Science.gov

Sample records for adequate safety factors

  1. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  2. 75 FR 69648 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... ENERGY Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers... designed to hold firmly in place. 10 CFR Part 830 imposes a requirement that a documented safety analysis... provide guidance on meeting the requirements imposed by DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis...

  3. Aerostructural safety factor criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1992-01-01

    The present modification of the conventional safety factor method for aircraft structures evaluation involves the expression of deterministic safety factors in probabilistic tolerance limit ratios; these are found to involve a total of three factors that control the interference of applied and resistive stress distributions. The deterministic expression is extended so that it may furnish a 'relative ultimate safety' index that encompasses all three distribution factors. Operational reliability is developed on the basis of the applied and the yield stress distribution interferences. Industry standards are suggested to be derivable from factor selections that are based on the consequences of failure.

  4. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  5. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  6. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  7. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  8. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  9. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  10. Pregnant x-ray technologist: providing adequate radiation safety for the fetus

    SciTech Connect

    Caprio, M.L. Jr.

    1980-09-01

    The human embryo-fetus is highly radiosensitive and must be protected from excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. The maximum permissible dose equivalent for the developing embryo-fetus is set at 0.5 rem per year - the MPD level for members of the general public. Methods by which supervisory personnel can limit the fetal dose incurred by the occupational exposure of the mother are presented. It is recommended that supervisory personnel attempt to limit occupational exposure to the current non-occupational MPD levels for all x-ray technologists, thereby, insuring that the fetal dose limits are not surpassed and providing an added safety factor for personnel by keeping exposures as low as reasonably achievable.

  11. 75 FR 74022 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory that represented a significant departure from... Laboratory Plutonium Facility Seismic Safety. The Board followed up its Recommendation with a letter to the... of the DSA for the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility in December 2008...

  12. Safety and the Human Factor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ann

    1982-01-01

    Discusses four elements of safety programs: (1) safety training; (2) safety inspections; (3) accident investigations; and (4) protective safety equipment. Also discusses safety considerations in water/wastewater treatment facilities focusing on falls, drowning hazards, trickling filters, confined space entry, collection/distribution system safety,…

  13. Identifying the Factors Impacting the Adequately Yearly Progress Performance in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Ju-Shan

    2013-01-01

    The NCLB (No Child Left Behind Act) specifies that states must develop AYP (adequate yearly progress) statewide measurable objectives for improved achievement by all students, including economically disadvantaged students, students from minority races, students with disabilities, and students with limited English proficiency. By the 2013-2014…

  14. Factors associated with adequate weekly reporting for disease surveillance data among health facilities in Nairobi County, Kenya, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Mwatondo, Athman Juma; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Maina, Caroline; Makayotto, Lyndah; Mwangi, Moses; Njeru, Ian; Arvelo, Wences

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Kenya adopted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in 1998 to strengthen disease surveillance and epidemic response. However, the goal of weekly surveillance reporting among health facilities has not been achieved. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of adequate reporting and factors associated with IDSR reporting among health facilities in one Kenyan County. Methods Health facilities (public and private) were enrolled using stratified random sampling from 348 facilities prioritized for routine surveillance reporting. Adequately-reporting facilities were defined as those which submitted >10 weekly reports during a twelve-week period and a poor reporting facilities were those which submitted <10 weekly reports. Multivariate logistic regression with backward selection was used to identify risk factors associated with adequate reporting. Results From September 2 through November 30, 2013, we enrolled 175 health facilities; 130(74%) were private and 45(26%) were public. Of the 175 health facilities, 77 (44%) facilities classified as adequate reporting and 98 (56%) were reporting poorly. Multivariate analysis identified three factors to be independently associated with weekly adequate reporting: having weekly reporting forms at visit (AOR19, 95% CI: 6-65], having posters showing IDSR functions (AOR8, 95% CI: 2-12) and having a designated surveillance focal person (AOR7, 95% CI: 2-20). Conclusion The majority of health facilities in Nairobi County were reporting poorly to IDSR and we recommend that the Ministry of Health provide all health facilities in Nairobi County with weekly reporting tools and offer specific trainings on IDSR which will help designate a focal surveillance person. PMID:27303581

  15. The Dependability of the General Factor of Intelligence: Why Small, Single-Factor Models Do Not Adequately Represent "g"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Jason T.; Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Floyd, Shands, Rafael, Bergeron and McGrew (2009) used generalizability theory to test the reliability of general-factor loadings and to compare three different sources of error in them: the test battery size, the test battery composition, the factor-extraction technique, and their interactions. They found that their general-factor loadings were…

  16. Targeting adequate thermal stability and fire safety in selecting ionic liquid-based electrolytes for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Chancelier, L; Diallo, A O; Santini, C C; Marlair, G; Gutel, T; Mailley, S; Len, C

    2014-02-07

    The energy storage market relating to lithium based systems regularly grows in size and expands in terms of a portfolio of energy and power demanding applications. Thus safety focused research must more than ever accompany related technological breakthroughs regarding performance of cells, resulting in intensive research on the chemistry and materials science to design more reliable batteries. Formulating electrolyte solutions with nonvolatile and hardly flammable ionic liquids instead of actual carbonate mixtures could be safer. However, few definitions of thermal stability of electrolytes based on ionic liquids have been reported in the case of abuse conditions (fire, shortcut, overcharge or overdischarge). This work investigates thermal stability up to combustion of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C1C4Im][NTf2]) and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([PYR14][NTf2]) ionic liquids, and their corresponding electrolytes containing lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide LiNTf2. Their possible routes of degradation during thermal abuse testings were investigated by thermodynamic studies under several experimental conditions. Their behaviours under fire were also tested, including the analysis of emitted compounds.

  17. Factors influencing nurses' perceptions of occupational safety.

    PubMed

    Samur, Menevse; Intepeler, Seyda Seren

    2017-01-02

    To determine nurses' perceptions of occupational safety and their work environment and examine the sociodemographic traits and job characteristics that influence their occupational safety, we studied a sample of 278 nurses. According to the nurses, the quality of their work environment is average, and occupational safety is insufficient. In the subdimensions of the work environment scale, it was determined that the nurses think "labor force and other resources" are insufficient. In the occupational safety subdimensions "occupational illnesses and complaints" and "administrative support and approaches," they considered occupational safety to be insufficient. "Doctor-nurse-colleague relationships," "exposure to violence," and "work unit" (eg, internal medicine, surgical, intensive care) are the main factors that affect occupational safety. This study determined that hospital administrations should develop and immediately implement plans to ameliorate communication and clinical precautions and to reduce exposure to violence.

  18. Interrelation Between Safety Factors and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elishakoff, Isaac; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An evaluation was performed to establish relationships between safety factors and reliability relationships. Results obtained show that the use of the safety factor is not contradictory to the employment of the probabilistic methods. In many cases the safety factors can be directly expressed by the required reliability levels. However, there is a major difference that must be emphasized: whereas the safety factors are allocated in an ad hoc manner, the probabilistic approach offers a unified mathematical framework. The establishment of the interrelation between the concepts opens an avenue to specify safety factors based on reliability. In cases where there are several forms of failure, then the allocation of safety factors should he based on having the same reliability associated with each failure mode. This immediately suggests that by the probabilistic methods the existing over-design or under-design can be eliminated. The report includes three parts: Part 1-Random Actual Stress and Deterministic Yield Stress; Part 2-Deterministic Actual Stress and Random Yield Stress; Part 3-Both Actual Stress and Yield Stress Are Random.

  19. Improving Safety through Human Factors Engineering.

    PubMed

    Siewert, Bettina; Hochman, Mary G

    2015-10-01

    Human factors engineering (HFE) focuses on the design and analysis of interactive systems that involve people, technical equipment, and work environment. HFE is informed by knowledge of human characteristics. It complements existing patient safety efforts by specifically taking into consideration that, as humans, frontline staff will inevitably make mistakes. Therefore, the systems with which they interact should be designed for the anticipation and mitigation of human errors. The goal of HFE is to optimize the interaction of humans with their work environment and technical equipment to maximize safety and efficiency. Special safeguards include usability testing, standardization of processes, and use of checklists and forcing functions. However, the effectiveness of the safety program and resiliency of the organization depend on timely reporting of all safety events independent of patient harm, including perceived potential risks, bad outcomes that occur even when proper protocols have been followed, and episodes of "improvisation" when formal guidelines are found not to exist. Therefore, an institution must adopt a robust culture of safety, where the focus is shifted from blaming individuals for errors to preventing future errors, and where barriers to speaking up-including barriers introduced by steep authority gradients-are minimized. This requires creation of formal guidelines to address safety concerns, establishment of unified teams with open communication and shared responsibility for patient safety, and education of managers and senior physicians to perceive the reporting of safety concerns as a benefit rather than a threat.

  20. Human Factors Plan for Maritime Safety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    HUMAN FACTORS ISSUES IN THE MARITIME ENVIRONMENT .............. 13 2. 1 DEFINITION OF HUMAN FACTORS ISSUES ........................ 13 2.2 CONTENT...The dotted line around the human factors technical basis in Figure 1 signifies that it needs to be developed. Safety data Accidents ) Definition of...and activity surveys, but met with some resistance from the ship personnel, and so little quntitative data was available from this study. Subjective

  1. Human factors and safety in emergency medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, H. G.; Helmreich, R. L.; Scheidegger, D.

    1994-01-01

    A model based on an input process and outcome conceptualisation is suggested to address safety-relevant factors in emergency medicine. As shown in other dynamic and demanding environments, human factors play a decisive role in attaining high quality service. Attitudes held by health-care providers, organisational shells and work-cultural parameters determine communication, conflict resolution and workload distribution within and between teams. These factors should be taken into account to improve outcomes such as operational integrity, job satisfaction and morale.

  2. Human factors in safety and business management.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Joachim; Leonhardt, Jorg; Koper, Birgit; Pennig, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Human factors in safety is concerned with all those factors that influence people and their behaviour in safety-critical situations. In aviation these are, for example, environmental factors in the cockpit, organisational factors such as shift work, human characteristics such as ability and motivation of staff. Careful consideration of human factors is necessary to improve health and safety at work by optimising the interaction of humans with their technical and social (team, supervisor) work environment. This provides considerable benefits for business by increasing efficiency and by preventing incidents/accidents. The aim of this paper is to suggest management tools for this purpose. Management tools such as balanced scorecards (BSC) are widespread instruments and also well known in aviation organisations. Only a few aviation organisations utilise management tools for human factors although they are the most important conditions in the safety management systems of aviation organisations. One reason for this is that human factors are difficult to measure and therefore also difficult to manage. Studies in other domains, such as workplace health promotion, indicate that BSC-based tools are useful for human factor management. Their mission is to develop a set of indicators that are sensitive to organisational performance and help identify driving forces as well as bottlenecks. Another tool presented in this paper is the Human Resources Performance Model (HPM). HPM facilitates the integrative assessment of human factors programmes on the basis of a systematic performance analysis of the whole system. Cause-effect relationships between system elements are defined in process models in a first step and validated empirically in a second step. Thus, a specific representation of the performance processes is developed, which ranges from individual behaviour to system performance. HPM is more analytic than BSC-based tools because HPM also asks why a certain factor is

  3. White Paper on Factors of Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, Ivatury; Stadler, John; Kramer-White, Jule; Piascik, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Following the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) Report, the "Diaz Team" identified CAIB Report elements with Agency-wide applicability. The "Diaz Report", A Renewed Commitment To Excellence, generated an action to "Review current policies and waivers on safety factors". This document addresses this action.

  4. Space Station crew safety - Human factors model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.; Junge, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    A model of the various human factors issues and interactions that might affect crew safety is developed. The first step addressed systematically the central question: How is this Space Station different from all other spacecraft? A wide range of possible issue was identified and researched. Five major topics of human factors issues that interacted with crew safety resulted: Protocols, Critical Habitability, Work Related Issues, Crew Incapacitation and Personal Choice. Second, an interaction model was developed that would show some degree of cause and effect between objective environmental or operational conditions and the creation of potential safety hazards. The intermediary steps between these two extremes of causality were the effects on human performance and the results of degraded performance. The model contains three milestones: stressor, human performance (degraded) and safety hazard threshold. Between these milestones are two countermeasure intervention points. The first opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against stress. If this countermeasure fails, performance degrades. The second opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against error. If this second countermeasure fails, the threshold of a potential safety hazard may be crossed.

  5. 14 CFR 27.303 - Factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Factor of safety. 27.303 Section 27.303... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 27.303 Factor of safety. Unless otherwise provided, a factor of safety of 1.5 must be used. This factor applies to external and...

  6. 14 CFR 29.303 - Factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Factor of safety. 29.303 Section 29.303... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 29.303 Factor of safety. Unless otherwise provided, a factor of safety of 1.5 must be used. This factor applies to external and...

  7. 14 CFR 29.303 - Factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Factor of safety. 29.303 Section 29.303... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 29.303 Factor of safety. Unless otherwise provided, a factor of safety of 1.5 must be used. This factor applies to external and...

  8. 14 CFR 23.303 - Factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Factor of safety. 23.303 Section 23.303... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 23.303 Factor of safety. Unless otherwise provided, a factor of safety of 1.5 must be used....

  9. 14 CFR 23.303 - Factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Factor of safety. 23.303 Section 23.303... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 23.303 Factor of safety. Unless otherwise provided, a factor of safety of 1.5 must be used....

  10. 21 CFR 70.40 - Safety factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Safety factors to be considered. 70.40 Section 70.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR... different safety factor, a safety factor of 100 to 1 will be used in applying animal experimentation data...

  11. 21 CFR 70.40 - Safety factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Safety factors to be considered. 70.40 Section 70.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR... different safety factor, a safety factor of 100 to 1 will be used in applying animal experimentation data...

  12. 21 CFR 170.22 - Safety factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Safety factors to be considered. 170.22 Section 170.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... different safety factor, a safety factor in applying animal experimentation data to man of 100 to 1, will...

  13. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Organizational safety factors research lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T.G.

    1995-10-01

    This Paper reports lessons learned and state of knowledge gained from an organizational factors research activity involving commercial nuclear power plants in the United States, through the end of 1991, as seen by the scientists immediately involved in the research. Lessons learned information was gathered from the research teams and individuals using a question and answer format. The following five questions were submitted to each team and individual: (1) What organizational factors appear to influence safety performance in some systematic way, (2) Should organizational factors research focus at the plant level, or should it extend beyond the plant level to the parent company, rate setting commissions, regulatory agencies, (3) How important is having direct access to plants for doing organizational factors research, (4) What lessons have been learned to date as the result of doing organizational factors research in a nuclear regulatory setting, and (5) What organizational research topics and issues should be pursued in the future? Conclusions based on the responses provided for this report are that organizational factors research can be conducted in a regulatory setting and produce useful results. Technologies pioneered in other academic, commercial, and military settings can be adopted for use in a nuclear regulatory setting. The future success of such research depends upon the cooperation of regulators, contractors, and the nuclear industry.

  15. [Epidermal growth factor, innovation and safety].

    PubMed

    Esquirol Caussa, Jordi; Herrero Vila, Elisabeth

    2015-10-05

    Bioidentical recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) is available in concentrations and purity suitable for therapeutic use in long time stable formulations. Beneficial effects in several skin pathologies and lesions have been reported (traumatic and surgical wound healing, laser induced wounds, abnormal scars, keloids, radiation or chemotherapy induced dermatitis, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation or for skin aging damage repairing) and also may be considered for the treatment of several oropharingeal and high gastroesophageal tract mucosa diseases (mouth sores, pharyngeal fistulas, ulcers), and several corneal or conjunctive mucosa lesions. rhEGF has not shown any important side or collateral effects in humans or in laboratory experimentation animals, showing optimal tolerability and safety with continuous use for months. Compounding gives advantages of versatility, individualization, personalization, molecular stability, safety and effectiveness in ideal conditions, showing good tissue penetration, both on intact skin and skin lesions that expose the lower planes to the surface. rhEGF compounds can be considered for prevention or as a treatment of diverse skin and mucosa diseases and conditions through compounding preparations.

  16. Investigation of structural factors of safety for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the factors governing the structural design of the fully reusable space shuttle booster to establish a rational approach to select optimum structural factors of safety. The study included trade studies of structural factors of safety versus booster service life, weight, cost, and reliability. Similar trade studies can be made on other vehicles using the procedures developed. The major structural components of a selected baseline booster were studied in depth, each being examined to determine the fatigue life, safe-life, and fail-safe capabilities of the baseline design. Each component was further examined to determine its reliability and safety requirements, and the change of structural weight with factors of safety. The apparent factors of safety resulting from fatigue, safe-life, proof test, and fail-safe requirements were identified. The feasibility of reduced factors of safety for design loads such as engine thrust, which are well defined, was examined.

  17. Organizational factors affecting safety implementation in food companies in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chinda, Thanwadee

    2014-01-01

    Thai food industry employs a massive number of skilled and unskilled workers. This may result in an industry with high incidences and accident rates. To improve safety and reduce the accident figures, this paper investigates factors influencing safety implementation in small, medium, and large food companies in Thailand. Five factors, i.e., management commitment, stakeholders' role, safety information and communication, supportive environment, and risk, are found important in helping to improve safety implementation. The statistical analyses also reveal that small, medium, and large food companies hold similar opinions on the risk factor, but bear different perceptions on the other 4 factors. It is also found that to improve safety implementation, the perceptions of safety goals, communication, feedback, safety resources, and supervision should be aligned in small, medium, and large companies.

  18. Motivational and organizational factors affecting implementation of worker safety training.

    PubMed

    Lindell, M K

    1994-01-01

    Training is unlikely to affect behavior on the job if the worker views it as unnecessary. This chapter describes types of safety behaviors and training activities, the implementation of safety training, current perspectives on motivation, and other motivational and organizational factors affecting the implementation of worker safety training.

  19. Hypoxia inducible factor-2α regulates the development of retinal astrocytic network by maintaining adequate supply of astrocyte progenitors.

    PubMed

    Duan, Li-Juan; Takeda, Kotaro; Fong, Guo-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Here we investigate the role of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-2α in coordinating the development of retinal astrocytic and vascular networks. Three Cre mouse lines were used to disrupt floxed Hif-2α, including Rosa26(CreERT2), Tie2(Cre), and GFAP(Cre). Global Hif-2α disruption by Rosa26(CreERT2) led to reduced astrocytic and vascular development in neonatal retinas, whereas endothelial disruption by Tie2(Cre) had no apparent effects. Hif-2α deletion in astrocyte progenitors by GFAP(Cre) significantly interfered with the development of astrocytic networks, which failed to reach the retinal periphery and were incapable of supporting vascular development. Perplexingly, the abundance of strongly GFAP(+) mature astrocytes transiently increased at P0 before they began to lag behind the normal controls by P3. Pax2(+) and PDGFRα(+) astrocytic progenitors and immature astrocytes were dramatically diminished at all stages examined. Despite decreased number of astrocyte progenitors, their proliferation index or apoptosis was not altered. The above data can be reconciled by proposing that HIF-2α is required for maintaining the supply of astrocyte progenitors by slowing down their differentiation into non-proliferative mature astrocytes. HIF-2α deficiency in astrocyte progenitors may accelerate their differentiation into astrocytes, a change which greatly interferes with the replenishment of astrocyte progenitors due to insufficient time for proliferation. Rapidly declining progenitor supply may lead to premature cessation of astrocyte development. Given that HIF-2α protein undergoes oxygen dependent degradation, an interesting possibility is that retinal blood vessels may regulate astrocyte differentiation through their oxygen delivery function. While our findings support the consensus that retinal astrocytic template guides vascular development, they also raise the possibility that astrocytic and vascular networks may mutually regulate each other's development

  20. Confinement and the safety factor profile

    SciTech Connect

    Batha, S.H.; Levinton, F.M.; Scott, S.D.

    1995-12-01

    The conjecture that the safety factor profile, q(r), controls the improvement in tokamak plasmas from poor confinement in the Low (L-) mode regime to improved confinement in the supershot regime has been tested in two experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). First, helium was puffed into the beam-heated phase of a supershot discharge which induced a degradation from supershot to L-mode confinement in about 100 msec, far less than the current relaxation time. The q and shear profiles measured by a motional Stark effect polarimeter showed little change during the confinement degradation. Second, rapid current ramps in supershot plasmas altered the q profile, but were observed not to change significantly the energy confinement. Thus, enhanced confinement in supershot plasmas is not due to a particular q profile which has enhanced stability or transport properties. The discharges making a continuous transition between supershot and L-mode confinement were also used to test the critical-electron-temperature-gradient transport model. It was found that this model could not reproduce the large changes in electron and ion temperature caused by the change in confinement.

  1. 21 CFR 70.40 - Safety factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... different safety factor, a safety factor of 100 to 1 will be used in applying animal experimentation data to... of the maximum no-effect level for the most susceptible experimental animals tested. The various species of experimental animals used in the tests shall conform to good pharmacological practice....

  2. 21 CFR 170.22 - Safety factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... evidence is submitted which justifies use of a different safety factor, a safety factor in applying animal experimentation data to man of 100 to 1, will be used; that is, a food additive for use by man will not be granted... experimental animals....

  3. 14 CFR 25.303 - Factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Factor of safety. 25.303 Section 25.303 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 25.303 Factor of safety. Unless...

  4. 14 CFR 25.303 - Factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Factor of safety. 25.303 Section 25.303 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 25.303 Factor of safety. Unless...

  5. 14 CFR 25.303 - Factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Factor of safety. 25.303 Section 25.303 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 25.303 Factor of safety. Unless...

  6. 14 CFR 25.303 - Factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Factor of safety. 25.303 Section 25.303 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 25.303 Factor of safety. Unless...

  7. 14 CFR 25.303 - Factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Factor of safety. 25.303 Section 25.303 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 25.303 Factor of safety. Unless...

  8. 14 CFR 27.303 - Factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Factor of safety. 27.303 Section 27.303 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 27.303 Factor of safety....

  9. Profiling contextual factors which influence safety in heavy vehicle industries.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jason R D; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry A

    2014-12-01

    A significant proportion of worker fatalities within Australia result from truck-related incidents. Truck drivers face a number of health and safety concerns. Safety culture, viewed here as the beliefs, attitudes and values shared by an organisation's workers, which interact with their surrounding context to influence behaviour, may provide a valuable lens for exploring safety-related behaviours in heavy vehicle operations. To date no major research has examined safety culture within heavy vehicle industries. As safety culture provides a means to interpret experiences and generate behaviour, safety culture research should be conducted with an awareness of the context surrounding safety. The current research sought to examine previous health and safety research regarding heavy vehicle operations to profile contextual factors which influence health and safety. A review of 104 peer-reviewed papers was conducted. Findings of these papers were then thematically analysed. A number of behaviours and scenarios linked with crashes and non-crash injuries were identified, along with a selection of health outcomes. Contextual factors which were found to influence these outcomes were explored. These factors were found to originate from government departments, transport organisations, customers and the road and work environment. The identified factors may provide points of interaction, whereby culture may influence health and safety outcomes.

  10. An approach using multi-factor combination to evaluate high rocky slope safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Huaizhi; Yang, Meng; Wen, Zhiping

    2016-06-01

    A high rocky slope is an open complex giant system for which there is contradiction among different influencing factors and coexistence of qualitative and quantitative information. This study presents a comprehensive intelligent evaluation method of high rocky slope safety through an integrated analytic hierarchy process, extension matter element model and entropy weight to assess the safety behavior of the high rocky slope. The proposed intelligent evaluation integrates subjective judgments derived from the analytic hierarchy process with the extension matter model and entropy weight into a multiple indexes dynamic safety evaluation approach. A combined subjective and objective comprehensive evaluation process, a more objective study, through avoiding subjective effects on the weights, and a qualitative safety assessment and quantitative safety amount are presented in the proposed method. The detailed computational procedures were also provided to illustrate the integration process of the above methods. Safety analysis of one high rocky slope is conducted to illustrate that this approach can adequately handle the inherent imprecision and contradiction of the human decision-making process and provide the flexibility and robustness needed for the decision maker to better monitor the safety status of a high rocky slope. This study was the first application of the proposed integrated evaluation method in the safety assessment of a high rocky slope. The study also indicated that it can also be applied to other similar problems.

  11. Human factors systems approach to healthcare quality and patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, Pascale; Wetterneck, Tosha B.; Rivera-Rodriguez, A. Joy; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Hoonakker, Peter; Holden, Richard; Gurses, Ayse P.

    2013-01-01

    Human factors systems approaches are critical for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. The SEIPS (Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety) model of work system and patient safety is a human factors systems approach that has been successfully applied in healthcare research and practice. Several research and practical applications of the SEIPS model are described. Important implications of the SEIPS model for healthcare system and process redesign are highlighted. Principles for redesigning healthcare systems using the SEIPS model are described. Balancing the work system and encouraging the active and adaptive role of workers are key principles for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. PMID:23845724

  12. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research.

  13. Structural deterministic safety factors selection criteria and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1992-01-01

    Though current deterministic safety factors are arbitrarily and unaccountably specified, its ratio is rooted in resistive and applied stress probability distributions. This study approached the deterministic method from a probabilistic concept leading to a more systematic and coherent philosophy and criterion for designing more uniform and reliable high-performance structures. The deterministic method was noted to consist of three safety factors: a standard deviation multiplier of the applied stress distribution; a K-factor for the A- or B-basis material ultimate stress; and the conventional safety factor to ensure that the applied stress does not operate in the inelastic zone of metallic materials. The conventional safety factor is specifically defined as the ratio of ultimate-to-yield stresses. A deterministic safety index of the combined safety factors was derived from which the corresponding reliability proved the deterministic method is not reliability sensitive. The bases for selecting safety factors are presented and verification requirements are discussed. The suggested deterministic approach is applicable to all NASA, DOD, and commercial high-performance structures under static stresses.

  14. 21 CFR 170.22 - Safety factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 170.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.22 Safety factors to... experimentation data to man of 100 to 1, will be used; that is, a food additive for use by man will not be...

  15. 21 CFR 170.22 - Safety factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 170.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.22 Safety factors to... experimentation data to man of 100 to 1, will be used; that is, a food additive for use by man will not be...

  16. 21 CFR 170.22 - Safety factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 170.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.22 Safety factors to... experimentation data to man of 100 to 1, will be used; that is, a food additive for use by man will not be...

  17. 14 CFR 31.25 - Factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.25 Factor of safety. (a) Except as specified in... of temperature, and other operating characteristics, or both, that may affect strength of the...

  18. 14 CFR 31.25 - Factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.25 Factor of safety. (a) Except as specified in... of temperature, and other operating characteristics, or both, that may affect strength of the...

  19. 14 CFR 31.25 - Factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.25 Factor of safety. (a) Except as specified in... of temperature, and other operating characteristics, or both, that may affect strength of the...

  20. 14 CFR 31.25 - Factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.25 Factor of safety. (a) Except as specified in... of temperature, and other operating characteristics, or both, that may affect strength of the...

  1. 14 CFR 31.25 - Factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.25 Factor of safety. (a) Except as specified in... of temperature, and other operating characteristics, or both, that may affect strength of the...

  2. Patient safety - the role of human factors and systems engineering.

    PubMed

    Carayon, Pascale; Wood, Kenneth E

    2010-01-01

    Patient safety is a global challenge that requires knowledge and skills in multiple areas, including human factors and systems engineering. In this chapter, numerous conceptual approaches and methods for analyzing, preventing and mitigating medical errors are described. Given the complexity of healthcare work systems and processes, we emphasize the need for increasing partnerships between the health sciences and human factors and systems engineering to improve patient safety. Those partnerships will be able to develop and implement the system redesigns that are necessary to improve healthcare work systems and processes for patient safety.

  3. Human factors and operating room safety.

    PubMed

    ElBardissi, Andrew W; Sundt, Thoralf M

    2012-02-01

    A human factors model is used to highlight the nature of many systems factors that affect surgical performance, including the OR environment, teamwork and communication, technology and equipment, tasks and workload factors, and organizational variables. If further improvements in the success rate and reliability of cardiac surgery are to be realized, interventions need to be developed to reduce the negative impact that work system failures can have on surgical performance. Some recommendations are proposed here; however, several challenges remain.

  4. Space station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 3: Safety impact of human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockoff, L. A.; Raasch, R. F.; Peercy, R. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The first 15 years of accumulated space station concepts for Initial Operational Capability (IOC) during the early 1990's was considered. Twenty-five threats to the space station are identified and selected threats addressed as impacting safety criteria, escape and rescue, and human factors safety concerns. Of the 25 threats identified, eight are discussed including strategy options for threat control: fire, biological or toxic contamination, injury/illness, explosion, loss of pressurization, radiation, meteoroid penetration and debris. Of particular interest here is volume three (of five volumes) pertaining to the safety impact of human factors.

  5. Adequate Wound Care and Use of Bed Nets as Protective Factors against Buruli Ulcer: Results from a Case Control Study in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Landier, Jordi; Boisier, Pascal; Fotso Piam, Félix; Noumen-Djeunga, Blanbin; Simé, Joseph; Wantong, Fidèle Gaetan; Marsollier, Laurent; Fontanet, Arnaud; Eyangoh, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease involving the skin, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Its exact transmission mechanism remains unknown. Several arguments indicate a possible role for insects in its transmission. A previous case-control study in the Nyong valley region in central Cameroon showed an unexpected association between bed net use and protection against Buruli ulcer. We investigated whether this association persisted in a newly discovered endemic Buruli ulcer focus in Bankim, northwestern Cameroon. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a case-control study on 77 Buruli ulcer cases and 153 age-, gender- and village-matched controls. Participants were interviewed about their activities and habits. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis identified systematic use of a bed net (Odds-Ratio (OR) = 0.4, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI] = [0.2–0.9], p-value (p) = 0.04), cleansing wounds with soap (OR [95%CI] = 0.1 [0.03–0.3], p<0.0001) and growing cassava (OR [95%CI] = 0.3 [0.2–0.7], p = 0.005) as independent protective factors. Independent risk factors were bathing in the Mbam River (OR [95%CI] = 6.9 [1.4–35], p = 0.02) and reporting scratch lesions after insect bites (OR [95%CI] = 2.7 [1.4–5.4], p = 0.004). The proportion of cases that could be prevented by systematic bed net use was 32%, and by adequate wound care was 34%. Conclusions/Significance Our study confirms that two previously identified factors, adequate wound care and bed net use, significantly decreased the risk of Buruli ulcer. These associations withstand generalization to different geographic, climatic and epidemiologic settings. Involvement of insects in the household environment, and the relationship between wound hygiene and M. ulcerans infection should now be investigated. PMID:22087346

  6. Human Factors Research and Nuclear Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moray, Neville P., Ed.; Huey, Beverly M., Ed.

    The Panel on Human Factors Research Needs in Nuclear Regulatory Research was formed by the National Research Council in response to a request from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC asked the research council to conduct an 18-month study of human factors research needs for the safe operation of nuclear power plants. This report…

  7. Approaching Safety through Quality: Factors Influencing College Student Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, S K; Mosher, G A

    2016-04-01

    Quality management practices have been identified by previous literature as a factor that could potentially reduce the level of safety incidents and hazards in agricultural work environments. The present study used multivariate analysis to examine the effect of independent variables such as quality and safety awareness, work experience, safety and quality management experience, and the perceived importance of safety and quality on the role of quality management practices as a mitigating factor for safety hazards and incidents in agriculture. Variables were measured on a five-point scale using a survey questionnaire. Data were collected from approximately 900 undergraduates enrolled in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at a large land grant university in the U.S. The level of student work experience and student perceptions of the importance of quality explained a significant amount of the variance in student views of quality management practices as a mitigating factor for safety hazards and incidents. The findings of this study provide further evidence for using quality management practices as a basis for safety interventions targeted at the agricultural workforce.

  8. 49 CFR 385.7 - Factors to be considered in determining a safety rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.7 Factors to be considered in determining a safety rating. The factors to be considered in determining the safety fitness and assigning a safety rating include... the following: (a) Adequacy of safety management controls. The adequacy of controls may be...

  9. 21 CFR 70.40 - Safety factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Safety factors to be considered. 70.40 Section 70.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR... of the maximum no-effect level for the most susceptible experimental animals tested. The...

  10. 21 CFR 70.40 - Safety factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Safety factors to be considered. 70.40 Section 70.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR... of the maximum no-effect level for the most susceptible experimental animals tested. The...

  11. Space station crew safety: Human factors interaction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.; Junge, M. K.

    1985-01-01

    A model of the various human factors issues and interactions that might affect crew safety is developed. The first step addressed systematically the central question: How is this space station different from all other spacecraft? A wide range of possible issue was identified and researched. Five major topics of human factors issues that interacted with crew safety resulted: Protocols, Critical Habitability, Work Related Issues, Crew Incapacitation and Personal Choice. Second, an interaction model was developed that would show some degree of cause and effect between objective environmental or operational conditions and the creation of potential safety hazards. The intermediary steps between these two extremes of causality were the effects on human performance and the results of degraded performance. The model contains three milestones: stressor, human performance (degraded) and safety hazard threshold. Between these milestones are two countermeasure intervention points. The first opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against stress. If this countermeasure fails, performance degrades. The second opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against error. If this second countermeasure fails, the threshold of a potential safety hazard may be crossed.

  12. Using partial safety factors in wind turbine design and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.D.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the relationship between wind turbine design and testing in terms of the certification process. An overview of the current status of international certification is given along with a description of limit-state design basics. Wind turbine rotor blades are used to illustrate the principles discussed. These concepts are related to both International Electrotechnical Commission and Germanischer Lloyd design standards, and are covered using schematic representations of statistical load and material strength distributions. Wherever possible, interpretations of the partial safety factors are given with descriptions of their intended meaning. Under some circumstances, the authors` interpretations may be subjective. Next, the test-load factors are described in concept and then related to the design factors. Using technical arguments, it is shown that some of the design factors for both load and materials must be used in the test loading, but some should not be used. In addition, some test factors not used in the design may be necessary for an accurate test of the design. The results show that if the design assumptions do not clearly state the effects and uncertainties that are covered by the design`s partial safety factors, outside parties such as test labs or certification agencies could impose their own meaning on these factors.

  13. Using partial safety factors in wind turbine design and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W D; Butterfield, C

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes the relationship between wind turbine design and testing in terms of the certification process. An overview of the current status of international certification is given along with a description of limit-state design basics. Wind turbine rotor blades are used to illustrate the principles discussed. These concepts are related to both International Electrotechnical Commission and Germanischer Lloyd design standards, and are covered using schematic representations of statistical load and material strength distributions. Wherever possible, interpretations of the partial safety factors are given with descriptions of their intended meaning. Under some circumstances, the authors` interpretations may be subjective. Next, the test-load factors are described in concept and then related to the design factors. Using technical arguments, it is shown that some of the design factors for both load and materials must be used in the test loading, but some should not be used. In addition, some test factors not used in the design may be necessary for an accurate test of the design. The results show that if the design assumptions do not clearly state the effects and uncertainties that are covered by the design`s partial safety factors, outside parties such as test labs or certification agencies could impose their own meaning on these factors.

  14. Alaska Humans Factors Safety Study: The Northern Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda; Reynard, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At the request of the Alaska Air Carriers Association, researchers from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System, at NASA Ames Research Center, conducted a study on aspects of safety in Alaskan Part 135 air taxi operations. An interview form on human factors safety issues was created by a representative team from the FAA-Alaska, NTSB-Alaska, NASAASRS, and representatives of the Alaska Air Carriers Association which was subsequently used in the interviews of pilots and managers. Because of the climate and operational differences, the study was broken into two geographical areas, the southern coastal areas and the northern portion of the state. This presentation addresses the northern area, specifically: Bethel, Fairbanks, Nome, Kotzebue, and Barrow. The interview questions dealt with many of the potential pressures on pilots and managers associated with the daily air taxi operations in Alaska. The impact of the environmental factors such as the lack of available communication, navigation and weather information systems was evaluated. The results of this study will be used by government and industry working in Alaska. These findings will contribute important information on specific Alaska safety issues for eventual incorporation into training materials and policies that will help to assure the safe conduct of air taxi flights in Alaska.

  15. Alaska Humans Factors Safety Study: The Southern Coastal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Reynard, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At the request of the Alaska Air Carriers Association, researchers from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System, at NASA Ames Research Center, conducted a study on aspects of safety in Alaskan Part 135 air taxi operations. An interview form on human factors safety issues was created by a representative team from the FAA-Alaska, NTSB-Alaska, NASA-ASRS, and representatives of the Alaska Air Carriers Association which was subsequently used in the interviews of pilots and managers. Because of the climate and operational differences, the study was broken into two geographical areas, the southern coastal areas and the northern portion of the state. This presentation addresses the southern coastal areas, specifically: Anchorage, Dillingham, King Salmon, Kodiak, Cold Bay, Juneau, and Ketchikan. The interview questions dealt with many of the potential pressures on pilots and managers associated with the daily air taxi operations in Alaska. The impact of the environmental factors such as the lack of available communication, navigation and weather information systems was evaluated. The results of this study will be used by government and industry working in Alaska. These findings will contribute important information on specific Alaska safety issues for eventual incorporation into training materials and policies that will help to assure the safe conduct of air taxi flights in Alaska.

  16. Human Factors in Patient Safety as an Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    The use of Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) tools, methods, concepts and theories has been advocated by many experts and organizations to improve patient safety. To facilitate and support the spread of HFE knowledge and skills in health care and patient safety, we propose to conceptualize HFE as innovations whose diffusion, dissemination, implementation and sustainability need to be understood and specified. Using Greenhalgh et al. (2004) model of innovation, we identified various factors that can either hinder or facilitate the spread of HFE innovations in healthcare organizations. Barriers include lack of systems thinking, complexity of HFE innovations and lack of understanding about the benefits of HFE innovations. Positive impact of HFE interventions on task performance and the presence of local champions can facilitate the adoption, implementation and sustainability of HFE innovations. This analysis concludes with a series of recommendations for HFE professionals, researchers and educators. PMID:20106468

  17. Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.

    PubMed

    Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

    2012-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail.

  18. 49 CFR 229.103 - Safe working pressure; factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Generators § 229.103 Safe working pressure; factor of safety. The safe working pressure for each steam generator shall be fixed by the chief mechanical officer of the carrier. The minimum factor of safety...

  19. 49 CFR 229.103 - Safe working pressure; factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Generators § 229.103 Safe working pressure; factor of safety. The safe working pressure for each steam generator shall be fixed by the chief mechanical officer of the carrier. The minimum factor of safety...

  20. 49 CFR 229.103 - Safe working pressure; factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Generators § 229.103 Safe working pressure; factor of safety. The safe working pressure for each steam generator shall be fixed by the chief mechanical officer of the carrier. The minimum factor of safety...

  1. Factors associated with cervical cancer screening in a safety net population

    PubMed Central

    Heberer, Meredith A; Komenaka, Ian K; Nodora, Jesse N; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Gandhi, Sonal G; Welch, Lauren E; Bouton, Marcia E; Aristizabal, Paula; Weiss, Barry D; Martinez, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    AIM To identify factors associated with Papanicolaou-smear (Pap-smear) cervical cancer screening rates in a safety net population. METHODS From January 2012 to May 2013, the use of Pap-smear was determined for all patients seen at the breast clinic in a safety net hospital. Health literacy assessment was performed using the validated Newest Vital Sign. The records of patients were reviewed to determine if they had undergone Pap-smears for cervical cancer screening. Sociodemographic information was collected included age, education, monthly income, race/ethnicity, employment, insurance status, and primary care provider of the patient. Logistic regression analysis was then performed to determine factors associated with utilization of Pap-smears. Crude and adjusted odds ratios derived from multivariate logistic regression models were calculated as well as the associated 95%CIs and P-values. RESULTS Overall, 39% had Pap-smears in the prior 15 mo, 1377 consecutive women were seen during the study period and their records were reviewed. Significantly more patients with adequate health literacy underwent Pap-smears as compared to those with limited health literacy (59% vs 34%, P < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, patients with adequate health literacy, younger patients, and those with later age of first live birth were more likely to undergo Pap-smears. Patients whose primary care providers were gynecologists were also significantly more likely to have Pap-smears compared to other specialties (P < 0.0001). Patients younger than 21 years or older than 65 years underwent screening less frequently (11% and 11%, respectively) than those 21-64 years (41%, P < 0.0001). Race, ethnicity, language, and insurance status were not associated with Pap-smear screening rates. CONCLUSION Patient health literacy and primary care physician were associated with Pap-smear utilization. Development of interventions to target low health literacy populations could improve cervical cancer

  2. 75 FR 5536 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... Regulations to address human factors and other aspects of control room management for pipelines where... 63310) entitled ``Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors.'' This final rule...

  3. A dispersion safety factor for LNG vapor clouds.

    PubMed

    Vílchez, Juan A; Villafañe, Diana; Casal, Joaquim

    2013-02-15

    The growing importance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to global energy demand has increased interest in the possible hazards associated with its storage and transportation. Concerning the event of an LNG spill, a study was performed on the relationship between the distance at which the lower flammability limit (LFL) concentration occurs and that corresponding to the visible contour of LNG vapor clouds. A parameter called the dispersion safety factor (DSF) has been defined as the ratio between these two lengths, and two expressions are proposed to estimate it. During an emergency, the DSF can be a helpful parameter to indicate the danger of cloud ignition and flash fire.

  4. National plan to enhance aviation safety through human factors improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, Clay

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this section of the plan is to establish a development and implementation strategy plan for improving safety and efficiency in the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system. These improvements will be achieved through the proper applications of human factors considerations to the present and future systems. The program will have four basic goals: (1) prepare for the future system through proper hiring and training; (2) develop a controller work station team concept (managing human errors); (3) understand and address the human factors implications of negative system results; and (4) define the proper division of responsibilities and interactions between the human and the machine in ATC systems. This plan addresses six program elements which together address the overall purpose. The six program elements are: (1) determine principles of human-centered automation that will enhance aviation safety and the efficiency of the air traffic controller; (2) provide new and/or enhanced methods and techniques to measure, assess, and improve human performance in the ATC environment; (3) determine system needs and methods for information transfer between and within controller teams and between controller teams and the cockpit; (4) determine how new controller work station technology can optimally be applied and integrated to enhance safety and efficiency; (5) assess training needs and develop improved techniques and strategies for selection, training, and evaluation of controllers; and (6) develop standards, methods, and procedures for the certification and validation of human engineering in the design, testing, and implementation of any hardware or software system element which affects information flow to or from the human.

  5. Safety culture management: The importance of organizational factors

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Shurberg, D.A.; Jacobs, R.; Hofmann, D.

    1995-05-01

    The concept of safety culture has been used extensively to explain the underlying causes of performance based events, both positive and negative, across the nuclear industry. The work described in this paper represents several years of effort to identify, define and assess the organizational factors important to safe performance in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The research discussed in this paper is primarily conducted in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) efforts in understanding the impact of organizational performance on safety. As a result of a series of research activities undertaken by numerous NRC contractors, a collection of organizational dimensions has been identified and defined. These dimensions represent what is believed to be a comprehensive taxonomy of organizational elements that relate to the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Techniques were also developed by which to measure these organizational dimensions, and include structured interview protocols, behavioral checklists, and behavioral anchored rating scales (BARS). Recent efforts have focused on devising a methodology for the extraction of information related to the identified organizational dimensions from existing NRC documentation. This type of effort would assess the applicability of the organizational dimensions to existing NRC inspection and evaluation reports, refine the organizational dimensions previously developed so they are more relevant to the task of retrospective analysis, and attempt to rate plants based on the review of existing NRC documentation using the techniques previously developed for the assessment of organizational dimensions.

  6. Proof-of Concept that an Acute Trophic Factors Intervention After Spinal Cord Injury Provides an Adequate Niche for Neuroprotection, Recruitment of Nestin-Expressing Progenitors and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Krityakiarana, Warin; Zhao, Paul M.; Nguyen, Kevin; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich; de Vellis, Jean; Espinosa-Jeffrey, Araceli

    2017-01-01

    Trophic factor treatment has been shown to improve the recovery of brain and spinal cord injury (SCI). In this study, we examined the effects of TSC1 (a combination of insulin-like growth factor 1 and transferrin) 4 and 8 h after SCI at the thoracic segment level (T12) in nestin-GFP transgenic mice. TSC1 treatment for 4 and 8 h increased the number of nestin-expressing cells around the lesion site and prevented Wallerian degeneration. Treatment with TSC1 for 4 h significantly increased heat shock protein (HSP)-32 and HSP-70 expression 1 and 2 mm from lesion site (both, caudal and rostral). Conversely, the number of HSP-32 positive cells decreased after an 8-h TSC1 treatment, although it was still higher than in both, non-treated SCI and intact spinal cord animals. Furthermore, TSC1 increased NG2 expressing cell numbers and preserved most axons intact, facilitating remyelination and repair. These results support our hypothesis that TSC1 is an effective treatment for cell and tissue neuroprotection after SCI. An early intervention is crucial to prevent secondary damage of the injured SC and, in particular, to prevent Wallerian degeneration. PMID:26883642

  7. Percutaneous renal biopsy of native kidneys: efficiency, safety and risk factors associated with major complications

    PubMed Central

    Torres Muñoz, Abel; Valdez-Ortiz, Rafael; González-Parra, Carlos; Espinoza-Dávila, Elvy; Morales-Buenrostro, Luis E.; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The use of an automated biopsy device and real-time ultrasound (current technology) for percutaneous renal biopsies (PRBs) has improved the likelihood of obtaining adequate tissue for diagnosis and has reduced the complications associated with renal biopsies. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the current PRB procedure and identify possible risk factors for the development of major complications. Material and methods We collected all native kidney PRBs performed with current technology in our institute from January 1998 to April 2008. Studied variables were collected from the patient's chart at the time of the biopsy. Results We analyzed 623 (96.4%) of 646 renal biopsies performed with the current automated procedure guided by real-time ultrasound. Although the effectiveness was 97.6%, there were 110 complications. Fourteen (2.24%) of these complications were major: 9 cases of renal hematoma, 2 cases with macroscopic hematuria (which needed blood transfusion), 1 case of intestinal perforation (which required exploratory laparotomy), 1 nephrectomy and 1 case of a dissecting hematoma. The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following risk factors for developing major complications: diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, RR 7.6 (95% CI 1.35-43); platelet count ≤ 120×103/µl; RR 7.0 (95% CI 1.9-26.2); and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) ≥ 60 mg/dl, RR 9.27 (95% CI 2.8-30.7). Conclusions The observed efficacy and safety of the current technique in the present study were similar to observations in previous studies. Diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, platelets ≤ 120×103/µl and BUN ≥ 60 mg/dl were independent risk factors for the development of major complications following PRB. PMID:22291827

  8. Risk analysis-based food safety policy: scientific factors versus socio-cultural factors.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, Mauro; van Knapen, Frans; Brom, Frans W A

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate the importance of socio-cultural factors in risk management and the need to incorporate these factors in a standard, internationally recognized (WTO) framework. This was achieved by analysing the relevance of these factors in three cases. It can be concluded that the pre-eminent role of science in food-related regulatory decisions is debatable. At a risk management level, other factors, such as cultural, social, or economic issues, are often more important than scientific advice in determining policy. There is a need for transparency at an international level as trade barriers are gradually being removed and these other factors are becoming more apparent. Therefore it is important that all the factors implicated in the food safety policy-making process are recognized in a standard framework.

  9. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  10. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  11. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  12. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  13. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  14. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  15. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  16. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  17. Factors influencing the microbial safety of fresh produce: a review.

    PubMed

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2012-10-01

    Increased consumption, larger scale production and more efficient distribution of fresh produce over the past two decades have contributed to an increase in the number of illness outbreaks caused by this commodity. Pathogen contamination of fresh produce may originate before or after harvest, but once contaminated produce is difficult to sanitize. The prospect that some pathogens invade the vascular system of plants and establish "sub-clinical" infection needs to be better understood to enable estimation of its influence upon risk of human illness. Conventional surface sanitation methods can reduce the microbial load, but cannot eliminate pathogens if present. Chlorine dioxide, electrolyzed water, UV light, cold atmospheric plasma, hydrogen peroxide, organic acids and acidified sodium chlorite show promise, but irradiation at 1 kGy in high oxygen atmospheres may prove to be the most effective means to assure elimination of both surface and internal contamination of produce by pathogens. Pathogens of greatest current concern are Salmonella (tomatoes, seed sprouts and spices) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on leafy greens (spinach and lettuce). This review considers new information on illness outbreaks caused by produce, identifies factors which influence their frequency and size and examines intervention effectiveness. Research needed to increase our understanding of the factors influencing microbial safety of fresh produce is addressed.

  18. 75 FR 69912 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety..., 2010, PHMSA published a Control Room Management/Human Factors notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM... to expedite the program implementation deadlines of the Control Room Management/Human Factors rule...

  19. A novel method to estimate safety factor of capture by a fetal micropacemaker.

    PubMed

    Vest, Adriana Nicholson; Zhou, Li; Bar-Cohen, Yaniv; Eli Loeb, Gerald

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a rechargeable fetal micropacemaker in order to treat severe fetal bradycardia with comorbid hydrops fetalis, a life-threatening condition in pre-term non-viable fetuses for which there are no effective treatment options. The small size and minimally invasive form factor of our design limit the volume available for circuitry and a power source. The device employs a fixed-rate and fixed-amplitude relaxation oscillator and a tiny, rechargeable lithium ion power cell. For both research and clinical applications, it is valuable to monitor the electrode-myocardium interface in order to determine that adequate pacemaker output is being provided. This is typically accomplished by observing the minimal stimulus strength that achieves threshold for pacing capture. The output of our simple micropacemaker cannot be programmatically altered to determine this minimal capture threshold, but a safety factor can be inferred by determining the refractory period for ventricular capture at a given stimulus strength. This is done by measuring the minimal timing between naturally occurring QRS complexes and pacing stimuli that successfully generate a premature ventricular contraction. The method was tested in a pilot study in four fetal sheep and the data demonstrate that a relative measure of threshold is obtainable. This method provides valuable real-time information about the electrode-tissue interface.

  20. Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist Perceptions of Factors Impacting Patient Safety.

    PubMed

    McMullan, Susan P; Thomas-Hawkins, Charlotte; Shirey, Maria R

    Certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) provide more than 40 million anesthetics each year in the United States. This article describes a study that investigates relationships among CRNA organizational structures (CRNA practice models, work setting, workload, level of education, work experience), CRNA ratings of patient safety culture, and CRNA adverse anesthesia-related event (ARE) reporting. This is a cross-sectional survey study of 336 CRNAs randomly selected from American Association of Nurse Anesthetists database. Workload was measured using NASA Task-Load Index and the Revised Individual Workload Perception Scale. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Overall Perceptions of Safety Scale and Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Patient Safety Grade Scale were utilized to measure safety culture. Dependent variables (ARE) included difficult intubation/extubation, inadequate ventilation/oxygenation, and pulmonary aspiration. The Revised Individual Workload Perception Scale workload was significantly associated with ARE. Years' experience and Patient Safety Grade Scale were inversely associated with ARE. Overall Perceptions of Safety Scale was significantly and inversely associated with ARE. Practice model, education, and work setting were not associated with ARE. Based on findings, CRNA workload, years' experience, and patient safety culture may be important markers for ARE. Administrative interventions designed to upgrade patient safety culture and ensure manageable CRNA workload may foster quality patient care.

  1. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. 601.32 Section 601.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... to safety and effectiveness. FDA's determination of the safety and effectiveness of a...

  2. 21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. 315.3 Section 315.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... to safety and effectiveness. FDA's determination of the safety and effectiveness of a...

  3. Factors associated with the enactment of safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws.

    PubMed

    Law, Teik Hua; Noland, Robert B; Evans, Andrew W

    2013-07-01

    It has been shown that road safety laws, such as motorcycle helmet and safety belt laws, have a significant effect in reducing road fatalities. Although an expanding body of literature has documented the effects of these laws on road safety, it remains unclear which factors influence the likelihood that these laws are enacted. This study attempts to identify the factors that influence the decision to enact safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws. Using panel data from 31 countries between 1963 and 2002, our results reveal that increased democracy, education level, per capita income, political stability, and more equitable income distribution within a country are associated with the enactment of road safety laws.

  4. Scientific evaluation of the data-derived safety factors for the acceptable daily intake. Case study: diethylhexylphthalate.

    PubMed

    Morgenroth, V

    1993-01-01

    Diethylhexylphthalate causes peroxisome proliferation and is hepatocarcinogenic in rodents; it also displays reproductive and developmental toxicity in a variety of mammalian and non-mammalian species. These manifestations of toxicity have each been separately evaluated for the development of a data-derived safety factor and Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). Using hepatocarcinogenicity as the pivotal study, the nature of toxicity factor of 10 is applicable and there are no adequate studies demonstrating a No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level (NOAEL). If studies of less statistical sensitivity are used to derive the NOAEL and a factor of 0.1 is used for the relative sensitivity to humans of peroxisome proliferation (assuming this is linked mechanistically to carcinogenesis), a TDI of 1 mg/kg bw is obtained. The data-derived safety factor using peroxisomal proliferation as the pivotal end-point is 6.25, since the factor from trans-species toxicodynamics is 0.01, and the TDI derived from the NOAEL for peroxisome proliferation is thus 8 mg/kg bw. If teratogenicity is used as the pivotal study, the nature of toxicity attracts a factor of 10 and all the other aspects take default values because of the limited availability of relevant toxicodynamic and toxicokinetic data. The TDI derived from the NOAEL for teratogenicity is then 0.04 mg/kg bw and this confirms teratogenicity as the limiting aspect of toxicity defining the TDI. It also identifies the fact that appropriate toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic data related to the pregnant animal and fetus would facilitate a re-evaluation of the safety factor and TDI by replacing the current default values by data-derived values.

  5. Analysis of factors influencing safety management for metro construction in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Q Z; Ding, L Y; Zhou, C; Luo, H B

    2014-07-01

    With the rapid development of urbanization in China, the number and size of metro construction projects are increasing quickly. At the same time, and increasing number of accidents in metro construction make it a disturbing focus of social attention. In order to improve safety management in metro construction, an investigation of the participants' perspectives on safety factors in China metro construction has been conducted to identify the key safety factors, and their ranking consistency among the main participants, including clients, consultants, designers, contractors and supervisors. The result of factor analysis indicates that there are five key factors which influence the safety of metro construction including safety attitude, construction site safety, government supervision, market restrictions and task unpredictability. In addition, ANOVA and Spearman rank correlation coefficients were performed to test the consistency of the means rating and the ranking of safety factors. The results indicated that the main participants have significant disagreement about the importance of safety factors on more than half of the items. Suggestions and recommendations on practical countermeasures to improve metro construction safety management in China are proposed.

  6. A cross-cultural study of organizational factors on safety: Japanese vs. Taiwanese oil refinery plants.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shang Hwa; Lee, Chun-Chia; Wu, Muh-Cherng; Takano, Kenichi

    2008-01-01

    This study attempts to identify idiosyncrasies of organizational factors on safety and their influence mechanisms in Taiwan and Japan. Data were collected from employees of Taiwanese and Japanese oil refinery plants. Results show that organizational factors on safety differ in the two countries. Organizational characteristics in Taiwanese plants are highlighted as: higher level of management commitment to safety, harmonious interpersonal relationship, more emphasis on safety activities, higher devotion to supervision, and higher safety self-efficacy, as well as high quality of safety performance. Organizational characteristics in Japanese plants are highlighted as: higher level of employee empowerment and attitude towards continuous improvement, more emphasis on systematic safety management approach, efficient reporting system and teamwork, and high quality of safety performance. The casual relationships between organizational factors and workers' safety performance were investigated using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results indicate that the influence mechanisms of organizational factors in Taiwan and Japan are different. These findings provide insights into areas of safety improvement in emerging countries and developed countries respectively.

  7. Time to accelerate integration of human factors and ergonomics in patient safety.

    PubMed

    Gurses, Ayse P; Ozok, A Ant; Pronovost, Peter J

    2012-04-01

    Progress toward improving patient safety has been slow despite engagement of the health care community in improvement efforts. A potential reason for this sluggish pace is the inadequate integration of human factors and ergonomics principles and methods in these efforts. Patient safety problems are complex and rarely caused by one factor or component of a work system. Thus, health care would benefit from human factors and ergonomics evaluations to systematically identify the problems, prioritize the right ones, and develop effective and practical solutions. This paper gives an overview of the discipline of human factors and ergonomics and describes its role in improving patient safety. We provide examples of how human factors and ergonomics principles and methods have improved both care processes and patient outcomes. We provide five major recommendations to better integrate human factors and ergonomics in patient safety improvement efforts: build capacity among health care workers to understand human factors and ergonomics, create market forces that demand the integration of human factors and ergonomics design principles into medical technologies, increase the number of human factors and ergonomic practitioners in health care organizations, expand investments in improvement efforts informed by human factors and ergonomics, and support interdisciplinary research to improve patient safety. In conclusion, human factors and ergonomics must play a more prominent role in health care if we want to increase the pace in improving patient safety.

  8. Cultural factors influencing safety need to be addressed in design and operation of technology.

    PubMed

    Meshkati, N

    1996-10-01

    Cultural factors which influence aviation safety in aircraft design, air traffic control, and human factors training are examined. Analysis of the Avianca Flight 052 crash in New York in January, 1990, demonstrates the catastrosphic effects cultural factors can play. Cultural factors include attitude toward work and technology, organizational hierarchy, religion, and population stereotyping.

  9. Safety Factors in Educational Facilities. An Annotated Reference List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Howard E.

    Abstracts and descriptor terms are presented for 26 selected references with safety orientation. Included in addition to several general planning handbooks are topics related to--(1) stairways, (2) air structures, (3) site planning, (4) lighting, (5) bidding practice, (6) physically handicapped, (7) laboratory design, (8) mobile classrooms, (9)…

  10. Impact of Geotechnical Factors on the Safety of Low Embankment Dams From the Perspective of Technical and Safety Supervision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasana, Andrej; Minárik, Marian; Nikolaj, Maroš

    2015-03-01

    Our research deals with a broad spectrum of problems concerning the variability of geotechnical factors and their influence on the safety of the biggest group of dam constructions in Slovakia, i.e., low earthfill dams. Its specific aim is the observation of their risk factors by using our experience and knowledge gained while working in the sector of technical and safety supervision. To achieve the aims of a research thesis, we analyzed 39 low earthfill dams. We performed observations and documented their conditions with the aim of clarifying the risk factors. After an analysis of the information materials that characterize dams and after a statistical analysis of the measurement results in situ, including measurements from technical and safety supervision databases, we performed an analysis by using mathematical modeling to evaluate the safety of the dam constructions. Out of the total number of 39 dam constructions, an analysis of the stability of the dam slopes was performed on 37 dams, and deformation problems were analyzed on 28 of the dams. Filtration problems were analyzed at 26 dams, and a complete evaluation of the intensity of filtration movements was performed on 19 of the constructions. On the basis of a detailed analysis of the 39 dam constructions, we specified their problems and the concomitant consequences of the problems. Geotechnical risk factors and specific risks that determine the safety of water constructions were characterized. The analysis confirmed the importance of an engineer-geological and geotechnical checkup in the process of preparation and building (alternatively, during reconstructions and sanitation work) of such water constructions and also the importance of monitoring in the process of dam usage. Technical and safety checkups were also shown to be important when analyzing risk factors. The conclusions of the knowledge gained and the recommendations for the practice deal with recommendations to change the flow policy, develop a

  11. The Ultimate Factor of Safety for Aircraft and Spacecraft Its History, Applications and Misconceptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipay, John J.; Modlin, C. Thomas, Jr.; Larsen, Curtis E.

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate factor of safety (FOSULT) concept used in aircraft and spacecraft has evolved over many decades. Currently an FOSULT 1.5 is the FAR-mandated value for aircraft while an FOSULT of 1.4 has been used in various spacecraft. This paper was motivated by the desire to concisely explain the origins, proper interpretation and application of the ultimate factor of safety concept, since the authors have seen throughout their careers many misconceptions and incorrect applications of this concept. The history of the ultimate factor of safety concept is briefly summarized, the proper application of the factor of safety in aircraft design, structural analysis and operations is covered in detail, examples of limit load exceedance in aircraft and spacecraft are discussed, the evolution of the 1.4 FOSULT for spacecraft is described and some misconceptions regarding the ultimate factor of safety concept are addressed. It is hoped that this paper can be a summary resource for engineers to understand the origin, purpose and proper application of the ultimate factor of safety.

  12. Human factors and systems engineering approach to patient safety for radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rivera, A Joy; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2008-01-01

    The traditional approach to solving patient safety problems in healthcare is to blame the last person to touch the patient. But since the publication of To Err is Human, the call has been instead to use human factors and systems engineering methods and principles to solve patient safety problems. However, an understanding of the human factors and systems engineering is lacking, and confusion remains about what it means to apply their principles. This paper provides a primer on them and their applications to patient safety.

  13. Exposure Factor considerations for safety evaluation of modern disposable diapers.

    PubMed

    Dey, Swatee; Purdon, Mike; Kirsch, Taryn; Helbich, HansMartin; Kerr, Kenny; Li, Lijuan; Zhou, Shaoying

    2016-11-01

    Modern disposable diapers are complex products and ubiquitous globally. A robust safety assessment for disposable diapers include two important exposure parameters, i) frequency of diaper use & ii) constituent transfer from diaper to skin from direct and indirect skin contact materials. This article uses published information and original studies to quantify the exposure parameters for diapers. Using growth tables for the first three years of diapered life, an average body weight of 10-11 kg can be calculated, with a 10th percentile for females (8.5-8.8 kg). Data from surveys and diary studies were conducted to determine the frequency of use of diapers. The overall mean in the US is 4.7 diapers per day with a 75th, 90th, and 95th percentile of 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 respectively. Using diaper topsheet-lotion transfer as a model, direct transfer to skin from the topsheet was 3.0-4.3% of the starting amount of lotion. Indirect transfer of diaper core materials as a measure of re-wetting of the skin via urine resurfacing back to the topsheet under pressure was estimated at a range of 0.32-0.66% averaging 0.46%. As described, a thorough data-based understanding of exposure is critical for a robust exposure based safety assessment of disposable diapers.

  14. The Value of Human Factors to Medication and Patient Safety in the ICU

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, Matthew C.; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2010-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that the “human factor” in critical care environments is reason for inadequate medication and patient safety. Human factors (or human factors engineering (HFE)) is the science and practice of improving human performance. Using decades of HFE research, this paper evaluates a range of common beliefs about patient safety through a human factors lens. This evaluation demonstrates that HFE provides a framework for understanding safety failures in critical care settings, offers insights in to how to improve medication and patient safety, and reminds us that the “human factor” in critical care units is what allows these time pressured, information intense, mentally challenging, interruption-laden, and life-or-death environments to function so safely so much of the time. PMID:20502180

  15. Factors Influencing the Safety Behavior of German Equestrians: Attitudes towards Protective Equipment and Peer Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ikinger, Christina-Maria; Baldamus, Jana; Spiller, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The handling and riding of horses can be quite dangerous. Although the use of protective gear among equestrians is increasing, a high number of incidents occur and the voluntary use of safety equipment is described as inconsistent to low. Therefore, this study looks at the safety behavior of German equestrians and at factors influencing this behavior to decrease the high number of horse-related injuries. The results reveal that attitudes towards safety products as well as the protective behavior of other horse owners and riding pupils from the stable are key factors that might alter the safety behavior of equestrians. Abstract Human interactions with horses entail certain risks. Although the acceptance and use of protective gear is increasing, a high number of incidents and very low or inconsistent voluntary use of safety equipment are reported. While past studies have examined factors influencing the use of safety gear, they have explored neither their influence on the overall safety behavior, nor their relative influence in relation to each other. The aim of the present study is to fill this gap. We conducted an online survey with 2572 participants. By means of a subsequent multiple regression analysis, we explored 23 different variables in view of their influence on the protective behavior of equestrians. In total, we found 17 variables that exerted a significant influence. The results show that both having positive or negative attitudes towards safety products as well as the protective behavior of other horse owners or riding pupils from the stable have the strongest influence on the safety behavior of German equestrians. We consider such knowledge to be important for both scientists and practitioners, such as producers of protective gear or horse sport associations who might alter safety behavior in such a way that the number of horse-related injuries decreases in the long term. PMID:26901229

  16. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors.A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L.The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg.In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L.

  17. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors. A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L. The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg. In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L. PMID:27902589

  18. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  19. Human factors and aviation safety: what the industry has, what the industry needs.

    PubMed

    Maurino, D E

    2000-07-01

    The use of statistical analyses to assert safety levels has persuasively been established within the aviation industry. Likewise, variations in regional statistics have led to generalizations about safety levels in different contexts. Caution is proposed when qualitatively linking statistics and aviation's resilience to hazards. Further caution is proposed when extending generalizations across contexts. Statistical analyses--the favoured diagnostic tool of aviation--show sequences of cause/effect relationships reflecting agreed categorizations prevalent in safety breakdowns. They do not, however, reveal the processes underlying such relationships. It is contended that the answers to the safety questions in contemporary aviation will not be found through the numbers, but through the understanding of the processes underpinning the numbers. These processes and their supporting beliefs are influenced by contextual constraints and cultural factors, which in turn influence individual and organizational performance. It is further contended that the contribution of human factors is fundamental in achieving this understanding. This paper, therefore (1) argues in favour of a macro view of aviation safety, (2) suggests the need to revise a long-standing safety paradigm that appears to have ceased to be effective, and (3) discusses the basic premises upon which a revised safety paradigm should build.

  20. Food safety and epidemiology: new database of functional food factors.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shaw; Zhuo, Xing Gang; Kimira, Mitsuru

    2004-01-01

    More than 600 functional non-nutrient food factors (FFFs) in vegetables and fruits are considered to be effective for health promotion and disease prevention. However, phytochemicals studied thus far have failed to yield predicted results in randomized intervention studies. To assess the health effects of phytochemicals, a breakthrough in epidemiological methods was necessary. We constructed a database of non-nutrient FFFs to estimate the chemical classes and total amount of FFF-intake in order to facilitate estimation and calculation for nutritional research. So far, flavonoids, terpenoids, carotenoids, and sulfur compounds are included in our FFF database. We calculated the intake of various phytochemicals per capita from 79 subjects' dietary records by FFF database, and estimated that subjects ingested more than 10 micromole per day of phytochemicals such as catechin, isoflavones, isothiocyanate, ferulic acid, quercetin, cinnamic acid and chlorogenic acid. Chief component analysis yielded 12 factors (80%), of which only a few factors showed negative associations with serum cholesterol and LDL concentration. Many factors showed adverse relationships with liver function and serum triacylglycerol concentration. Weekly self-reported daily dietary records including name of dish, constituent foods and their amounts were separately collected for 6 months and analyzed in Kyoto women. Seasonal changes of phytochemical intake showed significant variation according to the seasonal consumption of fruits and vegetables. Lycopene increased in the summer due to watermelon and tomato intake in this season. Seasonal variation of FFF was quite large compared to the variation of macro- and micronutrients. Careful evaluation of the effects of FFF intake on health is necessary, especially when supplements are also consumed. The most effective combinations of FFF intake for human health could be elucidated by using our FFF-DB in conjunction with population-based cohort studies.

  1. Factors influencing workers to follow food safety management systems in meat plants in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ball, Brita; Wilcock, Anne; Aung, May

    2009-06-01

    Small and medium sized food businesses have been slow to adopt food safety management systems (FSMSs) such as good manufacturing practices and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP). This study identifies factors influencing workers in their implementation of food safety practices in small and medium meat processing establishments in Ontario, Canada. A qualitative approach was used to explore in-plant factors that influence the implementation of FSMSs. Thirteen in-depth interviews in five meat plants and two focus group interviews were conducted. These generated 219 pages of verbatim transcripts which were analysed using NVivo 7 software. Main themes identified in the data related to production systems, organisational characteristics and employee characteristics. A socio-psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour is proposed to describe how these themes and underlying sub-themes relate to FSMS implementation. Addressing the various factors that influence production workers is expected to enhance FSMS implementation and increase food safety.

  2. Safety update on the use of recombinant activated factor VII in approved indications.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Ellis J; Négrier, Claude; Arkhammar, Per; Benchikh el Fegoun, Soraya; Simonsen, Mette Duelund; Rosholm, Anders; Seremetis, Stephanie

    2015-06-01

    This updated safety review summarises the large body of safety data available on the use of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in approved indications: haemophilia with inhibitors, congenital factor VII (FVII) deficiency, acquired haemophilia and Glanzmann's thrombasthenia. Accumulated data up to 31 December 2013 from clinical trials as well as post-marketing data (registries, literature reports and spontaneous reports) were included. Overall, rFVIIa has shown a consistently favourable safety profile, with no unexpected safety concerns, in all approved indications. No confirmed cases of neutralising antibodies against rFVIIa have been reported in patients with congenital haemophilia, acquired haemophilia or Glanzmann's thrombasthenia. The favourable safety profile of rFVIIa can be attributed to the recombinant nature of rFVIIa and its localised mechanism of action at the site of vascular injury. Recombinant FVIIa activates factor X directly on the surface of activated platelets, which are present only at the site of injury, meaning that systemic activation of coagulation is avoided and the risk of thrombotic events (TEs) thus reduced. Nonetheless, close monitoring for signs and symptoms of TE is warranted in all patients treated with any pro-haemostatic agent, including rFVIIa, especially the elderly and any other patients with concomitant conditions and/or predisposing risk factors to thrombosis.

  3. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  4. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  5. Human factors experts beginning to focus on organizational factors in safety.

    PubMed

    Westrum, R

    1996-10-01

    The role of organizational culture in aviation safety is explored. Information flow is used to demonstrate three ranges of climate within an organization. Organizations may be pathological in which information is hidden, bureaucratic in which information is ignored, or generative in which information is actively sought. The effects of organizational change on personnel are explored with emphasis on mergers between air carriers. The relationship between safety measures and economic pressures is discussed.

  6. Factors associated with the patient safety climate at a teaching hospital1

    PubMed Central

    Luiz, Raíssa Bianca; Simões, Ana Lúcia de Assis; Barichello, Elizabeth; Barbosa, Maria Helena

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: to investigate the association between the scores of the patient safety climate and socio-demographic and professional variables. Methods: an observational, sectional and quantitative study, conducted at a large public teaching hospital. The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire was used, translated and validated for Brazil. Data analysis used the software Statistical Package for Social Sciences. In the bivariate analysis, we used Student's t-test, analysis of variance and Spearman's correlation of (α=0.05). To identify predictors for the safety climate scores, multiple linear regression was used, having the safety climate domain as the main outcome (α=0.01). Results: most participants were women, nursing staff, who worked in direct care to adult patients in critical areas, without a graduate degree and without any other employment. The average and median total score of the instrument corresponded to 61.8 (SD=13.7) and 63.3, respectively. The variable professional performance was found as a factor associated with the safety environment for the domain perception of service management and hospital management (p=0.01). Conclusion: the identification of factors associated with the safety environment permits the construction of strategies for safe practices in the hospitals. PMID:26487138

  7. The likelihood of achieving quantified road safety targets: a binary logistic regression model for possible factors.

    PubMed

    Sze, N N; Wong, S C; Lee, C Y

    2014-12-01

    In past several decades, many countries have set quantified road safety targets to motivate transport authorities to develop systematic road safety strategies and measures and facilitate the achievement of continuous road safety improvement. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the association between the setting of quantified road safety targets and road fatality reduction, in both the short and long run, by comparing road fatalities before and after the implementation of a quantified road safety target. However, not much work has been done to evaluate whether the quantified road safety targets are actually achieved. In this study, we used a binary logistic regression model to examine the factors - including vehicle ownership, fatality rate, and national income, in addition to level of ambition and duration of target - that contribute to a target's success. We analyzed 55 quantified road safety targets set by 29 countries from 1981 to 2009, and the results indicate that targets that are in progress and with lower level of ambitions had a higher likelihood of eventually being achieved. Moreover, possible interaction effects on the association between level of ambition and the likelihood of success are also revealed.

  8. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. 601.32 Section 601.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... estimated absorbed radiation dose of the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical....

  9. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. 601.32 Section 601.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... estimated absorbed radiation dose of the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical....

  10. Safety Factor of Anisotropic Bars in the Space of Generalized Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibgatullin, K. E.; Sibgatullin, E. S.

    2017-01-01

    Bars of arbitrary shape made of a homogeneous anisotropic material are considered. In the general case, in their cross section, nonzero are all internal force factors (IFF) — three forces and three moments. The values of the IFF are known from solutions of the corresponding problem. The safety factor for the load-carrying capacity of the beams is determined by comparing the known vector R ∗ of IFF with the corresponding desired strength vector R in the IFF space.

  11. Effects of a Workplace Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Risk Factors on Safety and Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Leslie B; Truxillo, Donald M; Bodner, Todd; Rineer, Jennifer; Pytlovany, Amy C; Richman, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a workplace intervention targeting work-life stress and safety-related psychosocial risk factors on health and safety outcomes. Data were collected over time using a randomized control trial design with 264 construction workers employed in an urban municipal department. The intervention involved family- and safety-supportive supervisor behavior training (computer-based), followed by two weeks of behavior tracking and a four-hour, facilitated team effectiveness session including supervisors and employees. A significant positive intervention effect was found for an objective measure of blood pressure at the 12-month follow-up. However, no significant intervention results were found for self-reported general health, safety participation, or safety compliance. These findings suggest that an intervention focused on supervisor support training and a team effectiveness process for planning and problem solving should be further refined and utilized in order to improve employee health with additional research on the beneficial effects on worker safety.

  12. Effects of a Workplace Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Risk Factors on Safety and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Truxillo, Donald M.; Bodner, Todd; Rineer, Jennifer; Pytlovany, Amy C.; Richman, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a workplace intervention targeting work-life stress and safety-related psychosocial risk factors on health and safety outcomes. Data were collected over time using a randomized control trial design with 264 construction workers employed in an urban municipal department. The intervention involved family- and safety-supportive supervisor behavior training (computer-based), followed by two weeks of behavior tracking and a four-hour, facilitated team effectiveness session including supervisors and employees. A significant positive intervention effect was found for an objective measure of blood pressure at the 12-month follow-up. However, no significant intervention results were found for self-reported general health, safety participation, or safety compliance. These findings suggest that an intervention focused on supervisor support training and a team effectiveness process for planning and problem solving should be further refined and utilized in order to improve employee health with additional research on the beneficial effects on worker safety. PMID:26557703

  13. Behavioral risk factors associated with listeriosis in the home: a review of consumer food safety studies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Ellen W; Redmond, Elizabeth C

    2014-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes causes human listeriosis, which is associated with the highest hospitalization and mortality rates of all foodborne illnesses. In recent years, the incidence of listeriosis has doubled in Europe, almost exclusively among older adults (≥ 60 years of age). Food safety factors associated with increased risk of listeriosis include lack of adherence to "use by" dates and ineffective refrigerated storage of foods. Consequently, older adult consumers' implementation of safe food practices should be evaluated. This article is a review of consumer food safety cognitive and behavioral data relating to risk factors associated with listeriosis in the home as reported in 165 consumer food safety studies. Overall, only 41% of studies included assessment of consumer cognitive or behavioral data associated with listeriosis; of these studies 59% included data on safe refrigeration, 54% included data on storage time for opened ready-to-eat foods, and 49% included data on adherence to use-by dates. In most (83%) of the studies, survey-based data collection methods (questionnaires/interviews) were used; thus, the majority of findings were based on self-report (74%) and knowledge (44%). Observation (31%) and focus groups (12%) were less commonly used, resulting in a lack of actual behaviors and attitudinal data relating to listeriosis risk factors. Only 7% of studies included food safety data for older adults. Although older adults may fail to implement recommended practices, this review reveals a need for in-depth research to determine food safety attitudes and actual behaviors of older adults in conjunction with knowledge and selfreport of practices linked to increased risks of listeriosis. Such data combined with review findings would inform targeted food safety education to reduce risks associated with listeriosis in the home.

  14. Hazard Management Dealt by Safety Professionals in Colleges: The Impact of Individual Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tsung-Chih; Chen, Chi-Hsiang; Yi, Nai-Wen; Lu, Pei-Chen; Yu, Shan-Chi; Wang, Chien-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Identifying, evaluating, and controlling workplace hazards are important functions of safety professionals (SPs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the content and frequency of hazard management dealt by safety professionals in colleges. The authors also explored the effects of organizational factors/individual factors on SPs’ perception of frequency of hazard management. The researchers conducted survey research to achieve the objective of this study. The researchers mailed questionnaires to 200 SPs in colleges after simple random sampling, then received a total of 144 valid responses (response rate = 72%). Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the hazard management scale (HMS) extracted five factors, including physical hazards, biological hazards, social and psychological hazards, ergonomic hazards, and chemical hazards. Moreover, the top 10 hazards that the survey results identified that safety professionals were most likely to deal with (in order of most to least frequent) were: organic solvents, illumination, other chemicals, machinery and equipment, fire and explosion, electricity, noise, specific chemicals, human error, and lifting/carrying. Finally, the results of one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated there were four individual factors that impacted the perceived frequency of hazard management which were of statistical and practical significance: job tenure in the college of employment, type of certification, gender, and overall job tenure. SPs within colleges and industries can now discuss plans revolving around these five areas instead of having to deal with all of the separate hazards. PMID:27918474

  15. Scientific evaluation of the safety factor for the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Case study: butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA).

    PubMed

    Würtzen, G

    1993-01-01

    The principles of 'data-derived safety factors' are applied to toxicological and biochemical information on butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The calculated safety factor for an ADI is, by this method, comparable to the existing internationally recognized safety evaluations. Relevance for humans of forestomach tumours in rodents is discussed. The method provides a basis for organizing data in a way that permits an explicit assessment of its relevance.

  16. 5 CFR 919.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate evidence. 919.900 Section 919.900 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.900 Adequate...

  17. Exploring the possibility of a common structural model measuring associations between safety climate factors and safety behaviour in health care and the petroleum sectors.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Espen

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the possibility of identifying general safety climate concepts in health care and petroleum sectors, as well as develop and test the possibility of a common cross-industrial structural model. Self-completion questionnaire surveys were administered in two organisations and sectors: (1) a large regional hospital in Norway that offers a wide range of hospital services, and (2) a large petroleum company that produces oil and gas worldwide. In total, 1919 and 1806 questionnaires were returned from the hospital and petroleum organisation, with response rates of 55 percent and 52 percent, respectively. Using a split sample procedure principal factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis revealed six identical cross-industrial measurement concepts in independent samples-five measures of safety climate and one of safety behaviour. The factors' psychometric properties were explored with satisfactory internal consistency and concept validity. Thus, a common cross-industrial structural model was developed and tested using structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM revealed that a cross-industrial structural model could be identified among health care workers and offshore workers in the North Sea. The most significant contributing variables in the model testing stemmed from organisational management support for safety and supervisor/manager expectations and actions promoting safety. These variables indirectly enhanced safety behaviour (stop working in dangerous situations) through transitions and teamwork across units, and teamwork within units as well as learning, feedback, and improvement. Two new safety climate instruments were validated as part of the study: (1) Short Safety Climate Survey (SSCS) and (2) Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture-short (HSOPSC-short). Based on development of measurements and structural model assessment, this study supports the possibility of a common safety climate structural model across health

  18. Factors influencing safety among a group of commercial fishermen along the Texas Gulf Coast.

    PubMed

    Levin, Jeffrey L; Gilmore, Karen; Shepherd, Sara; Wickman, Amanda; Carruth, Ann; Nalbone, J Torey; Gallardo, Gilbert; Nonnenmann, Matthew W

    2010-10-01

    The commercial fishing trades are among the most dangerous jobs in the world. Little published information exists regarding some populations of commercial fishermen such as along the United States Gulf Coast. Studying these unique and often vulnerable groups is important to characterize potential influences on or barriers to safety in anticipation of designing interventions that can change safety behaviors. Working closely with the United States Coast Guard (USCG), a cross-sectional convenience sample of Gulf Coast shrimp fishermen in and near the Port of Galveston, Texas, was surveyed. The survey included demographic factors and broadly covered areas such as type of work and fishing activities, general or global perceptions and beliefs related to safety and accidents, self-report of ability to use safety equipment or apply procedures aboard vessel, and training considerations. Surveys were obtained following informed consent (n = 133). Of the participants, 96.7% were male with 60.9% ≥40 years old. A majority were of Asian descent (57.1% of all fishermen, 82.1% of shrimp fishermen). Over half claimed to speak little or no English and nearly 60% considered the job to be very safe to neutral. A third to half of respondents expressed doubt about their knowledge of using essential safety equipment in the event of emergency. A large portion of the participants preferred hands-on safety training (40.6%). Important findings about this group of commercial fishermen will help with future development of effective prevention practices through the delivery of culturally appropriate safety awareness training. One element that must be addressed in training programs is to increase the awareness among fishermen about the severe occupational risks inherent in this type of work. Community trust and collaborative partnerships are essential to the success of such initiatives.

  19. Complicating factors in safety testing of drug metabolites: Kinetic differences between generated and preformed metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Prueksaritanont, Thomayant . E-mail: thomayant_prueksaritanont@merck.com; Lin, Jiunn H.; Baillie, Thomas A.

    2006-12-01

    This paper aims to provide a scientifically based perspective on issues surrounding the proposed toxicology testing of synthetic drug metabolites as a means of ensuring adequate nonclinical safety evaluation of drug candidates that generate metabolites considered either to be unique to humans or are present at much higher levels in humans than in preclinical species. We put forward a number of theoretical considerations and present several specific examples where the kinetic behavior of a preformed metabolite given to animals or humans differs from that of the corresponding metabolite generated endogenously from its parent. The potential ramifications of this phenomenon are that the results of toxicity testing of the preformed metabolite may be misleading and fail to characterize the true toxicological contribution of the metabolite when formed from the parent. It is anticipated that such complications would be evident in situations where (a) differences exist in the accumulation of the preformed versus generated metabolites in specific tissues, and (b) the metabolite undergoes sequential metabolism to a downstream product that is toxic, leading to differences in tissue-specific toxicity. Owing to the complex nature of this subject, there is a need to treat drug metabolite issues in safety assessment on a case-by-case basis, in which a knowledge of metabolite kinetics is employed to validate experimental paradigms that entail administration of preformed metabolites to animal models.

  20. Factors Of Environmental Safety And Environmentally Efficient Technologies Transportation Facilities Gas Transportation Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Bogdan U.

    2017-01-01

    The stable development of the European countries depends on a reliable and efficient operation of the gas transportation system (GTS). With high reliability of GTS it is necessary to ensure its industrial and environmental safety. In this article the major factors influencing on an industrial and ecological safety of GTS are analyzed, sources of GTS safety decreasing is revealed, measures for providing safety are proposed. The article shows that use of gas-turbine engines of gas-compressor units (GCU) results in the following phenomena: emissions of harmful substances in the atmosphere; pollution by toxic waste; harmful noise and vibration; thermal impact on environment; decrease in energy efficiency. It is shown that for the radical problem resolution of an industrial and ecological safety of gas-transmission system it is reasonable to use gas-compressor units driven by electric motors. Their advantages are shown. Perspective technologies of these units and experience of their use in Europe and the USA are given in this article.

  1. Evolution of recombinant factor VIII safety: KOGENATE and Kogenate FS/Bayer.

    PubMed

    Lusher, Jeanne M; Scharrer, Inge

    2009-11-01

    The use of factor VIII (FVIII) concentrates in the treatment of hemophilia A has raised important safety issues, historically of pathogen transmission and increasingly of inhibitor development to FVIII treatment. While manufacturing processes of current recombinant FVIII products have been shaped entirely around preventing pathogen transmission, the same modifications that afford a greater margin of safety could affect immunogenicity of the product, consequences of which could only be seen through long-term clinical experience. This review summarizes pathogen safety and inhibitor reports from clinical trials, post-marketing surveillance studies, and study reports on KOGENATE and its successor, Kogenate FS/Bayer. Although KOGENATE and Kogenate FS/Bayer are nearly identical products, subtle manufacturing improvements to address the need for greater margins of safety from a pathogen transmission perspective have also led to a potentially improved immunogenicity profile (15% in previously untreated/minimally treated patients with severe hemophilia A for Kogenate FS/Bayer). Notably, there has been no occurrence of pathogen contamination, and minimal de novo inhibitor formation in previously treated patients throughout the use of both products. Overall, KOGENATE and Kogenate FS/Bayer have a long history of safety in a variety of clinical settings, including treatment of bleeding, surgical management, and prophylaxis therapy.

  2. Factor analysis of safety for visitors to a mega-event.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young Guk; Park, Hyun Jee

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigated the safety factors considered by visitors to the Kwangju Biennale 2000 and analyzed the correlation between the safety factors and the demographic characteristics of the visitors. Global tourism increased throughout the 1990s, with the biggest surge occurring in the Asia-Pacific region. Long-distance travel is also increasing, and at a rate faster than the global average. The opportunities for event tourism appear to be strong almost everywhere, even though recessions may have an impact on these destinations. Along with this upward trend, competition for more desirable tourists is also surging (Getz, 1997). Therefore event tourism is appearing as a powerful method in the fierce competition around the tourism industry.

  3. Are uniform regional safety factors an objective of adaptive modeling/remodeling in cortical bone?

    PubMed

    Skedros, John G; Dayton, Michael R; Sybrowsky, Christian L; Bloebaum, Roy D; Bachus, Kent N

    2003-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that a major objective of morphological adaptation in limb-bone diaphyses is the achievement of uniform regional safety factors between discrete cortical locations (e.g. between cranial and caudal cortices at mid-diaphysis). This hypothesis has been tested, and appears to be supported in the diaphyses of ovine and equine radii. The present study more rigorously examined this question using the equine third metacarpal (MC3), which has had functionally generated intracortical strains estimated by a sophisticated finite element model. Mechanical properties of multiple mid-diaphyseal specimens were evaluated in both tension and compression, allowing for testing of habitually tensed or compressed regions in their respective habitual loading mode ("strain-mode-specific" loading). Elastic modulus, and yield and ultimate strength and strain, were correlated with in vivo strain data from a previously published finite element model. Mechanical tests revealed minor variations in elastic modulus, and yield and ultimate strength in both tension and compression loading, while physiological strains varied significantly between the cortices. Contrary to the hypothesis of uniform safety factors, the MC3 has a broad range of tension (caudo-medial, 4.0; cranio-lateral, 37.7) and compression (caudo-medial, 5.7; cranio-lateral, 68.9) safety factors.

  4. Maintaining plant safety margins

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Final Safety Analysis Report Forms the basis of demonstrating that the plant can operate safely and meet all applicable acceptance criteria. In order to assure that this continues through each operating cycle, the safety analysis is reexamined for each reload core. Operating limits are set for each reload core to assure that safety limits and applicable acceptance criteria are not exceeded for postulated events within the design basis. These operating limits form the basis for plant operation, providing barriers on various measurable parameters. The barriers are refereed to as limiting conditions for operation (LCO). The operating limits, being influenced by many factors, can change significantly from cycle to cycle. In order to be successful in demonstrating safe operation for each reload core (with adequate operating margin), it is necessary to continue to focus on ways to maintain/improve existing safety margins. Existing safety margins are a function of the plant type (boiling water reactor/pressurized water reactor (BWR/PWR)), nuclear system supply (NSSS) vendor, operating license date, core design features, plant design features, licensing history, and analytical methods used in the safety analysis. This paper summarizes the experience at Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) in its efforts to provide adequate operating margin for the plants that it supports.

  5. Determination of Slope Safety Factor with Analytical Solution and Searching Critical Slip Surface with Genetic-Traversal Random Method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the current practice, to determine the safety factor of a slope with two-dimensional circular potential failure surface, one of the searching methods for the critical slip surface is Genetic Algorithm (GA), while the method to calculate the slope safety factor is Fellenius' slices method. However GA needs to be validated with more numeric tests, while Fellenius' slices method is just an approximate method like finite element method. This paper proposed a new method to determine the minimum slope safety factor which is the determination of slope safety factor with analytical solution and searching critical slip surface with Genetic-Traversal Random Method. The analytical solution is more accurate than Fellenius' slices method. The Genetic-Traversal Random Method uses random pick to utilize mutation. A computer automatic search program is developed for the Genetic-Traversal Random Method. After comparison with other methods like slope/w software, results indicate that the Genetic-Traversal Random Search Method can give very low safety factor which is about half of the other methods. However the obtained minimum safety factor with Genetic-Traversal Random Search Method is very close to the lower bound solutions of slope safety factor given by the Ansys software. PMID:24782679

  6. Safety of Factor XIII Concentrate: Analysis of More than 20 Years of Pharmacovigilance Data

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Cristina; Korte, Wolfgang; Fries, Dietmar; Pendrak, Inna; Joch, Christine; Gröner, Albrecht; Birschmann, Ingvild

    2016-01-01

    Background Plasma-derived factor XIII (FXIII) concentrate is an effective treatment for FXIII deficiency. We describe adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported during pharmacovigilance monitoring of Fibrogammin®/Corifact® and review published safety data. Methods Postmarketing safety reports recorded by CSL Behring from June 1993 to September 2013 were analyzed. Clinical studies published during the same period were also reviewed. Results Commercial data indicated that 1,653,450,333 IU FXIII concentrate were distributed over the review period, equivalent to 1,181,036 doses for a 70 kg patient. 75 cases were reported (one/15,700 standard doses or 22,046,000 IU). Reports of special interest included 12 cases of possible hypersensitivity reactions (one/98,400 doses or 137,787,500 IU), 7 with possible thromboembolic events (one/168,700 doses or 236,207,200 IU), 5 of possible inhibitor development (one/236,200 doses or 330,690,100 IU), and 20 of possible pathogen transmission (one/59,100 doses or 82,672,500 IU). 19 pathogen transmission cases involved viral infection; 4 could not be analyzed due to insufficient data, but for all others a causal relationship to the product was assessed as unlikely. A review of published literature revealed a similar safety profile. Conclusion Assessment of ADRs demonstrated that FXIII concentrate carries a low risk of ADRs across various clinical situations, suggesting a favorable safety profile. PMID:27781024

  7. Investigation and Identification of Factors affecting Migrating Peasant workers' Usage of Safety Footwear in the Chinese Construction Industry.

    PubMed

    Suo, Qinghui; Zhang, Daming

    2016-12-31

    A sample of 300 migrating peasant workers from 15 Chinese building construction sites completed a demographic questionnaire to investigate the usage of safety footwear. The survey form were constructed based on the theory of planned behaviour, and a total of 12 questions focusing on the workers' past experience, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control were included in the survey. It was found that 92% of the participants did not wear safety footwear while working on construction sites, although more than 91% of them believed that safety footwear would protect the foot from injury; none of the participants had been provided free safety footwear by their employer. Regression analysis shows that employers' attitude is the most important factor affecting their usage of safety footwear, "Providing free safety footwear" and "comfortability of the safety footwear" ranks the second and third respectively.

  8. Archetypes for Organisational Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marais, Karen; Leveson, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a framework using system dynamics to model the dynamic behavior of organizations in accident analysis. Most current accident analysis techniques are event-based and do not adequately capture the dynamic complexity and non-linear interactions that characterize accidents in complex systems. In this paper we propose a set of system safety archetypes that model common safety culture flaws in organizations, i.e., the dynamic behaviour of organizations that often leads to accidents. As accident analysis and investigation tools, the archetypes can be used to develop dynamic models that describe the systemic and organizational factors contributing to the accident. The archetypes help clarify why safety-related decisions do not always result in the desired behavior, and how independent decisions in different parts of the organization can combine to impact safety.

  9. A qualitative investigation of Hispanic construction worker perspectives on factors impacting worksite safety and risk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hispanic workers have higher rates of injury and death on construction worksites than workers of other ethnicities. Language barriers and cultural differences have been hypothesized as reasons behind the disparate rates. Methods We conducted two series of focus groups with union and non-union Hispanic construction workers to ask them about their perceptions of the causes for the unequal rates. Spanish transcripts were translated and coded in QSR NVivo software for common themes. Results Workers reported a difficult work environment characterized by supervisor pressure, competition for jobs and intimidation with regard to raising safety concerns. Language barriers or cultural factors were not strongly represented as causative factors behind the rates. Conclusion The results of this study have informed the development of an intervention trial that seeks to prevent falls and silica dust exposure by training contractors employing Hispanic construction workers in the elements of safety leadership, including building respect for their Hispanic workers and facilitating their participation in a safety program. PMID:21962128

  10. Efficacy and safety of recombinant factor VIII products in patients with hemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Musso, Robert

    2008-10-01

    The introduction of recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) clotting factor concentrates nearly 20 years ago represented a significant advance in the treatment of hemophilia A. The major advantage of rFVIII products compared with plasma-derived FVIII products is related to product safety, with rFVIII products virtually eliminating bloodborne pathogen transmission. The most challenging aspect of hemophilia A management today is the development of FVIII inhibitors; previously untreated patients are at the highest risk for inhibitor formation. Presented in this article are results of clinical trials in previously treated and untreated patients and postmarketing surveillance studies for the four commercially available rFVIII products (Recombinate, ReFacto, Kogenate FS/Kogenate Bayer and Advate). Recombinant FVIII therapies are highly efficacious when used ondemand and prophylactically, and they have excellent safety profiles; there have been no reports of viral- or prion-based disease transmission associated with rFVIII administration. The incidence rate of inhibitors in previously untreated patients ranges from 15% to approximately 30%. Because rFVIII concentrates have proven efficacy and safety profiles, a number of hemophilia treatment groups recommend rFVIII products as first-line therapy in the management of hemophilia A.

  11. Analysis of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials: Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Abkowitz, M.D.; Abkowitz, S.B.; Lepofsky, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report examines the extent of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials. It is seen principally as a scoping effort, to establish whether there is a need for DOE to undertake a more formal approach to studying human factors in radioactive waste transport, and if so, logical directions for that program to follow. Human factors effects are evaluated on driving and loading/transfer operations only. Particular emphasis is placed on the driving function, examining the relationship between human error and safety as it relates to the impairment of driver performance. Although multi-modal in focus, the widespread availability of data and previous literature on truck operations resulted in a primary study focus on the trucking mode from the standpoint of policy development. In addition to the analysis of human factors accident statistics, the report provides relevant background material on several policies that have been instituted or are under consideration, directed at improving human reliability in the transport sector. On the basis of reported findings, preliminary policy areas are identified. 71 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Beyond working time: factors affecting sleep behaviour in rail safety workers.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Jessica L; Dorrian, Jill; Clarkson, Larissa; Darwent, David; Ferguson, Sally A

    2012-03-01

    There are many factors that may affect the sleep behaviour and subsequent fatigue risk of shift workers. In the Australian rail industry the emphasis is primarily on the impact of working time on sleep. The extent to which factors other than working time might affect the sleep behaviour of employees in the large and diverse Australian rail industry is largely unknown. The present study used sleep, work and fatigue diaries completed for two weeks, in conjunction with actigraphy, to understand the contribution of demographic and health factors to sleep behaviour in 40 rail safety workers. Both shift type and having dependents were significant predictors of sleep duration (P<.05). Sleep duration was greatest prior to night shifts, followed by afternoon shifts and morning shifts. Participants with dependents got significantly less sleep than participants without dependents. Both timing of sleep and smoking were significant predictors of sleep quality (P<.05). Day sleeps were associated with lower subjective sleep quality than night sleeps and smokers reported poorer sleep quality than non-smokers. These findings indicate that factors other than working time have the potential to influence both the sleep duration and subjective sleep quality of rail safety workers.

  13. Factors shaping effective utilization of health information technology in urban safety-net clinics.

    PubMed

    George, Sheba; Garth, Belinda; Fish, Allison; Baker, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Urban safety-net clinics are considered prime targets for the adoption of health information technology innovations; however, little is known about their utilization in such safety-net settings. Current scholarship provides limited guidance on the implementation of health information technology into safety-net settings as it typically assumes that adopting institutions have sufficient basic resources. This study addresses this gap by exploring the unique challenges urban resource-poor safety-net clinics must consider when adopting and utilizing health information technology. In-depth interviews (N = 15) were used with key stakeholders (clinic chief executive officers, medical directors, nursing directors, chief financial officers, and information technology directors) from staff at four clinics to explore (a) nonhealth information technology-related clinic needs, (b) how health information technology may provide solutions, and (c) perceptions of and experiences with health information technology. Participants identified several challenges, some of which appear amenable to health information technology solutions. Also identified were requirements for effective utilization of health information technology including physical infrastructural improvements, funding for equipment/training, creation of user groups to share health information technology knowledge/experiences, and specially tailored electronic billing guidelines. We found that despite the potential benefit that can be derived from health information technologies, the unplanned and uninformed introduction of these tools into these settings might actually create more problems than are solved. From these data, we were able to identify a set of factors that should be considered when integrating health information technology into the existing workflows of low-resourced urban safety-net clinics in order to maximize their utilization and enhance the quality of health care in such settings.

  14. Factors shaping effective utilization of health information technology in urban safety-net clinics

    PubMed Central

    George, Sheba; Garth, Belinda; Fish, Allison; Baker, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Urban safety-net clinics are considered prime targets for the adoption of health information technology innovations; however, little is known about their utilization in such safety-net settings. Current scholarship provides limited guidance on the implementation of health information technology into safety-net settings as it typically assumes that adopting institutions have sufficient basic resources. This study addresses this gap by exploring the unique challenges urban resource-poor safety-net clinics must consider when adopting and utilizing health information technology. In-depth interviews (N = 15) were used with key stakeholders (clinic chief executive officers, medical directors, nursing directors, chief financial officers, and information technology directors) from staff at four clinics to explore (a) nonhealth information technology-related clinic needs, (b) how health information technology may provide solutions, and (c) perceptions of and experiences with health information technology. Participants identified several challenges, some of which appear amenable to health information technology solutions. Also identified were requirements for effective utilization of health information technology including physical infrastructural improvements, funding for equipment/training, creation of user groups to share health information technology knowledge/experiences, and specially tailored electronic billing guidelines. We found that despite the potential benefit that can be derived from health information technologies, the unplanned and uninformed introduction of these tools into these settings might actually create more problems than are solved. From these data, we were able to identify a set of factors that should be considered when integrating health information technology into the existing workflows of low-resourced urban safety-net clinics in order to maximize their utilization and enhance the quality of health care in such settings. PMID:23981394

  15. Head-up displays and their automotive application: an overview of human factors issues affecting safety.

    PubMed

    Ward, N J; Parkes, A

    1994-12-01

    In response to the recent innovations to use head-up displays (HUDs) in vehicles, this paper discusses the relevant human factors issues arising from this display format and the potential safety implications. A review is made of the relevant HUD literature, primarily from the aviation field. The primary issues for automotive HUDs relevant to system performance and safety in the driving task involve interference from background scene complexity, system novelty, user perceptual style, cognitive disruption, and perceptual tunnelling. Basic research is necessary to investigate the extent of these issues as well as to resolve fundamental design specifications (e.g. HUD size, shape, placement, information content). It is suggested that the introduction of HUDs into vehicles be carefully considered. This will necessitate not only the reconsideration what constitutes an in-vehicle display, but also what constitutes the information to be conveyed.

  16. Potential safety issues and other factors that may affect the introduction and uptake of rotavirus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Aliabadi, N; Tate, J E; Parashar, U D

    2016-12-01

    Rotavirus vaccines have demonstrated significant impact in reducing the burden of morbidity and mortality from childhood diarrhoea in countries that have implemented routine vaccination to date. Despite this success, in many countries, rotavirus vaccine coverage remains lower than that of other routine childhood vaccines. Several issues may potentially affect vaccine uptake, namely safety concerns related to intussusception with consequent age restrictions on rotavirus vaccination, contamination with porcine circovirus, vaccine-derived reassortant strains and hospitalization in newborn nurseries at time of administration of live oral rotavirus vaccine. In addition to these safety concerns, other factors may also affect uptake, including lower vaccine efficacy in the developing world, potential emergence of strains escaping from vaccine protection resulting in lower overall impact of a vaccination programme and sustainable vaccine financing. Although further work is needed to address some of these concerns, global policy bodies have reaffirmed that the benefits of rotavirus vaccination outweigh the risks, and vaccine use is recommended globally.

  17. [Safety and risk factor analysis on Polygoni Multiflori Radix base on ancient traditional Chinese medicine literatures].

    PubMed

    Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Guo, Xiao-xin; Ren, Jing-tian; Yang, Le; Pang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine Polygoni Multiflori Radix is dried roots of Polygonaceae Polygortum multiflorum Thunb. Its clinical application records were first discovered in literatures of the Tang dynasty. The origins, efficacy, toxicity, processing and taboos of Polygoni Multiflori Radix have been discussed in many ancient herb literatures. In recent years, with the increase in the public awareness in health, Polygoni Multiflori Radix admits preparations have been more widely applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, there have been more and more reports about Polygoni Multiflori Radix induced liver injury, the safety of Polygoni Multiflori Radix has increasingly attracted attention of the society. In this paper, the authors summarized and analyzed the toxicity and medication risk factors of Polygoni Multiflori Radix recorded in ancient herb literatures, and proposed that more attention shall be given to the effect of the planting and processing methods on the components and toxicity of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in safety studies, which provides clues for the further studies.

  18. Factors Influencing Young Children's Risk of Unintentional Injury: Parenting Style and Strategies for Teaching about Home Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Corbett, Michael; Lasenby, Jennifer; Johnston, Natalie; McCourt, Meghan

    2006-01-01

    This study examined mothers' teaching about home-safety issues to 24-30 month and 36-42 month old children, explored the relationship of teaching strategies to parenting styles, and assessed how these factors are related to children's risk of unintentional injury. A structured interview assessed home-safety issues relevant to falls, burns, cuts,…

  19. Application of classification algorithms for analysis of road safety risk factor dependencies.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Hoon; Rhee, Wonjong; Yoon, Yoonjin

    2015-02-01

    Transportation continues to be an integral part of modern life, and the importance of road traffic safety cannot be overstated. Consequently, recent road traffic safety studies have focused on analysis of risk factors that impact fatality and injury level (severity) of traffic accidents. While some of the risk factors, such as drug use and drinking, are widely known to affect severity, an accurate modeling of their influences is still an open research topic. Furthermore, there are innumerable risk factors that are waiting to be discovered or analyzed. A promising approach is to investigate historical traffic accident data that have been collected in the past decades. This study inspects traffic accident reports that have been accumulated by the California Highway Patrol (CHP) since 1973 for which each accident report contains around 100 data fields. Among them, we investigate 25 fields between 2004 and 2010 that are most relevant to car accidents. Using two classification methods, the Naive Bayes classifier and the decision tree classifier, the relative importance of the data fields, i.e., risk factors, is revealed with respect to the resulting severity level. Performances of the classifiers are compared to each other and a binary logistic regression model is used as the basis for the comparisons. Some of the high-ranking risk factors are found to be strongly dependent on each other, and their incremental gains on estimating or modeling severity level are evaluated quantitatively. The analysis shows that only a handful of the risk factors in the data dominate the severity level and that dependency among the top risk factors is an imperative trait to consider for an accurate analysis.

  20. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  1. Mechanics-based statistics of failure risk of quasibrittle structures and size effect on safety factors.

    PubMed

    Bazant, Zdenĕk P; Pang, Sze-Dai

    2006-06-20

    In mechanical design as well as protection from various natural hazards, one must ensure an extremely low failure probability such as 10(-6). How to achieve that goal is adequately understood only for the limiting cases of brittle or ductile structures. Here we present a theory to do that for the transitional class of quasibrittle structures, having brittle constituents and characterized by nonnegligible size of material inhomogeneities. We show that the probability distribution of strength of the representative volume element of material is governed by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of atomic energies and the stress dependence of activation energy barriers; that it is statistically modeled by a hierarchy of series and parallel couplings; and that it consists of a broad Gaussian core having a grafted far-left power-law tail with zero threshold and amplitude depending on temperature and load duration. With increasing structure size, the Gaussian core shrinks and Weibull tail expands according to the weakest-link model for a finite chain of representative volume elements. The model captures experimentally observed deviations of the strength distribution from Weibull distribution and of the mean strength scaling law from a power law. These deviations can be exploited for verification and calibration. The proposed theory will increase the safety of concrete structures, composite parts of aircraft or ships, microelectronic components, microelectromechanical systems, prosthetic devices, etc. It also will improve protection against hazards such as landslides, avalanches, ice breaks, and rock or soil failures.

  2. Consideration of the FQPA Safety Factor and Other Uncertainty Factors in Cumulative Risk Assessment of Chemicals Sharing a Common Mechanism of Toxicity

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidance document provides OPP's current thinking on application of the provision in FFDCA about an additional safety factor for the protection of infants and children in the context of cumulative risk assessments.

  3. Derivation of safety factors for setting harvest quotas on adult walleyes from past estimates of abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Staggs, Michael D.; Hoff, Michael H.

    1991-01-01

    Past population estimates of adult walleyes Stizostedion vitreum can be used to set harvest quotas, provided that temporal variability in abundance of adult walleyes is accounted for. We used a long-term data set from Escanaba Lake, Wisconsin, to evaluate the accuracy of past population estimates for setting current-year quotas for adult walleyes. The results from Escanaba Lake were corroborated by comparison with other lakes where adult walleye abundance was estimated in more than 1 year. The accuracy of estimates of adult walleye abundance declined over time from the year the estimate was obtained to the year it was used to set a harvest quota. We derived safety factors for application to past estimates of population size; these factors limit the occurrence of an exploitation rate exceeding the maximum sustainable rate (35%) to approximately 1 in 40. These safety factors declined from 35% for 1-year-old estimates to less than 20% for 10-year-old estimates.

  4. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  5. The Human Right to Adequate Housing: A Tool for Promoting and Protecting Individual and Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Bret

    2002-01-01

    The human right to adequate housing is enshrined in international law. The right to adequate housing can be traced to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was unanimously adopted by the world community in 1948. Since that time, the right to adequate housing has been reaffirmed on numerous occasions and further defined and elaborated. A key component of this right is habitability of housing, which should comply with health and safety standards. Therefore, the right to adequate housing provides an additional tool for advocates and others interested in promoting healthful housing and living conditions and thereby protecting individual and community health. PMID:11988432

  6. Edge safety factor at the onset of plasma disruption during VDEs in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugihara, Masayoshi; Lukash, Victor; Khayrutdinov, Rustam; Neyatani, Yuzuru

    2004-10-01

    Detailed examinations of the value of the edge safety factor (qa) at the onset of thermal quench (TQ) during intentional vertical displacement event (VDE) experiments in JT-60U are carried out using two different reconstruction methods, FBI/FBEQU and DINA. The results from the two methods are very similar and show that the TQ occurs when the qa value is in the range between 1.5 and 2. This result suggests that the predictive simulations for VDEs should be performed within this range of q to examine the subsequent differences in the halo currents, plasma movement and other plasma behaviour during the current quench.

  7. Human factors and safety considerations of night-vision systems flight using thermal imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Verona, Robert W.; Crowley, John S.

    1990-10-01

    Helmet Mounted Systems (HMS) must be lightweight, balanced and compatible with life support and head protection assemblies. This paper discusses the design of one particular HMS, the GEC Ferranti NITE-OP/NIGHTBIRD aviator's Night Vision Goggle (NVG) developed under contracts to the Ministry of Defence for all three services in the United Kingdom (UK) for Rotary Wing and fast jet aircraft. The existing equipment constraints, safety, human factor and optical performance requirements are discussed before the design solution is presented after consideration of these material and manufacturing options.

  8. Analysis of safety factors for urban expressways considering the effect of congestion in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Li, Tienan; Li, Feng; Chen, Feng

    2016-10-01

    Urban expressways are the key components of the urban traffic network. The traffic safety situation on expressways directly influences the efficiency of the whole network. A total of 48,325 crashes were recorded by Shanghai Expressway Surveillance System in a three-year period. Considering the different crash mechanisms under different congestion levels, models for the total crashes, non-congested-flow crashes and congested-flow crashes were respectively formulated based on the real-time traffic condition corresponding to each crash. Moreover, considering the potential spatial correlation among segments, the adjacent-correlated spatial and distance-correlated spatial models were formulated and compared to the traditional non-spatial-correlated model. A Bayesian approach was employed to estimate the parameters. The results showed that the congestion index, merging ratio, ramp density, and average daily traffic significantly affect the crash frequency. The safety factors in non-congested flow and congested flow are different; diverging behavior is more risky in non-congested flow, more lanes tend to increase the risk of crashes in congested flow, and horizontal curves tend to decrease the crash risk in congested flow but cause high risk in non-congested flow. In addition, the distance-correlated spatial model is found to be the best-fitting model. The results of this study suggested that dedicated safety countermeasures can be designed for different traffic situations on urban expressways.

  9. Fragmentation of Patient Safety Research: A Critical Reflection of Current Human Factors Approaches to Patient Handover

    PubMed Central

    Manser, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    The integration of human factors science in research and interventions aimed at increased patient safety has led to considerable improvements. However, some challenges to patient safety persist and may require human factors experts to critically reflect upon their predominant approaches to research and improvement. This paper is a call to start a discussion of these issues in the area of patient handover. Briefly reviewing recent handover research shows that while these studies have provided valuable insights into the communication practices for a range of handover situations, the predominant research strategy of studying isolated handover episodes replicates the very problem of fragmentation of care that the studies aim to overcome. Thus, there seems to be a need for a patient-centred approach to handover research that aims to investigate the interdependencies of handover episodes during a series of transitions occurring along the care path. Such an approach may contribute to novel insights and help to increase the effectiveness and sustainability of interventions to improve handover. Significance for public health While much of public health research has a preventive focus, health services research is generally concerned with the ways in which care is provided to those requiring treatment. This paper calls for a patient-centred approach to research on patient handover; a significant contributor to adverse events in healthcare. It is argued that this approach has the potential to improve our understanding of handover processes along the continuum of care. Thus, it can provide a scientific foundation for effective improvements in handover that are likely to reduce patient harm and help to maintain patient safety. PMID:25170504

  10. FED-A, an advanced performance FED based on low safety factor and current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1983-08-01

    The FED-A study aims to quantify the potential improvement in cost-effectiveness of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by assuming low safety factor q (less than 2 as opposed to about 3) at the plasma edge and noninductive current drive (as opposed to only inductive current drive). The FED-A performance objectives are set to be : (1) ignition assuming International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) plamsa confinement scaling, but still achieving a fusion power amplification Q greater than or equal to 5 when the confinement is degraded by a factor of 2; (2) neutron wall loading of about 1 MW/m/sup 2/, with 0.5 MW/m/sup 2/ as a conservative lower bound; and (3) more clearly power-reactor-like operations, such as steady state.

  11. Calculation of the safety factor and homoclinic tangles of the separatrix for the Symmetric Quartic Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Danielle; Andrews, Bria; Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh

    2016-10-01

    The equilibrium generating function for the Symmetric Quartic Map (SQM) in natural canonical coordinates is constructed. The coefficients in the generating function are chosen to control the safety factor profile and to set the height and width of the equilibrium separatrix to be same as in the Simple Map. The equilibrium separatrix of the SQM is advanced forward and backward in canonical time using the SQM. When the forward and backward advanced separatrix manifolds meet in a fixed poloidal plane, they intersect and form homoclinic tangles to preserve the symplectic invariant. The map parameter of the SQM is used to include the effects of magnetic asymmetries. The safety factor profile and the homoclinic tangles of the separatrix of the SQM for different values of the map parameter will be presented. The separatrix of the simple map is open and unbounded; while the separatrix of the SQM is closed and compact. The purpose is to study what role the topology of the separatrix plays in the homoclinic tangle in single-null divertor tokamaks. This work is supported by Grants DE-FG02-01ER54624, DE-FG02-04ER54793, and DE-FG02-07ER54937.

  12. Modelling plasma response to RMP fields in ASDEX Upgrade with varying edge safety factor and triangularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Liu, Y. Q.; Kirk, A.; Wang, N.; Liang, Y.; Ryan, D.; Suttrop, W.; Dunne, M.; Fischer, R.; Fuchs, J. C.; Kurzan, B.; Piovesan, P.; Willensdorfer, M.; Zhong, F. C.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2016-12-01

    Toroidal computations are performed using the MARS-F code (Liu et al 2000 Phys. Plasmas 7 3681), in order to understand correlations between the plasma response and the observed mitigation of the edge localized modes (ELM) using resonant magnetic perturbation fields in ASDEX Upgrade. In particular, systematic numerical scans of the edge safety factor reveal that the amplitude of the resonant poloidal harmonic of the response radial magnetic field near the plasma edge, as well as the plasma radial displacement near the X-point, can serve as good indicators for predicting the optimal toroidal phasing between the upper and lower rows of coils in ASDEX Upgrade. The optimal coil phasing scales roughly linearly with the edge safety factor {{q}95} , for various choices of the toroidal mode number n  =  1-4 of the coil configuration. The optimal coil phasing is also predicted to vary with the upper triangularity of the plasma shape in ASDEX Upgrade. Furthermore, multiple resonance effects of the plasma response, with continuously varying {{q}95} , are computationally observed and investigated.

  13. Equilibrium and Stability Characteristics of DIII-D Discharges with Low Edge Safety Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakumar, R. J.; Garofalo, A. M.; Navratil, G. A.; Reimerdes, H.; Jensen, T. H.; La Haye, R. J.; Scoville, J. T.; Strait, E. J.; Turnbull, A. D.; Okabayashi, M.

    2002-11-01

    A low safety factor plasma has a good potential for reactor applications, since the fusion power and gain increase with reduction in safety factor. Experiments are being carried out in the DIII-D to investigate the equilibrium profiles and stability limits of such plasmas. Plasmas with flat q profiles q_min>1 and q_95<2.5 have been obtained with βN (>2.0) above no wall limits during current ramp and using resistive wall mode feedback. The discharge followed a current profile evolution predicted by the code CORSICA. The ideal wall and no wall beta limits for such discharges are being investigated using the codes GATO and DCON, for different current and pressure profiles. Simultaneously, the current profile and its evolution are being modeled for a variety of plasma cross sectional shapes and discharge formation scenarios to select an optimal scenario for the 2003 experimental run. The experimental results to date and modeling results will be presented.

  14. Tokamak operation with safety factor q95 < 2 via control of MHD stability.

    PubMed

    Piovesan, P; Hanson, J M; Martin, P; Navratil, G A; Turco, F; Bialek, J; Ferraro, N M; La Haye, R J; Lanctot, M J; Okabayashi, M; Paz-Soldan, C; Strait, E J; Turnbull, A D; Zanca, P; Baruzzo, M; Bolzonella, T; Hyatt, A W; Jackson, G L; Marrelli, L; Piron, L; Shiraki, D

    2014-07-25

    Magnetic feedback control of the resistive-wall mode has enabled the DIII-D tokamak to access stable operation at safety factor q(95) = 1.9 in divertor plasmas for 150 instability growth times. Magnetohydrodynamic stability sets a hard, disruptive limit on the minimum edge safety factor achievable in a tokamak, or on the maximum plasma current at a given toroidal magnetic field. In tokamaks with a divertor, the limit occurs at q(95) = 2, as confirmed in DIII-D. Since the energy confinement time scales linearly with current, this also bounds the performance of a fusion reactor. DIII-D has overcome this limit, opening a whole new high-current regime not accessible before. This result brings significant possible benefits in terms of fusion performance, but it also extends resistive-wall mode physics and its control to conditions never explored before. In present experiments, the q(95) < 2 operation is eventually halted by voltage limits reached in the feedback power supplies, not by intrinsic physics issues. Improvements to power supplies and to control algorithms have the potential to further extend this regime.

  15. The Dread Factor: How Hazards and Safety Training Influence Learning and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Michael J.; Salvador, Rommel O.; Smith-Crowe, Kristin; Chan-Serafin, Suzanne; Smith, Alexis; Sonesh, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of hypotheses derived from social and experiential learning theories, we meta-analytically investigated how safety training and workplace hazards impact the development of safety knowledge and safety performance. The results were consistent with an expected interaction between the level of engagement of safety training and hazardous…

  16. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder medication use: factors involved in prescribing, safety aspects and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Raga, Jose; Ferreros, Amparo; Knecht, Carlos; de Alvaro, Raquel; Carabal, Eloisa

    2016-01-01

    While treatment of patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is based on a multimodal approach that combines medication with specific psychological interventions, pharmacotherapy alone is generally considered an essential and cost-effective element. This paper aims to comprehensively and critically review factors involved in prescribing and medication use in individuals diagnosed with ADHD, focusing on the difficulties facing patients with ADHD seeking treatment, as well as the safety and tolerability aspects of ADHD pharmacotherapies, with particular attention on the cardiovascular adverse events and the potential risk of misuse or diversion of ADHD medications. A comprehensive and systematic literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE database was conducted to identify studies published in peer-reviewed journals until 1 August 2016. Children, adolescents and adults often encounter significant difficulties in the process of accessing specialist assessment and treatment for ADHD as a consequence of disparities in service organization and available treatment provision. Despite the well-established efficacy and overall safety profile, ADHD medications are not exempt from adverse events. The cardiovascular safety of pharmacotherapies used for treating individuals with ADHD has raised particular concerns; however there is little evidence of serious cardiovascular adverse events, including no serious corrected QT (QTc) abnormalities associated with stimulants, atomoxetine or α2-adrenergic receptor agonists. Although the abuse of prescription stimulant drugs, particularly, short-acting stimulants is a prevalent and growing problem, nonmedical use of prescription stimulants within the clinical context is very limited. In addition, nonstimulant ADHD medications lack any reinforcing effects and consequently any abuse potential. PMID:28382197

  17. Why Some Walk and Others Don't: Exploring Interactions of Perceived Safety and Social Neighborhood Factors with Psychosocial Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beenackers, Marielle A.; Kamphuis, Carlijn B. M.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Burdorf, Alex; van Lenthe, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Although physical activity is often believed to be influenced by both environmental and individual factors, little is known about their interaction. This study explores interactions of perceived safety and social neighborhood factors with psychosocial cognitions for leisure-time walking. Cross-sectional data were obtained from residents (age 25-75…

  18. Updating Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Conducting Safety Reviews of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    O, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Stephen Fleger - NRC

    2011-09-19

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool. To this end, the NRC is updating its guidance to stay current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology being employed in plant and control room design. This paper describes the role of HFE guidelines in the safety review process and the content of the key HFE guidelines used. Then we will present the methodology used to develop HFE guidance and update these documents, and describe the current status of the update program.

  19. The effect of safety factor profile on transport in steady-state, high-performance scenarios

    DOE PAGES

    Holcomb, C. T.; Ferron, J. R.; Luce, T. C.; ...

    2012-03-09

    In this study, an analysis of the dependence of transport on the safety factor profile in high-performance, steady-state scenario discharges is presented. This is based on experimental scans of q95 and qmin taken with fixed βN, toroidal field, double-null plasma shape, divertor pumping, and electron cyclotron current drive input. The temperature and thermal diffusivity profiles were found to vary considerably with the q-profile, and these variations were significantly different for electrons and ions. With fixed q95, both temperature profiles increase and broaden as qmin is increased and the magnetic shear becomes low or negative in the inner half radius, butmore » these temperature profile changes are stronger for the electrons. Power balance calculations show the peak in the ion thermal diffusivity (χi) at ρ – 0.6 – 0.8 increases with q95 or qmin.« less

  20. Analysis of Factors Determining Ergonomic Conditions of Driver's Workplace and Safety in Transport of Dangerous Goods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabarek, Iwona; Beczkowska, Sylwia

    2012-09-01

    The article concerns issues connected with the safety of the carriage of dangerous goods. Raising a subject was justified with the rising number of cartages of these goods and the same height of the probability of the appearance of the environmental risk and remaining road users. A specificity of the arrangement was analyzed driver-vehicleenvironment, paying special attention to ergonomic determinants of working conditions of the driver. In the article data of the National Police Headquarters concerning causes of accident involving dangerous goods in the road transport was also described. Exceeding the permissible speed, the non-observance of traffic regulations, as well as the tiredness which resulted in reducing the psychophysical efficiency for the driver were regarded as the root cause of accidents. Conducted analyses allowed to effect the preliminary selection of factors, which accepting the wrong level can constitute the cause of accidents.

  1. Analysis of rainfall-induced slope instability using a field of local factor of safety

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Ning; Şener-Kaya, Başak; Wayllace, Alexandra; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Slope-stability analyses are mostly conducted by identifying or assuming a potential failure surface and assessing the factor of safety (FS) of that surface. This approach of assigning a single FS to a potentially unstable slope provides little insight on where the failure initiates or the ultimate geometry and location of a landslide rupture surface. We describe a method to quantify a scalar field of FS based on the concept of the Coulomb stress and the shift in the state of stress toward failure that results from rainfall infiltration. The FS at each point within a hillslope is called the local factor of safety (LFS) and is defined as the ratio of the Coulomb stress at the current state of stress to the Coulomb stress of the potential failure state under the Mohr-Coulomb criterion. Comparative assessment with limit-equilibrium and hybrid finite element limit-equilibrium methods show that the proposed LFS is consistent with these approaches and yields additional insight into the geometry and location of the potential failure surface and how instability may initiate and evolve with changes in pore water conditions. Quantitative assessments applying the new LFS field method to slopes under infiltration conditions demonstrate that the LFS has the potential to overcome several major limitations in the classical FS methodologies such as the shape of the failure surface and the inherent underestimation of slope instability. Comparison with infinite-slope methods, including a recent extension to variably saturated conditions, shows further enhancement in assessing shallow landslide occurrence using the LFS methodology. Although we use only a linear elastic solution for the state of stress with no post-failure analysis that require more sophisticated elastoplastic or other theories, the LFS provides a new means to quantify the potential instability zones in hillslopes under variably saturated conditions using stress-field based methods.

  2. Range Safety Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrock, Kenneth W.; Humphries, Ricky H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The high kinetic and potential energy of a launch vehicle mandates there be a mechanism to minimize possible damage to provide adequate safety for the launch facilities, range, and, most importantly, the general public. The Range Safety System, sometimes called the Flight Termination System or Flight Safety System, provides the required level of safety. The Range Safety System section of the Avionics chapter will attempt to describe how adequate safety is provided, the system's design, operation, and it's interface with the rest of the launch vehicle.

  3. Methods for applying statistical penalties when predicting factors of safety using the Tsai-Wu failure criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, D. E.; Regl, R. R.; Iverson, M. P.; Phipps, B. E.

    1993-06-01

    Engineers are often required to estimate safety factors for structures using statistically based allowable stresses. Several approaches for making such estimations are possible. Commonly, the Tsai-Wu failure criterion is used for composite materials. If the quadratic failure criterion proposed by S.W. Tsai and E.M. Wu is used with statistically penalized allowable stress levels, unrealistic results are possible unless the penalties are assessed carefully. Some approaches used in calculating safety factors can predict that the statistically determined allowable stress levels are greater than mean failure levels. Other methods predict that, under severe conditions, the penalized failure surface does not circumscribe the origin (i.e., the unloaded state would not be allowed). It is therefore important that designers and analysts take care when choosing an approach for predicting safety factors using statistically penalized data.

  4. The dread factor: how hazards and safety training influence learning and performance.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michael J; Salvador, Rommel O; Smith-Crowe, Kristin; Chan-Serafin, Suzanne; Smith, Alexis; Sonesh, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of hypotheses derived from social and experiential learning theories, we meta-analytically investigated how safety training and workplace hazards impact the development of safety knowledge and safety performance. The results were consistent with an expected interaction between the level of engagement of safety training and hazardous event/exposure severity in the promotion of safety knowledge and performance. For safety knowledge and safety performance, highly engaging training was considerably more effective than less engaging training when hazardous event/exposure severity was high, whereas highly and less engaging training had comparable levels of effectiveness when hazardous event/exposure severity was low. Implications of these findings for theory testing and incorporating information on objective risk into workplace safety research and practice are discussed.

  5. Continuous infusion of porcine factor VIII: stability, microbiological safety and clinical experience.

    PubMed

    DiMichele, D M; Gorman, P O; Kasper, C K; Mannucci, P M; Santagostino, E; Hay, C R M

    2002-01-01

    Porcine factor VIII (pFVIII) is an effective haemostatic treatment for bleeding in selected patients with FVIII inhibitors. Its use is sometimes associated with a transient fall in platelet count and transfusion reactions, the risk of which may be related to the rate of administration. Theoretical considerations suggest that the administration of pFVIII by continuous infusion should be effective, and could have pharmacokinetic advantages that lead to an improvement in the side-effect profile. The results of a retrospective survey of continuous infusion of pFVIII with respect to clinical safety and efficacy are reported. Porcine FVIII stability and microbiological studies are included. It is concluded that pFVIII given by continuous infusion is safe and effective. The risk of transfusion reactions and fall in platelet count appears to be reduced, compared with bolus administration. Stability studies showed that pFVIII activity declined at room temperature, most rapidly in the dilute solution (5-10 U mL(-1)). More concentrated mixtures showed acceptable stability for up to 24 h using a variety of infusion devices. Various concentrations of pFVIII did not support the growth of Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus. These observations suggest that the porcine factor is suitable for continuous infusion (CI).

  6. Safety of anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy during pregnancy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Androulakis, Ioannis; Zavos, Christos; Christopoulos, Panagiotis; Mastorakos, George; Gazouli, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease has significantly improved since the introduction of biological agents, such as infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, and golimumab. The Food and Drug Administration has classified these factors in category B, which means that they do not demonstrate a fetal risk. However, during pregnancy fetuses are exposed to high anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels that are measurable in their plasma after birth. Since antibodies can transfer through the placenta at the end of the second and during the third trimesters, it is important to know the safety profile of these drugs, particularly for the fetus, and whether maintaining relapse of the disease compensates for the potential risks of fetal exposure. The limited data available for the anti-TNF drugs to date have not demonstrated any significant adverse outcomes in the pregnant women who continued their therapy from conception to the first trimester of gestation. However, data suggest that anti-TNFs should be discontinued during the third trimester, as they may affect the immunological system of the newborn baby. Each decision should be individualized, based on the distinct characteristics of the patient and her disease. Considering all the above, there is a need for more clinical studies regarding the effect of anti-TNF therapeutic agents on pregnancy outcomes. PMID:26715803

  7. Factors Associated with the Adoption of Food Safety Controls by the Mexican Meat Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado-Simán, Ema; Martínez-Hernández, Pedro Arturo; García-Muñiz, José G.; Cadena-Meneses, José

    Food marketing at international and domestic markets has focused on processing systems that improve food safety. The objective of this research is to determine the factors influencing the implementation of the HACCP system in the Mexican meat industry, and to identify the main marketing destination of their products. Only 18.5% of enterprises reports fully operational HACCP in their plants. The main destination of their production in the domestic market is supermarkets, suppliers and distributors and specific niches of the domestic market. Exports are to USA, Japan, Korea and Central America and some niches of the domestic market with requirements of higher quality. The four principal factors that motivate enterprises to adopt HACCP are associated with improvement of plant efficiency and profitability, adoption of good practices, improvement of product quality and waste reduction. It is concluded that Mexican enterprises adopt HACCP to successfully remain and face competition by foreign enterprises in the domestic market and to a lesser extent to compete in the international market.

  8. Human factors and safety issues associated with actinide retrieval from spent light water reactor fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.

    1992-08-01

    A major problem in environmental restoration and waste management is the disposition of used fuel assemblies from the many light water reactors in the United States, which present a radiation hazard to those whose job is to dispose of them, with a similar threat to the general environment associated with long-term storage in fuel repositories around the country. Actinides resident in the fuel pins as a result of their use in reactor cores constitute a significant component of this hazard. Recently, the Department of Energy has initiated an Actinide Recycle Program to study the feasibility of using pyrochemical (molten salt) processes to recover actinides from the spent fuel assemblies of commercial reactors. This project concerns the application of robotics technology to the operation and maintenance functions of a plant whose objective is to recover actinides from spent fuel assemblies, and to dispose of the resulting hardware and chemical components from this process. Such a procedure involves a number of safety and human factors issues. The purpose of the project is to explore the use of robotics and artificial intelligence to facilitate accomplishment of the program goals while maintaining the safety of the humans doing the work and the integrity of the environment. This project will result in a graphic simulation on a Silicon Graphics workstation as a proof of principle demonstration of the feasibility of using robotics along with an intelligent operator interface. A major component of the operator-system interface is a hybrid artificial intelligence system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which combines artificial neural networks and an expert system into a hybrid, self-improving computer-based system interface. 10 refs.

  9. Human factors and safety issues associated with actinide retrieval from spent light water reactor fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    A major problem in environmental restoration and waste management is the disposition of used fuel assemblies from the many light water reactors in the United States, which present a radiation hazard to those whose job is to dispose of them, with a similar threat to the general environment associated with long-term storage in fuel repositories around the country. Actinides resident in the fuel pins as a result of their use in reactor cores constitute a significant component of this hazard. Recently, the Department of Energy has initiated an Actinide Recycle Program to study the feasibility of using pyrochemical (molten salt) processes to recover actinides from the spent fuel assemblies of commercial reactors. This project concerns the application of robotics technology to the operation and maintenance functions of a plant whose objective is to recover actinides from spent fuel assemblies, and to dispose of the resulting hardware and chemical components from this process. Such a procedure involves a number of safety and human factors issues. The purpose of the project is to explore the use of robotics and artificial intelligence to facilitate accomplishment of the program goals while maintaining the safety of the humans doing the work and the integrity of the environment. This project will result in a graphic simulation on a Silicon Graphics workstation as a proof of principle demonstration of the feasibility of using robotics along with an intelligent operator interface. A major component of the operator-system interface is a hybrid artificial intelligence system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which combines artificial neural networks and an expert system into a hybrid, self-improving computer-based system interface. 10 refs.

  10. Diversity of limb-bone safety factors for locomotion in terrestrial vertebrates: evolution and mixed chains.

    PubMed

    Blob, Richard W; Espinoza, Nora R; Butcher, Michael T; Lee, Andrew H; D'Amico, Angela R; Baig, Faraz; Sheffield, K Megan

    2014-12-01

    During locomotion over land, vertebrates' limb bones are exposed to loads. Like most biological structures, limb bones have a capacity to withstand greater loads than they usually experience, termed a safety factor (SF). How diverse are limb-bone SFs, and what factors correlate with such variation? We have examined these questions from two perspectives. First, we evaluated locomotor SF for the femur in diverse lineages, including salamanders, frogs, turtles, lizards, crocodilians, and marsupials (opossums). Comparisons with values for hind-limb elements in running birds and eutherian mammals indicate phylogenetic diversity in limb-bone SF. A high SF (∼7) is primitive for tetrapods, but low magnitudes of load and elevated strength of bones contribute to different degrees across lineages; moreover, birds and eutherians appear to have evolved lower SFs independently. Second, we tested the hypothesis that SFs would be similar across limb bones within a taxon by comparing data from the humerus and femur of alligators. Both in bending and in torsion, we found a higher SF for the humerus than for the femur. Such a "mixed chain" of different SFs across elements has been predicted if bones have differing variabilities in load, different costs to maintain, or high SF values in general. Although variability in load is similar for the humerus and femur, a high SF may be less costly for the humerus because it is smaller than the femur. The high SFs of alligators also might facilitate differences in SF among their limb bones. Beyond these specific findings, however, a more general implication of our results is that evaluations of the diversity of limb-bone SFs can provide important perspective to direct future research. In particular, more complete understanding of variation in SF could provide insight into factors that promoted the evolutionary radiation of terrestrial locomotor function in vertebrates.

  11. Background for Community-Level Work on Physical Health and Safety in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Juliet L.; Scarpa, Juliet

    Although adolescence is characterized by general good health, this developmental stage is a key time for promoting a healthy lifestyle and preventing health-compromising behaviors and injuries. This paper presents a selective review of research into factors predicting health and safety behavior patterns and injury occurrence, focusing on…

  12. Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles in School Nutrition Programs: Implementation Status and Factors Related to Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Wendy Bounds; Carr, Deborah; Nettles, Mary Frances; Johnson, James T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the extent to which school nutrition (SN) programs have implemented food safety programs based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles, as well as factors, barriers, and practices related to implementation of these programs. Methods: An online survey was…

  13. Application of Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) to UK rail safety of the line incidents.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Ruth; Golightly, David; Madders, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Minor safety incidents on the railway cause disruption, and may be indicators of more serious safety risks. The following paper aimed to gain an understanding of the relationship between active and latent factors, and particular causal paths for these types of incidents by using the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) to examine rail industry incident reports investigating such events. 78 reports across 5 types of incident were reviewed by two authors and cross-referenced for interrater reliability using the index of concordance. The results indicate that the reports were strongly focused on active failures, particularly those associated with work-related distraction and environmental factors. Few latent factors were presented in the reports. Different causal pathways emerged for memory failures for events such a failure to call at stations, and attentional failures which were more often associated with signals passed at danger. The study highlights a need for the rail industry to look more closely at latent factors at the supervisory and organisational levels when investigating minor safety of the line incidents. The results also strongly suggest the importance of a new factor - operational environment - that captures unexpected and non-routine operating conditions which have a risk of distracting the driver. Finally, the study provides further demonstration of the utility of HFACS to the rail industry, and of the usefulness of the index of concordance measure of interrater reliability.

  14. Control of the tokamak safety factor profile with time-varying constraints using MPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maljaars, E.; Felici, F.; de Baar, M. R.; van Dongen, J.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Geelen, P. J. M.; Steinbuch, M.

    2015-02-01

    A controller is designed for the tokamak safety factor profile that takes real-time-varying operational and physics limits into account. This so-called model predictive controller (MPC) employs a prediction model in order to compute optimal control inputs that satisfy the given limits. The use of linearized models around a reference trajectory results in a quadratic programming problem that can easily be solved online. The performance of the controller is analysed in a set of ITER L-mode scenarios simulated with the non-linear plasma transport code RAPTOR. It is shown that the controller can reduce the tracking error due to an overestimation or underestimation of the modelled transport, while making a trade-off between residual error and amount of controller action. It is also shown that the controller can account for a sudden decrease in the available actuator power, while providing warnings ahead of time about expected violations of operational and physics limits. This controller can be extended and implemented in existing tokamaks in the near future.

  15. Plant sterols: factors affecting their efficacy and safety as functional food ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Alvin; Jones, Peter JH; Abumweis, Suhad S

    2004-01-01

    Plant sterols are naturally occurring molecules that humanity has evolved with. Herein, we have critically evaluated recent literature pertaining to the myriad of factors affecting efficacy and safety of plant sterols in free and esterified forms. We conclude that properly solubilized 4-desmetyl plant sterols, in ester or free form, in reasonable doses (0.8–1.0 g of equivalents per day) and in various vehicles including natural sources, and as part of a healthy diet and lifestyle, are important dietary components for lowering low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and maintaining good heart health. In addition to their cholesterol lowering properties, plant sterols possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenicity, and anti-oxidation activities, and should thus be of clinical importance, even for those individuals without elevated LDL cholesterol. The carotenoid lowering effect of plant sterols should be corrected by increasing intake of food that is rich in carotenoids. In pregnant and lactating women and children, further study is needed to verify the dose required to decrease blood cholesterol without affecting fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoid status. PMID:15070410

  16. Analysis of Sawtooth Post-Cursor Oscillations in Low Safety Factor DIII-D Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, J. D.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Strait, E. J.; Shiraki, D.

    2014-10-01

    Large sawtooth oscillations are a commonly observed phenomenon in very low safety factor (q95 ~ 2) plasmas. Following the sawtooth crash phase, low frequency (~200 Hz) post-cursor oscillations in the magnetic field, with amplitudes ~2 G decaying in time, are excited. These post-cursor oscillations do not exhibit the usual m = odd poloidal structures of sawtooth oscillation, but instead are found to be m = even in structure, suggesting the excitation of global kink modes. A novel means of modeling such post-cursor oscillations is presented via computational analysis of data obtained from high-resolution magnetic sensors installed at the DIII-D tokamak facility. Nonlinear regression analysis is used to obtain modeling parameters such as rates of decay and rotation. Trends in parameters over many oscillations are then compared with equilibrium plasma parameters. The impact of measured parameters on global instability onset and disruption prediction is considered. Supported by the National Undergraduate Fellowship Program in Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy Sciences and the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  17. FED-A, an advanced performance FED based on low safety factor and current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yueng Kay Martin; Rutherford, P. H.; Hogan, J.T.; Attenberger, S. E.; Holmes, J.A.; Borowski, S. K.; Brown, T. G.; Carreras, B. A.; Ehst, D. A.; Haines, J.R.; Hively, L. M.; Houlberg, Wayne A; Iida, H.; Lee, V. D.; Lynch, S.J.; Reid, R. L.; Rothe, K. E.; Strickler, Dennis J; Stewart, L. D.

    1983-08-01

    This document is one of four describing studies performed in FY 1982 within the context of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) Program for the Office of Fusion Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. The documents are: 1. FED Baseline Engineering Studies (ORNL/FEDC-82/2), 2. FED-A, An Advanced Performance FED Based on Low Safety Factor and Current Drive (this document), 3. FED-R, A Fusion Device Utilizing Resistive Magnets (ORNL/FEDC-82/1), and 4. Technology Demonstration Facility TDF. These studies extend the FED Baseline concept of FY 1981 and develop innovative and alternative concepts for the FED. The FED-A study project was carried out as part of the Innovative and Alternative Tokamak FED studies, under the direction of P. H. Rutherford, which were part of the national FED program during FY 1982. The studies were performed jointly by senior scientists in the magnetic fusion community and the staff of the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC). Y-K. M. Peng of the FEDC, on assignment from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, served as the design manager.

  18. Reliability based calibration of partial safety factors for design of free pipeline spans

    SciTech Connect

    Ronold, K.O.; Nielsen, N.J.R.; Tura, F.; Bryndum, M.B.; Smed, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    This paper demonstrates how a structural reliability method can be applied as a rational means to analyze free spans of submarine pipelines with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and to establish partial safety factors for design of such free spans against this failure mode. It is important to note that the described procedure shall be considered as an illustration of a structural reliability methodology, and that the results do not represent a set of final design recommendations. A scope of design cases, consisting of a number of available site-specific pipeline spans, is established and is assumed representative for the future occurrence of submarine pipeline spans. Probabilistic models for the wave and current loading and its transfer to stresses in the pipe wall of a pipeline span is established together with a stochastic representation of the material resistance. The event of failure in ultimate loading is considered as based on a limit state which is reached when the maximum stress over the design life of the pipeline exceeds the yield strength of the pipe material. The yielding limit state is considered an ultimate limit state (ULS).

  19. The effect of safety factor profile on transport in steady-state, high-performance scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, C. T.; Ferron, J. R.; Luce, T. C.; DeBoo, J. C.; Park, J. M.; White, A. E.; Turco, F.; Rhodes, T. L.; Doyle, E. J.; Schmitz, L.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; McKee, G. R.

    2012-03-09

    In this study, an analysis of the dependence of transport on the safety factor profile in high-performance, steady-state scenario discharges is presented. This is based on experimental scans of q95 and qmin taken with fixed βN, toroidal field, double-null plasma shape, divertor pumping, and electron cyclotron current drive input. The temperature and thermal diffusivity profiles were found to vary considerably with the q-profile, and these variations were significantly different for electrons and ions. With fixed q95, both temperature profiles increase and broaden as qmin is increased and the magnetic shear becomes low or negative in the inner half radius, but these temperature profile changes are stronger for the electrons. Power balance calculations show the peak in the ion thermal diffusivity (χi) at ρ – 0.6 – 0.8 increases with q95 or qmin.

  20. Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinomas with Central Bile Duct Invasion: Safety, Prognosis, and Predictive Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jin Woo; Chung, Jin Wook; Cho, Yun Ku; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Jae, Hwan Jun

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo assess the safety and effectiveness of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of patients who have hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) with central bile duct invasion.Materials and MethodsThe institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed consent. Fifty-three patients, initially treated with TACE for HCCs with central bile duct invasion from January 1999 to September 2012, were included. Clinical, laboratory, and survival data were reviewed. Complications and hospitalization length were evaluated using the χ{sup 2} test, Fisher’s exact test, and logistic regression analysis. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method with log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard model.ResultsSeven patients experienced TACE-related major complications (severe post-embolization syndrome in 3, non-fatal sepsis in 3, and secondary bacterial peritonitis in 1). The overall major complication rate was 13.2 %, but there were no permanent adverse sequelae or deaths within 30 days. Serum total bilirubin ≥3.0 mg/dL was the only significant risk factor for long hospitalization [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.341, p = .022]. The median survival was 12.2 months. Extrahepatic metastasis (HR = 6.145, p < .001), international normalized ratio (PT-INR) ≥1.20 (HR = 4.564, p < .001), vascular invasion (HR = 3.484, p = .001), and intermediate tumor enhancement (HR = 2.417, p = .019) were significantly associated with shorter survival.ConclusionTACE can be a safe and effective treatment for patients who have HCCs with central bile duct invasion. In particular, long-term survival can be expected if patients have strongly enhancing tumors without poor prognostic factors such as extrahepatic metastasis, PT-INR prolongation, and vascular invasion.

  1. Adequate mathematical modelling of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    In environmental observations and laboratory visualization both large scale flow components like currents, jets, vortices, waves and a fine structure are registered (different examples are given). The conventional mathematical modeling both analytical and numerical is directed mostly on description of energetically important flow components. The role of a fine structures is still remains obscured. A variety of existing models makes it difficult to choose the most adequate and to estimate mutual assessment of their degree of correspondence. The goal of the talk is to give scrutiny analysis of kinematics and dynamics of flows. A difference between the concept of "motion" as transformation of vector space into itself with a distance conservation and the concept of "flow" as displacement and rotation of deformable "fluid particles" is underlined. Basic physical quantities of the flow that are density, momentum, energy (entropy) and admixture concentration are selected as physical parameters defined by the fundamental set which includes differential D'Alembert, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations and closing equation of state. All of them are observable and independent. Calculations of continuous Lie groups shown that only the fundamental set is characterized by the ten-parametric Galilelian groups reflecting based principles of mechanics. Presented analysis demonstrates that conventionally used approximations dramatically change the symmetries of the governing equations sets which leads to their incompatibility or even degeneration. The fundamental set is analyzed taking into account condition of compatibility. A high order of the set indicated on complex structure of complete solutions corresponding to physical structure of real flows. Analytical solutions of a number problems including flows induced by diffusion on topography, generation of the periodic internal waves a compact sources in week-dissipative media as well as numerical solutions of the same

  2. School Climate Factors Contributing to Student and Faculty Perceptions of Safety in Select Arizona Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Kris; Ford, Lysbeth; Hernandaz, Diley

    2011-01-01

    Background: To ensure that schools are safe places where students can learn, researchers and educators must understand student and faculty safety concerns. This study examines student and teacher perceptions of school safety. Methods: Twenty-two focus groups with students and faculty were conducted in 11 secondary schools. Schools were selected…

  3. Hospital safety climate, psychosocial risk factors and needlestick injuries in Japan.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek R; Muto, Takashi; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Ishikawa, Yumiko; Sayama, Shizue; Yoshida, Atsushi; Townley-Jones, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the interactions between safety climate, psychosocial issues and Needlestick and Sharps Injuries (NSI), a cross-sectional study was undertaken among nurses at a university teaching hospital in Japan (89% response rate). NSI were correlated with various aspects of hospital safety climate including supporting one another at work, the protection of staff against blood-borne diseases being a high management priority, managers doing their part to protect staff from blood-borne disease, having unsafe work practices corrected by supervisors, having the opportunity to use safety equipment to protect against blood-borne disease exposures, having an uncluttered work area, and having minimal conflict within their department. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated the importance of hospital safety climate in Japanese health care practice, particularly its relationship with NSI. Although the provision of safer devices remains critical in preventing injuries, ensuring a positive safety climate will also be essential in meeting these important challenges for nurses' occupational health.

  4. Tumor necrosis factor alpha drugs in rheumatoid arthritis: systematic review and metaanalysis of efficacy and safety

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Ruiz, Alberto; Pijoan, Jose Ignacio; Ansuategui, Eukene; Urkaregi, Arantxa; Calabozo, Marcelo; Quintana, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    severe side effects (NNH 31), infections (NNH 10) and infusion reactions (NNH 9). Patients receiving adalimumab were also more likely to drop out because of side effects (NNH 47) and to suffer injection site reactions (NNH 22). Patients receiving etanercept were less likely to drop out because of side effects (NNH for control versus etanercept 26) but more likely to experience injection site reactions (NNH 5). Conclusion Anti-TNFα drugs are effective in RA patients, with apparently similar results irrespective of the drug administered. Doses other than those recommended are also beneficial. The main factor influencing therapeutic efficacy is the prior response to DMARD treatment. The effect of treatment with etanercept or adalimumab does not differ from that obtained with MTX. The published safety profile for etanercept is superior but the fact that no patients are treated with higher than recommended doses requires explanation. PMID:18419803

  5. Hemostatic efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of a recombinant von Willebrand factor in severe von Willebrand disease

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Joan C.; Castaman, Giancarlo; Windyga, Jerzy; Kouides, Peter; Ragni, Margaret; Leebeek, Frank W. G.; Obermann-Slupetzky, Ortrun; Chapman, Miranda; Fritsch, Sandor; Pavlova, Borislava G.; Presch, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    This phase 3 trial evaluated the safety and hemostatic efficacy of a recombinant von Willebrand factor (rVWF) for treatment of bleeds in severe von Willebrand disease (VWD). rVWF was initially administered together with recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) and subsequently alone, as long as hemostatic factor VIII activity (FVIII:C) levels were maintained. Pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated in a randomized cross-over design (rVWF vs rVWF:rFVIII at 50 IU VWF:ristocetin cofactor activity [RCo]/kg). Bleed control for all treated bleeds (N = 192 bleeds in 22 subjects) was rated good or excellent (96.9% excellent; 119 of 122 minor, 59 of 61 moderate, and 6 of 7 major bleeds) on a 4-point scale (4 = none to 1 = excellent). A single infusion was effective in 81.8% of bleeds. Treatment success, defined as the number of subjects with a mean efficacy rating of <2.5, was 100%. The PK profile of rVWF was not influenced by rFVIII (mean VWF:RCo terminal half-life: 21.9 hours for rVWF and 19.6 hours for rVWF:rFVIII). FVIII:C levels increased rapidly after rVWF alone, with hemostatic levels achieved within 6 hours and sustained through 72 hours after infusion. Eight adverse events (AEs; 6 nonserious AEs in 4 subjects and 2 serious AEs [chest discomfort and increased heart rate, without cardiac symptomatology] concurrently in 1 subject) were associated with rVWF. There were no thrombotic events or severe allergic reactions. No VWF or FVIII inhibitors, anti-VWF binding antibodies, or antibodies against host cell proteins were detected. These results show that rVWF was safe and effective in treating bleeds in VWD patients and stabilizes endogenous FVIII:C, which may eliminate the need for rFVIII after the first infusion. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01410227. PMID:26239086

  6. Hemostatic efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of a recombinant von Willebrand factor in severe von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Gill, Joan C; Castaman, Giancarlo; Windyga, Jerzy; Kouides, Peter; Ragni, Margaret; Leebeek, Frank W G; Obermann-Slupetzky, Ortrun; Chapman, Miranda; Fritsch, Sandor; Pavlova, Borislava G; Presch, Isabella; Ewenstein, Bruce

    2015-10-22

    This phase 3 trial evaluated the safety and hemostatic efficacy of a recombinant von Willebrand factor (rVWF) for treatment of bleeds in severe von Willebrand disease (VWD). rVWF was initially administered together with recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) and subsequently alone, as long as hemostatic factor VIII activity (FVIII : C) levels were maintained. Pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated in a randomized cross-over design (rVWF vs rVWF:rFVIII at 50 IU VWF:ristocetin cofactor activity [RCo]/kg). Bleed control for all treated bleeds (N = 192 bleeds in 22 subjects) was rated good or excellent (96.9% excellent; 119 of 122 minor, 59 of 61 moderate, and 6 of 7 major bleeds) on a 4-point scale (4 = none to 1 = excellent). A single infusion was effective in 81.8% of bleeds. Treatment success, defined as the number of subjects with a mean efficacy rating of <2.5, was 100%. The PK profile of rVWF was not influenced by rFVIII (mean VWF:RCo terminal half-life: 21.9 hours for rVWF and 19.6 hours for rVWF:rFVIII). FVIII : C levels increased rapidly after rVWF alone, with hemostatic levels achieved within 6 hours and sustained through 72 hours after infusion. Eight adverse events (AEs; 6 nonserious AEs in 4 subjects and 2 serious AEs [chest discomfort and increased heart rate, without cardiac symptomatology] concurrently in 1 subject) were associated with rVWF. There were no thrombotic events or severe allergic reactions. No VWF or FVIII inhibitors, anti-VWF binding antibodies, or antibodies against host cell proteins were detected. These results show that rVWF was safe and effective in treating bleeds in VWD patients and stabilizes endogenous FVIII : C, which may eliminate the need for rFVIII after the first infusion. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01410227.

  7. Awareness grows of importance of human factors issues in aircraft maintenance and inspection.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Until recently, the role of human factors in maintenance operations was not adequately addressed. That is changing, because it is clear that human error in aircraft maintenance can have a serious impact on flight safety.

  8. The safety and risk factors of major hepatobiliary pancreatic surgery in patients older than 80 years

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Hun; Lee, Huisong; Hong, Geun; Lee, Hyeon Kook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recently, the number of elderly patients has increased due to a longer life expectancy. Among these elderly patients, more octogenarians will be diagnosed with major hepatobiliary pancreatic (HBP) diseases. Therefore, we need to evaluate the safety and risk factors of major HBP surgery in patients older than 80 years. Methods From January 2000 to April 2015, patients who underwent major HBP surgery were identified. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to their age at the time of surgery: Group O (≥80 years) and group Y (<80 years). The patient characteristics and intra- and postoperative outcomes were retrospectively investigated in the 2 groups. Results The median age was 84 years (range, 80–95 years) in group O and 61 years (range, 27–79 years) in group Y. group O had worse American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status (ASA ≥ III: 23% vs. 7%, P = 0.002) and was associated with a higher rate of hypertension and heart problems as comorbidities. There were significant differences in albumin and BUN, favoring group Y. The length of intensive care unit stay was longer in group O, whereas the overall complication and mortality rates did not show statistical difference. But, there was a significant difference in systemic complication of both Clavien-Dindo classification grade ≥II and ≥III as complications were divided into surgical site complication and systemic complication. Conclusion Major HBP surgery can be performed safely in patients older than 80 years if postoperative management is appropriately provided. PMID:27904850

  9. Feedback-assisted extension of the tokamak operating space to low safety factor

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, J. M. Bialek, J. M.; Navratil, G. A.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Shiraki, D.; Turco, F.; Baruzzo, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, P.; Piovesan, P.; Piron, C.; Piron, L.; Terranova, D.; Zanca, P.; Hyatt, A. W.; Jackson, G. L.; La Haye, R. J.; Lanctot, M. J.; Strait, E. J.; and others

    2014-07-15

    Recent DIII-D and RFX-mod experiments have demonstrated stable tokamak operation at very low values of the edge safety factor q(a) near and below 2. The onset of n = 1 resistive wall mode (RWM) kink instabilities leads to a disruptive stability limit, encountered at q(a) = 2 (limiter plasmas) and q{sub 95} = 2 (divertor plasmas). However, passively stable operation can be attained for q(a) and q{sub 95} values as low as 2.2. RWM damping in the q(a) = 2 regime was measured using active MHD spectroscopy. Although consistent with theoretical predictions, the amplitude of the damped response does not increase significantly as the q(a) = 2 limit is approached, in contrast with damping measurements made approaching the pressure-driven RWM limit. Applying proportional gain magnetic feedback control of the n = 1 modes has resulted in stabilized operation with q{sub 95} values reaching as low as 1.9 in DIII-D and q(a) reaching 1.55 in RFX-mod. In addition to being consistent with the q(a) = 2 external kink mode stability limit, the unstable modes have growth rates on the order of the characteristic wall eddy-current decay timescale in both devices, and a dominant m = 2 poloidal structure that is consistent with ideal MHD predictions. The experiments contribute to validating MHD stability theory and demonstrate that a key tokamak stability limit can be overcome with feedback.

  10. Pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and safety profile of the new platelet-activating factor antagonist apafant in man.

    PubMed

    Brecht, H M; Adamus, W S; Heuer, H O; Birke, F W; Kempe, E R

    1991-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a unique phospholipid mediator with multifunctional properties. Evidence generated in experimental studies suggests that PAF plays a pathogenetic role in anaphylactic, inflammatory and immunogenic reactions. Apafant (WEB 2086, CAS 105219-56-5), a novel synthetic PAF receptor antagonist, was administered to a total of 101 healthy volunteers within 5 studies to investigate its pharmacologic activity, pharmacokinetic behaviour and safety profile. Pharmacologic activity was monitored by inhibition of 5 x 10(-8) mol/l PAF-induced platelet aggregation ex vivo. The following treatment schedules were studied: oral single dose 1.25 to 400 mg; oral multiple dose 100 mg t.i.d. over 7 days; i.v. infusion 0.5 to 50 mg (over 30 min); inhalative administration up to 1.0 mg. PAF induced platelet aggregation was virtually completely inhibited by single oral doses of 20 mg upwards, throughout during the multiple oral dose study, at all dose levels tested in the i.v. study and (significantly but not completely) at 0.5 and 1.0 mg in the inhalative study. Following oral administrations (capsules) apafant is absorbed rapidly (tmax 1 to 2 h), there is linear pharmacokinetics for the mean plasma concentrations of apafant measured by RIA as well as for the areas under the curve (AUCs). Approximately 60% of apafant is bound to plasma protein, the mean volume of distribution is 28 l, about 44% of an oral dose is excreted in the urine, the mean renal clearance is 192 ml/min. No accumulation of the drug occurred in volunteers with normal kidney function. No clinically relevant drug related adverse events or changes in laboratory or vital parameters such as blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and ECG were observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Factors associated with pharmacists’ perceptions of their working conditions and safety and effectiveness of patient care

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Nicole W.; Lynd, Larry D.; Gastonguay, Louise; Li, Kathy; Nakagawa, Bob; Marra, Carlo A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, the role of pharmacists has changed, as have various provincial legislations, which now allow pharmacists to provide additional health services to patients. With these changes comes growing concern about how well the current pharmacy working environment is adapting and whether it may also be creating work-related stress that may contribute to potentially unsafe practices of patient care. Methods: To characterize the current working conditions of pharmacists in British Columbia, an online survey was developed and distributed to all College of Pharmacists of BC (CPBC) registrants by email. The survey consisted of questions on pharmacists’ demographics, practice setting and perceptions of workplace conditions. Responses were collected from October 1 to November 10, 2013. All data were summarized using descriptive statistics, and regression models were constructed to assess the association between various factors and pharmacists’ self-reported working conditions. Results: Twenty-three percent (1241/5300) of pharmacists registered with the CPBC responded, with 78% working in the community pharmacy setting (58% chain, 19% independent). Pharmacists mostly disagreed with the statements that they had enough time for breaks or lunches or to do their jobs, as well as enough staffing support. Pharmacists’ perceptions of their workplace environment were negatively associated with workplace-imposed advanced service quotas (for medication reviews, immunizations and prescription adaptations); being employed at chain store pharmacies, compared to independent pharmacies or hospitals/long-term care settings; and higher prescription volume. Discussion: Pharmacists working in chain community pharmacies who are required to meet monthly quotas for expanded services reported a substantial negative impact on their working conditions and perceived safety of patient care. Can Pharm J (Ott) 2016;149:xx-xx. PMID:26798374

  12. Steady state scenario development with elevated minimum safety factor on DIII-D

    DOE PAGES

    Holcomb, C. T.; Ferron, J. R.; Luce, T. C.; ...

    2014-08-15

    On DIII-D (Luxon 2005 Fusion Sci. Technol. 48 828), a high β scenario with minimum safety factor (qmin) near 1.4 has been optimized with new tools and shown to be a favourable candidate for long pulse or steady state operation in future devices. Furthermore, the new capability to redirect up to 5 MW of neutral beam injection (NBI) from on- to off-axis improves the ability to sustain elevated qmin with a less peaked pressure profile. The observed changes increase the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) n = 1 mode βN limit thus providing a path forward for increasing the noninductive current drivemore » fraction by operating at high βN. Quasi-stationary discharges free of tearing modes have been sustained at βN = 3.5 and βT = 3.6% for two current profile diffusion timescales (about 3 s) limited by neutral beam duration. The discharge performance has normalized fusion performance expected to give fusion gain Q ≈ 5 in a device the size of ITER. Analysis of the poloidal flux evolution and current drive balance show that the loop voltage profile is almost relaxed even with 25% of the current driven inductively, and qmin remains elevated near 1.4. Our observations increase confidence that the current profile will not evolve to one unstable to a tearing mode. In preliminary tests a divertor heat flux reduction technique based on producing a radiating mantle with neon injection appears compatible with this operating scenario. 0D model extrapolations suggest it may be possible to push this scenario up to 100% noninductive current drive by raising βN. Similar discharges with qmin = 1.5–2 were susceptible to tearing modes and off-axis fishbones, and with qmin > 2 lower normalized global energy confinement time is observed.« less

  13. Dry-heat treatment process for enhancing viral safety of an antihemophilic factor VIII concentrate prepared from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Seop; Choi, Yong Woon; Kang, Yong; Sung, Hark Mo; Shin, Jeong Sup

    2008-05-01

    Viral safety is a prerequisite for manufacturing clinical antihemophilic factor VIII concentrates from human plasma. With particular regard to the hepatitis A virus (HAV), a terminal dry-heat treatment (100 degrees for 30 min) process, following lyophilization, was developed to improve the virus safety of a solvent/detergent-treated antihemophilic factor VIII concentrate. The loss of factor VIII activity during dry-heat treatment was of about 5%. No substantial changes were observed in the physical and biochemical characteristics of the dry-heat-treated factor VIII compared with those of the factor VIII before dry-heat treatment. The dry-heat-treated factor VIII was stable for up to 24 months at 4oC. The dry-heat treatment after lyophilization was an effective process for inactivating viruses. The HAV, murine encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were completely inactivated to below detectable levels within 10 min of the dry-heat treatment. Bovine herpes virus (BHV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were potentially sensitive to the treatment. However porcine parvovirus (PPV) was slightly resistant to the treatment. The log reduction factors achieved during lyophilization and dry-heat treatment were > or =5.55 for HAV, > or =5.87 for EMCV, > or =5.15 for HIV, 6.13 for BHV, 4.46 for BVDV, and 1.90 for PPV. These results indicate that dry-heat treatment improves the virus safety of factor VIII concentrates, without destroying the activity. Moreover, the treatment represents an effective measure for the inactivation of non-lipid-enveloped viruses, in particular HAV, which is resistant to solvent/detergent treatment.

  14. Launch Services Safety Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    NASA/KSC Launch Services Division Safety (SA-D) services include: (1) Assessing the safety of the launch vehicle (2) Assessing the safety of NASA ELV spacecraft (S/C) / launch vehicle (LV) interfaces (3) Assessing the safety of spacecraft processing to ensure resource protection of: - KSC facilities - KSC VAFB facilities - KSC controlled property - Other NASA assets (4) NASA personnel safety (5) Interfacing with payload organizations to review spacecraft for adequate safety implementation and compliance for integrated activities (6) Assisting in the integration of safety activities between the payload, launch vehicle, and processing facilities

  15. Efficacy, Safety, and Out-of-pocket Costs are the Most Important Factors to Patients in Choosing a Psoriasis Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Secrest, Aaron M.; Matinrazm, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine which factors (i.e., cost, efficacy, safety, and method of delivery) influence choice of psoriasis treatment by patients and how patients obtain information regarding treatment options. Design: Anonymous survey. Setting: Specialty Psoriasis Clinic at an academic dermatology department over a six-month period. Participants: Convenience sample of 40 psoriasis patients. Measurements: Participant demographics, psoriasis treatment history, sources of information about treatment options, factors influencing treatment choices, and knowledge of treatment costs. Results: The mean (±SD) patient age and duration of psoriasis was 50 (±17) and 19 (±17) years, respectively. Factors influencing patient’s choice of psoriasis treatment were, in order of importance: efficacy (90% very important), safety/side effects (65%), patient’s own cost (53%), then total treatment cost (46%), frequency of use (37%), and method of medication delivery (i.e., topical, oral, or injection; 17%). Eighty percent of patients reported not knowing the total cost of any psoriasis treatments. The patient’s dermatologist was identified as both the most important (90%) and the most influential (75%) source of information for selecting psoriasis treatments, with the internet being the second most important source. Conclusion: Patients, in large measure, are unaware of the costs for different psoriasis treatments. Efficacy, safety, and out-of-pocket costs are the most important factors to patients in deciding on a psoriasis treatment. PMID:25584135

  16. Safety culture evaluation and asset root cause analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Okrent, D.; Xiong, Y.

    1995-12-31

    This paper examines the role of organizational and management factors in nuclear power plant safety through the use of operating experiences. The ASSET (Assessment of Safety Significant Events Team) reports of thirteen plants (total thirty events) have been analyzed in term of twenty organizational dimensions (factors) identified by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Pennsylvania State University. For three plants detailed results are reported in this paper. The results of thirteen plants are summarized in the form of a table. The study tends to confirm that organizational and management factors play an important role in plant safety. The twenty organizational dimensions and their definitions, in general, were adequate in this study. Formalization, Safety Culture, Technical Knowledge, Training, Roles-Responsibilities and Problem Identification appear to be key organizational factors which influence the safety of nuclear power plants studied.

  17. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kirrilly; Matthews, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Riding horses on roads can be dangerous, but little is known about accidents and near misses. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52%) reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey, mostly attributed to speed. Whilst our findings confirmed factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around road rules, hand signals and road rage. This paper suggests strategies for improving the safety of horses, riders and other road users. Abstract Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52%) reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1) identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles; (2) harmonising laws regarding passing horses; (3) mandating personal protective equipment; (4) improving road signage; (5) comprehensive data collection; (6) developing mutual understanding amongst road-users; (7) safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8) increasing investment

  18. Features, events, processes, and safety factor analysis applied to a near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, M.E.; Dolinar, G.M.; Lange, B.A.

    1995-12-31

    An analysis of features, events, processes (FEPs) and other safety factors was applied to AECL`s proposed IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) near-surface LLRW disposal facility. The FEP analysis process which had been developed for and applied to high-level and transuranic disposal concepts was adapted for application to a low-level facility for which significant efforts in developing a safety case had already been made. The starting point for this process was a series of meetings of the project team to identify and briefly describe FEPs or safety factors which they thought should be considered. At this early stage participants were specifically asked not to screen ideas. This initial list was supplemented by selecting FEPs documented in other programs and comments received from an initial regulatory review. The entire list was then sorted by topic and common issues were grouped, and issues were classified in three priority categories and assigned to individuals for resolution. In this paper, the issue identification and resolution process will be described, from the initial description of an issue to its resolution and inclusion in the various levels of the safety case documentation.

  19. Safety and efficacy of BAY 94-9027, a prolonged-half-life factor VIII.

    PubMed

    Reding, M T; Ng, H J; Poulsen, L H; Eyster, M E; Pabinger, I; Shin, H-J; Walsch, R; Lederman, M; Wang, M; Hardtke, M; Michaels, L A

    2017-03-01

    Essentials Recombinant factor VIII BAY 94-9027 conjugates in a site-specific manner with polyethylene glycol. BAY 94-9027 was given to patients with severe hemophilia A as prophylaxis and to treat bleeds. BAY 94-9027 prevented bleeds at dose intervals up to every 7 days and effectively treated bleeds. BAY 94-9027 treatment was mainly well tolerated and no patient developed factor VIII inhibitors. Click to hear Dr Tiede's perspective on half-life extended factor VIII for the treatment of hemophilia A SUMMARY: Background BAY 94-9027 is a B-domain-deleted prolonged-half-life recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) that conjugates in a site-specific manner with polyethylene glycol. Objective Assess efficacy and safety of BAY 94-9027 for prophylaxis and treatment of bleeds in patients with severe hemophilia A. Patients/methods In this multinational, phase 2/3, partially randomized, open-label trial, men aged 12-65 years with FVIII < 1% and ≥ 150 exposure days to FVIII received BAY 94-9027 for 36 weeks on demand or prophylactically at intervals determined following a 10-week run-in period on 25 IU kg(-1) body weight two times per week. Patients with > 1 bleed during the run-in subsequently received 30-40 IU kg(-1) two times per week; patients with ≤ 1 bleed were eligible for randomization to every-5-days (45-60 IU kg(-1) ) or every-7-days (60 IU kg(-1) ) prophylaxis (1 : 1) for 26 additional weeks until randomization arms were filled. Patients who were eligible but not randomized continued twice-weekly prophylaxis. The primary efficacy outcome was annualized bleeding rate (ABR). Results The intent-to-treat population included 132 patients (prophylaxis, n = 112; on demand, n = 20). Median ABR (quartile [Q1; Q3]) for patients treated two times per week who were not eligible for randomization (n = 13) improved after dose increase (17.4 [14.3; 26.0] to 4.1 [2.0; 10.6]). Median ABR for patients randomized to every-5-days treatment (n = 43) was 1.9 (0; 4.2), similar to patients

  20. Are shear force methods adequately reported?

    PubMed

    Holman, Benjamin W B; Fowler, Stephanie M; Hopkins, David L

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the detail to which shear force (SF) protocols and methods have been reported in the scientific literature between 2009 and 2015. Articles (n=734) published in peer-reviewed animal and food science journals and limited to only those testing the SF of unprocessed and non-fabricated mammal meats were evaluated. It was found that most of these SF articles originated in Europe (35.3%), investigated bovine species (49.0%), measured m. longissimus samples (55.2%), used tenderometers manufactured by Instron (31.2%), and equipped with Warner-Bratzler blades (68.8%). SF samples were also predominantly thawed prior to cooking (37.1%) and cooked sous vide, using a water bath (50.5%). Information pertaining to blade crosshead speed (47.5%), recorded SF resistance (56.7%), muscle fibre orientation when tested (49.2%), sub-section or core dimension (21.8%), end-point temperature (29.3%), and other factors contributing to SF variation were often omitted. This base failure diminishes repeatability and accurate SF interpretation, and must therefore be rectified.

  1. Adipose Tissue - Adequate, Accessible Regenerative Material

    PubMed Central

    Kolaparthy, Lakshmi Kanth.; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kutcham, Rupa Sruthi

    2015-01-01

    The potential use of stem cell based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of diseases. The use of either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells in clinical situations is limited due to cell regulations and to technical and ethical considerations involved in genetic manipulation of human ESCs, even though these cells are highly beneficial. Mesenchymal stem cells seen to be an ideal population of stem cells in particular, Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) which can be obtained in large number and easily harvested from adipose tissue. It is ubiquitously available and has several advantages compared to other sources as easily accessible in large quantities with minimal invasive harvesting procedure, and isolation of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells yield a high amount of stem cells which is essential for stem cell based therapies and tissue engineering. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using ASCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because various secreted growth factors from ASCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissues but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. This review summarizes the sources, isolation and characteristics of adipose derived stem cells and its potential role in periodontal regeneration is discussed. PMID:26634060

  2. A Bayesian procedure for evaluating the frequency of calibration factor updates in highway safety manual (HSM) applications.

    PubMed

    Saha, Dibakar; Alluri, Priyanka; Gan, Albert

    2017-01-01

    The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) presents statistical models to quantitatively estimate an agency's safety performance. The models were developed using data from only a few U.S. states. To account for the effects of the local attributes and temporal factors on crash occurrence, agencies are required to calibrate the HSM-default models for crash predictions. The manual suggests updating calibration factors every two to three years, or preferably on an annual basis. Given that the calibration process involves substantial time, effort, and resources, a comprehensive analysis of the required calibration factor update frequency is valuable to the agencies. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to evaluate the HSM's recommendation and determine the required frequency of calibration factor updates. A robust Bayesian estimation procedure is used to assess the variation between calibration factors computed annually, biennially, and triennially using data collected from over 2400 miles of segments and over 700 intersections on urban and suburban facilities in Florida. Bayesian model yields a posterior distribution of the model parameters that give credible information to infer whether the difference between calibration factors computed at specified intervals is credibly different from the null value which represents unaltered calibration factors between the comparison years or in other words, zero difference. The concept of the null value is extended to include the range of values that are practically equivalent to zero. Bayesian inference shows that calibration factors based on total crash frequency are required to be updated every two years in cases where the variations between calibration factors are not greater than 0.01. When the variations are between 0.01 and 0.05, calibration factors based on total crash frequency could be updated every three years.

  3. Pasteurized, monoclonal antibody factor VIII concentrate: establishing a new standard for purity and viral safety of plasma-derived concentrates.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, J C

    2000-03-01

    A factor VIII concentrate (Monoclate-P) manufactured using a combination of pasteurization and immunoaffinity chromatography has been chosen to compare and contrast manufacturing aspects of plasma-derived factor VIII concentrates. Pasteurization is a virucidal method with a long safety record in clinical practice, while immuno-affinity chromatography selectively isolates and purifies the procoagulant protein of factor VIII, and partitions potential viral contaminants and nonessential proteins to the unbound fraction. The complete Monoclate-P production process reduces human immunodeficiency virus by > or = 10.5 log10, Sindbis (a model for hepatitis C virus) by > or = 6.5 log10, and murine encephalomyocarditis virus (a non-enveloped model virus) by 7.1 log10. The viral safety of Monoclate-P has been further demonstrated in clinical studies in patients not previously treated with blood or plasma-derived products. Additionally, the manufacture of Monoclate-P includes careful donor screening and plasma testing for antibodies to syphilis and human immunodeficiency, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C viruses to enhance source plasma safety. Combined with donor selection and plasma testing, multiple viral reduction steps effectively eliminate both lipid-enveloped viruses (e.g. human immunodeficiency, hepatitis B and C) and non-lipid-enveloped viruses (e.g. hepatitis A). In addition, polymerase chain reaction-based nucleic acid detection tests for hepatitis B and C viruses and for human immunodeficiency virus-1 have been introduced as part of an investigational new drug mechanism.

  4. Chemical Safety Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the need to enhance understanding of chemical safety in educational facilities that includes adequate staff training and drilling requirements. The question of what is considered proper training is addressed. (GR)

  5. Risk factors and mortality associated with undertriage at a level I safety-net trauma center: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Barsi, Chris; Harris, Peter; Menaik, Rich; Reis, Nicholas C; Munnangi, Swapna; Elfond, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The primary objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with undertriage and the risk factors for mortality among the undertriaged patients at a level I safety-net trauma center. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed of all trauma patients who presented to a level I safety-net trauma center with an injury severity score >15 over a 2-year period (2013–2014). Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to determine the risk factors predictive of undertriage in major trauma patients (injury severity score >15) and of mortality in undertriaged patients. Results During the 2-year study period, 334 of 2,485 admitted trauma patients presented with major trauma and were included in our study. From the univariate analysis, variables that were found to be independently associated with mortality in undertriaged patients included intubation, Glasgow Coma Scale score, revised trauma score, and dementia. Independent risk factors that were found to be significantly associated with undertriage in severely injured trauma patients included Glasgow Coma Scale score, motor vehicle crash, falls, revised trauma score, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, intubation, and dementia. When a multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the statistically significant risk factors, dementia was found to be significantly associated with undertriage in severely injured trauma patients. Conclusion Severely injured trauma patients with dementia are at significant risk for undertriage. Early identification of these risk factors while triaging at a level I safety-net trauma center could translate into improved patient outcomes following severe trauma. PMID:27877069

  6. Slope Stability: Factor of Safety along the Seismically Active Continental Slope Offshore Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, J. R.; Goldfinger, C.; Djadjadihardja, Y.; None, U.

    2013-12-01

    Recent papers have documented the probability that turbidites deposited along and downslope of subduction zone accretionary prisms are likely the result of strong ground shaking from great earthquakes. Given the damaging nature of these earthquakes, along with the casualties from the associated tsunamis, the spatial and temporal patterns of these earthquakes can only be evaluated with paleoseismologic coring and seismic reflection methods. We evaluate slope stability for seafloor topography along the Sunda subduction offshore Sumatra, Indonesia. We use sediment material properties, from local (Sumatra) and analogous sites, to constrain our estimates of static slope stability Factor of Safety (FOS) analyses. We then use ground motion prediction equations (GMPE's) to estimate ground motion intensity (Arias Intensity, AI) and acceleration (Peak Ground Acceleration, PGA), as possibly generated by fault rupture, to constrain seismic loads for pseudostatic slope stability FOS analyses. The ground motions taper rapidly with distance from the fault plane, consistent with ground motion - fault distance relations measured during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki subduction zone earthquake. Our FOS analyses include a Morgenstern method of slices probabilistic analysis for 2-D profiles along with Critical Acceleration (Ac) and Newmark Displacement (Dn) analysis of multibeam bathymetry of the seafloor. In addition, we also use estimates of ground motion modeled with a 2004 Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone (SASZ) earthquake fault slip model, to also compare with our static FOS analyses of seafloor topography. All slope and trench sites are statically stable (FOS < 1) and sensitive to ground motions generated by earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7. We conclude that for earthquakes of magnitude 6 to 9, PGA of 0.4-0.6 to 1.4-2.5 g would be expected, respectively, from existing GMPE's. However, saturation of accelerations in the accretionary wedge may limit actual accelerations to less than 1

  7. Steady state scenario development with elevated minimum safety factor on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, C. T.; Ferron, J. R.; Luce, T. C.; Petrie, T. W.; Park, J. M.; Turco, F.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Okabayashi, M.; Lasnier, C. T.; Hanson, J. M.; Politzter, P. A.; In, Y.; Hyatt, A. W.; La Haye, R. J.; Lanctot, M. J.

    2014-08-15

    On DIII-D (Luxon 2005 Fusion Sci. Technol. 48 828), a high β scenario with minimum safety factor (qmin) near 1.4 has been optimized with new tools and shown to be a favourable candidate for long pulse or steady state operation in future devices. Furthermore, the new capability to redirect up to 5 MW of neutral beam injection (NBI) from on- to off-axis improves the ability to sustain elevated qmin with a less peaked pressure profile. The observed changes increase the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) n = 1 mode βN limit thus providing a path forward for increasing the noninductive current drive fraction by operating at high βN. Quasi-stationary discharges free of tearing modes have been sustained at βN = 3.5 and βT = 3.6% for two current profile diffusion timescales (about 3 s) limited by neutral beam duration. The discharge performance has normalized fusion performance expected to give fusion gain Q ≈ 5 in a device the size of ITER. Analysis of the poloidal flux evolution and current drive balance show that the loop voltage profile is almost relaxed even with 25% of the current driven inductively, and qmin remains elevated near 1.4. Our observations increase confidence that the current profile will not evolve to one unstable to a tearing mode. In preliminary tests a divertor heat flux reduction technique based on producing a radiating mantle with neon injection appears compatible with this operating scenario. 0D model extrapolations suggest it may be possible to push this scenario up to 100% noninductive current drive by raising βN. Similar discharges with qmin = 1.5–2 were susceptible to tearing modes and off-axis fishbones, and with qmin > 2 lower normalized global energy confinement time is observed.

  8. Prostate cancer between prognosis and adequate/proper therapy

    PubMed Central

    Grozescu, T; Popa, F

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the indolent, non-invasive nature of most types of prostate cancer, as well as the simple fact that the disease seems more likely to be associated with age rather than with other factors (50% of men at the age of 50 and 80% at the age of 80 have it [1], with or without presenting any symptom), the big challenge of this clinical entity was to determine severity indicators (so far insufficient) to guide the physician towards an adequate attitude in the clinical setting. The risk of over-diagnosing and over-treating many prostate cancer cases (indicated by all the major European and American studies) is real and poses many question marks. The present paper was meant to deliver new research data and to reset the clinical approach in prostate cancer cases. PMID:28255369

  9. Individual and contextual determinants of adequate maternal health care services in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Achia, Thomas N O; Mageto, Lillian E

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine individual and community level factors associated with adequate use of maternal antenatal health services in Kenya. Individual and community level factors associated with adequate use of maternal health care (MHC) services were obtained from the 2008-09 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey data set. Multilevel partial-proportional odds logit models were fitted using STATA 13.0 to quantify the relations of the selected covariates to adequate MHC use, defined as a three-category ordinal variable. The sample consisted of 3,621 women who had at least one live birth in the five-year period preceding this survey. Only 18 percent of the women had adequate use of MHC services. Greater educational attainment by the woman or her partner, higher socioeconomic status, access to medical insurance coverage, and greater media exposure were the individual-level factors associated with adequate use of MHC services. Greater community ethnic diversity, higher community-level socioeconomic status, and greater community-level health facility deliveries were the contextual-level factors associated with adequate use of MHC. To improve the use of MHC services in Kenya, the government needs to design and implement programs that target underlying individual and community level factors, providing focused and sustained health education to promote the use of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care.

  10. Screening stress factors survey in an institute of advanced studies: health and safety integrated plans.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, C S; Gomes, C N; Barros, F S

    2012-01-01

    The current paper presents the study of organizational stressors survey carried out in a military institute, responsible for researches of high demand on aerospace technology. The study considered the theoretical framework of Organizational Ergonomics, combined with the technical guidelines of Psychology applied to Work Safety. The participatory approach was used on daily work assessment and decision making, aiming the adoption of corrective and preventive measures, considering possible distortions and imbalances between prescribed and actual activities. Thus, it was sought to engage and encourage the participation of the Institute's workers in the reflection/creation of better solutions to daily problems and to achieve productivity, without prejudice in the occupational health and safety.

  11. Human factors of industrial robots and robot safety management in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagamachi, M

    1986-03-01

    Japan has the largest world market share of industrial robots and also two fatal accidents due to robots. Ergonomics points of view should be applied to robotics to prevent new types of accidents. The concern of this paper is to explain Japan's situation concerning the installation of robotics and current safety regulations. Three experiments about the possibility of unsafe behaviour are described, and the man-robot system failure is analysed based on Fault Tree Analysis and the actual data. The appropriate safety measures are compared in terms of their cost-effectiveness. Finally, ergonomics points of view are provided to prevent accidents due to industrial robots.

  12. Parental concern about vaccine safety in Canadian children partially immunized at age 2: a multivariable model including system level factors.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of 'partially' immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138-13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151-6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017-10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075-7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144-0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598-23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057-0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake.

  13. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ...

  14. Using human factors engineering to improve patient safety in the cardiovascular operating room.

    PubMed

    Gurses, Ayse P; Martinez, Elizabeth A; Bauer, Laura; Kim, George; Lubomski, Lisa H; Marsteller, Jill A; Pennathur, Priyadarshini R; Goeschel, Chris; Pronovost, Peter J; Thompson, David

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant medical advances, cardiac surgery remains a high risk procedure. Sub-optimal work system design characteristics can contribute to the risks associated with cardiac surgery. However, hazards due to work system characteristics have not been identified in the cardiovascular operating room (CVOR) in sufficient detail to guide improvement efforts. The purpose of this study was to identify and categorize hazards (anything that has the potential to cause a preventable adverse patient safety event) in the CVOR. An interdisciplinary research team used prospective hazard identification methods including direct observations, contextual inquiry, and photographing to collect data in 5 hospitals for a total 22 cardiac surgeries. We performed thematic analysis of the qualitative data guided by a work system model. 60 categories of hazards such as practice variations, high workload, non-compliance with evidence-based guidelines, not including clinicians' in medical device purchasing decisions were found. Results indicated that hazards are common in cardiac surgery and should be eliminated or mitigated to improve patient safety. To improve patient safety in the CVOR, efforts should focus on creating a culture of safety, increasing compliance with evidence based infection control practices, improving communication and teamwork, and designing better tools and technologies through partnership among all stakeholders.

  15. Beyond the Factor of Safety: Developing Fragility Curves to Characterize System Reliability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    analysis parameterized by fundamental response quantities. Engineering Structures 29:1238–1251. Kaplan, S., H. G. Perla , and D. C. Bley. 1983. A... Perla . 1980. Probabilistic seismic safety study of an existing nuclear power plant. Nuclear Engineering and Design 59(1980):315–338. Kingston, G. B

  16. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    PubMed

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  17. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kirrilly; Matthews, Chelsea

    2015-07-22

    Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52%) reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1) identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles (2) harmonising laws regarding passing horses, (3) mandating personal protective equipment, (4) improving road signage, (5) comprehensive data collection, (6) developing mutual understanding amongst road-users, (7) safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8) increasing investment in horse-related safety initiatives.

  18. Cognitive performance-altering effects of electronic medical records: An application of the human factors paradigm for patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    According to the human factors paradigm for patient safety, health care work systems and innovations such as electronic medical records do not have direct effects on patient safety. Instead, their effects are contingent on how the clinical work system, whether computerized or not, shapes health care providers' performance of cognitive work processes. An application of the human factors paradigm to interview data from two hospitals in the Midwest United States yielded numerous examples of the performance-altering effects of electronic medical records, electronic clinical documentation, and computerized provider order entry. Findings describe both improvements and decrements in the ease and quality of cognitive performance, both for interviewed clinicians and for their colleagues and patients. Changes in cognitive performance appear to have desirable and undesirable implications for patient safety as well as for quality of care and other important outcomes. Cognitive performance can also be traced to interactions between work system elements, including new technology, allowing for the discovery of problems with “fit” to be addressed through design interventions. PMID:21479125

  19. Proposal of a risk-factor-based analytical approach for integrating occupational health and safety into project risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Badri, Adel; Nadeau, Sylvie; Gbodossou, André

    2012-09-01

    Excluding occupational health and safety (OHS) from project management is no longer acceptable. Numerous industrial accidents have exposed the ineffectiveness of conventional risk evaluation methods as well as negligence of risk factors having major impact on the health and safety of workers and nearby residents. Lack of reliable and complete evaluations from the beginning of a project generates bad decisions that could end up threatening the very existence of an organization. This article supports a systematic approach to the evaluation of OHS risks and proposes a new procedure based on the number of risk factors identified and their relative significance. A new concept called risk factor concentration along with weighting of risk factor categories as contributors to undesirable events are used in the analytical hierarchy process multi-criteria comparison model with Expert Choice(©) software. A case study is used to illustrate the various steps of the risk evaluation approach and the quick and simple integration of OHS at an early stage of a project. The approach allows continual reassessment of criteria over the course of the project or when new data are acquired. It was thus possible to differentiate the OHS risks from the risk of drop in quality in the case of the factory expansion project.

  20. Influence of parenteral administration routes and additional factors on vaccine safety and immunogenicity: a review of recent literature.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Vaccines have to be administered via an appropriate route, i.e. a route, which is optimal regarding safety, immunogenicity and practicability. In addition, there are factors, such as body site, needle length, injection technique, depth of injection, type of antigen, vaccine formulation, adjuvants, age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass, and pre-existing immunity, which can have an impact on the reactogenicity and tolerability and/or on the immunogenicity of a given vaccine. For parenteral vaccine administration there are currently three routes licensed: intramuscular, subcutaneous and intradermal, either by using conventional hypodermic needles or by using alternative or needle-free injection devices. The factors potentially impacting on the 'performance' of a given route of administration, as reported in recent literature, are outlined and discussed in view of their importance. These factors need to be accounted and controlled for when designing vaccine studies and should be reported in a transparent and standardised way in publications.

  1. Safety of tumour necrosis factor and interleukin-1 blocking agents in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Botsios, Costantino

    2005-03-01

    The three licensed TNF(alpha) blocking agents (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab) and the recombinant form of human interleukin-1-receptor antagonist (anakinra) have all been shown to be effective in patients with chronic rheumatic autoimmune diseases; they have also been associated with certain types of serious adverse events. As expected, much of the information on serious events have accumulated during the post-marketing period. Certain serious, but uncommon, adverse events have been observed with all three TNF(alpha) blocking agents, including serious bacterial infections, tuberculosis (TB) and certain opportunistic infections, demyelinating syndromes, and lupus-like reactions. These data suggest that these adverse reactions may be related to blockade of TNF(alpha) and may therefore represent class effects of these agents. However, the severity and degree of risk may not be the same with all three agents. Blockade of interleukin-1 activity with anakinra appears, at present, to be relatively safe. The safety profile of these products will continue to be developed through the use of the registry, periodic safety updates from the passive surveillance program, and safety data from controlled trials of biological therapy for other diseases. Physicians should minimize risks by patient selection and screening for opportunistic infections. Moreover, the choice of the biological agent must be tailored to minimize risks and maximize benefits.

  2. Factors in the Growth and Decline of System Safety within Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    GANTER, JOHN H.; STORAGE, WILLIAM K.

    1999-08-16

    System safety as a technical field faces numerous opportunities, and some challenges, in the high technology, low cost future. As a relatively small field best known in high consequence domains (defense, aviation, space) it may have to tailor its messages and approaches to influence organizations (both private and public) pressured by incessant competition and ''Internet time.'' We present a model of organizations as cultures that carefully ration attention and reward personnel who successfully pursue goals. These evolving goals result from a fusing of both external influences (market share: regulation) and internal influences (dominant group identities such as marketers or engineers). In the context of organizational goals, these same influences cause people to search narrowly and quickly for technologies and ideas that can fit through ''influence gates'' in the organization and that will likely grow there. System safety must thus compete with all manner of cost-cutting and quality management approaches, in an environment currently obsessed with short-term value and return on investment. From this model we develop some ideas for the communication and promotion of system safety that could increase the net impact and effectiveness of the field.

  3. Why some walk and others don't: exploring interactions of perceived safety and social neighborhood factors with psychosocial cognitions.

    PubMed

    Beenackers, Mariëlle A; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M; Mackenbach, Johan P; Burdorf, Alex; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2013-04-01

    Although physical activity is often believed to be influenced by both environmental and individual factors, little is known about their interaction. This study explores interactions of perceived safety and social neighborhood factors with psychosocial cognitions for leisure-time walking. Cross-sectional data were obtained from residents (age 25-75 years) of 212 neighborhoods in the South-East of the Netherlands, who participated in the Dutch GLOBE study in 2004 (N = 4395, survey response 64.4%). Direct associations of, and interactions between perceived neighborhood safety, social neighborhood factors (social cohesion, social network and feeling at home) and psychosocial cognitions (attitude, self-efficacy, social influence and intention) on two outcomes of leisure-time walking [yes versus no (binary), and among walkers: minutes per week (continuous)] were analyzed in multilevel regression models. The association between attitude and participating in leisure-time walking was stronger in those who felt less at home in their neighborhood. Social influence and attitude were stronger associated with participation in leisure-time walking in those who sometimes felt unsafe in their neighborhood. A positive intention was associated with more minutes walked in those who perceived their neighborhood as unsafe among those who walked. Only limited support was found for interactions between neighborhood perceptions and psychosocial cognitions for leisure-time walking.

  4. Clinical efficacy and safety of abatacept in methotrexate-naive patients with early rheumatoid arthritis and poor prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Westhovens, R; Robles, M; Ximenes, A C; Nayiager, S; Wollenhaupt, J; Durez, P; Gomez-Reino, J; Grassi, W; Haraoui, B; Shergy, W; Park, S-H; Genant, H; Peterfy, C; Becker, J-C; Covucci, A; Helfrick, R; Bathon, J

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of abatacept in methotrexate-naive patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and poor prognostic factors. Methods: In this double-blind, phase IIIb study, patients with RA for 2 years or less were randomly assigned 1 : 1 to receive abatacept (∼10 mg/kg) plus methotrexate, or placebo plus methotrexate. Patients were methotrexate-naive and seropositive for rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-cyclic citrullinated protein (CCP) type 2 or both and had radiographic evidence of joint erosions. The co-primary endpoints were the proportion of patients achieving disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28)-defined remission (C-reactive protein) and joint damage progression (Genant-modified Sharp total score; TS) at year 1. Safety was monitored throughout. Results: At baseline, patients had a mean DAS28 of 6.3, a mean TS of 7.1 and mean disease duration of 6.5 months; 96.5% and 89.0% of patients were RF or anti-CCP2 seropositive, respectively. At year 1, a significantly greater proportion of abatacept plus methotrexate-treated patients achieved remission (41.4% vs 23.3%; p<0.001) and there was significantly less radiographic progression (mean change in TS 0.63 vs 1.06; p = 0.040) versus methotrexate alone. Over 1 year, the frequency of adverse events (84.8% vs 83.4%), serious adverse events (7.8% vs 7.9%), serious infections (2.0% vs 2.0%), autoimmune disorders (2.3% vs 2.0%) and malignancies (0.4% vs 0%) was comparable for abatacept plus methotrexate versus methotrexate alone. Conclusions: In a methotrexate-naive population with early RA and poor prognostic factors, the combination of abatacept and methotrexate provided significantly better clinical and radiographic efficacy compared with methotrexate alone and had a comparable, favourable safety profile. PMID:19124524

  5. Human, Machine, Nature and Safety Factors in the Design and Architecture of Spaceflight Terminal at Spaceport Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridzuan Zakaria, Norul; Abd Aziz, Noor Azizee; Mohd Ariffin, Ati Rosemary

    2013-09-01

    Spaceport Malaysia has been approved by the local authorities in Malaysia and now is at the final stage of its planning. The most significant and iconic facility at the proposed Spaceport Malaysia will be the spaceflight terminal which will serve suborbital flights for carrying experiments, passengers and satellites.As such, the design of the spaceport signifies a place that welcomes visitors, user friendly, supports, services and integrates vehicles, blends with natures and uses green technology and also ensure safe both for people and machines. This paper describes how human, machine, nature and safety factors were incorporated in the design approach of the spaceflight terminal.

  6. Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) for Macular Telangiectasia Type 2 (MacTel): Results from a phase I safety trial

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Emily Y.; Clemons, Traci E.; Peto, Tunde; Sallo, Ferenc B.; Ingerman, Avner; Tao, Weng; Singerman, Lawrence; Schwartz, Steven D.; Peachey, Neal S.; Bird, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the safety and tolerability of intraocular delivery of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) using an encapsulated cell implant for the treatment of macular telangiectasia type 2. DESIGN An open-labeled safety trial conducted in 2 centers enrolling 7 participants with macular telangiectasia type 2. METHODS The participant’s more severely affected eye (worse baseline visual acuity) received the high dose implant of CNTF. Patients were followed for a period of 36 months. The primary safety outcome was a change in the parameters of the electroretinogram (ERG). Secondary efficacy outcomes were changes in visual acuity, en face measurements of the optical coherence tomography of the disruption in the ellipsoid zone, and microperimetry when compared with baseline. RESULTS The ERG findings demonstrated a reduction in the amplitude of the scotopic b-wave in 4 participants 3 months after implantation (month 3). All parameters returned to baseline values by month 12 and remained so at month 36 with no clinical impact on dark adaptation. There was no change in visual acuity compared with baseline. The area of the defect as measured functionally by microperimetry and structurally by the en face OCT imaging of the ellipsoid zone loss appeared unchanged from baseline. CONCLUSIONS The intraocular delivery of CNTF in the encapsulated cell implant appeared to be safe and well tolerated in eyes with macular telangiectasia type 2. Further evaluation in a randomized controlled clinical trial is warranted to test for efficacy. PMID:25528956

  7. An Investigation of Factors Affecting Aircraft Passenger Attention to Safety Information Presentations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    Ph.D. Interaction Research Corporation 11062 Mercantile Avenue Stanton, CA 90680 tair AUGUST, 1979 FINAL REPORT Document is available to the U.S. public...Research Corporation 11062 Mercantile Avenue II Contract or Grant No. Stanton, California 90680 / H Ct tr a N / .1 DOT-FA78Wi-V~95󈧏A, ype of Report...appear to attend to the safety infor- mation presentation given prior to takeoff. This presentation, in the form of the oral briefing given by the

  8. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo Ndebele's…

  9. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  10. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  11. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  12. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  13. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  14. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  15. Structural Design Requirements and Factors of Safety for Spaceflight Hardware: For Human Spaceflight. Revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Karen S.; Kujala, Rod; Fogt, Vince; Romine, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This document establishes the structural requirements for human-rated spaceflight hardware including launch vehicles, spacecraft and payloads. These requirements are applicable to Government Furnished Equipment activities as well as all related contractor, subcontractor and commercial efforts. These requirements are not imposed on systems other than human-rated spacecraft, such as ground test articles, but may be tailored for use in specific cases where it is prudent to do so such as for personnel safety or when assets are at risk. The requirements in this document are focused on design rather than verification. Implementation of the requirements is expected to be described in a Structural Verification Plan (SVP), which should describe the verification of each structural item for the applicable requirements. The SVP may also document unique verifications that meet or exceed these requirements with NASA Technical Authority approval.

  16. Interaction of Occupational and Personal Risk Factors in Workforce Health and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Pandalai, Sudha; Wulsin, Victoria; Chun, HeeKyoung

    2012-01-01

    Most diseases, injuries, and other health conditions experienced by working people are multifactorial, especially as the workforce ages. Evidence supporting the role of work and personal risk factors in the health of working people is frequently underused in developing interventions. Achieving a longer, healthy working life requires a comprehensive preventive approach. To help develop such an approach, we evaluated the influence of both occupational and personal risk factors on workforce health. We present 32 examples illustrating 4 combinatorial models of occupational hazards and personal risk factors (genetics, age, gender, chronic disease, obesity, smoking, alcohol use, prescription drug use). Models that address occupational and personal risk factors and their interactions can improve our understanding of health hazards and guide research and interventions. PMID:22021293

  17. An Evaluation of the Effects of Human Factors and Ergonomics on Health Care and Patient Safety Practices: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Longhao; Zhao, Pujing; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Background From the viewpoint of human factors and ergonomics (HFE), errors often occur because of the mismatch between the system, technique and characteristics of the human body. HFE is a scientific discipline concerned with understanding interactions between human behavior, system design and safety. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of HFE interventions in improving health care workers’ outcomes and patient safety and to assess the quality of the available evidence. Methods We searched databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews and the CBM (Chinese BioMedical Literature Database), for articles published from 1996 to Mar.2015. The quality assessment tool was based on the risk of bias criteria developed by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care (EPOC) Group. The interventions of the included studies were categorized into four relevant domains, as defined by the International Ergonomics Association. Results For this descriptive study, we identified 8, 949 studies based on our initial search. Finally, 28 studies with 3,227 participants were included. Among the 28 included studies, 20 studies were controlled studies, two of which were randomized controlled trials. The other eight studies were before/after surveys, without controls. Most of the studies were of moderate or low quality. Five broad categories of outcomes were identified in this study: 1) medical errors or patient safety, 2) health care workers’ quality of working life (e.g. reduced fatigue, discomfort, workload, pain and injury), 3) user performance (e.g., efficiency or accuracy), 4) health care workers’ attitudes towards the interventions(e.g., satisfaction and preference), and 5) economic evaluations. Conclusion The results showed that the interventions positively affected the outcomes of health care workers. Few studies considered the financial merits of these interventions. Most of the included studies were of moderate quality. This review highlights the need

  18. Safety of bilateral same-day intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents

    PubMed Central

    Ruão, Miguel; Andreu-Fenoll, María; Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim was to evaluate the safety of bilateral same-day injections with intravitreal antiangiogenic drugs for macular diseases. Methods Cross-sectional retrospective review of unilateral and bilateral same-day antiangiogenic injections was conducted between January 2011 and March 2016 in the Unit of Macula, University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe (Valencia, Spain). A total of 8,172 injections were administered, among which 6,560 were unilateral and 1,612 were bilateral injections. Patients were included in the study regardless of the diagnosis. Ranibizumab and aflibercept were the antiangiogenic drugs used. The presence of endophthalmitis or retinal detachment was evaluated. Results A total of 1 (0.012%) culture-proven endophthalmitis and 19 (0.233%) acute intraocular inflammations were registered. In the unilateral injections group, there were 18 (0.274%) acute intraocular inflammations and 1 (0.015%) culture-proven endophthalmitis. One (0.062%) of the 1,612 bilateral same-day injections had a unilateral acute intraocular inflammation, and there were no culture-proven endophthalmitis in this group. Conclusion Bilateral same-day injections are more convenient for patients and their caregivers than the unilateral injections administered on different days. In our study, the prevalence of culture-proven endophthalmitis and acute intraocular inflammation was lower in the bilateral injections than in the unilateral group. These data support the idea that bilateral same-day injections are a safe and valid treatment to use in our clinical practice. PMID:28203056

  19. Conditions for the successful integration of Human and Organizational Factors (HOF) in the nuclear safety analysis.

    PubMed

    Tosello, Michèle; Lévêque, Françoise; Dutillieu, Stéphanie; Hernandez, Guillaume; Vautier, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    This communication presents some elements which come from the experience feedback at CEA about the conditions for the successful integration of HOF in the nuclear safety analysis. To point out some of these conditions, one of the concepts proposed by Edgar Morin to describe the functioning of "complex" systems: the dialogical principle has been used. The idea is to look for some dialogical pairs. The elements of this kind of pair are both complementary and antagonist to one another. Three dialogical pairs are presented in this communication. The first two pairs are related to the organization of the HOF network and the last one is related to the methods which are used to analyse the working situations. The three pairs are: specialist - non-specialist actors of the network, centralized - distributed human resources in the network and microscopic - macroscopic levels of HOF methods to analyse the working situations. To continuously improve these three dialogical pairs, it is important to keep the differences which exist between the two elements of a pair and to find and maintain a balance between the two elements of the pairs.

  20. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (10/14/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadben,. Director, to Nancy Wrona and Dennis Smith informing them that Maricopa County's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2003 MAGCO Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  1. Region 6: Texas Adequate Letter (4/16/2010)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Texas Commission on Environmental Quality determined 2021 motor vehicle emission budgets for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for Beaumont/Port Arthur area adequate for transportation conformity purposes

  2. Region 2: New Jersey Adequate Letter (5/23/2002)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This April 22, 2002 letter from EPA to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection determined 2007 and 2014 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Mobile Source Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal

  3. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (10/29/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Denvers' particulate matter (PM10) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  4. Region 1: New Hampshire Adequate Letter (8/12/2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This July 9, 2008 letter from EPA to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, determined the 2009 Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets (MVEBs) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal Register (FR).

  5. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (1/20/2004)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Greeleys' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the FR.

  6. Region 8: Utah Adequate Letter (6/10/2005)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Utah Department of Environmental Quality determined Salt Lake Citys' and Ogdens' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  7. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  8. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  9. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  10. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  11. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  12. Region 6: New Mexico Adequate Letter (8/21/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Carl Edlund, Director, to Alfredo Santistevan regarding MVEB's contained in the latest revision to the Albuquerque Carbon Monoxide State Implementation Plan (SIP) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  13. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  14. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  15. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  16. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  17. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  18. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  19. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  20. Region 9: Nevada Adequate Letter (3/30/2006)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Deborah Jordan, Director, to Leo M. Drozdoff regarding Nevada's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2005 Truckee Meadows CO Redesignation Request and Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity decisions.

  1. School Support Groups, Other School Factors, and the Safety of Sexual Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodenow, Carol; Szalacha, Laura; Westheimer, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Sexual minority adolescents--those self-identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) or with same-sex desires or sexual experiences--report higher rates of victimization and suicidality than their heterosexual peers, yet little empirical research has examined school factors associated with these risks. This study used data from the Massachusetts…

  2. 21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... effectiveness. 315.3 Section 315.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS § 315.3 General factors relevant... estimated absorbed radiation dose of the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical....

  3. School Climate and the Safe School: Seven Contributing Factors. Safety in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, James

    2005-01-01

    Accepting that few lists are comprehensive, but acknowledging that they still have value, here then are seven important factors that contribute to a healthy school climate: (1) Models: Adults are teachers in more ways than one, and the way that has the greater impact is less what they say than what they do; (2) Consistency: The school staff must…

  4. Predictive Factors for Efficacy and Safety of Prophylactic Theophylline for Extubation in Infants with Apnea of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Yuji; Mitarai, Fumi; Ishitsuka, Yoichi; Irikura, Mitsuru; Shimodozono, Yoshihiro; Douchi, Tsutomu; Takeda, Yasuo; Irie, Tetsumi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to evaluate predictive factors involved in efficacy and safety in Japanese infants who received theophylline therapy to prevent apnea of prematurity (AOP) after weaning from mechanical ventilation. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of infants who were administered intravenous aminophylline (theophylline ethylenediamine) for AOP at the neonatal intensive care unit, Kagoshima University Hospital, Japan, between January 2009 and June 2013. Results A total of 100 infants were evaluated as two separate groups in terms of efficacy and safety of theophylline. Sixty-seven (67.0%) infants had effective theophylline therapy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that gestational age at birth was significant, with an odds ratio of 0.59 (p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the cut-off value was 31.1 weeks old for predicting the efficacy of theophylline (specificity, 66.7%; sensitivity, 86.6%; p < 0.001; area under the curve, 0.750; 95% confidence interval, 0.45–0.74). Adverse reactions were identified in 21 (21.0%) infants. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the number of days of theophylline administration from birth was associated with an increased risk of adverse reactions after theophylline administration (p = 0.01). Conclusions Physicians need to be aware of the possibility that theophylline fails to produce therapeutic effects for extubation in infants aged less than 31.1 weeks old, and adverse reactions can easily develop when theophylline is administered soon after birth. PMID:27388444

  5. Immunogenicity and safety of xenogeneic vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 DNA vaccination in mice and dogs

    PubMed Central

    Denies, Sofie; Cicchelero, Laetitia; Polis, Ingeborgh; Sanders, Niek N.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) is an attractive target in oncology due to its crucial role in angiogenesis. In this study a DNA vaccine coding for human VEGFR-2 was evaluated in healthy mice and dogs, administered by intradermal injection and electroporation. In mice, three doses and vaccination schedules were evaluated. Cellular immune responses were measured by intracellular IFN-gamma staining and a cytotoxicity assay and antibodies by ELISA. Safety was assessed by measuring regulatory T cells and myeloid derived suppressor cells and a wound healing assay. The vaccine was subsequently evaluated in dogs, which were vaccinated three times with 100μg. Cellular immune responses were measured by intracellular IFN-gamma staining and antibodies by a flow cytometric assay. In mice, maximal cellular responses were observed after two vaccinations with 5μg. Humoral responses continued to increase with higher dose and number of vaccinations. No abnormalities in the measured safety parameters were observed. The vaccine was also capable of eliciting a cellular and humoral immune response in dogs. No adverse effects were observed, but tolerability of the electroporation was poor. This study will facilitate the evaluation of the vaccine in tumor bearing animals, ranging from rodent models to dogs with spontaneous tumors. PMID:26871296

  6. Discovering Innovation at the Intersection of Undergraduate Medical Education, Human Factors, and Collaboration: The Development of a Nasogastric Tube Safety Pack

    PubMed Central

    Bamford, Thomas; Haindl, Cornelia; Cracknell, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Problem Significant deficiencies exist in the knowledge and skills of medical students and residents around health care quality and safety. The theory and practice of quality and safety should be embedded into undergraduate medical practice so that health care professionals are capable of developing interventions and innovations to effectively anticipate and mitigate errors. Approach Since 2011, Leeds Medical School in the United Kingdom has used case study examples of nasogastric (NG) tube patient safety incidents within the undergraduate patient safety curriculum. In 2012, a medical undergraduate student approached a clinician with an innovative idea after undertaking an NG tubes root cause analysis case study. Simultaneously, a separate local project demonstrated low compliance (11.6%) with the United Kingdom’s National Patient Safety Agency NG tubes guideline for use of the correct method to check tube position. These separate endeavors led to interdisciplinary collaboration between a medical student, health care professionals, researchers, and industry to develop the Initial Placement Nasogastric Tube Safety Pack. Outcomes Human factors engineering was used to inform pack design to allow guideline recommendations to be accessible and easy to follow. A timeline of product development, mapped against key human factors and medical device design principles used throughout the process, is presented. The safety pack has since been launched in five UK National Health Service (NHS) hospitals, and the pack has been introduced into health care professional staff training for NG tubes. Next Steps A mixed-methods evaluation is currently under way in five NHS organizations. PMID:26579792

  7. An Evaluation of the Implied Shortage Factor and Its Effect on the Air Force Logistics Command’s Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Variable Safety Level.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Order Quantity (EOQ) model and a derivation of the Presutti and Trepp Model IV to establish inventory variable safety levels. The safety level (SL...implied shortage factor, lambda is an arbitrary value that has a major effect on the SL formula and inventory levels at each wholesale supply depot, the...Air Logistics Center. The objective of this thesis was to determine the effectiveness of the process by which lambda has been previously determined at

  8. Fear factor: do dugongs (Dugong dugon) trade food for safety from tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier)?

    PubMed

    Wirsing, Aaron J; Heithaus, Michael R; Dill, Lawrence M

    2007-10-01

    Predators can influence plants indirectly by altering spatial patterns of herbivory, so studies assessing the relationship between perceived predation risk and habitat use by herbivores may improve our understanding of community organization. In marine systems, the effects of predation danger on space use by large herbivores have received little attention, despite the possibility that predator-mediated alterations in patterns of grazing by these animals influence benthic community structure. We evaluated the relationship between habitat use by foraging dugongs (Dugong dugon) and the threat of tiger shark predation in an Australian embayment (Shark Bay) between 1997 and 2004. Dugong densities were quantified in shallow (putatively dangerous) and deep (putatively safe) habitats (seven survey zones allocated to each habitat), and predation hazard was indexed using catch rates of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier); seagrass volume provided a measure of food biomass within each zone. Overall, dugongs selected shallow habitats, where their food is concentrated. Foragers used shallow and deep habitats in proportion to food availability (input matching) when large tiger sharks were scarce and overused deep habitats when sharks were common. Furthermore, strong synchrony existed between daily measures of shark abundance and the extent to which deep habitats were overused. Thus, dugongs appear to adaptively manage their risk of death by allocating time to safe but impoverished foraging patches in proportion to the likelihood of encountering predators in profitable but more dangerous areas. This apparent food-safety trade-off has important implications for seagrass community structure in Shark Bay, as it may result in marked temporal variability in grazing pressure.

  9. Food safety in raw milk production: risk factors associated to bacterial DNA contamination.

    PubMed

    Cerva, Cristine; Bremm, Carolina; Reis, Emily Marques dos; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Loiko, Márcia Regina; Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Cenci, Alexander; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos

    2014-06-01

    While human illness from milkborne pathogens may be linked to contamination of the product after pasteurization or improper pasteurization, such diseases are usually associated with consumption of raw milk or its by-products. Molecular biology tools were applied to investigate contamination by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., some pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni in 548 raw milk samples from 125 dairy farms established in two regions from southern Brazil. Moreover, 15 variables were evaluated for their association with raw milk contamination levels, and the risk factors were determined by multiple regression analysis. Salmonella spp. were more frequently detected, followed by pathogenic E. coli. There was difference in contamination index between the regions, in which risk factors such as temporary cattle confinement, low milk production, low milking machine cleaning frequency, and milk storage area without tile walls were identified. The risk factors were specific to each region studied. Nevertheless, the data can be used to improve milk quality of dairy farms/herds with similar management practices.

  10. Comparison between monitored and modeled pore water pressure and safety factor in a slope susceptible to shallow landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordoni, Massimiliano; Meisina, Claudia; Zizioli, Davide; Valentino, Roberto; Bittelli, Marco; Chersich, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    Shallow landslides can be defined as slope movements affecting superficial deposits of small thicknesses which are usually triggered due to extreme rainfall events, also very concentrated in time. Shallow landslides are hazardous phenomena: in particular, if they happen close to urbanized areas they could cause significant damages to cultivations, structures, infrastructures and, sometimes, human losses. The triggering mechanism of rainfall-induced shallow landslides is strictly linked with the hydrological and mechanical responses of usually unsaturated soils to rainfall events. For this reason, it is fundamental knowing the intrinsic hydro-mechanical properties of the soils in order to assess both susceptibility and hazard of shallow landslide and to develop early-warning systems at large scale. The hydrological data collected by a 20 months monitoring on a slope susceptible to shallow landslides in an area of the North -Eastern Oltrepo Pavese (Northern Apennines, Italy) were used to identify the hydrological behaviors of the investigated soils towards rainfall events. Field conditions under different rainfall trends have also been modeled by using both hydrological and physically-based stability models for the evaluation of the slope safety factor . The main objectives of this research are: (a) to compare the field measured pore water pressures at different depths with results of hydrological models, in order to evaluate the efficiency of the tested models and to determine how precipitations affect pore pressure development; (b) to compare the time trends of the safety factor that have been obtained by applying different stability models; (c) to evaluate, through a sensitivity analysis, the effects of soil hydrological properties on modeling pore water pressure and safety factor. The test site slope where field measurements were acquired is representative of other sites in Northern Apennines affected by shallow landslides and is characterized by medium

  11. Nuclear Criticality Safety Application Guide: Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES) is committed to performing and documenting safety analyses for facilities it manages for the Department of Energy (DOE). Safety analyses are performed to identify hazards and potential accidents; to analyze the adequacy of measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate hazards; and to evaluate potential accidents and determine associated risks. Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) are prepared to document the safety analysis to ensure facilities can be operated safely and in accordance with regulations. Many of the facilities requiring a SAR process fissionable material creating the potential for a nuclear criticality accident. MMES has long had a nuclear criticality safety program that provides the technical support to fissionable material operations to ensure the safe processing and storage of fissionable materials. The guiding philosophy of the program has always been the application of the double-contingency principle, which states: {open_quotes}process designs shall incorporate sufficient factors of safety to require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions before a criticality accident is possible.{close_quotes} At Energy Systems analyses have generally been maintained to document that no single normal or abnormal operating conditions that could reasonably be expected to occur can cause a nuclear criticality accident. This application guide provides a summary description of the MMES Nuclear Criticality Safety Program and the MMES Criticality Accident Alarm System requirements for inclusion in facility SARs. The guide also suggests a way to incorporate the analyses conducted pursuant to the double-contingency principle into the SAR. The prime objective is to minimize duplicative effort between the NCSA process and the SAR process and yet adequately describe the methodology utilized to prevent a nuclear criticality accident.

  12. A team training program using human factors to enhance patient safety.

    PubMed

    Marshall, David A; Manus, Danae A

    2007-12-01

    Beginning in 2005, the aorn foundation and Safer Healthcare implemented a human factors program based on Crew Resource Management training in five diverse surgical facilities across the United States. Highly interactive, customized training sessions were designed to help clinicians standardize communication, enhance teamwork, implement preprocedure briefings and postprocedure debriefings, maintain situational awareness, and recognize red flags in the workplace. Pretraining and post-training surveys were used to determine the effectiveness of the program. Brief overviews from the participating facilities detail specific issues encountered in each setting.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING GUIDANCE FOR SAFETY EVALUATIONS OF ADVANCED REACTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    O'HARA, J.; PERSENSKY, J.; SZABO, A.

    2006-10-01

    Advanced reactors are expected to be based on a concept of operations that is different from what is currently used in today's reactors. Therefore, regulatory staff may need new tools, developed from the best available technical bases, to support licensing evaluations. The areas in which new review guidance may be needed and the efforts underway to address the needs will be discussed. Our preliminary results focus on some of the technical issues to be addressed in three areas for which new guidance may be developed: automation and control, operations under degraded conditions, and new human factors engineering methods and tools.

  14. Safety assessment of boron by application of new uncertainty factors and their subdivision.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Ryuichi; Hirata-Koizumi, Mutsuko; Dourson, Michael L; Parker, Ann; Ono, Atsushi; Hirose, Akihiko

    2013-02-01

    The available toxicity information for boron was reevaluated and four appropriate toxicity studies were selected in order to derive a tolerable daily intake (TDI) using newly proposed uncertainty factors (UFs) presented in Hasegawa et al. (2010). No observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) of 17.5 and 8.8 mgB/kg/day for the critical effect of testicular toxicity were found in 2-year rat and dog feeding studies. Also, the 95% lower confidence limit of the benchmark doses for 5% reduction of fetal body weight (BMDL(05)) was calculated as 44.9 and 10.3 mgB/kg/day in mouse and rat developmental toxicity studies, respectively. Measured values available for differences in boron clearance between rats and humans and variability in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in pregnant women were used to derive chemical specific UFs. For the remaining uncertainty, newly proposed default UFs, which were derived from the latest applicable information with a probabilistic approach, and their subdivided factors for toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic variability were applied. Finally, overall UFs were calculated as 68 for rat testicular toxicity, 40 for dog testicular toxicity, 247 for mouse developmental toxicity and 78 for rat developmental toxicity. It is concluded that 0.13 mgB/kg/day is the most appropriate TDI for boron, based on rat developmental toxicity.

  15. Estimation Of TMDLs And Margin Of Safety Under Conditions Of Uncertainty

    EPA Science Inventory

    In TMDL development, an adequate margin of safety (MOS) is required in the calculation process to provide a cushion needed because of uncertainties in the data and analysis. Current practices, however, rarely factor analysis' uncertainty in TMDL development and the MOS is largel...

  16. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  17. Insulin-like growth factor-I (lGF-l): safety and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Laron, Zvi

    2004-11-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a peptide synthesized mainly in the liver by stimulation by pituitary growth hormone (GH). It circulates almost entirely bound to its binding proteins. It is the anabolic effector hormone of GH. It is the only treatment in states of GH resistance such as Laron syndrome and blocking antibodies to human GH. As it suppresses insulin and GH secretion it has been used in states of insulin resistance including Type II diabetes mellitus. IGF-I is administered by once or twice daily injections. Adverse effects are mostly caused by overdosage. The usual daily dose in children ranges from 100-200 microg/kg.

  18. Safety of repeated transplantations of neurotrophic factors-secreting human mesenchymal stromal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Therapies based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been shown to have potential benefit in several clinical studies. We have shown that, using a medium-based approach, MSC can be induced to secrete elevated levels of neurotropic factors, which have been shown to have protective effects in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. These cells, designated MSC-NTF cells (Neurotrophic factor-secreting MSC, also known as NurOwn™) derived from the patient's own bone marrow, have been recently used for Phase I/II and Phase IIa clinical studies in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). In these studies, ALS patients were subjected to a single administration of autologous MSC-NTF cells. The data from these studies indicate that the single administration of MSC-NTF cells is safe and well tolerated. In a recently published case report, it was shown that repeated MSC-NTF injections in an ALS patient treated on a compassionate basis were safe and well tolerated [Muscle Nerve 49:455-457, 2014]. Methods In the current study we studied the toxicity and tolerability of three consecutive intramuscular injections (IM) of cryopreserved human MSC-NTF cells in C57BL/B6 mice to investigate the effect of repeated administration of these cells. Results Monitoring of clinical signs and immune reactions showed that repeated injections of the cells did not lead to any serious adverse events. Pathology, histology and blood biochemistry parameters tested were found to be within normal ranges with no sign of tumor formation. Conclusions Based on these results we conclude that repeated injections of human MSC-NTF are well tolerated in mice. The results of this study suggest that if the outcomes of additional clinical studies point to the need for repeated treatments, such option can be considered safe. PMID:25097724

  19. Persistence of unsafe practice in everyday work: an exploration of organizational and psychological factors constraining safety in the operating room.

    PubMed

    Espin, S; Lingard, L; Baker, G R; Regehr, G

    2006-06-01

    This paper explores the factors that influence the persistence of unsafe practice in an interprofessional team setting in health care, towards the development of a descriptive theoretical model for analyzing problematic practice routines. Using data collected during a mixed method interview study of 28 members of an operating room team, participants' approaches to unsafe practice were analyzed using the following three theoretical models from organizational and cognitive psychology: Reason's theory of "vulnerable system syndrome", Tucker and Edmondson's concept of first and second order problem solving, and Amalberti's model of practice migration. These three theoretical approaches provide a critical insight into key trends in the interview data, including team members' definition of error as the breaching of standards of practice, nurses' sense of scope of practice as a constraint on their reporting behaviours, and participants' reports of the forces influencing tacit agreements to work around safety regulations. However, the relational factors underlying unsafe practice routines are poorly accounted for in these theoretical approaches. Incorporating an additional theoretical construct such as "relational coordination" to account for the emotional human features of team practice would provide a more comprehensive theoretical approach for use in exploring unsafe practice routines and the forces that sustain them in healthcare team settings.

  20. Regulatory requirements for providing adequate veterinary care to research animals.

    PubMed

    Pinson, David M

    2013-09-01

    Provision of adequate veterinary care is a required component of animal care and use programs in the United States. Program participants other than veterinarians, including non-medically trained research personnel and technicians, also provide veterinary care to animals, and administrators are responsible for assuring compliance with federal mandates regarding adequate veterinary care. All program participants therefore should understand the regulatory requirements for providing such care. The author provides a training primer on the US regulatory requirements for the provision of veterinary care to research animals. Understanding the legal basis and conditions of a program of veterinary care will help program participants to meet the requirements advanced in the laws and policies.

  1. A systematic review of human factors and ergonomics (HFE)-based healthcare system redesign for quality of care and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Xie, Anping; Carayon, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare systems need to be redesigned to provide care that is safe, effective and efficient, and meets the multiple needs of patients. This systematic review examines how human factors and ergonomics (HFE) is applied to redesign healthcare work systems and processes and improve quality and safety of care. We identified 12 projects representing 23 studies and addressing different physical, cognitive and organisational HFE issues in a variety of healthcare systems and care settings. Some evidence exists for the effectiveness of HFE-based healthcare system redesign in improving process and outcome measures of quality and safety of care. We assessed risk of bias in 16 studies reporting the impact of HFE-based healthcare system redesign and found varying quality across studies. Future research should further assess the impact of HFE on quality and safety of care, and clearly define the mechanisms by which HFE-based system redesign can improve quality and safety of care.

  2. Factors that contribute to the botulinal safety of reduced-fat and fat-free process chesse products.

    PubMed

    Glass, Kathleen A; Johnson, Eric A

    2004-08-01

    The effects of fat, type of natural cheese, and adjunct process cheese ingredients were evaluated to determine factors that contribute to the botulinal safety of reduced-fat (RF) process cheese products stored at 30 degrees C. In the first set of experiments, pasteurized process cheese products (PPCPs) were formulated using full-fat (FF) Cheddar, 30% RF Cheddar, or skim milk (SM) cheese as cheese-base types and were standardized to 59% moisture, pH 5.75, 2.8 or 3.2% total salts, and 15 to 19% fat. Subsequent trials evaluated the effect of fat levels and adjunct ingredients in PPCPs made with SM, RF, and FF cheese (final fat levels, less than 1, 13, and 24%, respectively). When fat levels of PPCPs were comparable (15.1, 19.1, and 16.2 for product manufactured with SC, RE and FF cheese, respectively), botulinal toxin production was delayed for up to 2 days in PPCPs formulated with SM compared with RF or FF cheese; however, the effect was not statistically significant. When fat levels were reduced to less than 1% in SM PPCPs, toxin production was delayed 2 weeks in products made with SM compared with RF or FF cheese manufactured with 13 or 24% fat, respectively. The antibotulinal effect of adjunct ingredients varied among the products manufactured with different fat levels. Sodium lactate significantly delayed toxin production (P < 0.05) for all fat levels tested, whereas beta-glucan fat replacer did not delay toxin production. An enzyme-modified cheese used as a flavor enhancer significantly delayed toxin production (P < 0.05) in SM (less than 1% fat) products but had little to no inhibitory effect in RF (13% fat) and FF (24% fat) cheese products. Similarly, monolaurin increased the time to detectable toxin in SM products but was ineffective in RF or FF cheese products. These results verify that RF PPCPs exhibit greater safety than FF products and that safety may be enhanced by using certain adjunct ingredients as antimicrobials.

  3. Factors Influencing Learning Satisfaction of Migrant Workers in Korea with E-learning-Based Occupational Safety and Health Education

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Joo; Lee, Dongjoo

    2015-01-01

    Background E-learning-based programs have recently been introduced to the occupational safety and health (OSH) education for migrant workers in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the factors related to migrant workers' backgrounds and the instructional design affect the migrant workers' satisfaction with e-learning-based OSH education. Methods The data were collected from the surveys of 300 migrant workers who had participated in an OSH education program. Independent sample t test and one-way analysis of variance were conducted to examine differences in the degree of learning satisfaction using background variables. In addition, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were conducted to examine relationships between the instructional design variables and the degree of learning satisfaction. Results There was no significant difference in the degree of learning satisfaction by gender, age, level of education, number of employees, or type of occupation, except for nationality. Among the instructional design variables, “learning content” (β = 0.344, p < 0.001) affected the degree of learning satisfaction most significantly, followed by “motivation to learn” (β = 0.293, p < 0.001), “interactions with learners and instructors” (β = 0.149, p < 0.01), and “previous experience related to e-learning” (β = 0.095, p < 0.05). “Learning environment” had no significant influence on the degree of learning satisfaction. Conclusion E-learning-based OSH education for migrant workers may be an effective way to increase their safety knowledge and behavior if the accuracy, credibility, and novelty of learning content; strategies to promote learners' motivation to learn; and interactions with learners and instructors are systematically applied during the development and implementation of e-learning programs. PMID:26929830

  4. Assessment of region, farming system, irrigation source and sampling time as food safety risk factors for tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Pagadala, Sivaranjani; Marine, Sasha C; Micallef, Shirley A; Wang, Fei; Pahl, Donna M; Melendez, Meredith V; Kline, Wesley L; Oni, Ruth A; Walsh, Christopher S; Everts, Kathryne L; Buchanan, Robert L

    2015-03-02

    In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, small- and medium-sized farmers use varied farm management methods and water sources to produce tomatoes. It is unclear whether these practices affect the food safety risk for tomatoes. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence, and assess risk factors for Salmonella enterica, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and bacterial indicators in pre-harvest tomatoes and their production areas. A total of 24 organic and conventional, small- to medium-sized farms were sampled for six weeks in Maryland (MD), Delaware (DE) and New Jersey (NJ) between July and September 2012, and analyzed for indicator bacteria, Salmonella and STEC. A total of 422 samples--tomato fruit, irrigation water, compost, field soil and pond sediment samples--were collected, 259 of which were tomato samples. A low level of Salmonella-specific invA and Shiga toxin genes (stx1 or stx2) were detected, but no Salmonella or STEC isolates were recovered. Of the 422 samples analyzed, 9.5% were positive for generic E. coli, found in 5.4% (n=259) of tomato fruits, 22.5% (n=102) of irrigation water, 8.9% (n=45) of soil, 3/9 of pond sediment and 0/7 of compost samples. For tomato fruit, farming system (organic versus conventional) was not a significant factor for levels of indicator bacteria. However, the total number of organic tomato samples positive for generic E. coli (1.6%; 2/129) was significantly lower than for conventional tomatoes (6.9% (9/130); (χ(2) (1)=4.60, p=0.032)). Region was a significant factor for levels of Total Coliforms (TC) (p=0.046), although differences were marginal, with western MD having the highest TC counts (2.6 log CFU/g) and NJ having the lowest (2.0 log CFU/g). Tomatoes touching the ground or plastic mulch harbored significantly higher levels of TC compared to vine tomatoes, signaling a potential risk factor. Source of irrigation water was a significant factor for all indicator bacteria (p<0.0001), and

  5. Nursing Student Experiences Regarding Safe Use of Electronic Health Records: A Pilot Study of the Safety and Assurance Factors for EHR Resilience Guides.

    PubMed

    Whitt, Karen J; Eden, Lacey; Merrill, Katreena Collette; Hughes, Mckenna

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has linked improper electronic health record configuration and use with adverse patient events. In response to this problem, the US Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology developed the Safety and Assurance Factors for EHR Resilience guides to evaluate electronic health records for optimal use and safety features. During the course of their education, nursing students are exposed to a variety of clinical practice settings and electronic health records. This descriptive study evaluated 108 undergraduate and 51 graduate nursing students' ratings of electronic health record features and safe practices, as well as what they learned from utilizing the computerized provider order entry and clinician communication Safety and Assurance Factors for EHR Resilience guide checklists. More than 80% of the undergraduate and 70% of the graduate students reported that they experienced user problems with electronic health records in the past. More than 50% of the students felt that electronic health records contribute to adverse patient outcomes. Students reported that many of the features assessed were not fully implemented in their electronic health record. These findings highlight areas where electronic health records can be improved to optimize patient safety. The majority of students reported that utilizing the Safety and Assurance Factors for EHR Resilience guides increased their understanding of electronic health record features.

  6. Safety management in multiemployer worksites in the manufacturing industry: opinions on co-operation and problems encountered.

    PubMed

    Nenonen, Sanna; Vasara, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Co-operation between different parties and effective safety management play an important role in ensuring safety in multiemployer worksites. This article reviews safety co-operation and factors complicating safety management in Finnish multiemployer manufacturing worksites. The paper focuses on the service providers' opinions; however, a comparison of the customers' views is also presented. The results show that safety-related co-operation between providers and customers is generally considered as successful but strongly dependent on the partner. Safety co-operation is provided through, e.g., training, orientation and risk analysis. Problems encountered include ensuring adequate communication, identifying hazards, co-ordinating work tasks and determining responsibilities. The providers and the customers encounter similar safety management problems. The results presented in this article can help companies to focus their efforts on the most problematic points of safety management and to avoid common pitfalls.

  7. Evaluation of Aryoseven Safety (Recombinant Activated Factor VII) in Patients with Bleeding Disorders (An Observational Post-Marketing Surveillance Study)

    PubMed Central

    Toogeh, Gholamreza; Abolghasemi, Hassan; Eshghi, Peyman; Managhchi, Mohammadreza; Shaverdi-niasari, Mohammadreza; Karimi, Katayoon; Roostaei, Samin; Emran, Neda; Abdollahi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recombinant activated factor VII induces hemostasis in patients with coagulopathy disorders. AryoSeven™ as a safe Iranian Recombinant activated factor VII has been available on our market. This study was performed to establish the safety of AryoSeven on patients with coagulopathy disorder. Methods: This single-center, descriptive, cross sectional study was carried out in Thrombus and Homeostasis Research Center ValiAsr Hospital during 2013-2014. Fifty one patients with bleeding disorders who received at least one dose of Aryoseven were enrolled. Patients’ demographic data and adverse effect of drug and reaction related to Aryoseven or previous usage of Recombinant activated FVII were recorded in questionnaires. Finally data were analyzed to compare side effects of Aryoseven and other Recombinant activated FVII brands. Results: Aryoseven was prescribed for 51 Patients. Of all participants with mean age 57.18+21.38 yr, 31 cases were male and 26 subjects had past history of recombinant activated FVII usage. Glanzman was the most frequent disorder followed by congenital FVII deficiency, hemophilia with inhibitors, factor 5 deficiency, acquired hemophilia, hemophilia A with inhibitor, and hemophilia A or B with inhibitor. The majority of bleeding episodes had occurred in joints. Three patients (5.9%) complained about adverse effects of Aryoseven vs. 11.5 % about adverse effects of other brands. However this difference was not significant, statistically. Conclusion: Based on monitor patients closely for any adverse events, we concluded that Aryoseven administration under careful weighing of benefit versus potential harm may comparable with other counterpart drugs. PMID:27799968

  8. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  9. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  10. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  11. Is the Stock of VET Skills Adequate? Assessment Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandy, Richard; Freeland, Brett

    In Australia and elsewhere, four approaches have been used to determine whether stocks of vocational education and training (VET) skills are adequate to meet industry needs. The four methods are as follows: (1) the manpower requirements approach; (2) the international, national, and industry comparisons approach; (3) the labor market analysis…

  12. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  13. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  14. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  15. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  16. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  17. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  18. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation…

  19. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  20. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  1. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (11/1/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadbent, Director, Air Division to Nancy Wrona and James Bourney informing them of the adequacy of Revised MAG 1999 Serious Area Carbon Monoxide Plan and that the MAG CO Plan is adequate for Maricopa County.

  2. Attitudes towards the surgical safety checklist and factors associated with its use: A global survey of frontline medical professionals☆

    PubMed Central

    Vohra, Ravinder S.; Cowley, Jonathan B.; Bhasin, Neeraj; Barakat, Hashem M.; Gough, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC) has been shown to reduce perioperative errors and complications and its implementation is recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO). However, it is unknown how widely this intervention is used. We investigated attitudes and factors associated with use of WHO SSC in frontline medical professionals across the globe using a survey distributed through social networks. Methods A survey of usage and opinions regarding the SSC was posted on the Facebook and Twitter pages of a not-for-profit surgical news website for one month (March 2013). Respondents were grouped into four groups based on their country's Gross National Income: high, upper middle, lower middle and low income. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate how different factors were associated with the use of the SSC. Results 6269 medical professionals from 69 countries responded to the survey: most respondents were from lower middle (47.4%) countries, followed by: high (35.0%), upper middle (14.6%), and low (3.0%) income countries. In total, 57.5% reported that they used the WHO SSC perioperatively. Fewer respondents used the WHO SSC in upper middle, lower middle and low income countries (LMICs) compared to high income countries (43.5% vs. 83.5%, p < 0.001). Female (61.3% vs. 56.4% males, p = 0.001), consultant surgeons (59.6% vs. 53.2% interns, p < 0.001) and working in university hospitals (61.4% vs. 53.7% non-university hospitals, p < 0.001) were more likely to use the SSC. Believing the SSC was useful, did not work or caused delays was independently associated with the respondents reported use of the SSC (OR 1.22 95% CI 1.07–1.39; OR 0.47 95% CI 0.36–0.60; OR 0.64 95% CI 0.53–0.77, respectively). Conclusion This study suggests the use of the WHO SSC is variable across countries, especially in LMICs where it has the most potential to improve patient safety. Critical appraisal of the documented benefits of the WHO

  3. Update on the Serum Biomarkers and Genetic Factors Associated with Safety and Efficacy of rt-PA Treatment in Acute Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nafría, C.; Fernández-Cadenas, I.; Mendioroz, M.; Domingues-Montanari, S.; Hernández-Guillamón, M.; Fernández-Morales, J.; del Río-Espínola, A.; Giralt, D.; Deu, L.; Delgado, P.; Rosell, A.; Montaner, J.

    2011-01-01

    An accurate understanding of the mechanisms underlying an individual's response to rt-PA treatment is critical to improve stroke patients' management. We thus reviewed the literature in order to identify biochemical and genetic factors that have been associated with safety and efficacy of rt-PA administration after stroke. PMID:21772966

  4. A systematic review of Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE)-based healthcare system redesign for quality of care and patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Anping; Carayon, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare systems need to be redesigned to provide care that is safe, effective and efficient, and meets the multiple needs of patients. This systematic review examines how Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) is applied to redesign healthcare work systems and processes and improve quality and safety of care. We identified twelve projects representing 23 studies and addressing different physical, cognitive and organizational HFE issues in a variety of healthcare systems and care settings. Some evidence exists for the effectiveness of HFE-based healthcare system redesign in improving process and outcome measures of quality and safety of care. We assessed risk of bias in 16 studies reporting the impact of HFE-based healthcare system redesign and found varying quality across studies. Future research should further assess the impact of HFE on quality and safety of care, and clearly define the mechanisms by which HFE-based system redesign can improve quality and safety of care. Practitioner Summary Existing evidence shows that HFE-based healthcare system redesign has the potential to improve quality of care and patient safety. Healthcare organizations need to recognize the importance of HFE-based healthcare system redesign to quality of care and patient safety, and invest resources to integrate HFE in healthcare improvement activities. PMID:25323570

  5. Study on the creation and destruction of transport barriers via the effective safety factors for energetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Shun; Leoncini, Xavier; Dif-Pradalier, Guilhem; Garbet, Xavier

    2016-12-01

    Charged particles with low kinetic energy move along the magnetic field lines, but so do not the energetic particles. We investigate the topological structure changes in the phase space of energetic particles with respect to the magnetic one. For this study, cylindrical magnetic fields with non-monotonic safety factors that induce the magnetic internal transport barrier are considered. We show that the topological structure of the magnetic field line and of the particle trajectories can be quite different. We explain this difference using the concept of an effective particle q-profile. Using this notion, we can investigate the location and existence of resonances for particle orbits that are different from the magnetic ones. These are examined both numerically by integrating an equation of motion and theoretically by the use of Alfvén's guiding center theory and by the use of an effective reduced Hamiltonian for the integrable unperturbed system. It is clarified that, for the energetic particles, the grad B drift effect shifts the resonances and the drift induced by curvature of the magnetic field line leads to the vanishing of the resonances. As a result, we give two different mechanisms that lead to the creation of transport barriers for energetic particles in the region where the magnetic field line is chaotic.

  6. The safety and effect of topically applied recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor on the healing of chronic pressure sores.

    PubMed Central

    Robson, M C; Phillips, L G; Lawrence, W T; Bishop, J B; Youngerman, J S; Hayward, P G; Broemeling, L D; Heggers, J P

    1992-01-01

    The first randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled human trials of recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) for pressure sore treatment were performed. Three different concentrations of bFGF in five dosing schedules were tested for safety using hematology, serum chemistries, urinalysis, absorption, antibody formation, and signs of toxicity. Efficacy was evaluated by wound volumes, histology, and photography. No toxicity, significant serum absorption, or antibody formation occurred. In six of eight subgroups, there was a trend toward efficacy with bFGF treatment. When all subgroups were combined, comparison of the slopes of the regression curves of volume decrease over initial pressure sore volume demonstrated a greater healing effect for the bFGF-treated patients (p < 0.05). Histologically, bFGF-treated wound sections demonstrated increased fibroblasts and capillaries. More patients treated with bFGF achieved > 70% wound closure (p < 0.05). Blinded observers were able to distinguish differences in visual wound improvement between bFGF and placebo groups. These data suggest that bFGF may be effective in the treatment of chronic wounds. PMID:1417189

  7. Dissipation Pattern, Processing Factors, and Safety Evaluation for Dimethoate and Its Metabolite (Omethoate) in Tea (Camellia Sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Rong; Chen, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Ming-Lu; Wang, Qing-Hua; Jiang, Ying; Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Residue levels of dimethoate and its oxon metabolite (omethoate) during tea planting, manufacturing, and brewing were investigated using a modified QuEChERS sample preparation and gas chromatography. Dissipation of dimethoate and its metabolite in tea plantation followed the first-order kinetic with a half-life of 1.08–1.27 d. Tea manufacturing has positive effects on dimethoate dissipation. Processing factors of dimethoate are in the range of 2.11–2.41 and 1.41–1.70 during green tea and black tea manufacturing, respectively. Omethoate underwent generation as well as dissipation during tea manufacturing. Sum of dimethoate and omethoate led to a large portion of 80.5–84.9% transferring into tea infusion. Results of safety evaluation indicated that omethoate could bring higher human health risk than dimethoate due to its higher hazard quotient by drinking tea. These results would provide information for the establishment of maximum residue limit and instruction for the application of dimethoate formulation on tea crop. PMID:26406463

  8. Dissipation Pattern, Processing Factors, and Safety Evaluation for Dimethoate and Its Metabolite (Omethoate) in Tea (Camellia Sinensis).

    PubMed

    Pan, Rong; Chen, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Ming-Lu; Wang, Qing-Hua; Jiang, Ying; Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Residue levels of dimethoate and its oxon metabolite (omethoate) during tea planting, manufacturing, and brewing were investigated using a modified QuEChERS sample preparation and gas chromatography. Dissipation of dimethoate and its metabolite in tea plantation followed the first-order kinetic with a half-life of 1.08-1.27 d. Tea manufacturing has positive effects on dimethoate dissipation. Processing factors of dimethoate are in the range of 2.11-2.41 and 1.41-1.70 during green tea and black tea manufacturing, respectively. Omethoate underwent generation as well as dissipation during tea manufacturing. Sum of dimethoate and omethoate led to a large portion of 80.5-84.9% transferring into tea infusion. Results of safety evaluation indicated that omethoate could bring higher human health risk than dimethoate due to its higher hazard quotient by drinking tea. These results would provide information for the establishment of maximum residue limit and instruction for the application of dimethoate formulation on tea crop.

  9. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  10. Army General Fund Adjustments Not Adequately Documented or Supported

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-26

    statements were unreliable and lacked an adequate audit trail. Furthermore, DoD and Army managers could not rely on the data in their accounting...risk that AGF financial statements will be materially misstated and the Army will not achieve audit readiness by the congressionally mandated...and $6.5 trillion in yearend adjustments made to Army General Fund data during FY 2015 financial statement compilation. We conducted this audit in

  11. Pharmacokinetics, thrombogenicity and safety of a double viral inactivated factor IX concentrate compared with a prothrombin complex concentrate.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Sáez, A; Hong, A; Arguello, A; Echenagucia, M; Boadas, A; Fabbrizzi, F; Minichilli, F; Bosch, N B

    2005-11-01

    Therapeutic options for developing countries have to assure an optimum safety and efficacy and low-cost antihaemophilic concentrates. A single blind randomized crossover study was carried out in 12 previously treated HB patients, comparing the pharmacokinetics (PK), thrombogenicity (TG) and safety of two plasma-derived double-inactivated (solvent/detergent heating at 100 degrees C, 30 min) factor IX (FIX) concentrates, UMAN COMPLEX DI (product A) [plasma-derived prothrombin concentrates (PCC)] and a high purity FIX concentrate AIMAFIX DI (product B, HPFIX). In a non-bleeding state, they received one single intravenous dose 50 IU FIX kg(-1) of PCC or HPFIX, and after a wash-out period of 14 days, the other product. We evaluated acute tolerance and determined PK parameters based on FIX levels measured over a 50 h postinfusion period. We studied fibrinogen, platelets, antithrombin, F1 + 2, TAT, D-dimer, over a 360 min postinfusion period. Ten cases remained in on-demand treatment for 6 months, five with PCC and five with HPFIX. PK and anti-FIX inhibitors were repeated at 3 and 6 months. No inhibitors were detected. PK values (PCC vs. HPFIX): clearence (CL; mL h(-1) kg(-1)) 5.2 +/- 1.4 vs. 6.5 +/- 1.4; the volume of distribution at steady state (mL kg(-1)) 154.9 +/- 54.9 vs. 197.5 +/- 72.5; mean residence time (h) 29.7 +/- 8.1 vs. 30.7 +/- 9.2; T(1/2) (h) 22.3 +/- 7 vs. 23.5 +/- 12.3; incremental recovery (IR; U dL(-1) U(-1) kg(-1)) 0.96 +/- 0.17 vs. 0.76 +/- 0.13. HPFIX showed significant lower IR and higher CL. There were no differences in PK at 3 and 6 months. In TG, significant increments in TAT and F1 + 2 at 30 min and 6 h were found with PCC. Product B PK results agrees with reported results for other HPFIX preparations. Use of PCC product A has to consider its thrombogenic activity.

  12. 1981 NRC/BNL/IEEE standards workshop on human factors and nuclear safety. The man-machine interface and human reliability: an assessment and projection

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.E.; Fragola, J.R.; Luckas, W.J. Jr.

    1981-09-01

    The role of the human in the safety of nuclear power plant operations was addressed in a meeting held in Myrtle Beach, SC in August 1981. Presentation were made on Control Room reviews, safety parameter display systems, the integration of human factors in the entire design process, and the use of automated control features. A need was shown for the development of a taxonomy or model to structure future data gathering and the need for models and data to address the issue of cognitive behavior. The primary effect of this behavior on risk was identified. Discussion sessions on the human impact on reliability, and control room design and evaluation were included. (ACR)

  13. Risk Factors in the Pediatric Ward Recognized by Students Before Pediatric Nursing Practice -Basic Data for Medical Safety Education Based on Student's Learning Readiness-.

    PubMed

    Hirowatari, Kanako; Nakamura, Emi

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to extract the risk factors recognized by students before pediatric nursing practice in order to conduct medical safety education based on student's learning readiness. Third-year nursing students of A nursing college used the P-mSHELL model to find the risk factors in a simulated pediatric hospital room, and the researchers analyzed the contents. The students recognized four categories of risk factors: "burden on the family", "characteristics of the infant", "characteristics of children with disease", and "the family's cognition and understanding". There were three categories of risk factors related to "the environment": "environment that can cause a dangerous action", "unsafe environment", and "sickroom as a living space". There were four categories of risk factors related to "the student": "students' own physical/mental condition", "anxiety caused by pediatric nursing practice", "learning process in nursing practice" and "students' understanding of pediatric nursing". The students recognized that there were various risk factors in the child, the family, and the environment, and, by the P-mSHELL model, they recognized that they themselves could become a risk factor. Based on the risk factors that students extracted, teachers should think about what kind of preparation is necessary for students in pediatric nursing practice, and it is important to conduct medical safety education.

  14. HFE safety reviews of advanced nuclear power plant control rooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, John

    1994-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACR's) will utilize human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role and means of interacting with the system. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of HSI's to ensure that they are designed to good HFE principles and support performance and reliability in order to protect public health and safety. However, the only available NRC guidance was developed more than ten years ago, and does not adequately address the human performance issues and technology changes associated with ACR's. Accordingly, a new approach to ACR safety reviews was developed based upon the concept of 'convergent validity'. This approach to ACR safety reviews is described.

  15. 49 CFR 385.107 - The safety audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES... safety management controls are specified in Appendix A to this part. (b) If the FMCSA determines, based on the safety audit, that the Mexico-domiciled carrier has adequate basic safety management...

  16. Genetic modification of preimplantation embryos: toward adequate human research policies.

    PubMed

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects.

  17. Elements for adequate informed consent in the surgical context.

    PubMed

    Abaunza, Hernando; Romero, Klaus

    2014-07-01

    Given a history of atrocities and violations of ethical principles, several documents and regulations have been issued by a wide variety of organizations. They aim at ensuring that health care and clinical research adhere to defined ethical principles. A fundamental component was devised to ensure that the individual has been provided the necessary information to make an informed decision regarding health care or participation in clinical research. This article summarizes the history and regulations for informed consent and discusses suggested components for adequate consent forms for daily clinical practice in surgery as well as clinical research.

  18. Safety and Efficacy of Growth Factor Concentrate in the Treatment of Nasolabial Fold Correction: Split Face Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sevilla, Gema P; Dhurat, Rachita S; Shetty, Geetanjali; Kadam, Prashant P; Totey, Satish M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Growth factors have long been known as an effective treatment for facial wrinkles. We developed growth factor concentrate (GFC) from the platelets and evaluated their clinical outcome in nasolabial folds. Aims and Objectives: We evaluated safety and efficacy of autologous GFC on patients with nasolabial folds. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted on 80 patients for nasolabial folds in two groups. Group I (20) received bilateral single injection of GFC and group II (60) received single injection of GFC on the right side of the face and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the left side of the face. Severity of nasolabial folds was determined at the baseline and 3 months of follow-up visits based on wrinkle severity rating scale (WSRS), Global aesthetic improvement scale (GAIS) and atlas photographic grading at rest and at full smile. Objective clinical assessment and subjective satisfaction scale was determined for overall improvement at the end of the study. Results: In group I, 2 subjects showed improvement after GFC treatment with the score of 3.1–4 (76–100%), 3 subjects with the score of 2.1–3 (51–75%), 14 with the score of 1.1–2 (26–50%) and 1 subject with the score of 0–1 (<25%) at the end of study. In group II, 51 subjects were evaluated at the end of study where, 34 (66%) showed superior improvements after GFC, 6 (11%) patients showed similar improvement on both side of the face, 10 (19.6%) patients showed no noticeable improvement on the either side of the face and only 1 patient (1.96%) showed superior improvement for PRP at the end of the study. Overall improvement score analysis showed that GFC was significantly superior to PRP (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Present study is a strong evidence to support the use of GFC for nasolabial folds. The results showed that the single application of GFC is highly effective and safe. PMID:26538718

  19. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  20. Protection and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1964

    1964-01-01

    Several aspects of school safety and protection are presented for school administrators and architects. Among those topics discussed are--(1) life safety, (2) vandalism controlled through proper design, (3) personal protective devices, and (4) fire alarm systems. Another critical factor in providing a complete school safety program is proper…

  1. European Society of Biomechanics S.M. Perren Award 2014: Safety factor of the proximal femur during gait: a population-based finite element study.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Fulvia; Palmadori, Ilaria; Taylor, William R; Heller, Markus O; Bordini, Barbara; Toni, Aldo; Schileo, Enrico

    2014-11-07

    It has been suggested that the mechanical competence of the proximal femur is preserved with respect to physiological loading conditions rather than accidental overloading, but the consequences of this adaptation for fracture risk in the elderly remain unclear. The goal of the present study was to analyse the safety factor of the human femur in the two most frequent daily activities, level walking and stair climbing, and to understand the dependence, if any, of this safety factor on age, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and gender. To this aim, a finite element study was performed on 200 subjects (116 women and 84 men), spanning a large range of age (23-84 years) and vBMD levels (T-score from 0 to -3.59). For the first time, finite element models that included a subject-specific description of the anatomy and mineral density distribution of each bone were coupled with a personalisation of the loads acting on the proximal femur during movement, including the action of the muscles and their variability across the population. The results demonstrate that the human proximal femur is characterised by a high safety factor (on average five, never reaching fracture threshold), even in the presence of advanced age and low mineral content. These results corroborate the hypothesis that the relationship between loading and mechanical competence is generally preserved in the elderly population for the most frequent motor activities, walking and stair climbing. Interestingly, a decrease of the safety factor was observed with increasing lifespan and reduced mineral content in women but not in men.

  2. Food Safety Instruction Improves Knowledge and Behavior Risk and Protection Factors for Foodborne Illnesses in Pregnant Populations.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Patricia; Scharff, Robert; Baker, Susan; LeJeune, Jeffrey; Sofos, John; Medeiros, Lydia

    2017-02-21

    Objective This study compared knowledge and food-handling behavior after pathogen-specific (experimental treatment) versus basic food safety instruction (active control) presented during nutrition education classes for low-income English- and Spanish-language pregnant women. Methods Subjects (n = 550) were randomly assigned to treatment groups in two different locations in the United States. Food safety instruction was part of an 8-lesson curriculum. Food safety knowledge and behavior were measured pre/post intervention. Descriptive data were analyzed by Chi-Square or ANOVA; changes after intervention were analyzed by regression analysis. Results Knowledge improved after intervention in the pathogen-specific treatment group compared to active control, especially among Spanish-language women. Behavior change after intervention for the pathogen-specific treatment group improved for thermometer usage, refrigeration and consumption of foods at high risk for safety; however, all other improvements in behavior were accounted for by intervention regardless of treatment group. As expected, higher pre-instruction behavioral competency limited potential gain in behavior post-instruction due to a ceiling effect. This effect was more dominant among English-language women. Improvements were also linked to formal education completed, a partner at home, and other children in the home. Conclusions for Practice This study demonstrated that pathogen-specific food safety instruction leads to enhance knowledge and food handling behaviors that may improve the public health of pregnant women and their unborn children, especially among Spanish-language women. More importantly, food safety instruction, even at the most basic level, benefited pregnant women's food safety knowledge and food-handling behavior after intervention.

  3. HSE's safety assessment principles for criticality safety.

    PubMed

    Simister, D N; Finnerty, M D; Warburton, S J; Thomas, E A; Macphail, M R

    2008-06-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) published its revised Safety Assessment Principles for Nuclear Facilities (SAPs) in December 2006. The SAPs are primarily intended for use by HSE's inspectors when judging the adequacy of safety cases for nuclear facilities. The revised SAPs relate to all aspects of safety in nuclear facilities including the technical discipline of criticality safety. The purpose of this paper is to set out for the benefit of a wider audience some of the thinking behind the final published words and to provide an insight into the development of UK regulatory guidance. The paper notes that it is HSE's intention that the Safety Assessment Principles should be viewed as a reflection of good practice in the context of interpreting primary legislation such as the requirements under site licence conditions for arrangements for producing an adequate safety case and for producing a suitable and sufficient risk assessment under the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (SI1999/3232 www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si1999/uksi_19993232_en.pdf).

  4. The cerebellopontine angle: does the translabyrinthine approach give adequate access?

    PubMed

    Fagan, P A; Sheehy, J P; Chang, P; Doust, B D; Coakley, D; Atlas, M D

    1998-05-01

    A long-standing but unfounded criticism of the translabyrinthine approach is the misperception that this approach does not give adequate access to the cerebellopontine angle. Because of what is perceived as limited visualization and operating space within the cerebellopontine angle, some surgeons still believe that the translabyrinthine approach is inappropriate for large acoustic tumors. In this study, the surgical access to the cerebellopontine angle by virtue of the translabyrinthine approach is measured and analyzed. The parameters are compared with those measured for the retrosigmoid approach. This series objectively confirms that the translabyrinthine approach offers the neurotologic surgeon a shorter operative depth to the tumor, via a similar-sized craniotomy. This permits superior visualization by virtue of a wider angle of surgical access. Such access is achieved with the merit of minimal cerebellar retraction.

  5. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; P<0.01) and improved adequacy of received services (95.04% versus 83.8%; P=0.02). Conclusion The poor prenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  6. Safety system status monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Rideout, T.H.; Cowley, P.J.

    1984-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has studied the safety aspects of monitoring the preoperational status of safety systems in nuclear power plants. The goals of the study were to assess for the NRC the effectiveness of current monitoring systems and procedures, to develop near-term guidelines for reducing human errors associated with monitoring safety system status, and to recommend a regulatory position on this issue. A review of safety system status monitoring practices indicated that current systems and procedures do not adequately aid control room operators in monitoring safety system status. This is true even of some systems and procedures installed to meet existing regulatory guidelines (Regulatory Guide 1.47). In consequence, this report suggests acceptance criteria for meeting the functional requirements of an adequate system for monitoring safety system status. Also suggested are near-term guidelines that could reduce the likelihood of human errors in specific, high-priority status monitoring tasks. It is recommended that (1) Regulatory Guide 1.47 be revised to address these acceptance criteria, and (2) the revised Regulatory Guide 1.47 be applied to all plants, including those built since the issuance of the original Regulatory Guide.

  7. Ecological risk analysis as a key factor in environmental safety system development in the Arctic region of the Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolsunovskaya, Y. A.; Bolsunovskaya, L. M.

    2015-02-01

    Due to specific natural and climatic conditions combined with human intervention, the Arctic is regarded as a highly sensitive region to any environmental pressures. Arctic projects require continuous environmental monitoring. This poses for the government of the Russian Federation (RF) a tremendous task concerning the formation and implementation of sustainable nature management policy within the international framework. The current article examines the basic constraints to the effective ecological safety system implementation in the Arctic region of the RF. The ecological risks and their effects which influence the sustainable development of the region were analyzed. The model of complex environmental safety system was proposed.

  8. DETERMINATION OF THE APPROPRIATE FQPA SAFETY FACTOR(S) IN THE ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS PESTICIDE CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT: SUSCEPTIBILITY AND SENSITIVITY TO THE COMMON MECHANISM, ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (FQPA) directs EPA, in setting pesticide tolerances, to use an additional tenfold margin of safety to protect infants and children taking into account the potential for pre- and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the toxicology and ...

  9. Adapting Extension Food Safety Programming for Vegetable Growers to Accommodate Differences in Ethnicity, Farming Scale, and Other Individual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Terence R.; Kneen, Harold; Barrett, Eric; Kleinschmidt, Andy; Doohan, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Differences in vegetable production methods utilized by American growers create distinct challenges for Extension personnel providing food safety training to producer groups. A program employing computers and projectors will not be accepted by an Amish group that does not accept modern technology. We have developed an outreach program that covers…

  10. Safety-Related Improvisation in Led Outdoor Activities: An Exploratory Investigation into Its Occurrence and Influencing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Margaret J.; Salmon, Paul M.; Lenné, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic nature of led outdoor activities means that, despite activity providers' best efforts, activity leaders can be exposed to unanticipated situations for which no procedures exist. Improvisation, the spontaneous, real-time conception and execution of a novel response, has been identified as a potential means of maintaining safety in…

  11. Improvement of virus safety of a S/D-treated factor VIII concentrate by additional dry heat treatment at 100 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Dichtelmüller, H; Rudnick, D; Breuer, B; Kotitschke, R; Kloft, M; Darling, A; Watson, E; Flehmig, B; Lawson, S; Frösner, G

    1996-06-01

    In order to increase the virus safety of a solvent/detergent-treated Factor VIII concentrate in regard to non-lipid coated viruses and to respond to the continuous discussion about reports on hepatitis A transmission by Factor VIII preparations, we have investigated the effect of a terminal dry heat treatment (30 min 100 degrees C) on HAV and various other viruses. By this treatment Hepatitis A virus was inactivated below detectable level after a few minutes (> 5.3 log10). Other RNA viruses such as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (> 6.6 log10), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (> 6.6 log10) and vesicular stomatitis virus (> 5.8 log10) were also inactivated below detectable level. Pseudo rabies virus and reovirus Type 3 are inactivated by 5.7 and > 6.0 log10, respectively. SV40 and bovine parvo virus showed significant resistance to dry heat treatment. We conclude that the involvement of two strong virus inactivation steps, acting by different mechanisms, improves the virus safety of Factor VIII concentrates without destroying the Factor VIII activity. Moreover, the terminal 100 degrees C heat treatment for 30 min represents an effective measure to inactivate non-lipid enveloped viruses, in particular hepatitis A, which is resistant to solvent/detergent treatment.

  12. Systemic Crisis of Civilization: In Search for Adequate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khozin, Grigori

    In December 1972 a jumbo jet crashed in the Florida Everglades with the loss of 101 lives. The pilot, distracted by a minor malfunction, failed to note until too late the warning signal that - correctly - indicated an impending disaster. His sudden, astonished cry of Hey, what happening here? were his last words 1. Three decades after this tragic episode, as the Humankind approaches the threshold of the third Millennium, the problem of adequate reaction to warning signals of different nature and of distinguishing minor malfunctions in everyday life of society, in economy and technology as well as in evolution of biosphere from grave threats to the world community and the phenomenon of life on our planet remains crucial to human survival and the future of Civilization. Rational use of knowledge and technology available to the world community remains in this context the corner stone of discussions on the destiny of the intelligent life both on the planet Earth and in the Universe (the fact of intelligent life in the Universe is to be detected by the Humankind)…

  13. DARHT -- an adequate EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    In April 1996 the US District Court in Albuquerque ruled that the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), prepared by the Los Alamos Area Office, US Department of Energy (DOE), was adequate. The DARHT EIS had been prepared in the face of a lawsuit in only 10 months, a third of the time usually allotted for a DOE EIS, and for only a small fraction of the cost of a typical DOE EIS, and for only a small fraction of the cost of a typical DOE EIS. It subject was the first major facility to be built in decades for the DOE nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. It was the first EIS to be prepared for a proposal at DOE`s Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1979, and the first ever prepared by the Los Alamos Area Office. Much of the subject matter was classified. The facility had been specially designed to minimize impacts to a nearby prehistoric Native American ruin, and extensive consultation with American Indian Pueblos was required. The week that the draft EIS was published Laboratory biologists identified a previously unknown pair of Mexican spotted owls in the immediate vicinity of the project, bringing into play the consultation requirements of the Endangered Species Act. In spite of these obstacles, the resultant DARHT EIS was reviewed by the court and found to meet all statutory and regulatory requirements; the court praised the treatment of the classified material which served as a basis for the environmental analysis.

  14. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  15. Complying with Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations: a guide for compounding pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Mixon, Bill; Nain, John

    2013-01-01

    In the compounding pharmacy, compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations is essential to protect employees and customers from exposure to hazardous substances and a dangerous environment, to avert heavy fines and penalties levied for noncompliance, and to fulfill the moral obligation of pharmacists to do no harm. Without adequate vigilance, compounders are vulnerable to lapses in adherence to Occupational Safety and Health Administration requirements, the results of which can be dire in a climate of increased scrutiny about the safety and integrity of pharmaceutical compounding. Proactively addressing necessary compliance with essential safety regulations can only benefit compounders and their staff and clients, and guidance from an expert in Occupational Safety and Health Administration requirements can be a key factor in accomplishing that goal.

  16. The health care safety net: money matters but savvy leadership counts.

    PubMed

    Felland, Laurie E; Kinner, J Kyle; Hoadley, John F

    2003-08-01

    The nation's health care safety net--heavily reliant on external funding and support--is uniquely vulnerable to shifting and often adverse market and policy conditions. While adequate funding is essential to ensuring safety net providers can care for low-income people, the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) has identified a number of other factors key to building and maintaining viable community safety nets. Throughout the four rounds of HSC's Community Tracking Study (CTS) site visits, researchers have found that strong political and organizational leadership, community support, collaboration and business acumen have helped safety net providers build capacity and improve care coordination for low-income and uninsured people. These characteristics and business strategies have strengthened many community safety nets, better preparing them to weather current economic problems and providing a road map for the potentially tougher times ahead.

  17. Are Vancomycin Trough Concentrations Adequate for Optimal Dosing?

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Gilmer; Jones, Brenda; Jelliffe, Roger W.; Drusano, George L.; Rodvold, Keith A.; Lodise, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The current vancomycin therapeutic guidelines recommend the use of only trough concentrations to manage the dosing of adults with Staphylococcus aureus infections. Both vancomycin efficacy and toxicity are likely to be related to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). We assembled richly sampled vancomycin pharmacokinetic data from three studies comprising 47 adults with various levels of renal function. With Pmetrics, the nonparametric population modeling package for R, we compared AUCs estimated from models derived from trough-only and peak-trough depleted versions of the full data set and characterized the relationship between the vancomycin trough concentration and AUC. The trough-only and peak-trough depleted data sets underestimated the true AUCs compared to the full model by a mean (95% confidence interval) of 23% (11 to 33%; P = 0.0001) and 14% (7 to 19%; P < 0.0001), respectively. In contrast, using the full model as a Bayesian prior with trough-only data allowed 97% (93 to 102%; P = 0.23) accurate AUC estimation. On the basis of 5,000 profiles simulated from the full model, among adults with normal renal function and a therapeutic AUC of ≥400 mg · h/liter for an organism for which the vancomycin MIC is 1 mg/liter, approximately 60% are expected to have a trough concentration below the suggested minimum target of 15 mg/liter for serious infections, which could result in needlessly increased doses and a risk of toxicity. Our data indicate that adjustment of vancomycin doses on the basis of trough concentrations without a Bayesian tool results in poor achievement of maximally safe and effective drug exposures in plasma and that many adults can have an adequate vancomycin AUC with a trough concentration of <15 mg/liter. PMID:24165176

  18. Is clinical measurement of anatomic axis of the femur adequate?

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Chuan

    2017-03-23

    Background and purpose - The accuracy of using clinical measurement from the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) to the center of the knee to determine an anatomic axis of the femur has rarely been studied. A radiographic technique with a full-length standing scanogram (FLSS) was used to assess the adequacy of the clinical measurement. Patients and methods - 100 consecutive young adult patients (mean age 34 (20-40) years) with chronic unilateral lower extremity injuries were studied. The pelvis and intact contralateral lower extremity images in the FLSS were selected for study. The angles between the tibial axis and the femoral shaft anatomic axis (S-AA), the piriformis anatomic axis (P-AA), the clinical anatomic axis (C-AA), and the mechanical axis (MA) were compared between sexes. Results - Only the S-AA and C-AA angles were statistically significantly different in the 100 patients (3.6° vs. 2.8°; p = 0.03). There was a strong correlation between S-AA, P-AA, and C-AA angles (r > 0.9). The average intersecting angle between MA and S-AA in the femur in the 100 patients was 5.5°, and it was 4.8° between MA and C-AA. Interpretation - Clinical measurement of an anatomic axis from the ASIS to the center of the knee may be an adequate and acceptable method to determine lower extremity alignment. The optimal inlet for antegrade femoral intramedullary nailing may be the lateral edge of the piriformis fossa.

  19. [Endorsement of risk management and patient safety by certification of conformity in health care quality assessment].

    PubMed

    Waßmuth, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Certification of conformity in health care should provide assurance of compliance with quality standards. This also includes risk management and patient safety. Based on a comprehensive definition of quality, beneficial effects on the management of risks and the enhancement of patient safety can be expected from certification of conformity. While these effects have strong face validity, they are currently not sufficiently supported by evidence from health care research. Whether this relates to a lack of evidence or a lack of investigation remains open. Advancing safety culture and "climate", as well as learning from adverse events rely in part on quality management and are at least in part reflected in the certification of healthcare quality. However, again, evidence of the effectiveness of such measures is limited. Moreover, additional factors related to personality, attitude and proactive action of healthcare professionals are crucial factors in advancing risk management and patient safety which are currently not adequately reflected in certification of conformity programs.

  20. Adenovirus encoding human platelet-derived growth factor-B delivered to alveolar bone defects exhibits safety and biodistribution profiles favorable for clinical use.

    PubMed

    Chang, Po-Chun; Cirelli, Joni A; Jin, Qiming; Seol, Yang-Jo; Sugai, James V; D'Silva, Nisha J; Danciu, Theodora E; Chandler, Lois A; Sosnowski, Barbara A; Giannobile, William V

    2009-05-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) gene therapy offers promise for tissue engineering of tooth-supporting alveolar bone defects. To date, limited information exists regarding the safety profile and systemic biodistribution of PDGF gene therapy vectors when delivered locally to periodontal osseous defects. The aim of this preclinical study was to determine the safety profile of adenovirus encoding the PDGF-B gene (AdPDGF-B) delivered in a collagen matrix to periodontal lesions. Standardized alveolar bone defects were created in rats, followed by delivery of matrix alone or containing AdPDGF-B at 5.5 x 10(8) or 5.5 x 10(9) plaque-forming units/ml. The regenerative response was confirmed histologically. Gross clinical observations, hematology, and blood chemistries were monitored to evaluate systemic involvement. Bioluminescence and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to assess vector biodistribution. No significant histopathological changes were noted during the investigation. Minor alterations in specific hematological and blood chemistries were seen; however, most parameters were within the normal range for all groups. Bioluminescence analysis revealed vector distribution at the axillary lymph nodes during the first 2 weeks with subsequent return to baseline levels. AdPDGF-B was well contained within the localized osseous defect area without viremia or distant organ involvement. These results indicate that AdPDGF-B delivered in a collagen matrix exhibits acceptable safety profiles for possible use in human clinical studies.

  1. Towards Clinical Application of Neurotrophic Factors to the Auditory Nerve; Assessment of Safety and Efficacy by a Systematic Review of Neurotrophic Treatments in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Bezdjian, Aren; Kraaijenga, Véronique J. C.; Ramekers, Dyan; Versnel, Huib; Thomeer, Hans G. X. M.; Klis, Sjaak F. L.; Grolman, Wilko

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies have evidenced protection of the auditory nerve by exogenous neurotrophic factors. In order to assess clinical applicability of neurotrophic treatment of the auditory nerve, the safety and efficacy of neurotrophic therapies in various human disorders were systematically reviewed. Outcomes of our literature search included disorder, neurotrophic factor, administration route, therapeutic outcome, and adverse event. From 2103 articles retrieved, 20 randomized controlled trials including 3974 patients were selected. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (53%) was the most frequently reported indication for neurotrophic therapy followed by diabetic polyneuropathy (28%). Ciliary neurotrophic factor (50%), nerve growth factor (24%) and insulin-like growth factor (21%) were most often used. Injection site reaction was a frequently occurring adverse event (61%) followed by asthenia (24%) and gastrointestinal disturbances (20%). Eighteen out of 20 trials deemed neurotrophic therapy to be safe, and six out of 17 studies concluded the neurotrophic therapy to be effective. Positive outcomes were generally small or contradicted by other studies. Most non-neurodegenerative diseases treated by targeted deliveries of neurotrophic factors were considered safe and effective. Hence, since local delivery to the cochlea is feasible, translation from animal studies to human trials in treating auditory nerve degeneration seems promising. PMID:27898033

  2. Terrestrial reserve networks do not adequately represent aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Matthew E; McIntyre, Peter B; Doran, Patrick J; Allan, J David; Abell, Robin

    2010-08-01

    Protected areas are a cornerstone of conservation and have been designed largely around terrestrial features. Freshwater species and ecosystems are highly imperiled, but the effectiveness of existing protected areas in representing freshwater features is poorly known. Using the inland waters of Michigan as a test case, we quantified the coverage of four key freshwater features (wetlands, riparian zones, groundwater recharge, rare species) within conservation lands and compared these with representation of terrestrial features. Wetlands were included within protected areas more often than expected by chance, but riparian zones were underrepresented across all (GAP 1-3) protected lands, particularly for headwater streams and large rivers. Nevertheless, within strictly protected lands (GAP 1-2), riparian zones were highly represented because of the contribution of the national Wild and Scenic Rivers Program. Representation of areas of groundwater recharge was generally proportional to area of the reserve network within watersheds, although a recharge hotspot associated with some of Michigan's most valued rivers is almost entirely unprotected. Species representation in protected areas differed significantly among obligate aquatic, wetland, and terrestrial species, with representation generally highest for terrestrial species and lowest for aquatic species. Our results illustrate the need to further evaluate and address the representation of freshwater features within protected areas and the value of broadening gap analysis and other protected-areas assessments to include key ecosystem processes that are requisite to long-term conservation of species and ecosystems. We conclude that terrestrially oriented protected-area networks provide a weak safety net for aquatic features, which means complementary planning and management for both freshwater and terrestrial conservation targets is needed.

  3. The Air Force Physical Fitness Program is it Adequate?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    20 Table 3 Cardiovascular Fitness Classifications ( American Heart Association ). ...............20 Table 4 Norms... American Heart Association ). These two factors are high blood pressure and poor blood cholesterol levels.5 A study done at Stanford University showed that...and Rhyming, defined them and table 3 shows the American Heart Association �s classifications. Table 1 Air Force Fitness Standards.6 Minimum VO2 score

  4. Space capsule recovery—Evaluation of risk factors, safety plans and procedures and design of experiments for systems qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasaiah, N.; Varaprasad, R.; Seshagiri Rao, V.; Krishnamurty, V.; Sanyal, M. K.

    2009-11-01

    The Indian Space capsule (SRE-1) launched aboard PSLV-C7 rocket, was recovered successfully in the Bay of Bengal on January 22, 2007 after its orbital sojourn of 12 days. Apart from serving as a platform for micro-gravity experiments, SRE-1 demonstrated ISRO's capability in the field of orbital reentry and recovery technologies. Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC SHAR), the Spaceport of India was given the prime responsibility of assessment of mission risk, formulation and execution of safety plans and procedures, design and conduct of trials for validating the mission-critical sub-systems as well as the physical recovery of the capsule. To achieve these objectives, a number of drop tests were designed and conducted by SDSC SHAR involving real time computer network, ground-based tracking and telemetry stations, communication systems, safety and material handling systems, target identification and recovery systems. Dissemination of relevant information and coordination with multiple external organizations such as Indian Coast Guard, Indian Air Force and Indian Navy is an important aspect of these experiments. This paper delineates the methodologies designed and implemented at SDSC SHAR for validating those critical systems whose functionality finally culminated in the success of the mission, enabling India to join the elite group of nations with reentry module recovery capability.

  5. SAFETY FACTORS FOR XYLEM FAILURE BY IMPLOSION AND AIR-SEEDING WITHIN ROOTS, TRUNKS AND BRANCHES OF YOUNG AND OLD CONIFER TREES

    SciTech Connect

    Domec, Jean-Christophe; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Meinzer, Rick; Lachenbruch, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The cohesion-tension theory of water transport states that hydrogen bonds hold water molecules together and that they are pulled through the xylem under tension. This tension could cause transport failure in at least two ways: collapse of the conduit walls (implosion), or rupture of the water column through air-seeding. The objective of this research was to elucidate the functional significance of variations in tracheid anatomical features, earlywood to latewood ratios and wood densities with position in young and old Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine trees in terms of their consequences for the safety factors for tracheid implosion and air-seeding. For both species, wood density increased linearly with percent latewood for root, trunk and branch samples. However, the relationships between anatomy and hydraulic function in trunks differed from those in roots and branches. In roots and branches increased hydraulic efficiency was achieved at the cost of increased vulnerability to air-seeding. Mature wood of trunks had earlywood with wide tracheids that optimized water transport and had a high percentage of latewood that optimized structural support. Juvenile wood had higher resistance to air-seeding and cell wall implosion. The two safety factors followed similar axial trends from roots to terminal branches and were similar for both species studied and between juvenile and mature wood.

  6. Thermal reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport.

  7. Drug Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  8. Vaccine Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs about Vaccine Safety Research Publications HDM Reports ISO Scientific Agenda Ensuring Safety History Understanding Side Effects ... Datalink Publications Emergency Preparedness Vaccine Safety Partners About ISO File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  9. Demographic factors associated with perceptions about water safety and tap water consumption among adults in Santa Clara County, California, 2011.

    PubMed

    van Erp, Brianna; Webber, Whitney L; Stoddard, Pamela; Shah, Roshni; Martin, Lori; Broderick, Bonnie; Induni, Marta

    2014-06-12

    The objective of this study was to examine differences in tap water consumption and perceptions of bottle versus tap water safety for Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites, as well as associations with other demographic characteristics. Data are from the Santa Clara County, California, Dietary Practices Survey (2011; N = 306). We used logistic regression to examine associations between demographic characteristics and 1) perceptions that bottled water is safer than tap and 2) primarily consuming tap water. Hispanics were less likely than non-Hispanic whites to primarily drink tap water (OR = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.11-0.99), although there was no significant difference in perceptions that bottled water is safer between these groups (OR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.11-2.27). Hispanics may be an important population for interventions promoting tap water consumption.

  10. Road safety legislation in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Híjar, Martha; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Inclán-Valadez, Cristina; Silveira-Rodrigues, Eugênia Maria

    2012-07-01

    Legislating five of the main risk factors for road traffic injuries (RTIs), as much as enforcing the law, is essential in forging an integral culture of road safety. Analysis of the level of progression in law enforcement allows for an evaluation of the state of world regions. A secondary analysis of the 2009 Global status report on road safety: time for action survey was undertaken to evaluate legislation on five risk factors (speed management, drinking and driving, motorcycle helmet use, seatbelt use, and use of child restraints) in the Americas. Laws were classified depending on their level of progression: the existence of legislation, whether the legislation is adequate, a level of law enforcement > 6 (on a scale of 0-10), and whether the law is considered comprehensive. A descriptive analysis was performed. The totality of the countries has national or subnational legislation for at least one of the five risk factors. However, 63% have laws on the five risk factors studied, and none of them has comprehensive laws for all five. Seatbelt use appears to be the most extended enforced legislation, while speeding laws appear to be the least enforced. There are positive efforts that should be recognized in the region. However, the region stands in different stages of progression. Law enforcement remains the main issue to be tackled. Laws should be based on evidence about what is already known to be effective.

  11. Which kind of psychometrics is adequate for patient satisfaction questionnaires?

    PubMed Central

    Konerding, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The construction and psychometric analysis of patient satisfaction questionnaires are discussed. The discussion is based upon the classification of multi-item questionnaires into scales or indices. Scales consist of items that describe the effects of the latent psychological variable to be measured, and indices consist of items that describe the causes of this variable. Whether patient satisfaction questionnaires should be constructed and analyzed as scales or as indices depends upon the purpose for which these questionnaires are required. If the final aim is improving care with regard to patients’ preferences, then these questionnaires should be constructed and analyzed as indices. This implies two requirements: 1) items for patient satisfaction questionnaires should be selected in such a way that the universe of possible causes of patient satisfaction is covered optimally and 2) Cronbach’s alpha, principal component analysis, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and analyses with models from item response theory, such as the Rasch Model, should not be applied for psychometric analyses. Instead, multivariate regression analyses with a direct rating of patient satisfaction as the dependent variable and the individual questionnaire items as independent variables should be performed. The coefficients produced by such an analysis can be applied for selecting the best items and for weighting the selected items when a sum score is determined. The lower boundaries of the validity of the unweighted and the weighted sum scores can be estimated by their correlations with the direct satisfaction rating. While the first requirement is fulfilled in the majority of the previous patient satisfaction questionnaires, the second one deviates from previous practice. Hence, if patient satisfaction is actually measured with the final aim of improving care with regard to patients’ preferences, then future practice should be changed so that the second

  12. Labor unions and safety climate: perceived union safety values and retail employee safety outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Robert R; Martin, James E; Sears, Lindsay E

    2010-09-01

    Although trade unions have long been recognized as a critical advocate for employee safety and health, safety climate research has not paid much attention to the role unions play in workplace safety. We proposed a multiple constituency model of workplace safety which focused on three central safety stakeholders: top management, ones' immediate supervisor, and the labor union. Safety climate research focuses on management and supervisors as key stakeholders, but has not considered whether employee perceptions about the priority their union places on safety contributes contribute to safety outcomes. We addressed this gap in the literature by investigating unionized retail employee (N=535) perceptions about the extent to which their top management, immediate supervisors, and union valued safety. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that perceived union safety values could be distinguished from measures of safety training, workplace hazards, top management safety values, and supervisor values. Structural equation analyses indicated that union safety values influenced safety outcomes through its association with higher safety motivation, showing a similar effect as that of supervisor safety values. These findings highlight the need for further attention to union-focused measures related to workplace safety as well as further study of retail employees in general. We discuss the practical implications of our findings and identify several directions for future safety research.

  13. A Nomogram to Predict Adequate Lymph Node Recovery before Resection of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen-yu; Li, Cong; Gao, Wei; Yin, Xiao-wei; Luo, Qi-feng; Liu, Nan; Basnet, Shiva; Dai, Zhen-ling; Ge, Hai-yan

    2016-01-01

    Increased lymph node count (LNC) has been associated with prolonged survival in colorectal cancer (CRC), but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. The study aims to identify new predictors and develop a preoperative nomogram for predicting the probability of adequate LNC (≥ 12). 501 eligible patients were retrospectively selected to identify clinical-pathological factors associated with LNC ≥ 12 through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The nomogram was built according to multivariate analyses of preoperative factors. Model performance was assessed with concordance index (c-index) and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), followed by internal validation and calibration using 1000-resample bootstrapping. Clinical validity of the nomogram and LNC impact on stage migration were also evaluated. Multivariate analyses showed patient age, CA19-9, circulating lymphocytes, neutrophils, platelets, tumor diameter, histology and deposit significantly correlated with LNC (P < 0.05). The effects were marginal for CEA, anemia and CRC location (0.05 < P < 0.1). The multivariate analyses of preoperative factors suggested decreased age, CEA, CA19-9, neutrophils, proximal location, and increased platelets and diameter were significantly associated with increased probability of LNC ≥ 12 (P < 0.05). The nomogram achieved c-indexes of 0.75 and 0.73 before and after correction for overfitting. The AUC was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.70–0.79) and the clinically valid threshold probabilities were between 10% and 60% for the nomogram to predict LNC < 12. Additionally, increased probability of adequate LNC before surgery was associated with increased LNC and negative lymph nodes rather than increased positive lymph nodes, lymph node ratio, pN stages or AJCC stages. Collectively, the results indicate the LNC is multifactorial and irrelevant to stage migration. The significant correlations with preoperative circulating markers may

  14. Safety climate and attitude as evaluation measures of organizational safety.

    PubMed

    Isla Díaz, R; Díaz Cabrera, D

    1997-09-01

    The main aim of this research is to develop a set of evaluation measures for safety attitudes and safety climate. Specifically it is intended: (a) to test the instruments; (b) to identify the essential dimensions of the safety climate in the airport ground handling companies; (c) to assess the quality of the differences in the safety climate for each company and its relation to the accident rate; (d) to analyse the relationship between attitudes and safety climate; and (e) to evaluate the influences of situational and personal factors on both safety climate and attitude. The study sample consisted of 166 subjects from three airport companies. Specifically, this research was centered on ground handling departments. The factor analysis of the safety climate instrument resulted in six factors which explained 69.8% of the total variance. We found significant differences in safety attitudes and climate in relation to type of enterprise.

  15. Improved ASTM G72 Test Method for Ensuring Adequate Fuel-to-Oxidizer Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susana Tapia

    2016-01-01

    The ASTM G72/G72M-15 Standard Test Method for Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in a High-Pressure Oxygen-Enriched Environment is currently used to evaluate materials for the ignition susceptibility driven by exposure to external heat in an enriched oxygen environment. Testing performed on highly volatile liquids such as cleaning solvents has proven problematic due to inconsistent test results (non-ignitions). Non-ignition results can be misinterpreted as favorable oxygen compatibility, although they are more likely associated with inadequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios. Forced evaporation during purging and inadequate sample size were identified as two potential causes for inadequate available sample material during testing. In an effort to maintain adequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios within the reaction vessel during test, several parameters were considered, including sample size, pretest sample chilling, pretest purging, and test pressure. Tests on a variety of solvents exhibiting a range of volatilities are presented in this paper. A proposed improvement to the standard test protocol as a result of this evaluation is also presented. Execution of the final proposed improved test protocol outlines an incremental step method of determining optimal conditions using increased sample sizes while considering test system safety limits. The proposed improved test method increases confidence in results obtained by utilizing the ASTM G72 autogenous ignition temperature test method and can aid in the oxygen compatibility assessment of highly volatile liquids and other conditions that may lead to false non-ignition results.

  16. Guidelines for nuclear power plant safety issue prioritization information development. Supplement 3

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, W.B.; Bickford, W.E.; Counts, C.A.; Gallucci, R.H.V.; Heaberlin, S.W.; Powers, T.B.; Weakley, S.A.

    1985-09-01

    This supplemental report is the fourth in a series that document and use methods developed to calculate, for prioritization purposes, the risk, dose and cost impacts of implementing resolutions to reactor safety issues. The initial report in this series was published by Andrews et al. in 1983 as NUREG/CR-2800. This supplement consists of two parts describing separate research efforts: (1) an alternative human factors methodology approach, and (2) a prioritization of the NRC's Human Factors Program Plan. The alternative human factors methodology approach may be used in specific future cases in which the methods identified in the initial report (NUREG/CR-2800) may not adequately assess the proper impact for resolution of new safety issues. The alternative methodology included in this supplement is entitled ''Methodology for Estimating the Public Risk Reduction Affected by Human Factors Improvement.'' The prioritization section of this report is entitled ''Prioritization of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Human Factors Program Plan.''

  17. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  18. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  19. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  20. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  1. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  2. Recent RF Experiments and Application of RF Waves to Real-Time Control of Safety Factor Profile in JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.; Isayama, A.; Ide, S.; Fujita, T.; Oikawa, T.; Sakata, S.; Sueoka, M.; Hosoyama, H.; Seki, M.

    2005-09-26

    Two topics of applications of RF waves to current profile control in JT-60U are presented; application of lower-hybrid (LH) waves to safety factor profile control and electron cyclotron (EC) waves to neo-classical tearing mode (NTM) control. A real-time control system of safety factor (q) profile was developed. This system, for the first time, enables 1) real time evaluation of q profile using local magnetic pitch angle measurement by motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic and 2) control of current drive (CD) location ({rho}CD) by controlling the parallel refractive index N parallel of LH waves through control of phase difference ({delta}{phi}) of LH waves between multi-junction launcher modules. The method for real-time q profile evaluation was newly developed, without time-consuming reconstruction of equilibrium, so that the method requires less computational time. Safety factor profile by the real-time calculation agrees well with that by equilibrium reconstruction with MSE. The control system controls {rho}CD through {delta}{phi} in such a way to decrease the largest residual between the real-time evaluated q profile q(r) and its reference profile qref(r). The real-time control system was applied to a positive shear plasma (q(0){approx}1). The reference q profile was set to monotonic positive shear profile having qref(0)=1.3. The real-time q profile approached to the qref(r) during application of real-time control, and was sustained for 3s, which was limited by the duration of the injected LH power. Temporal evolution of current profile was consistent with relaxation of inductive electric field induced by theoretical LH driven current. An m/n=3/2 NTM that appeared at {beta}N{approx}3 was completely stabilized by ECCD applied to a fully-developed NTM. Precise ECCD at NTM island was essential for the stabilization. ECCD that was applied to resonant rational surface (q=3/2) before an NTM onset suppressed appearance of NTM. In order to keep NTM intensity below a

  3. Campus Fire Safety Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Reviews information on recent college and university dormitory fire fatalities, and highlights five examples of building features reported to be major contributing factors in residence-hall fires. Explains how public awareness and expectations are affecting school dormitory safety. (GR)

  4. Safety and human factors considerations in control rooms of oil and gas pipeline systems: conceptual issues and practical observations.

    PubMed

    Meshkati, Najmedin

    2006-01-01

    All oil and gas pipeline systems are run by human operators (called controllers) who use computer-based workstations in control rooms to "control" pipelines. Several human factor elements could contribute to the lack of controller success in preventing or mitigating pipeline accidents/incidents. These elements exist in both the work environment and also in the computer system design/operation (such as data presentation and alarm configuration). Some work environment examples include shift hours, shift length, circadian rhythms, shift change-over processes, fatigue countermeasures, ergonomics factors, workplace distractions, and physical interaction with control system computers. The major objective of this paper is to demonstrate the critical effects of human and organizational factors and also to highlight the role of their interactions with automation (and automated devices) in the safe operation of complex, large-scale pipeline systems. A case study to demonstrate the critical role of human organizational factors in the control room of an oil and gas pipeline system is also presented.

  5. Adaptive robust image registration approach based on adequately sampling polar transform and weighted angular projection function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhao; Tao, Feng; Jun, Wang

    2013-10-01

    An efficient, robust, and accurate approach is developed for image registration, which is especially suitable for large-scale change and arbitrary rotation. It is named the adequately sampling polar transform and weighted angular projection function (ASPT-WAPF). The proposed ASPT model overcomes the oversampling problem of conventional log-polar transform. Additionally, the WAPF presented as the feature descriptor is robust to the alteration in the fovea area of an image, and reduces the computational cost of the following registration process. The experimental results show two major advantages of the proposed method. First, it can register images with high accuracy even when the scale factor is up to 10 and the rotation angle is arbitrary. However, the maximum scaling estimated by the state-of-the-art algorithms is 6. Second, our algorithm is more robust to the size of the sampling region while not decreasing the accuracy of the registration.

  6. [Do our elderly have an adequate nutritional status?].

    PubMed

    Méndez Estévez, Eugenia; Romero Pita, Juana; Fernández Domínguez, Ma José; Troitiño Álvarez, Patricia; García Dopazo, Silvia; Jardón Blanco, Milagros; Rey Charlo, Manuela; Rivero Cotilla, María Isabel; Rodríguez Fernández, Cristina; Menéndez Rodríguez, Martín

    2013-01-01

    Determinar el estado nutricional de los ancianos de un área de salud rural y ver si la institucionalización es un factor de riesgo. Diseño del estudio: Estudio observacional descriptivo en SAP de Xinzo de Limia 3. Sujetos: El tamaño muestral fue de 311 pacientes mayores de 75 años, seleccionados por muestreo aleatorio simple. Mediciones: Edad, sexo, estado civil, nivel de estudios, institucionalización o no, estado nutricional: valorado mediante el cuestionario MNA y parámetros antropométricos; apoyo social: medido mediante la escala de Duke- Unc; Calidad de vida: con la escala Euro-Quol; patologías asociadas; trastornos de la deglución; tratamiento habitual: tipo de dieta, fármacos. Resultados principales: La mediana de edad era de 82,55 años (DT 4,83 años) y el 51,8% eran mujeres, el 52,7% estaba casado y el 76,8% referían estudios primarios. La mediana de patologías por individuo era del 3 (DT: 1,42) y del número de fármacos usados era de 4 (DT 2,44). El 54,70% vivía acompañado por su pareja u otro familiar. Estaban institucionalizados el 17,4%. La mediana de calidad de vida era de 6,84. Según los resultados del MNA no encontramos ningún caso de desnutrición, pero un 20.3% de los pacientes presentan valores de riesgo. En el análisis multivariante encontramos relación entre la presencia o no de desnutrición y la institucionalización OR = 0,40 (IC 95%, 0,18- 0,87), con el nº de patologías OR = 1,30 (IC 95%, 1,03-1,64), calidad de vida OR = 1,40 (IC 95%, 1,14-1,71). Conclusiones: Los pacientes ancianos validos estudiados presentan un buen estado nutricional. Los pacientes con riesgo de presentar desnutrición son un 20,3%, siendo la institucionalización, los mayores de 85 años con mayor número de patologías los que presentan mayor riesgo de desnutrición. La peor calidad de vida y el menor apoyo social influyen negativamente.

  7. Efficacy and safety of nerve growth factor for the treatment of neurological diseases: a meta-analysis of 64 randomized controlled trials involving 6,297 patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Meng; Li, Xiao-yan; Xu, Chun-ying; Zou, Li-ping

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: China is the only country where nerve growth factor is approved for large-scale use as a clinical medicine. More than 10 years ago, in 2003, nerve growth factor injection was listed as a national drug. The goal of this article is to evaluate comprehensively the efficacy and safety of nerve growth factor for the treatment of neurological diseases. DATA RETRIEVAL: A computer-based retrieval was performed from six databases, including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Sino Med, CNKI, and the VIP database, searching from the clinical establishment of nerve growth factor for treatment until December 31, 2013. The key words for the searches were “nerve growth factor, randomized controlled trials” in Chinese and in English. DATA SELECTION: Inclusion criteria: any study published in English or Chinese referring to randomized controlled trials of nerve growth factor; patients with neurological diseases such as peripheral nerve injury, central nerve injury, cranial neuropathy, and nervous system infections; patients older than 7 years; similar research methods and outcomes assessing symptoms; and measurement of nerve conduction velocities. The meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.2.3 software. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The total effective rate, the incidence of adverse effects, and the nerve conduction velocity were recorded for each study. RESULTS: Sixty-four studies involving 6,297 patients with neurological diseases were included. The total effective rate in the group treated with nerve growth factor was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.0001, RR: 1.35, 95%CI: 1.30–1.40). The average nerve conduction velocity in the nerve growth factor group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.00001, MD: 4.59 m/s, 95%CI: 4.12–5.06). The incidence of pain or scleroma at the injection site in the nerve growth factor group was also higher than that in the control group (P < 0.00001, RR: 6.30, 95%CI: 3.53

  8. Understanding Clinical Alarm Safety.

    PubMed

    Lukasewicz, Carol L; Mattox, Elizabeth Andersson

    2015-08-01

    Patient safety organizations and health care accreditation agencies recognize the significance of clinical alarm hazards. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, a nonprofit organization focused on development and use of safe and effective medical equipment, identifies alarm management as a major issue for health care organizations. ECRI Institute, a nonprofit organization that researches approaches for improving patient safety and quality of care, identifies alarm hazards as the most significant of the "Top Ten Health Technology Hazards" for 2014. A new Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal focusing on clinical alarm safety contains new requirements for accredited hospitals to be fully implemented by 2016. Through a fictional unfolding case study, this article reviews selected contributing factors to clinical alarm hazards present in inpatient, high-acuity settings. Understanding these factors improves contributions by nurses to clinical alarm safety practice.

  9. Initial pretreatment module safety management plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.A.

    1995-01-30

    The IPM Safety Management Plan establishes the approach to be utilized for integrating the responsibilities for safety documentation and review with the design, construction and start-up activities. The plan defines the requirements for the safety analysis documentation and the independent safety review to ensure that the design for the facility operation will not present undue risk to the health and safety of the employees, visitors, or members of the public and provides adequate protection of the environment.

  10. The TITAN trial--assessing the efficacy and safety of an anti-von Willebrand factor Nanobody in patients with acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Holz, Josefin-Beate

    2012-06-01

    The Phase II TITAN trial is designed to assess the efficacy and safety of an anti-von Willebrand factor (vWF) Nanobody in patients with acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Nanobodies are a novel class of therapeutic proteins and are based on the smallest functional fragments of single-chain antibodies that occur naturally in the Camelidae family (Nanobody® and Nanobodies® are registered trademarks of Ablynx NV). With vWF implicated in the thrombotic process underlying TTP, an anti-vWF Nanobody may hold significant promise as adjunctive therapy to plasma exchange. Recruitment is currently ongoing, and aims to include a total of 110 patients from countries in Europe, the Middle East, Australia and Northern America.

  11. Safety of ranibizumab therapy in wet AMD and the role of vascular endothelial growth factors in physiological angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Figurska, Małgorzata; Robaszkiewicz, Jacek; Wierzbowska, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor - A (VEGF-A), is a major factor implicated in choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) and therefore a target for therapeutic agents in wet age related macular degeneration (AMD). Ranibiuzumab (Lucentis) blocks all active isoforms of VEGF-A and the products of their degradation. It penetrates through all layers of the retina in order to reach the target tissue. It is quickly removed from the system and it is characterised by low level of immunogenicity. The essence of angiogenesis is formation of new vessels by branching and expansion of already existing ones. Angiogenesis is an important physiological process that takes place during the healing of wounds, reconstruction of hypoxic injury and reproduction. However some diseases such as cancer, arthritis, diabetes and neovascular AMD are associated with persistent unregulated angiogenesis. There is an important question whether binding vascular-endothelial growth factors in wet AMD therapies using ranibizumab is correlated with the increase of the incidence of systematic adverse effects (AEs), such as cardiovascular episodes or thrombosis. The aim of this article is to present ranibizumab as a safe drug in treating wet AMD patients. Even though the concentration of Lucentis administered in a dose of 0.3 or 0.5 mg into the vitreous body in the organism is very low, the incidence of AEs during the anti-VEGF therapy was traced. In MARINA and ANCHOR studies, occurrence of possible AEs was observed. No statistically significant differences were shown in the AEs frequency between the patients treated with ranibizumab and the control group, and in correlation with the general population of patients suffering from wet AMD.

  12. A Risk Analysis Methodology to Address Human and Organizational Factors in Offshore Drilling Safety: With an Emphasis on Negative Pressure Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabibzadeh, Maryam

    According to the final Presidential National Commission report on the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, there is need to "integrate more sophisticated risk assessment and risk management practices" in the oil industry. Reviewing the literature of the offshore drilling industry indicates that most of the developed risk analysis methodologies do not fully and more importantly, systematically address the contribution of Human and Organizational Factors (HOFs) in accident causation. This is while results of a comprehensive study, from 1988 to 2005, of more than 600 well-documented major failures in offshore structures show that approximately 80% of those failures were due to HOFs. In addition, lack of safety culture, as an issue related to HOFs, have been identified as a common contributing cause of many accidents in this industry. This dissertation introduces an integrated risk analysis methodology to systematically assess the critical role of human and organizational factors in offshore drilling safety. The proposed methodology in this research focuses on a specific procedure called Negative Pressure Test (NPT), as the primary method to ascertain well integrity during offshore drilling, and analyzes the contributing causes of misinterpreting such a critical test. In addition, the case study of the BP Deepwater Horizon accident and their conducted NPT is discussed. The risk analysis methodology in this dissertation consists of three different approaches and their integration constitutes the big picture of my whole methodology. The first approach is the comparative analysis of a "standard" NPT, which is proposed by the author, with the test conducted by the DWH crew. This analysis contributes to identifying the involved discrepancies between the two test procedures. The second approach is a conceptual risk assessment framework to analyze the causal factors of the identified mismatches in the previous step, as the main contributors of negative pressure test

  13. A grounded theory of female adolescents' dating experiences and factors influencing safety: the dynamics of the Circle

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, Sharyl E

    2007-01-01

    Background This paper describes the nature and characteristics of the dating relationships of adolescent females, including any of their experiences of abuse. Methods A grounded theory approach was used with 22 theoretically sampled female adolescents ages 15–18. Results Several important themes emerged: Seven stages of dating consistently described the relationships of female adolescents. A circle consisting of two interacting same sex peer groups provided structure for each teen as they navigated the dating course. The circle was the central factor affecting a female adolescent's potential for risk or harm in dating relationships. Teens defined abuse as an act where the intention is to hurt. Having once succumbed to sexual pressure, teens felt unable to refuse sex in subsequent situations. Conclusion An awareness of both the stages of dating and the dynamics of the circle will assist health care providers to plan and implement interventions in the female adolescent population. Study findings on factors and influences that support non-abusive versus abusive relationship might help identify female teens at risk and/or support interventions aimed at preventing dating violence. PMID:17883833

  14. Exploring the transferability of safety performance functions.

    PubMed

    Farid, Ahmed; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Jaeyoung; Eluru, Naveen; Wang, Jung-Han

    2016-09-01

    Safety performance functions (SPFs), by predicting the number of crashes on roadway facilities, have been a vital tool in the highway safety area. The SPFs are typically applied for identifying hot spots in network screening and evaluating the effectiveness of road safety countermeasures. The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) provides a series of SPFs for several crash types by various roadway facilities. The SPFs, provided in the HSM, were developed using data from multiple states. In regions without local jurisdiction based SPFs it is common practice to adopt national SPFs for crash prediction. There has been little research to examine the viability of such national level models for local jurisdictions. Towards understanding the influence of SPF transferability, we examine the rural divided multilane highway models from Florida, Ohio, and California. Traffic, roadway geometry and crash data from the three states are employed to estimate single-state SPFs, two-state SPFs and three-state SPFs. The SPFs are estimated using the negative binomial model formulation for several crash types and severities. To evaluate transferability of models, we estimate a transfer index that allows us to understand which models transfer adequately to other regions. The results indicate that models from Florida and California seem to be more transferable compared to models from Ohio. More importantly, we observe that the transfer index increases when we used pooled data (from two or three states). Finally, to assist in model transferability, we propose a Modified Empirical Bayes (MEB) measure that provides segment specific calibration factors for transferring SPFs to local jurisdictions. The proposed measure is shown to outperform the HSM calibration factor for transferring SPFs.

  15. 43 CFR 3162.5-3 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety precautions. 3162.5-3 Section 3162... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.5-3 Safety precautions. The operator shall perform... necessary to provide adequate protection for the health and safety of life and the protection of...

  16. 43 CFR 3162.5-3 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety precautions. 3162.5-3 Section 3162... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.5-3 Safety precautions. The operator shall perform... necessary to provide adequate protection for the health and safety of life and the protection of...

  17. 43 CFR 3162.5-3 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety precautions. 3162.5-3 Section 3162... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.5-3 Safety precautions. The operator shall perform... necessary to provide adequate protection for the health and safety of life and the protection of...

  18. Strengthening the safety net for online seniors: factors influencing differences in health information seeking among older internet users.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Sally J; Macias, Wendy

    2008-12-01

    Earlier studies clearly have shown that older adults are going online and accessing health information, but they are not a monolithic group. The goal of this study is to identify different types of older online Americans and to examine their online health information attitudes and behaviors. A total of 424 individuals age 55+ responded to an online survey. Three types of users were found based on demographic and computer-use factors: power users, well-to-do, and older men. Two types were found based on health attitudes and behaviors: health traditionalists and health technologists. The study found interesting relationships among these groups and also explored their use and evaluation of specific types of health-related websites and their motivations for going online. Suggestions are made for extending this research to other populations and further exploring the theoretical model of senior's online health interactions (SOHI) that drives the study.

  19. Quality control of BCG vaccine by WHO: a review of factors that may influence vaccine effectiveness and safety.

    PubMed Central

    Milstien, J. B.; Gibson, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    WHO oversees the quality control of BCG vaccine via a system that includes regular testing of products by in vitro methods and clinical trials. Three parent strains of BCG (Glaxo-1077, Tokyo-172, and Pasteur-1173P2) account for over 90% of the vaccines currently in use worldwide. Important characteristics of the vaccine preparations are summarized here, along with their physical-chemical properties. In instances where diagnostic criteria for tuberculosis are stringent, there is no evidence that when administered to newborns different preparations of BCG vaccine exhibit different efficacies; however, the incidence of BCG-associated adverse reactions does correlate with the type of preparation. Other factors, including dose, administration technique, and recipient characteristics are also important in determining vaccine-associated reactions. PMID:2189588

  20. Safety and Efficacy of Prophylactic Amiodarone in Preventing Early Junctional Ectopic Tachycardia (JET) in Children After Cardiac Surgery and Determination of Its Risk Factor.

    PubMed

    Amrousy, Doaa El; Elshehaby, Walid; Feky, Wael El; Elshmaa, Nagat S

    2016-04-01

    Postoperative arrhythmia is a common complication after open heart surgery in children. JET is the most common and dangerous arrhythmia. We aimed to assess safety and efficacy of prophylactic amiodarone in preventing JET in children underwent cardiac surgery and to assess risk factors for JET among our patients. In total, 117 children who underwent cardiac surgery for CHD at Tanta University Hospital from October 2011 to April 2015 were divided in two groups; amiodarone group (65 patients) was given prophylactic amiodarone intraoperatively and placebo group (52 patients). Amiodarone is started as loading dose of 5 mg/kg IV in the operating room after induction of anesthesia and continued for 3 days as continuous infusion 10-15 μg/kg/min. Primary outcome and secondary outcomes of amiodarone administration were reported. We studied pre-, intra- and postoperative factors to determine risk factors for occurrence of JET among these children. Prophylactic amiodarone was found to significantly decrease incidence of postoperative JET from 28.9 % in placebo group to 9.2 % in amiodarone group, and symptomatic JET from 11.5 % in placebo group to 3.1 % in amiodarone group, and shorten postoperative intensive care unit and hospital stay without significant side effects. Risk factors for occurrence of JET were younger age, lower body weight, longer cardiopulmonary bypass, aortic cross-clamp time, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, acidosis and high dose of inotropes. JET was more associated with surgical repair of right ventricular outlet obstruction as in case of tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary stenosis. Most of JET 15/21 (71.4 %) occurred in the first day postoperatively, and 6/21 occurred in the second day (28.6 %). Prophylactic amiodarone is safe and effective in preventing early JET in children after open heart surgery.

  1. Auto Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... kids by following simple safety measures and by teaching some basic rules. Importance of Child Safety Seats ... your child correctly — a small child in a large seat may not be the best option. Models ...

  2. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Water Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Water Safety A A ... best measure of protection. previous continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  3. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Water Safety KidsHealth > For Teens > Water Safety A A ... tied to alcohol use. previous continue At the Water Park OK, so you do more splashing than ...

  4. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... the safety of fish caught in your local lakes, rivers, and coastal areas. Advisories may recommend that ... Charts Picky Eating Physical Activity Food Safety Resources Kids Students Adults Families Professionals Multiple Languages MyPlate, MyWins ...

  5. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Water Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Water Safety Print A ... best measure of protection. previous continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  6. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Water Safety KidsHealth > For Teens > Water Safety Print A ... tied to alcohol use. previous continue At the Water Park OK, so you do more splashing than ...

  7. Safety, immunogenicity and preliminary efficacy of multiple-site vaccination with an Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) based cancer vaccine in advanced non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with advanced non small cell lung (NSCLC) cancer remains dismal. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor is over-expressed in many epithelial derived tumors and its role in the development and progression of NSCLC is widely documented. CimaVax-EGF is a therapeutic cancer vaccine composed by human recombinant Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) conjugated to a carrier protein, P64K from Neisseria Meningitides. The vaccine is intended to induce antibodies against self EGF that would block EGF-EGFR interaction. CimaVax-EGF has been evaluated so far in more than 1000 advanced NSCLC patients, as second line therapy. Two separate studies were compared to assess the impact of high dose vaccination at multiple anatomic sites in terms of immunogenicity, safety and preliminary efficacy in stage IIIb/IV NSCLC patients. In both clinical trials, patients started vaccination 1 month after finishing first line chemotherapy. Vaccination at 4 sites with 2.4 mg of EGF (high dose) was very safe. The most frequent adverse events were grade 1 or 2 injection site reactions, fever, headache and vomiting. Patients had a trend toward higher antibody response. The percent of very good responders significantly augmented and there was a faster decrease of circulating EGF. All vaccinated patients and those classified as good responders immunized with high dose at 4 sites, had a large tendency to improved survival. PMID:22024351

  8. Pharmacokinetics and safety of a novel recombinant human von Willebrand factor manufactured with a plasma-free method: a prospective clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Kempton, Christine; Millar, Carolyn; Romond, Edward; Shapiro, Amy; Birschmann, Ingvild; Ragni, Margaret V.; Gill, Joan Cox; Yee, Thynn Thynn; Klamroth, Robert; Wong, Wing-Yen; Chapman, Miranda; Engl, Werner; Turecek, Peter L.; Suiter, Tobias M.

    2013-01-01

    Safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) of recombinant von Willebrand factor (rVWF) combined at a fixed ratio with recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) were investigated in 32 subjects with type 3 or severe type 1 von Willebrand disease (VWD) in a prospective phase 1, multicenter, randomized clinical trial. rVWF was well tolerated and no thrombotic events, inhibitors, or serious adverse events were observed. The PK of rVWF ristocetin cofactor activity, VWF antigen, and collagen-binding activity were similar to those of the comparator plasma-derived (pd) VWF-pdFVIII. In vivo cleavage of ultra-large molecular-weight rVWF multimers by ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13; the endogenous VWF protease) and generation of characteristic satellite bands were demonstrated. In 2 subjects with specific nonneutralizing anti-VWF–binding antibodies already detectable before rVWF infusion, a reduction in VWF multimers and VWF activity was observed. Stabilization of endogenous FVIII was enhanced following post–rVWF-rFVIII infusion as shown by the difference in area under the plasma concentration curve compared with pdVWF-pdFVIII (AUC0-∞) (P < .01). These data support the concept of administering rVWF alone once a therapeutic level of endogenous FVIII is achieved. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00816660. PMID:23777763

  9. Impact of the World Health Organization's Surgical Safety Checklist on safety culture in the operating theatre: a controlled intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Haugen, A. S.; Søfteland, E.; Eide, G. E.; Sevdalis, N.; Vincent, C. A.; Nortvedt, M. W.; Harthug, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Positive changes in safety culture have been hypothesized to be one of the mechanisms behind the reduction in mortality and morbidity after the introduction of the World Health Organization's Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC). We aimed to study the checklist effects on safety culture perceptions in operating theatre personnel using a prospective controlled intervention design at a single Norwegian university hospital. Methods We conducted a study with pre- and post-intervention surveys using the intervention and control groups. The primary outcome was the effects of the Norwegian version of the SSC on safety culture perceptions. Safety culture was measured using the validated Norwegian version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Descriptive characteristics of operating theatre personnel and checklist compliance data were also recorded. A mixed linear regression model was used to assess changes in safety culture. Results The response rate was 61% (349/575) at baseline and 51% (292/569) post-intervention. Checklist compliance ranged from 77% to 85%. We found significant positive changes in the checklist intervention group for the culture factors ‘frequency of events reported’ and ‘adequate staffing’ with regression coefficients at −0.25 [95% confidence interval (CI), −0.47 to −0.07] and 0.21 (95% CI, 0.07–0.35), respectively. Overall, the intervention group reported significantly more positive culture scores—including at baseline. Conclusions Implementation of the SSC had rather limited impact on the safety culture within this hospital. PMID:23404986

  10. Maintaining Adequate Carbon Dioxide Washout for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Korona, Adam; McMillin, Summer; Norcross, Jason; Swickrath, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in technology development that is aimed at the production of an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU). Of the many functions provided by the spacesuit and portable life support subsystem within the AEMU, delivering breathing gas to the astronaut along with removing the carbon dioxide (CO2) remains one of the most important environmental functions that the AEMU can control. Carbon dioxide washout is the capability of the ventilation flow in the spacesuit helmet to provide low concentrations of CO2 to the crew member to meet breathing requirements. CO2 washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and sufficient designs in a spacesuit and in vehicle applications such as sleep stations and hygiene compartments. Human testing to fully evaluate and validate CO2 washout performance is necessary but also expensive due to the levied safety requirements. Moreover, correlation of math models becomes challenging because of human variability and movement. To supplement human CO2 washout testing, a breathing capability will be integrated into a suited manikin test apparatus to provide a safe, lower cost, stable, easily modeled alternative to human testing. Additionally, this configuration provides NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) the capability to evaluate CO2 washout under off-nominal conditions that would otherwise be unsafe for human testing or difficult due to fatigue of a test subject. Testing has been under way in-house at JSC and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides sufficient performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an extravehicular activity. This paper will review recent CO2 washout testing and analysis activities, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work

  11. Safety and pharmacokinetics of a novel recombinant fusion protein linking coagulation factor IX with albumin (rIX-FP) in hemophilia B patients

    PubMed Central

    Negrier, Claude; Klamroth, Robert; Tiede, Andreas; Pabinger-Fasching, Ingrid; Voigt, Christine; Jacobs, Iris; Morfini, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    A recombinant fusion protein linking coagulation factor IX (FIX) with human albumin (rIX-FP) has been developed to facilitate hemophilia B treatment by less frequent FIX dosing. This first-in-human dose-escalation trial in 25 previously treated subjects with hemophilia B (FIX ≤ 2 IU/dL) examined the safety and pharmacokinetics of 25, 50, and 75 IU/kg rIX-FP. Patients in the 50-IU/kg cohort underwent a comparative pharmacokinetics assessment with their previous FIX product (plasma-derived or recombinant). No allergic reactions or inhibitors were observed. Four mild, possibly treatment-related adverse events were reported. In the 50-IU/kg cohort (13 subjects), the mean half-life of rIX-FP was 92 hours, more than 5 times longer than the subjects' previous FIX product. After 25 or 50 IU/kg rIX-FP administration, the baseline-corrected mean FIX activity remained elevated at day 7 (7.4 IU/dL and 13.4 IU/dL, respectively) and day 14 (2.5 IU/dL and 5.5 IU/dL, respectively). The incremental recovery of rIX-FP was higher than both recombinant and plasma-derived FIX (1.4 vs 0.95 and 1.1 IU/dL per IU/kg, respectively). These results demonstrated both the safety and improved pharmacokinetics of rIX-FP, thus indicating this new product with extended half-life as possibly able to control and prevent bleeding with less frequent injection. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as no. NCT01233440. PMID:22859609

  12. BAY 81-8973, a full-length recombinant factor VIII: Human heat shock protein 70 improves the manufacturing process without affecting clinical safety.

    PubMed

    Maas Enriquez, Monika; Thrift, John; Garger, Stephen; Katterle, Yvonne

    2016-11-01

    BAY 81-8973 is a full-length, unmodified recombinant human factor VIII (FVIII) approved for the treatment of hemophilia A. BAY 81-8973 has the same amino acid sequence as the currently marketed sucrose-formulated recombinant FVIII (rFVIII-FS) product and is produced using additional advanced manufacturing technologies. One of the key manufacturing advances for BAY 81-8973 is introduction of the gene for human heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) into the rFVIII-FS cell line. HSP70 facilitates proper folding of proteins, enhances cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis, and potentially impacts rFVIII glycosylation. HSP70 expression in the BAY 81-8973 cell line along with other manufacturing advances resulted in a higher-producing cell line and improvements in the pharmacokinetics of the final product as determined in clinical studies. HSP70 protein is not detected in the harvest or in the final BAY 81-8973 product. However, because this is a new process, clinical trial safety assessments included monitoring for anti-HSP70 antibodies. Most patients, across all age groups, had low levels of anti-HSP70 antibodies before exposure to the investigational product. During BAY 81-8973 treatment, 5% of patients had sporadic increases in anti-HSP70 antibody levels above a predefined threshold (cutoff value, 239 ng/mL). No clinical symptoms related to anti-HSP70 antibody development occurred. In conclusion, addition of HSP70 to the BAY 81-8973 cell line is an innovative technology for manufacturing rFVIII aimed at improving protein folding and expression. Improved pharmacokinetics and no effect on safety of BAY 81-8973 were observed in clinical trials in patients with hemophilia A.

  13. Adequate nutrient intake can reduce cardiovascular disease risk in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Reusser, Molly E; DiRienzo, Douglas B; Miller, Gregory D; McCarron, David A

    2003-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease kills nearly as many Americans each year as the next seven leading causes of death combined. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease and most of its associated risk factors is markedly higher and increasing more rapidly among African Americans than in any other racial or ethnic group. Improving these statistics may be simply a matter of improving diet quality. In recent years, a substantial and growing body of evidence has revealed that dietary patterns complete in all food groups, including nutrient-rich dairy products, are essential for preventing and reducing cardiovascular disease and the conditions that contribute to it. Several cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, insulin resistance syndrome, and obesity, have been shown to be positively influenced by dietary patterns that include adequate intake of dairy products. The benefits of nutrient-rich dietary patterns have been specifically tested in randomized, controlled trials emphasizing African American populations. These studies demonstrated proportionally greater benefits for African Americans without evidence of adverse effects such as symptoms of lactose intolerance. As currently promoted for the prevention of certain cancers and osteoporosis, regular consumption of diets that meet recommended nutrient intake levels might also be the most effective approach for reducing cardiovascular disease risk in African Americans.

  14. Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Safety policies, procedures, and related information are presented in this manual to assist school personnel in a continuing program of accident prevention. Chapter 1 discusses safety education and accident prevention in general. Chapter 2 covers traffic regulations relating to school safety patrols, school bus transportation, bicycles, and…

  15. ‘Tempos’ management in primary care: a key factor for classifying adverse events, and improving quality and safety

    PubMed Central

    Brami, J

    2012-01-01

    Background The role of time management in safe and efficient medicine is important but poorly incorporated into the taxonomies of error in primary care. This paper addresses the lack of time management, presenting a framework integrating five time scales termed ‘Tempos’ requiring parallel processing by GPs: the disease's tempo (unexpected rapid evolutions, slow reaction to treatment); the office's tempo (day-to-day agenda and interruptions); the patient's tempo (time to express symptoms, compliance, emotion); the system's tempo (time for appointments, exams, and feedback); and the time to access to knowledge. The art of medicine is to control all of these tempos in parallel and simultaneously. Method Two qualified physicians reviewed a sample of 1046 malpractice claims from one liability insurer to determine whether a medical injury had occurred and, if so, whether it was due to one or more tempo-related problems. 623 of these reports were analysed in greater detail to identify the prevalence and characteristics of claims and related time management errors. Results The percentages of contributing factors were as follows: disease tempo, 37.9%; office tempo, 13.2%; patient tempo, 13.8%; out-of-office coordination tempo, 22.6%; and GP's access to knowledge tempo, 33.2%. Conclusion Although not conceptualised in most error taxonomies, the disease and patient tempos are cornerstones in risk management in primary care. Traditional taxonomies describe events from an analytical perspective of care at the system level and offer opportunities to improve organisation, process, and evidence-based medicine. The suggested classification describes events in terms of (unsafe) dynamic control of parallel constraints from the carer's perspective, namely the GP, and offers improvement on how to self manage and coordinate different contradictory tempos and day-to-day activities. Further work is needed to test the validity and usefulness of this approach. PMID:22927486

  16. Efficacy and safety of nedaplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy for FIGO Stage IB2–IVA cervical cancer and its clinical prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Masateru; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Mabuchi, Seiji; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Seo, Yuji; Suzuki, Osamu; Sumida, Iori; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Kimura, Tadashi; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is a standard treatment for cervical cancer, but nedaplatin-based CCRT is not routinely administered. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of nedaplatin-based CCRT (35 mg/m2 weekly) and analyzed prognostic factors for survival among 52 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage IB2–IVA cervical cancer treated from 1999 to 2009. Patients were treated with a combination of external beam radiotherapy of 40–56 Gy (in 20–28 fractions) and 13.6–28.8 Gy (in 2–4 fractions) of high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy or 18 Gy (in 3 fractions) of HDR interstitial brachytherapy. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and local control (LC) were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. The Cox proportional hazard model was used for multivariate analysis. Acute and late toxicities were evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. The median follow-up period was 52 months. The median patient age was 63 years. The 5-year OS, PFS and LC rates were 78%, 57% and 73%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that histologic type, maximum tumor diameter, and pretreatment hemoglobin level were independent risk factors for PFS. Regarding adverse effects, 24 patients (46%) had acute Grade 3–4 leukopenia and 5 (10%) had late Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicities. No patient experienced renal toxicity. Nedaplatin-based CCRT for FIGO Stage IB2–IVA cervical cancer was efficacious and safe, with no renal toxicity. Histologic type, maximum tumor diameter, and pretreatment hemoglobin level were statistically significant prognostic factors for PFS. PMID:25428244

  17. Safety of long-term exposure to abiraterone acetate in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and concomitant cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Verzoni, Elena; Grassi, Paolo; Ratta, Raffaele; Niger, Monica; De Braud, Filippo; Valdagni, Riccardo; Procopio, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Background: We aimed to evaluate the long-term safety profile of abiraterone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) with controlled cardiovascular comorbidities or risk factors. Methods: We retrospectively analysed the clinical charts of consecutive mCRPC patients with cardiac disorders/risk factors who had been treated with abiraterone 1000 mg once daily plus prednisone 5 mg twice daily for a median duration of 16 months at an oncology referral centre between April 2011 and July 2015. Patients underwent an electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiographic assessments, including measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at baseline and at the end of treatment. Blood pressure (BP) was measured daily at home. During follow up (median 24 months), all adverse events were recorded. Cardiac events (CEs) were defined, according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0, as the appearance of a symptomatic CE that required medical intervention. Results: A total of 51 patients (median age 71 years) were evaluated. Pre-existing cardiovascular conditions included hypertension (41%), cardiac ischaemia (12%), stroke (9%), dyslipidaemia (18%) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (12%). No CEs were recorded and no changes in LVEF were observed. The most frequently reported adverse events were Grade 1–2 fluid retention (18%), hypertension (16%) and asthenia (16%). No patients permanently discontinued abiraterone due to cardiac events. Conclusions: Long-term abiraterone treatment was well tolerated in mCRPC patients with controlled cardiovascular comorbidities/risk factors, with no apparent worsening of cardiovascular conditions from baseline over an extended observation period. PMID:27583024

  18. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-02-11

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser safety audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe use of Lasers references this requirement in several sections: (1) Section 1.3.2 LSO Specific Responsibilities states under Hazard Evaluation, ''The LSO shall be responsible for hazards evaluation of laser work areas''; (2) Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''; and (3) Appendix D, under Survey and Inspections, it states, ''the LSO will survey by inspection, as considered necessary, all areas where laser equipment is used''. Therefore, for facilities using Class 3B and or Class 4 lasers, audits for laser safety compliance are expected to be conducted. The composition, frequency and rigueur of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms. In many institutions, a sole Laser Safety Officer (LSO) or a number of Deputy LSO's perform these audits. For that matter, there are institutions that request users to perform a self-assessment audit. Many items on the common audit list and the associated findings are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the LSO or auditor in particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage is an example; to one set of eyes a particular arrangement might be completely adequate, while to another the installation may be inadequate. In order to provide more consistency, the National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (NIF-LLNL) has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. These criteria are distributed to laser users, and they serve two broad purposes: first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor, and second, it is an

  19. [Hand hygiene--part of patient safety from Semmelweis to the present].

    PubMed

    Anttila, Veli-Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Hand disinfection is one of the most important part of patient safety. By adequate hand disinfection healthcare workers can prevent about 40 per cent of healthcare-associated infections and about 50 per cent of patients' MRSA contaminations in hospitals. Adherence to hand disinfection has been observed in an average of 40 per cent of patient contacts. One of the risk factors leading to poor adherence is the "doctor" status of a healthcare worker. Introduction of an alcohol-based hand rub close to the patient is one of the most significant factors for improved hand hygiene.

  20. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... and Adequate Veterinary Care § 2.40 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and... veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section. (1) Each dealer and exhibitor shall employ...

  1. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  2. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  3. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  4. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  5. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  6. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  7. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  8. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  9. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  10. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  11. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  12. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  13. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  14. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  15. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  16. Organizational culture, safety culture, and safety performance at research facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, William S.

    2000-07-30

    Organizational culture surveys of research facilities conducted several years ago and archival occupational injury reports were used to determine whether differences in safety performance are related to general organizational factors or to ''safety culture'' as reflected in specific safety-related dimensions. From among the organizations surveyed, a pair of facilities was chosen that were similar in size and scientific mission while differing on indices of work-related injuries. There were reliable differences in organizational style between the facilities, especially among workers in environment, safety, and health functions; differences between the facilities (and among job categories) on the safety scale were more modest and less regular.

  17. IMPORTANCE OF SAFETY CULTURE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Spitalnik, J.

    2004-10-06

    Safety Management has lately been considered by some Nuclear Regulatory agencies as the tool on which to concentrate their efforts to implement modern regulation structures, because Safety Culture was said to be difficult to monitor. However, Safety Culture can be assessed and monitored even if it is problematical to make Safety Culture the object of regulation. This paper stresses the feasibility and importance of Safety Culture Assessment based on self-assessment applications performed in several nuclear organizations in Latin America. Reasons and ownership for assessing Safety Culture are discussed, and relevant aspects considered for setting up and programming such an assessment are shown. Basic principles that were taken into account, as well as financial and human resources used in actual self-assessments are reviewed, including the importance of adequate statistical analyses and the necessity of proper feed-back of results. The setting up of action plans to enhance Safety Culture is the final step of the assessment program that once implemented will enable to establish a Safety Culture monitoring process within the organization.

  18. Comparative limb bone loading in the humerus and femur of the tiger salamander: testing the 'mixed-chain' hypothesis for skeletal safety factors.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Sandy M; Economy, D Ross; Kennedy, Marian S; Dean, Delphine; Blob, Richard W

    2016-02-01

    Locomotion imposes some of the highest loads upon the skeleton, and diverse bone designs have evolved to withstand these demands. Excessive loads can fatally injure organisms; however, bones have a margin of extra protection, called a 'safety factor' (SF), to accommodate loads that are higher than normal. The extent to which SFs might vary amongst an animal's limb bones is unclear. If the limbs are likened to a chain composed of bones as 'links', then similar SFs might be expected for all limb bones because failure of the system would be determined by the weakest link, and extra protection in other links could waste energetic resources. However, Alexander proposed that a 'mixed-chain' of SFs might be found amongst bones if: (1) their energetic costs differ, (2) some elements face variable demands, or (3) SFs are generally high. To test whether such conditions contribute to diversity in limb bone SFs, we compared the biomechanical properties and locomotor loading of the humerus and femur in the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum). Despite high SFs in salamanders and similar sizes of the humerus and femur that would suggest similar energetic costs, the humerus had lower bone stresses, higher mechanical hardness and larger SFs. SFs were greatest in the anatomical regions where yield stresses were highest in the humerus and lowest in the femur. Such intraspecific variation between and within bones may relate to their different biomechanical functions, providing insight into the emergence of novel locomotor capabilities during the invasion of land by tetrapods.

  19. Feasibility and Safety of Local Treatment with Recombinant Human Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor in a Rat Model of Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    van den Boogaard, Florry E; Hofstra, Jorrit J; van 't Veer, Cornelis; Levi, Marcel M; Roelofs, Joris J T H; van der Poll, Tom; Schultz, Marcus J

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary coagulopathy is intrinsic to pulmonary injury including pneumonia. Anticoagulant strategies could benefit patients with pneumonia, but systemic administration of anticoagulant agents may lead to suboptimal local levels and may cause systemic hemorrhage. We hypothesized nebulization to provide a safer and more effective route for local administration of anticoagulants. Therefore, we aimed to examine feasibility and safety of nebulization of recombinant human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (rh-TFPI) in a well-established rat model of Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae pneumonia. Thirty minutes before and every 6 hours after intratracheal instillation of S. pneumonia causing pneumonia, rats were subjected to local treatment with rh-TFPI or placebo, and sacrificed after 42 hours. Pneumonia was associated with local as well as systemic activation of coagulation. Nebulization of rh-TFPI resulted in high levels of rh-TFPI in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which was accompanied by an attenuation of pulmonary coagulation. Systemic rh-TFPI levels remained undetectable, and systemic TFPI activity and systemic coagulation were not affected. Histopathology revealed no bleeding in the lungs. We conclude that nebulization of rh-TFPI seems feasible and safe; local anticoagulant treatment with rh-TFPI attenuates pulmonary coagulation, while not affecting systemic coagulation in a rat model of S. pneumoniae pneumonia.

  20. [Utilization, needs, and related factors for e-learning and its application to education and training in occupational safety and health among enterprises in Japan].

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Takao, Soshi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Kawakami, Norito

    2006-09-01

    In order to know utilization, needs, and related factors for e-learning and its application to education and training in occupational safety and health (OSH) among enterprises in Japan, a questionnaire survey was conducted of enterprises randomly selected from those with 1,000 or more employees and those with 999 or less (500 for each). Data from 134 (56 and 78, respectively) enterprises were analyzed (response rate, 13%). Among total enterprises, 19% had introduced and 16% planned to introduce e-learning. However, only 7% of larger enterprises and less than 3% of smaller enterprises used e-learning for education and training in OSH. On the other hand, 80-90% of enterprises responded positively to considering the use of e-learning for education and training on various OSH topics for various users. Highly rated merits of e-learning were "can use whenever", "can use anywhere"; and its highly rated obstacles were "cost", "individual PC not available", "insufficient information on efficacy". However, the merit "can monitor training" was significantly associated with the use/plan of e-learning. "Good contents not available" was more frequent among enterprises which used/planned e-learning. The study indicated a greater need for e-learning based OSH education and training, despite a currently low rate of its use. Improvement of e-learning platforms and contents, reduction of cost, and improvement of e-learning infrastructure at work may be needed to facilitate the use of e-learning in OSH.

  1. Novel electric power-driven hydrodynamic injection system for gene delivery: safety and efficacy of human factor IX delivery in rats.

    PubMed

    Yokoo, T; Kamimura, K; Suda, T; Kanefuji, T; Oda, M; Zhang, G; Liu, D; Aoyagi, Y

    2013-08-01

    The development of a safe and reproducible gene delivery system is an essential step toward the clinical application of the hydrodynamic gene delivery (HGD) method. For this purpose, we have developed a novel electric power-driven injection system called the HydroJector-EM, which can replicate various time-pressure curves preloaded into the computer program before injection. The assessment of the reproducibility and safety of gene delivery system in vitro and in vivo demonstrated the precise replication of intravascular time-pressure curves and the reproducibility of gene delivery efficiency. The highest level of luciferase expression (272 pg luciferase per mg of proteins) was achieved safely using the time-pressure curve, which reaches 30 mm Hg in 10 s among various curves tested. Using this curve, the sustained expression of a therapeutic level of human factor IX protein (>500 ng ml(-1)) was maintained for 2 months after the HGD of the pBS-HCRHP-FIXIA plasmid. Other than a transient increase in liver enzymes that recovered in a few days, no adverse events were seen in rats. These results confirm the effectiveness of the HydroJector-EM for reproducible gene delivery and demonstrate that long-term therapeutic gene expression can be achieved by automatic computer-controlled hydrodynamic injection that can be performed by anyone.

  2. CFD [computational fluid dynamics] And Safety Factors. Computer modeling of complex processes needs old-fashioned experiments to stay in touch with reality.

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Poirier, Michael R.; Steeper, Timothy J.; Ervin, Robert C.; Giddings, Billy J.; Stefanko, David B.; Harp, Keith D.; Fowley, Mark D.; Van Pelt, William B.

    2012-10-07

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is recognized as a powerful engineering tool. That is, CFD has advanced over the years to the point where it can now give us deep insight into the analysis of very complex processes. There is a danger, though, that an engineer can place too much confidence in a simulation. If a user is not careful, it is easy to believe that if you plug in the numbers, the answer comes out, and you are done. This assumption can lead to significant errors. As we discovered in the course of a study on behalf of the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina, CFD models fail to capture some of the large variations inherent in complex processes. These variations, or scatter, in experimental data emerge from physical tests and are inadequately captured or expressed by calculated mean values for a process. This anomaly between experiment and theory can lead to serious errors in engineering analysis and design unless a correction factor, or safety factor, is experimentally validated. For this study, blending times for the mixing of salt solutions in large storage tanks were the process of concern under investigation. This study focused on the blending processes needed to mix salt solutions to ensure homogeneity within waste tanks, where homogeneity is required to control radioactivity levels during subsequent processing. Two of the requirements for this task were to determine the minimum number of submerged, centrifugal pumps required to blend the salt mixtures in a full-scale tank in half a day or less, and to recommend reasonable blending times to achieve nearly homogeneous salt mixtures. A full-scale, low-flow pump with a total discharge flow rate of 500 to 800 gpm was recommended with two opposing 2.27-inch diameter nozzles. To make this recommendation, both experimental and CFD modeling were performed. Lab researchers found that, although CFD provided good estimates of an average blending time, experimental blending times varied

  3. TJC: HCOs need to be on alert for HIT problems related to sociotechnical factors, take steps to improve safety culture, process, and leadership.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    Noting that too many errors related to health information technology (HIT) are resulting in adverse consequences, The Joint Commission (TJC) has issued a Sentinel Event Alert, urging health care providers to take steps to improve their safety culture, approach to process improvement, and leadership in this area. In this latest alert, the accrediting agency is taking particular aim at risks posed by sociotechnical factors--or the ways in which HIT is implemented and used. Experts say that many of these risks are, in fact, exemplified at a higher level in the emergency setting, where providers are under constant pressure to see more patients and move them though the system faster. In an analysis of 3,375 sentinel events that resulted in permanent patient harm or death between January 1, 2010, and June 20, 2013, The Joint Commission (TJC) found that 120 events included HIT-related contributing factors. Many of the problems cited by TJC relate to orders or medicines being prescribed for the wrong patients. These can result from toggling errors or pop-up screens where providers are asked to click on the appropriate patient or medicine, and they mistakenly click on the wrong selection. In the ED, experts recommend the creation of a multidisciplinary performance improvement group to continuously monitor the ED information system (EDIS), recognize problems, and work with the vendor to resolve them. Also important is a quick and easy way for providers to report HIT-related problems. Experts add that emergency providers need to be fully engaged in the process of selecting HIT that they will be using, and that health care organizations should arrange for usability assessments before purchasing HIT.

  4. System Safety Analysis Application Guide. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) is committed to performing and documenting safety analyses for facilities it manages for the Department of Energy (DOE). Safety analyses are performed to identify hazards and potential accidents; to analyze the adequacy of measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate hazards; and to evaluate potential accidents and determine associated risks. Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) are prepared to document the safety analysis to ensure facilities can be operated safely and in accordance with regulations. SARs include Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), which are specific technical and administrative requirements that prescribe limits and controls to ensure safe operation of DOE facilities. These documented descriptions and analyses contribute to the authorization basis for facility operation. Energy Systems has established a process to perform Unreviewed Safety Question Determinations (USQDs) for planned changes and as-found conditions that are not described and analyzed in existing safety analyses. The process evaluates changes and as-found conditions to determine whether revisions to the authorization basis must be reviewed and approved by DOE. There is an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) if a change introduces conditions not bounded by the facility authorization basis. When it is necessary to request DOE approval to revise the authorization basis, preparation of a System Safety Analysis (SSA) is recommended. This application guide describes the process of preparing an SSA and the desired contents of an SSA. Guidance is provided on how to identify items and practices which are important to safety; how to determine the credibility and significance of consequences of proposed accident scenarios; how to evaluate accident prevention and mitigation features of the planned change; and how to establish special requirements to ensure that a change can be implemented with adequate safety.

  5. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  6. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  7. Efficacy and safety of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of advanced thyroid cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Yimaer, Wufuer; Abudouyimu, Aizizi; Tian, Ye; Magaoweiya, Sailike; Bagedati, Duman; Wen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Background We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the efficacy and safety of the US Food and Drug Administration approved vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFR-TKIs) in the treatment of advanced thyroid cancer. Patients and methods We included prospective randomized controlled trials that compared VEGFR-TKIs with placebo for advanced thyroid cancer. The endpoints included safety (fatal adverse events [FAEs], treatment discontinuation, and any severe [grade 3 or 4] adverse events [AEs]) and efficacy (objective response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival). The pooled relative risk (RR) or hazard ratio (HR) was calculated by using either random-effects or fixed-effects models according to the heterogeneity of included studies. Results A total of 1,614 advanced thyroid cancer patients from five randomized controlled trials were identified for analysis. Compared with placebo alone, VEGFR-TKIs significantly increased the risk of treatment discontinuation (RR: 3.80, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.56–5.65, P<0.001) and any severe AEs (RR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.72–4.03, P<0.001), but not of FAEs (RR: 1.24, 95% CI: 0.65–2.39, P=0.52). The use of VEGFR-TKIs in advanced thyroid cancer was associated with a significant improvement in objective response rate (RR: 8.73, 95% CI: 1.72–44.4, P=0.009) and progression-free survival (HR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.27–0.61, P<0.001), with a tendency to improve overall survival (HR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.68–1.01, P=0.06). Conclusion The use of small-molecule VEGFR-TKIs in advanced thyroid cancer did significantly increase the risk of treatment discontinuation and any severe AEs, but not of FAEs, compared with placebo alone. It is important for physicians to weigh the risk of toxicities as well as the potential survival benefits associated with VEGFR-TKI treatment in advanced thyroid cancer patients. PMID:27022276

  8. Medication safety.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Carol A; Bates, David W

    2008-03-01

    Patient safety is a state of mind, not a technology. The technologies used in the medical setting represent tools that must be properly designed, used well, and assessed on an on-going basis. Moreover, in all settings, building a culture of safety is pivotal for improving safety, and many nontechnologic approaches, such as medication reconciliation and teaching patients about their medications, are also essential. This article addresses the topic of medication safety and examines specific strategies being used to decrease the incidence of medication errors across various clinical settings.

  9. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Faria-Schützer, Débora Bicudo; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani de Castro; Alves, Vera Lucia Pereira; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control. Methods and Findings Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1) The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2) The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3) The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4) The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant. Conclusions During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman. PMID:26529600

  10. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David J.; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6–12 (n = 1203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in comprehension. Results suggest that there is considerable growth across the middle and high school years, particularly for adequate comprehenders in those text integration processes that maintain local coherence. Accuracy in text consistency judgments accounted for significant unique variance for passage-level, but not sentence-level comprehension, particularly for adequate comprehenders. PMID:26166946

  11. Using Multitheory Model of Health Behavior Change to Predict Adequate Sleep Behavior.

    PubMed

    Knowlden, Adam P; Sharma, Manoj; Nahar, Vinayak K

    The purpose of this article was to use the multitheory model of health behavior change in predicting adequate sleep behavior in college students. A valid and reliable survey was administered in a cross-sectional design (n = 151). For initiation of adequate sleep behavior, the construct of behavioral confidence (P < .001) was found to be significant and accounted for 24.4% of the variance. For sustenance of adequate sleep behavior, changes in social environment (P < .02), emotional transformation (P < .001), and practice for change (P < .001) were significant and accounted for 34.2% of the variance.

  12. Polyphenol oxidase activity as a potential intrinsic index of adequate thermal pasteurization of apple cider.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Ingham, B H; Ingham, S C

    2004-05-01

    In response to increasing concerns about microbial safety of apple cider, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has mandated treatment of cider sufficient for a 5-log reduction of the target pathogen. Pasteurization has been suggested as the treatment most likely to achieve a 5-log reduction, with Escherichia coli O157:H7 as the target pathogen. Regulators and processors need a reliable method for verifying pasteurization, and apple cider polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity was studied as a potential intrinsic index for thermal pasteurization. The effect of pasteurization conditions and apple cider properties on PPO activity and survival of three pathogens (E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes) was studied using a Box-Behnken response surface design. Factors considered in the design were pasteurization conditions, i.e., hold temperature (60, 68, and 76 degrees C), preheat time (10, 20, 30 s), and hold time (0, 15, 30 s), pH, and sugar content ((o)Brix) of apple cider. Response surface contour plots were constructed to illustrate the effect of these factors on PPO activity and pathogen survival. Reduction in PPO activity of at least 50% was equivalent to a 5-log reduction in E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes for cider at pH 3.7 and 12.5 (o)Brix. Further studies, however, are needed to verify the relationship between PPO activity and pathogen reduction in cider with various pH and (o)Brix values.

  13. 75 FR 8563 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Pier 66, Elliot Bay, WA to ensure adequate safety of the boating public during multiple naval and... Pier 66, Elliot Bay, WA to ensure adequate safety for the public during multiple naval and aerial... these events have historically resulted in vessel congestion near Pier 66, Elliot Bay, WA...

  14. Solidifying Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covault, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Solidifying Safety: NASA s new safety organization spools up, as the 1SS program grapples with long-term risk. 2. Earth to Orbit O'Keefe telling skeptical lawmakers Orbital Space Plan (OSP) will cover exploration vision. China's rapid pace.

  15. Safety Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  16. Lab Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Sandra S.

    1991-01-01

    In response to the Texas Hazardous Communication Act (THCA) of 1986 which raised many new health and liability issues regarding students in science laboratories, a laboratory safety survey was generated for use in evaluating laboratory safety. This article contains the easy-to-use survey. (ZWH)

  17. Safety First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Ned Miller does not take security lightly. As director of campus safety and emergency management at the Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC), any threat requires serious consideration. As community college administrators adopt a more proactive approach to campus safety, many institutions are experimenting with emerging technologies, including…

  18. Impact of Passive Safety on FHR Instrumentation Systems Design and Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs) will rely more extensively on passive safety than earlier reactor classes. 10CFR50 Appendix A, General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, establishes minimum design requirements to provide reasonable assurance of adequate safety. 10CFR50.69, Risk-Informed Categorization and Treatment of Structures, Systems and Components for Nuclear Power Reactors, provides guidance on how the safety significance of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) should be reflected in their regulatory treatment. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) has provided 10 CFR 50.69 SSC Categorization Guideline (NEI-00-04) that factors in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model insights, as well as deterministic insights, through an integrated decision-making panel. Employing the PRA to inform deterministic requirements enables an appropriately balanced, technically sound categorization to be established. No FHR currently has an adequate PRA or set of design basis accidents to enable establishing the safety classification of its SSCs. While all SSCs used to comply with the general design criteria (GDCs) will be safety related, the intent is to limit the instrumentation risk significance through effective design and reliance on inherent passive safety characteristics. For example, FHRs have no safety-significant temperature threshold phenomena, thus enabling the primary and reserve reactivity control systems required by GDC 26 to be passively, thermally triggered at temperatures well below those for which core or primary coolant boundary damage would occur. Moreover, the passive thermal triggering of the primary and reserve shutdown systems may relegate the control rod drive motors to the control system, substantially decreasing the amount of safety-significant wiring needed. Similarly, FHR decay heat removal systems are intended to be running continuously to minimize the amount of safety-significant instrumentation needed to initiate

  19. Organizational Culture and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Catherine A.

    2003-01-01

    '..only a fool perseveres in error.' Cicero. Humans will break the most advanced technological devices and override safety and security systems if they are given the latitude. Within the workplace, the operator may be just one of several factors in causing accidents or making risky decisions. Other variables considered for their involvement in the negative and often catastrophic outcomes include the organizational context and culture. Many organizations have constructed and implemented safety programs to be assimilated into their culture to assure employee commitment and understanding of the importance of everyday safety. The purpose of this paper is to examine literature on organizational safety cultures and programs that attempt to combat vulnerability, risk taking behavior and decisions and identify the role of training in attempting to mitigate unsafe acts.

  20. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-06-13

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe Use of Lasers references this requirement through several sections. One such reference is Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''. The composition, frequency and rigor of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms It is common for audit findings from one inspector or inspection to the next to vary even when reviewing the same material. How often has one heard a comment, ''well this area has been inspected several times over the years and no one ever said this or that was a problem before''. A great number of audit items, and therefore findings, are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the auditor to particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage, to one set of eyes might be completely adequate, while to another, inadequate. In order to provide consistency, the Laser Safety Office of the National Ignition Facility Directorate has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. The criteria are distributed to laser users. It serves two broad purposes; first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor. Second, it is an opportunity to explain audit items to the laser user and thus the reasons for some of these items, such as labelling of beam blocks.

  1. Region 8: Colorado Lamar and Steamboat Springs Adequate Letter (11/12/2002)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Lamar and Steamboat Springs particulate matter (PM10) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes

  2. 75 FR 5893 - Suspension of Community Eligibility for Failure To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management Regulations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency... floodplain management regulations meeting minimum requirements under the National Flood Insurance Program... they have brought their floodplain management regulations into compliance with the NFIP...

  3. Region 9: California Adequate / Inadequate Letter Attachment (5/30/2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a document that states that it has been found adequate for transportation conformitypurposes certain 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 motor vehicleemissions budgets in the 2007 South Coast StateImplementation Plan.

  4. Recombinant factor IX-Fc fusion protein (rFIXFc) demonstrates safety and prolonged activity in a phase 1/2a study in hemophilia B patients

    PubMed Central

    Ragni, Margaret V.; Valentino, Leonard A.; Key, Nigel S.; Josephson, Neil C.; Powell, Jerry S.; Cheng, Gregory; Thompson, Arthur R.; Goyal, Jaya; Tubridy, Karen L.; Peters, Robert T.; Dumont, Jennifer A.; Euwart, Donald; Li, Lian; Hallén, Bengt; Gozzi, Peter; Bitonti, Alan J.; Jiang, Haiyan; Luk, Alvin

    2012-01-01

    Current factor IX (FIX) products display a half-life (t1/2) of ∼ 18 hours, requiring frequent intravenous infusions for prophylaxis and treatment in patients with hemophilia B. This open-label, dose-escalation trial in previously treated adult subjects with hemophilia B examined the safety and pharmacokinetics of rFIXFc. rFIXFc is a recombinant fusion protein composed of FIX and the Fc domain of human IgG1, to extend circulating time. Fourteen subjects received a single dose of rFIXFc; 1 subject each received 1, 5, 12.5, or 25 IU/kg, and 5 subjects each received 50 or 100 IU/kg. rFIXFc was well tolerated, and most adverse events were mild or moderate in intensity. No inhibitors were detected in any subject. Dose-proportional increases in rFIXFc activity and Ag exposure were observed. With baseline subtraction, mean activity terminal t1/2 and mean residence time for rFIXFc were 56.7 and 71.8 hours, respectively. This is ∼ 3-fold longer than that reported for current rFIX products. The incremental recovery of rFIXFc was 0.93 IU/dL per IU/kg, similar to plasma-derived FIX. These results show that rFIXFc may offer a viable therapeutic approach to achieve prolonged hemostatic protection and less frequent dosing in patients with hemophilia B. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00716716. PMID:22110246

  5. Nuclear safety as applied to space power reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Current space nuclear power reactor safety issues are discussed with respect to the unique characteristics of these reactors. An approach to achieving adequate safety and a perception of safety is outlined. This approach calls for a carefully conceived safety program which makes uses of lessons learned from previous terrestrial power reactor development programs. This approach includes use of risk analyses, passive safety design features, and analyses/experiments to understand and control off-design conditions. The point is made that some recent accidents concerning terrestrial power reactors do not imply that space power reactors cannot be operated safety.

  6. A Study on Factors Affecting Low Back Pain and Safety and Efficacy of NSAIDs in Acute Low Back Pain in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Srijana; Chhetri, Himal Paudel; Alam, Kadir; Thapa, Pabin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Low back pain is characterized by a range of symptoms which include pain, muscle tension or stiffness, and is localized between the shoulder blades and the folds of the buttocks, with or without spreading to the legs. Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are the drugs of choice which provide an analgesic effect for acute low back pain. Aim: To study the factors affecting low back pain, efficacy and safety of different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aceclofenac, diclofenac, naproxen and nimesulide) in low back pain. Methodology: Data collection form and numeric pain rating scale were used as study tools for studying patients’ demographies and severities of pain respectively. Patients prescribed with aceclofenac 100 mg , diclofenac 100 mg, naproxen 500 mg and nimesulide 100 mg for acute low back pain at Orthopaedics Outpatients Department of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Nepal, were enrolled in this study. The decrease in pain scores was recorded on 5th and 10th days of follow-up and pain scores were calculated. Descriptive statistics and Kruskal Wallis non parametric test were used for analysis. Results: Among 150 patients, 67.3% were females (n=101). Low back pain was more prevalent (24.7%) in age-group of 59-68 years and a positive correlation was seen. Similarly, low back pain was found to be high among people involved in agriculture, heavy weight lifters and non smokers. The decrease in average pain scores was more in the patients treated with aceclofenac (4.83 ± 0.537), followed by that in those who were treated with naproxen (4.13 ± 0.067) and diclofenac (3.84 ± 0.086). The decrease in pain scores was found to be lowest among patients who were treated with nimesulide (2.11 ± 0.148). Nimesulide presented more number of side-effects than the comparative drugs. Conclusion: Different factors affect low back pain, such as age, gender, personal habit, posture, occupation, weight lifting. Aceclofenac showed greater decrease in pain

  7. PleurX drain use in the management of malignant ascites: safety, complications, long-term patency and factors predictive of success

    PubMed Central

    Tapping, C R; Ling, L; Razack, A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this article was to assess the success, safety, complication profile and factors associated with long-term patency of tunnelled peritoneal drains (PleurX) in the treatment of refractory malignant ascites. Methods Over a 4-year period, 28 consecutive patients (32 drain insertions) with refractory malignant ascites were treated with a PleurX drain. The study group comprised 7 males and 21 females (mean age, 61 years). A combination of fluoroscopic and ultrasound guidance was used to insert 4 drains; the remaining 28 drains were inserted under ultrasound guidance alone. Patient history, biochemical profiles, pathological and procedural records and clinical follow-up until death were reviewed. Statistical analysis included multivariate logistic regression analysis and Kaplan–Meier curves (p<0.05 was considered significant). Results There was a 100% technical success rate for the insertion of the drain; there were no procedure-related deaths and no major complications. Only minor complications were reported: three (10%) immediate; three (10%) early; and two (7%) late. Factors significantly associated with these complications included current chemotherapy, low haemoglobin levels, low albumin levels, high white cell count and high c-reactive protein levels. The length of time the drains remained in situ, and therefore patent, ranged from 5 to 365 days (mean, 113 days). Out of the original 28 tunnelled drains, 24 (86%) remained in situ and functioning until the patients’ death. Four (14%) drains dislodged and a subsequent PleurX drain was inserted on the opposite side of the abdominal wall. These new drains remained patent until the patient’s death. The annual event rate was 0.45 events per year. A comorbid diagnosis of renal disease or chemotherapy was significantly related to a decreased length of patency. Conclusion The use of tunnelled peritoneal drains is safe and effective and we would advocate their use as a first-line approach in

  8. Defining an adequate sample of earlywood vessels for retrospective injury detection in diffuse-porous species.

    PubMed

    Arbellay, Estelle; Corona, Christophe; Stoffel, Markus; Fonti, Patrick; Decaulne, Armelle

    2012-01-01

    Vessels of broad-leaved trees have been analyzed to study how trees deal with various environmental factors. Cambial injury, in particular, has been reported to induce the formation of narrower conduits. Yet, little or no effort has been devoted to the elaboration of vessel sampling strategies for retrospective injury detection based on vessel lumen size reduction. To fill this methodological gap, four wounded individuals each of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were harvested in an avalanche path. Earlywood vessel lumina were measured and compared for each tree between the injury ring built during the growing season following wounding and the control ring laid down the previous year. Measurements were performed along a 10 mm wide radial strip, located directly next to the injury. Specifically, this study aimed at (i) investigating the intra-annual duration and local extension of vessel narrowing close to the wound margin and (ii) identifying an adequate sample of earlywood vessels (number and intra-ring location of cells) attesting to cambial injury. Based on the results of this study, we recommend analyzing at least 30 vessels in each ring. Within the 10 mm wide segment of the injury ring, wound-induced reduction in vessel lumen size did not fade with increasing radial and tangential distances, but we nevertheless advise favoring early earlywood vessels located closest to the injury. These findings, derived from two species widespread across subarctic, mountainous, and temperate regions, will assist retrospective injury detection in Alnus, Betula, and other diffuse-porous species as well as future related research on hydraulic implications after wounding.

  9. Defining an Adequate Sample of Earlywood Vessels for Retrospective Injury Detection in Diffuse-Porous Species

    PubMed Central

    Arbellay, Estelle; Corona, Christophe; Stoffel, Markus; Fonti, Patrick; Decaulne, Armelle

    2012-01-01

    Vessels of broad-leaved trees have been analyzed to study how trees deal with various environmental factors. Cambial injury, in particular, has been reported to induce the formation of narrower conduits. Yet, little or no effort has been devoted to the elaboration of vessel sampling strategies for retrospective injury detection based on vessel lumen size reduction. To fill this methodological gap, four wounded individuals each of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were harvested in an avalanche path. Earlywood vessel lumina were measured and compared for each tree between the injury ring built during the growing season following wounding and the control ring laid down the previous year. Measurements were performed along a 10 mm wide radial strip, located directly next to the injury. Specifically, this study aimed at (i) investigating the intra-annual duration and local extension of vessel narrowing close to the wound margin and (ii) identifying an adequate sample of earlywood vessels (number and intra-ring location of cells) attesting to cambial injury. Based on the results of this study, we recommend analyzing at least 30 vessels in each ring. Within the 10 mm wide segment of the injury ring, wound-induced reduction in vessel lumen size did not fade with increasing radial and tangential distances, but we nevertheless advise favoring early earlywood vessels located closest to the injury. These findings, derived from two species widespread across subarctic, mountainous, and temperate regions, will assist retrospective injury detection in Alnus, Betula, and other diffuse-porous species as well as future related research on hydraulic implications after wounding. PMID:22761707

  10. The Goal of Adequate Nutrition: Can It Be Made Affordable, Sustainable, and Universal?

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Ian

    2016-11-30

    Until about 1900, large proportions of the world population endured hunger and poverty. The 20th century saw world population increase from 1.6 to 6.1 billion, accompanied and to some extent made possible by rapid improvements in health standards and food supply, with associated advances in agricultural and nutrition sciences. In this paper, I use the application of linear programming (LP) in preparation of rations for farm animals to illustrate a method of calculating the lowest cost of a human diet selected from locally available food items, constrained to provide recommended levels of food energy and nutrients; then, to find a realistic minimum cost, I apply the further constraint that the main sources of food energy in the costed diet are weighted in proportion to the actual reported consumption of food items in that area. Worldwide variations in dietary preferences raise the issue as to the sustainability of popular dietary regimes, and the paper reviews the factors associated with satisfying requirements for adequate nutrition within those regimes. The ultimate physical constraints on food supply are described, together with the ways in which climate change may affect those constraints. During the 20th century, food supply increased sufficiently in most areas to keep pace with the rapid increase in world population. Many challenges will need to be overcome if food supply is to continue to meet demand, and those challenges are made more severe by rising expectations of quality of life in the developing world, as well as by the impacts of climate change on agriculture and aquaculture.

  11. The Goal of Adequate Nutrition: Can It Be Made Affordable, Sustainable, and Universal?

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Until about 1900, large proportions of the world population endured hunger and poverty. The 20th century saw world population increase from 1.6 to 6.1 billion, accompanied and to some extent made possible by rapid improvements in health standards and food supply, with associated advances in agricultural and nutrition sciences. In this paper, I use the application of linear programming (LP) in preparation of rations for farm animals to illustrate a method of calculating the lowest cost of a human diet selected from locally available food items, constrained to provide recommended levels of food energy and nutrients; then, to find a realistic minimum cost, I apply the further constraint that the main sources of food energy in the costed diet are weighted in proportion to the actual reported consumption of food items in that area. Worldwide variations in dietary preferences raise the issue as to the sustainability of popular dietary regimes, and the paper reviews the factors associated with satisfying requirements for adequate nutrition within those regimes. The ultimate physical constraints on food supply are described, together with the ways in which climate change may affect those constraints. During the 20th century, food supply increased sufficiently in most areas to keep pace with the rapid increase in world population. Many challenges will need to be overcome if food supply is to continue to meet demand, and those challenges are made more severe by rising expectations of quality of life in the developing world, as well as by the impacts of climate change on agriculture and aquaculture. PMID:28231177

  12. Software safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.

  13. The Evolution of System Safety at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Everett, Chris; Groen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The NASA system safety framework is in the process of change, motivated by the desire to promote an objectives-driven approach to system safety that explicitly focuses system safety efforts on system-level safety performance, and serves to unify, in a purposeful manner, safety-related activities that otherwise might be done in a way that results in gaps, redundancies, or unnecessary work. An objectives-driven approach to system safety affords more flexibility to determine, on a system-specific basis, the means by which adequate safety is achieved and verified. Such flexibility and efficiency is becoming increasingly important in the face of evolving engineering modalities and acquisition models, where, for example, NASA will increasingly rely on commercial providers for transportation services to low-earth orbit. A key element of this objectives-driven approach is the use of the risk-informed safety case (RISC): a structured argument, supported by a body of evidence, that provides a compelling, comprehensible and valid case that a system is or will be adequately safe for a given application in a given environment. The RISC addresses each of the objectives defined for the system, providing a rational basis for making informed risk acceptance decisions at relevant decision points in the system life cycle.

  14. Obstacles to Laser Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-04-25

    The growth of laser development & technology has been remarkable. Unfortunately, a number of traps or obstacles to laser safety have also developed with that growth. The goal of this article is to highlight those traps, in the hope that an aware laser user will avoid them. These traps have been the cause or contributing factor of many a preventable laser accident.

  15. Sun Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links Buttons and Badges Stay Informed Cancer Home Sun Safety Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays can damage your skin in ...

  16. Barriers to help-seeking, detection, and adequate treatment for anxiety and mood disorders: implications for health care policy.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, David

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the focus of health policies and initiatives has been directed toward mental health. More precisely, depressive and anxiety disorders have received particular attention because of their disabling outcomes and prevalence among most populations. Despite this increased interest, numerous issues regarding patients' willingness to seek treatment and the adequate recognition and treatment of these disorders by clinicians remain to be addressed. This article considers the factors that influence patients and physicians in their reticence to acknowledge and adequately treat depression and anxiety disorders. It also reviews the impact of society and the media, together with other factors relating to health care organization and administration that affect the treatment of depression and anxiety. In view of the multifaceted challenge involved, efforts to achieve a consensus in determining treatment for those with depressive and anxiety disorders are essential. A consensus will require easy, measurable, and reliable disability indicators; evidence that treatment of patients with varying levels of need is cost effective; and that persons who most need and would benefit from care can be reliably identified among the highly prevalent population of persons with more transient symptoms. Governments and other policymakers should be encouraged to provide appropriate coverage for access to primary and secondary care, the treatments required, and sufficient resources so that care is available when necessary. An important aspect of the challenge is to incorporate these efforts within the realistic constraints of primary care.

  17. In vivo locomotor strain in the hindlimb bones of alligator mississippiensis and iguana iguana: implications for the evolution of limb bone safety factor and non-sprawling limb posture

    PubMed

    Blob; Biewener

    1999-05-01

    Limb postures of terrestrial tetrapods span a continuum from sprawling to fully upright; however, most experimental investigations of locomotor mechanics have focused on mammals and ground-dwelling birds that employ parasagittal limb kinematics, leaving much of the diversity of tetrapod locomotor mechanics unexplored. This study reports measurements of in vivo locomotor strain from the limb bones of lizard (Iguana iguana) and crocodilian (Alligator mississippiensis) species, animals from previously unsampled phylogenetic lineages with non-parasagittal limb posture and kinematics. Principal strain orientations and shear strain magnitudes indicate that the limb bones of these species experience considerable torsion during locomotion. This contrasts with patterns commonly observed in mammals, but matches predictions from kinematic observations of axial rotation in lizard and crocodilian limbs. Comparisons of locomotor load magnitudes with the mechanical properties of limb bones in Alligator and Iguana indicate that limb bone safety factors in bending for these species range from 5.5 to 10.8, as much as twice as high as safety factors previously calculated for mammals and birds. Limb bone safety factors in shear (3.9-5.4) for Alligator and Iguana are also moderately higher than safety factors to yield in bending for birds and mammals. Finally, correlations between limb posture and strain magnitudes in Alligator show that at some recording locations limb bone strains can increase during upright locomotion, in contrast to expectations based on size-correlated changes in posture among mammals that limb bone strains should decrease with the use of an upright posture. These data suggest that, in some lineages, strain magnitudes may not have been maintained at constant levels through the evolution of a non-sprawling posture unless the postural change was accompanied by a shift to parasagittal kinematics or by an evolutionary decrease in body size.

  18. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The human factors frequency considered a cause of or contributor to hazardous events onboard air carriers are examined with emphasis on distractions. Safety reports that have been analyzed, processed, and entered into the aviation safety reporting system data base are discussed. A sampling of alert bulletins and responses to them is also presented.

  19. Systematic review and network meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of tumour necrosis factor inhibitor–methotrexate combination therapy versus triple therapy in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Fleischmann, Roy; Tongbram, Vanita; van Vollenhoven, Ronald; Tang, Derek H; Chung, James; Collier, David; Urs, Shilpa; Ndirangu, Kerigo; Wells, George; Pope, Janet

    2017-01-01

    Objective Clinical trials have not consistently demonstrated differences between tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) plus methotrexate and triple therapy (methotrexate plus hydroxychloroquine plus sulfasalazine) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The study objective was to estimate the efficacy, radiographic benefits, safety and patient-reported outcomes of TNFi–methotrexate versus triple therapy in patients with RA. Methods A systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) of randomised controlled trials of TNFi–methotrexate or triple therapy as one of the treatment arms in patients with an inadequate response to or who were naive to methotrexate was conducted. American College of Rheumatology 70% response criteria (ACR70) at 6 months was the prespecified primary endpoint to evaluate depth of response. Data from direct and indirect comparisons between TNFi–methotrexate and triple therapy were pooled and quantitatively analysed using fixed-effects and random-effects Bayesian models. Results We analysed 33 studies in patients with inadequate response to methotrexate and 19 in patients naive to methotrexate. In inadequate responders, triple therapy was associated with lower odds of achieving ACR70 at 6 months compared with TNFi–methotrexate (OR 0.35, 95% credible interval (CrI) 0.19 to 0.64). Most secondary endpoints tended to favour TNFi–methotrexate in terms of OR direction; however, no clear increased likelihood of achieving these endpoints was observed for either therapy. The odds of infection were lower with triple therapy than with TNFi−methotrexate (OR 0.08, 95% CrI 0.00 to 0.57). There were no differences observed between the two regimens in patients naive to methotrexate. Conclusions In this NMA, triple therapy was associated with 65% lower odds of achieving ACR70 at 6 months compared with TNFi–methotrexate in patients with inadequate response to methotrexate. Although secondary endpoints numerically favoured TNFi–methotrexate, no

  20. Physics-based control-oriented modeling and robust feedback control of the plasma safety factor profile and stored energy dynamics in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Justin E.; Besseghir, Karim; Lister, Jo; Schuster, Eugenio

    2015-11-01

    Many challenging plasma control problems still need to be addressed in order for the ITER plasma control system (PCS) to be able to maintain the plasma within a predefined operational space and optimize the plasma state evolution in the tokamak, which will greatly aid in the successful achievement of ITER’s goals. Firstly in this work, a general control-oriented, physics-based modeling approach is developed to obtain first-principles-driven (FPD) models of the plasma magnetic profile and stored energy evolutions valid for high performance, high confinement (H-mode) scenarios, with the goal of developing model-based closed-loop algorithms to control the safety factor profile (q profile) and stored energy evolutions in the tokamak. The FPD model is tailored to H-mode burning plasma scenarios in ITER by employing the DINA-CH & CRONOS free-boundary tokamak simulation code, and the FPD model’s prediction capabilities are demonstrated by comparing the prediction to data obtained from DINA-CH & CRONOS. Secondly, a model-based feedback control algorithm is designed to simultaneously track target q profile and stored energy evolutions in H-mode burning plasma scenarios in ITER by embedding the developed FPD model of the magnetic profile evolution into the control design process. The feedback controller is designed to ensure that the closed-loop system is robust to uncertainties in the electron density, electron temperature and plasma resistivity, and is tested in simulations with the developed FPD model. The effectiveness of the controller is demonstrated by first tracking nominal q profile and stored energy target evolutions, and then modulating the generated fusion power while maintaining the q profile in a stationary condition. In the process, many key practical issues for plasma profile control in ITER are investigated, which will be useful for the development of the ITER PCS that has recently been initiated. Some of the more pertinent investigated issues are the

  1. 43 CFR 3162.5-3 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety precautions. 3162.5-3 Section 3162.5-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... necessary to provide adequate protection for the health and safety of life and the protection of...

  2. Importance of adequate exercise in the detection of coronary heart disease by radionuclide ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.H.; Lo, K.; Pitt, B.

    1980-12-01

    Rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculograms were obtained on 77 symptomatic patients without prior documented coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary artery disease was present by angiograms in 48. Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) was abnormal in 41 patients (overall sensitivity 85%). In 29 patients with normal coronary arteries, RNV was normal in 24 (specificity 83%). To determine if the exercise level affects sensitivity, the studies were graded for adequacy of exercise. It was considered adequate if patients developed (a) chest pain, or (b) ST segment depression of at least 1 mm, or (c) if they achieved a pressure rate product greater than 250. Among the 48 patients with coronary artery disease, 35 achieved adequate exercise. Thirty-three had an abnormal RNV (sensitivity 94%). In 13 patients who failed to achieve adequate exercise, RNV was abnormal in eight (sensitivity of only 62%). Some patients with coronary artery disease may have a normal ventricular response at inadequate levels of stress.

  3. [Prevention of ocular complications of herpes zoster ophthalmicus by adequate treatment with acyclovir].

    PubMed

    Borruat, F X; Buechi, E R; Piguet, B; Fitting, P; Zografos, L; Herbort, C P

    1991-05-01

    We compared the frequency of severe ocular complications secondary to Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus (HZO) in 232 patients. They were divided into three groups: 1) patients without treatment (n = 164); 2) patients treated adequately (n = 48) with acyclovir (ACV; 5 x 800 mg/d orally and ophthalmic ointment 5 x /d for a minimum of 7 days, given within three days after skin eruption); and, 3) patients treated inadequately (n = 20) with ACV (only topical treatment, insufficient doses, interrupted treatment, delayed treatment). Patients with no treatment or with inadequate treatments showed the same frequency of severe ocular complications (21% (34/164) and 25% (5/20), respectively). In contrast, when adequate treatment of ACV was given complications occurred in only 4% (2/48) of cases. This study emphasizes the need for prompt (within three days after skin eruption) and adequate (5 x 800 mg/d for at least 7 days) treatment of ACV to prevent the severe complications of HZO.

  4. System safety education focused on flight safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  5. Fire safety. Explosion safety - Handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratov, Anatolii Nikolaevich

    The physicochemical principles underlying combustion and explosion processes are examined, and the main fire and explosion safety characteristics of materials are reviewed with particular reference to the ignition limits of combustible mixtures, the minimal oxygen content that constitutes an explosion hazard, and the flash point and ignition temperatures. Fire-fighting and explosion suppression methods and equipment are described. The discussion also covers the efficiency of fire prevention measures and safety engineering in fire fighting.

  6. NASA System Safety Handbook. Volume 2: System Safety Concepts, Guidelines, and Implementation Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Benjamin, Allan; Everett, Christopher; Feather, Martin; Rutledge, Peter; Sen, Dev; Youngblood, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This is the second of two volumes that collectively comprise the NASA System Safety Handbook. Volume 1 (NASASP-210-580) was prepared for the purpose of presenting the overall framework for System Safety and for providing the general concepts needed to implement the framework. Volume 2 provides guidance for implementing these concepts as an integral part of systems engineering and risk management. This guidance addresses the following functional areas: 1.The development of objectives that collectively define adequate safety for a system, and the safety requirements derived from these objectives that are levied on the system. 2.The conduct of system safety activities, performed to meet the safety requirements, with specific emphasis on the conduct of integrated safety analysis (ISA) as a fundamental means by which systems engineering and risk management decisions are risk-informed. 3.The development of a risk-informed safety case (RISC) at major milestone reviews to argue that the systems safety objectives are satisfied (and therefore that the system is adequately safe). 4.The evaluation of the RISC (including supporting evidence) using a defined set of evaluation criteria, to assess the veracity of the claims made therein in order to support risk acceptance decisions.

  7. Broadband inversion of 1J(CC) responses in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra.

    PubMed

    Reibarkh, Mikhail; Williamson, R Thomas; Martin, Gary E; Bermel, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Establishing the carbon skeleton of a molecule greatly facilitates the process of structure elucidation, both manual and computer-assisted. Recent advances in the family of ADEQUATE experiments demonstrated their potential in this regard. 1,1-ADEQUATE, which provides direct (13)C-(13)C correlation via (1)J(CC), and 1,n-ADEQUATE, which typically yields (3)J(CC) and (1)J(CC) correlations, are more sensitive and more widely applicable experiments than INADEQUATE and PANACEA. A recently reported modified pulse sequence that semi-selectively inverts (1)J(CC) correlations in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra provided a significant improvement, allowing (1)J(CC) and (n)J(CC) correlations to be discerned in the same spectrum. However, the reported experiment requires a careful matching of the amplitude transfer function with (1)J(CC) coupling constants in order to achieve the inversion, and even then some (1)J(CC) correlations could still have positive intensity due to the oscillatory nature of the transfer function. Both shortcomings limit the practicality of the method. We now report a new, dual-optimized inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment, which provides more uniform inversion of (1)J(CC) correlations across the range of 29-82 Hz. Unlike the original method, the dual optimization experiment does not require fine-tuning for the molecule's (1)J(CC) coupling constant values. Even more usefully, the dual-optimized version provides up to two-fold improvement in signal-to-noise for some long-range correlations. Using modern, cryogenically-cooled probes, the experiment can be successfully applied to samples of ~1 mg under favorable circumstances. The improvements afforded by dual optimization inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment make it a useful and practical tool for NMR structure elucidation and should facilitate the implementation and utilization of the experiment.

  8. Biologic Safety in Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Yasaman

    2015-01-01

    The development of targeted biologic agents has revolutionized the treatment of psoriasis. In this review, the authors focus on the published long-term (≥ one year) safety data for the use of tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab, as well as the IL-12/IL-23 antagonist ustekinumab, in adult patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. The efficacy of these currently available biologic therapies has been demonstrated in several studies, and their safety profiles are also reassuring. PMID:25741401

  9. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Melody S; Gaskin, Darrell J; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2012-09-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent's race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth.

  10. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy

    PubMed Central

    Gaskin, Darrell J.; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D.; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent’s race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth. PMID:22658579

  11. Relationship between organizational justice and organizational safety climate: do fairness perceptions influence employee safety behaviour?

    PubMed

    Gyekye, Seth Ayim; Haybatollahi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between organizational justice, organizational safety climate, job satisfaction, safety compliance and accident frequency. Ghanaian industrial workers participated in the study (N = 320). Safety climate and justice perceptions were assessed with Hayes, Parender, Smecko, et al.'s (1998) and Blader and Tyler's (2003) scales respectively. A median split was performed to dichotomize participants into 2 categories: workers with positive and workers with negative justice perceptions. Confirmatory factors analysis confirmed the 5-factor structure of the safety scale. Regression analyses and t tests indicated that workers with positive fairness perceptions had constructive perspectives regarding workplace safety, expressed greater job satisfaction, were more compliant with safety policies and registered lower accident rates. These findings provide evidence that the perceived level of fairness in an organization is closely associated with workplace safety perception and other organizational factors which are important for safety. The implications for safety research are discussed.

  12. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...

  13. Electronic Informational and Educational Environment as a Factor of Competence-Oriented Higher Pedagogical Education in the Sphere of Health, Safety and Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamerilova, Galina S.; Kartavykh, Marina A.; Ageeva, Elena L.; Veryaskina, Marina A.; Ruban, Elena M.

    2016-01-01

    The authors consider the question of computerisation in health, safety and environment teachers' training in the context of the general approaches and requirements of the Federal National Standard of Higher Education, which is realised through designing of electronic informational and educational environment. The researchers argue indispensability…

  14. Negotiating safety when staffing falls short.

    PubMed

    Zolnierek, Cindy Diamond; Steckel, Cynthia M

    2010-06-01

    Adequate nurse staffing is inextricably linked to patient outcomes and, although optimal staffing levels for inpatient hospital units are widely debated, staffing standards for critical care areas such as intensive care units may be less variable. Even established staffing levels cannot guarantee adequate staffing. The nursing workforce shortage has affected all areas of nursing practice, but perhaps no area more severely than critical care. New treatments and procedures increase the number of individuals requiring intensive inpatient care and emergency rooms receive increased requests for nonemergent as well as critical care. There are times when staffing fails to meet desired levels and nurses are challenged to meet their duty to the patient for safety. The purpose of this article is to identify the safety challenges posed when staffing levels are less than planned in critical care settings and discuss individual, organizational, and policy-oriented strategies for protecting patient safety.

  15. Safety analysis report for the Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bengston, S.J.

    1994-05-01

    This safety analysis report outlines the safety concerns associated with the Waste Storage Facility located in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The three main objectives of the report are: define and document a safety basis for the Waste Storage Facility activities; demonstrate how the activities will be carried out to adequately protect the workers, public, and environment; and provide a basis for review and acceptance of the identified risk that the managers, operators, and owners will assume.

  16. 42 CFR 413.24 - Adequate cost data and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Adequate data capable of being audited is consistent with good business concepts and effective and efficient management of any organization, whether it is operated for profit or on a nonprofit basis. It is a... contract for services (for example, a management contract), directly assigning the costs to the...

  17. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  18. Towards Defining Adequate Lithium Trials for Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Use of lithium with mentally retarded individuals with psychiatric conditions and/or behavior disturbances is discussed. The paper describes components of an adequate clinical trial and reviews case studies and double-blind cases. The paper concludes that aggression is the best indicator for lithium use, and reviews treatment parameters and…

  19. ADEQUATE SHELTERS AND QUICK REACTIONS TO WARNING: A KEY TO CIVIL DEFENSE.

    PubMed

    LYNCH, F X

    1963-11-08

    Case histories collected by investigators in Japan during 1945 illustrate both the effectiveness of shelters and the dangers inherent in apathy of the population, which suffered needless casualties by ignoring air raid warnintgs. Adequate shelters and immediate response to warnings are essential to survival in nuclear attack.

  20. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to…