating respiratory disease of pigs. The disease is caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), an Arterivirus which is a highly mutating RNA virus. Widely used modified live PRRSV vaccines have failed to prevent PRRS outbreaks and reinfections; moreover, safety of the live virus vaccines is questionable. Though poorly immunogenic, inactivated PRRSV vaccine is safe. The PRRSV infects primarily the lung macrophages. Therefore, we attempted to strengthen the immunogenicity of inactivated/killed PRRSV vaccine antigens (KAg), especially in the pig respiratory system, through: 1) entrapping the KAg in biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (NP-KAg); 2) coupling the NP-KAg with a potent mucosal adjuvant, whole cell lysate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb WCL); and 3) delivering the vaccine formulation twice intranasally to growing pigs. We have previously shown that a single dose of NP-KAg partially cleared the challenged heterologous PRRSV. Recently, we reported that NP-KAg coupled with unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared the viremia of challenged heterologous PRRSV. Since PRRSV is primarily a lung disease, our goal in this study was to investigate lung viral load and various immune correlates of protection at the lung mucosal surfaces and its parenchyma in vaccinated heterologous PRRSV-challenged pigs. Our results indicated that out of five different vaccine-adjuvant formulations, the combination of NP-KAg and unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared detectable replicating infective PRRSV with a tenfold reduction in viral RNA load in the lungs, associated with substantially reduced gross and microscopic lung pathology. Immunologically, strong humoral (enhanced virus neutralization titers by high avidity antibodies) and cell-mediated immune responses (augmented population of interferon-γ secreting CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes and reduced secretion of immunosuppressive

  7. Respiratory protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis: quantitative fit test outcomes for five type N95 filtering-facepiece respirators.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kiyoung; Slavcev, Andrea; Nicas, Mark

    2004-01-01

    In preparing to fit test a large workforce, a respirator program manager needs to initially choose respirators that will fit the greatest proportion of employees and achieve the best fits. This article discusses our strategy in selecting respirators from an initial array of seven NIOSH-certified Type N95 filtering-facepiece devices for a respiratory protection program against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) aerosol. The seven respirators were screened based on manufacturer-provided fit test data, comfort, and cost. From these 7 devices, 5 were chosen for quantitative fit testing on 40 subjects who were a convenience sample from a cohort of approximately 30,000 workers scheduled to undergo fit testing. Across the five brands, medium/regular-size respirators fit from 8% to 95% of the subjects; providing another size of the same brand improved the pass rates slightly. Gender was not found to significantly affect fit test pass rates for any respirator brand. Among test panel members, an Aearo Corporation respirator (TC 84A-2630) and a 3M Company respirator (TC 84A-0006) provided the highest overall pass rates of 98% and 90%, respectively. We selected these two brands for fit testing in the larger worker cohort. To date, these two respirators have provided overall pass rates of 98% (1793/1830) and 88% (50/57), respectively, which are similar to the test panel results. Among 1850 individuals who have been fit tested, 1843 (99.6%) have been successfully fitted with one or the other brand. In a separate analysis, we used the test panel pass rates to estimate the reduction in M. tb infection risk afforded by the medium/regular-size of five filtering-facepiece respirators. We posed a low-exposure versus a high-exposure scenario for health care workers and assumed that respirators could be assigned without conducting fit testing, as proposed by many hospital infection control practitioners. Among those who would pass versus fail the fit test, we assumed an average

  8. Maternal immunization with respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein formulated with a novel combination adjuvant provides protection from RSV in newborn lambs.

    PubMed

    Garg, R; Latimer, L; Wang, Y; Simko, E; Gerdts, V; Potter, A; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, S

    2016-01-04

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the causative agent of serious upper and lower respiratory tract infections in newborns and infants. Protection from RSV is crucial for neonates, and maternal immunization is one approach that holds promise for providing immediate protection to young infants against severe RSV infection. We previously reported efficacy of a subunit vaccine consisting of the fusion (F) protein formulated with a novel adjuvant (ΔF/TriAdj) in neonates. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the ΔF/TriAdj as a maternal vaccine. Pregnant ewes were vaccinated intramuscularly with ΔF/TriAdj or PBS six weeks prior to lambing, and re-vaccinated four weeks later, which resulted in transfer of maternal antibodies (MatAbs) to the newborn lambs through the colostrum. Significantly higher levels of RSV ΔF-specific serum IgG were detected in vaccinated pregnant ewes and their lambs when compared to control animals, which revealed that MatAbs were passively transferred to the offspring. All newborn lambs were challenged with RSV at three days of age. After RSV challenge, virus production and lung pathology were significantly lower in lambs that had received passively transferred antibodies than in control animals. These results indicate that maternal immunization with ΔF/TriAdj might be an alternative, safe and effective approach to provide protection against RSV in newborn and young infants.

  9. Intranasal immunization with a replication-deficient adenoviral vector expressing the fusion glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus elicits protective immunity in BALB/c mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Yuanhui; He, Jinsheng; Zheng, Xianxian; Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Xiaobo; Wang, Yan; Xie, Can; Tang, Qian; Wei, Wei; Wang, Min; Song, Jingdong; Qu, Jianguo; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xin; Hong, Tao

    2009-04-17

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a serious pediatric pathogen of the lower respiratory tract worldwide. There is currently no clinically approved vaccine against RSV infection. Recently, it has been shown that a replication-deficient first generation adenoviral vector (FGAd), which encodes modified RSV attachment glycoprotein (G), elicits long-term protective immunity against RSV infection in mice. The major problem in developing such a vaccine is that G protein lacks MHC-I-restricted epitopes. However, RSV fusion glycoprotein (F) is a major cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope in humans and mice, therefore, an FGAd-encoding F (FGAd-F) was constructed and evaluated for its potential as an RSV vaccine in a murine model. Intranasal (i.n.) immunization with FGAd-F generated serum IgG, bronchoalveolar lavage secretory IgA, and RSV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in BALB/c mice, with characteristic balanced or mixed Th1/Th2 CD4+ T-cell responses. Serum IgG was significantly elevated after boosting with i.n. FGAd-F. Upon challenge, i.n. immunization with FGAd-F displayed an effective protective role against RSV infection. These results demonstrate FGAd-F is able to induce effective protective immunity and is a promising vaccine regimen against RSV infection.

  10. Intradermal vaccination with un-adjuvanted sub-unit vaccines triggers skin innate immunity and confers protective respiratory immunity in domestic swine.

    PubMed

    Le Luduec, Jean-Benoît; Debeer, Sabine; Piras, Fabienne; Andréoni, Christine; Boudet, Florence; Laurent, Philippe; Kaiserlian, Dominique; Dubois, Bertrand

    2016-02-10

    Intradermal (ID) vaccination constitutes a promising approach to induce anti-infectious immunity. This route of immunization has mostly been studied with influenza split-virion vaccines. However, the efficacy of ID vaccination for sub-unit vaccines in relation to underlying skin innate immunity remains to be explored for wider application in humans. Relevant animal models that more closely mimic human skin immunity than the widely used mouse models are therefore necessary. Here, we show in domestic swine, which shares striking anatomic and functional properties with human skin, that a single ID delivery of pseudorabies virus (PRV) glycoproteins without added adjuvant is sufficient to trigger adaptive cellular and humoral immune responses, and to confer protection from a lethal respiratory infection with PRV. Analysis of early events at the skin injection site revealed up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes, recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes and accumulation of inflammatory DC. We further show that the sustained induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes results from the combined effects of skin puncture, liquid injection in the dermis and viral antigens. These data highlight that immune protection against respiratory infection can be induced by ID vaccination with a subunit vaccine and reveal that adjuvant requirements are circumvented by the mechanical and antigenic stress caused by ID injection, which triggers innate immunity and mobilization of inflammatory DC at the immunization site. ID vaccination with sub-unit vaccines may thus represent a safe and efficient solution for protection against respiratory infections in swine and possibly also in humans, given the similarity of skin structure and function in both species.

  11. Protection against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Infection through Passive Transfer of PRRSV-Neutralizing Antibodies Is Dose Dependent▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, O. J.; Oliveira, M. F.; Garcia, E. Alvarez; Kwon, B. J.; Doster, A.; Osorio, F. A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that passive transfer of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-neutralizing antibodies (NA) protected pregnant sows against reproductive failure and conferred sterilizing immunity in sows and offspring. We report here on the dose requirement for protection by passive transfer with NA in young weaned pigs. The presence of a 1:8 titer of PRRSV-NA in serum consistently protected pigs against viremia. Nevertheless, their lungs, tonsils, buffy coat cells, and peripheral lymph nodes contained replicating PRRSV similar to the infected control group. Likewise, these animals excreted infectious virus to sentinels similar to the infectivity control animals. In an attempt to reach complete protective immunity equivalent to that previously observed in sows, the pigs were transferred with a higher titer of PRRSV-NA (1:32), and even then apparent sterilizing immunity was attained in only 50% of the animals. In conclusion, the presence of anti-PRRSV-NA in serum with a titer of 1:8 is enough to block viremia but not peripheral tissue seeding and transmission to contact animals. While a relatively low level of NA in blood is capable of conferring sterilizing immunity against PRRSV in sows, the amount of NA necessary to obtain full protection of a young weaned pig would be significantly higher, suggesting that differences exist in the PRRSV pathogenesis between both age groups. In addition, the titer of NA could be a helpful parameter of protection in the assessment of PRRSV vaccines. PMID:17215336

  12. Sublingual administration of a helper-dependent adenoviral vector expressing the codon-optimized soluble fusion glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial virus elicits protective immunity in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuan-hui; Jiao, Yue-Ying; He, Jin-sheng; Giang, Gui-Yuan; Zhang, Wei; Yan, Yi-Fei; Ma, Yao; Hua, Ying; Zhang, Ying; Peng, Xiang-Lei; Shi, Chang-Xin; Hong, Tao

    2014-05-01

    Sublingual (s.l.) immunization has been described as a convenient and safe way to induce mucosal immune responses in the respiratory and genital tracts. We constructed a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector expressing a condon-optimized soluble fusion glycoprotein (sFsyn) of respiratory syncytial virus (HDAd-sFsyn) and explored the potential of s.l. immunization with HDAd-sFsyn to stimulate immune responses in the respiratory mucosa. The RSV specific systemic and mucosal immune responses were generated in BALB/c mice, and the serum IgG with neutralizing activity was significantly elevated after homologous boost with s.l. application of HDAd-sFsyn. Humoral immune responses could be measured even 14weeks after a single immunization. Upon challenge, s.l. immunization with HDAd-sFsyn displayed an effective protection against RSV infection. These findings suggest that s.l. administration of HDAd-sFsyn acts as an effective and safe mucosal vaccine against RSV infection, and may be a useful tool in the prevention of RSV infection.

  13. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  14. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  15. An innovative approach to induce cross-protective immunity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in the lungs of pigs through adjuvanted nanotechnology-based vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Ouyang, Kang; Torrelles, Jordi B; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically devastating respiratory disease of pigs. The disease is caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), an Arterivirus which is a highly mutating RNA virus. Widely used modified live PRRSV vaccines have failed to prevent PRRS outbreaks and reinfections; moreover, safety of the live virus vaccines is questionable. Though poorly immunogenic, inactivated PRRSV vaccine is safe. The PRRSV infects primarily the lung macrophages. Therefore, we attempted to strengthen the immunogenicity of inactivated/killed PRRSV vaccine antigens (KAg), especially in the pig respiratory system, through: 1) entrapping the KAg in biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (NP-KAg); 2) coupling the NP-KAg with a potent mucosal adjuvant, whole cell lysate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb WCL); and 3) delivering the vaccine formulation twice intranasally to growing pigs. We have previously shown that a single dose of NP-KAg partially cleared the challenged heterologous PRRSV. Recently, we reported that NP-KAg coupled with unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared the viremia of challenged heterologous PRRSV. Since PRRSV is primarily a lung disease, our goal in this study was to investigate lung viral load and various immune correlates of protection at the lung mucosal surfaces and its parenchyma in vaccinated heterologous PRRSV-challenged pigs. Our results indicated that out of five different vaccine-adjuvant formulations, the combination of NP-KAg and unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared detectable replicating infective PRRSV with a tenfold reduction in viral RNA load in the lungs, associated with substantially reduced gross and microscopic lung pathology. Immunologically, strong humoral (enhanced virus neutralization titers by high avidity antibodies) and cell-mediated immune responses (augmented population of interferon-γ secreting CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes and reduced secretion of immunosuppressive

  16. Protection and mechanism of action of a novel human respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate based on the extracellular domain of small hydrophobic protein

    PubMed Central

    Schepens, Bert; Sedeyn, Koen; Vande Ginste, Liesbeth; De Baets, Sarah; Schotsaert, Michael; Roose, Kenny; Houspie, Lieselot; Van Ranst, Marc; Gilbert, Brian; van Rooijen, Nico; Fiers, Walter; Piedra, Pedro; Saelens, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Infections with human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) occur globally in all age groups and can have devastating consequences in young infants. We demonstrate that a vaccine based on the extracellular domain (SHe) of the small hydrophobic (SH) protein of HRSV, reduced viral replication in challenged laboratory mice and in cotton rats. We show that this suppression of viral replication can be transferred by serum and depends on a functional IgG receptor compartment with a major contribution of FcγRI and FcγRIII. Using a conditional cell depletion method, we provide evidence that alveolar macrophages are involved in the protection by SHe-specific antibodies. HRSV-infected cells abundantly express SH on the cell surface and are likely the prime target of the humoral immune response elicited by SHe-based vaccination. Finally, natural infection of humans and experimental infection of mice or cotton rats does not induce a strong immune response against HRSV SHe. Using SHe as a vaccine antigen induces immune protection against HRSV by a mechanism that differs from the natural immune response and from other HRSV vaccination strategies explored to date. Hence, HRSV vaccine candidates that aim at inducing protective neutralizing antibodies or T-cell responses could be complemented with a SHe-based antigen to further improve immune protection. PMID:25298406

  17. Protection and mechanism of action of a novel human respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate based on the extracellular domain of small hydrophobic protein.

    PubMed

    Schepens, Bert; Sedeyn, Koen; Vande Ginste, Liesbeth; De Baets, Sarah; Schotsaert, Michael; Roose, Kenny; Houspie, Lieselot; Van Ranst, Marc; Gilbert, Brian; van Rooijen, Nico; Fiers, Walter; Piedra, Pedro; Saelens, Xavier

    2014-11-01

    Infections with human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) occur globally in all age groups and can have devastating consequences in young infants. We demonstrate that a vaccine based on the extracellular domain (SHe) of the small hydrophobic (SH) protein of HRSV, reduced viral replication in challenged laboratory mice and in cotton rats. We show that this suppression of viral replication can be transferred by serum and depends on a functional IgG receptor compartment with a major contribution of FcγRI and FcγRIII. Using a conditional cell depletion method, we provide evidence that alveolar macrophages are involved in the protection by SHe-specific antibodies. HRSV-infected cells abundantly express SH on the cell surface and are likely the prime target of the humoral immune response elicited by SHe-based vaccination. Finally, natural infection of humans and experimental infection of mice or cotton rats does not induce a strong immune response against HRSV SHe. Using SHe as a vaccine antigen induces immune protection against HRSV by a mechanism that differs from the natural immune response and from other HRSV vaccination strategies explored to date. Hence, HRSV vaccine candidates that aim at inducing protective neutralizing antibodies or T-cell responses could be complemented with a SHe-based antigen to further improve immune protection.

  18. Baculovirus expression of proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strain Olot/91. Involvement of ORF3 and ORF5 proteins in protection.

    PubMed

    Plana Duran, J; Climent, I; Sarraseca, J; Urniza, A; Cortés, E; Vela, C; Casal, J I

    1997-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a new arterivirus that has spread rapidly all around the world in the last few years. The genomic region containing open reading frames (ORFs) 2 to 7 of PRRSV Spanish isolate Olot/91 was cloned and sequenced. The genomic sequence shared 95% identity with Lelystad and Tübingen isolates and between 61-64% with the ORF7 region of the American isolates. ORFs 2 to 7 were inserted into recombinant baculoviruses downstream of the polyhedrin promoter. Only ORFs 2, 3 5 and 7 were expressed in insect cells as detected by PRRS-specific pig antisera. To analyze the immunogenicity of these proteins and their ability to confer protection, Sf9 cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses expressing ORFs 3, 5 and 7 gene products were used to immunize pregnant sows, either individually or in combination. The results obtained indicate that ORFs 3 and 5 gene products could be major candidates for the development of a vaccine against PRRS since they conferred 68.4 and 50% protection, respectively, as evaluated by the number of piglets born alive and healthy at the time of weaning. In addition, piglets born to sows immunized with ORFs 3 and 5 proteins were seronegative to PRRSV after weaning, indicating absence of viral replication. ORF7 is the most immunogenic protein of PRRSV, but the antibodies induced in sows are non-protective and may even interfere with protection.

  19. Adjuvanted poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticle-entrapped inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine elicits cross-protective immune response in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Ouyang, Kang; Wu, Yun; Lee, Ly James; Torrelles, Jordi B; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), is an economically devastating disease, causing daily losses of approximately $3 million to the US pork industry. Current vaccines have failed to completely prevent PRRS outbreaks. Recently, we have shown that poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticle-entrapped inactivated PRRSV vaccine (NP-KAg) induces a cross-protective immune response in pigs. To further improve its cross-protective efficacy, the NP-KAg vaccine formulation was slightly modified, and pigs were coadministered the vaccine twice intranasally with a potent adjuvant: Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole-cell lysate. In vaccinated virulent heterologous PRRSV-challenged pigs, the immune correlates in the blood were as follows: 1) enhanced PRRSV-specific antibody response with enhanced avidity of both immunoglobulin (Ig)-G and IgA isotypes, associated with augmented virus-neutralizing antibody titers; 2) comparable and increased levels of virus-specific IgG1 and IgG2 antibody subtypes and production of high levels of both T-helper (Th)-1 and Th2 cytokines, indicative of a balanced Th1–Th2 response; 3) suppressed immunosuppressive cytokine response; 4) increased frequency of interferon-γ+ lymphocyte subsets and expanded population of antigen-presenting cells; and most importantly 5) complete clearance of detectable replicating challenged heterologous PRRSV and close to threefold reduction in viral ribonucleic acid load detected in the blood. In conclusion, intranasal delivery of adjuvanted NP-KAg vaccine formulation to growing pigs elicited a broadly cross-protective immune response, showing the potential of this innovative vaccination strategy to prevent PRRS outbreaks in pigs. A similar approach to control other respiratory diseases in food animals and humans appears to be feasible. PMID:24493925

  20. Respiratory acidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory Images Respiratory system References Effros RM, Swenson ER. Acid-base balance. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  1. A Double-Inactivated Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Vaccine Provides Incomplete Protection in Mice and Induces Increased Eosinophilic Proinflammatory Pulmonary Response upon Challenge▿

    PubMed Central

    Bolles, Meagan; Deming, Damon; Long, Kristin; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Whitmore, Alan; Ferris, Martin; Funkhouser, William; Gralinski, Lisa; Totura, Allison; Heise, Mark; Baric, Ralph S.

    2011-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is an important emerging virus that is highly pathogenic in aged populations and is maintained with great diversity in zoonotic reservoirs. While a variety of vaccine platforms have shown efficacy in young-animal models and against homologous viral strains, vaccine efficacy has not been thoroughly evaluated using highly pathogenic variants that replicate the acute end stage lung disease phenotypes seen during the human epidemic. Using an adjuvanted and an unadjuvanted double-inactivated SARS-CoV (DIV) vaccine, we demonstrate an eosinophilic immunopathology in aged mice comparable to that seen in mice immunized with the SARS nucleocapsid protein, and poor protection against a nonlethal heterologous challenge. In young and 1-year-old animals, we demonstrate that adjuvanted DIV vaccine provides protection against lethal disease in young animals following homologous and heterologous challenge, although enhanced immune pathology and eosinophilia are evident following heterologous challenge. In the absence of alum, DIV vaccine performed poorly in young animals challenged with lethal homologous or heterologous strains. In contrast, DIV vaccines (both adjuvanted and unadjuvanted) performed poorly in aged-animal models. Importantly, aged animals displayed increased eosinophilic immune pathology in the lungs and were not protected against significant virus replication. These data raise significant concerns regarding DIV vaccine safety and highlight the need for additional studies of the molecular mechanisms governing DIV-induced eosinophilia and vaccine failure, especially in the more vulnerable aged-animal models of human disease. PMID:21937658

  2. Alveolar macrophages contribute to the pathogenesis of human metapneumovirus infection while protecting against respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    PubMed

    Kolli, Deepthi; Gupta, Meera R; Sbrana, Elena; Velayutham, Thangam S; Chao, Hong; Casola, Antonella; Garofalo, Roberto P

    2014-10-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are leading causes of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in young children and among elderly and immunocompromised patients. The pathogenesis of hMPV-induced lung disease is poorly understood. The lung macrophage population consists of alveolar macrophages (AMs) residing at the luminal surface of alveoli and interstitial macrophages present within the parenchymal lung interstitium. The involvement of AMs in innate immune responses to virus infections remains elusive. In this study, BALB/c mice depleted of AMs by intranasal instillation of dichloromethylene bisphosphonate (L-CL2MBP) liposomes were examined for disease, lung inflammation, and viral replication after infection with hMPV or RSV. hMPV-infected mice lacking AMs exhibited improved disease in terms of body weight loss, lung inflammation, airway obstruction, and hyperresponsiveness compared with AM-competent mice. AM depletion was associated with significantly reduced hMPV titers in the lungs, suggesting that hMPV required AMs for early entry and replication in the lung. In contrast, AM depletion in the context of RSV infection was characterized by an increase in viral replication, worsened disease, and inflammation, with increased airway neutrophils and inflammatory dendritic cells. Overall, lack of AMs resulted in a broad-spectrum disruption in type I IFN and certain inflammatory cytokine production, including TNF and IL-6, while causing a virus-specific alteration in the profile of several immunomodulatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Our study demonstrates that AMs have distinct roles in the context of human infections caused by members of the Paramyxoviridae family.

  3. Protective and Pathologic Roles of the Immune Response to Mouse Hepatitis Virus Type 1: Implications for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome▿

    PubMed Central

    Khanolkar, Aaruni; Hartwig, Stacey M.; Haag, Brayton A.; Meyerholz, David K.; Epping, Lecia L.; Haring, Jodie S.; Varga, Steven M.; Harty, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Intranasal mouse hepatitis virus type 1 (MHV-1) infection of mice induces lung pathology similar to that observed in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) patients. However, the severity of MHV-1-induced pulmonary disease varies among mouse strains, and it has been suggested that differences in the host immune response might account for this variation. It has also been suggested that immunopathology may represent an important clinical feature of SARS. Little is known about the host immune response to MHV-1 and how it might contribute to some of the pathological changes detected in infected mice. In this study we show that an intact type I interferon system and the adaptive immune responses are required for controlling MHV-1 replication and preventing morbidity and mortality in resistant C57BL/6J mice after infection. The NK cell response also helps minimize the severity of illness following MHV-1 infection of C57BL/6J mice. In A/J and C3H/HeJ mice, which are highly susceptible to MHV-1-induced disease, we demonstrate that both CD4 and CD8 T cells contribute to morbidity during primary infection, and memory responses can enhance morbidity and mortality during subsequent reexposure to MHV-1. However, morbidity in A/J and C3H/HeJ mice can be minimized by treating them with immune serum prior to MHV-1 infection. Overall, our findings highlight the role of the host immune response in contributing to the pathogenesis of coronavirus-induced respiratory disease. PMID:19570864

  4. Impaired Antibody-mediated Protection and Defective IgA B-Cell Memory in Experimental Infection of Adults with Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Maximillian S.; Jozwik, Agnieszka; Makris, Spyridon; Dunning, Jake; Paras, Allan; DeVincenzo, John P.; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.; Wrammert, Jens; Openshaw, Peter J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Despite relative antigenic stability, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) reinfects throughout life. After more than 40 years of research, no effective human vaccine exists and correlates of protection remain poorly defined. Most current vaccine candidates seek to induce high levels of RSV-specific serum neutralizing antibodies, which are associated with reduced RSV-related hospitalization rates in observational studies but may not actually prevent infection. Objectives: To characterize correlates of protection from infection and the generation of RSV-specific humoral memory to promote effective vaccine development. Methods: We inoculated 61 healthy adults with live RSV and studied protection from infection by serum and mucosal antibody. We analyzed RSV-specific peripheral blood plasmablast and memory B-cell frequencies and antibody longevity. Measurements and Main Results: Despite moderately high levels of preexisting serum antibody, 34 (56%) became infected, of whom 23 (68%) developed symptomatic colds. Prior RSV-specific nasal IgA correlated significantly more strongly with protection from polymerase chain reaction–confirmed infection than serum neutralizing antibody. Increases in virus-specific antibody titers were variable and transient in infected subjects but correlated with plasmablasts that peaked around Day 10. During convalescence, only IgG (and no IgA) RSV-specific memory B cells were detectable in peripheral blood. This contrasted with natural influenza infection, in which virus-specific IgA memory B cells were readily recovered. Conclusions: This observed specific defect in IgA memory may partly explain the ability of RSV to cause recurrent symptomatic infections. If so, vaccines able to induce durable RSV-specific IgA responses may be more protective than those generating systemic antibody alone. PMID:25730467

  5. Simple respiratory protection--evaluation of the filtration performance of cloth masks and common fabric materials against 20-1000 nm size particles.

    PubMed

    Rengasamy, Samy; Eimer, Benjamin; Shaffer, Ronald E

    2010-10-01

    A shortage of disposable filtering facepiece respirators can be expected during a pandemic respiratory infection such as influenza A. Some individuals may want to use common fabric materials for respiratory protection because of shortage or affordability reasons. To address the filtration performance of common fabric materials against nano-size particles including viruses, five major categories of fabric materials including sweatshirts, T-shirts, towels, scarves, and cloth masks were tested for polydisperse and monodisperse aerosols (20-1000 nm) at two different face velocities (5.5 and 16.5 cm s⁻¹) and compared with the penetration levels for N95 respirator filter media. The results showed that cloth masks and other fabric materials tested in the study had 40-90% instantaneous penetration levels against polydisperse NaCl aerosols employed in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health particulate respirator test protocol at 5.5 cm s⁻¹. Similarly, varying levels of penetrations (9-98%) were obtained for different size monodisperse NaCl aerosol particles in the 20-1000 nm range. The penetration levels of these fabric materials against both polydisperse and monodisperse aerosols were much higher than the penetrations for the control N95 respirator filter media. At 16.5 cm s⁻¹ face velocity, monodisperse aerosol penetrations slightly increased, while polydisperse aerosol penetrations showed no significant effect except one fabric mask with an increase. Results obtained in the study show that common fabric materials may provide marginal protection against nanoparticles including those in the size ranges of virus-containing particles in exhaled breath.

  6. Vaccination against bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Phillip, J I

    1975-01-01

    Vaccination is but one element in a control programme for bovine respiratory disease. Its laboratory study can be divorced from the others but its field application cannot. The problems associated with the development of effective vaccines fall into two broad groups: multiplicity and ubiquity of pathogens and secondly the identification of the crucial elements in an immune response. Agricultural systems which experience annual outbreaks of respiratory disease attributable to the same pathogen in cattle of specific age have the choice of using passive or active immunity of minimal valency. In the majority of systems the cause and timing of an outbreak cannot be predicted and therefore multivalent vaccines are required. Both inactivated and modified live products are available for use against the well-known pathogens. Their relative advantages hinge on the significance attributed to the ability to stimulate the production of particular immunoglobulins at specific body sites and the persistence of the responses. The widely held view that success requires the stimulation of secretory antibodies by intranasal administration of living vaccines is not universally accepted. An assessment of their protective value is not easily made because of the difficulty of reproducing an adequate field challenge in the laboratory. The measurement of serological responses and virus shedding times following challenge are of limited value as alternatives.

  7. 5 CFR 919.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate evidence. 919.900 Section 919.900 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.900 Adequate...

  8. Will the new Australian health privacy law provide adequate protection?

    PubMed

    Bomba, David; Hallit, George

    2002-01-01

    Amendments to the original Privacy Act (1988) come at a key point in time, as a national medical record system looms on the Australian horizon. Changes to The Privacy Act have the potential to define a level of information privacy prior to the implementation of such a system. We have therefore collected expert opinions on the ability of the Health Privacy Guidelines (enacted in December 2001 under The Privacy Act and hereafter more specifically known as Health Privacy Legislation) to ensure the privacy and security of patient information. We conclude that the legislation is flawed in its capacity to withstand an increasingly corporatised health sector. Deficiencies in consent requirements, together with feeble enforcement capabilities, mean The Legislation cannot effectively ensure that personally identifiable information will not end up in corporate third party hands. To significantly bolster the new legislation, we argue that it should be supplemented with explicit health data legislation and privacy auditing.

  9. Efficient lung recruitment of respiratory syncytial virus-specific Th1 cells induced by recombinant bacillus Calmette-Guérin promotes virus clearance and protects from infection.

    PubMed

    Cautivo, Kelly M; Bueno, Susan M; Cortes, Claudia M; Wozniak, Aniela; Riedel, Claudia A; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2010-12-15

    Infection by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause extensive inflammation and lung damage in susceptible hosts due to a Th2-biased immune response. Such a deleterious inflammatory response can be enhanced by immunization with formalin- or UV-inactivated RSV, as well as with vaccinia virus expressing the RSV-G protein. Recently, we have shown that vaccination with rBCG-expressing RSV Ags can prevent the disease in the mouse. To further understand the immunological mechanisms responsible for protection against RSV, we have characterized the T cell populations contributing to virus clearance in mice immunized with this BCG-based vaccine. We found that both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were recruited significantly earlier to the lungs of infected mice that were previously vaccinated. Furthermore, we observed that simultaneous adoptive transfer of CD8(+) and CD4(+) RSV-specific T cells from vaccinated mice was required to confer protection against virus infection in naive recipients. In addition, CD4(+) T cells induced by vaccination released IFN-γ after RSV challenge, indicating that protection is mediated by a Th1 immune response. These data suggest that vaccination with rBCG-expressing RSV Ags can induce a specific effector/memory Th1 immune response consisting on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, both necessary for a fully protective response against RSV. These results support the notion that an effective induction of Th1 T cell immunity against RSV during childhood could counteract the unbalanced Th2-like immune response triggered by the natural RSV infection.

  10. Recombinant swine beta interferon protects swine alveolar macrophages and MARC-145 cells from infection with Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Overend, C; Mitchell, R; He, D; Rompato, G; Grubman, M J; Garmendia, A E

    2007-03-01

    Swine beta interferon (swIFN-beta) produced in HEK 293 cells infected with a recombinant, replication-defective human adenovirus 5 (Ad5) encoding the swIFN-beta gene was tested for antiviral activity against Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). MARC-145 cells were incubated overnight with dilutions of supernatant fluids from HEK 293 cells infected with Ad5-swIFN-beta or with an Ad5 control virus (Ad5-Blue). Treated cells were infected with PRRSV; MARC-145 cells incubated with Ad5-Blue supernatants developed cytopathic effects (CPE), whereas those incubated with swIFN-beta showed no CPE. To confirm the antiviral activity of swIFN-beta, culture fluids from Ad5-swIFN-beta-infected cells were affinity-purified on a Sepharose-anti-swIFN-beta matrix, and the resulting fractions exhibited antiviral activity upon infection with PRRSV. The antiviral effects were specific, as they were blocked by mAbs against swIFN-beta. Additional cultures of MARC-145 cells treated with swIFN-beta-containing supernatants or affinity-purified swIFN-beta were infected with PRRSV and tested by real-time RT-PCR for viral RNA in culture supernatants at various times post-inoculation. These experiments confirmed the protective effects of swIFN-beta. swIFN-beta was also tested for antiviral activity on porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage from PRRSV-negative swine. PAMs were treated with dilutions of swIFN-beta or Ad5-Blue culture fluids, infected with PRRSV and tested for viral RNA by real-time RT-PCR. The viral load data showed a dose-dependent protection in swIFN-beta-treated PAMs, whereas no protection was evident from Ad5-Blue culture fluids. The data demonstrate that swIFN-beta protects both MARC-145 cells and PAMs from PRRSV infection.

  11. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  12. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  13. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  14. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  15. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  16. Sublingual administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus affects respiratory immune responses and facilitates protection against influenza virus infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Na; Youn, Ha-Na; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Park, Jae-Keun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Kim, Ki-Taek; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2013-05-01

    The extensive morbidity and mortality caused by influenza A viruses worldwide prompts the need for a deeper understanding of the host immune response and novel therapeutic and/or prophylactic interventions. In this study, we assessed the sublingual route as an effective means of delivering probiotics against influenza virus in mice. In addition, IgA levels, NK cell activity, T cell activation, and cytokine profiles in the lungs were examined to understand the mechanism underlying this protective effect. Sublingual administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus provided enhanced protection against influenza virus infection by enhancing mucosal secretory IgA production, and T and NK cell activity. Moreover, interleukin (IL)-12 levels in the lungs increased significantly. Conversely, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels in the lungs decreased significantly. On the basis of these promising findings, we propose that the sublingual mucosal route is an attractive alternative to mucosal routes for administering probiotics against influenza virus.

  17. Respiratory papillomas

    PubMed Central

    Alagusundaramoorthy, Sayee Sundar; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Papillomas are known to occur in the lower respiratory tract. They are however, rare compared to their occurrence in the upper respiratory tract. These are generally exophytic tumors in the more proximal upper airways however cases with more distal location with an inverted growth pattern have also been described in the literature. These can be solitary or multiple and multifocality associated with multiple papillomas in the upper respiratory/aerodigestive tract. The four major types of respiratory papillomas are (1) Recurrent respiratory papillomas, (2) solitary squamous papillomas, (3) solitary glandular papillomas, (4) mixed papillomas. We review the incidence, etiopathology, diagnosis, and possible treatment modalities and algorithms for these respiratory papillomas. PMID:27625447

  18. Combined virus-like particle and fusion protein-encoding DNA vaccination of cotton rats induces protection against respiratory syncytial virus without causing vaccine-enhanced disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Park, Soojin; Kwon, Young-Man; Lee, Youri; Ko, Eun-Ju; Jung, Yu-Jin; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Yu-Jin; Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Cho, Minkyoung; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2016-07-15

    A safe and effective vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) should confer protection without causing vaccine-enhanced disease. Here, using a cotton rat model, we investigated the protective efficacy and safety of an RSV combination vaccine composed of F-encoding plasmid DNA and virus-like particles containing RSV fusion (F) and attachment (G) glycoproteins (FFG-VLP). Cotton rats with FFG-VLP vaccination controlled lung viral replication below the detection limit, and effectively induced neutralizing activity and antibody-secreting cell responses. In comparison with formalin inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) causing severe RSV disease after challenge, FFG-VLP vaccination did not cause weight loss, airway hyper-responsiveness, IL-4 cytokines, histopathology, and infiltrates of proinflammatory cells such as eosinophils. FFG-VLP was even more effective in preventing RSV-induced pulmonary inflammation than live RSV infections. This study provides evidence that FFG-VLP can be developed into a safe and effective RSV vaccine candidate. - Highlights: • Combined RSV FFG VLP vaccine is effective in inducing F specific responses. • FFG VLP vaccine confers RSV neutralizing activity and viral control in cotton rats. • Cotton rats with RSV FFG VLP vaccination do not show vaccine-enhanced disease. • Cotton rats with FFG VLP vaccine induce F specific antibody secreting cell responses. • Cotton rats with FFG VLP do not induce lung cellular infiltrates and Th2 cytokine.

  19. Respiratory Failure

    MedlinePlus

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can' ...

  20. Respiratory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  1. Co-immunization with virus-like particle and DNA vaccines induces protection against respiratory syncytial virus infection and bronchiolitis

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hye Suk; Kwon, Young-Man; Lee, Jong Seok; Yoo, Si-Eun; Lee, Yu-Na; Ko, Eun-Ju; Kim, Min-Chul; Cho, Min-Kyoung; Lee, Young-Tae; Jung, Yu-Jin; Lee, Ji-Yun; Li, Jian Dong; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates that immunization with non-replicating virus-like particle (FFG VLP) containing RSV F and G glycoproteins together with RSV F DNA induced T helper type 1 antibody responses to RSV F similar to live RSV infection. Upon RSV challenge 21 weeks after immunization, FFG VLP vaccination induced protection against RSV infection as shown by clearance of lung viral loads, and the absence of eosinophil infiltrates, and did not cause lung pathology. In contrast, formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) vaccination showed significant pulmonary eosinophilia, severe mucus production, and extensive histopathology resulting in a hallmark of pulmonary pathology. Substantial lung pathology was also observed in mice with RSV re-infections. High levels of systemic and local inflammatory cytokine-secreting cells were induced in mice with FI-RSV but not with FFG VLP immunization after RSV challenge. Therefore, the results provide evidence that recombinant RSV FFG VLP vaccine can confer long-term protection against RSV without causing lung pathology. PMID:25110201

  2. Intranasal Immunization with an Archaeal Lipid Mucosal Vaccine Adjuvant and Delivery Formulation Protects against a Respiratory Pathogen Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Girishchandra B.; Zhou, Hongyan; Ponce, Amalia; Harris, Greg; Chen, Wangxue

    2010-01-01

    Archaeal lipid mucosal vaccine adjuvant and delivery (AMVAD) is a safe mucosal adjuvant that elicits long lasting and memory boostable mucosal and systemic immune responses to model antigens such as ovalbumin. In this study, we evaluated the potential of the AMVAD system for eliciting protective immunity against mucosal bacterial infections, using a mouse model of intranasal Francisella tularensis LVS (LVS) challenge. Intranasal immunization of mice with cell free extract of LVS (LVSCE) adjuvanted with the AMVAD system (LVSCE/AMVAD) induced F. tularensis-specific antibody responses in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, as well as antigen-specific splenocyte proliferation and IL-17 production. More importantly, the AMVAD vaccine partially protected the mice against a lethal intranasal challenge with LVS. Compared to LVSCE immunized and naïve mice, the LVSCE/AMVAD immunized mice showed substantial to significant reduction in pathogen burdens in the lungs and spleens, reduced serum and pulmonary levels of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, and longer mean time to death as well as significantly higher survival rates (p<0.05). These results suggest that the AMVAD system is a promising mucosal adjuvant and vaccine delivery technology, and should be explored further for its applications in combating mucosal infectious diseases. PMID:21206916

  3. Co-immunization with virus-like particle and DNA vaccines induces protection against respiratory syncytial virus infection and bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hye Suk; Kwon, Young-Man; Lee, Jong Seok; Yoo, Si-Eun; Lee, Yu-Na; Ko, Eun-Ju; Kim, Min-Chul; Cho, Min-Kyoung; Lee, Young-Tae; Jung, Yu-Jin; Lee, Ji-Yun; Li, Jian-Dong; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2014-10-01

    This study demonstrates that immunization with non-replicating virus-like particle (FFG VLP) containing RSV F and G glycoproteins together with RSV F DNA induced T helper type 1 antibody responses to RSV F similar to live RSV infection. Upon RSV challenge 21weeks after immunization, FFG VLP vaccination induced protection against RSV infection as shown by clearance of lung viral loads, and the absence of eosinophil infiltrates, and did not cause lung pathology. In contrast, formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) vaccination showed significant pulmonary eosinophilia, severe mucus production, and extensive histopathology resulting in a hallmark of pulmonary pathology. Substantial lung pathology was also observed in mice with RSV re-infections. High levels of systemic and local inflammatory cytokine-secreting cells were induced in mice with FI-RSV but not with FFG VLP immunization after RSV challenge. Therefore, the results provide evidence that recombinant RSV FFG VLP vaccine can confer long-term protection against RSV without causing lung pathology.

  4. Respiratory alkalosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... shortness of breath. Alternative Names Alkalosis - respiratory Images Respiratory system References Effros RM, Swenson ER. Acid-base balance. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  5. A Recombinant Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Candidate Attenuated by a Low-Fusion F Protein Is Immunogenic and Protective against Challenge in Cotton Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rostad, Christina A.; Stobart, Christopher C.; Gilbert, Brian E.; Pickles, Ray J.; Hotard, Anne L.; Meng, Jia; Blanco, Jorge C. G.; Moin, Syed M.; Graham, Barney S.; Piedra, Pedro A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants, a safe and effective vaccine is not yet available. Live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs) are the most advanced vaccine candidates in RSV-naive infants. However, designing an LAV with appropriate attenuation yet sufficient immunogenicity has proven challenging. In this study, we implemented reverse genetics to address these obstacles with a multifaceted LAV design that combined the codon deoptimization of genes for nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS2 (dNS), deletion of the small hydrophobic protein (ΔSH) gene, and replacement of the wild-type fusion (F) protein gene with a low-fusion RSV subgroup B F consensus sequence of the Buenos Aires clade (BAF). This vaccine candidate, RSV-A2-dNS-ΔSH-BAF (DB1), was attenuated in two models of primary human airway epithelial cells and in the upper and lower airways of cotton rats. DB1 was also highly immunogenic in cotton rats and elicited broadly neutralizing antibodies against a diverse panel of recombinant RSV strains. When vaccinated cotton rats were challenged with wild-type RSV A, DB1 reduced viral titers in the upper and lower airways by 3.8 log10 total PFU and 2.7 log10 PFU/g of tissue, respectively, compared to those in unvaccinated animals (P < 0.0001). DB1 was thus attenuated, highly immunogenic, and protective against RSV challenge in cotton rats. DB1 is the first RSV LAV to incorporate a low-fusion F protein as a strategy to attenuate viral replication and preserve immunogenicity. IMPORTANCE RSV is a leading cause of infant hospitalizations and deaths. The development of an effective vaccine for this high-risk population is therefore a public health priority. Although live-attenuated vaccines have been safely administered to RSV-naive infants, strategies to balance vaccine attenuation with immunogenicity have been elusive. In this study, we introduced a novel strategy to attenuate a recombinant RSV

  6. Respiratory effects of exposure of shipyard workers to epoxy paints.

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, D; Jones, J; Atterbury, M; Balmes, J

    1991-01-01

    Epoxy resin systems have been associated with occupational asthma in several case reports, but medical publications contain little on the potential adverse respiratory effects of these chemicals in exposed worker populations. To further evaluate the association of workplace exposure to epoxy paints and respiratory dysfunction, the cross workshift changes in pulmonary function and symptoms of 32 shipyard painters exposed to epoxy paints were compared with 28 shipyard painters not exposed to epoxy paints. The prevalence of lower respiratory tract symptoms was significantly higher among painters exposed to epoxy paints compared with controls. Among exposed painters the mean cross workshift change in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (-3.4%) was greater than the decrement in the non-exposed group (-1.4%). A significant linear relation was seen between % decrement in FEV1 and hours of exposure to epoxy paints. This study suggests that epoxy resin coatings as used by shipyard painters are associated with increased lower respiratory tract symptoms and acute decrements in FEV1. Adequate respiratory protection and medical surveillance programmes should be established in workplaces where exposure to epoxy resin systems occurs. PMID:1954156

  7. Passive Transfer of A Germline-like Neutralizing Human Monoclonal Antibody Protects Transgenic Mice Against Lethal Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Anurodh Shankar; Ying, Tianlei; Tao, Xinrong; Garron, Tania; Algaissi, Abdullah; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Lili; Peng, Bi-Hung; Jiang, Shibo; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.; Tseng, Chien-Te K.

    2016-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has repeatedly caused outbreaks in the Arabian Peninsula. To date, no approved medical countermeasures (MCM) are available to combat MERS-CoV infections. Several neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), including m336, a germline-like human mAb, have been chosen as promising MCM for MERS-CoV. However, their clinical development has been hindered by the lack of a robust animal model that recapitulate the morbidity and mortality of human infections. We assessed the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of m336 by using well-characterized transgenic mice shown to be highly sensitive to MERS-CoV infection and disease. We found that mice treated with m336 prior to or post lethal MERS-CoV challenging were fully protected, compared to control mice which sufferered from profound weight loss and uniform death within days after infection. Taken together, these results support further development of m336 and other human monoclonal antibodies as potential therapeutics for MERS-CoV infection. PMID:27538452

  8. Baculovirus-expressed virus-like particle vaccine in combination with DNA encoding the fusion protein confers protection against respiratory syncytial virus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Seok; Kwon, Young-Man; Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Yu-Na; Ko, Eun-Ju; Yoo, Si-Eun; Kim, Min-Chul; Kim, Ki-Hye; Cho, Min-Kyoung; Lee, Young-Tae; Lee, You Ri; Quan, Fu-Shi; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major viral agent causing significant morbidity and mortality in young infants and the elderly. There is no licensed vaccine against RSV and it is a high priority to develop a safe RSV vaccine. We determined the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of combined virus-like particle and DNA vaccines presenting RSV glycoproteins (Fd.VLP) in comparison with formalin inactivated RSV (FI-RSV). Immunization of mice with Fd.VLP induced higher ratios of IgG2a/IgG1 antibody responses compared to those with FI-RSV. Upon live RSV challenge, Fd.VLP and FI-RSV vaccines were similarly effective in clearing lung viral loads. However, FI-RSV immunized mice showed a substantial weight loss and high levels of T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines as well as extensive lung histopathology and eosinophil infiltration. In contrast, Fd.VLP immunized mice did not exhibit Th2 type cytokines locally and systemically, which might contribute to preventing vaccine-associated RSV lung disease. These results indicate that virus-like particles in combination with DNA vaccines represent a potential approach for developing a safe and effective RSV vaccine. PMID:25173478

  9. Virus-like particle vaccines containing F or F and G proteins confer protection against respiratory syncytial virus without pulmonary inflammation in cotton rats.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hye Suk; Kim, Ki-Hye; Lee, Youri; Lee, Young-Tae; Ko, Eun-Ju; Park, SooJin; Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Byung-Cheol; Kwon, Young-Man; Moore, Martin L; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2017-01-27

    Vaccine-enhanced disease has been a major obstacle in developing a safe vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study demonstrates the immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines containing RSV F (F VLP), G (G VLP), or F and G proteins (FG VLP) in cotton rats. RSV specific antibodies were effectively induced by vaccination of cotton rats with F VLP or FG VLP vaccines. After challenge, lung RSV clearance was observed with RSV F, G, FG VLP, and formalin inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) vaccines. Upon RSV infection, cotton rats with RSV VLP vaccines were protected against airway hyper-responsiveness and weight loss, which are different from FI-RSV vaccination exhibiting vaccine-enhanced disease of airway obstruction, weight loss, and severe histopathology with eosinophilia and mucus production. FG VLP and F VLP vaccines did not cause pulmonary inflammation whereas G VLP induced moderate lung inflammation with eosinophilia and mucus production. In particular, F VLP and FG VLP vaccines were found to be effective in inducing antibody secreting cell responses in bone marrow and lymphoid organs as well as avoiding the induction of T helper type 2 cytokines. These results provide further evidence to develop a safe RSV vaccine based on VLP platforms.

  10. Baculovirus-expressed virus-like particle vaccine in combination with DNA encoding the fusion protein confers protection against respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Seok; Kwon, Young-Man; Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Yu-Na; Ko, Eun-Ju; Yoo, Si-Eun; Kim, Min-Chul; Kim, Ki-Hye; Cho, Min Kyoung; Lee, Young-Tae; Lee, You Ri; Quan, Fu-Shi; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2014-10-07

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major viral agent causing significant morbidity and mortality in young infants and the elderly. There is no licensed vaccine against RSV and it is a high priority to develop a safe RSV vaccine. We determined the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of combined virus-like particle and DNA vaccines presenting RSV glycoproteins (Fd.VLP) in comparison with formalin inactivated RSV (FI-RSV). Immunization of mice with Fd.VLP induced higher ratios of IgG2a/IgG1 antibody responses compared to those with FI-RSV. Upon live RSV challenge, Fd.VLP and FI-RSV vaccines were similarly effective in clearing lung viral loads. However, FI-RSV immunized mice showed a substantial weight loss and high levels of T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines as well as extensive lung histopathology and eosinophil infiltration. In contrast, Fd.VLP immunized mice did not exhibit Th2 type cytokines locally and systemically, which might contribute to preventing vaccine-associated RSV lung disease. These results indicate that virus-like particles in combination with DNA vaccines represent a potential approach for developing a safe and effective RSV vaccine.

  11. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  12. Respiratory alkalosis.

    PubMed

    Foster, G T; Vaziri, N D; Sassoon, C S

    2001-04-01

    Respiratory alkalosis is an extremely common and complicated problem affecting virtually every organ system in the body. This article reviews the various facets of this interesting problem. Respiratory alkalosis produces multiple metabolic abnormalities, from changes in potassium, phosphate, and calcium, to the development of a mild lactic acidosis. Renal handling of the above ions is also affected. The etiologies may be related to pulmonary or extrapulmonary disorders. Hyperventilation syndrome is a common etiology of respiratory alkalosis in the emergency department setting and is a diagnosis by exclusion. There are many cardiac effects of respiratory alkalosis, such as tachycardia, ventricular and atrial arrhythmias, and ischemic and nonischemic chest pain. In the lungs, vasodilation occurs, and in the gastrointestinal system there are changes in perfusion, motility, and electrolyte handling. Therapeutically, respiratory alkalosis is used for treatment of elevated intracranial pressure. Correction of a respiratory alkalosis is best performed by correcting the underlying etiology.

  13. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  14. 10 CFR 20.1705 - Application for use of higher assigned protection factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RADIATION Respiratory Protection and Controls To Restrict Internal Exposure in Restricted Areas § 20.1705...) Demonstrates that the respiratory protection equipment provides these higher protection factors under...

  15. 10 CFR 20.1705 - Application for use of higher assigned protection factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RADIATION Respiratory Protection and Controls To Restrict Internal Exposure in Restricted Areas § 20.1705...) Demonstrates that the respiratory protection equipment provides these higher protection factors under...

  16. 10 CFR 20.1705 - Application for use of higher assigned protection factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RADIATION Respiratory Protection and Controls To Restrict Internal Exposure in Restricted Areas § 20.1705...) Demonstrates that the respiratory protection equipment provides these higher protection factors under...

  17. 10 CFR 20.1705 - Application for use of higher assigned protection factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RADIATION Respiratory Protection and Controls To Restrict Internal Exposure in Restricted Areas § 20.1705...) Demonstrates that the respiratory protection equipment provides these higher protection factors under...

  18. Genetic modification of preimplantation embryos: toward adequate human research policies.

    PubMed

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects.

  19. Obesity and respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Zammit, Christopher; Liddicoat, Helen; Moonsie, Ian; Makker, Himender

    2010-10-20

    The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.

  20. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zammit, Christopher; Liddicoat, Helen; Moonsie, Ian; Makker, Himender

    2010-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population. PMID:21116339

  1. Individualized positive end-expiratory pressure application in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pintado, M C; de Pablo, R

    2014-11-01

    Current treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome is based on ventilatory support with a lung protective strategy, avoiding the development of iatrogenic injury, including ventilator-induced lung injury. One of the mechanisms underlying such injury is atelectrauma, and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is advocated in order to avoid it. The indicated PEEP level has not been defined, and in many cases is based on the patient oxygen requirements for maintaining adequate oxygenation. However, this strategy does not consider the mechanics of the respiratory system, which varies in each patient and depends on many factors-including particularly the duration of acute respiratory distress syndrome. A review is therefore made of the different methods for adjusting PEEP, focusing on the benefits of individualized application.

  2. Respiratory Therapists

    MedlinePlus

    ... programs typically include courses in human anatomy and physiology, chemistry, physics, microbiology, pharmacology, and math. Other courses ... and math skills. Respiratory therapists must understand anatomy, physiology, and other sciences and be able to calculate ...

  3. [Respiratory distress].

    PubMed

    Galili, D; Garfunkel, A; Elad, S; Zusman, S P; Malamed, S F; Findler, M; Kaufman, E

    2002-01-01

    Dental treatment is usually conducted in the oral cavity and in very close proximity to the upper respiratory airway. The possibility of unintentionally compromising this airway is high in the dental environment. The accumulation of fluid (water or blood) near to the upper respiratory airway or the loosening of teeth fragmentations and fallen dental instruments can occur. Also, some of the drugs prescribed in the dental practice are central nervous system depressants and some are direct respiratory drive depressors. For this reason, awareness of the respiratory status of the dental patient is of paramount importance. This article focuses on several of the more common causes of respiratory distress, including airway obstruction, hyperventilation, asthma, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism and cardiac insufficiency. The common denominator to all these conditions described here is that in most instances the patient is conscious. Therefore, on the one hand, valuable information can be retrieved from the patient making diagnosis easier than when the patient is unconscious. On the other hand, the conscious patient is under extreme apprehension and stress under such situations. Respiratory depression which occurs during conscious sedation or following narcotic analgesic medication will not be dealt with in this article. Advanced pain and anxiety control techniques such as conscious sedation and general anesthesia should be confined only to operators who undergo special extended training.

  4. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors.A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L.The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg.In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L.

  5. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors. A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L. The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg. In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L. PMID:27902589

  6. Respiratory controversies in the critical care setting. Does high-frequency ventilation offer benefits over conventional ventilation in adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome?

    PubMed

    Fessler, Henry E; Hess, Dean R

    2007-05-01

    High-frequency ventilation is the application of mechanical ventilation with a respiratory rate > 100 breaths/min. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is the form of high-frequency ventilation most widely used in adult critical care. The principles of lung-protective ventilation have matured in parallel with the technology for HFOV. The 2 basic principles of lung-protective ventilation are the use of small tidal volume and maintenance of adequate alveolar recruitment. Research in animal models and humans demonstrate that HFOV can support gas exchange with much smaller tidal volume than can be achieved with conventional ventilation. HFOV also provides more effective lung recruitment than conventional mechanical ventilation. However, at present, evidence is lacking that survival in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome is improved by HFOV. Although HFOV may improve P(aO(2)) in some patients, this improvement is often transitory. Available evidence does not support that pulmonary inflammation is reduced with HFOV in adult acute respiratory distress syndrome. Heavy sedation and often paralysis are necessary. The promise of HFOV as a lung-protective ventilation strategy remains attractive, but additional clinical trials are needed to determine whether this approach is superior to lung-protective ventilation with conventional mechanical ventilation.

  7. Adequate mathematical modelling of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    In environmental observations and laboratory visualization both large scale flow components like currents, jets, vortices, waves and a fine structure are registered (different examples are given). The conventional mathematical modeling both analytical and numerical is directed mostly on description of energetically important flow components. The role of a fine structures is still remains obscured. A variety of existing models makes it difficult to choose the most adequate and to estimate mutual assessment of their degree of correspondence. The goal of the talk is to give scrutiny analysis of kinematics and dynamics of flows. A difference between the concept of "motion" as transformation of vector space into itself with a distance conservation and the concept of "flow" as displacement and rotation of deformable "fluid particles" is underlined. Basic physical quantities of the flow that are density, momentum, energy (entropy) and admixture concentration are selected as physical parameters defined by the fundamental set which includes differential D'Alembert, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations and closing equation of state. All of them are observable and independent. Calculations of continuous Lie groups shown that only the fundamental set is characterized by the ten-parametric Galilelian groups reflecting based principles of mechanics. Presented analysis demonstrates that conventionally used approximations dramatically change the symmetries of the governing equations sets which leads to their incompatibility or even degeneration. The fundamental set is analyzed taking into account condition of compatibility. A high order of the set indicated on complex structure of complete solutions corresponding to physical structure of real flows. Analytical solutions of a number problems including flows induced by diffusion on topography, generation of the periodic internal waves a compact sources in week-dissipative media as well as numerical solutions of the same

  8. Respiratory Home Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Living > Living With Lung Disease > Respiratory Home Health Care Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition ... Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Respiratory Home Health Care Respiratory care at home can contribute to improved ...

  9. Mitochondrial free radical overproduction due to respiratory chain impairment in the brain of a mouse model of Rett syndrome: protective effect of CNF1.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Bianca; Valenti, Daniela; de Bari, Lidia; De Rasmo, Domenico; Musto, Mattia; Fabbri, Alessia; Ricceri, Laura; Fiorentini, Carla; Laviola, Giovanni; Vacca, Rosa Anna

    2015-06-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder mainly caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene associated with severe intellectual disability, movement disorders, and autistic-like behaviors. Its pathogenesis remains mostly not understood and no effective therapy is available. High circulating levels of oxidative stress markers in patients and the occurrence of oxidative brain damage in MeCP2-deficient mouse models suggest the involvement of oxidative stress in RTT pathogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism and the origin of the oxidative stress have not been elucidated. Here we demonstrate that a redox imbalance arises from aberrant mitochondrial functionality in the brain of MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice, a condition that more closely recapitulates that of RTT patients. The marked increase in the rate of hydrogen peroxide generation in the brain of RTT mice seems mainly produced by the dysfunctional complex II of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In addition, both membrane potential generation and mitochondrial ATP synthesis are decreased in RTT mouse brains when succinate, the complex II respiratory substrate, is used as an energy source. Respiratory chain impairment is brain area specific, owing to a decrease in either cAMP-dependent phosphorylation or protein levels of specific complex subunits. Further, we investigated whether the treatment of RTT mice with the bacterial protein CNF1, previously reported to ameliorate the neurobehavioral phenotype and brain bioenergetic markers in an RTT mouse model, exerts specific effects on brain mitochondrial function and consequently on hydrogen peroxide production. In RTT brains treated with CNF1, we observed the reactivation of respiratory chain complexes, the rescue of mitochondrial functionality, and the prevention of brain hydrogen peroxide overproduction. These results provide definitive evidence of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species overproduction in RTT mouse brain and

  10. Respiratory Distress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The University of Miami School of Medicine asked the Research Triangle Institute for assistance in improvising the negative pressure technique to relieve respiratory distress in infants. Marshall Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center engineers adapted this idea to the lower-body negative-pressure system seals used during the Skylab missions. Some 20,000 babies succumb to respiratory distress in the U.S. each year, a condition in which lungs progressively lose their ability to oxygenate blood. Both positive and negative pressure techniques have been used - the first to force air into lungs, the second to keep infant's lungs expanded. Negative pressure around chest helps the baby expand his lungs and maintain proper volume of air. If doctors can keep the infant alive for four days, the missing substance in the lungs will usually form in sufficient quantity to permit normal breathing. The Skylab chamber and its leakproof seals were adapted for medical use.

  11. Live attenuated influenza A virus vaccine protects against heterologous challenge with A(H1N1)pdm09 without inducing vaccine associated enhanced respiratory disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influenza A virus (IAV) vaccines that provide broad cross-protection against antigenic variants are necessary to prevent infection and shedding of the wide array of IAV cocirculating in swine. Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines provide only partial protection against IAV with substantial antigen...

  12. An insect cell derived respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) F nanoparticle vaccine induces antigenic site II antibodies and protects against RSV challenge in cotton rats by active and passive immunization.

    PubMed

    Raghunandan, Rama; Lu, Hanxin; Zhou, Bin; Xabier, Mimi Guebre; Massare, Michael J; Flyer, David C; Fries, Louis F; Smith, Gale E; Glenn, Gregory M

    2014-11-12

    Post-infectious immunity to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection results in limited protection as evidenced by the high rate of infant hospitalization in the face of high titer, maternally derived RSV-specific antibodies. By contrast, RSV fusion (F) glycoprotein antigenic site II humanized monoclonal antibodies, palivizumab and motavizumab, have been shown to reduce RSV-related hospitalization in infants. Immunogenicity and efficacy studies were conducted in cotton rats comparing a recombinant RSV F nanoparticle vaccine with palivizumab and controlled with live RSV virus intranasal immunization and, formalin inactivated RSV vaccine. Active immunization with RSV F nanoparticle vaccine containing an alum adjuvant induced serum levels of palivizumab competing antibody (PCA) greater than passive administration of 15 mg/kg palivizumab (human prophylactic dose) in cotton rats and neutralized RSV-A and RSV-B viruses. Immunization prevented detectable RSV replication in the lungs and, unlike passive administration of palivizumab, in the nasal passage of challenged cotton rats. Histology of lung tissues following RSV challenge showed no enhanced disease in the vaccinated groups in contrast to formalin inactivated 'Lot 100' vaccine. Passive intramuscular administration of RSV F vaccine-induced immune sera one day prior to challenge of cotton rats reduced viral titers by 2 or more log10 virus per gram of lung and nasal tissue and at doses less than palivizumab. A recombinant RSV F nanoparticle vaccine protected lower and upper respiratory tract against both RSV A and B strain infection and induced polyclonal palivizumab competing antibodies similar to but potentially more broadly protective against RSV than palivizumab.

  13. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Naren N; Pine, Harold S; Underbrink, Michael P

    2012-06-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a rare, benign disease with no known cure. RRP is caused by infection of the upper aerodigestive tract with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Passage through the birth canal is thought to be the initial transmission event, but infection may occur in utero. HPV vaccines have helped to provide protection from cervical cancer; however, their role in the prevention of RRP is undetermined. Clinical presentation of initial symptoms of RRP may be subtle. RRP course varies, and current management focuses on surgical debulking of papillomatous lesions with or without concurrent adjuvant therapy.

  14. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disclosure or destruction of manual and automatic record systems. These security safeguards shall apply to... use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction...

  15. Burkholderia pseudomallei Capsule Exacerbates Respiratory Melioidosis but Does Not Afford Protection against Antimicrobial Signaling or Bacterial Killing in Human Olfactory Ensheathing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dando, Samantha J.; Ipe, Deepak S.; Batzloff, Michael; Sullivan, Matthew J.; Crossman, David K.; Crowley, Michael; Strong, Emily; Kyan, Stephanie; Leclercq, Sophie Y.; Ekberg, Jenny A. K.; St. John, James

    2016-01-01

    Melioidosis, caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is an often severe infection that regularly involves respiratory disease following inhalation exposure. Intranasal (i.n.) inoculation of mice represents an experimental approach used to study the contributions of bacterial capsular polysaccharide I (CPS I) to virulence during acute disease. We used aerosol delivery of B. pseudomallei to establish respiratory infection in mice and studied CPS I in the context of innate immune responses. CPS I improved B. pseudomallei survival in vivo and triggered multiple cytokine responses, neutrophil infiltration, and acute inflammatory histopathology in the spleen, liver, nasal-associated lymphoid tissue, and olfactory mucosa (OM). To further explore the role of the OM response to B. pseudomallei infection, we infected human olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) in vitro and measured bacterial invasion and the cytokine responses induced following infection. Human OECs killed >90% of the B. pseudomallei in a CPS I-independent manner and exhibited an antibacterial cytokine response comprising granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and several regulatory cytokines. In-depth genome-wide transcriptomic profiling of the OEC response by RNA-Seq revealed a network of signaling pathways activated in OECs following infection involving a novel group of 378 genes that encode biological pathways controlling cellular movement, inflammation, immunological disease, and molecular transport. This represents the first antimicrobial program to be described in human OECs and establishes the extensive transcriptional defense network accessible in these cells. Collectively, these findings show a role for CPS I in B. pseudomallei survival in vivo following inhalation infection and the antibacterial signaling network that exists in human OM and OECs. PMID:27091931

  16. Protective actions as a factor in power reactor siting

    SciTech Connect

    Gant, K.S.; Schweitzer, M.

    1984-06-01

    This report examines the relationship between a power reactor site and the ease of implementing protective actions (emergency measures a serious accident). Limiting populating density around a reactor lowers the number of people at risk but cannot assure that all protective actions are possible for those who reside near the reactor. While some protective measures can always be taken (i.e., expedient respiratory protection, sheltering) the ability to evacuate the area or find adequate shelter may depend on the characteristics of the area near the reactor site. Generic siting restrictions designed to identify and eliminate these site-specific constraints would be difficult to formulate. The authors suggest identifying possible impediments to protective actions at a proposed reactor site and addressing these problems in the emergency plans. 66 references, 6 figures, 8 tables.

  17. [Respiratory allergies].

    PubMed

    Chiriac, Anca Mirela; Demoly, Pascal

    2013-04-01

    Respiratory allergies represent a global and public health problem, due to their prevalence (still increasing), morbidity, impact on the quality of life and costs for the society. They mainly concern rhinitis (or rhinoconjunctivitis) and asthma. The diagnosis of allergy is dependent on a history of symptoms on exposure to an allergen together with the detection of allergen-specific IgE. Accurate diagnosis of allergies opens up therapeutic options that are otherwise not appropriate, such as allergen immunotherapy and allergen avoidance, that are prescribed following a stepwise approach. It has been a century since the first trial in specific immunotherapy was performed and this still remains the only disease modifying treatment for allergic individuals. In terms of route of administration, sublingual immunotherapy represents a good alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy, considering its proven efficacy and better safety profile.

  18. The impact of inflammation on respiratory plasticity.

    PubMed

    Hocker, Austin D; Stokes, Jennifer A; Powell, Frank L; Huxtable, Adrianne G

    2017-01-01

    Breathing is a vital homeostatic behavior and must be precisely regulated throughout life. Clinical conditions commonly associated with inflammation, undermine respiratory function may involve plasticity in respiratory control circuits to compensate and maintain adequate ventilation. Alternatively, other clinical conditions may evoke maladaptive plasticity. Yet, we have only recently begun to understand the effects of inflammation on respiratory plasticity. Here, we review some of common models used to investigate the effects of inflammation and discuss the impact of inflammation on nociception, chemosensory plasticity, medullary respiratory centers, motor plasticity in motor neurons and respiratory frequency, and adaptation to high altitude. We provide new data suggesting glial cells contribute to CNS inflammatory gene expression after 24h of sustained hypoxia and inflammation induced by 8h of intermittent hypoxia inhibits long-term facilitation of respiratory frequency. We also discuss how inflammation can have opposite effects on the capacity for plasticity, whereby it is necessary for increases in the hypoxic ventilatory response with sustained hypoxia, but inhibits phrenic long term facilitation after intermittent hypoxia. This review highlights gaps in our knowledge about the effects of inflammation on respiratory control (development, age, and sex differences). In summary, data to date suggest plasticity can be either adaptive or maladaptive and understanding how inflammation alters the respiratory system is crucial for development of better therapeutic interventions to promote breathing and for utilization of plasticity as a clinical treatment.

  19. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Parents > Lungs and Respiratory System Print ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't happen ...

  20. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Parents > Lungs and Respiratory System A ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't happen ...

  1. Live attenuated influenza vaccine provides superior protection from heterologous infection in pigs with maternal antibodies without inducing vaccine associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of swine influenza A virus (IAV) in the US is hindered since inactivated vaccines do not provide robust cross-protection against the multiple antigenic variants co-circulating in the field. Vaccine efficacy can be further limited when administered to young pigs that possess maternally deriv...

  2. Efficacy of intranasal vaccination with a multivalent vaccine containing temperature-sensitive modified-live bovine herpesvirus type 1 for protection of seronegative and seropositive calves against respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Suman M; Sobecki, Brian; Johnson, John; Oien, Nancee L; Meinert, Todd R; Verhelle, Sarah; Mattern, Sally J; Bowersock, Terry L; Leyh, Randy D

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate efficacy and duration of immunity of the bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) fraction of a trivalent vaccine also containing parainfluenza virus-3 and bovine respiratory syncytial virus fractions administered intranasally (IN) for protection of calves against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR). DESIGN Controlled challenge study. ANIMALS 120 dairy calves (3 to 8 days old) seronegative for antibody against BHV-1 (experiments 1 and 2) or seropositive for maternally derived antibody against BHV-1 (experiment 3). PROCEDURES In 3 separate experiments, calves were vaccinated IN via 2 nostrils (experiment 1) or 1 nostril (experiments 2 and 3) with a vaccine containing or not containing a BHV-1 fraction. For seronegative calves, the test vaccine contained a minimum immunizing dose of BHV-1; for seropositive calves, it contained a commercial dose of BHV-1. Calves were challenged IN with virulent BHV-1 on day 28 or 193 (seronegative calves) or day 105 (seropositive calves) after vaccination to evaluate vaccine efficacy. Frequency and duration of clinical signs, rectal temperatures, virus shedding, and serologic responses were compared between treatment groups within experiments. RESULTS In all experiments, BHV-1 vaccinated calves had lower frequencies or shorter durations of clinical signs of IBR than did control calves. Following viral challenge, peak rectal temperatures and degrees of virus shedding were lower and serologic responses were higher in vaccinated versus control calves. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE IN vaccination against BHV-1 protected all calves against clinical IBR disease, regardless of serologic status at the time of vaccination, and suppressed virus shedding. A single dose of this IN vaccine has the potential to protect seronegative calves for at least 193 days and override maternally derived antibody to protect seropositive calves for at least 105 days.

  3. The Protective Effects of HJB-1, a Derivative of 17-Hydroxy-Jolkinolide B, on LPS-Induced Acute Distress Respiratory Syndrome Mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohan; Liu, Ning; Zhang, Yu-Xin; Cao, Jinjin; Wu, Donglin; Peng, Qisheng; Wang, Hong-Bing; Sun, Wan-Chun

    2016-01-11

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS),which is inflammatory disorder of the lung, which is caused by pneumonia, aspiration of gastric contents, trauma and sepsis, results in widespread lung inflammation and increased pulmonary vascular permeability. Its pathogenesis is complicated and the mortality is high. Thus, there is a tremendous need for new therapies. We have reported that HJB-1, a 17-hydroxy-jolkinolide B derivative, exhibited strong anti-inflammatory effects in vitro. In this study, we investigated its impacts on LPS-induced ARDS mice. We found that HJB-1 significantly alleviated LPS-induced pulmonary histological alterations, inflammatory cells infiltration, lung edema, as well as the generation of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in BALF. In addition, HJB-1 markedly suppressed LPS-induced IκB-α degradation, nuclear accumulation of NF-κB p65 subunit and MAPK phosphorylation. These results suggested that HJB-1 improved LPS-induced ARDS by suppressing LPS-induced NF-κB and MAPK activation.

  4. Derivation and characterisation of a live equid herpes virus-1 (EHV-1) vaccine to protect against abortion and respiratory disease due to EHV-1.

    PubMed

    Patel, J R; Bateman, H; Williams, J; Didlick, S

    2003-01-02

    A German abortion isolate of EHV-1 (strain M8) was grown in equine dermal (ED) cells at a low multiplicity of infection in presence of 5-bromo-2-deoxy uridine. The resulting stock was dialysed, titrated and cloned by terminal dilution in ED cells grown in 96-well microtitration plates. Of 192 clones each originating from a single focus, clone 147 (C147) was found to be restricted for growth at and above temperatures of 38.5 degrees C. It was also restricted for growth at 37 degrees C in rabbit kidney (RK-13) cells which are widely used for the isolation and titration of EHV-1; hence clone 147 was EHV-4-like. Clone 147 showed a remarkable efficacy as a vaccine in protecting conventional pregnant Welsh Mountain pony mares against abortions due to EHV-1. A single intranasal (IN) vaccination protected five out of six (83.3%), and four out of five (80%) of mares upon challenge 4 and 5-6 months, respectively, after the immunisation, whereas all six unvaccinated mares aborted between 9 and 19 days after IN EHV-1 challenge. With the exception of the day 9 abortion, foetuses of the remaining five mares were EHV-1 infected. Placenta from the early aborting mare was, however, EHV-1 positive. Both groups of vaccinated mares were also significantly protected against clinical reaction (notably pyrexia), nasal shedding and viraemia following challenge infection.

  5. Alveolar epithelial cells are critical in protection of the respiratory tract by secretion of factors able to modulate the activity of pulmonary macrophages and directly control bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Chuquimia, Olga D; Petursdottir, Dagbjort H; Periolo, Natalia; Fernández, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The respiratory epithelium is a physical and functional barrier actively involved in the clearance of environmental agents. The alveolar compartment is lined with membranous pneumocytes, known as type I alveolar epithelial cells (AEC I), and granular pneumocytes, type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC II). AEC II are responsible for epithelial reparation upon injury and ion transport and are very active immunologically, contributing to lung defense by secreting antimicrobial factors. AEC II also secrete a broad variety of factors, such as cytokines and chemokines, involved in activation and differentiation of immune cells and are able to present antigen to specific T cells. Another cell type important in lung defense is the pulmonary macrophage (PuM). Considering the architecture of the alveoli, a good communication between the external and the internal compartments is crucial to mount effective responses. Our hypothesis is that being in the interface, AEC may play an important role in transmitting signals from the external to the internal compartment and in modulating the activity of PuM. For this, we collected supernatants from AEC unstimulated or stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). These AEC-conditioned media were used in various setups to test for the effects on a number of macrophage functions: (i) migration, (ii) phagocytosis and intracellular control of bacterial growth, and (iii) phenotypic changes and morphology. Finally, we tested the direct effect of AEC-conditioned media on bacterial growth. We found that AEC-secreted factors had a dual effect, on one hand controlling bacterial growth and on the other hand increasing macrophage activity.

  6. Macrophage Heterogeneity in Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Boorsma, Carian E.; Draijer, Christina; Melgert, Barbro N.

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are among the most abundant cells in the respiratory tract, and they can have strikingly different phenotypes within this environment. Our knowledge of the different phenotypes and their functions in the lung is sketchy at best, but they appear to be linked to the protection of gas exchange against microbial threats and excessive tissue responses. Phenotypical changes of macrophages within the lung are found in many respiratory diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pulmonary fibrosis. This paper will give an overview of what macrophage phenotypes have been described, what their known functions are, what is known about their presence in the different obstructive and restrictive respiratory diseases (asthma, COPD, pulmonary fibrosis), and how they are thought to contribute to the etiology and resolution of these diseases. PMID:23533311

  7. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo Ndebele's…

  8. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  9. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  10. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  11. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  12. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  13. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  14. High Incidence of Respiratory Involvement in a Cluster of Brucella suis-Infected Workers from a Pork Processing Plant in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Wallach, J C; García, J L; Cardinali, P S; Seijo, A P; Benchetrit, A G; Echazarreta, S E; Garro, S L; Deodato, B; Baldi, P C

    2016-12-29

    Epidemiological and clinical aspects of Brucella suis infection in 17 workers from a pork processing plant in Argentina occurring between January 2014 and July 2015 are presented. All patients reported working 9 h daily without adequate personal protection garment. Blood cultures were positive for Brucella spp. in 14 of the 17 patients (82.3%). All isolates were identified as B. suis biovar 1. Although fever, sweats, asthenia, myalgia and hepatic involvement were the most frequent clinical manifestations, an unusually high incidence of respiratory involvement was found. From 13 patients in which chest radiography was performed, four (30%) had radiological abnormalities, including lobar pneumonia in two cases (one with pleural effusion) and interstitial involvement in other two. The high frequency of respiratory involvement in our series makes necessary to consider brucellosis in the differential diagnosis of respiratory diseases in pork processing plant employees.

  15. Heterologous viral RNA export elements improve expression of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus spike protein and protective efficacy of DNA vaccines against SARS.

    PubMed

    Callendret, Benoît; Lorin, Valérie; Charneau, Pierre; Marianneau, Philippe; Contamin, Hugues; Betton, Jean-Michel; van der Werf, Sylvie; Escriou, Nicolas

    2007-07-05

    The SARS-CoV spike glycoprotein (S) is the main target of the protective immune response in humans and animal models of SARS. Here, we demonstrated that efficient expression of S from the wild-type spike gene in cultured cells required the use of improved plasmid vectors containing donor and acceptor splice sites, as well as heterologous viral RNA export elements, such as the CTE of Mazon-Pfizer monkey virus or the PRE of Woodchuck hepatitis virus (WPRE). The presence of both splice sites and WPRE markedly improved the immunogenicity of S-based DNA vaccines against SARS. Upon immunization of mice with low doses (2 microg) of naked DNA, only intron and WPRE-containing vectors could induce neutralizing anti-S antibodies and provide protection against challenge with SARS-CoV. Our observations are likely to be useful for the construction of plasmid and viral vectors designed for optimal expression of intronless genes derived from cytoplasmic RNA viruses.

  16. Translational Aspects of the Human Respiratory Virome.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Alicia B; Oliver, Brian G G; Glanville, Allan R

    2016-12-15

    Despite the dominant role of community-acquired respiratory viruses as etiological agents of disease, there has been little focus to date on the translation of rapidly developing diagnostic modalities, such as next-generation sequencing techniques in the examination of lower respiratory tract samples. When applied, these techniques should inform strategies to both understand the nexus between health and disease states of the respiratory virome, and drive a paradigm shift in how the practicing pulmonologist views the conceptual framework of respiratory infections. The lower respiratory tract was once thought to be a sanctuary site from microbiological colonization owing to the efficacy of upper airway-protective mechanisms and the host mucosal barrier function of the lower airways, combined with both innate and adaptive immune responses. As a small number of recent studies confirm, this is a naive vision of the lung, the viral component of which parallels recent revelations from respiratory microbiome studies. Hence, it is now timely to revise our thinking regarding the constituents, diversity, and changing nature of the respiratory virome in health and disease. One area worthy of focus is the interface between community-acquired respiratory viruses and the respiratory virome to better understand the dynamics in acute infection, as well as the factors that may lead to viral persistence and chronic disease. Given recent advances in metagenomics, the tools are now at hand to accomplish these goals.

  17. The cationic liposomal adjuvants CAF01 and CAF09 formulated with the major outer membrane protein elicit robust protection in mice against a Chlamydia muridarum respiratory challenge.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sukumar; Tifrea, Delia F; Follmann, Frank; Andersen, Peter; de la Maza, Luis M

    2017-03-23

    Two cationic liposomal adjuvants CAF01 and CAF09 were formulated with the native or the recombinant Chlamydia muridarum major outer membrane protein (nMOMP and rMOMP). BALB/c mice were immunized with the four vaccine formulations using the subcutaneous followed by the intranasal (i.n.) routes. As positive controls mice were inoculated i.n. with live C. muridarum and negative controls received i.n. minimal essential medium (MEM). Four weeks after the last immunization mice were challenged i.n. with 10(4) inclusion forming units (IFU) of C. muridarum. Following the challenge the mice were weighed daily. At 10days post-challenge the mice were euthanized, their lungs weighed and the number of C. muridarum IFU determined. Serum collected the day before the challenge showed that all four groups of mice immunized with CAF01, or CAF09 and MOMP had significant C. muridarum-specific antibody titers. As determined by a T-cell lymphoproliferative assay, these four groups of mice also mounted robust cell mediated immune responses with high production of IFN-γ and IL17 and low levels of IL-4. Following the challenge the four groups of mice lost significantly less body weight than the MEM-immunized group. Lungs of mice vaccinated with CAF01, or CAF09, and nMOMP were significantly lighter than those from mice immunized using rMOMP. The number of IFU recovered from the lungs of mice vaccinated with CAF01, or CAF09, and nMOMP was similar to the number of IFU recovered from mice immunized with live EB. Mice that received rMOMP had significantly higher numbers of IFU than other groups. In conclusion, CAF01 and CAF09 elicited very robust protective humoral and cellular immune responses and were equally effective at adjuntavizing the C. muridarum MOMP. Mice vaccinated with nMOMP were significantly better protected than those immunized with rMOMP, indicative of the importance of the structural conformation of this antigen in protection.

  18. 42 CFR 84.1141 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for respiratory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... mist respirators designed for respiratory protection against fumes of various metals having an air... HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist....1141 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for...

  19. 42 CFR 84.1141 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for respiratory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... mist respirators designed for respiratory protection against fumes of various metals having an air... HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist....1141 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for...

  20. 42 CFR 84.1141 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for respiratory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... mist respirators designed for respiratory protection against fumes of various metals having an air... HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist....1141 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for...

  1. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hecker, M; Weigand, M A; Mayer, K

    2012-05-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the clinical manifestation of an acute lung injury caused by a variety of direct and indirect injuries to the lung. The cardinal clinical feature of ARDS, refractory arterial hypoxemia, is the result of protein-rich alveolar edema with impaired surfactant function, due to vascular leakage and dysfunction with consequently impaired matching of ventilation to perfusion. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of ARDS has led to the development of novel therapies, pharmacological strategies, and advances in mechanical ventilation. However, protective ventilation is the only confirmed option in ARDS management improving survival, and few other therapies have translated into improved oxygenation or reduced ventilation time. The development of innovative therapy options, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, have the potential to further improve survival of this devastating disease.

  2. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (10/14/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadben,. Director, to Nancy Wrona and Dennis Smith informing them that Maricopa County's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2003 MAGCO Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  3. Region 6: Texas Adequate Letter (4/16/2010)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Texas Commission on Environmental Quality determined 2021 motor vehicle emission budgets for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for Beaumont/Port Arthur area adequate for transportation conformity purposes

  4. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (10/29/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Denvers' particulate matter (PM10) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  5. Region 1: New Hampshire Adequate Letter (8/12/2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This July 9, 2008 letter from EPA to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, determined the 2009 Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets (MVEBs) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal Register (FR).

  6. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (1/20/2004)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Greeleys' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the FR.

  7. Region 8: Utah Adequate Letter (6/10/2005)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Utah Department of Environmental Quality determined Salt Lake Citys' and Ogdens' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  8. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  9. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  10. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  11. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  12. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  13. Region 6: New Mexico Adequate Letter (8/21/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Carl Edlund, Director, to Alfredo Santistevan regarding MVEB's contained in the latest revision to the Albuquerque Carbon Monoxide State Implementation Plan (SIP) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  14. Region 9: Nevada Adequate Letter (3/30/2006)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Deborah Jordan, Director, to Leo M. Drozdoff regarding Nevada's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2005 Truckee Meadows CO Redesignation Request and Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity decisions.

  15. A single, low dose of a cGMP recombinant BCG vaccine elicits protective T cell immunity against the human respiratory syncytial virus infection and prevents lung pathology in mice.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Pablo F; Rey-Jurado, Emma; Espinoza, Janyra A; Rivera, Claudia A; Canedo-Marroquín, Gisela; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2017-02-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a major health burden worldwide, causing the majority of hospitalizations in children under two years old due to bronchiolitis and pneumonia. HRSV causes year-to-year outbreaks of disease, which also affects the elderly and immunocompromised adults. Furthermore, both hRSV morbidity and epidemics are explained by a consistently high rate of re-infections that take place throughout the patient life. Although significant efforts have been invested worldwide, currently there are no licensed vaccines to prevent hRSV infection. Here, we describe that a recombinant Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine expressing the nucleoprotein (N) of hRSV formulated under current good manufacture practices (cGMP rBCG-N-hRSV) confers protective immunity to the virus in mice. Our results show that a single dose of the GMP rBCG-N-hRSV vaccine retains its capacity to protect mice against a challenge with a disease-causing infection of 1×10(7) plaque-forming units (PFUs) of the hRSV A2 clinical strain 13018-8. Compared to unimmunized infected controls, vaccinated mice displayed reduced weight loss and less infiltration of neutrophils within the airways, as well as reduced viral loads in bronchoalveolar lavages, parameters that are characteristic of hRSV infection in mice. Also, ex vivo re-stimulation of splenic T cells at 28days post-immunization activated a repertoire of T cells secreting IFN-γ and IL-17, which further suggest that the rBCG-N-hRSV vaccine induced a mixed, CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cell response capable of both restraining viral spread and preventing damage of the lungs. All these features support the notion that rBCG-N-hRSV is a promising candidate vaccine to be used in humans to prevent the disease caused by hRSV in the susceptible population.

  16. Transmission of communicable respiratory infections and facemasks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Guo, Yue Ping; Wong, Kwok Ching Thomas; Chung, Wai Yee Joanne; Gohel, Mayur Danny Indulal; Leung, Hang Mei Polly

    2008-01-01

    Background Respiratory protection efficiency of facemasks is critically important in the battle against communicable respiratory infections such as influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). We studied the spatial distributions of simulated virus-laden respiratory droplets when human subjects wore facemasks and were exposed to regulatory viral droplets by conducting in vivo experiments in facemask use. Methods Transmission pathway of aerosols of Fluorescein-KCl solution through facemasks and protective efficiency of facemasks were examined by using normal surgical facemasks and two facemasks with exhaust valves (Facemask A) and exhaust holes (Facemask B) covered with the same surgical filters situated at the back of the facemasks. Fluorescein-KCl solution was sprayed onto the faces of participants wearing the facemasks and performing intermittent exercises on a treadmill in a climatic chamber. Results Experimental results showed that when droplets spread onto a person face-to-face over short distances, 92.3% to 99.5% of droplets were blocked by the front surface of the facemask, whereas only 0.5% to 7.7% of droplets reached the back of the facemask. Both facemasks A and B had near or over 99% protection efficiency, compared with that of 95.5% to 97% of surgical facemasks. Using the same filters as normal surgical masks, facemasks A and B provided more effective respiratory protection against communicable respiratory infections such as influenza and SARS by the location of the breathing pathway to the back of the facemasks. Conclusions Separating the breathing pathway from the virus-contaminated area in facemasks can provide more effective protection against communicable respiratory infections such as influenza and SARS. PMID:21197329

  17. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  18. Avian respiratory system disorders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  19. Common mechanisms of compensatory respiratory plasticity in spinal neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Rebecca A.; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2013-01-01

    In many neurological disorders that disrupt spinal function and compromise breathing (e.g. ALS, cervical spinal injury, MS), patients often maintain ventilatory capacity well after the onset of severe CNS pathology. In progressive neurodegenerative diseases, patients ultimately reach a point where compensation is no longer possible, leading to catastrophic ventilatory failure. In this brief review, we consider evidence that common mechanisms of compensatory respiratory plasticity preserve breathing capacity in diverse clinical disorders, despite the onset of severe pathology (e.g. respiratory motor neuron denervation and/or death). We propose that a suite of mechanisms, operating at distinct sites in the respiratory control system, underlies compensatory respiratory plasticity, including: 1) increased (descending) central respiratory drive, 2) motor neuron plasticity, 3) plasticity at the neuromuscular junction or spared respiratory motor neurons, and 4) shifts in the balance from more to less severely compromised respiratory muscles. To establish this framework, we contrast three rodent models of neural dysfunction, each posing unique problems for the generation of adequate inspiratory motor output: 1) respiratory motor neuron death, 2) de- or dysmyelination of cervical spinal pathways, and 3) cervical spinal cord injury, a neuropathology with components of demyelination and motor neuron death. Through this contrast, we hope to understand the multilayered strategies used to “fight” for adequate breathing in the face of mounting pathology. PMID:23727226

  20. Respiratory burst oxidase of fertilization.

    PubMed Central

    Heinecke, J W; Shapiro, B M

    1989-01-01

    Partially reduced oxygen species are toxic, yet sea urchin eggs synthesize H2O2 in a "respiratory burst" at fertilization, as an extracellular oxidant to crosslink their protective surface envelopes. To study the biochemical mechanism for H2O2 production, we have isolated an NADPH-specific oxidase fraction from homogenates of unfertilized Strongylocentrotus purpuratus eggs that produces H2O2 when stimulated with Ca2+ and MgATP2-. Concentrations of free Ca2+ previously implicated in regulation of egg activation modulate the activity of the oxidase. Inhibitors were used to test the relevance of this oxidase to the respiratory burst of fertilization. Procaine, two phenothiazines, and N-ethylmaleimide (but not iodoacetamide) inhibited H2O2 production by the oxidase fraction and oxygen consumption by activated eggs. The ATP requirement suggested that protein kinase activity might regulate the respiratory burst of fertilization; consonant with this hypothesis, H-7 and staurosporine were inhibitory. The respiratory burst oxidase of fertilization is an NADPH:O2 oxidoreductase that appears to be regulated by a protein kinase; although it bears a remarkable resemblance to the neutrophil oxidase, unlike the latter it does not form O2- as its initial product. PMID:2537493

  1. Regulatory requirements for providing adequate veterinary care to research animals.

    PubMed

    Pinson, David M

    2013-09-01

    Provision of adequate veterinary care is a required component of animal care and use programs in the United States. Program participants other than veterinarians, including non-medically trained research personnel and technicians, also provide veterinary care to animals, and administrators are responsible for assuring compliance with federal mandates regarding adequate veterinary care. All program participants therefore should understand the regulatory requirements for providing such care. The author provides a training primer on the US regulatory requirements for the provision of veterinary care to research animals. Understanding the legal basis and conditions of a program of veterinary care will help program participants to meet the requirements advanced in the laws and policies.

  2. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Respiratory Syncytial Virus KidsHealth > For Parents > Respiratory Syncytial Virus A A A What's in this article? About ... RSV When to Call the Doctor en español Virus respiratorio sincitial About RSV Respiratory syncytial (sin-SISH- ...

  3. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Teens > Lungs and Respiratory System Print ... didn't breathe, you couldn't live. Lungs & Respiratory System Basics Each day we breathe about 20,000 ...

  4. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Teens > Lungs and Respiratory System A ... didn't breathe, you couldn't live. Lungs & Respiratory System Basics Each day we breathe about 20,000 ...

  5. Realistic respiratory motion margins for external beam partial breast irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Leigh; Quirk, Sarah; Smith, Wendy L.

    2015-09-15

    described. It was found that the currently used respiratory margin of 5 mm in partial breast irradiation may be overly conservative for many 3DCRT PBI patients. Amplitude alone was found to be insufficient to determine patient-specific margins: individual respiratory trace shape and baseline drift both contributed to the dosimetric target coverage. With respiratory coaching, individualized respiratory margins smaller than the full extent of motion could reduce planning target volumes while ensuring adequate coverage under respiratory motion.

  6. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  7. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  8. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  9. Is the Stock of VET Skills Adequate? Assessment Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandy, Richard; Freeland, Brett

    In Australia and elsewhere, four approaches have been used to determine whether stocks of vocational education and training (VET) skills are adequate to meet industry needs. The four methods are as follows: (1) the manpower requirements approach; (2) the international, national, and industry comparisons approach; (3) the labor market analysis…

  10. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  11. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  12. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  13. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  14. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  15. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  16. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation…

  17. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  18. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  19. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (11/1/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadbent, Director, Air Division to Nancy Wrona and James Bourney informing them of the adequacy of Revised MAG 1999 Serious Area Carbon Monoxide Plan and that the MAG CO Plan is adequate for Maricopa County.

  20. Naloxone Antagonises Soman-induced Central Respiratory Depression in Rats.

    PubMed

    Škrbić, Ranko; Stojiljković, Miloš P; Ćetković, Slavko S; Dobrić, Silva; Jeremić, Dejan; Vulović, Maja

    2016-12-19

    The influence of naloxone on respiration impaired by the highly toxic organophosphate nerve agent soman in anaesthetized rats was investigated. Soman, administered in a dose that was ineffective in blocking the electrically induced contractions of the phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation in situ, induced a complete block of the spontaneous respiratory movements of the diaphragm, indicating the domination of central over the peripheral effects. Naloxone dose-dependently antagonised the soman-induced respiratory blockade. Atropine, at a dose that was per se ineffective in counteracting soman-induced respiratory depression, potentiated the protective effects of naloxone and completely restored respiration. Naloxone remained completely ineffective in antagonising respiratory depression induced by the muscarinic receptor agonist the oxotremorine. It is assumed that naloxone antagonises soman-induced respiratory inhibition by blocking endogenous opioidergic respiratory control pathways that are independent of the stimulation of muscarinic receptors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. [Music and respiratory pathology].

    PubMed

    Herer, B

    2001-04-01

    Musical performance, especially in singers and wind instrument players, depends on an effective pulmonary function. Performing artists may be seriously impaired by respiratory diseases that, comparatively, may produce only modest inconvenience for non-musicians. The report of two cases of respiratory diseases occurring in musicians herein provides an introduction to a review of the interactions between music and the human respiratory system. The following points are considered: epidemiological data; pulmonary function in musicians; favorable effects of music on the respiratory system; description of the main respiratory problems that may affect musicians.

  2. [Does sleep apnea disappear once acromegaly is adequately treated?].

    PubMed

    Bruyneel, M; Haumont, S; Devuyst, F

    2016-05-01

    Acromegaly is a rare hormonal disease related to excessive growth hormone secretion. It can result in a range of complications, including cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic, articular and neoplastic disorders. Among patients with the condition, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome occurs frequently and the effect of treatment is inconstant: improvement, statu quo or deterioration can be observed. We here report three clinical cases, which illustrate the unpredictable evolution of this condition.

  3. Narita Target Heart Rate Equation Underestimates the Predicted Adequate Exercise Level in Sedentary Young Boys

    PubMed Central

    Siahkouhian, Marefat; Khodadadi, Davar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Optimal training intensity and the adequate exercise level for physical fitness is one of the most important interests of coaches and sports physiologists. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the Narita et al target heart rate equation for the adequate exercise training level in sedentary young boys. Methods Forty two sedentary young boys (19.07±1.16 years) undertook a blood lactate transition threshold maximal treadmill test to volitional exhaustion with continuous respiratory gas measurements according to the Craig method. The anaerobic threshold (AT) of the participants then was calculated using the Narita target heart rate equation. Results Hopkin's spreadsheet to obtain confidence limit and the chance of the true difference between gas measurements and Narita target heart rate equation revealed that the Narita equation most likely underestimates the measured anaerobic threshold in sedentary young boys (168.76±15 vs. 130.08±14.36) (Difference ±90% confidence limit: 38.1±18). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed a poor agreement between the criterion method and Narita equation (ICC= 0.03). Conclusion According to the results, the Narita equation underestimates the measured AT. It seems that the Narita equation is a good predictor of aerobic not AT which can be investigated in the future studies. PMID:24427475

  4. 29 CFR 1910.134 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... The program shall be updated as necessary to reflect those changes in workplace conditions that affect... workplace, the employer implements a change schedule for canisters and cartridges that is based on objective information or data that will ensure that canisters and cartridges are changed before the end of their...

  5. Respiratory surveillance of patients with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Spehrs-Ciaffi, Virginia; Fitting, Jean William; Cotting, Jacques; Jeannet, Pierre-Yves

    2009-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is is the most common form of the childhood muscular dystrophies. It follows a predictable clinical course marked by progressive skeletal muscle weakness, lost of ambulation before teen-age and death in early adulthood secondary to respiratory or cardiac failure. Becker muscular dystrophy is less common and has a milder clinical course but also results in respiratory and cardiac failure.Altough recent advances in respiratory care and new technologies have improved the outlook many patients already received only a traditional non-interventional approach. The aims of this work are: to analyse the pathophysiology and natural history of respiratory function in these diseases, to descript their clinical manifestations, to present the diagnostics tools and to provide recommendations for an adequated respiratory care in this particular population based on the updated literature referenced.

  6. Can respiratory physiology predict thermal niches?

    PubMed

    Verberk, Wilco C E P; Bartolini, Fabrizio; Marshall, David J; Pörtner, Hans-O; Terblanche, John S; White, Craig R; Giomi, Folco

    2016-02-01

    Predicting species responses to global warming is the holy grail of climate change science. As temperature directly affects physiological rates, it is clear that a mechanistic understanding of species vulnerability should be grounded in organismal physiology. Here, we review what respiratory physiology can offer the field of thermal ecology, showcasing different perspectives on how respiratory physiology can help explain thermal niches. In water, maintaining adequate oxygen delivery to fuel the higher metabolic rates under warming conditions can become the weakest link, setting thermal tolerance limits. This has repercussions for growth and scaling of metabolic rate. On land, water loss is more likely to become problematic as long as O2 delivery and pH balance can be maintained, potentially constraining species in their normal activity. Therefore, high temperatures need not be lethal, but can still affect the energy intake of an animal, with concomitant consequences for long-term fitness. While respiratory challenges and adaptive responses are diverse, there are clear recurring elements such as oxygen uptake, CO2 excretion, and water homeostasis. We show that respiratory physiology has much to offer the field of thermal ecology and call for an integrative, multivariate view incorporating respiratory challenges, thermal responses, and energetic consequences. Fruitful areas for future research are highlighted.

  7. 42 CFR 84.52 - Respiratory hazards; classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respiratory hazards; classification. 84.52 Section... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Classification of Approved Respirators; Scope of Approval; Atmospheric Hazards; Service Time § 84.52...

  8. 42 CFR 84.52 - Respiratory hazards; classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Respiratory hazards; classification. 84.52 Section... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Classification of Approved Respirators; Scope of Approval; Atmospheric Hazards; Service Time § 84.52...

  9. 42 CFR 84.52 - Respiratory hazards; classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Respiratory hazards; classification. 84.52 Section... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Classification of Approved Respirators; Scope of Approval; Atmospheric Hazards; Service Time § 84.52...

  10. 42 CFR 84.52 - Respiratory hazards; classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Respiratory hazards; classification. 84.52 Section... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Classification of Approved Respirators; Scope of Approval; Atmospheric Hazards; Service Time § 84.52...

  11. 42 CFR 84.52 - Respiratory hazards; classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Respiratory hazards; classification. 84.52 Section... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Classification of Approved Respirators; Scope of Approval; Atmospheric Hazards; Service Time § 84.52...

  12. Army General Fund Adjustments Not Adequately Documented or Supported

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-26

    statements were unreliable and lacked an adequate audit trail. Furthermore, DoD and Army managers could not rely on the data in their accounting...risk that AGF financial statements will be materially misstated and the Army will not achieve audit readiness by the congressionally mandated...and $6.5 trillion in yearend adjustments made to Army General Fund data during FY 2015 financial statement compilation. We conducted this audit in

  13. Early complications. Respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Zwischenberger, J B; Alpard, S K; Bidani, A

    1999-08-01

    Pulmonary complications following thoracic surgery are common and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Respiratory failure after pneumonectomy occurs in approximately 5% to 15% of cases and significantly increases patient mortality. Strategies for ventilator support are based on the nature of the underlying complication and the pathophysiology of respiratory failure. This article describes the cause and pathophysiology of respiratory failure and pulmonary embolus postpneumonectomy. Diagnosis, management, and innovative therapies are also reviewed.

  14. 75 FR 74022 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory that represented a significant departure from... Laboratory Plutonium Facility Seismic Safety. The Board followed up its Recommendation with a letter to the... of the DSA for the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility in December 2008...

  15. Contemporary Proton Therapy Systems Adequately Protect Patients from Exposure to Stray Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Fontenot, Jonas D.; Taddei, Phillip J.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Giebeler, Annelise; Zhang Rui; Mahajan, Anita; Kornguth, David; Stovall, Marilyn; Woo, Shiao; Mohan, Radhe; Yepes, Pablo

    2009-03-10

    Proton beam therapy has provided safe and effective treatments for a variety of adult cancers. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in utilizing proton therapy for pediatric cancers because it allows better sparing of healthy tissues. Minimizing exposures of normal tissues is especially important in children because they are highly susceptible to consequential late effects, including the development of a radiogenic second cancer, which may occur years or even decades after treatment of the first cancer. While the dosimetric advantage of therapeutic proton beams is well understood, relatively little attention has been paid to the whole-body exposure to stray neutron radiation that is inherent in proton therapy. In this report, we review the physical processes that lead to neutron exposures, discuss the potential for mitigating these exposures using advanced proton beam delivery systems, and present a comparative analysis of predicted second cancer incidence following various external beam therapies. In addition, we discuss uncertainties in the relative biological effectiveness of neutrons for carcinogenesis and the impact that these uncertainties have on second-cancer risk predictions for survivors of adult and childhood cancer who receive proton therapy.

  16. Contemporary Proton Therapy Systems Adequately Protect Patients from Exposure to Stray Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Fontenot, Jonas D.; Taddei, Phillip J.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Giebeler, Annelise; Zhang, Rui; Mahajan, Anita; Kornguth, David; Stovall, Marilyn; Yepes, Pablo; Woo, Shiao; Mohan, Radhe

    2009-03-01

    Proton beam therapy has provided safe and effective treatments for a variety of adult cancers. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in utilizing proton therapy for pediatric cancers because it allows better sparing of healthy tissues. Minimizing exposures of normal tissues is especially important in children because they are highly susceptible to consequential late effects, including the development of a radiogenic second cancer, which may occur years or even decades after treatment of the first cancer. While the dosimetric advantage of therapeutic proton beams is well understood, relatively little attention has been paid to the whole-body exposure to stray neutron radiation that is inherent in proton therapy. In this report, we review the physical processes that lead to neutron exposures, discuss the potential for mitigating these exposures using advanced proton beam delivery systems, and present a comparative analysis of predicted second cancer incidence following various external beam therapies. In addition, we discuss uncertainties in the relative biological effectiveness of neutrons for carcinogenesis and the impact that these uncertainties have on second-cancer risk predictions for survivors of adult and childhood cancer who receive proton therapy.

  17. The human respiratory gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckberg, Dwain L.

    2003-01-01

    Respiratory activity phasically alters membrane potentials of preganglionic vagal and sympathetic motoneurones and continuously modulates their responsiveness to stimulatory inputs. The most obvious manifestation of this 'respiratory gating' is respiratory sinus arrhythmia, the rhythmic fluctuations of electrocardiographic R-R intervals observed in healthy resting humans. Phasic autonomic motoneurone firing, reflecting the throughput of the system, depends importantly on the intensity of stimulatory inputs, such that when levels of stimulation are low (as with high arterial pressure and sympathetic activity, or low arterial pressure and vagal activity), respiratory fluctuations of sympathetic or vagal firing are also low. The respiratory gate has a finite capacity, and high levels of stimulation override the ability of respiration to gate autonomic responsiveness. Autonomic throughput also depends importantly on other factors, including especially, the frequency of breathing, the rate at which the gate opens and closes. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is small at rapid, and large at slow breathing rates. The strong correlation between systolic pressure and R-R intervals at respiratory frequencies reflects the influence of respiration on these two measures, rather than arterial baroreflex physiology. A wide range of evidence suggests that respiratory activity gates the timing of autonomic motoneurone firing, but does not influence its tonic level. I propose that the most enduring significance of respiratory gating is its use as a precisely controlled experimental tool to tease out and better understand otherwise inaccessible human autonomic neurophysiological mechanisms.

  18. Terrestrial reserve networks do not adequately represent aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Matthew E; McIntyre, Peter B; Doran, Patrick J; Allan, J David; Abell, Robin

    2010-08-01

    Protected areas are a cornerstone of conservation and have been designed largely around terrestrial features. Freshwater species and ecosystems are highly imperiled, but the effectiveness of existing protected areas in representing freshwater features is poorly known. Using the inland waters of Michigan as a test case, we quantified the coverage of four key freshwater features (wetlands, riparian zones, groundwater recharge, rare species) within conservation lands and compared these with representation of terrestrial features. Wetlands were included within protected areas more often than expected by chance, but riparian zones were underrepresented across all (GAP 1-3) protected lands, particularly for headwater streams and large rivers. Nevertheless, within strictly protected lands (GAP 1-2), riparian zones were highly represented because of the contribution of the national Wild and Scenic Rivers Program. Representation of areas of groundwater recharge was generally proportional to area of the reserve network within watersheds, although a recharge hotspot associated with some of Michigan's most valued rivers is almost entirely unprotected. Species representation in protected areas differed significantly among obligate aquatic, wetland, and terrestrial species, with representation generally highest for terrestrial species and lowest for aquatic species. Our results illustrate the need to further evaluate and address the representation of freshwater features within protected areas and the value of broadening gap analysis and other protected-areas assessments to include key ecosystem processes that are requisite to long-term conservation of species and ecosystems. We conclude that terrestrially oriented protected-area networks provide a weak safety net for aquatic features, which means complementary planning and management for both freshwater and terrestrial conservation targets is needed.

  19. Mechanical Ventilation during Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Patients with Acute Severe Respiratory Failure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Gu, Wan-Jie; Chen, Kun; Ni, Hongying

    2017-01-01

    Conventionally, a substantial number of patients with acute respiratory failure require mechanical ventilation (MV) to avert catastrophe of hypoxemia and hypercapnia. However, mechanical ventilation per se can cause lung injury, accelerating the disease progression. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides an alternative to rescue patients with severe respiratory failure that conventional mechanical ventilation fails to maintain adequate gas exchange. The physiology behind ECMO and its interaction with MV were reviewed. Next, we discussed the timing of ECMO initiation based on the risks and benefits of ECMO. During the running of ECMO, the protective ventilation strategy can be employed without worrying about catastrophic hypoxemia and carbon dioxide retention. There is a large body of evidence showing that protective ventilation with low tidal volume, high positive end-expiratory pressure, and prone positioning can provide benefits on mortality outcome. More recently, there is an increasing popularity on the use of awake and spontaneous breathing for patients undergoing ECMO, which is thought to be beneficial in terms of rehabilitation.

  20. Mechanical Ventilation during Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Patients with Acute Severe Respiratory Failure

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Wan-Jie; Chen, Kun; Ni, Hongying

    2017-01-01

    Conventionally, a substantial number of patients with acute respiratory failure require mechanical ventilation (MV) to avert catastrophe of hypoxemia and hypercapnia. However, mechanical ventilation per se can cause lung injury, accelerating the disease progression. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides an alternative to rescue patients with severe respiratory failure that conventional mechanical ventilation fails to maintain adequate gas exchange. The physiology behind ECMO and its interaction with MV were reviewed. Next, we discussed the timing of ECMO initiation based on the risks and benefits of ECMO. During the running of ECMO, the protective ventilation strategy can be employed without worrying about catastrophic hypoxemia and carbon dioxide retention. There is a large body of evidence showing that protective ventilation with low tidal volume, high positive end-expiratory pressure, and prone positioning can provide benefits on mortality outcome. More recently, there is an increasing popularity on the use of awake and spontaneous breathing for patients undergoing ECMO, which is thought to be beneficial in terms of rehabilitation. PMID:28127231

  1. Elements for adequate informed consent in the surgical context.

    PubMed

    Abaunza, Hernando; Romero, Klaus

    2014-07-01

    Given a history of atrocities and violations of ethical principles, several documents and regulations have been issued by a wide variety of organizations. They aim at ensuring that health care and clinical research adhere to defined ethical principles. A fundamental component was devised to ensure that the individual has been provided the necessary information to make an informed decision regarding health care or participation in clinical research. This article summarizes the history and regulations for informed consent and discusses suggested components for adequate consent forms for daily clinical practice in surgery as well as clinical research.

  2. Region 5: Ohio Parkersburg Adequate Letter (4/18/2007)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency determined the 2009 and 2018 motor vehicle emission budgets for (MVEBs) for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for Washington County 8-hour ozone nonattainment

  3. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  4. Living with Respiratory Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... smoking. Emotional Issues and Support Living with respiratory failure may cause fear, anxiety, depression, and stress. Talk about how you feel with your health care team. Talking to a professional counselor also can ... to living with respiratory failure. You can see how other people who have ...

  5. Respiratory Care Therapist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of respiratory care therapist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 18 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of respiratory care therapist. The following…

  6. Prostate cancer between prognosis and adequate/proper therapy

    PubMed Central

    Grozescu, T; Popa, F

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the indolent, non-invasive nature of most types of prostate cancer, as well as the simple fact that the disease seems more likely to be associated with age rather than with other factors (50% of men at the age of 50 and 80% at the age of 80 have it [1], with or without presenting any symptom), the big challenge of this clinical entity was to determine severity indicators (so far insufficient) to guide the physician towards an adequate attitude in the clinical setting. The risk of over-diagnosing and over-treating many prostate cancer cases (indicated by all the major European and American studies) is real and poses many question marks. The present paper was meant to deliver new research data and to reset the clinical approach in prostate cancer cases. PMID:28255369

  7. The cerebellopontine angle: does the translabyrinthine approach give adequate access?

    PubMed

    Fagan, P A; Sheehy, J P; Chang, P; Doust, B D; Coakley, D; Atlas, M D

    1998-05-01

    A long-standing but unfounded criticism of the translabyrinthine approach is the misperception that this approach does not give adequate access to the cerebellopontine angle. Because of what is perceived as limited visualization and operating space within the cerebellopontine angle, some surgeons still believe that the translabyrinthine approach is inappropriate for large acoustic tumors. In this study, the surgical access to the cerebellopontine angle by virtue of the translabyrinthine approach is measured and analyzed. The parameters are compared with those measured for the retrosigmoid approach. This series objectively confirms that the translabyrinthine approach offers the neurotologic surgeon a shorter operative depth to the tumor, via a similar-sized craniotomy. This permits superior visualization by virtue of a wider angle of surgical access. Such access is achieved with the merit of minimal cerebellar retraction.

  8. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; P<0.01) and improved adequacy of received services (95.04% versus 83.8%; P=0.02). Conclusion The poor prenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  9. Neural Control of the Upper Airway: Respiratory and State-Dependent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kubin, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    Upper airway muscles subserve many essential for survival orofacial behaviors, including their important role as accessory respiratory muscles. In the face of certain predisposition of craniofacial anatomy, both tonic and phasic inspiratory activation of upper airway muscles is necessary to protect the upper airway against collapse. This protective action is adequate during wakefulness, but fails during sleep which results in recurrent episodes of hypopneas and apneas, a condition known as the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA). Although OSA is almost exclusively a human disorder, animal models help unveil the basic principles governing the impact of sleep on breathing and upper airway muscle activity. This article discusses the neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and neurophysiology of the different neuronal systems whose activity changes with sleep-wake states, such as the noradrenergic, serotonergic, cholinergic, orexinergic, histaminergic, GABAergic and glycinergic, and their impact on central respiratory neurons and upper airway motoneurons. Observations of the interactions between sleep-wake states and upper airway muscles in healthy humans and OSA patients are related to findings from animal models with normal upper airway, and various animal models of OSA, including the chronic-intermittent hypoxia model. Using a framework of upper airway motoneurons being under concurrent influence of central respiratory, reflex and state-dependent inputs, different neurotransmitters, and neuropeptides are considered as either causing a sleep-dependent withdrawal of excitation from motoneurons or mediating an active, sleep-related inhibition of motoneurons. Information about the neurochemistry of state-dependent control of upper airway muscles accumulated to date reveals fundamental principles and may help understand and treat OSA. PMID:27783860

  10. Numerical simulation of volume-controlled mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Zhang, Bolun; Cai, Maolin; Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas

    2016-11-09

    Mechanical ventilation is a key therapy for patients who cannot breathe adequately by themselves, and dynamics of mechanical ventilation system is of great significance for life support of patients. Recently, models of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 1 lung are used to simulate the respiratory system of patients. However, humans have 2 lungs. When the respiratory characteristics of 2 lungs are different, a single-lung model cannot reflect real respiratory system. In this paper, to illustrate dynamic characteristics of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs, we propose a mathematical model of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs and conduct experiments to verify the model. Furthermore, we study the dynamics of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs. This research study can be used for improving the efficiency and safety of volume-controlled mechanical ventilation system.

  11. Vaccination with a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome modified live virus vaccine followed by challenge with PRRSV and porcine circovirus type 2 protects against PRRS but enhances PCV2 replication and parthogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Co-infections involving porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) contribute to a group of disease syndromes known as porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD). Presumably, PRRSV infection enhances PCV2 replication as a result of modulation...

  12. Other Community Respiratory Viruses.

    PubMed

    Wunderink, Richard G

    2017-03-01

    Polymerase chain reaction-based diagnosis has become the standard for viral pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. Expansion of respiratory viral panels (RVPs) outside of influenza and, possibly, respiratory syncytial virus has led to the ability to diagnose viral infections for which no approved specific antiviral treatment exists. Careful clinical evaluation of the patient with a positive RVP is, therefore, critical given the limited repertoire of treatments. Generic treatments with intravenous immunoglobulin, ribavirin, and interferons may benefit select severe viral pneumonia patients, whereas cidofovir has activity for severe adenoviral pneumonia.

  13. Respiratory medicine of reptiles.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Juergen

    2011-05-01

    Noninfectious and infectious causes have been implicated in the development of respiratory tract disease in reptiles. Treatment modalities in reptiles have to account for species differences in response to therapeutic agents as well as interpretation of diagnostic findings. Data on effective drugs and dosages for the treatment of respiratory diseases are often lacking in reptiles. Recently, advances have been made on the application of advanced imaging modalities, especially computed tomography for the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of reptiles. This article describes common infectious and noninfectious causes of respiratory disease in reptiles, including diagnostic and therapeutic regimen.

  14. Respiratory infections in the young child.

    PubMed

    Peltola, H

    1993-11-01

    Infants and young children are prone to respiratory infections for at least immunological, physiological and social reasons. Their inherent immunity diminishes within months after birth. Immunological protection has to be developed naturally through infection or artificially by immunization. The alveoli continue to increase in number throughout infancy, but the pulmonary reserve remains very limited. Low lung recoil, floppy chest wall and weak respiratory muscles add to the risk of atelectasis of the growing lung. Social factors, e.g. day care, passive smoking and personal hygiene, are of even more pratical importance as they can be influential. In selecting appropriate treatment, it is not sufficient simply to prescribe an antimicrobial agent; these additional factors should also be taken into account. Treatment of respiratory infections in the young is sometimes more of an art than a science.

  15. The microbiota of the respiratory tract: gatekeeper to respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Man, Wing Ho; de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-03-20

    The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts as a gatekeeper that provides resistance to colonization by respiratory pathogens. The respiratory microbiota might also be involved in the maturation and maintenance of homeostasis of respiratory physiology and immunity. The ecological and environmental factors that direct the development of microbial communities in the respiratory tract and how these communities affect respiratory health are the focus of current research. Concurrently, the functions of the microbiome of the upper and lower respiratory tract in the physiology of the human host are being studied in detail. In this Review, we will discuss the epidemiological, biological and functional evidence that support the physiological role of the respiratory microbiota in the maintenance of human health.

  16. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) using indirect immunofluorescence technique. Biology & Genetics For more than 50 years, NIAID’s commitment ... Nucleotide Polymorphism Phylogenetics & Ontology Proteomics & Protein Analysis Systems Biology Data Portals Software Applications BCBB Mobyle Interface Designer ( ...

  17. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes mild, cold-like symptoms in adults and older healthy children. It can cause serious problems in ... tests can tell if your child has the virus. There is no specific treatment. You should give ...

  18. Respiratory muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Katharine L; Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C

    2005-07-28

    Plasticity of respiratory muscles must be considered in the context of their unique physiological demands. The continuous rhythmic activation of respiratory muscles makes them among the most active in the body. Respiratory muscles, especially the diaphragm, are non-weight-bearing, and thus, in contrast to limb muscles, are not exposed to gravitational effects. Perturbations in normal activation and load known to induce plasticity in limb muscles may not cause similar adaptations in respiratory muscles. In this review, we explore the structural and functional properties of the diaphragm muscle and their response to alterations in load and activity. Overall, relatively modest changes in diaphragm structural and functional properties occur in response to perturbations in load or activity. However, disruptions in the normal influence of phrenic innervation by frank denervation, tetrodotoxin nerve block and spinal hemisection, induce profound changes in the diaphragm, indicating the substantial trophic influence of phrenic motoneurons on diaphragm muscle.

  19. Noninvasive respiratory monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Nochomovitz, M.L.; Cherniack, N.S.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Transcutaneous Monitoring of Respiratory Gases; Computed Tomography of the Chest; Measurement and Monitoring of Exhaled Carbon Dioxide; Oximetry; and Ultrasonic Evaluation of the Chest Wall and Pleura.

  20. What Causes Respiratory Failure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Causing Respiratory Failure Figure A shows the location of the lungs, airways, diaphragm, rib cage, pulmonary arteries, brain, and spinal cord ... STATEMENT FOIA NO FEAR ACT OIG CONTACT US ...

  1. Systemic Crisis of Civilization: In Search for Adequate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khozin, Grigori

    In December 1972 a jumbo jet crashed in the Florida Everglades with the loss of 101 lives. The pilot, distracted by a minor malfunction, failed to note until too late the warning signal that - correctly - indicated an impending disaster. His sudden, astonished cry of Hey, what happening here? were his last words 1. Three decades after this tragic episode, as the Humankind approaches the threshold of the third Millennium, the problem of adequate reaction to warning signals of different nature and of distinguishing minor malfunctions in everyday life of society, in economy and technology as well as in evolution of biosphere from grave threats to the world community and the phenomenon of life on our planet remains crucial to human survival and the future of Civilization. Rational use of knowledge and technology available to the world community remains in this context the corner stone of discussions on the destiny of the intelligent life both on the planet Earth and in the Universe (the fact of intelligent life in the Universe is to be detected by the Humankind)…

  2. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  3. DARHT -- an adequate EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    In April 1996 the US District Court in Albuquerque ruled that the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), prepared by the Los Alamos Area Office, US Department of Energy (DOE), was adequate. The DARHT EIS had been prepared in the face of a lawsuit in only 10 months, a third of the time usually allotted for a DOE EIS, and for only a small fraction of the cost of a typical DOE EIS, and for only a small fraction of the cost of a typical DOE EIS. It subject was the first major facility to be built in decades for the DOE nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. It was the first EIS to be prepared for a proposal at DOE`s Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1979, and the first ever prepared by the Los Alamos Area Office. Much of the subject matter was classified. The facility had been specially designed to minimize impacts to a nearby prehistoric Native American ruin, and extensive consultation with American Indian Pueblos was required. The week that the draft EIS was published Laboratory biologists identified a previously unknown pair of Mexican spotted owls in the immediate vicinity of the project, bringing into play the consultation requirements of the Endangered Species Act. In spite of these obstacles, the resultant DARHT EIS was reviewed by the court and found to meet all statutory and regulatory requirements; the court praised the treatment of the classified material which served as a basis for the environmental analysis.

  4. Are the current Australian sun exposure guidelines effective in maintaining adequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D?

    PubMed

    Kimlin, Michael; Sun, Jiandong; Sinclair, Craig; Heward, Sue; Hill, Jane; Dunstone, Kimberley; Brodie, Alison

    2016-01-01

    An adequate vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, is important in humans for maintenance of healthy bones and muscle function. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed in participants from Melbourne, Australia (37.81S, 144.96E), who were provided with the current Australian guidelines on sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy (25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L). Participants were interviewed in February (summer, n=104) and August (winter, n=99) of 2013. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was examined as a function of measures of sun exposure and sun protection habits with control of key characteristics such as dietary intake of vitamin D, body mass index (BMI) and skin colour, that may modify this relationship. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in participants who complied with the current sun exposure guidelines was 67.3 nmol/L in summer and 41.9 nmol/L in winter. At the end of the study, 69.3% of participants who complied with the summer sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate, while only 27.6% of participants who complied with the winter sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate at the end of the study. The results suggest that the current Australian guidelines for sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy are effective for most in summer and ineffective for most in winter. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  5. Clinical experience with respiratory syncytial virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Piedra, Pedro A

    2003-02-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is at times associated with life-threatening lower respiratory tract illness in infancy. Severe infection during the first year of life may be an important risk factor or indicator for the development of asthma in early childhood. Severe infections primarily occur in healthy infants, and young infants and children with specific risk factors. However, RSV causes respiratory infections in all age groups. Indeed it is now recognized that RSV disease is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in the geriatric population. RSV infection remains difficult to treat, and prevention is a worldwide goal. For this reason there has been an intensive effort to develop an effective and safe RSV vaccine. Initial infection with RSV affords limited protection to reinfection, yet repeated episodes decrease the risk for lower respiratory tract illness. In the 20 years from 1960 to 1980, trials of several candidate RSV vaccines failed to attain the desired safety and protection against natural infection. Some vaccine types either failed to elicit immunogenicity, as with the live subcutaneous vaccine, or resulted in exaggerated disease on natural exposure to the virus, as with the formalin-inactivated (FI) type. Currently vaccine candidates are being developed based on the molecular virology of RSV. Recent formulations of candidate RSV vaccines have focused on subunit vaccines [such as purified fusion protein (PFP)], subunit vaccines combined with nonspecific immune activating adjuvants, live attenuated vaccines (including cold passaged, temperature-sensitive or cpts mutants), genetically engineered live attenuated vaccines and polypeptide vaccines.

  6. Tuberculosis Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities: Environmental Control and Personal Protection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Yeon

    2016-10-01

    Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) is a recognized risk to patients and healthcare workers in healthcare settings. The literature review suggests that implementation of combination control measures reduces the risk of TB transmission. Guidelines suggest a three-level hierarchy of controls including administrative, environmental, and respiratory protection. Among environmental controls, installation of ventilation systems is a priority because ventilation reduces the number of infectious particles in the air. Natural ventilation is cost-effective but depends on climatic conditions. Supplemented intervention such as air-cleaning methods including high efficiency particulate air filtration and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation should be considered in areas where adequate ventilation is difficult to achieve. Personal protective equipment including particulate respirators provides additional benefit when administrative and environmental controls cannot assure protection.

  7. Tuberculosis Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities: Environmental Control and Personal Protection

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) is a recognized risk to patients and healthcare workers in healthcare settings. The literature review suggests that implementation of combination control measures reduces the risk of TB transmission. Guidelines suggest a three-level hierarchy of controls including administrative, environmental, and respiratory protection. Among environmental controls, installation of ventilation systems is a priority because ventilation reduces the number of infectious particles in the air. Natural ventilation is cost-effective but depends on climatic conditions. Supplemented intervention such as air-cleaning methods including high efficiency particulate air filtration and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation should be considered in areas where adequate ventilation is difficult to achieve. Personal protective equipment including particulate respirators provides additional benefit when administrative and environmental controls cannot assure protection. PMID:27790274

  8. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  9. Are Vancomycin Trough Concentrations Adequate for Optimal Dosing?

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Gilmer; Jones, Brenda; Jelliffe, Roger W.; Drusano, George L.; Rodvold, Keith A.; Lodise, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The current vancomycin therapeutic guidelines recommend the use of only trough concentrations to manage the dosing of adults with Staphylococcus aureus infections. Both vancomycin efficacy and toxicity are likely to be related to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). We assembled richly sampled vancomycin pharmacokinetic data from three studies comprising 47 adults with various levels of renal function. With Pmetrics, the nonparametric population modeling package for R, we compared AUCs estimated from models derived from trough-only and peak-trough depleted versions of the full data set and characterized the relationship between the vancomycin trough concentration and AUC. The trough-only and peak-trough depleted data sets underestimated the true AUCs compared to the full model by a mean (95% confidence interval) of 23% (11 to 33%; P = 0.0001) and 14% (7 to 19%; P < 0.0001), respectively. In contrast, using the full model as a Bayesian prior with trough-only data allowed 97% (93 to 102%; P = 0.23) accurate AUC estimation. On the basis of 5,000 profiles simulated from the full model, among adults with normal renal function and a therapeutic AUC of ≥400 mg · h/liter for an organism for which the vancomycin MIC is 1 mg/liter, approximately 60% are expected to have a trough concentration below the suggested minimum target of 15 mg/liter for serious infections, which could result in needlessly increased doses and a risk of toxicity. Our data indicate that adjustment of vancomycin doses on the basis of trough concentrations without a Bayesian tool results in poor achievement of maximally safe and effective drug exposures in plasma and that many adults can have an adequate vancomycin AUC with a trough concentration of <15 mg/liter. PMID:24165176

  10. Is clinical measurement of anatomic axis of the femur adequate?

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Chuan

    2017-03-23

    Background and purpose - The accuracy of using clinical measurement from the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) to the center of the knee to determine an anatomic axis of the femur has rarely been studied. A radiographic technique with a full-length standing scanogram (FLSS) was used to assess the adequacy of the clinical measurement. Patients and methods - 100 consecutive young adult patients (mean age 34 (20-40) years) with chronic unilateral lower extremity injuries were studied. The pelvis and intact contralateral lower extremity images in the FLSS were selected for study. The angles between the tibial axis and the femoral shaft anatomic axis (S-AA), the piriformis anatomic axis (P-AA), the clinical anatomic axis (C-AA), and the mechanical axis (MA) were compared between sexes. Results - Only the S-AA and C-AA angles were statistically significantly different in the 100 patients (3.6° vs. 2.8°; p = 0.03). There was a strong correlation between S-AA, P-AA, and C-AA angles (r > 0.9). The average intersecting angle between MA and S-AA in the femur in the 100 patients was 5.5°, and it was 4.8° between MA and C-AA. Interpretation - Clinical measurement of an anatomic axis from the ASIS to the center of the knee may be an adequate and acceptable method to determine lower extremity alignment. The optimal inlet for antegrade femoral intramedullary nailing may be the lateral edge of the piriformis fossa.

  11. Anesthesia and Postoperative Respiratory Compromise Following Major Lower Extremity Surgery: Implications for Combat Casualties.

    PubMed

    Galvagno, Samuel M; Brayanov, Jordan; Williams, George; George, Edward E

    2017-03-01

    Care of military casualties requires not only assessment of patient, injury, and setting, but also the consequences of care decisions on other organ systems. In contemporary conflicts, pelviperineal and lower extremity trauma are common injuries, yet the optimal perioperative anesthetic and analgesic care remains unclear. Residual anesthesia and opioids can cause respiratory depression, specifically postoperative respiratory depression and opioid-induced respiratory depression. This observational study quantified and compared the incidences of respiratory depression following general anesthesia (GA) and spinal anesthesia (SA) for lower extremity surgery. Respiratory data were collected from 173 patients receiving either GA (n = 43) or SA (n = 130) via a bioimpedance-based respiratory volume monitor. Patients were further subdivided by postoperative opioid administration. The overall incidence of respiratory depression was significantly higher in the SA group (48/130 vs. 6/43, p = 0.004). These findings suggest that, while SA may be considered the safer alternative, it may in fact introduce confounding factors, which increase the risk of respiratory depression. Ensuring adequate respiratory status is particularly critical for the military population, as combat casualties are often monitored in understaffed environments following surgery. Using an SA strategy instead of GA may not prevent postoperative respiratory depression, and respiratory volume monitor monitoring may be useful to optimize care.

  12. Recombinant bovine respiratory syncytial virus with deletion of the SH gene induces increased apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro, and is attenuated and induces protective immunity in calves.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Geraldine; Wyld, Sara; Valarcher, Jean-Francois; Guzman, Efrain; Thom, Michelle; Widdison, Stephanie; Buchholz, Ursula J

    2014-06-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) causes inflammation and obstruction of the small airways, leading to severe respiratory disease in young calves. The virus is closely related to human (H)RSV, a major cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in young children. The ability to manipulate the genome of RSV has provided opportunities for the development of stable, live attenuated RSV vaccines. The role of the SH protein in the pathogenesis of BRSV was evaluated in vitro and in vivo using a recombinant (r)BRSV in which the SH gene had been deleted. Infection of bovine epithelial cells and monocytes with rBRSVΔSH, in vitro, resulted in an increase in apoptosis, and higher levels of TNF-α and IL-1β compared with cells infected with parental, wild-type (WT) rBRSV. Although replication of rBRSVΔSH and WT rBRSV, in vitro, were similar, the replication of rBRSVΔSH was moderately reduced in the lower, but not the upper, respiratory tract of experimentally infected calves. Despite the greater ability of rBRSVΔSH to induce pro-inflammatory cytokines, in vitro, the pulmonary inflammatory response in rBRSVΔSH-infected calves was significantly reduced compared with that in calves inoculated with WT rBRSV, 6 days previously. Virus lacking SH appeared to be as immunogenic and effective in inducing resistance to virulent virus challenge, 6 months later, as the parental rBRSV. These findings suggest that rBRSVΔSH may be an ideal live attenuated virus vaccine candidate, combining safety with a high level of immunogenicity.

  13. Respiratory factors limiting exercise.

    PubMed

    Bye, P T; Farkas, G A; Roussos, C

    1983-01-01

    The question of respiratory factors limiting exercise has been examined in terms of possible limitations arising from the function of gas exchange, the respiratory mechanics, the energetics of the respiratory muscles, or the development of respiratory muscle fatigue. Exercise capacity is curtailed in the presence of marked hypoxia, and this is readily observed in patients with chronic airflow limitation and interstitial lung disease and in some athletes at high intensities of exercise. In patients with interstitial lung disease, gas exchange abnormality--partly the result of diffusion disequilibrium for oxygen transfer--occurs during exercise despite abnormally high ventilations. In contrast, in certain athletes arterial hypoxemia has been documented during heavy exercise, apparently as a result of relative hypoventilation. During strenuous exercise the maximum expiratory flow volume curves are attained both by patients with chronic airflow limitation and by normal subjects, in particular when they breathe dense gas, so that a mechanical constraint is imposed on further increases in ventilation. Similarly, the force velocity characteristics of the inspiratory muscles may also impose a constraint to further increases in inspiratory flows that affects the ability to increase ventilation. In addition, the oxygen cost of maintaining high ventilations is large. Analysis of results from blood flow experiments reveal a substantial increase in blood flow to the respiratory muscles during exercise, with the result that oxygen supply to the rest of the body may be lessened. Alternatively, high exercise ventilations may not be sustained indefinitely owing to the development of respiratory muscle fatigue that results in hypoventilation and reduced arterial oxygen tension.

  14. What You Can Do to Protect Children from Environmental Risks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Tips for protection from pesticides, chemical poisoning, lead poisoning, respiratory problems, carbon monoxide poisoning, contaminated fish, radon, too much sun, and mercury. Also how to promote healthier communities.

  15. Upper and lower respiratory diseases after occupational and environmental disasters.

    PubMed

    Prezant, David J; Levin, Stephen; Kelly, Kerry J; Aldrich, Thomas K

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory consequences from occupational and environmental disasters are the result of inhalation exposures to chemicals, particulate matter (dusts and fibers) and/or the incomplete products of combustion that are often liberated during disasters such as fires, building collapses, explosions and volcanoes. Unfortunately, experience has shown that environmental controls and effective respiratory protection are often unavailable during the first days to week after a large-scale disaster. The English literature was reviewed using the key words-disaster and any of the following: respiratory disease, pulmonary, asthma, bronchitis, sinusitis, pulmonary fibrosis, or sarcoidosis. Respiratory health consequences after aerosolized exposures to high-concentrations of particulates and chemicals can be grouped into 4 major categories: 1) upper respiratory disease (chronic rhinosinusitis and reactive upper airways dysfunction syndrome), 2) lower respiratory diseases (reactive [lower] airways dysfunction syndrome, irritant-induced asthma, and chronic obstructive airways diseases), 3) parenchymal or interstitial lung diseases (sarcoidosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and bronchiolitis obliterans, and 4) cancers of the lung and pleura. This review describes several respiratory consequences of occupational and environmental disasters and uses the World Trade Center disaster to illustrate in detail the consequences of chronic upper and lower respiratory inflammation.

  16. Carotid body chemoreception: mechanisms and dynamic protection against apnea.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, S

    1994-01-01

    A critical role of peripheral chemoreceptors in terminating apnea and in initiating normal breathing has been emphasized. Since these are the only organs which signal hypoxia, failure of its adequate development can contribute to the disease of respiratory failure in neonatal life. The failure may reside in any of the steps from initiation of O2 chemoreception involving respiratory and non-respiratory pigments, ion balance including H+ and Ca2+, neurotransmitter mechanisms and transduction.

  17. Skin protection for hairdressers.

    PubMed

    Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte

    2007-01-01

    The application of protective creams in the hairdressing trade forms part of a complex concept for the prevention of occupational skin disorders. To date, no comparative controlled intervention studies have been carried out using different skin-protective creams. Previously published skin protection plans concerning barrier creams for the hairdressing trade are fairly general or rudimentary, reflecting our still limited knowledge on the subject. Bioengineering studies have even demonstrated a paradoxical effect of a certain skin-protective foam designed for hairdressers. Regarding other barrier creams, a certain protective effect could however be shown in studies concerning exposure to wetness and detergents. Pre-exposition skin protection seems to be of particular relevance. Thus, in principle, the regular application of adequate skin protection creams can be recommended in the hairdressing trade, although the protective effect should not be overvalued.

  18. Respiratory complications related to bulbar dysfunction in motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Hadjikoutis, S; Wiles, C M

    2001-04-01

    Bulbar dysfunction resulting from corticobulbar pathway or brainstem neuron degeneration is one of the most important clinical problems encountered in motor neuron disease (MND) and contributes to various respiratory complications which are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Chronic malnutrition as a consequence of bulbar muscle weakness may have a considerable bearing on respiratory muscle function and survival. Abnormalities of the control and strength of the laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles may cause upper airway obstruction increasing resistance to airflow. Bulbar muscle weakness prevents adequate peak cough flows to clear airway debris. Dysphagia can lead to aspiration of microorganisms, food and liquids and hence pneumonia. MND patients with bulbar involvement commonly display an abnormal respiratory pattern during swallow characterized by inspiration after swallow, prolonged swallow apnoea and multiple swallows per bolus. Volitional respiratory function tests such as forced vital capacity can be inaccurate in patients with bulbofacial weakness and/or impaired volitional respiratory control. Bulbar muscle weakness with abundant secretions may increase the risk of aspiration and make successful non-invasive assisted ventilation more difficult. We conclude that an evaluation of bulbar dysfunction is an essential element in the assessment of respiratory dysfunction in MND.

  19. [Respiratory complications after transfusion].

    PubMed

    Bernasinski, M; Mertes, P-M; Carlier, M; Dupont, H; Girard, M; Gette, S; Just, B; Malinovsky, J-M

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory complications of blood transfusion have several possible causes. Transfusion-Associated Circulatory Overload (TACO) is often the first mentioned. Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI), better defined since the consensus conference of Toronto in 2004, is rarely mentioned. French incidence is low. Non-hemolytic febrile reactions, allergies, infections and pulmonary embolism are also reported. The objective of this work was to determine the statistical importance of the different respiratory complications of blood transfusion. This work was conducted retrospectively on transfusion accidents in six health centers in Champagne-Ardenne, reported to Hemovigilance between 2000 and 2009 and having respiratory symptoms. The analysis of data was conducted by an expert committee. Eighty-three cases of respiratory complications are found (316,864 blood products). We have counted 26 TACO, 12 TRALI (only 6 cases were identified in the original investigation of Hemovigilance), 18 non-hemolytic febrile reactions, 16 cases of allergies, 5 transfusions transmitted bacterial infections and 2 pulmonary embolisms. Six new TRALI were diagnosed previously labeled TACO for 2 of them, allergy and infection in 2 other cases and diagnosis considered unknown for the last 2. Our study found an incidence of TRALI 2 times higher than that reported previously. Interpretation of the data by a multidisciplinary committee amended 20% of diagnoses. This study shows the imperfections of our system for reporting accidents of blood transfusion when a single observer analyses the medical records.

  20. Textbook of respiratory medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.F.; Nadel, J.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a clinical reference of respiratory medicine. It also details basic science aspects of pulmonary physiology and describes recently developed, sophisticated diagnostic tools and therapeutic methods. It also covers anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology; microbiologic, radiologic, nuclear medicine, and biopsy methods for diagnosis.

  1. Respiratory muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Gransee, Heather M; Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C

    2012-04-01

    Muscle plasticity is defined as the ability of a given muscle to alter its structural and functional properties in accordance with the environmental conditions imposed on it. As such, respiratory muscle is in a constant state of remodeling, and the basis of muscle's plasticity is its ability to change protein expression and resultant protein balance in response to varying environmental conditions. Here, we will describe the changes of respiratory muscle imposed by extrinsic changes in mechanical load, activity, and innervation. Although there is a large body of literature on the structural and functional plasticity of respiratory muscles, we are only beginning to understand the molecular-scale protein changes that contribute to protein balance. We will give an overview of key mechanisms regulating protein synthesis and protein degradation, as well as the complex interactions between them. We suggest future application of a systems biology approach that would develop a mathematical model of protein balance and greatly improve treatments in a variety of clinical settings related to maintaining both muscle mass and optimal contractile function of respiratory muscles.

  2. Middle East respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Hui, David S; Perlman, Stanley

    2015-09-05

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a highly lethal respiratory disease caused by a novel single-stranded, positive-sense RNA betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Dromedary camels, hosts for MERS-CoV, are implicated in direct or indirect transmission to human beings, although the exact mode of transmission is unknown. The virus was first isolated from a patient who died from a severe respiratory illness in June, 2012, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. As of May 31, 2015, 1180 laboratory-confirmed cases (483 deaths; 40% mortality) have been reported to WHO. Both community-acquired and hospital-acquired cases have been reported with little human-to-human transmission reported in the community. Although most cases of MERS have occurred in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, cases have been reported in Europe, the USA, and Asia in people who travelled from the Middle East or their contacts. Clinical features of MERS range from asymptomatic or mild disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure resulting in death, especially in individuals with underlying comorbidities. No specific drug treatment exists for MERS and infection prevention and control measures are crucial to prevent spread in health-care facilities. MERS-CoV continues to be an endemic, low-level public health threat. However, the virus could mutate to have increased interhuman transmissibility, increasing its pandemic potential.

  3. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for adult respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Turner, David A; Cheifetz, Ira M

    2013-06-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a form of cardiopulmonary bypass that is a mainstay of therapy in neonatal and pediatric patients with life threatening respiratory and/or cardiac failure. Historically, the use of ECMO in adults has been limited, but recent reports and technological advances have increased utilization and interest in this technology in adult patients with severe respiratory failure. As ECMO is considered in this critically ill population, patient selection, indications, contraindications, comorbidities, and pre-ECMO support are all important considerations. Once the decision is made to cannulate a patient for ECMO, meticulous multi-organ-system management is required, with a priority being placed on lung rest and minimization of ventilator-induced lung injury. Close monitoring is also necessary for complications, some of which are related to ECMO and others secondary to the patient's underlying degree of illness. Despite the risks, reports demonstrate survival > 70% in some circumstances for patients requiring ECMO for refractory respiratory failure. As the utilization of ECMO in adult patients with respiratory failure continues to expand, ongoing discussion and investigation are needed to determine whether ECMO should remain a "rescue" therapy or if earlier ECMO may be beneficial as a lung-protective strategy.

  4. Limited Practice Respiratory Care Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Amy L.

    This 36-46 hour basic respiratory care course has been designed to enhance the skills of health professionals in providing limited respiratory care during those hours when a respiratory care practitioner is not available. Persons taking the course are assumed to have a basic knowledge of anatomy and physiology, administration of medications, and…

  5. Your Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Your Lungs & Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Lungs & Respiratory System Print A A A What's in this article? ... in your body, and they work with your respiratory system to allow you to take in fresh air, ...

  6. Extracorporeal life support for adults with severe acute respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Cypel, Marcelo; Fan, Eddy

    2014-02-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is an artificial means of maintaining adequate oxygenation and carbon dioxide elimination to enable injured lungs to recover from underlying disease. Technological advances have made ECLS devices smaller, less invasive, and easier to use. ECLS might, therefore, represent an important step towards improved management and outcomes of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Nevertheless, rigorous evidence of the ability of ECLS to improve short-term and long-term outcomes is needed before it can be widely implemented. Moreover, how to select patients and the timing and indications for ECLS in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome remain unclear. We describe the physiological principles, the putative risks and benefits, and the clinical evidence supporting the use of ECLS in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Additionally, we discuss controversies and future directions, such as novel technologies and indications, mechanical ventilation of the native lung during ECLS, and ethics considerations.

  7. Climate change and respiratory disease: European Respiratory Society position statement.

    PubMed

    Ayres, J G; Forsberg, B; Annesi-Maesano, I; Dey, R; Ebi, K L; Helms, P J; Medina-Ramón, M; Windt, M; Forastiere, F

    2009-08-01

    Climate change will affect individuals with pre-existing respiratory disease, but the extent of the effect remains unclear. The present position statement was developed on behalf of the European Respiratory Society in order to identify areas of concern arising from climate change for individuals with respiratory disease, healthcare workers in the respiratory sector and policy makers. The statement was developed following a 2-day workshop held in Leuven (Belgium) in March 2008. Key areas of concern for the respiratory community arising from climate change are discussed and recommendations made to address gaps in knowledge. The most important recommendation was the development of more accurate predictive models for predicting the impact of climate change on respiratory health. Respiratory healthcare workers also have an advocatory role in persuading governments and the European Union to maintain awareness and appropriate actions with respect to climate change, and these areas are also discussed in the position statement.

  8. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  9. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  10. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  11. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  12. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  13. Vaccination with a Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) Modified Live Virus Vaccine Followed by Challenge with PRRS Virus and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Protects against PRRS but Enhances PCV2 Replication and Pathogenesis Compared to Results for Nonvaccinated Cochallenged Controls

    PubMed Central

    Bawa, Bhupinder; Serão, Nick V. L.; Trible, Benjamin R.; Kerrigan, Maureen A.; Lunney, Joan K.; Dekkers, Jack C. M.; Rowland, Raymond R. R.

    2015-01-01

    Coinfections involving porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) contribute to a group of disease syndromes known as porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD). Presumably, PRRSV infection enhances PCV2 replication as a result of modulation of host immunity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PCV2 replication and pathogenesis in pigs vaccinated with a PRRS modified live virus (MLV) vaccine and subsequently challenged with a combination of PRRSV and PCV2. During the early postchallenge period, the number of pigs with PRRSV-associated clinical signs was decreased, and average daily gain (ADG) was increased, in the vaccinated group, demonstrating the protective effect of PRRS vaccination. However, during the later postchallenge period, more pigs in the vaccinated group showed increased PCV2 viremia, decreased ADG, increased PCVAD clinical signs, and increased mortality. In this disease model, the early benefits of PRRSV vaccination were outweighed by the later amplification of PCVAD. PMID:26446422

  14. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Worker Respiratory Health.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Diane; Arteaga, Veronica; Armitage, Tracey; Mitloehner, Frank; Tancredi, Daniel; Kenyon, Nicholas; Schenker, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare respiratory health of poultry workers in conventional cage, enriched cage and aviary layer housing on a single commercial facility, motivated by changing requirements for humane housing of hens. Three workers were randomly assigned daily, one to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary housing in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods (for a total of 123 worker-days, eight different workers). Workers' exposure to particles were assessed (Arteaga et al. J Agromedicine. 2015;20:this issue) and spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, respiratory symptoms, and questionnaires were conducted pre- and post-shift. Personal exposures to particles and endotoxin were significantly higher in the aviary than the other housings (Arteaga et al., 2015). The use of respiratory protection was high; the median usage was 70% of the shift. Mixed-effects multivariate regression models of respiratory cross-shift changes were marginally significant, but the aviary system consistently posted the highest decrements for forced expiratory volume in 1 and 6 seconds (FEV1 and FEV6) compared with the enriched or conventional housing. The adjusted mean difference in FEV1 aviary - enriched cage housing was -47 mL/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): (-99 to 4.9), P = .07. Similarly, for FEV6, aviary - conventional housing adjusted mean difference was -52.9 mL/6 s, 95% CI: (-108 to 2.4), P = .06. Workers adopting greater than median use of respiratory protection were less likely to exhibit negative cross-shift pulmonary function changes. Although aviary housing exposed workers to significantly higher respiratory exposures, cross-shift pulmonary function changes did not differ significantly between houses. Higher levels of mask use were protective; poultry workers should wear respiratory protection as appropriate to avoid health decrements.

  15. Chimeric severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) S glycoprotein and influenza matrix 1 efficiently form virus-like particles (VLPs) that protect mice against challenge with SARS-CoV

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ye V.; Massare, Michael J.; Barnard, Dale L.; Kort, Thomas; Nathan, Margret; Wang, Lei; Smith, Gale

    2011-01-01

    SARS-CoV was the cause of the global pandemic in 2003 that infected over 8000 people in 8 months. Vaccines against SARS are still not available. We developed a novel method to produce high levels of a recombinant SARS virus-like particles (VLPs) vaccine containing the SARS spike (S) protein and the influenza M1 protein using the baculovirus insect cell expression system. These chimeric SARS VLPs have a similar size and morphology to the wild type SARS-CoV. We tested the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of purified chimeric SARS VLPs and full length SARS S protein vaccines in a mouse lethal challenge model. The SARS VLP vaccine, containing 0.8 μg of SARS S protein, completely protected mice from death when administered intramuscular (IM) or intranasal (IN) routes in the absence of an adjuvant. Likewise, the SARS VLP vaccine, containing 4 μg of S protein without adjuvant, reduced lung virus titer to below detectable level, protected mice from weight loss, and elicited a high level of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV. Sf9 cell-produced full length purified SARS S protein was also an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV but only when co-administered IM with aluminum hydroxide. SARS-CoV VLPs are highly immunogenic and induce neutralizing antibodies and provide protection against lethal challenge. Sf9 cell-based VLP vaccines are a potential tool to provide protection against novel pandemic agents. PMID:21762752

  16. Chimeric severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) S glycoprotein and influenza matrix 1 efficiently form virus-like particles (VLPs) that protect mice against challenge with SARS-CoV.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye V; Massare, Michael J; Barnard, Dale L; Kort, Thomas; Nathan, Margret; Wang, Lei; Smith, Gale

    2011-09-02

    SARS-CoV was the cause of the global pandemic in 2003 that infected over 8000 people in 8 months. Vaccines against SARS are still not available. We developed a novel method to produce high levels of a recombinant SARS virus-like particles (VLPs) vaccine containing the SARS spike (S) protein and the influenza M1 protein using the baculovirus insect cell expression system. These chimeric SARS VLPs have a similar size and morphology to the wild type SARS-CoV. We tested the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of purified chimeric SARS VLPs and full length SARS S protein vaccines in a mouse lethal challenge model. The SARS VLP vaccine, containing 0.8 μg of SARS S protein, completely protected mice from death when administered intramuscular (IM) or intranasal (IN) routes in the absence of an adjuvant. Likewise, the SARS VLP vaccine, containing 4 μg of S protein without adjuvant, reduced lung virus titer to below detectable level, protected mice from weight loss, and elicited a high level of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV. Sf9 cell-produced full length purified SARS S protein was also an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV but only when co-administered IM with aluminum hydroxide. SARS-CoV VLPs are highly immunogenic and induce neutralizing antibodies and provide protection against lethal challenge. Sf9 cell-based VLP vaccines are a potential tool to provide protection against novel pandemic agents.

  17. Respiratory system mechanics in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kallet, Richard H; Katz, Jeffrey A

    2003-09-01

    Respiratory mechanics research is important to the advancement of ARDS management. Twenty-eight years ago, research on the effects of PEEP and VT indicated that the lungs of ARDS patients did not behave in a manner consistent with homogenously distributed lung injury. Both Suter and colleagues] and Katz and colleagues reported that oxygenation continued to improve as PEEP increased (suggesting lung recruitment), even though static Crs decreased and dead-space ventilation increased (suggesting concurrent lung overdistension). This research strongly suggested that without VT reduction, the favorable effects of PEEP on lung recruitment are offset by lung overdistension at end-inspiration. The implications of these studies were not fully appreciated at that time, in part because the concept of ventilator-associated lung injury was in its nascent state. Ten years later. Gattinoni and colleagues compared measurements of static pressure-volume curves with FRC and CT scans of the chest in ARDS. They found that although PEEP recruits collapsed (primarily dorsal) lung segments, it simultaneously causes overdistension of non-dependent, inflated lung regions. Furthermore, the specific compliance of the aerated, residually healthy lung tissue is essentially normal. The main implication of these findings is that traditional mechanical ventilation practice was injecting excessive volumes of gas into functionally small lungs. Therefore, the emblematic low static Crs measured in ARDS reflects not only surface tension phenomena and recruitment of collapsed airspaces but also overdistension of the remaining healthy lung. The studies reviewed in this article support the concept that lung injury in ARDS is heterogeneously distributed, with resulting disparate mechanical stresses, and indicate the additional complexity from alterations in chest wall mechanics. Most of these studies, however, were published before lung-protective ventilation. Therefore, further studies are needed to

  18. Respiratory Compromise as a New Paradigm for the Care of Vulnerable Hospitalized Patients.

    PubMed

    Morris, Timothy A; Gay, Peter C; MacIntyre, Neil R; Hess, Dean R; Hanneman, Sandra K; Lamberti, James P; Doherty, Dennis E; Chang, Lydia; Seckel, Maureen A

    2017-04-01

    Acute respiratory compromise describes a deterioration in respiratory function with a high likelihood of rapid progression to respiratory failure and death. Identifying patients at risk for respiratory compromise coupled with monitoring of patients who have developed respiratory compromise might allow earlier interventions to prevent or mitigate further decompensation. The National Association for the Medical Direction of Respiratory Care (NAMDRC) organized a workshop meeting with representation from many national societies to address the unmet needs of respiratory compromise from a clinical practice perspective. Respiratory compromise may arise de novo or may complicate preexisting lung disease. The group identified distinct subsets of respiratory compromise that present similar opportunities for early detection and useful intervention to prevent respiratory failure. The subtypes were characterized by the pathophysiological mechanisms they had in common: impaired control of breathing, impaired airway protection, parenchymal lung disease, increased airway resistance, hydrostatic pulmonary edema, and right-ventricular failure. Classification of acutely ill respiratory patients into one or more of these categories may help in selecting the screening and monitoring strategies that are most appropriate for the patient's particular pathophysiology. Standardized screening and monitoring practices for patients with similar mechanisms of deterioration may enhance the ability to predict respiratory failure early and prevent its occurrence.

  19. Respiratory fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotberg, James B.

    2011-02-01

    This article covers several aspects of respiratory fluid mechanics that have been actively investigated by our group over the years. For the most part, the topics involve two-phase flows in the respiratory system with applications to normal and diseased lungs, as well as therapeutic interventions. Specifically, the topics include liquid plug flow in airways and at airway bifurcations as it relates to surfactant, drug, gene, or stem cell delivery into the lung; liquid plug rupture and its damaging effects on underlying airway epithelial cells as well as a source of crackling sounds in the lung; airway closure from "capillary-elastic instabilities," as well as nonlinear stabilization from oscillatory core flow which we call the "oscillating butter knife;" liquid film, and surfactant dynamics in an oscillating alveolus and the steady streaming, and surfactant spreading on thin viscous films including our discovery of the Grotberg-Borgas-Gaver shock.

  20. [Asbestos and respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Scherpereel, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Previous occupational asbestos exposure (more rarely environmental or domestic exposure) may induce various pleural and/or pulmonary, benign or malignant diseases, sometimes with a very long latency for malignant mesothelioma (MM). Asbestos has been widely extracted and used in Western countries and in emerging or developing countries, resulting in a peak of MM incidence in France around 2020 and likely in a world pandemic of asbestos-induced diseases. These patients have mostly benign respiratory diseases (pleural plugs) but may also be diagnosed with lung cancer or malignant pleural mesothelioma, and have a global poor outcome. New therapeutic tools (targeted therapies, immunotherapy…) with first promising results are developed. However, it is crucial to obtain a full ban of asbestos use worldwide, and to do a regular follow-up of asbestos-exposed subjects, mostly if they are already diagnosed with benign respiratory diseases. Finally, new cancers (larynx and ovary) were recently added to the list of asbestos-induced tumors.

  1. Respiratory fluid mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Grotberg, James B.

    2011-01-01

    This article covers several aspects of respiratory fluid mechanics that have been actively investigated by our group over the years. For the most part, the topics involve two-phase flows in the respiratory system with applications to normal and diseased lungs, as well as therapeutic interventions. Specifically, the topics include liquid plug flow in airways and at airway bifurcations as it relates to surfactant, drug, gene, or stem cell delivery into the lung; liquid plug rupture and its damaging effects on underlying airway epithelial cells as well as a source of crackling sounds in the lung; airway closure from “capillary-elastic instabilities,” as well as nonlinear stabilization from oscillatory core flow which we call the “oscillating butter knife;” liquid film, and surfactant dynamics in an oscillating alveolus and the steady streaming, and surfactant spreading on thin viscous films including our discovery of the Grotberg–Borgas–Gaver shock. PMID:21403768

  2. Respiratory fluid mechanics.

    PubMed

    Grotberg, James B

    2011-02-01

    This article covers several aspects of respiratory fluid mechanics that have been actively investigated by our group over the years. For the most part, the topics involve two-phase flows in the respiratory system with applications to normal and diseased lungs, as well as therapeutic interventions. Specifically, the topics include liquid plug flow in airways and at airway bifurcations as it relates to surfactant, drug, gene, or stem cell delivery into the lung; liquid plug rupture and its damaging effects on underlying airway epithelial cells as well as a source of crackling sounds in the lung; airway closure from "capillary-elastic instabilities," as well as nonlinear stabilization from oscillatory core flow which we call the "oscillating butter knife;" liquid film, and surfactant dynamics in an oscillating alveolus and the steady streaming, and surfactant spreading on thin viscous films including our discovery of the Grotberg-Borgas-Gaver shock.

  3. Ocular tropism of respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Belser, Jessica A; Rota, Paul A; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2013-03-01

    Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism.

  4. Respiratory assessment in centronuclear myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Barbara K; Goddard, Melissa; Childers, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    The centronuclear myopathies (CNMs) are a group of inherited neuromuscular disorders classified as congenital myopathies. While several causative genes have been identified, some patients do not harbor any of the currently known mutations. These diverse disorders have common histological features, which include a high proportion of centrally-nucleated muscle fibers, and clinical attributes of muscle weakness and respiratory insufficiency. Respiratory problems in CNMs may manifest initially during sleep, but daytime symptoms, ineffective airway clearance, and hypoventilation predominate as more severe respiratory muscle dysfunction evolves. Respiratory muscle capacity can be evaluated using a variety of clinical tests selected with consideration for the age and baseline motor function of the patient. Similar clinical tests of respiratory function can also be incorporated into preclinical CNM canine models to offer insight for clinical trials. Since respiratory problems account for significant morbidity in patients, routine assessments of respiratory muscle function are discussed. PMID:24668768

  5. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Hui, David S; Perlman, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a newly recognized highly lethal respiratory disease caused by a novel single stranded, positive sense RNA betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Dromedary camels, host species for MERS-CoV are implicated in the direct or indirect transmission to humans, although the exact mode of transmission remains unknown. First isolated from a patient who died from a severe respiratory illness in June 2012 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, as of 16 February 2015, 983 laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV (360 deaths; 36.6% mortality) were reported to the WHO. Cases have been acquired in both the community and hospitals with limited human-to-human transmission reported in the community. Whilst the majority of MERS cases have occurred in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, cases have been reported from Europe, USA and Asia in people who traveled from the Middle East or their contacts. Clinical features of MERS range from asymptomatic or mild disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure resulting in death, especially in individuals with underlying co-morbidities. There is no specific drug treatment for MERS and infection prevention and control measures are crucial to prevent spread of MERS-CoV in health care facilities. MERS-CoV continues to be an endemic,low level public health threat. However, the concern remains that the virus could mutate to exhibit increased interhuman transmissibility, increasing pandemic potential. Our seminar presents an overview of current knowledge and perspectives on the epidemiology, virology, mode of transmission, pathogen-host responses, clinical features, diagnosis and development of new drugs and vaccines. PMID:26049252

  6. Vaccine-Preventable Adenoviral Respiratory Illness in US Military Recruits, 1999-2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-29

    cell lines permissive to growth of adenovirus, influenza A, influenza B, parainfluenza viruses , enteroviruses, and respiratory syncytial virus ...PubMed: 13376914] 8. Hilleman MR. Epidemiology of adenovirus respiratory infections in military recruit populations. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1957;67(8):262–72...infectious virus dose and protective effect of enteric infection . Am J Epidemiol 1967;86(2):341–9. [PubMed: 4293744] 20. Buescher EL. Respiratory disease

  7. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-05-29

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task.

  8. Is high-frequency oscillatory ventilation more effective and safer than conventional protective ventilation in adult acute respiratory distress syndrome patients? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Comprehensively evaluating the efficacy and safety of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is important to allow clinicians who are using or considering this intervention to make appropriate decisions. Methods To find randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing HFOV with conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) as an initial treatment for adult ARDS patients, we searched electronic databases (including PubMed, MedLine, Springer Link, Elsevier Science Direct, ISI web of knowledge, and EMBASE) with the following terms: “acute respiratory distress syndrome”, “acute lung injury”, and “high frequency oscillation ventilation”. Additional sources included reference lists from the identified primary studies and relevant meta-analyses. Two investigators independently screened articles and extracted data. Meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects models. Results We included 6 RCTs with a total of 1,608 patients in this meta-analysis. Compared with CMV, HFOV did not significantly reduce the mortality at 30 or 28 days. The pooled relative risk (RR) was 1.051 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.813 to 1.358). ICU mortality was also not significantly reduced in HFOV group, with a pooled RR of 1.218 (95% CI 0.925 to 1.604). The pooled effect sizes of HFOV for oxygenation failure, ventilation failure and duration of mechanical ventilation were 0.557 (95% CI 0.351 to 0.884), 0.892 (95% CI 0.435 to 1.829) and 0.079 (95% CI −0.045 to 0.203), respectively. The risk of barotrauma and hypotension were similar between the CMV group and HFOV group, with a RR of 1.205 (95% CI 0.834 to 1.742) and a RR of 1.326 (95% CI 0.271 to 6.476), respectively. Conclusions Although HFOV seems not to increase the risk of barotrauma or hypotension, and reduces the risk of oxygenation failure, it does not improve survival in adult acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. PMID:24887179

  9. Interventions to prevent respiratory diseases - Nutrition and the developing world.

    PubMed

    Karim, Tasneem; Muhit, Mohammad; Khandaker, Gulam

    2017-03-01

    Malnutrition is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and nutrition plays a critical role in both acute and chronic respiratory conditions. Inadequacies in the nutritional requirements of a developing lung in utero and in early life can compromise the respiratory system integrity and result in poor lung function, reduced protection against infections, greater likelihood of acute illnesses in childhood and chronic illness in adulthood. Nutritional interventions harness great potential in reducing respiratory illness related morbidity and mortality in the developing world. In this review we have summarized the findings from published systematic reviews/meta-analysis, experimental and observational studies that looked into different nutritional interventions for preventing respiratory diseases in developing countries.

  10. [Protective glasses. Personal eye protection for professional use].

    PubMed

    Eppig, T; Speck, A; Zelzer, B; Langenbucher, A

    2014-01-01

    Several activities in the occupational environment or in leisure time implicate an increased risk of eye injuries. Many injuries could be prevented by wearing adequate eye protection devices; however, the selection of appropriate eye protection devices requires considerations of different attributes in order to achieve a maximum of protection efficiency. This article provides an overview on the three basic types of eye protection device, introduces the classification regarding optical and protective properties and gives some additional advice on the selection of protective eyewear beyond the current standard regulations.

  11. Concurrent vaccination of pigs with type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) protects against type 1 PRRSV but not against type 2 PRRSV on dually challenged pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, Changhoon; Choi, Kyuhyung; Jeong, Jiwoon; Kang, Ikjae-; Park, Su-Jin; Chae, Chanhee

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of concurrent vaccination of pigs with both type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine against heterologous dual challenge of both genotypes and compare with single vaccination of pigs against heterologous single challenge of both genotypes. Pigs were administered both type 1 and type 2 PRRSV vaccine concurrently into separate anatomical sites at 28 days of age and inoculated intranasally with both genotypes at 63 days of age. Neutralizing antibodies (NA) were not detected in any pigs in any group (NA titer <2 log2) throughout the experiment. In addition, concurrent vaccination of pigs with two PRRSV genotypes had significantly lower numbers of type 1 and type 2 PRRSV-specific interferon-γ secreting cells (IFN-γ-SC) compared to vaccination of pigs with type 1 or type 2 PRRSV only. Despite the decreased induction of type 1 PRRSV-specific IFN-γ-SC, concurrent vaccination is still able to reduce type 1 PRRSV viremia whereas the decreased induction of type 2 PRRSV-specific IFN-γ-SC by concurrent vaccination correlates with lack of reduction of type 2 PRRSV viremia after dual challenge. The results of this study demonstrated that concurrent vaccination of pigs with two PRRSV genotypes is able to reduce the levels of type 1 PRRSV viremia and lung lesions but not able to reduce the levels of type 2 PRRSV viremia and lung lesions.

  12. Respiratory function of children in homes insulated with urea formaldehyde foam insulation.

    PubMed Central

    Norman, G R; Pengelly, L D; Kerigan, A T; Goldsmith, C H

    1986-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the respiratory function of children living in homes insulated with urea formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI). A large data base on the effect of environmental variables on the respiratory function of 3500 children in the Hamilton, Ont., area had been collected from 1978 to 1980. From this data base 29 children who lived in UFFI-insulated homes were identified, and each was matched with 2 controls according to nine variables that had been shown to be strongly predictive of respiratory function. Reported respiratory symptoms and results of pulmonary function testing in the year immediately following installation of UFFI were examined. No significant differences in any variable were found between the subjects and controls. A power calculation indicated that the study had adequate power to detect clinically important changes. The authors conclude that there was no evidence of respiratory problems resulting from UFFI in the sample studied. PMID:3697859

  13. 'The Right Ventricle in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome'.

    PubMed

    Zochios, Vasileios; Parhar, Ken; Tunnicliffe, William; Roscoe, Andrew; Gao, Fang

    2017-03-03

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with poor clinical outcomes with a pooled mortality rate of approximately 40% despite best standards of care. Current therapeutic strategies are based upon improving oxygenation and pulmonary compliance while minimizing ventilator induced lung injury. It has been demonstrated that relative hypoxemia can be well tolerated and improvements in oxygenation do not necessarily translate into survival benefit. Cardiac failure, in particular right ventricular dysfunction, is commonly encountered in moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and is reported to be one of the major determinants of mortality. The prevalence rate of echocardiographically evident right ventricular dysfunction in acute respiratory distress syndrome varies across studies ranging from 22% to 50%. Although there is no definitive causal relationship between right ventricular dysfunction and mortality, severe right ventricular dysfunction is associated with increased mortality. Factors that can adversely affect right ventricular function include hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, hypercapnia, and invasive ventilation with high driving pressure. It might be expected that early diagnosis of right ventricular dysfunction would be of benefit however, echocardiography markers (qualitative and quantitative) used to prospectively evaluate the right ventricle in acute respiratory distress syndrome have not been tested in adequately powered studies. In this review we examine the prognostic implications and pathophysiology of right ventricular dysfunction in acute respiratory distress syndrome and discuss available diagnostic modalities and treatment options. We aim to identify gaps in knowledge and directions for future research that could potentially improve clinical outcomes in this patient population.

  14. Offshore platform cathodic protection retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Turnipseed, S.P.

    1996-10-01

    Cathodic protection (CP) is the primary technique used for underwater corrosion control on the majority of offshore steel structures. Offshore platforms are often kept in service far beyond their original design life. Refurbishment of the CP system is required when adequate protection can no longer be maintained. Various offshore platform CP retrofit designs are discussed.

  15. Respiratory protease/antiprotease balance determines susceptibility to viral infection and can be modified by nutritional antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Megan

    2015-01-01

    The respiratory epithelium functions as a central orchestrator to initiate and organize responses to inhaled stimuli. Proteases and antiproteases are secreted from the respiratory epithelium and are involved in respiratory homeostasis. Modifications to the protease/antiprotease balance can lead to the development of lung diseases such as emphysema or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Furthermore, altered protease/antiprotease balance, in favor for increased protease activity, is associated with increased susceptibility to respiratory viral infections such as influenza virus. However, nutritional antioxidants induce antiprotease expression/secretion and decrease protease expression/activity, to protect against viral infection. As such, this review will elucidate the impact of this balance in the context of respiratory viral infection and lung disease, to further highlight the role epithelial cell-derived proteases and antiproteases contribute to respiratory immune function. Furthermore, this review will offer the use of nutritional antioxidants as possible therapeutics to boost respiratory mucosal responses and/or protect against infection. PMID:25888573

  16. Respiratory protease/antiprotease balance determines susceptibility to viral infection and can be modified by nutritional antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Megan; Jaspers, Ilona

    2015-06-15

    The respiratory epithelium functions as a central orchestrator to initiate and organize responses to inhaled stimuli. Proteases and antiproteases are secreted from the respiratory epithelium and are involved in respiratory homeostasis. Modifications to the protease/antiprotease balance can lead to the development of lung diseases such as emphysema or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Furthermore, altered protease/antiprotease balance, in favor for increased protease activity, is associated with increased susceptibility to respiratory viral infections such as influenza virus. However, nutritional antioxidants induce antiprotease expression/secretion and decrease protease expression/activity, to protect against viral infection. As such, this review will elucidate the impact of this balance in the context of respiratory viral infection and lung disease, to further highlight the role epithelial cell-derived proteases and antiproteases contribute to respiratory immune function. Furthermore, this review will offer the use of nutritional antioxidants as possible therapeutics to boost respiratory mucosal responses and/or protect against infection.

  17. Developing COSHH Essentials: dermal exposure, personal protective equipment and first aid.

    PubMed

    Garrod, A N I; Rajan-Sithamparanadarajah, R

    2003-10-01

    The 'control banding' approach in COSHH Essentials combines the potential for harm with the potential for exposure by inhalation to band measures to control exposure at source, as generic strategies. These are simply adapted to specific tasks and circumstances to produce specific control advice. Where it is not possible or practical to use this control advice, the control bands can suggest adequate respiratory protective equipment using 'protection factors'. Proposals in the paper enable the user to identify the right level of respiratory protective equipment (RPE), and to begin selecting suitable RPE. Selection is made through a formatted questionnaire, enabling the user to give the right facts to the supplier. COSHH Essentials applies mainly to exposure by inhalation. However, skin exposure is very common and uptake via the skin can be an important contributor to body dose. This paper examines the factors concerning skin exposure, and the options for banding the potential for harm to the skin or via the skin. Proposals have then been made for dermal exposure control. Planning for emergencies is an important facet of risk control. Proposals are outlined to band chemical hazards for emergency planning according to a minimum of information, i.e. the danger symbol on a product label.

  18. Acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition with multiple causes and a high mortality rate. Approximately 150,000 cases are reported in the United States annually, making ARDS a public health concern. Management of the condition is complex because of its severity, and medical imaging is essential for both the diagnosis and management of ARDS. This article introduces common signs, symptoms, risk factors, and causes of ARDS. Diagnostic criteria, histopathology, treatment strategies, and prognostic information also are discussed. The article explains the value of medical imaging studies of ARDS, especially radiography, computed tomography, and ultrasonography.

  19. Adult respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cutts, S; Talboys, R; Paspula, C; Prempeh, E M; Fanous, R; Ail, D

    2017-01-01

    Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has now been described as a sequela to such diverse conditions as burns, amniotic fluid embolism, acute pancreatitis, trauma, sepsis and damage as a result of elective surgery in general. Patients with ARDS require immediate intubation, with the average patient now being ventilated for between 8 and 11 days. While the acute management of ARDS is conducted by the critical care team, almost any surgical patient can be affected by the condition and we believe that it is important that a broader spectrum of hospital doctors gain an understanding of the nature of the pathology and its current treatment.

  20. Persistence of Respiratory-Swallowing Coordination after Laryngectomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charbonneau, Isabelle; Lund, James P.; McFarland, David H.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to provide additional insights into the neural mechanisms underlying respiratory-swallowing coupling by studying potential alterations in movement coordination when upper airway protection is no longer necessary. Twelve laryngectomized participants, all at least 3 years postsurgery, were compared to age- and…

  1. [Respiratory synchronization and breast radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Mège, A; Ziouèche-Mottet, A; Bodez, V; Garcia, R; Arnaud, A; de Rauglaudre, G; Pourel, N; Chauvet, B

    2016-10-01

    Adjuvant radiation therapy following breast cancer surgery continues to improve locoregional control and overall survival. But the success of highly targeted-conformal radiotherapy such as intensity-modulated techniques, can be compromised by respiratory motion. The intrafraction motion can potentially result in significant under- or overdose, and also expose organs at risk. This article summarizes the respiratory motion and its effects on imaging, dose calculation and dose delivery by radiotherapy for breast cancer. We will review the methods of respiratory synchronization available for breast radiotherapy to minimize the respiratory impact and to spare organs such as heart and lung.

  2. The mitochondrial respiratory chain of Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Juárez, Oscar; Guerra, Guadalupe; Martínez, Federico; Pardo, Juan Pablo

    2004-10-04

    Ustilago maydis mitochondria contain the four classical components of the electron transport chain (complexes I, II, III, and IV), a glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase, and two alternative elements: an external rotenone-insensitive flavone-sensitive NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2) and an alternative oxidase (AOX). The external NDH-2 contributes as much as complex I to the NADH-dependent respiratory activity, and is not modulated by Ca2+, a regulatory mechanism described for plant NDH-2, and presumed to be a unique characteristic of the external isozyme. The AOX accounts for the 20% residual respiratory activity after inhibition of complex IV by cyanide. This residual activity depends on growth conditions, since cells grown in the presence of cyanide or antimycin A increase its proportion to about 75% of the uninhibited rate. The effect of AMP, pyruvate and DTT on AOX was studied. The activity of AOX in U. maydis cells was sensitive to AMP but not to pyruvate, which agrees with the regulatory characteristics of a fungal AOX. Interestingly, the presence of DTT during cell permeabilisation protected the enzyme against inactivation. The pathways of quinone reduction and quinol oxidation lack an additive behavior. This is consistent with the competition of the respiratory components of each pathway for the quinol/quinone pool.

  3. Respiratory sounds compression.

    PubMed

    Yadollahi, Azadeh; Moussavi, Zahra

    2008-04-01

    Recently, with the advances in digital signal processing, compression of biomedical signals has received great attention for telemedicine applications. In this paper, an adaptive transform coding-based method for compression of respiratory and swallowing sounds is proposed. Using special characteristics of respiratory sounds, the recorded signals are divided into stationary and nonstationary portions, and two different bit allocation methods (BAMs) are designed for each portion. The method was applied to the data of 12 subjects and its performance in terms of overall signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values was calculated at different bit rates. The performance of different quantizers was also considered and the sensitivity of the quantizers to initial conditions has been alleviated. In addition, the fuzzy clustering method was examined for classifying the signal into different numbers of clusters and investigating the performance of the adaptive BAM with increasing the number of classes. Furthermore, the effects of assigning different numbers of bits for encoding stationary and nonstationary portions of the signal were studied. The adaptive BAM with variable number of bits was found to improve the SNR values of the fixed BAM by 5 dB. Last, the possibility of removing the training part for finding the parameters of adaptive BAMs for each individual was investigated. The results indicate that it is possible to use a predefined set of BAMs for all subjects and remove the training part completely. Moreover, the method is fast enough to be implemented for real-time application.

  4. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Matĕjovic, M; Novák, I; Srámek, V; Rokyta, R; Hora, P; Nalos, M

    1999-04-26

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the general term used for severe acute respiratory failure of diverse aetiology. It is associated with a high morbidity, mortality (50-70%), and financial costs. Regardless of aetiology, the basic pathogenesis of ARDS is a systemic inflammatory response leading to a diffuse inflammatory process that involves both lungs, thus causing diffuse alveolar and endothelial damage with increased pulmonary capillary permeability and excessive extravascular lung water accumulation. ARDS is commonly associated with sepsis and multiple organ failure. The clinical picture involves progressive hypoxaemia, radiographic evidence of pulmonary oedema, decreased lung compliance and pulmonary hypertension. Despite the scientific and technological progress in critical care medicine, there is no specific ARDS therapy available at the moment and its management remains supportive. Therapeutic goals include resolution of underlying conditions, maintenance of acceptable gas exchange and tissue oxygenation and prevention of iatrogenic lung injury. Many new specific therapeutic strategies have been developed, however, most of them require further scientific evaluation. The paper reviews definition, basic pathogenesis and pathophysiology of ARDS and discusses current concepts of therapeutic possibilities of ARDS.

  5. Debate on MERS-CoV respiratory precautions: surgical mask or N95 respirators?

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jasmine Shimin; Ling, Moi Lin; Seto, Wing Hong; Ang, Brenda Sze Peng; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah

    2014-01-01

    Since the emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in mid-2012, there has been controversy over the respiratory precaution recommendations in different guidelines from various international bodies. Our understanding of MERS-CoV is still evolving. Current recommendations on infection control practices are heavily influenced by the lessons learnt from severe acute respiratory syndrome. A debate on respiratory precautions for MERS-CoV was organised by Infection Control Association (Singapore) and the Society of Infectious Disease (Singapore). We herein discuss and present the evidence for surgical masks for the protection of healthcare workers from MERS-CoV. PMID:25017402

  6. Respiratory effort from the photoplethysmogram.

    PubMed

    Addison, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (p<0.001 across all probes tested) with increasing upper airway pressure repeatable across the range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions studied. These were: the three fundamental modulations in amplitude (AM-Effort), baseline (BM-Effort) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA-Effort); two pulse transit time modulations - one using a pulse oximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper

  7. Respiratory-related limitations in physically demanding occupations.

    PubMed

    Brown, Peter I; McConnell, Alison K

    2012-04-01

    Respiratory muscle work limits high-intensity exercise tolerance in healthy human beings. Emerging evidence suggests similar limitations exist during submaximal work in some physically demanding occupations. In an occupational setting, heavy loads are routinely carried upon the trunk in the form of body armor, backpacks, and/or compressed air cylinders by military, emergency service, and mountain rescue personnel. This personal and respiratory protective equipment impairs respiratory muscle function and increases respiratory muscle work. More specifically, thoracic load carriage induces a restrictive ventilatory limitation which increases the elastic work of breathing, rendering the respiratory muscles vulnerable to fatigue and inducing a concomitant reduction in exercise tolerance. Similarly, breathing apparatus worn by occupational personnel, including fire fighters and military and commercial divers, increases the inspiratory elastic and expiratory resistive work of breathing, precipitating significant inspiratory and expiratory muscle fatigue and a reduction in exercise tolerance. An argument is presented that the unique respiratory challenges encountered in some occupational settings require further research, since these may affect the operational effectiveness and the health and safety of personnel working in physically demanding occupations.

  8. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... and Adequate Veterinary Care § 2.40 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and... veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section. (1) Each dealer and exhibitor shall employ...

  9. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  10. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  11. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  12. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  13. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  14. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  15. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  16. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  17. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  18. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  19. Respiratory Effects of Passive Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, Roy J.

    1991-01-01

    The acute and chronic respiratory effects of environmental cigarette smoke (other than lung cancer) are reviewed. Effects observed are not easily explained. There is strong evidence for an increased incidence of chronic respiratory disease in children of smokers and mounting evidence that occupational and domestic exposure increases the risk of chronic obstructive lung disease in adults. Imagesp962-a PMID:21229076

  20. Respiratory diseases of global consequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Respiratory diseases are one of the two major categories of poultry diseases that cause the most severe economic losses globally (the other being enteric disease). The economic impact of respiratory disease is both direct, from the production losses caused by primary disease and indirect from preve...

  1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the number one disease affecting US swine. It is caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV) and is recognized as reproductive failure of sows and respiratory problems of piglets and growing pigs. This book chapter is part of the Office of International E...

  2. Potentiation of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide on the immune response and protection elicited by a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus glycoprotein 5 subunit in pigs.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jun; Yuan, Yanmei; Du, Yijun; Wu, Jiaqiang; Li, Baoquan; Li, Jun; Yu, Jiang; Hu, Liping; Shen, Si; Wang, Jinbao; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2016-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) heavily affects the global pork industry. Current available vaccine strategies have inherent drawbacks. In this work, the immune enhancement from Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS) and Freund's adjuvant on the efficacy of a PRRSV subunit vaccine were examined. Titers of specific anti-highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) ELISA antibody and neutralizing antibody were significantly higher in pigs from the groups inoculated with medium- and high-dose TPPPS (mTPPPS, hTPPPS) adjuvant co-administered with a recombinant HP-PRRSV glycoprotein 5 subunit (GP5) than those from other groups (P < 0.05). Pigs inoculated with GP5 + Freund's adjuvant developed severely delayed humoral immune responses specific to GP5 within 28 days post-inoculation (dpi). The groups treated with mTPPPS and hTPPPS adjuvant exhibited the most potent immune enhancement effects on GP5 inoculation with cellular immunity developing, as shown by the level of T lymphocyte proliferation and the percentage of the CD3(+) T lymphocyte subpopulation. Although complete Freund's adjuvant elicited cell-mediated immune responses, the level of T lymphocyte proliferation in this group decreased quickly and no significant differences were observed compared with other adjuvant-alone groups at 56 dpi (P > 0.05). The ratio between CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) T lymphocyte subpopulations indicated the inoculums of GP5 + mTPPPS and GP5 + hTPPPS induced consistently higher CD3(+)CD4(+) T lymphocyte subpopulations than other inoculums (P < 0.05). The immune responses caused by complete Freund's adjuvant were mainly mediated by CD3(+)CD8(+) T lymphocyte subpopulation (cytotoxic T lymphocytes) in the early stage of inoculation and had no significant difference compared with other adjuvant-alone groups after 28 dpi (P > 0.05). The low-dose TPPPS (lTPPPS) adjuvant also exhibited enhancement effects on humoral immune and T lymphocyte proliferation

  3. Ventilation and respiratory mechanics.

    PubMed

    Sheel, Andrew William; Romer, Lee M

    2012-04-01

    During dynamic exercise, the healthy pulmonary system faces several major challenges, including decreases in mixed venous oxygen content and increases in mixed venous carbon dioxide. As such, the ventilatory demand is increased, while the rising cardiac output means that blood will have considerably less time in the pulmonary capillaries to accomplish gas exchange. Blood gas homeostasis must be accomplished by precise regulation of alveolar ventilation via medullary neural networks and sensory reflex mechanisms. It is equally important that cardiovascular and pulmonary system responses to exercise be precisely matched to the increase in metabolic requirements, and that the substantial gas transport needs of both respiratory and locomotor muscles be considered. Our article addresses each of these topics with emphasis on the healthy, young adult exercising in normoxia. We review recent evidence concerning how exercise hyperpnea influences sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow and the effect this might have on the ability to perform muscular work. We also review sex-based differences in lung mechanics.

  4. Model-based setting of inspiratory pressure and respiratory rate in pressure-controlled ventilation.

    PubMed

    Schranz, C; Becher, T; Schädler, D; Weiler, N; Möller, K

    2014-03-01

    Mechanical ventilation carries the risk of ventilator-induced-lung-injury (VILI). To minimize the risk of VILI, ventilator settings should be adapted to the individual patient properties. Mathematical models of respiratory mechanics are able to capture the individual physiological condition and can be used to derive personalized ventilator settings. This paper presents model-based calculations of inspiration pressure (pI), inspiration and expiration time (tI, tE) in pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and a retrospective evaluation of its results in a group of mechanically ventilated patients. Incorporating the identified first order model of respiratory mechanics in the basic equation of alveolar ventilation yielded a nonlinear relation between ventilation parameters during PCV. Given this patient-specific relation, optimized settings in terms of minimal pI and adequate tE can be obtained. We then retrospectively analyzed data from 16 ICU patients with mixed pathologies, whose ventilation had been previously optimized by ICU physicians with the goal of minimization of inspiration pressure, and compared the algorithm's 'optimized' settings to the settings that had been chosen by the physicians. The presented algorithm visualizes the patient-specific relations between inspiration pressure and inspiration time. The algorithm's calculated results highly correlate to the physician's ventilation settings with r = 0.975 for the inspiration pressure, and r = 0.902 for the inspiration time. The nonlinear patient-specific relations of ventilation parameters become transparent and support the determination of individualized ventilator settings according to therapeutic goals. Thus, the algorithm is feasible for a variety of ventilated ICU patients and has the potential of improving lung-protective ventilation by minimizing inspiratory pressures and by helping to avoid the build-up of clinically significant intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure.

  5. Plasticity in respiratory motor neurons in response to reduced synaptic inputs: A form of homeostatic plasticity in respiratory control?

    PubMed

    Braegelmann, K M; Streeter, K A; Fields, D P; Baker, T L

    2017-01-01

    For most individuals, the respiratory control system produces a remarkably stable and coordinated motor output-recognizable as a breath-from birth until death. Very little is understood regarding the processes by which the respiratory control system maintains network stability in the presence of changing physiological demands and network properties that occur throughout life. An emerging principle of neuroscience is that neural activity is sensed and adjusted locally to assure that neurons continue to operate in an optimal range, yet to date, it is unknown whether such homeostatic plasticity is a feature of the neurons controlling breathing. Here, we review the evidence that local mechanisms sense and respond to perturbations in respiratory neural activity, with a focus on plasticity in respiratory motor neurons. We discuss whether these forms of plasticity represent homeostatic plasticity in respiratory control. We present new analyses demonstrating that reductions in synaptic inputs to phrenic motor neurons elicit a compensatory enhancement of phrenic inspiratory motor output, a form of plasticity termed inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF), that is proportional to the magnitude of activity deprivation. Although the physiological role of iPMF is not understood, we hypothesize that it has an important role in protecting the drive to breathe during conditions of prolonged or intermittent reductions in respiratory neural activity, such as following spinal cord injury or during central sleep apnea.

  6. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  7. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  8. Occupational pesticide exposures and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-11-28

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting.

  9. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

  10. The mouse model of respiratory syncytial virus disease.

    PubMed

    Openshaw, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    The laboratory mouse is the species of choice for most immunological studies, ranging from simple vaccine testing to the intricate dissection of fundamental immunopathogenic mechanisms. Although not fully mouse adapted, some strains of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) replicate in the murine respiratory tract and induce specific T and B cell responses. Passive transfer of neutralising antibody is protective and assist in viral clearance. In addition, many of RSV's complex behaviours are recapitulated in the mouse (including enhancement of disease by vaccination and delayed effects of neonatal infection). However, human studies remain essential to confirm or refute predictions from animal models.

  11. [Importance of air purifiers in the prevention of respiratory allergy].

    PubMed

    Sabbah, A

    2000-06-01

    Prevention of respiratory allergy and thus diminution of its prevalence consists of the application not only of preventative measures on the allergens themselves, but also on atmospheric pollutants such as NO, CO and diesel particles. These modify the allergens and increase synthesis of allergen-specific IgE. Use of air purifiers, on condition that they have HEPA or ULPA filters may contribute to reduction of allergenicity linked to pollutants and are one of the not-negligible means of protection from respiratory allergy and asthma in particular.

  12. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in adults for severe acute respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Rozé, H; Repusseau, B; Ouattara, A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the indications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This technique of oxygenation has significantly increased worldwide with the H1N1 flu pandemic. The goal of ECMO is to maintain a safe level of oxygenation and controlled respiratory acidosis under protective ventilation. The enthusiasm for ECMO should not obscure the consideration for potential associated complications. Before widespread diffusion of ECMO, new trials should test the efficacy of early initiation or CO2 removal in addition to, or even as an alternative to mechanical ventilation for severe ARDS.

  13. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  14. Opioid-induced respiratory depression: reversal by non-opioid drugs.

    PubMed

    van der Schier, Rutger; Roozekrans, Margot; van Velzen, Monique; Dahan, Albert; Niesters, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    The human body is critically dependent on the ventilatory control system for adequate uptake of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide (CO2). Potent opioid analgesics, through their actions on μ-opioid receptor (MOR) expressed on respiratory neurons in the brainstem, depress ventilation. Opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD) is potentially life threatening and the cause of substantial morbidity and mortality. One possible way of prevention of OIRD is by adding a respiratory stimulant to the opioid treatment, which through activation of non-opioidergic pathways will excite breathing and consequently will offset OIRD and should not affect analgesia. Various new respiratory stimulants are currently under investigation including (a) potassium channel blockers acting at the carotid bodies, and (b) ampakines and (c) serotonin receptor agonists acting within the brainstem. (a) GAL-021 targets BKCa-channels. Initial animal and human experimental evidence indicates that this potassium channel blocker is a potent respiratory stimulant that reverses OIRD without affecting antinociception. GAL021 is safe and better tolerated than the older K(+)-channel blocker doxapram and more efficacious in its effect on respiration. (b) Ampakines modulate glutamatergic respiratory neurons in brainstem respiratory centers. Various ampakines have been studied showing their ability to increase respiratory drive during OIRD by increasing respiratory rate. Currently, CX717 is the most promising ampakine for use in humans as it is safe and does not affect opioid analgesia. (c) While animal studies show that serotonin receptor agonists increase respiratory drive via activation of serotonin receptors in brainstem respiratory centers, human studies are without success. Further clinical studies are required to improve our care of patients that are treated with potent opioid analgesics. The use of non-opioid adjuvants may reduce the probability of OIRD but does never relieve us of our duty to

  15. Opioid-induced respiratory depression: reversal by non-opioid drugs

    PubMed Central

    van der Schier, Rutger; Roozekrans, Margot; van Velzen, Monique; Niesters, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    The human body is critically dependent on the ventilatory control system for adequate uptake of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide (CO2). Potent opioid analgesics, through their actions on μ-opioid receptor (MOR) expressed on respiratory neurons in the brainstem, depress ventilation. Opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD) is potentially life threatening and the cause of substantial morbidity and mortality. One possible way of prevention of OIRD is by adding a respiratory stimulant to the opioid treatment, which through activation of non-opioidergic pathways will excite breathing and consequently will offset OIRD and should not affect analgesia. Various new respiratory stimulants are currently under investigation including (a) potassium channel blockers acting at the carotid bodies, and (b) ampakines and (c) serotonin receptor agonists acting within the brainstem. (a) GAL-021 targets BKCa-channels. Initial animal and human experimental evidence indicates that this potassium channel blocker is a potent respiratory stimulant that reverses OIRD without affecting antinociception. GAL021 is safe and better tolerated than the older K+-channel blocker doxapram and more efficacious in its effect on respiration. (b) Ampakines modulate glutamatergic respiratory neurons in brainstem respiratory centers. Various ampakines have been studied showing their ability to increase respiratory drive during OIRD by increasing respiratory rate. Currently, CX717 is the most promising ampakine for use in humans as it is safe and does not affect opioid analgesia. (c) While animal studies show that serotonin receptor agonists increase respiratory drive via activation of serotonin receptors in brainstem respiratory centers, human studies are without success. Further clinical studies are required to improve our care of patients that are treated with potent opioid analgesics. The use of non-opioid adjuvants may reduce the probability of OIRD but does never relieve us of our duty to

  16. Dysrhythmias of the respiratory oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paydarfar, David; Buerkel, Daniel M.

    1995-03-01

    Breathing is regulated by a central neural oscillator that produces rhythmic output to the respiratory muscles. Pathological disturbances in rhythm (dysrhythmias) are observed in the breathing pattern of children and adults with neurological and cardiopulmonary diseases. The mechanisms responsible for genesis of respiratory dysrhythmias are poorly understood. The present studies take a novel approach to this problem. The basic postulate is that the rhythm of the respiratory oscillator can be altered by a variety of stimuli. When the oscillator recovers its rhythm after such perturbations, its phase may be reset relative to the original rhythm. The amount of phase resetting is dependent upon stimulus parameters and the level of respiratory drive. The long-range hypothesis is that respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli that impinge upon or arise within the respiratory oscillator with certain combinations of strength and timing relative to the respiratory cycle. Animal studies were performed in anesthetized or decerebrate preparations. Neural respiratory rhythmicity is represented by phrenic nerve activity, allowing use of open-loop experimental conditions which avoid negative chemical feedback associated with changes in ventilation. In animal experiments, respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli having specific combinations of strength and timing. Newborn animals readily exhibit spontaneous dysrhythmias which become more prominent at lower respiratory drives. In human subjects, swallowing was studied as a physiological perturbation of respiratory rhythm, causing a pattern of phase resetting that is characterized topologically as type 0. Computational studies of the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol (BvP) equations, whose qualitative behavior is representative of many excitable systems, supports a unified interpretation of these experimental findings. Rhythmicity is observed when the BvP model exhibits recurrent periods of excitation alternating with

  17. Lung protective strategies in anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, B; Slinger, P

    2010-12-01

    Patients are at risk for several types of lung injury in the perioperative period including atelectasis, pneumonia, pneumothorax, acute lung injury, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anaesthetic management can cause, exacerbate, or ameliorate these injuries. This review examines the effects of perioperative mechanical ventilation and its role in ventilator-induced lung injury. Lung protective ventilatory strategies to specific clinical situations such as cardiopulmonary bypass and one-lung ventilation along with newer novel lung protective strategies are discussed.

  18. Ventilators for noninvasive ventilation to treat acute respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Scala, Raffaele; Naldi, Mario

    2008-08-01

    The application of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) to treat acute respiratory failure has increased tremendously both inside and outside the intensive care unit. The choice of ventilator is crucial for success of NIV in the acute setting, because poor tolerance and excessive air leaks are significantly correlated with NIV failure. Patient-ventilator asynchrony and discomfort can occur if the physician or respiratory therapist fails to adequately set NIV to respond to the patient's ventilatory demand, so clinicians need to fully understood the ventilator's technical peculiarities (eg, efficiency of trigger and cycle systems, speed of pressurization, air-leak compensation, CO(2) rebreathing, reliability of fraction of inspired oxygen reading, monitoring accuracy). A wide range of ventilators of different complexity have been introduced into clinical practice to noninvasively support patients in acute respiratory failure, but the numerous commercially available ventilators (bi-level, intermediate, and intensive care unit ventilators) have substantial differences that can influence patient comfort, patient-ventilator interaction, and, thus, the chance of NIV clinical success. This report examines the most relevant aspects of the historical evolution, the equipment, and the acute-respiratory-failure clinical application of NIV ventilators.

  19. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David J.; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6–12 (n = 1203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in comprehension. Results suggest that there is considerable growth across the middle and high school years, particularly for adequate comprehenders in those text integration processes that maintain local coherence. Accuracy in text consistency judgments accounted for significant unique variance for passage-level, but not sentence-level comprehension, particularly for adequate comprehenders. PMID:26166946

  20. Using Multitheory Model of Health Behavior Change to Predict Adequate Sleep Behavior.

    PubMed

    Knowlden, Adam P; Sharma, Manoj; Nahar, Vinayak K

    The purpose of this article was to use the multitheory model of health behavior change in predicting adequate sleep behavior in college students. A valid and reliable survey was administered in a cross-sectional design (n = 151). For initiation of adequate sleep behavior, the construct of behavioral confidence (P < .001) was found to be significant and accounted for 24.4% of the variance. For sustenance of adequate sleep behavior, changes in social environment (P < .02), emotional transformation (P < .001), and practice for change (P < .001) were significant and accounted for 34.2% of the variance.

  1. Respiratory function in handicapped children.

    PubMed

    Ishida, C; Fujita, M; Umemoto, H; Taneda, M; Sanae, N; Tazaki, T

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate respiratory function of severely handicapped children. Tidal volumes and respiratory rates were determined in a total of 130 children with different clinical motor abilities. Tidal volume of non-sitters (n = 39) was significantly lower than ambulators (n = 49) or sitters (n = 42) (p less than 0.01). There was no difference in respiratory rate among the three groups. Among 45 children whose vital capacity could be determined, the tidal volumes showed a significant correlation with vital capacity (r = 0.56, p less than 0.001). Among four children whose tidal volume was less than 200 ml and respiratory rate was more than 30 cpm, blood gas analysis revealed hypoxia in three of them. The tidal volumes, therefore, would be a useful guide to estimate respiratory functions. It was concluded that the respiratory function in a non-sitter with reduced tidal volume is impaired, and that preventive measures must be taken against respiratory infection.

  2. Stress and acute respiratory infection

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, N.M.; Douglas, R.M.; Ryan, P.

    1986-09-01

    To examine the relationship between stress and upper respiratory tract infection, 235 adults aged 14-57 years, from 94 families affiliated with three suburban family physicians in Adelaide, South Australia, participated in a six-month prospective study. High and low stress groups were identified by median splits of data collected from the Life Events Inventory, the Daily Hassles Scale, and the General Health Questionnaire, which were administered both before and during the six months of respiratory diary data collection. Using intra-study stress data, the high stress group experienced significantly more episodes (mean of 2.71 vs. 1.56, p less than 0.0005) and symptom days (mean of 29.43 vs. 15.42, p = 0.005) of respiratory illness. The two groups were almost identical with respect to age, sex, occupational status, smoking, passive smoking, exposure to air pollution, family size, and proneness to acute respiratory infection in childhood. In a multivariate model with total respiratory episodes as the dependent variable, 21% of the variance was explained, and two stress variables accounted for 9% of the explained variance. Significant, but less strong relationships were also identified between intra-study stress variables and clinically definite episodes and symptom days in both clinically definite and total respiratory episodes. Pre-study measures of stress emphasized chronic stresses and were less strongly related to measures of respiratory illness than those collected during the study. However, significantly more episodes (mean of 2.50 vs. 1.75, p less than 0.02) and symptom days (mean of 28.00 vs. 17.06, p less than 0.03) were experienced in the high stress group. In the multivariate analyses, pre-study stress remained significantly associated with total respiratory episodes nd symptom days in total and ''definite'' respiratory episodes.

  3. 30 CFR 75.814 - Electrical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., overloads, ground faults, and undervoltages by circuit-interrupting devices of adequate interrupting... protection must not be dependent upon control power and may consist of a current transformer and...

  4. 30 CFR 75.814 - Electrical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., overloads, ground faults, and undervoltages by circuit-interrupting devices of adequate interrupting... protection must not be dependent upon control power and may consist of a current transformer and...

  5. 30 CFR 75.814 - Electrical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., overloads, ground faults, and undervoltages by circuit-interrupting devices of adequate interrupting... protection must not be dependent upon control power and may consist of a current transformer and...

  6. 30 CFR 75.814 - Electrical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., overloads, ground faults, and undervoltages by circuit-interrupting devices of adequate interrupting... protection must not be dependent upon control power and may consist of a current transformer and...

  7. 30 CFR 75.814 - Electrical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., overloads, ground faults, and undervoltages by circuit-interrupting devices of adequate interrupting... protection must not be dependent upon control power and may consist of a current transformer and...

  8. Auscultation of the respiratory system

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Malay; Madabhavi, Irappa; Niranjan, Narasimhalu; Dogra, Megha

    2015-01-01

    Auscultation of the lung is an important part of the respiratory examination and is helpful in diagnosing various respiratory disorders. Auscultation assesses airflow through the trachea-bronchial tree. It is important to distinguish normal respiratory sounds from abnormal ones for example crackles, wheezes, and pleural rub in order to make correct diagnosis. It is necessary to understand the underlying pathophysiology of various lung sounds generation for better understanding of disease processes. Bedside teaching should be strengthened in order to avoid erosion in this age old procedure in the era of technological explosion. PMID:26229557

  9. [Travel and chronic respiratory insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, D; Marotel, C; Miltgen, J; N'Guyen, G; Cuguilliere, A; L'Her, P

    1997-01-01

    Changes in climate, altitude and lifestyle during travel confronts patients presenting chronic respiratory insufficiency with special problems. A major challenge is related to high altitude during air travel. To limit risks, a preflight examination is necessary to ascertain respiratory status. Patients requiring oxygen therapy must ensure availability both during the flight and at the destination. Patients with asthma or chronic bronchitis must bring along a sufficient supply of usual inhalers. All patients should carry a doctor's letter describing their condition and listing medications. Using these elementary precautions, patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency can safely enjoy sightseeing and outdoor leisure activities.

  10. Multiplex detection of respiratory pathogens

    DOEpatents

    McBride, Mary [Brentwood, CA; Slezak, Thomas [Livermore, CA; Birch, James M [Albany, CA

    2012-07-31

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of respiratory pathogens (influenza A (including subtyping capability for H1, H3, H5 and H7 subtypes) influenza B, parainfluenza (type 2), respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus) in a sample. Genomic sequence information from the respiratory pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  11. The Chilliwack Respiratory Survey, 1963

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Donald O.; Ferris, Benjamin G.; Davis, T. W.

    1965-01-01

    In order to ascertain the prevalence of chronic respiratory disease in residents of a rural town and to determine the relative importance of tobacco smoking and air pollution, a survey was conducted of 726 persons living at Chilliwack, British Columbia, in May and June, 1963. Over 95% of a random sample of adults was interviewed and performed simple tests of respiratory function. The sample was selected from a commercial census. An analysis of the demographic characteristics of the sample indicated that the group, aged 25 to 74 years, was reasonably representative for detailed study of chronic respiratory disease. PMID:14289136

  12. Sources of Indoor Air Pollution and Respiratory Health in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Leonarte, Virginia; Ballester, Ferran; Tenías, José Maria

    2009-01-01

    We carried out bibliographic searches in PubMed and Embase.com for the period from 1996 to 2008 with the aim of reviewing the scientific literature on the relationship between various sources of indoor air pollution and the respiratory health of children under the age of five. Those studies that included adjusted correlation measurements for the most important confounding variables and which had an adequate population size were considered to be more relevant. The results concerning the relationship between gas energy sources and children's respiratory health were heterogeneous. Indoor air pollution from biomass combustion in the poorest countries was found to be an important risk factor for lower respiratory tract infections. Solvents involved in redecorating, DYI work, painting, and so forth, were found to be related to an increased risk for general respiratory problems. The distribution of papers depending on the pollution source showed a clear relationship with life-style and the level of development. PMID:20168984

  13. Respiratory management, survival, and quality of life for high-level traumatic tetraplegics.

    PubMed

    Viroslav, J; Rosenblatt, R; Tomazevic, S M

    1996-06-01

    Although spinal cord injury is devastating and can compromise the respiratory system, particularly when the cervical cord is injured, aggressive use of noninvasive respiratory muscle aids can reduce the otherwise commonly seen complications of pneumonia, bronchial mucous plugging, atelectasis, and respiratory failure. Accessory muscle function can also usually be improved and the muscles then recruited to help maintain adequate alveolar ventilation during the acute spinal cord injury recovery period. Noninvasive assisted ventilation can be successful for patients with compromised lung function during the acute rehabilitation period as well as on a long-term basis. Removal of an indwelling tracheostomy tube results in improved quality of life from many points of view, a decreased number of local tracheostomy complications, a decreased number of serious respiratory infections, an improved ability to communicate, and an increased ability to use the mouth for functions such as operating computers and wheelchairs.

  14. Commercial anesthetic-respiratory gas monitor utilizing Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregonis, Donald E.; Van Wagenen, Richard A.; Coleman, D.; Mitchell, John R.

    1990-11-01

    A commercial gas monitor which utilizes Raman Spectroscopy has been developed to monitor anesthetic and respiratory gases in the hospital operating room. The instrument measures all molecular gases administered by the anesthesiologist in real time with fast response of breath waveform. These gases include carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, oxygen, nitrogen and various volatile halogenated organic anesthetics, e.g. halothane, isoflurane, enflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane. The key feature of this instrument which allows it to produce adequate Raman signals with a low cost argon ion laser is measuring these gases inside the laser resonant cavity.

  15. Region 8: Colorado Lamar and Steamboat Springs Adequate Letter (11/12/2002)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Lamar and Steamboat Springs particulate matter (PM10) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes

  16. 75 FR 5893 - Suspension of Community Eligibility for Failure To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management Regulations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency... floodplain management regulations meeting minimum requirements under the National Flood Insurance Program... they have brought their floodplain management regulations into compliance with the NFIP...

  17. Region 9: California Adequate / Inadequate Letter Attachment (5/30/2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a document that states that it has been found adequate for transportation conformitypurposes certain 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 motor vehicleemissions budgets in the 2007 South Coast StateImplementation Plan.

  18. Respiratory chain proteins.

    PubMed

    Kadenbach, B; Schneyder, B; Mell, O; Stroh, S; Reimann, A

    1991-01-01

    Mammalian mitochondrial DNA codes for 13 proteins, which are all components of energy transducing enzyme complexes of the respiratory chain, i.e. the complexes which translocate protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The number of subunits of these enzyme complexes increase with increasing evolutionary stage of the organism. The additional nuclear coded subunits of the enzyme complexes from higher organisms are involved in the regulation of respiration, as demonstrated by the influence of intraliposomal ATP and ADP on the reconstituted cytochrome c oxidase (COX) from bovine heart. This regulation is not found with the reconstituted enzyme from P. denitrificans, which lacks the nuclear coded subunits. Some of the nuclear coded subunits occur in tissue-specific isoforms, as reported for COX and NADH dehydrogenase. Tissue-specific regulation of COX activity is also demonstrated by the differential effects of intraliposomal ADP on the kinetics of reconstituted COX from bovine liver and heart, which differ in subunits VIa, VIIa and VIII. At least 3 different COX isozymes occur in bovine liver, heart or skeletal muscle and smooth muscle. An evolutionary relationship between COX subunits VIa and VIc and between VIIa and VIIb is suggested based on the crossreactivity of monoclonal antibodies, amino acid sequence homology and hybridization at low stringency of PCR-amplified cDNAs for subunits VIa-1, VIa-h and VIc from the rat.

  19. Vigorous cleaning and adequate ventilation are necessary to control an outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Shimono, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Jun; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Miyake, Noriko; Uchida, Yujiro; Shimoda, Shinji; Furusyo, Norihiro; Akashi, Koichi

    2012-06-01

    An outbreak of Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) bacteremia occurred in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in July 2005. Many strains of B. cereus were cultured from patient specimens, as well as from environmental samples such as the surfaces of instruments and air in the NICU. Some of these strains were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, and several were confirmed to be identical. We speculated that the bacterial load in the environment had initially increased and then possibly spread throughout the NICU facility via the airflow of the ventilation system. For this reason, besides maintaining standard precautions, we performed a vigorous clean of the NICU, and covered the vents to prevent dust falling from them. These protective measures ended the outbreak. In the hospital environment, adequate ventilation is important, especially in single-occupancy isolation rooms and operating theaters. However, the criteria for the adequate ventilation of multioccupancy rooms for acute care environments such as the NICU have not yet been defined. We need to pay more attention to these environmental factors in order to avoid cross contamination and infectious outbreaks.

  20. Individual and contextual determinants of adequate maternal health care services in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Achia, Thomas N O; Mageto, Lillian E

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine individual and community level factors associated with adequate use of maternal antenatal health services in Kenya. Individual and community level factors associated with adequate use of maternal health care (MHC) services were obtained from the 2008-09 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey data set. Multilevel partial-proportional odds logit models were fitted using STATA 13.0 to quantify the relations of the selected covariates to adequate MHC use, defined as a three-category ordinal variable. The sample consisted of 3,621 women who had at least one live birth in the five-year period preceding this survey. Only 18 percent of the women had adequate use of MHC services. Greater educational attainment by the woman or her partner, higher socioeconomic status, access to medical insurance coverage, and greater media exposure were the individual-level factors associated with adequate use of MHC services. Greater community ethnic diversity, higher community-level socioeconomic status, and greater community-level health facility deliveries were the contextual-level factors associated with adequate use of MHC. To improve the use of MHC services in Kenya, the government needs to design and implement programs that target underlying individual and community level factors, providing focused and sustained health education to promote the use of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care.