Science.gov

Sample records for adequate safety factors

  1. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  2. 75 FR 69648 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... SAFETY BOARD Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers... TO THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the... safety analysis, or DSA, is to be prepared for every DOE nuclear facility. This DSA, once approved by...

  3. 75 FR 74022 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... November 15, 2010 (75 FR 69648). The corrected text of the recommendation approved by the Board is below... or telephone number (202) 694-7000. Correction: In the Federal Register of November 15, 2010 (75 FR... SAFETY BOARD Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the...

  4. Aerostructural safety factor criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1992-01-01

    The present modification of the conventional safety factor method for aircraft structures evaluation involves the expression of deterministic safety factors in probabilistic tolerance limit ratios; these are found to involve a total of three factors that control the interference of applied and resistive stress distributions. The deterministic expression is extended so that it may furnish a 'relative ultimate safety' index that encompasses all three distribution factors. Operational reliability is developed on the basis of the applied and the yield stress distribution interferences. Industry standards are suggested to be derivable from factor selections that are based on the consequences of failure.

  5. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  6. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  7. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  8. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  9. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  10. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  11. Safety and Efficacy of Rivastigmine in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease Not Responding Adequately to Donepezil: An Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Figiel, Gary S.; Sadowsky, Carl H.; Strigas, John; Koumaras, Barbara; Meng, Xiangyi; Gunay, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Switching patients with Alzheimer's disease from one cholinesterase inhibitor to another represents a viable option for patients not responding to current therapy. The objective of this large U.S.-based study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a treatment switch to rivastigmine in patients not responding adequately to or declining on treatment with donepezil. Method: In this 26-week, prospective, open-label, single-arm, multicenter study conducted from April 24, 2003, to June 25, 2004, patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (DSM-IV-TR criteria) who were not responding to donepezil were treated with rivastigmine 3–12 mg/day. Safety and tolerability were measured by the occurrence of adverse events and patient disposition. Treatment effects on global functioning were assessed using the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) scale. Results: Two hundred seventy patients with a mean age of 78.5 (SD = 7.56) years and a mean duration of dementia of 3.5 (SD = 2.06) years were included in the study. Sixty-nine percent of patients completed the study with 17.8% discontinuing due to adverse events. Eighty-three percent of patients reported at least 1 adverse event, with the most frequently occurring adverse events affecting the gastrointestinal system (54%). The majority of patients were reported to have either improvement or no decline on the CGIC. A limitation of the study is that the interpretation of the results is based on an overall completion rate of 69%. Conclusion: Immediately switching patients from donepezil to rivastigmine without a washout period was safe and well tolerated in the current study. Additionally, these results suggest that patients not responding adequately to or declining while taking donepezil may improve or stabilize after switching to rivastigmine. PMID:18787673

  12. Factors associated with adequate weekly reporting for disease surveillance data among health facilities in Nairobi County, Kenya, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Mwatondo, Athman Juma; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Maina, Caroline; Makayotto, Lyndah; Mwangi, Moses; Njeru, Ian; Arvelo, Wences

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Kenya adopted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in 1998 to strengthen disease surveillance and epidemic response. However, the goal of weekly surveillance reporting among health facilities has not been achieved. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of adequate reporting and factors associated with IDSR reporting among health facilities in one Kenyan County. Methods Health facilities (public and private) were enrolled using stratified random sampling from 348 facilities prioritized for routine surveillance reporting. Adequately-reporting facilities were defined as those which submitted >10 weekly reports during a twelve-week period and a poor reporting facilities were those which submitted <10 weekly reports. Multivariate logistic regression with backward selection was used to identify risk factors associated with adequate reporting. Results From September 2 through November 30, 2013, we enrolled 175 health facilities; 130(74%) were private and 45(26%) were public. Of the 175 health facilities, 77 (44%) facilities classified as adequate reporting and 98 (56%) were reporting poorly. Multivariate analysis identified three factors to be independently associated with weekly adequate reporting: having weekly reporting forms at visit (AOR19, 95% CI: 6-65], having posters showing IDSR functions (AOR8, 95% CI: 2-12) and having a designated surveillance focal person (AOR7, 95% CI: 2-20). Conclusion The majority of health facilities in Nairobi County were reporting poorly to IDSR and we recommend that the Ministry of Health provide all health facilities in Nairobi County with weekly reporting tools and offer specific trainings on IDSR which will help designate a focal surveillance person. PMID:27303581

  13. Adequate hypoxia inducible factor 1α signaling is indispensable for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Stegen, Steve; Deprez, Sanne; Eelen, Guy; Torrekens, Sophie; Van Looveren, Riet; Goveia, Jermaine; Ghesquière, Bart; Carmeliet, Peter; Carmeliet, Geert

    2016-06-01

    Engineered cell-based constructs are an appealing strategy to treat large skeletal defects. However, transplanted cells are often confronted with an environment that is deprived of oxygen and nutrients. Upon hypoxia, most cell types activate hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) signaling, but its importance for implanted osteoprogenitor cells during bone regeneration is not elucidated. To this end, we specifically deleted the HIF--1α isoform in periosteal progenitor cells and show that activation of HIF-1α signaling in these cells is critical for bone repair by modulating angiogenic and metabolic processes. Activation of HIF-1α is not only crucial for blood vessel invasion, by enhancing angiogenic growth factor production, but also for periosteal cell survival early after implantation, when blood vessels have not yet invaded the construct. HIF-1α signaling limits oxygen consumption to avoid accumulation of harmful ROS and preserve redox balance, and additionally induces a switch to glycolysis to prevent energetic distress. Altogether, our results indicate that the proangiogenic capacity of implanted periosteal cells is HIF-1α regulated and that metabolic adaptations mediate post-implantation cell survival. PMID:27058876

  14. Safety and the Human Factor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ann

    1982-01-01

    Discusses four elements of safety programs: (1) safety training; (2) safety inspections; (3) accident investigations; and (4) protective safety equipment. Also discusses safety considerations in water/wastewater treatment facilities focusing on falls, drowning hazards, trickling filters, confined space entry, collection/distribution system safety,…

  15. The Dependability of the General Factor of Intelligence: Why Small, Single-Factor Models Do Not Adequately Represent "g"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Jason T.; Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Floyd, Shands, Rafael, Bergeron and McGrew (2009) used generalizability theory to test the reliability of general-factor loadings and to compare three different sources of error in them: the test battery size, the test battery composition, the factor-extraction technique, and their interactions. They found that their general-factor loadings were…

  16. Interrelation Between Safety Factors and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elishakoff, Isaac; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An evaluation was performed to establish relationships between safety factors and reliability relationships. Results obtained show that the use of the safety factor is not contradictory to the employment of the probabilistic methods. In many cases the safety factors can be directly expressed by the required reliability levels. However, there is a major difference that must be emphasized: whereas the safety factors are allocated in an ad hoc manner, the probabilistic approach offers a unified mathematical framework. The establishment of the interrelation between the concepts opens an avenue to specify safety factors based on reliability. In cases where there are several forms of failure, then the allocation of safety factors should he based on having the same reliability associated with each failure mode. This immediately suggests that by the probabilistic methods the existing over-design or under-design can be eliminated. The report includes three parts: Part 1-Random Actual Stress and Deterministic Yield Stress; Part 2-Deterministic Actual Stress and Random Yield Stress; Part 3-Both Actual Stress and Yield Stress Are Random.

  17. Human factors and safety in emergency medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, H. G.; Helmreich, R. L.; Scheidegger, D.

    1994-01-01

    A model based on an input process and outcome conceptualisation is suggested to address safety-relevant factors in emergency medicine. As shown in other dynamic and demanding environments, human factors play a decisive role in attaining high quality service. Attitudes held by health-care providers, organisational shells and work-cultural parameters determine communication, conflict resolution and workload distribution within and between teams. These factors should be taken into account to improve outcomes such as operational integrity, job satisfaction and morale.

  18. Improving Safety through Human Factors Engineering.

    PubMed

    Siewert, Bettina; Hochman, Mary G

    2015-10-01

    Human factors engineering (HFE) focuses on the design and analysis of interactive systems that involve people, technical equipment, and work environment. HFE is informed by knowledge of human characteristics. It complements existing patient safety efforts by specifically taking into consideration that, as humans, frontline staff will inevitably make mistakes. Therefore, the systems with which they interact should be designed for the anticipation and mitigation of human errors. The goal of HFE is to optimize the interaction of humans with their work environment and technical equipment to maximize safety and efficiency. Special safeguards include usability testing, standardization of processes, and use of checklists and forcing functions. However, the effectiveness of the safety program and resiliency of the organization depend on timely reporting of all safety events independent of patient harm, including perceived potential risks, bad outcomes that occur even when proper protocols have been followed, and episodes of "improvisation" when formal guidelines are found not to exist. Therefore, an institution must adopt a robust culture of safety, where the focus is shifted from blaming individuals for errors to preventing future errors, and where barriers to speaking up-including barriers introduced by steep authority gradients-are minimized. This requires creation of formal guidelines to address safety concerns, establishment of unified teams with open communication and shared responsibility for patient safety, and education of managers and senior physicians to perceive the reporting of safety concerns as a benefit rather than a threat. PMID:26466179

  19. Human factors in safety and business management.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Joachim; Leonhardt, Jorg; Koper, Birgit; Pennig, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Human factors in safety is concerned with all those factors that influence people and their behaviour in safety-critical situations. In aviation these are, for example, environmental factors in the cockpit, organisational factors such as shift work, human characteristics such as ability and motivation of staff. Careful consideration of human factors is necessary to improve health and safety at work by optimising the interaction of humans with their technical and social (team, supervisor) work environment. This provides considerable benefits for business by increasing efficiency and by preventing incidents/accidents. The aim of this paper is to suggest management tools for this purpose. Management tools such as balanced scorecards (BSC) are widespread instruments and also well known in aviation organisations. Only a few aviation organisations utilise management tools for human factors although they are the most important conditions in the safety management systems of aviation organisations. One reason for this is that human factors are difficult to measure and therefore also difficult to manage. Studies in other domains, such as workplace health promotion, indicate that BSC-based tools are useful for human factor management. Their mission is to develop a set of indicators that are sensitive to organisational performance and help identify driving forces as well as bottlenecks. Another tool presented in this paper is the Human Resources Performance Model (HPM). HPM facilitates the integrative assessment of human factors programmes on the basis of a systematic performance analysis of the whole system. Cause-effect relationships between system elements are defined in process models in a first step and validated empirically in a second step. Thus, a specific representation of the performance processes is developed, which ranges from individual behaviour to system performance. HPM is more analytic than BSC-based tools because HPM also asks why a certain factor is

  20. White Paper on Factors of Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, Ivatury; Stadler, John; Kramer-White, Jule; Piascik, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Following the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) Report, the "Diaz Team" identified CAIB Report elements with Agency-wide applicability. The "Diaz Report", A Renewed Commitment To Excellence, generated an action to "Review current policies and waivers on safety factors". This document addresses this action.

  1. Human factors and safety in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, H G; Helmreich, R L; Scheidegger, D

    1994-12-01

    A model based on an input process and outcome conceptualisation is suggested to address safety-relevant factors in emergency medicine. As shown in other dynamic and demanding environments, human factors play a decisive role in attaining high quality service. Attitudes held by health-care providers, organisational shells and work-cultural parameters determine communication, conflict resolution and workload distribution within and between teams. These factors should be taken into account to improve outcomes such as operational integrity, job satisfaction and morale. PMID:7740192

  2. [Factors associated with adequate prenatal care and delivery in São Tomé and Príncipe, 2008-2009].

    PubMed

    Reis, Patrícia Alexandra da Graça Dantas Dos; Pereira, Claudia Cristina de Aguiar; Leite, Iuri da Costa; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda

    2015-09-01

    We investigated factors associated with adequacy of prenatal and childbirth care for women in São Tomé and Príncipe. Data were analyzed from the Demographic and Health Survey on a sample of 1,326 newborn infants whose mothers were 15-49 years of age. The survey took place from September 2008 to March 2009. We used multilevel and multinomial logistic regression to analyze the association between demographic and socioeconomic factors and the target outcomes. Prenatal care was adequate in 26% of the sample, and 7% of deliveries were performed by physicians and 76% by nurses or nurse assistants. Statistically significant factors for prenatal care were birth order, maternal schooling, and index of economic well-being. The most important variables for adequate delivery were: birth order, maternal schooling, index of economic well-being, and place of residence. The study showed that socioeconomic factors have the greatest influence on adequate prenatal care and delivery. Future health policies should target social inequalities in São Tomé and Príncipe. PMID:26578017

  3. Human factors engineering and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Matthew C; Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Densmore, Emily M

    2006-12-01

    The pediatric population has features different from those of adults and that are dynamic during the pediatric age range. Pediatric-specific issues result in potential risks for harm during medical care. Basic and applied human factors research has resulted in improvements in the performance of health adults and those adults who have functional limitations. Future work should focus on systematically understanding the human factors needs of children with the goal of redesigning systems of health care to optimize the safety of children and the performance of their care providers. PMID:17126685

  4. Organizational safety factors research lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T.G.

    1995-10-01

    This Paper reports lessons learned and state of knowledge gained from an organizational factors research activity involving commercial nuclear power plants in the United States, through the end of 1991, as seen by the scientists immediately involved in the research. Lessons learned information was gathered from the research teams and individuals using a question and answer format. The following five questions were submitted to each team and individual: (1) What organizational factors appear to influence safety performance in some systematic way, (2) Should organizational factors research focus at the plant level, or should it extend beyond the plant level to the parent company, rate setting commissions, regulatory agencies, (3) How important is having direct access to plants for doing organizational factors research, (4) What lessons have been learned to date as the result of doing organizational factors research in a nuclear regulatory setting, and (5) What organizational research topics and issues should be pursued in the future? Conclusions based on the responses provided for this report are that organizational factors research can be conducted in a regulatory setting and produce useful results. Technologies pioneered in other academic, commercial, and military settings can be adopted for use in a nuclear regulatory setting. The future success of such research depends upon the cooperation of regulators, contractors, and the nuclear industry.

  5. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. 21 CFR 70.40 - Safety factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR...)(iii) of the act, the following safety factor will be applied in determining whether the proposed use... different safety factor, a safety factor of 100 to 1 will be used in applying animal experimentation data...

  7. 21 CFR 70.40 - Safety factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR...)(iii) of the act, the following safety factor will be applied in determining whether the proposed use... different safety factor, a safety factor of 100 to 1 will be used in applying animal experimentation data...

  8. 21 CFR 70.40 - Safety factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR...)(iii) of the act, the following safety factor will be applied in determining whether the proposed use... different safety factor, a safety factor of 100 to 1 will be used in applying animal experimentation data...

  9. 21 CFR 70.40 - Safety factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR...)(iii) of the act, the following safety factor will be applied in determining whether the proposed use... different safety factor, a safety factor of 100 to 1 will be used in applying animal experimentation data...

  10. Human factors and ergonomics as a patient safety practice

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, Pascale; Xie, Anping; Kianfar, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background Human factors and ergonomics (HFE) approaches to patient safety have addressed five different domains: usability of technology; human error and its role in patient safety; the role of healthcare worker performance in patient safety; system resilience; and HFE systems approaches to patient safety. Methods A review of various HFE approaches to patient safety and studies on HFE interventions was conducted. Results This paper describes specific examples of HFE-based interventions for patient safety. Studies show that HFE can be used in a variety of domains. Conclusions HFE is a core element of patient safety improvement. Therefore, every effort should be made to support HFE applications in patient safety. PMID:23813211

  11. [Epidermal growth factor, innovation and safety].

    PubMed

    Esquirol Caussa, Jordi; Herrero Vila, Elisabeth

    2015-10-01

    Bioidentical recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) is available in concentrations and purity suitable for therapeutic use in long time stable formulations. Beneficial effects in several skin pathologies and lesions have been reported (traumatic and surgical wound healing, laser induced wounds, abnormal scars, keloids, radiation or chemotherapy induced dermatitis, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation or for skin aging damage repairing) and also may be considered for the treatment of several oropharingeal and high gastroesophageal tract mucosa diseases (mouth sores, pharyngeal fistulas, ulcers), and several corneal or conjunctive mucosa lesions. rhEGF has not shown any important side or collateral effects in humans or in laboratory experimentation animals, showing optimal tolerability and safety with continuous use for months. Compounding gives advantages of versatility, individualization, personalization, molecular stability, safety and effectiveness in ideal conditions, showing good tissue penetration, both on intact skin and skin lesions that expose the lower planes to the surface. rhEGF compounds can be considered for prevention or as a treatment of diverse skin and mucosa diseases and conditions through compounding preparations. PMID:25433777

  12. 21 CFR 170.22 - Safety factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Safety factors to be considered. 170.22 Section 170.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.22 Safety factors to be considered. In accordance with section...

  13. Investigation of structural factors of safety for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the factors governing the structural design of the fully reusable space shuttle booster to establish a rational approach to select optimum structural factors of safety. The study included trade studies of structural factors of safety versus booster service life, weight, cost, and reliability. Similar trade studies can be made on other vehicles using the procedures developed. The major structural components of a selected baseline booster were studied in depth, each being examined to determine the fatigue life, safe-life, and fail-safe capabilities of the baseline design. Each component was further examined to determine its reliability and safety requirements, and the change of structural weight with factors of safety. The apparent factors of safety resulting from fatigue, safe-life, proof test, and fail-safe requirements were identified. The feasibility of reduced factors of safety for design loads such as engine thrust, which are well defined, was examined.

  14. Confinement and the safety factor profile

    SciTech Connect

    Batha, S.H.; Levinton, F.M.; Scott, S.D.

    1995-12-01

    The conjecture that the safety factor profile, q(r), controls the improvement in tokamak plasmas from poor confinement in the Low (L-) mode regime to improved confinement in the supershot regime has been tested in two experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). First, helium was puffed into the beam-heated phase of a supershot discharge which induced a degradation from supershot to L-mode confinement in about 100 msec, far less than the current relaxation time. The q and shear profiles measured by a motional Stark effect polarimeter showed little change during the confinement degradation. Second, rapid current ramps in supershot plasmas altered the q profile, but were observed not to change significantly the energy confinement. Thus, enhanced confinement in supershot plasmas is not due to a particular q profile which has enhanced stability or transport properties. The discharges making a continuous transition between supershot and L-mode confinement were also used to test the critical-electron-temperature-gradient transport model. It was found that this model could not reproduce the large changes in electron and ion temperature caused by the change in confinement.

  15. Factor of safety method, application to air and noise pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Green, A.E.S.; Buckley, T.J.; Rio, D.E.; Makarewicz, R.; MacEachern, A.

    1980-01-01

    Technical report:Air quality indexes were used to calculate air and noise pollution factors of safety for 82 U.S. cities. Pollutants considered in the safety study are: total suspended particulates, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone. Mathematical models that were used to calculate the factors of safety are presented. The utilization of air quality indexes for regional planning and decision-making is discussed. (5 graphs, 3 photos, 25 references, 6 tables)

  16. 14 CFR 25.303 - Factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Factor of safety. 25.303 Section 25.303 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 25.303 Factor of safety. Unless...

  17. 14 CFR 27.303 - Factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Factor of safety. 27.303 Section 27.303 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 27.303 Factor of safety....

  18. 14 CFR 27.303 - Factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Factor of safety. 27.303 Section 27.303 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 27.303 Factor of safety....

  19. 21 CFR 170.22 - Safety factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... evidence is submitted which justifies use of a different safety factor, a safety factor in applying animal experimentation data to man of 100 to 1, will be used; that is, a food additive for use by man will not be granted... experimental animals....

  20. 21 CFR 70.40 - Safety factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... different safety factor, a safety factor of 100 to 1 will be used in applying animal experimentation data to... of the maximum no-effect level for the most susceptible experimental animals tested. The various species of experimental animals used in the tests shall conform to good pharmacological practice....

  1. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research. PMID:26775077

  2. Human factors systems approach to healthcare quality and patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, Pascale; Wetterneck, Tosha B.; Rivera-Rodriguez, A. Joy; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Hoonakker, Peter; Holden, Richard; Gurses, Ayse P.

    2013-01-01

    Human factors systems approaches are critical for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. The SEIPS (Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety) model of work system and patient safety is a human factors systems approach that has been successfully applied in healthcare research and practice. Several research and practical applications of the SEIPS model are described. Important implications of the SEIPS model for healthcare system and process redesign are highlighted. Principles for redesigning healthcare systems using the SEIPS model are described. Balancing the work system and encouraging the active and adaptive role of workers are key principles for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. PMID:23845724

  3. Application of Factor Restructuring Analysis in Enterprise Safety Culture Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yihong; Xia, Liming; Pan, Jinshuang; Zong, Hengheng

    The enterprise safety culture index system, which mainly consists of enterprise decision-making level, management level, implementation level, and external environmental factor, is constructed based on human errors theory. Then, a corresponding enterprise safety culture evaluation model adapting to the characteristics of this index system is presented with consideration of the constraint condition of data and by taking full use of the advantages of factor system restructuring analysis and principal component analysis in data processing; The model provides an operable way for evaluating the enterprise safety culture. Further, the model is to make up for the gaps of enterprise safety culture evaluation.

  4. An approach using multi-factor combination to evaluate high rocky slope safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Huaizhi; Yang, Meng; Wen, Zhiping

    2016-06-01

    A high rocky slope is an open complex giant system for which there is contradiction among different influencing factors and coexistence of qualitative and quantitative information. This study presents a comprehensive intelligent evaluation method of high rocky slope safety through an integrated analytic hierarchy process, extension matter element model and entropy weight to assess the safety behavior of the high rocky slope. The proposed intelligent evaluation integrates subjective judgments derived from the analytic hierarchy process with the extension matter model and entropy weight into a multiple indexes dynamic safety evaluation approach. A combined subjective and objective comprehensive evaluation process, a more objective study, through avoiding subjective effects on the weights, and a qualitative safety assessment and quantitative safety amount are presented in the proposed method. The detailed computational procedures were also provided to illustrate the integration process of the above methods. Safety analysis of one high rocky slope is conducted to illustrate that this approach can adequately handle the inherent imprecision and contradiction of the human decision-making process and provide the flexibility and robustness needed for the decision maker to better monitor the safety status of a high rocky slope. This study was the first application of the proposed integrated evaluation method in the safety assessment of a high rocky slope. The study also indicated that it can also be applied to other similar problems.

  5. Structural deterministic safety factors selection criteria and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1992-01-01

    Though current deterministic safety factors are arbitrarily and unaccountably specified, its ratio is rooted in resistive and applied stress probability distributions. This study approached the deterministic method from a probabilistic concept leading to a more systematic and coherent philosophy and criterion for designing more uniform and reliable high-performance structures. The deterministic method was noted to consist of three safety factors: a standard deviation multiplier of the applied stress distribution; a K-factor for the A- or B-basis material ultimate stress; and the conventional safety factor to ensure that the applied stress does not operate in the inelastic zone of metallic materials. The conventional safety factor is specifically defined as the ratio of ultimate-to-yield stresses. A deterministic safety index of the combined safety factors was derived from which the corresponding reliability proved the deterministic method is not reliability sensitive. The bases for selecting safety factors are presented and verification requirements are discussed. The suggested deterministic approach is applicable to all NASA, DOD, and commercial high-performance structures under static stresses.

  6. 21 CFR 170.22 - Safety factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.22 Safety factors to be considered. In accordance with... proposed use of a food additive will be safe: Except where evidence is submitted which justifies use of a... used; that is, a food additive for use by man will not be granted a tolerance that will exceed...

  7. 21 CFR 170.22 - Safety factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.22 Safety factors to... be applied in determining whether the proposed use of a food additive will be safe: Except where... experimentation data to man of 100 to 1, will be used; that is, a food additive for use by man will not be...

  8. 21 CFR 170.22 - Safety factors to be considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.22 Safety factors to... be applied in determining whether the proposed use of a food additive will be safe: Except where... experimentation data to man of 100 to 1, will be used; that is, a food additive for use by man will not be...

  9. 14 CFR 31.25 - Factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.25 Factor of safety. (a) Except as specified in... of temperature, and other operating characteristics, or both, that may affect strength of the...

  10. 14 CFR 31.25 - Factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.25 Factor of safety. (a) Except as specified in... of temperature, and other operating characteristics, or both, that may affect strength of the...

  11. Human Factors Research and Nuclear Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moray, Neville P., Ed.; Huey, Beverly M., Ed.

    The Panel on Human Factors Research Needs in Nuclear Regulatory Research was formed by the National Research Council in response to a request from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC asked the research council to conduct an 18-month study of human factors research needs for the safe operation of nuclear power plants. This report…

  12. Factors influencing patient safety in Sweden: perceptions of patient safety officers in the county councils

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background National, regional and local activities to improve patient safety in Sweden have increased over the last decade. There are high ambitions for improved patient safety in Sweden. This study surveyed health care professionals who held key positions in their county council’s patient safety work to investigate their perceptions of the conditions for this work, factors they believe have been most important in reaching the current level of patient safety and factors they believe would be most important for achieving improved patient safety in the future. Methods The study population consisted of 218 health care professionals holding strategic positions in patient safety work in Swedish county councils. Using a questionnaire, the following topics were analysed in this study: profession/occupation; number of years involved in a designated task on patient safety issues; knowledge/overview of the county council’s patient safety work; ability to influence this work; conditions for this work; and the importance of various factors for current and future levels of patient safety. Results The response rate to the questionnaire was 79%. The conditions that had the highest number of responses in complete agreement were “patients’ involvement is important for patient safety” and “patient safety work has good support from the county council’s management”. Factors that were considered most important for achieving the current level of patient safety were root cause and risk analyses, incident reporting and the Swedish Patient Safety Law. An organizational culture that encourages reporting and avoids blame was considered most important for improved patient safety in the future, closely followed by improved communication between health care practitioners and patients. Conclusion Health care professionals with important positions in the Swedish county councils’ patient safety work believe that conditions for this work are somewhat constrained. They attribute

  13. Patient Safety: The Role of Human Factors and Systems Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, Pascale; Wood, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Patient safety is a global challenge that requires knowledge and skills in multiple areas, including human factors and systems engineering. In this chapter, numerous conceptual approaches and methods for analyzing, preventing and mitigating medical errors are described. Given the complexity of healthcare work systems and processes, we emphasize the need for increasing partnerships between the health sciences and human factors and systems engineering to improve patient safety. Those partnerships will be able to develop and implement the system redesigns that are necessary to improve healthcare work systems and processes for patient safety. PMID:20543237

  14. Failure and factors of safety in piping system design

    SciTech Connect

    Antaki, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    An important body of test and performance data on the behavior of piping systems has led to an ongoing reassessment of the code stress allowables and their safety margin. The codes stress allowables, and their factors of safety, are developed from limits on the incipient yield (for ductile materials), or incipient rupture (for brittle materials), of a test specimen loaded in simple tension. In this paper, we examine the failure theories introduced in the B31 and ASME III codes for piping and their inherent approximations compared to textbook failure theories. We summarize the evolution of factors of safety in ASME and B31 and point out that, for piping systems, it is appropriate to reconsider the concept and definition of factors of safety.

  15. Failure and factors of safety in piping system design

    SciTech Connect

    Antaki, G.A.

    1993-06-01

    An important body of test and performance data on the behavior of piping systems has led to an ongoing reassessment of the code stress allowables and their safety margin. The codes stress allowables, and their factors of safety, are developed from limits on the incipient yield (for ductile materials), or incipient rupture (for brittle materials), of a test specimen loaded in simple tension. In this paper, we examine the failure theories introduced in the B31 and ASME III codes for piping and their inherent approximations compared to textbook failure theories. We summarize the evolution of factors of safety in ASME and B31 and point out that, for piping systems, it is appropriate to reconsider the concept and definition of factors of safety.

  16. Space station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 3: Safety impact of human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockoff, L. A.; Raasch, R. F.; Peercy, R. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The first 15 years of accumulated space station concepts for Initial Operational Capability (IOC) during the early 1990's was considered. Twenty-five threats to the space station are identified and selected threats addressed as impacting safety criteria, escape and rescue, and human factors safety concerns. Of the 25 threats identified, eight are discussed including strategy options for threat control: fire, biological or toxic contamination, injury/illness, explosion, loss of pressurization, radiation, meteoroid penetration and debris. Of particular interest here is volume three (of five volumes) pertaining to the safety impact of human factors.

  17. Approaching Safety through Quality: Factors Influencing College Student Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, S K; Mosher, G A

    2016-04-01

    Quality management practices have been identified by previous literature as a factor that could potentially reduce the level of safety incidents and hazards in agricultural work environments. The present study used multivariate analysis to examine the effect of independent variables such as quality and safety awareness, work experience, safety and quality management experience, and the perceived importance of safety and quality on the role of quality management practices as a mitigating factor for safety hazards and incidents in agriculture. Variables were measured on a five-point scale using a survey questionnaire. Data were collected from approximately 900 undergraduates enrolled in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at a large land grant university in the U.S. The level of student work experience and student perceptions of the importance of quality explained a significant amount of the variance in student views of quality management practices as a mitigating factor for safety hazards and incidents. The findings of this study provide further evidence for using quality management practices as a basis for safety interventions targeted at the agricultural workforce. PMID:27373063

  18. 14 CFR 23.303 - Factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Factor of safety. 23.303 Section 23.303 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 23.303 Factor...

  19. EVALUATING THE 10X SAFETY FACTOR FOR CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research involves the development of dose-response data on the adverse developmental effects of phthalates to address the 10X safety factor applied in risk assessments. Reproductive development can be seriously altered when exposures to toxic chemicals occur during critical...

  20. Using partial safety factors in wind turbine design and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W D; Butterfield, C

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes the relationship between wind turbine design and testing in terms of the certification process. An overview of the current status of international certification is given along with a description of limit-state design basics. Wind turbine rotor blades are used to illustrate the principles discussed. These concepts are related to both International Electrotechnical Commission and Germanischer Lloyd design standards, and are covered using schematic representations of statistical load and material strength distributions. Wherever possible, interpretations of the partial safety factors are given with descriptions of their intended meaning. Under some circumstances, the authors` interpretations may be subjective. Next, the test-load factors are described in concept and then related to the design factors. Using technical arguments, it is shown that some of the design factors for both load and materials must be used in the test loading, but some should not be used. In addition, some test factors not used in the design may be necessary for an accurate test of the design. The results show that if the design assumptions do not clearly state the effects and uncertainties that are covered by the design`s partial safety factors, outside parties such as test labs or certification agencies could impose their own meaning on these factors.

  1. Using partial safety factors in wind turbine design and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.D.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the relationship between wind turbine design and testing in terms of the certification process. An overview of the current status of international certification is given along with a description of limit-state design basics. Wind turbine rotor blades are used to illustrate the principles discussed. These concepts are related to both International Electrotechnical Commission and Germanischer Lloyd design standards, and are covered using schematic representations of statistical load and material strength distributions. Wherever possible, interpretations of the partial safety factors are given with descriptions of their intended meaning. Under some circumstances, the authors` interpretations may be subjective. Next, the test-load factors are described in concept and then related to the design factors. Using technical arguments, it is shown that some of the design factors for both load and materials must be used in the test loading, but some should not be used. In addition, some test factors not used in the design may be necessary for an accurate test of the design. The results show that if the design assumptions do not clearly state the effects and uncertainties that are covered by the design`s partial safety factors, outside parties such as test labs or certification agencies could impose their own meaning on these factors.

  2. Farmers health and safety at Sharkia Governorate and the influencing environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Kamiel, Wagida Wabfik; Ahmed, Ekram Abd El-Monem; Morsy, Tosson A

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture is one of the most hazardous of all economic sectors and many agricultural workers suffer occupational accidents and ill health each year. This study explored the most significant factors that impact on the health of farmers and the interrelationship between these factors. Cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 521 of farmers at Dawar-Gihenna village, Faqous District, Sharkia Governorate. Tools were used for data collection are an interview questionnaire consists of six parts to collect data socio-demographic characteristics of farmers, Economical status and home environment, Medical history, Knowledge regarding health and safety, Attitude regarding health and safety and Practice regarding health and safety. The fieldwork was executed in three months. It started in March 2013 to till the end of June 2013. The results revealed that (58.2%) of participants had unsatisfactory knowledge, while (61.4%) had Positive attitude towards agricultural hazards and (51.1%) of participants had adequate practices towards agricultural hazards. PMID:25643499

  3. Alaska Humans Factors Safety Study: The Southern Coastal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Reynard, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At the request of the Alaska Air Carriers Association, researchers from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System, at NASA Ames Research Center, conducted a study on aspects of safety in Alaskan Part 135 air taxi operations. An interview form on human factors safety issues was created by a representative team from the FAA-Alaska, NTSB-Alaska, NASA-ASRS, and representatives of the Alaska Air Carriers Association which was subsequently used in the interviews of pilots and managers. Because of the climate and operational differences, the study was broken into two geographical areas, the southern coastal areas and the northern portion of the state. This presentation addresses the southern coastal areas, specifically: Anchorage, Dillingham, King Salmon, Kodiak, Cold Bay, Juneau, and Ketchikan. The interview questions dealt with many of the potential pressures on pilots and managers associated with the daily air taxi operations in Alaska. The impact of the environmental factors such as the lack of available communication, navigation and weather information systems was evaluated. The results of this study will be used by government and industry working in Alaska. These findings will contribute important information on specific Alaska safety issues for eventual incorporation into training materials and policies that will help to assure the safe conduct of air taxi flights in Alaska.

  4. Alaska Humans Factors Safety Study: The Northern Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda; Reynard, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At the request of the Alaska Air Carriers Association, researchers from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System, at NASA Ames Research Center, conducted a study on aspects of safety in Alaskan Part 135 air taxi operations. An interview form on human factors safety issues was created by a representative team from the FAA-Alaska, NTSB-Alaska, NASAASRS, and representatives of the Alaska Air Carriers Association which was subsequently used in the interviews of pilots and managers. Because of the climate and operational differences, the study was broken into two geographical areas, the southern coastal areas and the northern portion of the state. This presentation addresses the northern area, specifically: Bethel, Fairbanks, Nome, Kotzebue, and Barrow. The interview questions dealt with many of the potential pressures on pilots and managers associated with the daily air taxi operations in Alaska. The impact of the environmental factors such as the lack of available communication, navigation and weather information systems was evaluated. The results of this study will be used by government and industry working in Alaska. These findings will contribute important information on specific Alaska safety issues for eventual incorporation into training materials and policies that will help to assure the safe conduct of air taxi flights in Alaska.

  5. 49 CFR 229.103 - Safe working pressure; factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.103 Safe working pressure; factor of safety. The safe working pressure for each steam generator shall be fixed by the chief mechanical officer of the carrier. The minimum factor of safety...

  6. 49 CFR 229.103 - Safe working pressure; factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.103 Safe working pressure; factor of safety. The safe working pressure for each steam generator shall be fixed by the chief mechanical officer of the carrier. The minimum factor of safety...

  7. 49 CFR 229.103 - Safe working pressure; factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.103 Safe working pressure; factor of safety. The safe working pressure for each steam generator shall be fixed by the chief mechanical officer of the carrier. The minimum factor of safety...

  8. 49 CFR 229.103 - Safe working pressure; factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Generators § 229.103 Safe working pressure; factor of safety. The safe working pressure for each steam generator shall be fixed by the chief mechanical officer of the carrier. The minimum factor of safety...

  9. 49 CFR 229.103 - Safe working pressure; factor of safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Generators § 229.103 Safe working pressure; factor of safety. The safe working pressure for each steam generator shall be fixed by the chief mechanical officer of the carrier. The minimum factor of safety...

  10. A dispersion safety factor for LNG vapor clouds.

    PubMed

    Vílchez, Juan A; Villafañe, Diana; Casal, Joaquim

    2013-02-15

    The growing importance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to global energy demand has increased interest in the possible hazards associated with its storage and transportation. Concerning the event of an LNG spill, a study was performed on the relationship between the distance at which the lower flammability limit (LFL) concentration occurs and that corresponding to the visible contour of LNG vapor clouds. A parameter called the dispersion safety factor (DSF) has been defined as the ratio between these two lengths, and two expressions are proposed to estimate it. During an emergency, the DSF can be a helpful parameter to indicate the danger of cloud ignition and flash fire. PMID:23305750

  11. National plan to enhance aviation safety through human factors improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, Clay

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this section of the plan is to establish a development and implementation strategy plan for improving safety and efficiency in the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system. These improvements will be achieved through the proper applications of human factors considerations to the present and future systems. The program will have four basic goals: (1) prepare for the future system through proper hiring and training; (2) develop a controller work station team concept (managing human errors); (3) understand and address the human factors implications of negative system results; and (4) define the proper division of responsibilities and interactions between the human and the machine in ATC systems. This plan addresses six program elements which together address the overall purpose. The six program elements are: (1) determine principles of human-centered automation that will enhance aviation safety and the efficiency of the air traffic controller; (2) provide new and/or enhanced methods and techniques to measure, assess, and improve human performance in the ATC environment; (3) determine system needs and methods for information transfer between and within controller teams and between controller teams and the cockpit; (4) determine how new controller work station technology can optimally be applied and integrated to enhance safety and efficiency; (5) assess training needs and develop improved techniques and strategies for selection, training, and evaluation of controllers; and (6) develop standards, methods, and procedures for the certification and validation of human engineering in the design, testing, and implementation of any hardware or software system element which affects information flow to or from the human.

  12. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  13. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  14. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  15. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  16. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  17. Human Factors And Safety Considerations Of Night Vision Systems Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verona, Robert W.; Rash, Clarence E.

    1989-03-01

    Military aviation night vision systems greatly enhance the capability to operate during periods of low illumination. After flying with night vision devices, most aviators are apprehensive about returning to unaided night flight. Current night vision imaging devices allow aviators to fly during ambient light conditions which would be extremely dangerous, if not impossible, with unaided vision. However, the visual input afforded with these devices does not approach that experienced using the unencumbered, unaided eye during periods of daylight illumination. Many visual parameters, e,g., acuity, field-of-view, depth perception, etc., are compromised when night vision devices are used. The inherent characteristics of image intensification based sensors introduce new problems associated with the interpretation of visual information based on different spatial and spectral content from that of unaided vision. In addition, the mounting of these devices onto the helmet is accompanied by concerns of fatigue resulting from increased head supported weight and shift in center-of-gravity. All of these concerns have produced numerous human factors and safety issues relating to thb use of night vision systems. These issues are identified and discussed in terms of their possible effects on user performance and safety.

  18. Safety culture management: The importance of organizational factors

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Shurberg, D.A.; Jacobs, R.; Hofmann, D.

    1995-05-01

    The concept of safety culture has been used extensively to explain the underlying causes of performance based events, both positive and negative, across the nuclear industry. The work described in this paper represents several years of effort to identify, define and assess the organizational factors important to safe performance in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The research discussed in this paper is primarily conducted in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) efforts in understanding the impact of organizational performance on safety. As a result of a series of research activities undertaken by numerous NRC contractors, a collection of organizational dimensions has been identified and defined. These dimensions represent what is believed to be a comprehensive taxonomy of organizational elements that relate to the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Techniques were also developed by which to measure these organizational dimensions, and include structured interview protocols, behavioral checklists, and behavioral anchored rating scales (BARS). Recent efforts have focused on devising a methodology for the extraction of information related to the identified organizational dimensions from existing NRC documentation. This type of effort would assess the applicability of the organizational dimensions to existing NRC inspection and evaluation reports, refine the organizational dimensions previously developed so they are more relevant to the task of retrospective analysis, and attempt to rate plants based on the review of existing NRC documentation using the techniques previously developed for the assessment of organizational dimensions.

  19. Safety factor maximization for trusses subjected to fatigue stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedaya, Mohammed Mohammed; Moneeb Elsabbagh, Adel; Hussein, Ahmed Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    This article presents a mathematical model for sizing optimization of undamped trusses subjected to dynamic loading leading to fatigue. The combined effect of static and dynamic loading, at steady state, is considered. An optimization model, whose objective is the maximization of the safety factor of these trusses, is developed. A new quantity (equivalent fatigue strain energy) combining the effects of static and dynamic stresses is presented. This quantity is used as a global measure of the proximity of fatigue failure. Therefore, the equivalent fatigue strain energy is minimized, and this seems to give a good value for the maximal equivalent static stress. This assumption is verified through two simple examples. The method of moving asymptotes is used in the optimization of trusses. The applicability of the proposed approach is demonstrated through two numerical examples; a 10-bar truss with different loading cases and a helicopter tail subjected to dynamic loading.

  20. Percutaneous renal biopsy of native kidneys: efficiency, safety and risk factors associated with major complications

    PubMed Central

    Torres Muñoz, Abel; Valdez-Ortiz, Rafael; González-Parra, Carlos; Espinoza-Dávila, Elvy; Morales-Buenrostro, Luis E.; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The use of an automated biopsy device and real-time ultrasound (current technology) for percutaneous renal biopsies (PRBs) has improved the likelihood of obtaining adequate tissue for diagnosis and has reduced the complications associated with renal biopsies. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the current PRB procedure and identify possible risk factors for the development of major complications. Material and methods We collected all native kidney PRBs performed with current technology in our institute from January 1998 to April 2008. Studied variables were collected from the patient's chart at the time of the biopsy. Results We analyzed 623 (96.4%) of 646 renal biopsies performed with the current automated procedure guided by real-time ultrasound. Although the effectiveness was 97.6%, there were 110 complications. Fourteen (2.24%) of these complications were major: 9 cases of renal hematoma, 2 cases with macroscopic hematuria (which needed blood transfusion), 1 case of intestinal perforation (which required exploratory laparotomy), 1 nephrectomy and 1 case of a dissecting hematoma. The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following risk factors for developing major complications: diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, RR 7.6 (95% CI 1.35-43); platelet count ≤ 120×103/µl; RR 7.0 (95% CI 1.9-26.2); and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) ≥ 60 mg/dl, RR 9.27 (95% CI 2.8-30.7). Conclusions The observed efficacy and safety of the current technique in the present study were similar to observations in previous studies. Diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, platelets ≤ 120×103/µl and BUN ≥ 60 mg/dl were independent risk factors for the development of major complications following PRB. PMID:22291827

  1. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals § 601.32 General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. FDA's determination of the safety and effectiveness of a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes consideration of the following: (a) The proposed use of the...

  2. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals § 601.32 General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. FDA's determination of the safety and effectiveness of a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes consideration of the following: (a) The proposed use of the...

  3. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals § 601.32 General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. FDA's determination of the safety and effectiveness of a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes consideration of the following: (a) The proposed use of the...

  4. Factors influencing the microbial safety of fresh produce: a review.

    PubMed

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2012-10-01

    Increased consumption, larger scale production and more efficient distribution of fresh produce over the past two decades have contributed to an increase in the number of illness outbreaks caused by this commodity. Pathogen contamination of fresh produce may originate before or after harvest, but once contaminated produce is difficult to sanitize. The prospect that some pathogens invade the vascular system of plants and establish "sub-clinical" infection needs to be better understood to enable estimation of its influence upon risk of human illness. Conventional surface sanitation methods can reduce the microbial load, but cannot eliminate pathogens if present. Chlorine dioxide, electrolyzed water, UV light, cold atmospheric plasma, hydrogen peroxide, organic acids and acidified sodium chlorite show promise, but irradiation at 1 kGy in high oxygen atmospheres may prove to be the most effective means to assure elimination of both surface and internal contamination of produce by pathogens. Pathogens of greatest current concern are Salmonella (tomatoes, seed sprouts and spices) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on leafy greens (spinach and lettuce). This review considers new information on illness outbreaks caused by produce, identifies factors which influence their frequency and size and examines intervention effectiveness. Research needed to increase our understanding of the factors influencing microbial safety of fresh produce is addressed. PMID:22850369

  5. 49 CFR 385.7 - Factors to be considered in determining a safety rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CMV and motor carrier safety rules, regulations, standards, and orders that are both issued by a State... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Factors to be considered in determining a safety...) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...

  6. 49 CFR 385.7 - Factors to be considered in determining a safety rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CMV and motor carrier safety rules, regulations, standards, and orders that are both issued by a State... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Factors to be considered in determining a safety...) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...

  7. 49 CFR 385.7 - Factors to be considered in determining a safety rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CMV and motor carrier safety rules, regulations, standards, and orders that are both issued by a State... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Factors to be considered in determining a safety...) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...

  8. 75 FR 5536 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On December 3, 2009, PHMSA published a final rule in the Federal Register (74 FR... Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... Regulations to address human factors and other aspects of control room management for pipelines...

  9. 21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. 315.3 Section 315.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS § 315.3 General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness....

  10. Analysis of factors influencing safety management for metro construction in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Q Z; Ding, L Y; Zhou, C; Luo, H B

    2014-07-01

    With the rapid development of urbanization in China, the number and size of metro construction projects are increasing quickly. At the same time, and increasing number of accidents in metro construction make it a disturbing focus of social attention. In order to improve safety management in metro construction, an investigation of the participants' perspectives on safety factors in China metro construction has been conducted to identify the key safety factors, and their ranking consistency among the main participants, including clients, consultants, designers, contractors and supervisors. The result of factor analysis indicates that there are five key factors which influence the safety of metro construction including safety attitude, construction site safety, government supervision, market restrictions and task unpredictability. In addition, ANOVA and Spearman rank correlation coefficients were performed to test the consistency of the means rating and the ranking of safety factors. The results indicated that the main participants have significant disagreement about the importance of safety factors on more than half of the items. Suggestions and recommendations on practical countermeasures to improve metro construction safety management in China are proposed. PMID:23932091

  11. Safety Factors in Educational Facilities. An Annotated Reference List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Howard E.

    Abstracts and descriptor terms are presented for 26 selected references with safety orientation. Included in addition to several general planning handbooks are topics related to--(1) stairways, (2) air structures, (3) site planning, (4) lighting, (5) bidding practice, (6) physically handicapped, (7) laboratory design, (8) mobile classrooms, (9)…

  12. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  13. Psychometric Properties of the AHRQ Community Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture: A Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aboneh, Ephrem A.; Look, Kevin; Stone, Jamie; Lester, Corey; Chui, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) developed a hospital patient safety culture survey in 2004, and has adapted this survey to other healthcare settings, such as nursing homes and medical offices, and most recently community pharmacies. However, it is unknown if safety culture dimensions developed in hospital settings can be transferred to community pharmacies. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Community Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Method The survey was administered to 543 community pharmacists in [state], United States. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the fit of our data with the proposed AHRQ model. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the underlying factor structure. Internal consistency reliabilities were calculated. Results A total of 433 usable surveys were returned (response rate of 80%). Results from the confirmatory factor analysis showed inadequate model fit for the original 36 item, 11-factor structure. Exploratory factor analysis showed that a modified 27 item, 4-factor structure better reflected the underlying safety culture dimensions in community pharmacies. The communication openness factor, with 3 items, dropped in its entirety while 6 items dropped from multiple factors. The remaining 27 items redistributed to form the 4-factor structure: safety related communication, staff training and work environment, organizational response to safety events, and staffing, work pressure and pace. Cronbach's α of 0.95 suggested good internal consistency. Conclusion Dimensions related to safety culture in a community pharmacy environment may differ from those in other healthcare settings such as in hospitals. Our findings suggest that validation studies need to be conducted before applying safety dimensions from other healthcare settings into community pharmacies. PMID:26208535

  14. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular...

  15. 29 CFR 98.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Adequate evidence. 98.900 Section 98.900 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a...

  16. 21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS § 315.3 General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. FDA's determination of the safety and effectiveness of a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes consideration of the following: (a) The proposed use of the...

  17. 21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS § 315.3 General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. FDA's determination of the safety and effectiveness of a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes consideration of the following: (a) The proposed use of the...

  18. Impact of Geotechnical Factors on the Safety of Low Embankment Dams From the Perspective of Technical and Safety Supervision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasana, Andrej; Minárik, Marian; Nikolaj, Maroš

    2015-03-01

    Our research deals with a broad spectrum of problems concerning the variability of geotechnical factors and their influence on the safety of the biggest group of dam constructions in Slovakia, i.e., low earthfill dams. Its specific aim is the observation of their risk factors by using our experience and knowledge gained while working in the sector of technical and safety supervision. To achieve the aims of a research thesis, we analyzed 39 low earthfill dams. We performed observations and documented their conditions with the aim of clarifying the risk factors. After an analysis of the information materials that characterize dams and after a statistical analysis of the measurement results in situ, including measurements from technical and safety supervision databases, we performed an analysis by using mathematical modeling to evaluate the safety of the dam constructions. Out of the total number of 39 dam constructions, an analysis of the stability of the dam slopes was performed on 37 dams, and deformation problems were analyzed on 28 of the dams. Filtration problems were analyzed at 26 dams, and a complete evaluation of the intensity of filtration movements was performed on 19 of the constructions. On the basis of a detailed analysis of the 39 dam constructions, we specified their problems and the concomitant consequences of the problems. Geotechnical risk factors and specific risks that determine the safety of water constructions were characterized. The analysis confirmed the importance of an engineer-geological and geotechnical checkup in the process of preparation and building (alternatively, during reconstructions and sanitation work) of such water constructions and also the importance of monitoring in the process of dam usage. Technical and safety checkups were also shown to be important when analyzing risk factors. The conclusions of the knowledge gained and the recommendations for the practice deal with recommendations to change the flow policy, develop a

  19. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to... donor safety and blood availability, and potential measures to maintain adequate iron stores in...

  20. Patient safety in the operating room: an intervention study on latent risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patient safety is one of the greatest challenges in healthcare. In the operating room errors are frequent and often consequential. This article describes an approach to a successful implementation of a patient safety program in the operating room, focussing on latent risk factors that influence patient safety. We performed an intervention to improve these latent risk factors (LRFs) and increase awareness of patient safety issues amongst OR staff. Methods Latent risk factors were studied using a validated questionnaire applied to the OR staff before and after an intervention. A pre-test/post-test control group design with repeated measures was used to evaluate the effects of the interventions. The staff from one operating room of an university hospital acted as the intervention group. Controls consisted of the staff of the operating room in another university hospital. The outcomes were the changes in LRF scores, perceived incident rate, and changes in incident reports between pre- and post-intervention. Results Based on pre-test scores and participants’ key concerns about organizational factors affecting patient safety in their department the intervention focused on the following LRFs: Material Resources, Training and Staffing Recourses. After the intervention, the intervention operating room - compared to the control operating room - reported significantly fewer problems on Material Resources and Staffing Resources and a significantly lower score on perceived incident rate. The contribution of technical factors to incident causation decreased significantly in the intervention group after the intervention. Conclusion The change of state of latent risk factors can be measured using a patient safety questionnaire aimed at these factors. The change of the relevant risk factors (Material and Staffing resources) concurred with a decrease in perceived and reported incident rates in the relevant categories. We conclude that interventions aimed at unfavourable

  1. The Ultimate Factor of Safety for Aircraft and Spacecraft Its History, Applications and Misconceptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipay, John J.; Modlin, C. Thomas, Jr.; Larsen, Curtis E.

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate factor of safety (FOSULT) concept used in aircraft and spacecraft has evolved over many decades. Currently an FOSULT 1.5 is the FAR-mandated value for aircraft while an FOSULT of 1.4 has been used in various spacecraft. This paper was motivated by the desire to concisely explain the origins, proper interpretation and application of the ultimate factor of safety concept, since the authors have seen throughout their careers many misconceptions and incorrect applications of this concept. The history of the ultimate factor of safety concept is briefly summarized, the proper application of the factor of safety in aircraft design, structural analysis and operations is covered in detail, examples of limit load exceedance in aircraft and spacecraft are discussed, the evolution of the 1.4 FOSULT for spacecraft is described and some misconceptions regarding the ultimate factor of safety concept are addressed. It is hoped that this paper can be a summary resource for engineers to understand the origin, purpose and proper application of the ultimate factor of safety.

  2. Factors associated with the enactment of safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws.

    PubMed

    Law, Teik Hua; Noland, Robert B; Evans, Andrew W

    2013-07-01

    It has been shown that road safety laws, such as motorcycle helmet and safety belt laws, have a significant effect in reducing road fatalities. Although an expanding body of literature has documented the effects of these laws on road safety, it remains unclear which factors influence the likelihood that these laws are enacted. This study attempts to identify the factors that influence the decision to enact safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws. Using panel data from 31 countries between 1963 and 2002, our results reveal that increased democracy, education level, per capita income, political stability, and more equitable income distribution within a country are associated with the enactment of road safety laws. PMID:23106188

  3. Factors Influencing the Safety Behavior of German Equestrians: Attitudes towards Protective Equipment and Peer Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ikinger, Christina-Maria; Baldamus, Jana; Spiller, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The handling and riding of horses can be quite dangerous. Although the use of protective gear among equestrians is increasing, a high number of incidents occur and the voluntary use of safety equipment is described as inconsistent to low. Therefore, this study looks at the safety behavior of German equestrians and at factors influencing this behavior to decrease the high number of horse-related injuries. The results reveal that attitudes towards safety products as well as the protective behavior of other horse owners and riding pupils from the stable are key factors that might alter the safety behavior of equestrians. Abstract Human interactions with horses entail certain risks. Although the acceptance and use of protective gear is increasing, a high number of incidents and very low or inconsistent voluntary use of safety equipment are reported. While past studies have examined factors influencing the use of safety gear, they have explored neither their influence on the overall safety behavior, nor their relative influence in relation to each other. The aim of the present study is to fill this gap. We conducted an online survey with 2572 participants. By means of a subsequent multiple regression analysis, we explored 23 different variables in view of their influence on the protective behavior of equestrians. In total, we found 17 variables that exerted a significant influence. The results show that both having positive or negative attitudes towards safety products as well as the protective behavior of other horse owners or riding pupils from the stable have the strongest influence on the safety behavior of German equestrians. We consider such knowledge to be important for both scientists and practitioners, such as producers of protective gear or horse sport associations who might alter safety behavior in such a way that the number of horse-related injuries decreases in the long term. PMID:26901229

  4. 21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. 315.3 Section 315.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS § 315.3 General factors...

  5. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. 601.32 Section 601.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals § 601.32 General factors...

  6. 21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. 315.3 Section 315.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS § 315.3 General factors...

  7. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular act or omission has occurred. Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235); 20 U.S.C. 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec....

  8. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  9. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  10. Examining the macroergonomics and safety factors among teleworkers: development of a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Michelle M; Schleifer, Lawrence M; Huang, Yueng-hsiang

    2012-01-01

    With the rising number of teleworkers who are working in non-traditional work locations, health and safety issues are even more critical. While telework offers attractive alternatives to traditional work locations, it is not without challenges for employers and workers. A macroergonomics approach or work system design for telework programs is proposed to address these new challenges. This approach explains the impact of organizational, psychosocial and workplace risk factors on teleworker's health and safety. A process for managing the health and safety of teleworkers is presented along with preventive strategies to provide an injury-free working environment. PMID:22317115

  11. Factors influencing workers to follow food safety management systems in meat plants in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ball, Brita; Wilcock, Anne; Aung, May

    2009-06-01

    Small and medium sized food businesses have been slow to adopt food safety management systems (FSMSs) such as good manufacturing practices and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP). This study identifies factors influencing workers in their implementation of food safety practices in small and medium meat processing establishments in Ontario, Canada. A qualitative approach was used to explore in-plant factors that influence the implementation of FSMSs. Thirteen in-depth interviews in five meat plants and two focus group interviews were conducted. These generated 219 pages of verbatim transcripts which were analysed using NVivo 7 software. Main themes identified in the data related to production systems, organisational characteristics and employee characteristics. A socio-psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour is proposed to describe how these themes and underlying sub-themes relate to FSMS implementation. Addressing the various factors that influence production workers is expected to enhance FSMS implementation and increase food safety. PMID:20183193

  12. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  13. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  14. Factors associated with the patient safety climate at a teaching hospital1

    PubMed Central

    Luiz, Raíssa Bianca; Simões, Ana Lúcia de Assis; Barichello, Elizabeth; Barbosa, Maria Helena

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: to investigate the association between the scores of the patient safety climate and socio-demographic and professional variables. Methods: an observational, sectional and quantitative study, conducted at a large public teaching hospital. The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire was used, translated and validated for Brazil. Data analysis used the software Statistical Package for Social Sciences. In the bivariate analysis, we used Student's t-test, analysis of variance and Spearman's correlation of (α=0.05). To identify predictors for the safety climate scores, multiple linear regression was used, having the safety climate domain as the main outcome (α=0.01). Results: most participants were women, nursing staff, who worked in direct care to adult patients in critical areas, without a graduate degree and without any other employment. The average and median total score of the instrument corresponded to 61.8 (SD=13.7) and 63.3, respectively. The variable professional performance was found as a factor associated with the safety environment for the domain perception of service management and hospital management (p=0.01). Conclusion: the identification of factors associated with the safety environment permits the construction of strategies for safe practices in the hospitals. PMID:26487138

  15. An Analysis of Trainers' Perspectives within an Ecological Framework: Factors that Influence Mine Safety Training Processes

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Emily J.; Hoebbel, Cassandra L.; Rost, Kristen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Satisfactory completion of mine safety training is a prerequisite for being hired and for continued employment in the coal industry. Although training includes content to develop skills in a variety of mineworker competencies, research and recommendations continue to specify that specific limitations in the self-escape portion of training still exist and that mineworkers need to be better prepared to respond to emergencies that could occur in their mine. Ecological models are often used to inform the development of health promotion programs but have not been widely applied to occupational health and safety training programs. Methods Nine mine safety trainers participated in in-depth semi-structured interviews. A theoretical analysis of the interviews was completed via an ecological lens. Each level of the social ecological model was used to examine factors that could be addressed both during and after mine safety training. Results The analysis suggests that problems surrounding communication and collaboration, leadership development, and responsibility and accountability at different levels within the mining industry contribute to deficiencies in mineworkers' mastery and maintenance of skills. Conclusion This study offers a new technique to identify limitations in safety training systems and processes. The analysis suggests that training should be developed and disseminated with consideration of various levels—individual, interpersonal, organizational, and community—to promote skills. If factors identified within and between levels are addressed, it may be easier to sustain mineworker competencies that are established during safety training. PMID:25379324

  16. The likelihood of achieving quantified road safety targets: a binary logistic regression model for possible factors.

    PubMed

    Sze, N N; Wong, S C; Lee, C Y

    2014-12-01

    In past several decades, many countries have set quantified road safety targets to motivate transport authorities to develop systematic road safety strategies and measures and facilitate the achievement of continuous road safety improvement. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the association between the setting of quantified road safety targets and road fatality reduction, in both the short and long run, by comparing road fatalities before and after the implementation of a quantified road safety target. However, not much work has been done to evaluate whether the quantified road safety targets are actually achieved. In this study, we used a binary logistic regression model to examine the factors - including vehicle ownership, fatality rate, and national income, in addition to level of ambition and duration of target - that contribute to a target's success. We analyzed 55 quantified road safety targets set by 29 countries from 1981 to 2009, and the results indicate that targets that are in progress and with lower level of ambitions had a higher likelihood of eventually being achieved. Moreover, possible interaction effects on the association between level of ambition and the likelihood of success are also revealed. PMID:25255417

  17. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  18. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. 601.32 Section 601.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... estimated absorbed radiation dose of the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical....

  19. 75 FR 69912 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On September 17, 2010 (75 FR 56972), PHMSA published a NPRM proposing... Houston, Texas (75 FR 67450, November 2, 2010) prior to submitting comments. PHMSA planned this workshop... Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...

  20. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  1. Assessing juvenile sex offenders to determine adequate levels of supervision.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, K E; Gourley, M M; Cash, M C

    1995-08-01

    The present study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories currently being used by probation officers in the state of Utah to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. The internal consistency or reliability of the inventories ranged from moderate to good. Factor analysis was utilized to significantly increase the reliability of the four inventories by collapsing them into the following three factors: (a) Custodian's and Juvenile's Attitude Toward Intervention; (b) Offense Characteristics; and (c) Historical Risk Factors. These three inventories/factors explained 41.2% of the variance in the combined inventories' scores. Suggestions are made regarding the creation of an additional inventory. "Characteristics of the Victim" to account for more of the variance. In addition, suggestions as to how these inventories can be used by probation officers to make objective and consistent decisions about adequate supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders are discussed. PMID:7583754

  2. Effects of a Workplace Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Risk Factors on Safety and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Truxillo, Donald M.; Bodner, Todd; Rineer, Jennifer; Pytlovany, Amy C.; Richman, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a workplace intervention targeting work-life stress and safety-related psychosocial risk factors on health and safety outcomes. Data were collected over time using a randomized control trial design with 264 construction workers employed in an urban municipal department. The intervention involved family- and safety-supportive supervisor behavior training (computer-based), followed by two weeks of behavior tracking and a four-hour, facilitated team effectiveness session including supervisors and employees. A significant positive intervention effect was found for an objective measure of blood pressure at the 12-month follow-up. However, no significant intervention results were found for self-reported general health, safety participation, or safety compliance. These findings suggest that an intervention focused on supervisor support training and a team effectiveness process for planning and problem solving should be further refined and utilized in order to improve employee health with additional research on the beneficial effects on worker safety. PMID:26557703

  3. Organizational factors related to safety in a psychiatric hospital: employee perceptions.

    PubMed

    Calabro, Karen; Baraniuk, Sarah

    2003-10-01

    Physical assaults on mental health care workers by aggressive patients were the leading cause of occupational injuries to staff working in a community psychiatric hospital. More than dollar 1 million was estimated to be lost in 1 year because of these occupational injuries. This problem was assessed by examining the organizational factors related to safety at the hospital. The cross sectional survey design measured the perceptions of mental health care workers about the commitment of management to safety (i.e., safety climate). Overall, results indicated the subscale for safety climate was high (3.77 +/- .66 [mean +/- SD] on a 5 scale), given the magnitude of recalled incidents and injuries involving patients against staff. Safety climate was associated with three variables that included administrative controls, occupational stress, and job task demands. Results of the study were useful in determining specific changes for improving safety. The study findings demonstrated the practicality and feasibility of in-house assessments to diagnose areas that require attention, support, and improvement. PMID:14596382

  4. Factors Influencing the Safety Behavior of German Equestrians: Attitudes towards Protective Equipment and Peer Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ikinger, Christina-Maria; Baldamus, Jana; Spiller, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Human interactions with horses entail certain risks. Although the acceptance and use of protective gear is increasing, a high number of incidents and very low or inconsistent voluntary use of safety equipment are reported. While past studies have examined factors influencing the use of safety gear, they have explored neither their influence on the overall safety behavior, nor their relative influence in relation to each other. The aim of the present study is to fill this gap. We conducted an online survey with 2572 participants. By means of a subsequent multiple regression analysis, we explored 23 different variables in view of their influence on the protective behavior of equestrians. In total, we found 17 variables that exerted a significant influence. The results show that both having positive or negative attitudes towards safety products as well as the protective behavior of other horse owners or riding pupils from the stable have the strongest influence on the safety behavior of German equestrians. We consider such knowledge to be important for both scientists and practitioners, such as producers of protective gear or horse sport associations who might alter safety behavior in such a way that the number of horse-related injuries decreases in the long term. PMID:26901229

  5. Factors associated with the activities of safety representatives in Spanish workplaces

    PubMed Central

    García, Ana M; López‐Jacob, Maria José; Dudzinski, Isabel; Gadea, Rafael; Rodrigo, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe the activities of safety representatives in workplaces in Spain. Methods A specific questionnaire was applied to a representative sample of safety representatives. Activities developed during the past year, presented in a closed ended list, were categorised into three groups: information and advising; participation in occupational health management; and pressure on or negotiation with employers. Personal phone interviews were conducted from September to December 2004. A sample of 1201 interviews was attained. Crude and multivariate analyses were carried out. Results Spanish safety representatives were mostly men (76%), aged 26 to 45 years (62%), with fixed contracts (94%), and more than 10 years in their company (57%). On a comparable 0–10 scale, the mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) number of activities relating to information, management, and negotiation developed during the previous year were, respectively, 6.8 (6.7 to 6.9), 4.5 (4.4 to 4.7), and 4.0 (3.8 to 4.1). In multivariate analysis, workplace size (>30 workers), industrial sector, training, and support from the labour inspectorate were the factors most consistently associated with safety representatives' activity. Additionally, support from the employer was associated with participation in occupational health management (odds ratio = 2.38 (95% CI, 1.73 to 3.29)). Conclusions Safety representatives in Spain have a variety of activities, mostly in the category of information and advising. These are necessary but not sufficient for real participation of workers in decisions concerning their health and safety. More participation of safety representatives in occupational health management at workplaces seems to be needed, and factors associated with this participation reinforced. PMID:17699532

  6. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  7. Mechanics-Based Definition of Safety Factors Against Flow Failure in Unsaturated Shallow Slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscarnera, G.; Lizarraga-Barrera, J.

    2014-12-01

    Physical models for landslide forecasting rely on the combination of hydrologic models for water infiltration and stability criteria based on infinite slope mechanics. Such concepts can be used to derive safety factors for shallow landsliding, in which the mobilization of the soil cover is associated with the attainment of critical values of pore water pressures expressed as a function of the frictional strength. While such models capture the role of important geomorphic features and geotechnical properties, their performance depends on the validity of the postulate of frictional failure. As a result, the safety factors do not to consider a broader range of solid-fluid interactions promoting different slope failure mechanisms, such as flow slides. This work combines principles of soil stability, unsaturated soil mechanics and plasticity theory to derive an alternative set of safety factors. While frictional slips are included in the study as a particular case, the proposed analytical methodology can also be applied to cases in which an increase in degree of saturation promotes liquefaction instabilities, i.e. possible transitions from solid- to fluid-like response. The study shows that the incorporation of principles of unsaturated soil mechanics into slope stability analyses generates suction-dependent coefficients that alter the value of the safety factors. As a result, while the proposed approach can still be combined with standard hydrologic models simulating the evolution of pore pressures in the near-surface, it can also provide a spatially distributed assessment of evolving safety conditions in landscapes susceptible to landslides of the flow type.

  8. Adequate supervision for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Anderst, James; Moffatt, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Primary care providers (PCPs) have the opportunity to improve child health and well-being by addressing supervision issues before an injury or exposure has occurred and/or after an injury or exposure has occurred. Appropriate anticipatory guidance on supervision at well-child visits can improve supervision of children, and may prevent future harm. Adequate supervision varies based on the child's development and maturity, and the risks in the child's environment. Consideration should be given to issues as wide ranging as swimming pools, falls, dating violence, and social media. By considering the likelihood of harm and the severity of the potential harm, caregivers may provide adequate supervision by minimizing risks to the child while still allowing the child to take "small" risks as needed for healthy development. Caregivers should initially focus on direct (visual, auditory, and proximity) supervision of the young child. Gradually, supervision needs to be adjusted as the child develops, emphasizing a safe environment and safe social interactions, with graduated independence. PCPs may foster adequate supervision by providing concrete guidance to caregivers. In addition to preventing injury, supervision includes fostering a safe, stable, and nurturing relationship with every child. PCPs should be familiar with age/developmentally based supervision risks, adequate supervision based on those risks, characteristics of neglectful supervision based on age/development, and ways to encourage appropriate supervision throughout childhood. PMID:25369578

  9. Small Rural Schools CAN Have Adequate Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Martha

    The small rural school's foremost and largest problem is providing an adequate curriculum for students in a changing world. Often the small district cannot or is not willing to pay the per-pupil cost of curriculum specialists, specialized courses using expensive equipment no more than one period a day, and remodeled rooms to accommodate new…

  10. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  11. Scientific evaluation of the safety factor for the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Case study: butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA).

    PubMed

    Würtzen, G

    1993-01-01

    The principles of 'data-derived safety factors' are applied to toxicological and biochemical information on butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The calculated safety factor for an ADI is, by this method, comparable to the existing internationally recognized safety evaluations. Relevance for humans of forestomach tumours in rodents is discussed. The method provides a basis for organizing data in a way that permits an explicit assessment of its relevance. PMID:8359313

  12. Complicating factors in safety testing of drug metabolites: Kinetic differences between generated and preformed metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Prueksaritanont, Thomayant . E-mail: thomayant_prueksaritanont@merck.com; Lin, Jiunn H.; Baillie, Thomas A.

    2006-12-01

    This paper aims to provide a scientifically based perspective on issues surrounding the proposed toxicology testing of synthetic drug metabolites as a means of ensuring adequate nonclinical safety evaluation of drug candidates that generate metabolites considered either to be unique to humans or are present at much higher levels in humans than in preclinical species. We put forward a number of theoretical considerations and present several specific examples where the kinetic behavior of a preformed metabolite given to animals or humans differs from that of the corresponding metabolite generated endogenously from its parent. The potential ramifications of this phenomenon are that the results of toxicity testing of the preformed metabolite may be misleading and fail to characterize the true toxicological contribution of the metabolite when formed from the parent. It is anticipated that such complications would be evident in situations where (a) differences exist in the accumulation of the preformed versus generated metabolites in specific tissues, and (b) the metabolite undergoes sequential metabolism to a downstream product that is toxic, leading to differences in tissue-specific toxicity. Owing to the complex nature of this subject, there is a need to treat drug metabolite issues in safety assessment on a case-by-case basis, in which a knowledge of metabolite kinetics is employed to validate experimental paradigms that entail administration of preformed metabolites to animal models.

  13. Factors influencing safety among a group of commercial fishermen along the Texas Gulf Coast.

    PubMed

    Levin, Jeffrey L; Gilmore, Karen; Shepherd, Sara; Wickman, Amanda; Carruth, Ann; Nalbone, J Torey; Gallardo, Gilbert; Nonnenmann, Matthew W

    2010-10-01

    The commercial fishing trades are among the most dangerous jobs in the world. Little published information exists regarding some populations of commercial fishermen such as along the United States Gulf Coast. Studying these unique and often vulnerable groups is important to characterize potential influences on or barriers to safety in anticipation of designing interventions that can change safety behaviors. Working closely with the United States Coast Guard (USCG), a cross-sectional convenience sample of Gulf Coast shrimp fishermen in and near the Port of Galveston, Texas, was surveyed. The survey included demographic factors and broadly covered areas such as type of work and fishing activities, general or global perceptions and beliefs related to safety and accidents, self-report of ability to use safety equipment or apply procedures aboard vessel, and training considerations. Surveys were obtained following informed consent (n = 133). Of the participants, 96.7% were male with 60.9% ≥40 years old. A majority were of Asian descent (57.1% of all fishermen, 82.1% of shrimp fishermen). Over half claimed to speak little or no English and nearly 60% considered the job to be very safe to neutral. A third to half of respondents expressed doubt about their knowledge of using essential safety equipment in the event of emergency. A large portion of the participants preferred hands-on safety training (40.6%). Important findings about this group of commercial fishermen will help with future development of effective prevention practices through the delivery of culturally appropriate safety awareness training. One element that must be addressed in training programs is to increase the awareness among fishermen about the severe occupational risks inherent in this type of work. Community trust and collaborative partnerships are essential to the success of such initiatives. PMID:20954032

  14. Magnetic axis safety factor of finite β spheromaks and transition from spheromaks to toroidal magnetic bubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Bellan, Paul M.; Paccagnella, Roberto

    2015-02-15

    The value of the safety factor on the magnetic axis of a finite-beta spheromak is shown to be a function of beta in contrast to what was used in Bellan, Phys. Plasmas 9, 3050 (2002); this dependence on beta substantially reduces the gradient of the safety factor compared to the previous calculation. The method for generating finite-beta spheromak equilibria is extended to generate equilibria describing toroidal magnetic “bubbles,” where the hydrodynamic pressure on the magnetic axis is less than on the toroid surface. This “anti-confinement” configuration can be considered an equilibrium with an inverted beta profile and is relevant to interplanetary magnetic clouds as these clouds have lower hydrodynamic pressure in their interior than on their surface.

  15. Evolutionary trends in safety factors against wind-induced stem failure.

    PubMed

    Niklas, K J; Speck, T

    2001-07-01

    We explore the hypothesis that the safety factor against wind-induced stem failure remained high during early land plant evolution despite an evolutionary increase in height with concomitant increases in wind-induced drag forces, bending stresses, and moments. This hypothesis was examined for 17 Paleozoic plant species assuming that each (1) existed in a densely packed community of conspecifics with equivalent height, (2) coped with the same wind profile (where ambient wind speed decreased toward ground level), but (3) had different within-canopy wind speeds depending on plant height and general morphology. Drag forces, stresses, and moments were computed, and a safety factor was calculated for each taxon using the quotient of its stem-tissue breaking stress and maximum wind-induced bending stress.The highest factors of safety were calculated among the most ancient rhyniophyte and zosterophyllophyte species examined (e.g., Rhynia and Gosslingia), and, on average, decreased among the taller and geologically younger species. The tallest species examined (e.g., Archaeopteris and Diaphorodendron) had safety factors equal to or higher than those of some of their presumed ancestors (e.g., Psilophyton and Leclercqia). These trends were statistically more robust among rhyniophytes and their presumed descendants.Even though the results comply with the hypothesis, numerous limitations of our protocol exist (e.g., the requirement for reliable whole-plant reconstructions). These are discussed in terms of our theory. Nonetheless, we believe our theory and protocol afford a reasonable opportunity to explore the effects of wind on early plant evolution. PMID:11454627

  16. Modelling of Field-Reversed Configuration Experiment with Large Safety Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhauer, L; Guo, H; Hoffman, A; Ishida, A; Ryutov, D D

    2005-11-28

    The Translation-Confinement-Sustainment facility has been operated in the 'translation-formation' mode in which a plasma is ejected at high-speed from a {theta}-pinch-like source into a confinement chamber where it settles into a field-reversed-configuration state. Measurements of the poloidal and toroidal field have been the basis of modeling to infer the safety factor. It is found that the edge safety factor exceeds two, and that there is strong forward magnetic shear. The high-q arises because the large elongation compensates for the modest ratio of toroidal-to-poloidal field in the plasma. This is the first known instance of a very high-{beta} plasma with a safety factor greater than unity. Two-fluid modeling of the measurements also indicate several other significant features: a broad 'transition layer' at the plasma boundary with probable line-tying effects, complex high-speed flows, and the appearance of a two-fluid minimum-energy state in the plasma core. All these features may contribute to both the stability and good confinement of the plasma.

  17. The use of safety or uncertainty factors in the setting of acute reference doses.

    PubMed

    Renwick, A G

    2000-07-01

    A 100-fold safety or uncertainty factor has been used for about 40 years to derive safe daily intakes for humans based on animal studies; the 100-fold factor comprises separate 10-fold factors to allow for species differences and inter-individual variability. Each factor has to allow for toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic differences. Sub-dividing the 10-fold factors into kinetic and dynamic defaults, which when multiplied give a product of 10, offers a number of advantages. The main rationale for this sub-division is so that chemical-specific data can be introduced to replace one or more of the default sub-factors, hence contributing to a chemical-related overall factor. However, sub-division of the 10-fold factors has allowed analysis of the appropriateness of the overall 10-fold defaults, and analysis of special situations, such as infants and children. The establishment of an acute reference dose based on animal studies has to allow for both species differences and inter-individual variability; comparison with the factors used for chronic effects suggests that modification of the usual defaults may be appropriate under certain specific circumstances, but that the usual default of 100 remains appropriate for most cases. PMID:10983588

  18. Determination of Slope Safety Factor with Analytical Solution and Searching Critical Slip Surface with Genetic-Traversal Random Method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the current practice, to determine the safety factor of a slope with two-dimensional circular potential failure surface, one of the searching methods for the critical slip surface is Genetic Algorithm (GA), while the method to calculate the slope safety factor is Fellenius' slices method. However GA needs to be validated with more numeric tests, while Fellenius' slices method is just an approximate method like finite element method. This paper proposed a new method to determine the minimum slope safety factor which is the determination of slope safety factor with analytical solution and searching critical slip surface with Genetic-Traversal Random Method. The analytical solution is more accurate than Fellenius' slices method. The Genetic-Traversal Random Method uses random pick to utilize mutation. A computer automatic search program is developed for the Genetic-Traversal Random Method. After comparison with other methods like slope/w software, results indicate that the Genetic-Traversal Random Search Method can give very low safety factor which is about half of the other methods. However the obtained minimum safety factor with Genetic-Traversal Random Search Method is very close to the lower bound solutions of slope safety factor given by the Ansys software. PMID:24782679

  19. A qualitative investigation of Hispanic construction worker perspectives on factors impacting worksite safety and risk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hispanic workers have higher rates of injury and death on construction worksites than workers of other ethnicities. Language barriers and cultural differences have been hypothesized as reasons behind the disparate rates. Methods We conducted two series of focus groups with union and non-union Hispanic construction workers to ask them about their perceptions of the causes for the unequal rates. Spanish transcripts were translated and coded in QSR NVivo software for common themes. Results Workers reported a difficult work environment characterized by supervisor pressure, competition for jobs and intimidation with regard to raising safety concerns. Language barriers or cultural factors were not strongly represented as causative factors behind the rates. Conclusion The results of this study have informed the development of an intervention trial that seeks to prevent falls and silica dust exposure by training contractors employing Hispanic construction workers in the elements of safety leadership, including building respect for their Hispanic workers and facilitating their participation in a safety program. PMID:21962128

  20. Analysis of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials: Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Abkowitz, M.D.; Abkowitz, S.B.; Lepofsky, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report examines the extent of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials. It is seen principally as a scoping effort, to establish whether there is a need for DOE to undertake a more formal approach to studying human factors in radioactive waste transport, and if so, logical directions for that program to follow. Human factors effects are evaluated on driving and loading/transfer operations only. Particular emphasis is placed on the driving function, examining the relationship between human error and safety as it relates to the impairment of driver performance. Although multi-modal in focus, the widespread availability of data and previous literature on truck operations resulted in a primary study focus on the trucking mode from the standpoint of policy development. In addition to the analysis of human factors accident statistics, the report provides relevant background material on several policies that have been instituted or are under consideration, directed at improving human reliability in the transport sector. On the basis of reported findings, preliminary policy areas are identified. 71 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Head-up displays and their automotive application: an overview of human factors issues affecting safety.

    PubMed

    Ward, N J; Parkes, A

    1994-12-01

    In response to the recent innovations to use head-up displays (HUDs) in vehicles, this paper discusses the relevant human factors issues arising from this display format and the potential safety implications. A review is made of the relevant HUD literature, primarily from the aviation field. The primary issues for automotive HUDs relevant to system performance and safety in the driving task involve interference from background scene complexity, system novelty, user perceptual style, cognitive disruption, and perceptual tunnelling. Basic research is necessary to investigate the extent of these issues as well as to resolve fundamental design specifications (e.g. HUD size, shape, placement, information content). It is suggested that the introduction of HUDs into vehicles be carefully considered. This will necessitate not only the reconsideration what constitutes an in-vehicle display, but also what constitutes the information to be conveyed. PMID:7857487

  2. Overview of critical risk factors in Power-Two-Wheeler safety.

    PubMed

    Vlahogianni, Eleni I; Yannis, George; Golias, John C

    2012-11-01

    Power-Two-Wheelers (PTWs) constitute a vulnerable class of road users with increased frequency and severity of accidents. The present paper focuses of the PTW accident risk factors and reviews existing literature with regard to the PTW drivers' interactions with the automobile drivers, as well as interactions with infrastructure elements and weather conditions. Several critical risk factors are revealed with different levels of influence to PTW accident likelihood and severity. A broad classification based on the magnitude and the need for further research for each risk factor is proposed. The paper concludes by discussing the importance of dealing with accident configurations, the data quality and availability, methods implemented to model risk and exposure and risk identification which are critical for a thorough understanding of the determinants of PTW safety. PMID:22579296

  3. Factors Influencing Young Children's Risk of Unintentional Injury: Parenting Style and Strategies for Teaching about Home Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Corbett, Michael; Lasenby, Jennifer; Johnston, Natalie; McCourt, Meghan

    2006-01-01

    This study examined mothers' teaching about home-safety issues to 24-30 month and 36-42 month old children, explored the relationship of teaching strategies to parenting styles, and assessed how these factors are related to children's risk of unintentional injury. A structured interview assessed home-safety issues relevant to falls, burns, cuts,…

  4. Derivation of safety factors for setting harvest quotas on adult walleyes from past estimates of abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Staggs, Michael D.; Hoff, Michael H.

    1991-01-01

    Past population estimates of adult walleyes Stizostedion vitreum can be used to set harvest quotas, provided that temporal variability in abundance of adult walleyes is accounted for. We used a long-term data set from Escanaba Lake, Wisconsin, to evaluate the accuracy of past population estimates for setting current-year quotas for adult walleyes. The results from Escanaba Lake were corroborated by comparison with other lakes where adult walleye abundance was estimated in more than 1 year. The accuracy of estimates of adult walleye abundance declined over time from the year the estimate was obtained to the year it was used to set a harvest quota. We derived safety factors for application to past estimates of population size; these factors limit the occurrence of an exploitation rate exceeding the maximum sustainable rate (35%) to approximately 1 in 40. These safety factors declined from 35% for 1-year-old estimates to less than 20% for 10-year-old estimates.

  5. Analyses of substantially different plasma current densities and safety factors reconstructed from magnetic diagnostics data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, F. S.; Kostomarov, D. P.; Suchkov, E. P.; Drozdov, V. V.; Solano, E. R.; Murari, A.; Matejcik, S.; Hawkes, N. C.; Contributors, JET-EFDA

    2011-10-01

    The problem of plasma current density and safety factor reconstruction using magnetic field measurements is considered. In the traditional formulation, the problem is strongly ill-posed. In particular, substantially different current densities and safety factors can be equally well attributed to the same set of measurements, given their experimental errors. In other words, the problem can be strongly unstable with respect to the input data. Different constraints are used in practice to make the problem more stable. This paper presents an accurate mathematical formulation of the inverse problem and its variants. A numerical algorithm is provided, which permits us to study the stability with respect to variations in the input data, to find all substantially different solutions, or to prove their absence, and to determine the confidence intervals of the reconstructions. The proposed method also allows establishing the maximum error for a given diagnostic (additional constraint), below which the diagnostic efficiently extracts one solution among several substantially different ones. Examples of very different current density and safety factor reconstructions for measurements with finite accuracy are presented for the original formulation of the inverse problem. Cases of MAST, JET and ITER-like plasmas are considered. It is shown that including the motional Stark effect (MSE) measurements as a constraint, provided the accuracy of MSE measurements is sufficient, allows identifying one solution among several very different ones, obtained without such a constraint. The maximum MSE diagnostics error for efficient identification of this solution is estimated for JET. The approach of this paper can be used for a wide range of ill-posed problems in physics and can help in selecting additional conditions, which can identify the most likely solution among several.

  6. Human factors and safety considerations of night-vision systems flight using thermal imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Verona, Robert W.; Crowley, John S.

    1990-10-01

    Helmet Mounted Systems (HMS) must be lightweight, balanced and compatible with life support and head protection assemblies. This paper discusses the design of one particular HMS, the GEC Ferranti NITE-OP/NIGHTBIRD aviator's Night Vision Goggle (NVG) developed under contracts to the Ministry of Defence for all three services in the United Kingdom (UK) for Rotary Wing and fast jet aircraft. The existing equipment constraints, safety, human factor and optical performance requirements are discussed before the design solution is presented after consideration of these material and manufacturing options.

  7. Whose fault is it anyway? A practical illustration of human factors in process safety.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Gareth; Kornowa-Weichel, Megan

    2004-11-11

    Major process accidents have typically occurred not through a single failure, but through a combination of events, some of which had contributors from past actions and failures (latent or unrevealed failures). People are integral and key features of business systems; therefore systems, tools, and equipment should be designed with the potential capabilities and limitations of people in mind. This paper demonstrates the benefits of using human factors approaches to improve system safety and reliability. Practical examples from past experience are quoted and a framework for human error prediction is described. Guidance is given on the practicalities of deriving recommendations from these types of studies. PMID:15518974

  8. Edge safety factor at the onset of plasma disruption during VDEs in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugihara, Masayoshi; Lukash, Victor; Khayrutdinov, Rustam; Neyatani, Yuzuru

    2004-10-01

    Detailed examinations of the value of the edge safety factor (qa) at the onset of thermal quench (TQ) during intentional vertical displacement event (VDE) experiments in JT-60U are carried out using two different reconstruction methods, FBI/FBEQU and DINA. The results from the two methods are very similar and show that the TQ occurs when the qa value is in the range between 1.5 and 2. This result suggests that the predictive simulations for VDEs should be performed within this range of q to examine the subsequent differences in the halo currents, plasma movement and other plasma behaviour during the current quench.

  9. Clinical safety of tbo-filgrastim, a short-acting human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Pettengell, Ruth; Bias, Peter; Mueller, Udo; Lang, Nicole

    2016-06-01

    The recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) known as filgrastim (Tevagrastim(®), Ratiograstim(®), Biograstim(®)) in Europe (approved in 2008) and tbo-filgrastim (Granix(®)) in the USA (approved in 2012; Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Petach Tikva, Israel) is indicated to reduce the duration of severe neutropenia in patients with non-myeloid malignancies receiving myelosuppressive anti-cancer drugs associated with a clinically significant incidence of febrile neutropenia. This article presents pooled clinical data for tbo-filgrastim compared with Neupogen(®) (Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA) as well as tbo-filgrastim post-marketing safety data. The safety and efficacy of tbo-filgrastim were evaluated in three phase III studies in 677 patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy and study drug (348 patients with breast cancer, 237 with lung cancer, 92 with non-Hodgkin lymphoma). In each study, the efficacy of tbo-filgrastim was similar to that of Neupogen. Overall, 633 (93.5 %) patients receiving the study drug experienced 6093 treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs), most of which were related to chemotherapy. Adverse events related to the study drug (tbo-filgrastim or Neupogen) were experienced by 185 (27.3 %) patients; 19 (2.8 %) had severe drug-related AEs, 5 (0.7 %) had drug-related serious AEs, and 6 (0.9 %) discontinued the study due to drug-related AEs. Overall, the most common drug-related AEs were bone pain (7.1 %), myalgia (4.0 %), and asthenia (4.4 %). The post-marketing safety profile of tbo-filgrastim was consistent with that observed during the clinical studies. The availability of tbo-filgrastim, a G-CSF with safety and efficacy comparable to those of Neupogen, provides physicians with an alternative treatment option for supportive care of patients with non-myeloid malignancies receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. PMID:26780505

  10. Archetypes for Organisational Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marais, Karen; Leveson, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a framework using system dynamics to model the dynamic behavior of organizations in accident analysis. Most current accident analysis techniques are event-based and do not adequately capture the dynamic complexity and non-linear interactions that characterize accidents in complex systems. In this paper we propose a set of system safety archetypes that model common safety culture flaws in organizations, i.e., the dynamic behaviour of organizations that often leads to accidents. As accident analysis and investigation tools, the archetypes can be used to develop dynamic models that describe the systemic and organizational factors contributing to the accident. The archetypes help clarify why safety-related decisions do not always result in the desired behavior, and how independent decisions in different parts of the organization can combine to impact safety.

  11. Purchasing a cycle helmet: are retailers providing adequate advice?

    PubMed Central

    Plumridge, E.; McCool, J.; Chetwynd, J.; Langley, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the selling of cycle helmets in retail stores with particular reference to the adequacy of advice offered about the fit and securing of helmets. METHODS: All 55 retail outlets selling cycle helmets in Christchurch, New Zealand were studied by participant observation. A research entered each store as a prospective customer and requested assistance to purchase a helmet. She took detailed field notes of the ensuing encounter and these were subsequently transcribed, coded, and analysed. RESULTS: Adequate advice for helmet purchase was given in less than half of the stores. In general the sales assistants in specialist cycle shops were better informed and gave more adequate advice than those in department stores. Those who have good advice also tended to be more good advice also tended to be more active in helping with fitting the helmet. Knowledge about safety standards was apparent in one third of sales assistants. Few stores displayed information for customers about the correct fit of cycle helmets. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the advice and assistance being given to ensure that cycle helmets fit properly is often inadequate and thus the helmets may fail to fulfil their purpose in preventing injury. Consultation between retailers and policy makers is a necessary first step to improving this situation. PMID:9346053

  12. FED-A, an advanced performance FED based on low safety factor and current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1983-08-01

    The FED-A study aims to quantify the potential improvement in cost-effectiveness of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by assuming low safety factor q (less than 2 as opposed to about 3) at the plasma edge and noninductive current drive (as opposed to only inductive current drive). The FED-A performance objectives are set to be : (1) ignition assuming International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) plamsa confinement scaling, but still achieving a fusion power amplification Q greater than or equal to 5 when the confinement is degraded by a factor of 2; (2) neutron wall loading of about 1 MW/m/sup 2/, with 0.5 MW/m/sup 2/ as a conservative lower bound; and (3) more clearly power-reactor-like operations, such as steady state.

  13. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise. PMID:9670174

  14. Intrinsic Safety Factors for Glass & Carbon Fibre Composite Filament Wound Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunsell, A. R.; Thionnet, A.; Chou, H. Y.

    2014-02-01

    The determination of intrinsic safety factors for glass and carbon fibre unidirectional composites and filament wound internally pressurised structures, is described. In such structures the fibres are placed on geodesic paths and the pressure induces tensile forces in them. The fibres ensure the strength of the composite and must break for it to fail. Failure is seen in such structures, to depend mainly on the accumulation of fibre breaks. These are initially randomly distributed but become critical when clusters of breaks develop. Long term behaviour of carbon fibre composites is controlled by the viscoelastic relaxation of the matrix around breaks, which can lead to further delayed fibre breaks. Failure in glass fibre structures can additionally be induced by stress corrosion of the glass fibres. This process does not seem to occur with carbon fibres and as the latter are increasingly used in critical structures emphasis is given to them. Until the development of clusters of fibre breaks, in a filament wound structure, no macroscopic changes in the composite behaviour are evident so that failure occurs in a sudden death manner. Multi-scale simulation, taking into account the characteristics of the composite components and scaling up their behaviour under load, accurately describes the overall behaviour of the composite structure. This approach not only allows the behaviour to be described, as a function of time, but also calculates the scatter which will occur in the behaviour of the structure. This allows the intrinsic safety factors of the composite structure to be quantified.

  15. Tokamak operation with safety factor q95 < 2 via control of MHD stability.

    PubMed

    Piovesan, P; Hanson, J M; Martin, P; Navratil, G A; Turco, F; Bialek, J; Ferraro, N M; La Haye, R J; Lanctot, M J; Okabayashi, M; Paz-Soldan, C; Strait, E J; Turnbull, A D; Zanca, P; Baruzzo, M; Bolzonella, T; Hyatt, A W; Jackson, G L; Marrelli, L; Piron, L; Shiraki, D

    2014-07-25

    Magnetic feedback control of the resistive-wall mode has enabled the DIII-D tokamak to access stable operation at safety factor q(95) = 1.9 in divertor plasmas for 150 instability growth times. Magnetohydrodynamic stability sets a hard, disruptive limit on the minimum edge safety factor achievable in a tokamak, or on the maximum plasma current at a given toroidal magnetic field. In tokamaks with a divertor, the limit occurs at q(95) = 2, as confirmed in DIII-D. Since the energy confinement time scales linearly with current, this also bounds the performance of a fusion reactor. DIII-D has overcome this limit, opening a whole new high-current regime not accessible before. This result brings significant possible benefits in terms of fusion performance, but it also extends resistive-wall mode physics and its control to conditions never explored before. In present experiments, the q(95) < 2 operation is eventually halted by voltage limits reached in the feedback power supplies, not by intrinsic physics issues. Improvements to power supplies and to control algorithms have the potential to further extend this regime. PMID:25105626

  16. Equilibrium and Stability Characteristics of DIII-D Discharges with Low Edge Safety Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakumar, R. J.; Garofalo, A. M.; Navratil, G. A.; Reimerdes, H.; Jensen, T. H.; La Haye, R. J.; Scoville, J. T.; Strait, E. J.; Turnbull, A. D.; Okabayashi, M.

    2002-11-01

    A low safety factor plasma has a good potential for reactor applications, since the fusion power and gain increase with reduction in safety factor. Experiments are being carried out in the DIII-D to investigate the equilibrium profiles and stability limits of such plasmas. Plasmas with flat q profiles q_min>1 and q_95<2.5 have been obtained with βN (>2.0) above no wall limits during current ramp and using resistive wall mode feedback. The discharge followed a current profile evolution predicted by the code CORSICA. The ideal wall and no wall beta limits for such discharges are being investigated using the codes GATO and DCON, for different current and pressure profiles. Simultaneously, the current profile and its evolution are being modeled for a variety of plasma cross sectional shapes and discharge formation scenarios to select an optimal scenario for the 2003 experimental run. The experimental results to date and modeling results will be presented.

  17. Workplace safety: a meta-analysis of the roles of person and situation factors.

    PubMed

    Christian, Michael S; Bradley, Jill C; Wallace, J Craig; Burke, Michael J

    2009-09-01

    Recent conceptual and methodological advances in behavioral safety research afford an opportunity to integrate past and recent research findings. Building on theoretical models of worker performance and work climate, this study quantitatively integrates the safety literature by meta-analytically examining person- and situation-based antecedents of safety performance behaviors and safety outcomes (i.e., accidents and injuries). As anticipated, safety knowledge and safety motivation were most strongly related to safety performance behaviors, closely followed by psychological safety climate and group safety climate. With regard to accidents and injuries, however, group safety climate had the strongest association. In addition, tests of a meta-analytic path model provided support for the theoretical model that guided this overall investigation. The implications of these findings for advancing the study and management of workplace safety are discussed. PMID:19702360

  18. The Dread Factor: How Hazards and Safety Training Influence Learning and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Michael J.; Salvador, Rommel O.; Smith-Crowe, Kristin; Chan-Serafin, Suzanne; Smith, Alexis; Sonesh, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of hypotheses derived from social and experiential learning theories, we meta-analytically investigated how safety training and workplace hazards impact the development of safety knowledge and safety performance. The results were consistent with an expected interaction between the level of engagement of safety training and hazardous…

  19. Why Some Walk and Others Don't: Exploring Interactions of Perceived Safety and Social Neighborhood Factors with Psychosocial Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beenackers, Marielle A.; Kamphuis, Carlijn B. M.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Burdorf, Alex; van Lenthe, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Although physical activity is often believed to be influenced by both environmental and individual factors, little is known about their interaction. This study explores interactions of perceived safety and social neighborhood factors with psychosocial cognitions for leisure-time walking. Cross-sectional data were obtained from residents (age 25-75…

  20. The refinement of uncertainty/safety factors in risk assessment by the incorporation of data on toxicokinetic variability in humans.

    PubMed

    Dorne, J L C M; Renwick, A G

    2005-07-01

    The derivation of safe levels of exposure in humans for compounds that are assumed to cause threshold toxicity has relied on the application of a 100-fold uncertainty factor to a measure for the threshold, such as the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) or the benchmark dose (BMD). This 100-fold safety factor consists of the product of two 10-fold factors allowing for human variability and interspecies differences. The International Programme on Chemical Safety has suggested the subdivision of these 10-fold factors to allow for variability in toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. This subdivision allows the replacement of the default uncertainty factors with a chemical-specific adjustment factor (CSAF) when suitable data are available. This short review describes potential options to refine safety factors used in risk assessment, with particular emphasis on pathway-related uncertainty factors associated with variability in kinetics. These pathway-related factors were derived from a database that quantified interspecies differences and human variability in phase I metabolism, phase II metabolism, and renal excretion. This approach allows metabolism and pharmacokinetic data in healthy adults and subgroups of the population to be incorporated in the risk-assessment process and constitutes an intermediate approach between simple default factors and chemical-specific adjustment factors. PMID:15800035

  1. [Safety and risk factor analysis on Polygoni Multiflori Radix base on ancient traditional Chinese medicine literatures].

    PubMed

    Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Guo, Xiao-xin; Ren, Jing-tian; Yang, Le; Pang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine Polygoni Multiflori Radix is dried roots of Polygonaceae Polygortum multiflorum Thunb. Its clinical application records were first discovered in literatures of the Tang dynasty. The origins, efficacy, toxicity, processing and taboos of Polygoni Multiflori Radix have been discussed in many ancient herb literatures. In recent years, with the increase in the public awareness in health, Polygoni Multiflori Radix admits preparations have been more widely applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, there have been more and more reports about Polygoni Multiflori Radix induced liver injury, the safety of Polygoni Multiflori Radix has increasingly attracted attention of the society. In this paper, the authors summarized and analyzed the toxicity and medication risk factors of Polygoni Multiflori Radix recorded in ancient herb literatures, and proposed that more attention shall be given to the effect of the planting and processing methods on the components and toxicity of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in safety studies, which provides clues for the further studies. PMID:26087568

  2. Updating Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Conducting Safety Reviews of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    O, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Stephen Fleger - NRC

    2011-09-19

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool. To this end, the NRC is updating its guidance to stay current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology being employed in plant and control room design. This paper describes the role of HFE guidelines in the safety review process and the content of the key HFE guidelines used. Then we will present the methodology used to develop HFE guidance and update these documents, and describe the current status of the update program.

  3. Work-related injuries and occupational health and safety factors in smaller enterprises--a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bull, N; Riise, T; Moen, B E

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether any of the health, environmental and safety (HES) factors registered by visiting small mechanical enterprises in Norway at the start of the study could predict the risk of occupational injuries in subsequent years. Twelve HES factors, including injury awareness, programme for action, employee participation, training and use of personal safety devices, were registered. A questionnaire was completed by interviewing the employer and observing production. Two variables based on observation of the use of safety equipment were significantly correlated with occupational injuries. There is potential for prevention in smaller enterprises by increasing the use of personal protection devices and safety equipment on machines. Frequent inspection with feedback to the workers is probably the most effective means of attaining the desired result of reducing injuries. PMID:11967348

  4. Analysis of Factors Determining Ergonomic Conditions of Driver's Workplace and Safety in Transport of Dangerous Goods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabarek, Iwona; Beczkowska, Sylwia

    2012-09-01

    The article concerns issues connected with the safety of the carriage of dangerous goods. Raising a subject was justified with the rising number of cartages of these goods and the same height of the probability of the appearance of the environmental risk and remaining road users. A specificity of the arrangement was analyzed driver-vehicleenvironment, paying special attention to ergonomic determinants of working conditions of the driver. In the article data of the National Police Headquarters concerning causes of accident involving dangerous goods in the road transport was also described. Exceeding the permissible speed, the non-observance of traffic regulations, as well as the tiredness which resulted in reducing the psychophysical efficiency for the driver were regarded as the root cause of accidents. Conducted analyses allowed to effect the preliminary selection of factors, which accepting the wrong level can constitute the cause of accidents.

  5. New insights into long-bone biomechanics: are limb safety factors invariable across mammalian species?

    PubMed

    Kokshenev, Valery B

    2007-01-01

    The most common function of limb bones is to provide stiff levers acting against muscles and gravity; however, a general mechanical description is not yet available. This research attempts such a description by modeling the bone's intrinsic biomechanics through elastic stability of solid long cylinders considered in non-critical, transient and critical mechanical regimes distinguished conventionally through maximal resisting elastic strains. The non-critical regime controls bones' adaptation through the safety factor (bone strength related to the peak functional stress) S2. This is ensured by bone-diameter (d=1/3+beta) and bone-length (l=1/3-beta) scaling exponents generally following from compressive-stress constraints. Prange's index (0safety factor provides evidence that land-dwelling and land-moving giants are biomechanically accommodated to the peak bending and torsion functional stresses, respectively. PMID:17448481

  6. Analysis of rainfall-induced slope instability using a field of local factor of safety

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Ning; Şener-Kaya, Başak; Wayllace, Alexandra; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Slope-stability analyses are mostly conducted by identifying or assuming a potential failure surface and assessing the factor of safety (FS) of that surface. This approach of assigning a single FS to a potentially unstable slope provides little insight on where the failure initiates or the ultimate geometry and location of a landslide rupture surface. We describe a method to quantify a scalar field of FS based on the concept of the Coulomb stress and the shift in the state of stress toward failure that results from rainfall infiltration. The FS at each point within a hillslope is called the local factor of safety (LFS) and is defined as the ratio of the Coulomb stress at the current state of stress to the Coulomb stress of the potential failure state under the Mohr-Coulomb criterion. Comparative assessment with limit-equilibrium and hybrid finite element limit-equilibrium methods show that the proposed LFS is consistent with these approaches and yields additional insight into the geometry and location of the potential failure surface and how instability may initiate and evolve with changes in pore water conditions. Quantitative assessments applying the new LFS field method to slopes under infiltration conditions demonstrate that the LFS has the potential to overcome several major limitations in the classical FS methodologies such as the shape of the failure surface and the inherent underestimation of slope instability. Comparison with infinite-slope methods, including a recent extension to variably saturated conditions, shows further enhancement in assessing shallow landslide occurrence using the LFS methodology. Although we use only a linear elastic solution for the state of stress with no post-failure analysis that require more sophisticated elastoplastic or other theories, the LFS provides a new means to quantify the potential instability zones in hillslopes under variably saturated conditions using stress-field based methods.

  7. Factors Associated with the Adoption of Food Safety Controls by the Mexican Meat Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado-Simán, Ema; Martínez-Hernández, Pedro Arturo; García-Muñiz, José G.; Cadena-Meneses, José

    Food marketing at international and domestic markets has focused on processing systems that improve food safety. The objective of this research is to determine the factors influencing the implementation of the HACCP system in the Mexican meat industry, and to identify the main marketing destination of their products. Only 18.5% of enterprises reports fully operational HACCP in their plants. The main destination of their production in the domestic market is supermarkets, suppliers and distributors and specific niches of the domestic market. Exports are to USA, Japan, Korea and Central America and some niches of the domestic market with requirements of higher quality. The four principal factors that motivate enterprises to adopt HACCP are associated with improvement of plant efficiency and profitability, adoption of good practices, improvement of product quality and waste reduction. It is concluded that Mexican enterprises adopt HACCP to successfully remain and face competition by foreign enterprises in the domestic market and to a lesser extent to compete in the international market.

  8. Safety of anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy during pregnancy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Androulakis, Ioannis; Zavos, Christos; Christopoulos, Panagiotis; Mastorakos, George; Gazouli, Maria

    2015-12-21

    Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease has significantly improved since the introduction of biological agents, such as infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, and golimumab. The Food and Drug Administration has classified these factors in category B, which means that they do not demonstrate a fetal risk. However, during pregnancy fetuses are exposed to high anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels that are measurable in their plasma after birth. Since antibodies can transfer through the placenta at the end of the second and during the third trimesters, it is important to know the safety profile of these drugs, particularly for the fetus, and whether maintaining relapse of the disease compensates for the potential risks of fetal exposure. The limited data available for the anti-TNF drugs to date have not demonstrated any significant adverse outcomes in the pregnant women who continued their therapy from conception to the first trimester of gestation. However, data suggest that anti-TNFs should be discontinued during the third trimester, as they may affect the immunological system of the newborn baby. Each decision should be individualized, based on the distinct characteristics of the patient and her disease. Considering all the above, there is a need for more clinical studies regarding the effect of anti-TNF therapeutic agents on pregnancy outcomes. PMID:26715803

  9. Are shear force methods adequately reported?

    PubMed

    Holman, Benjamin W B; Fowler, Stephanie M; Hopkins, David L

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the detail to which shear force (SF) protocols and methods have been reported in the scientific literature between 2009 and 2015. Articles (n=734) published in peer-reviewed animal and food science journals and limited to only those testing the SF of unprocessed and non-fabricated mammal meats were evaluated. It was found that most of these SF articles originated in Europe (35.3%), investigated bovine species (49.0%), measured m. longissimus samples (55.2%), used tenderometers manufactured by Instron (31.2%), and equipped with Warner-Bratzler blades (68.8%). SF samples were also predominantly thawed prior to cooking (37.1%) and cooked sous vide, using a water bath (50.5%). Information pertaining to blade crosshead speed (47.5%), recorded SF resistance (56.7%), muscle fibre orientation when tested (49.2%), sub-section or core dimension (21.8%), end-point temperature (29.3%), and other factors contributing to SF variation were often omitted. This base failure diminishes repeatability and accurate SF interpretation, and must therefore be rectified. PMID:27107727

  10. Adipose Tissue - Adequate, Accessible Regenerative Material.

    PubMed

    Kolaparthy, Lakshmi Kanth; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kutcham, Rupa Sruthi

    2015-11-01

    The potential use of stem cell based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of diseases. The use of either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells in clinical situations is limited due to cell regulations and to technical and ethical considerations involved in genetic manipulation of human ESCs, even though these cells are highly beneficial. Mesenchymal stem cells seen to be an ideal population of stem cells in particular, Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) which can be obtained in large number and easily harvested from adipose tissue. It is ubiquitously available and has several advantages compared to other sources as easily accessible in large quantities with minimal invasive harvesting procedure, and isolation of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells yield a high amount of stem cells which is essential for stem cell based therapies and tissue engineering. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using ASCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because various secreted growth factors from ASCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissues but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. This review summarizes the sources, isolation and characteristics of adipose derived stem cells and its potential role in periodontal regeneration is discussed. PMID:26634060

  11. Adipose Tissue - Adequate, Accessible Regenerative Material

    PubMed Central

    Kolaparthy, Lakshmi Kanth.; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kutcham, Rupa Sruthi

    2015-01-01

    The potential use of stem cell based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of diseases. The use of either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells in clinical situations is limited due to cell regulations and to technical and ethical considerations involved in genetic manipulation of human ESCs, even though these cells are highly beneficial. Mesenchymal stem cells seen to be an ideal population of stem cells in particular, Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) which can be obtained in large number and easily harvested from adipose tissue. It is ubiquitously available and has several advantages compared to other sources as easily accessible in large quantities with minimal invasive harvesting procedure, and isolation of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells yield a high amount of stem cells which is essential for stem cell based therapies and tissue engineering. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using ASCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because various secreted growth factors from ASCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissues but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. This review summarizes the sources, isolation and characteristics of adipose derived stem cells and its potential role in periodontal regeneration is discussed. PMID:26634060

  12. Pesticide safety among farmworkers: perceived risk and perceived control as factors reflecting environmental justice.

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A; Quandt, Sara A; Russell, Gregory B

    2002-01-01

    Farmworkers in the United States constitute a population at risk for serious environmental and occupational illness and injury as well as health disparities typically associated with poverty. Pesticides are a major source of occupational injury and illness to which farmworkers are exposed. Efforts to provide safety training for farmworkers have not been fully evaluated. Based on the Health Belief Model, this analysis examines how safety information affects perceived pesticide safety risk and control among farmworkers and how perceived risk and control affect farmworker knowledge and safety behavior. Data are based on interviews conducted in 1999 with 293 farmworkers in eastern North Carolina as part of the Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure in North Carolina Farmworkers' Project. Perceived pesticide risk and perceived pesticide control scales were developed from interview items. Analysis of the items and scales showed that farmworkers had fairly high levels of perceived risk from pesticides and perceived control of pesticide safety. Receiving information about pesticide safety (e.g., warning signs) reduced perceived risk and increased perceived control. Pesticide exposure knowledge was strongly related to perceived risk. However, perceived risk had a limited relationship to safety knowledge and was not related to safety behavior. Perceived control was not related to pesticide exposure knowledge, but was strongly related to safety knowledge and safety behavior. A key tenet of environmental justice is that communities must have control over their environment. These results argue that for pesticide safety education to be effective, it must address issues of farmworker control in implementing workplace pesticide safety. PMID:11929733

  13. Human factors and safety issues associated with actinide retrieval from spent light water reactor fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    A major problem in environmental restoration and waste management is the disposition of used fuel assemblies from the many light water reactors in the United States, which present a radiation hazard to those whose job is to dispose of them, with a similar threat to the general environment associated with long-term storage in fuel repositories around the country. Actinides resident in the fuel pins as a result of their use in reactor cores constitute a significant component of this hazard. Recently, the Department of Energy has initiated an Actinide Recycle Program to study the feasibility of using pyrochemical (molten salt) processes to recover actinides from the spent fuel assemblies of commercial reactors. This project concerns the application of robotics technology to the operation and maintenance functions of a plant whose objective is to recover actinides from spent fuel assemblies, and to dispose of the resulting hardware and chemical components from this process. Such a procedure involves a number of safety and human factors issues. The purpose of the project is to explore the use of robotics and artificial intelligence to facilitate accomplishment of the program goals while maintaining the safety of the humans doing the work and the integrity of the environment. This project will result in a graphic simulation on a Silicon Graphics workstation as a proof of principle demonstration of the feasibility of using robotics along with an intelligent operator interface. A major component of the operator-system interface is a hybrid artificial intelligence system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which combines artificial neural networks and an expert system into a hybrid, self-improving computer-based system interface. 10 refs.

  14. Human factors and safety issues associated with actinide retrieval from spent light water reactor fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.

    1992-08-01

    A major problem in environmental restoration and waste management is the disposition of used fuel assemblies from the many light water reactors in the United States, which present a radiation hazard to those whose job is to dispose of them, with a similar threat to the general environment associated with long-term storage in fuel repositories around the country. Actinides resident in the fuel pins as a result of their use in reactor cores constitute a significant component of this hazard. Recently, the Department of Energy has initiated an Actinide Recycle Program to study the feasibility of using pyrochemical (molten salt) processes to recover actinides from the spent fuel assemblies of commercial reactors. This project concerns the application of robotics technology to the operation and maintenance functions of a plant whose objective is to recover actinides from spent fuel assemblies, and to dispose of the resulting hardware and chemical components from this process. Such a procedure involves a number of safety and human factors issues. The purpose of the project is to explore the use of robotics and artificial intelligence to facilitate accomplishment of the program goals while maintaining the safety of the humans doing the work and the integrity of the environment. This project will result in a graphic simulation on a Silicon Graphics workstation as a proof of principle demonstration of the feasibility of using robotics along with an intelligent operator interface. A major component of the operator-system interface is a hybrid artificial intelligence system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which combines artificial neural networks and an expert system into a hybrid, self-improving computer-based system interface. 10 refs.

  15. Safety of Switching Factor VIII Products in the Era of Evolving Concentrates: Myths and Facts.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Antonio; Marrone, Emiliana; Conca, Paolo; Cimino, Ernesto; Mormile, Rosaria; Baldacci, Erminia; Santoro, Cristina

    2016-07-01

    Recent advances in the development of factor VIII (FVIII) concentrates offer patients with hemophilia the opportunity to switch to products considered safer or with improved properties. In some cases, product switch occurs due to side effects, convenience issues, or economic reasons affecting clinical choices. Reluctance to change FVIII concentrates is shown by patients and also by their physicians, because of concerns in particular about the risk of inhibitor development. A literature review was performed to retrieve the best evidence regarding safety issues of switching FVIII concentrate in patients with severe hemophilia A. Product switch was not associated with an increased inhibitor risk in four studies in patients during the first 50 to 75 exposure days, or in three studies reporting national switches in Canada and United Kingdom. The latter, the only available study comparing switcher and nonswitcher patients, showed an inhibitor incidence similar to that historically reported in the United Kingdom. In 16 phase III clinical trials and 6 postmarketing studies of FVIII concentrates, few de novo inhibitors were detected in previously treated patients, mostly transient and low-titer, with some additional recurrent inhibitors in patients with previous positive testing. On the whole, although rigorous controlled studies are lacking, literature data do not support increased risk of inhibitor development or other safety issues related to product switch. Therefore, in the presence of clinical needs, the advantages of switching FVIII products should not be missed because of perceived more than evidence-based challenges, in particular in this era of products with improved properties recently introduced or available in few years. Caution, however, is suggested in patients with high inhibitor risk, including in those in concomitance with surgery or intensive treatment. A careful inhibitor testing prior to and after product switch is always needed, to identify real de

  16. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  17. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  18. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200.14 Section 200.14 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and...

  19. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  20. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  1. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200....14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure...

  2. Are PPS payments adequate? Issues for updating and assessing rates

    PubMed Central

    Sheingold, Steven H.; Richter, Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    Declining operating margins under Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS) have focused attention on the adequacy of payment rates. The question of whether annual updates to the rates have been too low or cost increases too high has become important. In this article we discuss issues relevant to updating PPS rates and judging their adequacy. We describe a modification to the current framework for recommending annual update factors. This framework is then used to retrospectively assess PPS payment and cost growth since 1985. The preliminary results suggest that current rates are more than adequate to support the cost of efficient care. Also discussed are why using financial margins to evaluate rates is problematic and alternative methods that might be employed. PMID:10127450

  3. DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.

  4. Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles in School Nutrition Programs: Implementation Status and Factors Related to Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Wendy Bounds; Carr, Deborah; Nettles, Mary Frances; Johnson, James T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the extent to which school nutrition (SN) programs have implemented food safety programs based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles, as well as factors, barriers, and practices related to implementation of these programs. Methods: An online survey was…

  5. Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinomas with Central Bile Duct Invasion: Safety, Prognosis, and Predictive Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jin Woo; Chung, Jin Wook; Cho, Yun Ku; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Jae, Hwan Jun

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo assess the safety and effectiveness of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of patients who have hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) with central bile duct invasion.Materials and MethodsThe institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed consent. Fifty-three patients, initially treated with TACE for HCCs with central bile duct invasion from January 1999 to September 2012, were included. Clinical, laboratory, and survival data were reviewed. Complications and hospitalization length were evaluated using the χ{sup 2} test, Fisher’s exact test, and logistic regression analysis. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method with log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard model.ResultsSeven patients experienced TACE-related major complications (severe post-embolization syndrome in 3, non-fatal sepsis in 3, and secondary bacterial peritonitis in 1). The overall major complication rate was 13.2 %, but there were no permanent adverse sequelae or deaths within 30 days. Serum total bilirubin ≥3.0 mg/dL was the only significant risk factor for long hospitalization [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.341, p = .022]. The median survival was 12.2 months. Extrahepatic metastasis (HR = 6.145, p < .001), international normalized ratio (PT-INR) ≥1.20 (HR = 4.564, p < .001), vascular invasion (HR = 3.484, p = .001), and intermediate tumor enhancement (HR = 2.417, p = .019) were significantly associated with shorter survival.ConclusionTACE can be a safe and effective treatment for patients who have HCCs with central bile duct invasion. In particular, long-term survival can be expected if patients have strongly enhancing tumors without poor prognostic factors such as extrahepatic metastasis, PT-INR prolongation, and vascular invasion.

  6. The prevalence of fatigue and associated health and safety risk factors among taxi drivers in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Lim, See Ming; Chia, Sin Eng

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Driver fatigue is one of the biggest health and safety concerns within the road transport sector. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of fatigue among taxi drivers in Singapore, to better understand the general working and health conditions of this group of people, and to determine the risk factors associated with fatigued driving. METHODS A total of 340 taxi drivers were randomly selected for participation in a self-administered questionnaire survey, which included height and weight measurements. The response rate was 68.2%. The survey consisted of four main categories: personal particulars; social habits; work patterns; and sleep profile. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was used to estimate the level of daytime sleepiness and fatigue. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with risk factors related to fatigue among taxi drivers. RESULTS A high proportion of taxi drivers were obese and had self-reported hypertension, diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol. Driver fatigue was associated with very poor/poor self-rating of quality of sleep, having an additional part-time job, drinking three or more caffeinated drinks daily, and driving more than 10 hours a day. CONCLUSION We hope that the findings of the present study will improve awareness of the work and health conditions of taxi drivers, and contribute toward efforts to achieve a healthier workforce. A lower prevalence of fatigued driving may lead to lower risks of road traffic accidents, decreased economic loss, increased productivity, and safer roads for all. PMID:25532512

  7. Plant sterols: factors affecting their efficacy and safety as functional food ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Alvin; Jones, Peter JH; Abumweis, Suhad S

    2004-01-01

    Plant sterols are naturally occurring molecules that humanity has evolved with. Herein, we have critically evaluated recent literature pertaining to the myriad of factors affecting efficacy and safety of plant sterols in free and esterified forms. We conclude that properly solubilized 4-desmetyl plant sterols, in ester or free form, in reasonable doses (0.8–1.0 g of equivalents per day) and in various vehicles including natural sources, and as part of a healthy diet and lifestyle, are important dietary components for lowering low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and maintaining good heart health. In addition to their cholesterol lowering properties, plant sterols possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenicity, and anti-oxidation activities, and should thus be of clinical importance, even for those individuals without elevated LDL cholesterol. The carotenoid lowering effect of plant sterols should be corrected by increasing intake of food that is rich in carotenoids. In pregnant and lactating women and children, further study is needed to verify the dose required to decrease blood cholesterol without affecting fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoid status. PMID:15070410

  8. Reliability based calibration of partial safety factors for design of free pipeline spans

    SciTech Connect

    Ronold, K.O.; Nielsen, N.J.R.; Tura, F.; Bryndum, M.B.; Smed, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    This paper demonstrates how a structural reliability method can be applied as a rational means to analyze free spans of submarine pipelines with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and to establish partial safety factors for design of such free spans against this failure mode. It is important to note that the described procedure shall be considered as an illustration of a structural reliability methodology, and that the results do not represent a set of final design recommendations. A scope of design cases, consisting of a number of available site-specific pipeline spans, is established and is assumed representative for the future occurrence of submarine pipeline spans. Probabilistic models for the wave and current loading and its transfer to stresses in the pipe wall of a pipeline span is established together with a stochastic representation of the material resistance. The event of failure in ultimate loading is considered as based on a limit state which is reached when the maximum stress over the design life of the pipeline exceeds the yield strength of the pipe material. The yielding limit state is considered an ultimate limit state (ULS).

  9. Control of the tokamak safety factor profile with time-varying constraints using MPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maljaars, E.; Felici, F.; de Baar, M. R.; van Dongen, J.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Geelen, P. J. M.; Steinbuch, M.

    2015-02-01

    A controller is designed for the tokamak safety factor profile that takes real-time-varying operational and physics limits into account. This so-called model predictive controller (MPC) employs a prediction model in order to compute optimal control inputs that satisfy the given limits. The use of linearized models around a reference trajectory results in a quadratic programming problem that can easily be solved online. The performance of the controller is analysed in a set of ITER L-mode scenarios simulated with the non-linear plasma transport code RAPTOR. It is shown that the controller can reduce the tracking error due to an overestimation or underestimation of the modelled transport, while making a trade-off between residual error and amount of controller action. It is also shown that the controller can account for a sudden decrease in the available actuator power, while providing warnings ahead of time about expected violations of operational and physics limits. This controller can be extended and implemented in existing tokamaks in the near future.

  10. Rate of Corneal Collagen Crosslinking Redo in Private Practice: Risk Factors and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Antoun, Joelle; Slim, Elise; el Hachem, Rami; Chelala, Elias; Jabbour, Elyse; Cherfan, Georges; Jarade, Elias F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To report the rate of progression of keratectasia after primary crosslinking (CXL) and evaluate the safety and efficiency of CXL redo. Materials and Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the patients who underwent CXL between 2010 and 2013 at the Beirut Eye Specialist Hospital, Lebanon. Progression of keratectasia was based on the presence of an increase in maximum keratometry of 1.00 D, a change in the map difference between two consecutive topographies of 1.00 D, a deterioration of visual acuity, or any change in the refraction. Primary and redo CXL were done using the same protocol. Results. Among the 221 eyes of 130 patients who underwent CXL, 7 eyes (3.17%) of five patients met the criteria of progression. All patients reported a history of allergic conjunctivitis and eye rubbing and progressed within 9 to 48 months. No complications were noted and all patients were stable 1 year after CXL redo. Conclusion. Allergic conjunctivitis and eye rubbing were the only risk factors associated with keratoconus progression after CXL. A close followup is thus mandatory, even years after the procedure. CXL redo seems to be a safe and efficient technique to halt the progression after a primary CXL. PMID:25874118

  11. FED-A, an advanced performance FED based on low safety factor and current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yueng Kay Martin; Rutherford, P. H.; Hogan, J.T.; Attenberger, S. E.; Holmes, J.A.; Borowski, S. K.; Brown, T. G.; Carreras, B. A.; Ehst, D. A.; Haines, J.R.; Hively, L. M.; Houlberg, Wayne A; Iida, H.; Lee, V. D.; Lynch, S.J.; Reid, R. L.; Rothe, K. E.; Strickler, Dennis J; Stewart, L. D.

    1983-08-01

    This document is one of four describing studies performed in FY 1982 within the context of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) Program for the Office of Fusion Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. The documents are: 1. FED Baseline Engineering Studies (ORNL/FEDC-82/2), 2. FED-A, An Advanced Performance FED Based on Low Safety Factor and Current Drive (this document), 3. FED-R, A Fusion Device Utilizing Resistive Magnets (ORNL/FEDC-82/1), and 4. Technology Demonstration Facility TDF. These studies extend the FED Baseline concept of FY 1981 and develop innovative and alternative concepts for the FED. The FED-A study project was carried out as part of the Innovative and Alternative Tokamak FED studies, under the direction of P. H. Rutherford, which were part of the national FED program during FY 1982. The studies were performed jointly by senior scientists in the magnetic fusion community and the staff of the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC). Y-K. M. Peng of the FEDC, on assignment from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, served as the design manager.

  12. Laser safety eyewear.

    PubMed

    1993-04-01

    In spite of repeated warnings about laser safety practices, as well as the availability of laser safety eyewear (LSE), eye injuries continue to occur during use of surgical lasers, as discussed in the Clinical Perspective, "Laser Energy and Its Dangers to Eyes," preceding this Evaluation. We evaluated 48 models of LSE, including goggles, spectacles, and wraps, from 11 manufacturers. The evaluated models are designed with absorptive lenses that provide protection from CO2 (carbon dioxide), Nd:YAG (neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet), and 532 (frequency-doubled Nd:YAG) surgical laser wavelengths; several models provide multiwavelength protection. (Refer to ECRI's Product Comparison System report on LSE for specifications of other models.) Although most of the evaluated models can adequately protect users from laser energy--provided that the eyewear is used--many models of LSE, especially goggles, are designed with little regard for the needs of actual use (e.g., adequate labeling, no alteration of color perception, sufficient field of vision [FOV], comfort). Because these factors can discourage people from using LSE, we encourage manufacturers to develop new and improved models that will be worn. We based our ratings primarily on the laser protection provided by the optical density (OD) of the lenses; we acknowledge the contribution of Montana Laser Optics Inc., of Bozeman, Montana, in performing our OD testing. We also considered actual-use factors, such as those mentioned above, to be significant. Among the models rated Acceptable is one whose labeled OD is lower than the level we determined to be adequate for use during most laser surgery; however, this model offers protection under specific conditions of use (e.g., for use by spectators some distance from the surgical site, for use during endoscopic procedures) that should be determined by the laser safety officer (LSO). LSE that would put the wearer at risk are rated Unacceptable (e.g., some models are not

  13. School Climate Factors Contributing to Student and Faculty Perceptions of Safety in Select Arizona Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Kris; Ford, Lysbeth; Hernandaz, Diley

    2011-01-01

    Background: To ensure that schools are safe places where students can learn, researchers and educators must understand student and faculty safety concerns. This study examines student and teacher perceptions of school safety. Methods: Twenty-two focus groups with students and faculty were conducted in 11 secondary schools. Schools were selected…

  14. Use of Hydrocoil in small aneurysms: procedural safety, treatment efficacy and factors predicting complete occlusion.

    PubMed

    Williams, Amanda; Millar, John; Ditchfield, Adam; Vundavalli, Sriram; Barker, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Coil technology has been directed to reduce recurrence rates and we have seen the introduction of trials comparing the efficacy of surface modified versus bare platinum coils (BPC). This article reports on one treatment strategy in the treatment of small aneurysms by the placement of Hydrocoil across the neck of the aneurysm. Procedural safety, treatment efficacy and factors which predict complete occlusion are evaluated. We retrospectively identified a subgroup of small aneurysms treated over a four-year period. Analysis comparing aneurysms treated with Hydrocoil and BPC versus Hydrocoil alone was undertaken. Eighty-five aneurysms were coiled; 62% with Hydrocoil alone, 38% in combination with BPC. At six-month follow-up, overall 50% were completely occluded, 39.5% had a neck remnant and 10.5% had a residual aneurysm. Complete occlusion was identified in 39% in the Hydrocoil and BPC group compared to 56% in the Hydrocoil alone group. In 56/76 (74%) cases analysed, Hydrocoil loop successfully bridged the neck of the aneurysm in which 38/76 (68%) of these were completely occluded at six-month follow-up. Thirteen procedure-related complications occurred. Aneurysms treated with Hydrocoil alone resulted in fewer recurrences compared with a combination of Hydrocoil and BPC. These data suggest that the technique of positioning Hydrocoil at the neck of the aneurysm increases the probability of complete occlusion and is therefore a strong predictor of aneurysm occlusion. In our experience, this technique did not demonstrate an increased risk of intra-procedural rupture or thrombo-embolic complications compared to conventional embolization with BPC. PMID:24556298

  15. Safety of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in healing pediatric severe burns.

    PubMed

    Chi, Y F; Chai, J K; Luo, H M; Zhang, Q X; Feng, R

    2015-01-01

    We explored the safety of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) for healing burns in children. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: the experimental group received external rhGM-CSF gel, and the control group received rhGM-CSF gel matrix components, applied to the burn surface. Neither group was given any other drugs that promote wound healing. Each day we recorded the pulse, body temperature, and respiration status in the two groups. We detected the blood routine, urine routine, and hepatic and renal function before the patients received drug treatment and after 72 h. The wound scab and healing states in the two groups were recorded every 4 days to evaluate wound healing rate and time taken for complete healing. Adverse reactions and their rate of occurrence were also recorded. The median time of healing was 15 days in the experimental group and 19 days in the control group (log-rank χ(2) = 5.139, P < 0.05). After 10 days, the experimental group healing rate was consistently higher than that of the control group (significantly different using intuitive analysis), suggesting the experimental group method was more effective. There were no obvious adverse reactions. There was no significant difference between the blood routine, urine routine, and liver and kidney function in the two groups before the treatment and after 3 days (P > 0.05). Compared with saline treatment of severe burns, rhGM-CSF can effectively shorten the healing time without significant adverse reactions, and is an effective and safe treatment for burns in children. PMID:25867422

  16. Feedback-assisted extension of the tokamak operating space to low safety factor

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, J. M. Bialek, J. M.; Navratil, G. A.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Shiraki, D.; Turco, F.; Baruzzo, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, P.; Piovesan, P.; Piron, C.; Piron, L.; Terranova, D.; Zanca, P.; Hyatt, A. W.; Jackson, G. L.; La Haye, R. J.; Lanctot, M. J.; Strait, E. J.; and others

    2014-07-15

    Recent DIII-D and RFX-mod experiments have demonstrated stable tokamak operation at very low values of the edge safety factor q(a) near and below 2. The onset of n = 1 resistive wall mode (RWM) kink instabilities leads to a disruptive stability limit, encountered at q(a) = 2 (limiter plasmas) and q{sub 95} = 2 (divertor plasmas). However, passively stable operation can be attained for q(a) and q{sub 95} values as low as 2.2. RWM damping in the q(a) = 2 regime was measured using active MHD spectroscopy. Although consistent with theoretical predictions, the amplitude of the damped response does not increase significantly as the q(a) = 2 limit is approached, in contrast with damping measurements made approaching the pressure-driven RWM limit. Applying proportional gain magnetic feedback control of the n = 1 modes has resulted in stabilized operation with q{sub 95} values reaching as low as 1.9 in DIII-D and q(a) reaching 1.55 in RFX-mod. In addition to being consistent with the q(a) = 2 external kink mode stability limit, the unstable modes have growth rates on the order of the characteristic wall eddy-current decay timescale in both devices, and a dominant m = 2 poloidal structure that is consistent with ideal MHD predictions. The experiments contribute to validating MHD stability theory and demonstrate that a key tokamak stability limit can be overcome with feedback.

  17. Steady state scenario development with elevated minimum safety factor on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcomb, C. T.; Ferron, J. R.; Luce, T. C.; Petrie, T. W.; Park, J. M.; Turco, F.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Okabayashi, M.; Lasnier, C. T.; Hanson, J. M.; Politzter, P. A.; In, Y.; Hyatt, A. W.; La Haye, R. J.; Lanctot, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    On DIII-D (Luxon 2005 Fusion Sci. Technol. 48 828), a high β scenario with minimum safety factor (qmin) near 1.4 has been optimized with new tools and shown to be a favourable candidate for long pulse or steady state operation in future devices. The new capability to redirect up to 5 MW of neutral beam injection (NBI) from on- to off-axis improves the ability to sustain elevated qmin with a less peaked pressure profile. These changes increase the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) n = 1 mode βN limit thus providing a path forward for increasing the noninductive current drive fraction by operating at high βN. Quasi-stationary discharges free of tearing modes have been sustained at βN = 3.5 and βT = 3.6% for two current profile diffusion timescales (about 3 s) limited by neutral beam duration. The discharge performance has normalized fusion performance expected to give fusion gain Q ≈ 5 in a device the size of ITER. Analysis of the poloidal flux evolution and current drive balance show that the loop voltage profile is almost relaxed even with 25% of the current driven inductively, and qmin remains elevated near 1.4. These observations increase confidence that the current profile will not evolve to one unstable to a tearing mode. In preliminary tests a divertor heat flux reduction technique based on producing a radiating mantle with neon injection appears compatible with this operating scenario. 0D model extrapolations suggest it may be possible to push this scenario up to 100% noninductive current drive by raising βN. Similar discharges with qmin = 1.5-2 were susceptible to tearing modes and off-axis fishbones, and with qmin > 2 lower normalized global energy confinement time is observed.

  18. Safety and prolonged activity of recombinant factor VIII Fc fusion protein in hemophilia A patients

    PubMed Central

    Josephson, Neil C.; Quon, Doris; Ragni, Margaret V.; Cheng, Gregory; Li, Ella; Jiang, Haiyan; Li, Lian; Dumont, Jennifer A.; Goyal, Jaya; Zhang, Xin; Sommer, Jurg; McCue, Justin; Barbetti, Margaret; Luk, Alvin

    2012-01-01

    Current factor VIII (FVIII) products display a half-life (t1/2) of ∼ 8-12 hours, requiring frequent intravenous injections for prophylaxis and treatment of patients with hemophilia A. rFVIIIFc is a recombinant fusion protein composed of a single molecule of FVIII covalently linked to the Fc domain of human IgG1 to extend circulating rFVIII t1/2. This first-in-human study in previously treated subjects with severe hemophilia A investigated safety and pharmacokinetics of rFVIIIFc. Sixteen subjects received a single dose of rFVIII at 25 or 65 IU/kg followed by an equal dose of rFVIIIFc. Most adverse events were unrelated to study drug. None of the study subjects developed anti-rFVIIIFc antibodies or inhibitors. Across dose levels, compared with rFVIII, rFVIIIFc showed 1.54- to 1.70-fold longer elimination t1/2, 1.49- to 1.56-fold lower clearance, and 1.48- to 1.56-fold higher total systemic exposure. rFVIII and rFVIIIFc had comparable dose-dependent peak plasma concentrations and recoveries. Time to 1% FVIII activity above baseline was ∼ 1.53- to 1.68-fold longer than rFVIII across dose levels. Each subject showed prolonged exposure to rFVIIIFc relative to rFVIII. Thus, rFVIIIFc may offer a viable therapeutic approach to achieve prolonged hemostatic protection and less frequent dosing in patients with hemophilia A. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01027377. PMID:22223821

  19. Dry-heat treatment process for enhancing viral safety of an antihemophilic factor VIII concentrate prepared from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Seop; Choi, Yong Woon; Kang, Yong; Sung, Hark Mo; Shin, Jeong Sup

    2008-05-01

    Viral safety is a prerequisite for manufacturing clinical antihemophilic factor VIII concentrates from human plasma. With particular regard to the hepatitis A virus (HAV), a terminal dry-heat treatment (100 degrees for 30 min) process, following lyophilization, was developed to improve the virus safety of a solvent/detergent-treated antihemophilic factor VIII concentrate. The loss of factor VIII activity during dry-heat treatment was of about 5%. No substantial changes were observed in the physical and biochemical characteristics of the dry-heat-treated factor VIII compared with those of the factor VIII before dry-heat treatment. The dry-heat-treated factor VIII was stable for up to 24 months at 4oC. The dry-heat treatment after lyophilization was an effective process for inactivating viruses. The HAV, murine encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were completely inactivated to below detectable levels within 10 min of the dry-heat treatment. Bovine herpes virus (BHV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were potentially sensitive to the treatment. However porcine parvovirus (PPV) was slightly resistant to the treatment. The log reduction factors achieved during lyophilization and dry-heat treatment were > or =5.55 for HAV, > or =5.87 for EMCV, > or =5.15 for HIV, 6.13 for BHV, 4.46 for BVDV, and 1.90 for PPV. These results indicate that dry-heat treatment improves the virus safety of factor VIII concentrates, without destroying the activity. Moreover, the treatment represents an effective measure for the inactivation of non-lipid-enveloped viruses, in particular HAV, which is resistant to solvent/detergent treatment. PMID:18633304

  20. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kirrilly; Matthews, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Riding horses on roads can be dangerous, but little is known about accidents and near misses. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52%) reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey, mostly attributed to speed. Whilst our findings confirmed factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around road rules, hand signals and road rage. This paper suggests strategies for improving the safety of horses, riders and other road users. Abstract Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52%) reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1) identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles; (2) harmonising laws regarding passing horses; (3) mandating personal protective equipment; (4) improving road signage; (5) comprehensive data collection; (6) developing mutual understanding amongst road-users; (7) safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8) increasing investment

  1. Features, events, processes, and safety factor analysis applied to a near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, M.E.; Dolinar, G.M.; Lange, B.A.

    1995-12-31

    An analysis of features, events, processes (FEPs) and other safety factors was applied to AECL`s proposed IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) near-surface LLRW disposal facility. The FEP analysis process which had been developed for and applied to high-level and transuranic disposal concepts was adapted for application to a low-level facility for which significant efforts in developing a safety case had already been made. The starting point for this process was a series of meetings of the project team to identify and briefly describe FEPs or safety factors which they thought should be considered. At this early stage participants were specifically asked not to screen ideas. This initial list was supplemented by selecting FEPs documented in other programs and comments received from an initial regulatory review. The entire list was then sorted by topic and common issues were grouped, and issues were classified in three priority categories and assigned to individuals for resolution. In this paper, the issue identification and resolution process will be described, from the initial description of an issue to its resolution and inclusion in the various levels of the safety case documentation.

  2. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  3. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  4. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  5. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  6. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  7. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  8. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  9. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  10. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  11. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  12. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  13. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  14. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  15. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  16. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  17. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  18. Factors Influencing Attitude, Safety Behavior, and Knowledge regarding Household Waste Management in Guinea: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Mamady, Keita

    2016-01-01

    Waste indiscriminate disposal is recognized as an important cause of environmental pollution and is associated with health problems. Safe management and disposal of household waste are an important problem to the capital city of Guinea (Conakry). The objective of this study was to identify socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with practice, knowledge, and safety behavior of family members regarding household waste management and to produce a remedial action plan. I found that no education background, income, and female individuals were independently associated with indiscriminate waste disposal. Unplanned residential area was an additional factor associated with indiscriminate waste disposal. I also found that the community residents had poor knowledge and unsafe behavior in relation to waste management. The promotion of environmental information and public education and implementation of community action programs on disease prevention and health promotion will enhance environmental friendliness and safety of the community. PMID:27092183

  19. Factors Influencing Attitude, Safety Behavior, and Knowledge regarding Household Waste Management in Guinea: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mamady, Keita

    2016-01-01

    Waste indiscriminate disposal is recognized as an important cause of environmental pollution and is associated with health problems. Safe management and disposal of household waste are an important problem to the capital city of Guinea (Conakry). The objective of this study was to identify socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with practice, knowledge, and safety behavior of family members regarding household waste management and to produce a remedial action plan. I found that no education background, income, and female individuals were independently associated with indiscriminate waste disposal. Unplanned residential area was an additional factor associated with indiscriminate waste disposal. I also found that the community residents had poor knowledge and unsafe behavior in relation to waste management. The promotion of environmental information and public education and implementation of community action programs on disease prevention and health promotion will enhance environmental friendliness and safety of the community. PMID:27092183

  20. Slope Stability: Factor of Safety along the Seismically Active Continental Slope Offshore Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, J. R.; Goldfinger, C.; Djadjadihardja, Y.; None, U.

    2013-12-01

    Recent papers have documented the probability that turbidites deposited along and downslope of subduction zone accretionary prisms are likely the result of strong ground shaking from great earthquakes. Given the damaging nature of these earthquakes, along with the casualties from the associated tsunamis, the spatial and temporal patterns of these earthquakes can only be evaluated with paleoseismologic coring and seismic reflection methods. We evaluate slope stability for seafloor topography along the Sunda subduction offshore Sumatra, Indonesia. We use sediment material properties, from local (Sumatra) and analogous sites, to constrain our estimates of static slope stability Factor of Safety (FOS) analyses. We then use ground motion prediction equations (GMPE's) to estimate ground motion intensity (Arias Intensity, AI) and acceleration (Peak Ground Acceleration, PGA), as possibly generated by fault rupture, to constrain seismic loads for pseudostatic slope stability FOS analyses. The ground motions taper rapidly with distance from the fault plane, consistent with ground motion - fault distance relations measured during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki subduction zone earthquake. Our FOS analyses include a Morgenstern method of slices probabilistic analysis for 2-D profiles along with Critical Acceleration (Ac) and Newmark Displacement (Dn) analysis of multibeam bathymetry of the seafloor. In addition, we also use estimates of ground motion modeled with a 2004 Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone (SASZ) earthquake fault slip model, to also compare with our static FOS analyses of seafloor topography. All slope and trench sites are statically stable (FOS < 1) and sensitive to ground motions generated by earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7. We conclude that for earthquakes of magnitude 6 to 9, PGA of 0.4-0.6 to 1.4-2.5 g would be expected, respectively, from existing GMPE's. However, saturation of accelerations in the accretionary wedge may limit actual accelerations to less than 1

  1. Application of a human factors classification framework for patient safety to identify precursor and contributing factors to adverse clinical incidents in hospital.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Williamson, Ann; Molesworth, Brett

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify temporal precursor and associated contributing factors for adverse clinical incidents in a hospital setting using the Human Factors Classification Framework (HFCF) for patient safety. A random sample of 498 clinical incidents were reviewed. The framework identified key precursor events (PE), contributing factors (CF) and the prime causes of incidents. Descriptive statistics and correspondence analysis were used to examine incident characteristics. Staff action was the most common type of PE identified. Correspondence analysis for all PEs that involved staff action by error type showed that rule-based errors were strongly related to performing medical or monitoring tasks or the administration of medication. Skill-based errors were strongly related to misdiagnoses. Factors relating to the organisation (66.9%) or the patient (53.2%) were the most commonly identified CFs. The HFCF for patient safety was able to identify patterns of causation for the clinical incidents, highlighting the need for targeted preventive approaches, based on an understanding of how and why incidents occur. PMID:26360210

  2. Safety culture evaluation and asset root cause analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Okrent, D.; Xiong, Y.

    1995-12-31

    This paper examines the role of organizational and management factors in nuclear power plant safety through the use of operating experiences. The ASSET (Assessment of Safety Significant Events Team) reports of thirteen plants (total thirty events) have been analyzed in term of twenty organizational dimensions (factors) identified by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Pennsylvania State University. For three plants detailed results are reported in this paper. The results of thirteen plants are summarized in the form of a table. The study tends to confirm that organizational and management factors play an important role in plant safety. The twenty organizational dimensions and their definitions, in general, were adequate in this study. Formalization, Safety Culture, Technical Knowledge, Training, Roles-Responsibilities and Problem Identification appear to be key organizational factors which influence the safety of nuclear power plants studied.

  3. Parental concern about vaccine safety in Canadian children partially immunized at age 2: A multivariable model including system level factors

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of ‘partially’ immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138– 13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151 – 6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017 – 10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075 – 7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144 - 0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598 – 23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057 – 0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake. PMID:25483477

  4. 75 FR 56972 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... December 3, 2009, a final rule in the Federal Register (74 FR 63310) titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Control..., 2000 (65 FR 19477). Executive Order 12866 and DOT Policies and Procedures PHMSA considers this proposed rule a non-significant regulatory action under Section 3(f) of Executive Order 12866 (58 FR...

  5. Cognitive performance-altering effects of electronic medical records: An application of the human factors paradigm for patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    According to the human factors paradigm for patient safety, health care work systems and innovations such as electronic medical records do not have direct effects on patient safety. Instead, their effects are contingent on how the clinical work system, whether computerized or not, shapes health care providers' performance of cognitive work processes. An application of the human factors paradigm to interview data from two hospitals in the Midwest United States yielded numerous examples of the performance-altering effects of electronic medical records, electronic clinical documentation, and computerized provider order entry. Findings describe both improvements and decrements in the ease and quality of cognitive performance, both for interviewed clinicians and for their colleagues and patients. Changes in cognitive performance appear to have desirable and undesirable implications for patient safety as well as for quality of care and other important outcomes. Cognitive performance can also be traced to interactions between work system elements, including new technology, allowing for the discovery of problems with “fit” to be addressed through design interventions. PMID:21479125

  6. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kirrilly; Matthews, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52%) reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1) identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles (2) harmonising laws regarding passing horses, (3) mandating personal protective equipment, (4) improving road signage, (5) comprehensive data collection, (6) developing mutual understanding amongst road-users, (7) safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8) increasing investment in horse-related safety initiatives. PMID:26479376

  7. Launch Services Safety Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    NASA/KSC Launch Services Division Safety (SA-D) services include: (1) Assessing the safety of the launch vehicle (2) Assessing the safety of NASA ELV spacecraft (S/C) / launch vehicle (LV) interfaces (3) Assessing the safety of spacecraft processing to ensure resource protection of: - KSC facilities - KSC VAFB facilities - KSC controlled property - Other NASA assets (4) NASA personnel safety (5) Interfacing with payload organizations to review spacecraft for adequate safety implementation and compliance for integrated activities (6) Assisting in the integration of safety activities between the payload, launch vehicle, and processing facilities

  8. Factors in the Growth and Decline of System Safety within Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    GANTER, JOHN H.; STORAGE, WILLIAM K.

    1999-08-16

    System safety as a technical field faces numerous opportunities, and some challenges, in the high technology, low cost future. As a relatively small field best known in high consequence domains (defense, aviation, space) it may have to tailor its messages and approaches to influence organizations (both private and public) pressured by incessant competition and ''Internet time.'' We present a model of organizations as cultures that carefully ration attention and reward personnel who successfully pursue goals. These evolving goals result from a fusing of both external influences (market share: regulation) and internal influences (dominant group identities such as marketers or engineers). In the context of organizational goals, these same influences cause people to search narrowly and quickly for technologies and ideas that can fit through ''influence gates'' in the organization and that will likely grow there. System safety must thus compete with all manner of cost-cutting and quality management approaches, in an environment currently obsessed with short-term value and return on investment. From this model we develop some ideas for the communication and promotion of system safety that could increase the net impact and effectiveness of the field.

  9. Efficacy and Safety of Alirocumab as Add-on Therapy in High–Cardiovascular-Risk Patients With Hypercholesterolemia Not Adequately Controlled With Atorvastatin (20 or 40 mg) or Rosuvastatin (10 or 20 mg): Design and Rationale of the ODYSSEY OPTIONS Studies

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jennifer G; Colhoun, Helen M; Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Du, Yunling; Hanotin, Corinne; Donahue, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The phase 3 ODYSSEY OPTIONS studies (OPTIONS I, NCT01730040; OPTIONS II, NCT01730053) are multicenter, multinational, randomized, double-blind, active-comparator, 24-week studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of alirocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, as add-on therapy in ∼ 650 high-cardiovascular (CV)-risk patients whose low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are ≥100 mg/dL or ≥70 mg/dL according to the CV-risk category, high and very high CV risk, respectively, with atorvastatin (20–40 mg/d) or rosuvastatin (10–20 mg/d). Patients are randomized to receive alirocumab 75 mg via a single, subcutaneous, 1-mL injection by prefilled pen every 2 weeks (Q2W) as add-on therapy to atorvastatin (20–40 mg) or rosuvastatin (10–20 mg); or to receive ezetimibe 10 mg/d as add-on therapy to statin; or to receive statin up-titration; or to switch from atorvastatin to rosuvastatin (OPTIONS I only). At week 12, based on week 8 LDL-C levels, the alirocumab dose may be increased from 75 mg to 150 mg Q2W if LDL-C levels remain ≥100 mg/dL or ≥70 mg/dL in patients with high or very high CV risk, respectively. The primary efficacy endpoint in both studies is difference in percent change in calculated LDL-C from baseline to week 24 in the alirocumab vs control arms. The studies may provide guidance to inform clinical decision-making when patients with CV risk require additional lipid-lowering therapy to further reduce LDL-C levels. The flexibility of the alirocumab dosing regimen allows for individualized therapy based on the degree of LDL-C reduction required to achieve the desired LDL-C level. PMID:25269777

  10. Chemical Safety Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the need to enhance understanding of chemical safety in educational facilities that includes adequate staff training and drilling requirements. The question of what is considered proper training is addressed. (GR)

  11. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  12. A framework for evaluating safety-net and other community-level factors on access for low-income populations.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Pamela L; Andersen, Ronald M; Wyn, Roberta; Brown, E Richard

    2004-01-01

    The framework presented in this article extends the Andersen behavioral model of health services utilization research to examine the effects of contextual determinants of access. A conceptual framework is suggested for selecting and constructing contextual (or community-level) variables representing the social, economic, structural, and public policy environment that influence low-income people's use of medical care. Contextual variables capture the characteristics of the population that disproportionately relies on the health care safety net, the public policy support for low-income and safety-net populations, and the structure of the health care market and safety-net services within that market. Until recently, the literature in this area has been largely qualitative and descriptive and few multivariate studies comprehensively investigated the contextual determinants of access. The comprehensive and systematic approach suggested by the framework will enable researchers to strengthen the external validity of results by accounting for the influence of a consistent set of contextual factors across locations and populations. A subsequent article in this issue of Inquiry applies the framework to examine access to ambulatory care for low-income adults, both insured and uninsured. PMID:15224958

  13. Arabidopsis: An Adequate Model for Dicot Root Systems?

    PubMed

    Zobel, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to eight different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of these classes of root. This then suggests that Arabidopsis root research can be considered an adequate model for dicot plant root systems. PMID:26904040

  14. Interaction of Occupational and Personal Risk Factors in Workforce Health and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Pandalai, Sudha; Wulsin, Victoria; Chun, HeeKyoung

    2012-01-01

    Most diseases, injuries, and other health conditions experienced by working people are multifactorial, especially as the workforce ages. Evidence supporting the role of work and personal risk factors in the health of working people is frequently underused in developing interventions. Achieving a longer, healthy working life requires a comprehensive preventive approach. To help develop such an approach, we evaluated the influence of both occupational and personal risk factors on workforce health. We present 32 examples illustrating 4 combinatorial models of occupational hazards and personal risk factors (genetics, age, gender, chronic disease, obesity, smoking, alcohol use, prescription drug use). Models that address occupational and personal risk factors and their interactions can improve our understanding of health hazards and guide research and interventions. PMID:22021293

  15. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    PubMed

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  16. A human factors engineering conceptual framework of nursing workload and patient safety in intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Carayon, Pascale; Gürses, Ayşe P

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, we review the literature on nursing workload in intensive care units (ICUs) and its impact on patient safety and quality of working life of nurses. We then propose a conceptual framework of ICU nursing workload that defines causes, consequences and outcomes of workload. We identified four levels of nursing workload (ICU/unit level, job level, patient level, and situation level), and discuss measures associated with each of the four levels. A micro-level approach to ICU nursing workload at the situation level is proposed and recommended in order to reduce workload and mitigate its negative impact. Performance obstacles are conceptualized as causes of ICU nursing workload at the situation level. PMID:16182125

  17. Structural Design Requirements and Factors of Safety for Spaceflight Hardware: For Human Spaceflight. Revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Karen S.; Kujala, Rod; Fogt, Vince; Romine, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This document establishes the structural requirements for human-rated spaceflight hardware including launch vehicles, spacecraft and payloads. These requirements are applicable to Government Furnished Equipment activities as well as all related contractor, subcontractor and commercial efforts. These requirements are not imposed on systems other than human-rated spacecraft, such as ground test articles, but may be tailored for use in specific cases where it is prudent to do so such as for personnel safety or when assets are at risk. The requirements in this document are focused on design rather than verification. Implementation of the requirements is expected to be described in a Structural Verification Plan (SVP), which should describe the verification of each structural item for the applicable requirements. The SVP may also document unique verifications that meet or exceed these requirements with NASA Technical Authority approval.

  18. Road safety in an aging population: risk factors, assessment, interventions, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Kaarin J; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Ross, Lesley A; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Wood, Joanne

    2016-03-01

    With the number of older drivers projected to increase by up to 70% over the next 20 years, preventing injury resulting from crashes involving older drivers is a significant concern for both policy-makers and clinicians. While the total number of fatal crashes per annum has steadily decreased since 2005 in Australia, the rate of fatalities has demonstrated an upward trend since 2010 in drivers aged 65 years and above (8.5 per 100,000), such that it is now on par with the fatality rate in drivers aged 17-25 years (8.0 per 100,000) (Austroads, 2015). Similar statistics are reported for the United States (NHTSA, 2012), implying there is a need for better identification of those older drivers who are unsafe and implementation of strategies that can enhance mobility while maximizing road safety. PMID:26888735

  19. Is the Marketing Concept Adequate for Continuing Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittenburg, Terri L.

    1984-01-01

    Because educators have a social responsibility to those they teach, the marketing concept may not be adequate as a philosophy for continuing education. In attempting to broaden the audience for continuing education, educators should consider a societal marketing concept to meet the needs of the educationally disadvantaged. (SK)

  20. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  1. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation Rates.…

  2. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  3. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED...

  4. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  5. 76 FR 35130 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... on December 3, 2009, in 49 CFR 192.631 and 195.446 (74 FR 63310), as corrected February 3, 2010 (75 FR 5536). By this amendment to the Control Room Management/Human Factors (CRM) rule, an operator must....631 and 195.446 (75 FR 56972). The NPRM proposed to expedite the deadline for implementing all...

  6. School Support Groups, Other School Factors, and the Safety of Sexual Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodenow, Carol; Szalacha, Laura; Westheimer, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Sexual minority adolescents--those self-identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) or with same-sex desires or sexual experiences--report higher rates of victimization and suicidality than their heterosexual peers, yet little empirical research has examined school factors associated with these risks. This study used data from the Massachusetts…

  7. Conditions for the successful integration of Human and Organizational Factors (HOF) in the nuclear safety analysis.

    PubMed

    Tosello, Michèle; Lévêque, Françoise; Dutillieu, Stéphanie; Hernandez, Guillaume; Vautier, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    This communication presents some elements which come from the experience feedback at CEA about the conditions for the successful integration of HOF in the nuclear safety analysis. To point out some of these conditions, one of the concepts proposed by Edgar Morin to describe the functioning of "complex" systems: the dialogical principle has been used. The idea is to look for some dialogical pairs. The elements of this kind of pair are both complementary and antagonist to one another. Three dialogical pairs are presented in this communication. The first two pairs are related to the organization of the HOF network and the last one is related to the methods which are used to analyse the working situations. The three pairs are: specialist - non-specialist actors of the network, centralized - distributed human resources in the network and microscopic - macroscopic levels of HOF methods to analyse the working situations. To continuously improve these three dialogical pairs, it is important to keep the differences which exist between the two elements of a pair and to find and maintain a balance between the two elements of the pairs. PMID:22317122

  8. An Evaluation of the Effects of Human Factors and Ergonomics on Health Care and Patient Safety Practices: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Longhao; Zhao, Pujing; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Background From the viewpoint of human factors and ergonomics (HFE), errors often occur because of the mismatch between the system, technique and characteristics of the human body. HFE is a scientific discipline concerned with understanding interactions between human behavior, system design and safety. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of HFE interventions in improving health care workers’ outcomes and patient safety and to assess the quality of the available evidence. Methods We searched databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews and the CBM (Chinese BioMedical Literature Database), for articles published from 1996 to Mar.2015. The quality assessment tool was based on the risk of bias criteria developed by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care (EPOC) Group. The interventions of the included studies were categorized into four relevant domains, as defined by the International Ergonomics Association. Results For this descriptive study, we identified 8, 949 studies based on our initial search. Finally, 28 studies with 3,227 participants were included. Among the 28 included studies, 20 studies were controlled studies, two of which were randomized controlled trials. The other eight studies were before/after surveys, without controls. Most of the studies were of moderate or low quality. Five broad categories of outcomes were identified in this study: 1) medical errors or patient safety, 2) health care workers’ quality of working life (e.g. reduced fatigue, discomfort, workload, pain and injury), 3) user performance (e.g., efficiency or accuracy), 4) health care workers’ attitudes towards the interventions(e.g., satisfaction and preference), and 5) economic evaluations. Conclusion The results showed that the interventions positively affected the outcomes of health care workers. Few studies considered the financial merits of these interventions. Most of the included studies were of moderate quality. This review highlights the need

  9. Food safety in raw milk production: risk factors associated to bacterial DNA contamination.

    PubMed

    Cerva, Cristine; Bremm, Carolina; Reis, Emily Marques dos; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Loiko, Márcia Regina; Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Cenci, Alexander; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos

    2014-06-01

    While human illness from milkborne pathogens may be linked to contamination of the product after pasteurization or improper pasteurization, such diseases are usually associated with consumption of raw milk or its by-products. Molecular biology tools were applied to investigate contamination by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., some pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni in 548 raw milk samples from 125 dairy farms established in two regions from southern Brazil. Moreover, 15 variables were evaluated for their association with raw milk contamination levels, and the risk factors were determined by multiple regression analysis. Salmonella spp. were more frequently detected, followed by pathogenic E. coli. There was difference in contamination index between the regions, in which risk factors such as temporary cattle confinement, low milk production, low milking machine cleaning frequency, and milk storage area without tile walls were identified. The risk factors were specific to each region studied. Nevertheless, the data can be used to improve milk quality of dairy farms/herds with similar management practices. PMID:24715203

  10. Maintaining adequate hydration and nutrition in adult enteral tube feeding.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the nutritional and fluid requirements of enterally-fed patients can be challenging and the practicalities of ensuring adequate delivery must be taken into consideration. Patients who are enterally fed can be more reliant on clinicians, family members and carers to meet their nutrition and hydration needs and identify any deficiencies, excesses or problems with delivery. Estimating a patient's requirements can be challenging due to the limitations of using predictive equations in the clinical setting. Close monitoring by all those involved in the patient's care, as well as regular review by a dietitian, is therefore required to balance the delivery of adequate feed and fluids to meet each patient's individual needs and prevent the complications of malnutrition and dehydration. Increasing the awareness of the signs of malnutrition and dehydration in patients receiving enteral tube feeding among those involved in a patient's care will help any deficiencies to be detected early on and rectified before complications occur. PMID:26087203

  11. Immunogenicity and safety of xenogeneic vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 DNA vaccination in mice and dogs

    PubMed Central

    Denies, Sofie; Cicchelero, Laetitia; Polis, Ingeborgh; Sanders, Niek N.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) is an attractive target in oncology due to its crucial role in angiogenesis. In this study a DNA vaccine coding for human VEGFR-2 was evaluated in healthy mice and dogs, administered by intradermal injection and electroporation. In mice, three doses and vaccination schedules were evaluated. Cellular immune responses were measured by intracellular IFN-gamma staining and a cytotoxicity assay and antibodies by ELISA. Safety was assessed by measuring regulatory T cells and myeloid derived suppressor cells and a wound healing assay. The vaccine was subsequently evaluated in dogs, which were vaccinated three times with 100μg. Cellular immune responses were measured by intracellular IFN-gamma staining and antibodies by a flow cytometric assay. In mice, maximal cellular responses were observed after two vaccinations with 5μg. Humoral responses continued to increase with higher dose and number of vaccinations. No abnormalities in the measured safety parameters were observed. The vaccine was also capable of eliciting a cellular and humoral immune response in dogs. No adverse effects were observed, but tolerability of the electroporation was poor. This study will facilitate the evaluation of the vaccine in tumor bearing animals, ranging from rodent models to dogs with spontaneous tumors. PMID:26871296

  12. Predictive Factors for Efficacy and Safety of Prophylactic Theophylline for Extubation in Infants with Apnea of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Yuji; Mitarai, Fumi; Ishitsuka, Yoichi; Irikura, Mitsuru; Shimodozono, Yoshihiro; Douchi, Tsutomu; Takeda, Yasuo; Irie, Tetsumi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to evaluate predictive factors involved in efficacy and safety in Japanese infants who received theophylline therapy to prevent apnea of prematurity (AOP) after weaning from mechanical ventilation. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of infants who were administered intravenous aminophylline (theophylline ethylenediamine) for AOP at the neonatal intensive care unit, Kagoshima University Hospital, Japan, between January 2009 and June 2013. Results A total of 100 infants were evaluated as two separate groups in terms of efficacy and safety of theophylline. Sixty-seven (67.0%) infants had effective theophylline therapy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that gestational age at birth was significant, with an odds ratio of 0.59 (p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the cut-off value was 31.1 weeks old for predicting the efficacy of theophylline (specificity, 66.7%; sensitivity, 86.6%; p < 0.001; area under the curve, 0.750; 95% confidence interval, 0.45–0.74). Adverse reactions were identified in 21 (21.0%) infants. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the number of days of theophylline administration from birth was associated with an increased risk of adverse reactions after theophylline administration (p = 0.01). Conclusions Physicians need to be aware of the possibility that theophylline fails to produce therapeutic effects for extubation in infants aged less than 31.1 weeks old, and adverse reactions can easily develop when theophylline is administered soon after birth. PMID:27388444

  13. Immunogenicity and safety of xenogeneic vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 DNA vaccination in mice and dogs.

    PubMed

    Denies, Sofie; Cicchelero, Laetitia; Polis, Ingeborgh; Sanders, Niek N

    2016-03-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) is an attractive target in oncology due to its crucial role in angiogenesis. In this study a DNA vaccine coding for human VEGFR-2 was evaluated in healthy mice and dogs, administered by intradermal injection and electroporation. In mice, three doses and vaccination schedules were evaluated. Cellular immune responses were measured by intracellular IFN-gamma staining and a cytotoxicity assay and antibodies by ELISA. Safety was assessed by measuring regulatory T cells and myeloid derived suppressor cells and a wound healing assay. The vaccine was subsequently evaluated in dogs, which were vaccinated three times with 100µg. Cellular immune responses were measured by intracellular IFN-gamma staining and antibodies by a flow cytometric assay. In mice, maximal cellular responses were observed after two vaccinations with 5µg. Humoral responses continued to increase with higher dose and number of vaccinations. No abnormalities in the measured safety parameters were observed. The vaccine was also capable of eliciting a cellular and humoral immune response in dogs. No adverse effects were observed, but tolerability of the electroporation was poor. This study will facilitate the evaluation of the vaccine in tumor bearing animals, ranging from rodent models to dogs with spontaneous tumors. PMID:26871296

  14. Comparison between monitored and modeled pore water pressure and safety factor in a slope susceptible to shallow landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordoni, Massimiliano; Meisina, Claudia; Zizioli, Davide; Valentino, Roberto; Bittelli, Marco; Chersich, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    Shallow landslides can be defined as slope movements affecting superficial deposits of small thicknesses which are usually triggered due to extreme rainfall events, also very concentrated in time. Shallow landslides are hazardous phenomena: in particular, if they happen close to urbanized areas they could cause significant damages to cultivations, structures, infrastructures and, sometimes, human losses. The triggering mechanism of rainfall-induced shallow landslides is strictly linked with the hydrological and mechanical responses of usually unsaturated soils to rainfall events. For this reason, it is fundamental knowing the intrinsic hydro-mechanical properties of the soils in order to assess both susceptibility and hazard of shallow landslide and to develop early-warning systems at large scale. The hydrological data collected by a 20 months monitoring on a slope susceptible to shallow landslides in an area of the North -Eastern Oltrepo Pavese (Northern Apennines, Italy) were used to identify the hydrological behaviors of the investigated soils towards rainfall events. Field conditions under different rainfall trends have also been modeled by using both hydrological and physically-based stability models for the evaluation of the slope safety factor . The main objectives of this research are: (a) to compare the field measured pore water pressures at different depths with results of hydrological models, in order to evaluate the efficiency of the tested models and to determine how precipitations affect pore pressure development; (b) to compare the time trends of the safety factor that have been obtained by applying different stability models; (c) to evaluate, through a sensitivity analysis, the effects of soil hydrological properties on modeling pore water pressure and safety factor. The test site slope where field measurements were acquired is representative of other sites in Northern Apennines affected by shallow landslides and is characterized by medium

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING GUIDANCE FOR SAFETY EVALUATIONS OF ADVANCED REACTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    O'HARA, J.; PERSENSKY, J.; SZABO, A.

    2006-10-01

    Advanced reactors are expected to be based on a concept of operations that is different from what is currently used in today's reactors. Therefore, regulatory staff may need new tools, developed from the best available technical bases, to support licensing evaluations. The areas in which new review guidance may be needed and the efforts underway to address the needs will be discussed. Our preliminary results focus on some of the technical issues to be addressed in three areas for which new guidance may be developed: automation and control, operations under degraded conditions, and new human factors engineering methods and tools.

  16. Low-n magnetohydrodynamic edge instabilities in quiescent H-mode plasmas with a safety-factor plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L. J.; Kotschenreuther, M. T.; Valanju, P.

    2013-06-01

    Low-n magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes in the quiescent high confinement mode (H-mode) pedestal are investigated in this paper. Here, n is the toroidal mode number. The low collisionality regime is considered, so that a safety-factor plateau arises in the pedestal region because of the strong bootstrap current. The JET-like (Joint European Torus) equilibria of quiescent H-mode discharges are generated numerically using the VMEC code. The stability of this type of equilibria is analysed using the AEGIS code, with subsonic rotation effects taken into account. The current investigation extends the previous studies of n = 1 modes to n = 2 and 3 modes. The numerical results show that the MHD instabilities in this type of equilibria have characteristic features of the infernal mode. We find that this type of mode tends to prevail when the safety-factor value in the shear-free region is slightly larger than an integer. In this case the frequencies (ωn) of modes with toroidal mode number n roughly follow the rule ωn ˜ -nΩp, where Ωp is the local rotation frequency where the infernal harmonic prevails. Since the infernal mode tends to develop near the pedestal top, where pressure driving is strong but magnetic shear stabilization is weak, this local rotation frequency tends to be close to the pedestal top value. These typical mode features bear close resemblance to the edge harmonic oscillations (or outer modes) at the quiescent H-mode discharges observed experimentally.

  17. Discovering Innovation at the Intersection of Undergraduate Medical Education, Human Factors, and Collaboration: The Development of a Nasogastric Tube Safety Pack

    PubMed Central

    Bamford, Thomas; Haindl, Cornelia; Cracknell, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Problem Significant deficiencies exist in the knowledge and skills of medical students and residents around health care quality and safety. The theory and practice of quality and safety should be embedded into undergraduate medical practice so that health care professionals are capable of developing interventions and innovations to effectively anticipate and mitigate errors. Approach Since 2011, Leeds Medical School in the United Kingdom has used case study examples of nasogastric (NG) tube patient safety incidents within the undergraduate patient safety curriculum. In 2012, a medical undergraduate student approached a clinician with an innovative idea after undertaking an NG tubes root cause analysis case study. Simultaneously, a separate local project demonstrated low compliance (11.6%) with the United Kingdom’s National Patient Safety Agency NG tubes guideline for use of the correct method to check tube position. These separate endeavors led to interdisciplinary collaboration between a medical student, health care professionals, researchers, and industry to develop the Initial Placement Nasogastric Tube Safety Pack. Outcomes Human factors engineering was used to inform pack design to allow guideline recommendations to be accessible and easy to follow. A timeline of product development, mapped against key human factors and medical device design principles used throughout the process, is presented. The safety pack has since been launched in five UK National Health Service (NHS) hospitals, and the pack has been introduced into health care professional staff training for NG tubes. Next Steps A mixed-methods evaluation is currently under way in five NHS organizations. PMID:26579792

  18. Do measures commonly used in body image research perform adequately with African American college women?

    PubMed

    Kashubeck-West, Susan; Coker, Angela D; Awad, Germine H; Stinson, Rebecca D; Bledman, Rashanta; Mintz, Laurie

    2013-07-01

    This study examines reliability and validity estimates for 3 widely used measures in body image research in a sample of African American college women (N = 278). Internal consistency estimates were adequate (α coefficients above .70) for all measures, and evidence of convergent and discriminant validity was found. Confirmatory factor analyses failed to replicate the hypothesized factor structures of these measures. Exploratory factor analyses indicated that 4 factors found for the Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire were similar to the hypothesized subscales, with fewer items. The factors found for the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scales and the Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory-3 were not similar to the subscales developed by the scale authors. Validity and reliability evidence is discussed for the new factors. PMID:23731233

  19. Adequation of mini satellites to oceanic altimetry missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellaieche, G.; Aguttes, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Association of the mini satellite concept and oceanic altimetry missions is discussed. Mission definition and most constraining requirements (mesoscale for example) demonstrate mini satellites to be quite adequate for such missions. Progress in altimeter characteristics, orbit determination, and position reporting allow consideration of oceanic altimetry missions using low Earth orbit satellites. Satellite constellation, trace keeping and orbital period, and required payload characteristics are exposed. The mission requirements covering Sun synchronous orbit, service area, ground system, and launcher characteristics as well as constellation maintenance strategy are specified. Two options for the satellite, orbital mechanics, propulsion, onboard power and stabilizing subsystems, onboard management, satellite ground linkings, mechanical and thermal subsystems, budgets, and planning are discussed.

  20. Monitoring human factor risk characteristics at nuclear legacy sites in northwest Russia in support of radiation safety regulation.

    PubMed

    Scheblanov, V Y; Sneve, M K; Bobrov, A F

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes research aimed at improving regulatory supervision of radiation safety during work associated with the management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste at legacy sites in northwest Russia through timely identification of employees presenting unfavourable human factor risk characteristics. The legacy sites of interest include sites of temporary storage now operated by SevRAO on behalf of Rosatom. The sites were previously operational bases for servicing nuclear powered submarines and are now subject to major remediation activities. These activities include hazardous operations for recovery of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from sub-optimal storage conditions. The paper describes the results of analysis of methods, procedures, techniques and informational issues leading to the development of an expert-diagnostic information system for monitoring of workers involved in carrying out the most hazardous operations. The system serves as a tool for human factor and professional reliability risk monitoring and has been tested in practical working environments and implemented as part of regulatory supervision. The work has been carried out by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center, within the framework of the regulatory cooperation programme between the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. PMID:23186692

  1. Optimization of the safety factor profile for high noninductive current fraction discharges in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferron, J. R.; Holcomb, C. T.; Luce, T. C.; Politzer, P. A.; Turco, F.; White, A. E.; DeBoo, J. C.; Doyle, E. J.; Hyatt, A. W.; La Haye, R. J.; Murakami, M.; Petrie, T. W.; Petty, C. C.; Rhodes, T. L.; Zeng, L.

    2011-06-01

    In order to assess the optimum q profile for discharges in DIII-D with 100% of the current driven noninductively (fNI = 1), the self-consistent response of the plasma profiles to changes in the q profile was studied in high fNI, high βN discharges through a scan of qmin and q95 at two values of βN. As expected, both the bootstrap current fraction, fBS, and fNI increased with q95. The temperature and density profiles were found to broaden as either qmin or βN is increased. A consequence is that fBS does not continue to increase at the highest values of qmin. A scaling function that depends on qmin, q95, and the peaking factor for the thermal pressure was found to represent well the fBS/βN inferred from the experimental profiles. The changes in the shapes of the density and temperature profiles as βN is increased modify the bootstrap current density (JBS) profile from peaked close to the axis to relatively flat in the region between the axis and the H-mode pedestal. Therefore, significant externally driven current density in the region inside the H-mode pedestal is required in addition to JBS in order to match the profiles of the noninductive current density (JNI) to the desired total current density (J). In this experiment, the additional current density was provided mostly by neutral beam current drive with the neutral-beam-driven current fraction 40-90% of fBS. The profiles of JNI and J were most similar at qmin ≈ 1.35-1.65, q95 ≈ 6.8, where fBS is also maximum, establishing this q profile as the optimal choice for fNI = 1 operation in DIII-D with the existing set of external current drive sources.

  2. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  3. Adequate drainage system design for heap leaching structures.

    PubMed

    Majdi, Abbas; Amini, Mehdi; Nasab, Saeed Karimi

    2007-08-17

    The paper describes an optimum design of a drainage system for a heap leaching structure which has positive impacts on both mine environment and mine economics. In order to properly design a drainage system the causes of an increase in the acid level of the heap which in turn produces severe problems in the hydrometallurgy processes must be evaluated. One of the most significant negative impacts induced by an increase in the acid level within a heap structure is the increase of pore acid pressure which in turn increases the potential of a heap-slide that may endanger the mine environment. In this paper, initially the thickness of gravelly drainage layer is determined via existing empirical equations. Then by assuming that the calculated thickness is constant throughout the heap structure, an approach has been proposed to calculate the required internal diameter of the slotted polyethylene pipes which are used for auxiliary drainage purposes. In order to adequately design this diameter, the pipe's cross-sectional deformation due to stepped heap structure overburden pressure is taken into account. Finally, a design of an adequate drainage system for the heap structure 2 at Sarcheshmeh copper mine is presented and the results are compared with those calculated by exiting equations. PMID:17321044

  4. Factors Influencing Learning Satisfaction of Migrant Workers in Korea with E-learning-Based Occupational Safety and Health Education

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Joo; Lee, Dongjoo

    2015-01-01

    Background E-learning-based programs have recently been introduced to the occupational safety and health (OSH) education for migrant workers in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the factors related to migrant workers' backgrounds and the instructional design affect the migrant workers' satisfaction with e-learning-based OSH education. Methods The data were collected from the surveys of 300 migrant workers who had participated in an OSH education program. Independent sample t test and one-way analysis of variance were conducted to examine differences in the degree of learning satisfaction using background variables. In addition, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were conducted to examine relationships between the instructional design variables and the degree of learning satisfaction. Results There was no significant difference in the degree of learning satisfaction by gender, age, level of education, number of employees, or type of occupation, except for nationality. Among the instructional design variables, “learning content” (β = 0.344, p < 0.001) affected the degree of learning satisfaction most significantly, followed by “motivation to learn” (β = 0.293, p < 0.001), “interactions with learners and instructors” (β = 0.149, p < 0.01), and “previous experience related to e-learning” (β = 0.095, p < 0.05). “Learning environment” had no significant influence on the degree of learning satisfaction. Conclusion E-learning-based OSH education for migrant workers may be an effective way to increase their safety knowledge and behavior if the accuracy, credibility, and novelty of learning content; strategies to promote learners' motivation to learn; and interactions with learners and instructors are systematically applied during the development and implementation of e-learning programs. PMID:26929830

  5. Family Structure Types and Adequate Utilization of Antenatal Care in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Hsu, Yi-Hsin Elsa; Huang, Nicole; Chien, Li-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Features of the health care delivery system may not be the only expounding factors of adequate utilization of antenatal care among women. Other social factors such as the family structure and its environment contribute toward pregnant women's utilization of antenatal care. An understanding of how women in different family structure types and social groups use basic maternal health services is important toward developing and implementing maternal health care policy in the post-Millennium Development Goal era, especially in the sub-Saharan Africa where maternal mortality still remains high. PMID:27214674

  6. Estimation Of TMDLs And Margin Of Safety Under Conditions Of Uncertainty

    EPA Science Inventory

    In TMDL development, an adequate margin of safety (MOS) is required in the calculation process to provide a cushion needed because of uncertainties in the data and analysis. Current practices, however, rarely factor analysis' uncertainty in TMDL development and the MOS is largel...

  7. 76 FR 16758 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2010-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Response to Recommendation 2010-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Safety Analysis... Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers was...) Recommendation 2010-1, Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and...

  8. The effect of DEM resolution on the computation of the factor of safety using an infinite slope model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Michael; Torizin, Jewgenij; Kühn, Friedrich

    2014-11-01

    The quality of digital elevation models (DEMs) is essential for reliable landslide susceptibility assessments. In this paper, two DEMs derived from ASTER (ASTER GDEM v.2 with 30 m horizontal resolution) and TerraSAR-X (GeoElevation10 with 10 m horizontal resolution) data are compared to study the effects of resolution on the derived slope and wetness index parameters in the application of the infinite slope model for the computation of the factor of safety. Several slope stability scenarios representing different wetness conditions with 5, 10 and 100 mm d- 1 of steady-state recharge were calculated for the eastern flank of Mount Rinjani Volcano on Lombok Island, Indonesia. Each scenario was conducted by computing the static factor of safety with mean values of the bulk density, angle of internal friction, cohesion, and failure depth parameters, as well as for their normally distributed values by Monte Carlo simulation. All scenarios were applied to both DEMs. The scenarios were evaluated by calculating the success/prediction rate using the respective area under the curve (AUC) and an existing landslide inventory. Additionally, uncertainties in the estimated positions of landslides were taken into account. Depending on the particular scenario, the success rate of the GeoElevation10 model shows differences up to 3% compared to the ASTER GDEM model. This apparent improvement is mainly caused by the higher ground resolution in GeoElevation10. However, the success rate increases for the 10 mm d- 1 and decreases for the 100 mm d- 1 steady-state recharge conditions. Consequently, the more detailed flow direction in the GeoElevation10 DEM has the highest impact under conditions with lower water saturation. The slight improvement in the total model quality shows that the higher resolution of the DEM has a small impact on poorly parameterized models, in which the material properties are described by roughly estimated parameters. Therefore, the application of a high

  9. Attitudes towards the surgical safety checklist and factors associated with its use: A global survey of frontline medical professionals☆

    PubMed Central

    Vohra, Ravinder S.; Cowley, Jonathan B.; Bhasin, Neeraj; Barakat, Hashem M.; Gough, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC) has been shown to reduce perioperative errors and complications and its implementation is recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO). However, it is unknown how widely this intervention is used. We investigated attitudes and factors associated with use of WHO SSC in frontline medical professionals across the globe using a survey distributed through social networks. Methods A survey of usage and opinions regarding the SSC was posted on the Facebook and Twitter pages of a not-for-profit surgical news website for one month (March 2013). Respondents were grouped into four groups based on their country's Gross National Income: high, upper middle, lower middle and low income. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate how different factors were associated with the use of the SSC. Results 6269 medical professionals from 69 countries responded to the survey: most respondents were from lower middle (47.4%) countries, followed by: high (35.0%), upper middle (14.6%), and low (3.0%) income countries. In total, 57.5% reported that they used the WHO SSC perioperatively. Fewer respondents used the WHO SSC in upper middle, lower middle and low income countries (LMICs) compared to high income countries (43.5% vs. 83.5%, p < 0.001). Female (61.3% vs. 56.4% males, p = 0.001), consultant surgeons (59.6% vs. 53.2% interns, p < 0.001) and working in university hospitals (61.4% vs. 53.7% non-university hospitals, p < 0.001) were more likely to use the SSC. Believing the SSC was useful, did not work or caused delays was independently associated with the respondents reported use of the SSC (OR 1.22 95% CI 1.07–1.39; OR 0.47 95% CI 0.36–0.60; OR 0.64 95% CI 0.53–0.77, respectively). Conclusion This study suggests the use of the WHO SSC is variable across countries, especially in LMICs where it has the most potential to improve patient safety. Critical appraisal of the documented benefits of the WHO

  10. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  11. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ...

  12. Health and safety at work in the transport industry (TRANS-18): factorial structure, reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Boada-Grau, Joan; Sánchez-García, José-Carlos; Prizmic-Kuzmica, Aldo-Javier; Vigil-Colet, Andreu

    2012-03-01

    In this article, we study the psychometric properties of a short scale (TRANS-18) which was designed to detect safe behaviors (personal and vehicle-related) and psychophysiological disorders. 244 drivers participated in the study, including drivers of freight transport vehicles (regular, dangerous and special), cranes, and passenger transport (regular transport and chartered coaches), ambulances and taxis. After carrying out an exploratory factor analysis of the scale, the findings show a structure comprised of three factors related to psychophysiological disorders, and to both personal and vehicle-related safety behaviors. Furthermore, these three factors had adequate reliability and all three also showed validity with regard to burnout, fatigue and job tension. In short, this scale may be ideally suited for adequately identifying the safety behaviors and safety problems of transport drivers. Future research could use the TRANS-18 as a screening tool in combination with other instruments. PMID:22379725

  13. Sport participation, sport injury, risk factors and sport safety practices in Calgary and area junior high schools

    PubMed Central

    Emery, CA; Tyreman, H

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine rates of sport participation, sport injury, risk factors and sport safety practices in young adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Calgary and area junior high schools. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of 1466 students (aged 12 to 15 years). OUTCOME MEASURES: Sport injury within one year prior to completing the survey. RESULTS: Ninety-three per cent of students participated in sports in the previous year. The injury rate was 60.85 injuries/100 students/year (95% CI 58.29 to 63.35) for students reporting at least one sport injury, 29.4 injuries/100 students/year (95% CI 27.08 to 31.81) for medically treated injuries, and 12.28 injuries/100 students/year (95% CI 10.64 to 14.07) for injuries presenting to a hospital emergency department. The greatest proportion of injuries occurred in basketball (14%), soccer (12%), hockey (8.6%) and snowboarding/skiing (7.1%). CONCLUSIONS: The rates of participation and injury in sports are high in junior high school students. Future research should focus on prevention strategies in sports with high participation and injury rates to have the greatest population health impact. PMID:20808471

  14. Safety and efficacy of plasmid DNA expressing two isoforms of hepatocyte growth factor in patients with critical limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Kibbe, M R; Hirsch, A T; Mendelsohn, F O; Davies, M G; Pham, H; Saucedo, J; Marston, W; Pyun, W-B; Min, S-K; Peterson, B G; Comerota, A; Choi, D; Ballard, J; Bartow, R A; Losordo, D W; Sherman, W; Driver, V; Perin, E C

    2016-03-01

    VM202, a plasmid DNA that expresses two isoforms of hepatocyte growth factor, may elicit angiogenic effects that could benefit patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). In a phase 2, double-blind trial in 52 CLI patients, we examined the safety and potential efficacy of intramuscular injections of low-dose (n=21) or high-dose (n=20) VM202 or placebo (n=11) in the affected limb (days 0, 14, 28 and 42). Adverse events and serious adverse events were similar among the groups; no malignancy or proliferative retinopathy was seen. In exploratory efficacy analyses, we found no differences in ankle or toe-brachial index, VAS, VascuQuol or amputation rate among the groups. Complete ulcer healing was significantly better in high-dose (8/13 ulcers; P<0.01) versus placebo (1/9) patients. Clinically meaningful reductions (>50%) in ulcer area occurred in high-dose (9/13 ulcers) and low-dose (19/27) groups versus placebo (1/9; P<0.05 and P<0.005, respectively). At 12 months, significant differences were seen in TcPO2 between the high-dose and placebo groups (47.5 ± 17.8 versus 36.6 ± 24.0 mm Hg, respectively; P<0.05) and in the change from baseline among the groups (P<0.05). These data suggest that VM202 is safe and may provide therapeutic bioactivity in CLI patients. PMID:26649448

  15. Dissipation Pattern, Processing Factors, and Safety Evaluation for Dimethoate and Its Metabolite (Omethoate) in Tea (Camellia Sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Rong; Chen, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Ming-Lu; Wang, Qing-Hua; Jiang, Ying; Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Residue levels of dimethoate and its oxon metabolite (omethoate) during tea planting, manufacturing, and brewing were investigated using a modified QuEChERS sample preparation and gas chromatography. Dissipation of dimethoate and its metabolite in tea plantation followed the first-order kinetic with a half-life of 1.08–1.27 d. Tea manufacturing has positive effects on dimethoate dissipation. Processing factors of dimethoate are in the range of 2.11–2.41 and 1.41–1.70 during green tea and black tea manufacturing, respectively. Omethoate underwent generation as well as dissipation during tea manufacturing. Sum of dimethoate and omethoate led to a large portion of 80.5–84.9% transferring into tea infusion. Results of safety evaluation indicated that omethoate could bring higher human health risk than dimethoate due to its higher hazard quotient by drinking tea. These results would provide information for the establishment of maximum residue limit and instruction for the application of dimethoate formulation on tea crop. PMID:26406463

  16. Providing Adequate Vo-Ag Facilities--A High Priority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses factors and features for consideration in planning facilities for agriculture programs. Issues covered are industry relocation, school consolidation, legislation, and program diversification and specialization. (TA)

  17. A systematic review of Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE)-based healthcare system redesign for quality of care and patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Anping; Carayon, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare systems need to be redesigned to provide care that is safe, effective and efficient, and meets the multiple needs of patients. This systematic review examines how Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) is applied to redesign healthcare work systems and processes and improve quality and safety of care. We identified twelve projects representing 23 studies and addressing different physical, cognitive and organizational HFE issues in a variety of healthcare systems and care settings. Some evidence exists for the effectiveness of HFE-based healthcare system redesign in improving process and outcome measures of quality and safety of care. We assessed risk of bias in 16 studies reporting the impact of HFE-based healthcare system redesign and found varying quality across studies. Future research should further assess the impact of HFE on quality and safety of care, and clearly define the mechanisms by which HFE-based system redesign can improve quality and safety of care. Practitioner Summary Existing evidence shows that HFE-based healthcare system redesign has the potential to improve quality of care and patient safety. Healthcare organizations need to recognize the importance of HFE-based healthcare system redesign to quality of care and patient safety, and invest resources to integrate HFE in healthcare improvement activities. PMID:25323570

  18. Pharmacokinetics, thrombogenicity and safety of a double viral inactivated factor IX concentrate compared with a prothrombin complex concentrate.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Sáez, A; Hong, A; Arguello, A; Echenagucia, M; Boadas, A; Fabbrizzi, F; Minichilli, F; Bosch, N B

    2005-11-01

    Therapeutic options for developing countries have to assure an optimum safety and efficacy and low-cost antihaemophilic concentrates. A single blind randomized crossover study was carried out in 12 previously treated HB patients, comparing the pharmacokinetics (PK), thrombogenicity (TG) and safety of two plasma-derived double-inactivated (solvent/detergent heating at 100 degrees C, 30 min) factor IX (FIX) concentrates, UMAN COMPLEX DI (product A) [plasma-derived prothrombin concentrates (PCC)] and a high purity FIX concentrate AIMAFIX DI (product B, HPFIX). In a non-bleeding state, they received one single intravenous dose 50 IU FIX kg(-1) of PCC or HPFIX, and after a wash-out period of 14 days, the other product. We evaluated acute tolerance and determined PK parameters based on FIX levels measured over a 50 h postinfusion period. We studied fibrinogen, platelets, antithrombin, F1 + 2, TAT, D-dimer, over a 360 min postinfusion period. Ten cases remained in on-demand treatment for 6 months, five with PCC and five with HPFIX. PK and anti-FIX inhibitors were repeated at 3 and 6 months. No inhibitors were detected. PK values (PCC vs. HPFIX): clearence (CL; mL h(-1) kg(-1)) 5.2 +/- 1.4 vs. 6.5 +/- 1.4; the volume of distribution at steady state (mL kg(-1)) 154.9 +/- 54.9 vs. 197.5 +/- 72.5; mean residence time (h) 29.7 +/- 8.1 vs. 30.7 +/- 9.2; T(1/2) (h) 22.3 +/- 7 vs. 23.5 +/- 12.3; incremental recovery (IR; U dL(-1) U(-1) kg(-1)) 0.96 +/- 0.17 vs. 0.76 +/- 0.13. HPFIX showed significant lower IR and higher CL. There were no differences in PK at 3 and 6 months. In TG, significant increments in TAT and F1 + 2 at 30 min and 6 h were found with PCC. Product B PK results agrees with reported results for other HPFIX preparations. Use of PCC product A has to consider its thrombogenic activity. PMID:16236107

  19. Safety and efficacy of sustained release of basic fibroblast growth factor using gelatin hydrogel in patients with critical limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Motoyuki; Marui, Akira; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Takeda, Takahide; Yamamoto, Masaya; Yonezawa, Atsushi; Tanaka, Shiro; Yanagi, Shigeki; Ito-Ihara, Toshiko; Ikeda, Takafumi; Murayama, Toshinori; Teramukai, Satoshi; Katsura, Toshiya; Matsubara, Kazuo; Kawakami, Koji; Yokode, Masayuki; Shimizu, Akira; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2016-05-01

    As a form of therapeutic angiogenesis, we sought to investigate the safety and efficacy of a sustained-release system of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) using biodegradable gelatin hydrogel in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). We conducted a phase I-IIa study that analyzed 10 CLI patients following a 200-μg intramuscular injection of bFGF-incorporated gelatin hydrogel microspheres into the ischemic limb. Primary endpoints were safety and transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcO2) at 4 and 24 weeks after treatment. During the follow-up, there was no death or serious procedure-related adverse event. After 24 weeks, TcO2 (28.4 ± 8.4 vs. 46.2 ± 13.0 mmHg for pretreatment vs after 24 weeks, p < 0.01) showed significant improvement. Regarding secondary endpoints, the distance walked in 6 min (255 ± 105 vs. 318 ± 127 m, p = 0.02), the Rutherford classification (4.4 ± 0.5 vs. 3.1 ± 1.4, p = 0.02), the rest pain scale (1.7 ± 1.0 vs. 1.2 ± 1.3, p = 0.03), and the cyanotic scale (2.0 ± 1.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.9, p < 0.01) also showed improvement. The blood levels of bFGF were within the normal range in all patients. A subanalysis of patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans (n = 7) or thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease) (n = 3) revealed that TcO2 had significantly improved in both subgroups. TcO2 did not differ between patients with or without chronic kidney disease. The sustained release of bFGF from biodegradable gelatin hydrogel may offer a safe and effective form of angiogenesis for patients with CLI. PMID:25861983

  20. Assessment of region, farming system, irrigation source and sampling time as food safety risk factors for tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Pagadala, Sivaranjani; Marine, Sasha C; Micallef, Shirley A; Wang, Fei; Pahl, Donna M; Melendez, Meredith V; Kline, Wesley L; Oni, Ruth A; Walsh, Christopher S; Everts, Kathryne L; Buchanan, Robert L

    2015-03-01

    In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, small- and medium-sized farmers use varied farm management methods and water sources to produce tomatoes. It is unclear whether these practices affect the food safety risk for tomatoes. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence, and assess risk factors for Salmonella enterica, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and bacterial indicators in pre-harvest tomatoes and their production areas. A total of 24 organic and conventional, small- to medium-sized farms were sampled for six weeks in Maryland (MD), Delaware (DE) and New Jersey (NJ) between July and September 2012, and analyzed for indicator bacteria, Salmonella and STEC. A total of 422 samples--tomato fruit, irrigation water, compost, field soil and pond sediment samples--were collected, 259 of which were tomato samples. A low level of Salmonella-specific invA and Shiga toxin genes (stx1 or stx2) were detected, but no Salmonella or STEC isolates were recovered. Of the 422 samples analyzed, 9.5% were positive for generic E. coli, found in 5.4% (n=259) of tomato fruits, 22.5% (n=102) of irrigation water, 8.9% (n=45) of soil, 3/9 of pond sediment and 0/7 of compost samples. For tomato fruit, farming system (organic versus conventional) was not a significant factor for levels of indicator bacteria. However, the total number of organic tomato samples positive for generic E. coli (1.6%; 2/129) was significantly lower than for conventional tomatoes (6.9% (9/130); (χ(2) (1)=4.60, p=0.032)). Region was a significant factor for levels of Total Coliforms (TC) (p=0.046), although differences were marginal, with western MD having the highest TC counts (2.6 log CFU/g) and NJ having the lowest (2.0 log CFU/g). Tomatoes touching the ground or plastic mulch harbored significantly higher levels of TC compared to vine tomatoes, signaling a potential risk factor. Source of irrigation water was a significant factor for all indicator bacteria (p<0.0001), and

  1. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  2. Adequate peritoneal dialysis: theoretical model and patient treatment.

    PubMed

    Tast, C

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adequate PD with sufficient weekly Kt/V (2.0) and Creatinine clearance (CCR) (60l) and necessary daily dialysate volume. This recommended parameter was the result of a recent multi-centre study (CANUSA). For this there were 40 patients in our hospital examined and compared in 1996, who carried out PD for at least 8 weeks and up to 6 years. These goals (CANUSA) are easily attainable in the early treatment of many individuals with a low body surface area (BSA). With higher BSA or missing RRF (Residual Renal Function) the daily dose of dialysis must be adjusted. We found it difficult to obtain the recommended parameters and tried to find a solution to this problem. The simplest method is to increase the volume or exchange rate. The most expensive method is to change from CAPD to APD with the possibility of higher volume or exchange rates. Selection of therapy must take into consideration: 1. patient preference, 2. body mass, 3. peritoneal transport rates, 4. ability to perform therapy, 5. cost of therapy and 6. risk of peritonitis. With this information in mind, an individual prescription can be formulated and matched to the appropriate modality of PD. PMID:10392062

  3. 1981 NRC/BNL/IEEE standards workshop on human factors and nuclear safety. The man-machine interface and human reliability: an assessment and projection

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.E.; Fragola, J.R.; Luckas, W.J. Jr.

    1981-09-01

    The role of the human in the safety of nuclear power plant operations was addressed in a meeting held in Myrtle Beach, SC in August 1981. Presentation were made on Control Room reviews, safety parameter display systems, the integration of human factors in the entire design process, and the use of automated control features. A need was shown for the development of a taxonomy or model to structure future data gathering and the need for models and data to address the issue of cognitive behavior. The primary effect of this behavior on risk was identified. Discussion sessions on the human impact on reliability, and control room design and evaluation were included. (ACR)

  4. Safety management in multiemployer worksites in the manufacturing industry: opinions on co-operation and problems encountered.

    PubMed

    Nenonen, Sanna; Vasara, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Co-operation between different parties and effective safety management play an important role in ensuring safety in multiemployer worksites. This article reviews safety co-operation and factors complicating safety management in Finnish multiemployer manufacturing worksites. The paper focuses on the service providers' opinions; however, a comparison of the customers' views is also presented. The results show that safety-related co-operation between providers and customers is generally considered as successful but strongly dependent on the partner. Safety co-operation is provided through, e.g., training, orientation and risk analysis. Problems encountered include ensuring adequate communication, identifying hazards, co-ordinating work tasks and determining responsibilities. The providers and the customers encounter similar safety management problems. The results presented in this article can help companies to focus their efforts on the most problematic points of safety management and to avoid common pitfalls. PMID:23759189

  5. A statistical evaluation of the safety factor and species sensitivity distribution approaches to deriving environmental quality guidelines.

    PubMed

    Zajdlik, Barry Alan

    2016-04-01

    The species sensitivity distribution (SSD) distribution approach to estimating water quality guidelines (WQGs) is the preferred method in all jurisdictions reviewed (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] members, South Africa, United States) and is one of the recommended methods for European Commission members for 33 priority and priority hazardous substances. In the event that jurisdiction-specific criteria for data quality, quantity, and taxonomic representation are not met, all of these jurisdictions endorse the use of additional safety factors (SFs) applied to either the SSD-based WQG or, the lowest suitable toxicity test endpoint. In Canada, the British Columbia Ministry of Environment endorses this latter approach as the preferred approach in the belief that so-derived WQGs are more protective than SSD-based WQGs. The level of protection afforded by the latter SF approach was evaluated by statistically sampling minima from random samples of the following distributions: normal, Gumbel, logistic, and Weibull, using a range of coefficients of variation (cVs) and applying the SFs of 2 or 10 used in British Columbia. The simulations indicate that the potentially affected fraction of species (PAF) can be as high as 20%, or, approach 0%. The PAF varies with sample size and CV. Because CVs can vary systematically with mode of toxic action, the PAF using SF-based WQGs can also vary systematically with analyte class. The varying levels of protection afforded by SF-based WQGs are generally inconsistent with the common water quality management goal that allows for a small degree of change under long-term exposure. The findings suggest that further efforts be made to develop high-quality WQGs that support informed decision making and are consistent with the environmental management goal instead of using SFs in the hope of achieving an acceptable but unknown, degree of environmental protection. PMID:26272692

  6. Magnetic safety factor profile before and after sawtooth crashes investigated with toroidicity and ellipticity induced Alfvén eigenmodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, G. J.; Cheng, C. Z.; Kusama, Y.; Nazikian, R.; Takeji, S.; Tobita, K.

    2001-09-01

    A study of toroidicity and ellipticity induced Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs and EAEs) that are excited before and after sawtooth crashes during ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating in JT-60U is presented. From the TAEs that are observed before sawteeth and that reside inside the q = 1 surface an upper limit has been set for q in the plasma centre at the time of the crash. After the sawtooth crash, EAEs that reside at the q = 1 surface are often observed. In a number of discharges the start of the EAE activity is delayed to up to 150 ms after the crash. In some cases TAE activity was observed between the sawtooth crash and the onset of the EAE activity. These TAEs could be modelled successfully only when it was assumed that the central safety factor (q0) rises above unity after the giant sawtooth crash. The appearance of the TAE activity immediately after the giant sawtooth crash is a strong indication that the fast particle drive remains in the plasma centre. This is consistent with theoretical estimates for the confinement of deeply trapped ICRF ions. The delayed appearance of the EAEs is also consistent with the disappearance of the q = 1 surface from the plasma at the giant sawtooth crash. The only way to obtain agreement between the experimentally measured EAE frequencies and the NOVA-K simulations is to assume that the q = 1 surface reappears in the plasma at the start of the EAE activity. The delayed appearance of the EAE activity seems to be correlated with the electron temperature just before the crash.

  7. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. PMID:26068436

  8. Associations of perceived neighborhood safety and crime with cardiometabolic risk factors among a population with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Aracely; Karter, Andrew J; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Warton, E Margaret; Moffet, Howard H; Adler, Nancy; Schillinger, Dean; Hendrickson O'Connell, Bethany; Laraia, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about how neighborhood crime may relate to health in diabetes patients. We examined associations between individuals' perceptions of neighborhood safety or violent crime and stress, physical activity, body mass index (BMI) or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in a sample (n=721) of adults (mean age:63) with diabetes. Self-reported neighborhood safety, violent crime, physical activity, and stress were collected and linked to clinical measures of BMI and HbA1c. Approximately 54% and 15% of patients reported neighborhood safety concerns and violent crimes, respectively. Any neighborhood safety concerns (β=1.14, 95% C.I. 0.04-2.24) and violent crime (β=2.04, 95% C.I. 0.34-3.73) were associated with BMI in adjusted analysis. Any violent crime was associated with class II-III obesity (BMI≥35) (OR=1.34, 95% C.I.: 1.02, 1.75). There were no significant associations between neighborhood safety concerns or violent crime with stress, physical activity, or HbA1c. Neighborhood safety is associated with BMI and obesity. Further studies, including longitudinal designs, are needed to study how people with diabetes may be influenced by a sense of poor personal safety in their neighborhoods. PMID:27060870

  9. Safety and Efficacy of Growth Factor Concentrate in the Treatment of Nasolabial Fold Correction: Split Face Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sevilla, Gema P; Dhurat, Rachita S; Shetty, Geetanjali; Kadam, Prashant P; Totey, Satish M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Growth factors have long been known as an effective treatment for facial wrinkles. We developed growth factor concentrate (GFC) from the platelets and evaluated their clinical outcome in nasolabial folds. Aims and Objectives: We evaluated safety and efficacy of autologous GFC on patients with nasolabial folds. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted on 80 patients for nasolabial folds in two groups. Group I (20) received bilateral single injection of GFC and group II (60) received single injection of GFC on the right side of the face and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the left side of the face. Severity of nasolabial folds was determined at the baseline and 3 months of follow-up visits based on wrinkle severity rating scale (WSRS), Global aesthetic improvement scale (GAIS) and atlas photographic grading at rest and at full smile. Objective clinical assessment and subjective satisfaction scale was determined for overall improvement at the end of the study. Results: In group I, 2 subjects showed improvement after GFC treatment with the score of 3.1–4 (76–100%), 3 subjects with the score of 2.1–3 (51–75%), 14 with the score of 1.1–2 (26–50%) and 1 subject with the score of 0–1 (<25%) at the end of study. In group II, 51 subjects were evaluated at the end of study where, 34 (66%) showed superior improvements after GFC, 6 (11%) patients showed similar improvement on both side of the face, 10 (19.6%) patients showed no noticeable improvement on the either side of the face and only 1 patient (1.96%) showed superior improvement for PRP at the end of the study. Overall improvement score analysis showed that GFC was significantly superior to PRP (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Present study is a strong evidence to support the use of GFC for nasolabial folds. The results showed that the single application of GFC is highly effective and safe. PMID:26538718

  10. SNAP benefits: Can an adequate benefit be defined?

    PubMed

    Yaktine, Ann L; Caswell, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) increases the food purchasing power of participating households. A committee convened by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) examined the question of whether it is feasible to define SNAP allotment adequacy. Total resources; individual, household, and environmental factors; and SNAP program characteristics that affect allotment adequacy were identified from a framework developed by the IOM committee. The committee concluded that it is feasible to define SNAP allotment adequacy; however, such a definition must take into account the degree to which participants' total resources and individual, household, and environmental factors influence the purchasing power of SNAP benefits and the impact of SNAP program characteristics on the calculation of the dollar value of the SNAP allotment. The committee recommended that the USDA Food and Nutrition Service investigate ways to incorporate these factors and program characteristics into research aimed at defining allotment adequacy. PMID:24425718

  11. Primary Care Availability, Safety Net Clinics, and Health Insurance Coverage: The Association of These Access Factors With Preventable Hospitalizations.

    PubMed

    Murty, Sharanya; Begley, Charles E; Franzini, Luisa; Swint, J Michael

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between physician/safety net availability and health insurance coverage and preventable hospitalizations (PHs) in nonelderly adults in an urban area. Preventable conditions (PHs) were identified for nonelderly adults in Harris County using the Texas Health Care Information Collection hospital database. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the association of health insurance and patient proximity to physicians and safety net clinics with the risk of a PH. Safety net availability reduced PH risk by 23% (P < .05) but only among the uninsured. Lack of health insurance increased PH risk by 30% (P < .05). PMID:27232686

  12. HFE safety reviews of advanced nuclear power plant control rooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, John

    1994-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACR's) will utilize human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role and means of interacting with the system. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of HSI's to ensure that they are designed to good HFE principles and support performance and reliability in order to protect public health and safety. However, the only available NRC guidance was developed more than ten years ago, and does not adequately address the human performance issues and technology changes associated with ACR's. Accordingly, a new approach to ACR safety reviews was developed based upon the concept of 'convergent validity'. This approach to ACR safety reviews is described.

  13. Mental health. The safety scandal.

    PubMed

    Dent, Emma

    2007-11-01

    *Sexual safety incidents are treated as part of mental health inpatient life. *Disbelief is built into the system. There is an attitude that patients cannot be believed because they are ill. *A lack of adequately trained and experienced staff can exacerbate poor levels of safety. PMID:18159890

  14. DETERMINATION OF THE APPROPRIATE FQPA SAFETY FACTOR(S) IN THE ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS PESTICIDE CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT: SUSCEPTIBILITY AND SENSITIVITY TO THE COMMON MECHANISM, ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (FQPA) directs EPA, in setting pesticide tolerances, to use an additional tenfold margin of safety to protect infants and children taking into account the potential for pre- and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the toxicology and ...

  15. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  16. Use of Burnup Credit as a Safety Factor in Handling of NIST Fuel Assemblies in the L Basin of SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Eghbali, DA

    2004-01-07

    Burnup credit was recently used for the first time in criticality safety analysis to support the handling of the National Institute of Standards and Technology spent fuel assemblies in the L Basin of Savannah River Site. Previous criticality safety analyses were based on the fissile content of fresh, unirradiated fuel assemblies, resulting in handling of a group of 10 or less fuel assemblies at a time. Using burnup credit, it was demonstrated that an isolated configuration of up to 14 NITS fuel assemblies, the maximum number of fuel assemblies in a full basket, submerged in a concrete-lined, water-filled pool is subcritical, resulting in several administrative controls being modified or eliminated without compromising safety.

  17. Adapting Extension Food Safety Programming for Vegetable Growers to Accommodate Differences in Ethnicity, Farming Scale, and Other Individual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Terence R.; Kneen, Harold; Barrett, Eric; Kleinschmidt, Andy; Doohan, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Differences in vegetable production methods utilized by American growers create distinct challenges for Extension personnel providing food safety training to producer groups. A program employing computers and projectors will not be accepted by an Amish group that does not accept modern technology. We have developed an outreach program that covers…

  18. Safety-Related Improvisation in Led Outdoor Activities: An Exploratory Investigation into Its Occurrence and Influencing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Margaret J.; Salmon, Paul M.; Lenné, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic nature of led outdoor activities means that, despite activity providers' best efforts, activity leaders can be exposed to unanticipated situations for which no procedures exist. Improvisation, the spontaneous, real-time conception and execution of a novel response, has been identified as a potential means of maintaining safety in…

  19. Adequate iodine levels in healthy pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey of dietary intake in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kasap, Burcu; Akbaba, Gülhan; Yeniçeri, Emine N.; Akın, Melike N.; Akbaba, Eren; Öner, Gökalp; Turhan, Nilgün Ö.; Duru, Mehmet E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess current iodine levels and related factors among healthy pregnant women. Methods: In this cross-sectional, hospital-based study, healthy pregnant women (n=135) were scanned for thyroid volume, provided urine samples for urinary iodine concentration and completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics and dietary habits targeted for iodine consumption at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Muğla, Turkey, between August 2014 and February 2015. Sociodemographic data were analyzed by simple descriptive statistics. Results: Median urinary iodine concentration was 222.0 µg/L, indicating adequate iodine intake during pregnancy. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 28.1% of subjects had iodine deficiency, 34.1% had adequate iodine intake, 34.8% had more than adequate iodine intake, and 3.0% had excessive iodine intake during pregnancy. Education level, higher monthly income, current employment, consuming iodized salt, and adding salt to food during, or after cooking were associated with higher urinary iodine concentration. Conclusion: Iodine status of healthy pregnant women was adequate, although the percentage of women with more than adequate iodine intake was higher than the reported literature. PMID:27279519

  20. Are family medicine residents adequately trained to deliver palliative care?

    PubMed Central

    Mahtani, Ramona; Kurahashi, Allison M.; Buchman, Sandy; Webster, Fiona; Husain, Amna; Goldman, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore educational factors that influence family medicine residents’ (FMRs’) intentions to offer palliative care and palliative care home visits to patients. Design Qualitative descriptive study. Setting A Canadian, urban, specialized palliative care centre. Participants First-year (n = 9) and second-year (n = 6) FMRs. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted with FMRs following a 4-week palliative care rotation. Questions focused on participant experiences during the rotation and perceptions about their roles as family physicians in the delivery of palliative care and home visits. Participant responses were analyzed to summarize and interpret patterns related to their educational experience during their rotation. Main findings Four interrelated themes were identified that described this experience: foundational skill development owing to training in a specialized setting; additional need for education and support; unaddressed gaps in pragmatic skills; and uncertainty about family physicians’ role in palliative care. Conclusion Residents described experiences that both supported and inadvertently discouraged them from considering future engagement in palliative care. Reassuringly, residents were also able to underscore opportunities for improvement in palliative care education. PMID:27035008

  1. Adequately-Sized Nanocarriers Allow Sustained Targeted Drug Delivery to Neointimal Lesions in Rat Arteries.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Ryosuke; Miura, Yutaka; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Chida, Tsukasa; Anraku, Yasutaka; Kishimura, Akihiro; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Kataoka, Kazunori; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2016-06-01

    In atherosclerotic lesions, the endothelial barrier against the bloodstream can become compromised, resulting in the exposure of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and intimal cells beneath. In theory, this allows adequately sized nanocarriers in circulation to infiltrate into the intimal lesion intravascularly. We sought to evaluate this possibility using rat carotid arteries with induced neointima. Cy5-labeled polyethylene glycol-conjugated polyion complex (PIC) micelles and vesicles, with diameters of 40, 100, or 200 nm (PICs-40, PICs-100, and PICs-200, respectively) were intravenously administered to rats after injury to the carotid artery using a balloon catheter. High accumulation and long retention of PICs-40 in the induced neointima was confirmed by in vivo imaging, while the accumulation of PICs-100 and PICs-200 was limited, indicating that the size of nanocarriers is a crucial factor for efficient delivery. Furthermore, epirubicin-incorporated polymeric micelles with a diameter similar to that of PICs-40 showed significant curative effects in rats with induced neointima, in terms of lesion size and cell number. Specific and effective drug delivery to pre-existing neointimal lesions was demonstrated with adequate size control of the nanocarriers. We consider that this nanocarrier-based drug delivery system could be utilized for the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:27183493

  2. Rectal cancer delivery of radiotherapy in adequate time and with adequate dose is influenced by treatment center, treatment schedule, and gender and is prognostic parameter for local control: Results of study CAO/ARO/AIO-94

    SciTech Connect

    Fietkau, Rainer . E-mail: rainer.fietkau@med.uni-rostock.de; Roedel, Claus; Hohenberger, Werner; Raab, Rudolf; Hess, Clemens; Liersch, Torsten; Becker, Heinz; Wittekind, Christian; Hutter, Matthias; Hager, Eva; Karstens, Johann; Ewald, Hermann; Christen, Norbert; Jagoditsch, Michael; Martus, Peter; Sauer, Rolf

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: The impact of the delivery of radiotherapy (RT) on treatment results in rectal cancer patients is unknown. Methods and Materials: The data from 788 patients with rectal cancer treated within the German CAO/AIO/ARO-94 phase III trial were analyzed concerning the impact of the delivery of RT (adequate RT: minimal radiation RT dose delivered, 4300 cGy for neoadjuvant RT or 4700 cGy for adjuvant RT; completion of RT in <44 days for neoadjuvant RT or <49 days for adjuvant RT) in different centers on the locoregional recurrence rate (LRR) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years. The LRR, DFS, and delivery of RT were analyzed as endpoints in multivariate analysis. Results: A significant difference was found between the centers and the delivery of RT. The overall delivery of RT was a prognostic factor for the LRR (no RT, 29.6% {+-} 7.8%; inadequate RT, 21.2% {+-} 5.6%; adequate RT, 6.8% {+-} 1.4%; p = 0.0001) and DFS (no RT, 55.1% {+-} 9.1%; inadequate RT, 57.4% {+-} 6.3%; adequate RT, 69.1% {+-} 2.3%; p = 0.02). Postoperatively, delivery of RT was a prognostic factor for LRR on multivariate analysis (together with pathologic stage) but not for DFS (independent parameters, pathologic stage and age). Preoperatively, on multivariate analysis, pathologic stage, but not delivery of RT, was an independent prognostic parameter for LRR and DFS (together with adequate chemotherapy). On multivariate analysis, the treatment center, treatment schedule (neoadjuvant vs. adjuvant RT), and gender were prognostic parameters for adequate RT. Conclusion: Delivery of RT should be regarded as a prognostic factor for LRR in rectal cancer and is influenced by the treatment center, treatment schedule, and patient gender.

  3. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease ... Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q- ...

  4. Results of a phase I/II open-label, safety and efficacy trial of coagulation factor IX (recombinant), albumin fusion protein in haemophilia B patients

    PubMed Central

    Martinowitz, U; Lissitchkov, T; Lubetsky, A; Jotov, G; Barazani-Brutman, T; Voigt, C; Jacobs, I; Wuerfel, T; Santagostino, E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction rIX-FP is a coagulation factor IX (recombinant), albumin fusion protein with more than fivefold half-life prolongation over other standard factor IX (FIX) products available on the market. Aim This prospective phase II, open-label study evaluated the safety and efficacy of rIX-FP for the prevention of bleeding episodes during weekly prophylaxis and assessed the haemostatic efficacy for on-demand treatment of bleeding episodes in previously treated patients with haemophilia B. Methods The study consisted of a 10–14 day evaluation of rIX-FP pharmacokinetics (PK), and an 11 month safety and efficacy evaluation period with subjects receiving weekly prophylaxis treatment. Safety was evaluated by the occurrence of related adverse events, and immunogenic events, including development of inhibitors. Efficacy was evaluated by annualized spontaneous bleeding rate (AsBR), and the number of injections to achieve haemostasis. Results Seventeen subjects participated in the study, 13 received weekly prophylaxis and 4 received episodic treatment only. No inhibitors were detected in any subject. The mean and median AsBR were 1.25, and 1.13 respectively in the weekly prophylaxis arm. All bleeding episodes were treated with 1 or 2 injections of rIX-FP. Three prophylaxis subjects who were treated on demand prior to study entry had >85% reduction in AsBR compared to the bleeding rate prior to study entry. Conclusion This study demonstrated the efficacy for weekly routine prophylaxis of rIX-FP to prevent spontaneous bleeding episodes and for the treatment of bleeding episodes. In addition no safety issues were detected during the study and an improved PK profile was demonstrated. PMID:25990590

  5. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  6. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  7. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  8. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  9. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  10. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  11. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  12. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  13. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  14. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  15. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  16. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  17. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  18. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  19. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  20. Improved ASTM G72 Test Method for Ensuring Adequate Fuel-to-Oxidizer Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susana A.

    2016-01-01

    The ASTM G72/G72M-15 Standard Test Method for Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in a High-Pressure Oxygen-Enriched Environment is currently used to evaluate materials for the ignition susceptibility driven by exposure to external heat in an enriched oxygen environment. Testing performed on highly volatile liquids such as cleaning solvents has proven problematic due to inconsistent test results (non-ignitions). Non-ignition results can be misinterpreted as favorable oxygen compatibility, although they are more likely associated with inadequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios. Forced evaporation during purging and inadequate sample size were identified as two potential causes for inadequate available sample material during testing. In an effort to maintain adequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios within the reaction vessel during test, several parameters were considered, including sample size, pretest sample chilling, pretest purging, and test pressure. Tests on a variety of solvents exhibiting a range of volatilities are presented in this paper. A proposed improvement to the standard test protocol as a result of this evaluation is also presented. Execution of the final proposed improved test protocol outlines an incremental step method of determining optimal conditions using increased sample sizes while considering test system safety limits. The proposed improved test method increases confidence in results obtained by utilizing the ASTM G72 autogenous ignition temperature test method and can aid in the oxygen compatibility assessment of highly volatile liquids and other conditions that may lead to false non-ignition results.

  1. HSE's safety assessment principles for criticality safety.

    PubMed

    Simister, D N; Finnerty, M D; Warburton, S J; Thomas, E A; Macphail, M R

    2008-06-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) published its revised Safety Assessment Principles for Nuclear Facilities (SAPs) in December 2006. The SAPs are primarily intended for use by HSE's inspectors when judging the adequacy of safety cases for nuclear facilities. The revised SAPs relate to all aspects of safety in nuclear facilities including the technical discipline of criticality safety. The purpose of this paper is to set out for the benefit of a wider audience some of the thinking behind the final published words and to provide an insight into the development of UK regulatory guidance. The paper notes that it is HSE's intention that the Safety Assessment Principles should be viewed as a reflection of good practice in the context of interpreting primary legislation such as the requirements under site licence conditions for arrangements for producing an adequate safety case and for producing a suitable and sufficient risk assessment under the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (SI1999/3232 www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si1999/uksi_19993232_en.pdf). PMID:18495990

  2. Safety system status monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Rideout, T.H.; Cowley, P.J.

    1984-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has studied the safety aspects of monitoring the preoperational status of safety systems in nuclear power plants. The goals of the study were to assess for the NRC the effectiveness of current monitoring systems and procedures, to develop near-term guidelines for reducing human errors associated with monitoring safety system status, and to recommend a regulatory position on this issue. A review of safety system status monitoring practices indicated that current systems and procedures do not adequately aid control room operators in monitoring safety system status. This is true even of some systems and procedures installed to meet existing regulatory guidelines (Regulatory Guide 1.47). In consequence, this report suggests acceptance criteria for meeting the functional requirements of an adequate system for monitoring safety system status. Also suggested are near-term guidelines that could reduce the likelihood of human errors in specific, high-priority status monitoring tasks. It is recommended that (1) Regulatory Guide 1.47 be revised to address these acceptance criteria, and (2) the revised Regulatory Guide 1.47 be applied to all plants, including those built since the issuance of the original Regulatory Guide.

  3. 76 FR 37799 - DOE Final Decision in Response to Recommendation 2010-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ..., Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers AGENCY... reaffirmed their Recommendation 2010-1, Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the... Board (Board) Recommendation 2010-1, Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection...

  4. Examining the validity of AHRQ's patient safety indicators (PSIs): is variation in PSI composite score related to hospital organizational factors?

    PubMed

    Shin, Marlena H; Sullivan, Jennifer L; Rosen, Amy K; Solomon, Jeffrey L; Dunn, Edward J; Shimada, Stephanie L; Hayes, Jennifer; Rivard, Peter E

    2014-12-01

    Increasing use of Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs) for hospital performance measurement intensifies the need to critically assess their validity. Our study examined the extent to which variation in PSI composite score is related to differences in hospital organizational structures or processes (i.e., criterion validity). In site visits to three Veterans Health Administration hospitals with high and three with low PSI composite scores ("low performers" and "high performers," respectively), we interviewed a cross-section of hospital staff. We then coded interview transcripts for evidence in 13 safety-related domains and assessed variation across high and low performers. Evidence of leadership and coordination of work/communication (organizational process domains) was predominantly favorable for high performers only. Evidence in the other domains was either mixed, or there were insufficient data to rate the domains. While we found some evidence of criterion validity, the extent to which variation in PSI rates is related to differences in hospitals' organizational structures/processes needs further study. PMID:25380608

  5. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P.; Woodruff, Bradley A.; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S.; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H.; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women’s urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001). Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women’s education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency. PMID:26848685

  6. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P; Woodruff, Bradley A; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-02-01

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world's population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women's urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001). Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women's education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency. PMID:26848685

  7. SAFETY FACTORS FOR XYLEM FAILURE BY IMPLOSION AND AIR-SEEDING WITHIN ROOTS, TRUNKS AND BRANCHES OF YOUNG AND OLD CONIFER TREES

    SciTech Connect

    Domec, Jean-Christophe; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Meinzer, Rick; Lachenbruch, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The cohesion-tension theory of water transport states that hydrogen bonds hold water molecules together and that they are pulled through the xylem under tension. This tension could cause transport failure in at least two ways: collapse of the conduit walls (implosion), or rupture of the water column through air-seeding. The objective of this research was to elucidate the functional significance of variations in tracheid anatomical features, earlywood to latewood ratios and wood densities with position in young and old Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine trees in terms of their consequences for the safety factors for tracheid implosion and air-seeding. For both species, wood density increased linearly with percent latewood for root, trunk and branch samples. However, the relationships between anatomy and hydraulic function in trunks differed from those in roots and branches. In roots and branches increased hydraulic efficiency was achieved at the cost of increased vulnerability to air-seeding. Mature wood of trunks had earlywood with wide tracheids that optimized water transport and had a high percentage of latewood that optimized structural support. Juvenile wood had higher resistance to air-seeding and cell wall implosion. The two safety factors followed similar axial trends from roots to terminal branches and were similar for both species studied and between juvenile and mature wood.

  8. Central safety factor and βN control on NSTX-U via beam power and plasma boundary shape modification, using TRANSP for closed loop simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, M. D.; Andre, R.; Gates, D. A.; Gerhardt, S.; Goumiri, I. R.; Menard, J.

    2015-05-01

    The high-performance operational goals of NSTX-U will require development of advanced feedback control algorithms, including control of βN and the safety factor profile. In this work, a novel approach to simultaneously controlling βN and the value of the safety factor on the magnetic axis, q0, through manipulation of the plasma boundary shape and total beam power, is proposed. Simulations of the proposed scheme show promising results and motivate future experimental implementation and eventual integration into a more complex current profile control scheme planned to include actuation of individual beam powers, density, and loop voltage. As part of this work, a flexible framework for closed loop simulations within the high-fidelity code TRANSP was developed. The framework, used here to identify control-design-oriented models and to tune and test the proposed controller, exploits many of the predictive capabilities of TRANSP and provides a means for performing control calculations based on user-supplied data (controller matrices, target waveforms, etc). The flexible framework should enable high-fidelity testing of a variety of control algorithms, thereby reducing the amount of expensive experimental time needed to implement new control algorithms on NSTX-U and other devices.

  9. Demographic factors associated with perceptions about water safety and tap water consumption among adults in Santa Clara County, California, 2011.

    PubMed

    van Erp, Brianna; Webber, Whitney L; Stoddard, Pamela; Shah, Roshni; Martin, Lori; Broderick, Bonnie; Induni, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine differences in tap water consumption and perceptions of bottle versus tap water safety for Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites, as well as associations with other demographic characteristics. Data are from the Santa Clara County, California, Dietary Practices Survey (2011; N = 306). We used logistic regression to examine associations between demographic characteristics and 1) perceptions that bottled water is safer than tap and 2) primarily consuming tap water. Hispanics were less likely than non-Hispanic whites to primarily drink tap water (OR = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.11-0.99), although there was no significant difference in perceptions that bottled water is safer between these groups (OR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.11-2.27). Hispanics may be an important population for interventions promoting tap water consumption. PMID:24921901

  10. Maintaining Adequate Carbon Dioxide Washout for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Korona, Adam; McMillin, Summer; Norcross, Jason; Swickrath, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in technology development that is aimed at the production of an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU). Of the many functions provided by the spacesuit and portable life support subsystem within the AEMU, delivering breathing gas to the astronaut along with removing the carbon dioxide (CO2) remains one of the most important environmental functions that the AEMU can control. Carbon dioxide washout is the capability of the ventilation flow in the spacesuit helmet to provide low concentrations of CO2 to the crew member to meet breathing requirements. CO2 washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and sufficient designs in a spacesuit and in vehicle applications such as sleep stations and hygiene compartments. Human testing to fully evaluate and validate CO2 washout performance is necessary but also expensive due to the levied safety requirements. Moreover, correlation of math models becomes challenging because of human variability and movement. To supplement human CO2 washout testing, a breathing capability will be integrated into a suited manikin test apparatus to provide a safe, lower cost, stable, easily modeled alternative to human testing. Additionally, this configuration provides NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) the capability to evaluate CO2 washout under off-nominal conditions that would otherwise be unsafe for human testing or difficult due to fatigue of a test subject. Testing has been under way in-house at JSC and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides sufficient performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an extravehicular activity. This paper will review recent CO2 washout testing and analysis activities, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work

  11. 49 CFR 385.107 - The safety audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... will remain provisional and the carrier's on-highway performance will continue to be closely monitored... on the safety audit, that the Mexico-domiciled carrier has adequate basic safety management controls... on the safety audit, that the Mexico-domiciled carrier's basic safety management controls...

  12. 49 CFR 385.107 - The safety audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... will remain provisional and the carrier's on-highway performance will continue to be closely monitored... on the safety audit, that the Mexico-domiciled carrier has adequate basic safety management controls... on the safety audit, that the Mexico-domiciled carrier's basic safety management controls...

  13. 49 CFR 385.107 - The safety audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... will remain provisional and the carrier's on-highway performance will continue to be closely monitored... on the safety audit, that the Mexico-domiciled carrier has adequate basic safety management controls... on the safety audit, that the Mexico-domiciled carrier's basic safety management controls...

  14. 49 CFR 385.107 - The safety audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... will remain provisional and the carrier's on-highway performance will continue to be closely monitored... on the safety audit, that the Mexico-domiciled carrier has adequate basic safety management controls... on the safety audit, that the Mexico-domiciled carrier's basic safety management controls...

  15. Helicopter Safety Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Rutkowski, Michael

    1999-01-01

    In response to the President's challenge to reduce civil aviation accidents by a factor of 10 by the year 2022, NASA has embarked on an ambitious safety program in partnership with other government agencies and industry. The helicopter element of the NASA initiative has been guided by a series of accident analyses aimed at identifying the most frequent causes and consequences and initiating research to prevent or mitigate these factors. This talk will summarize the key findings of three of the accident analyses, the major elements of the safety program, and how helicopter safety research relates to the safety program.

  16. Recent RF Experiments and Application of RF Waves to Real-Time Control of Safety Factor Profile in JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.; Isayama, A.; Ide, S.; Fujita, T.; Oikawa, T.; Sakata, S.; Sueoka, M.; Hosoyama, H.; Seki, M.

    2005-09-26

    Two topics of applications of RF waves to current profile control in JT-60U are presented; application of lower-hybrid (LH) waves to safety factor profile control and electron cyclotron (EC) waves to neo-classical tearing mode (NTM) control. A real-time control system of safety factor (q) profile was developed. This system, for the first time, enables 1) real time evaluation of q profile using local magnetic pitch angle measurement by motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic and 2) control of current drive (CD) location ({rho}CD) by controlling the parallel refractive index N parallel of LH waves through control of phase difference ({delta}{phi}) of LH waves between multi-junction launcher modules. The method for real-time q profile evaluation was newly developed, without time-consuming reconstruction of equilibrium, so that the method requires less computational time. Safety factor profile by the real-time calculation agrees well with that by equilibrium reconstruction with MSE. The control system controls {rho}CD through {delta}{phi} in such a way to decrease the largest residual between the real-time evaluated q profile q(r) and its reference profile qref(r). The real-time control system was applied to a positive shear plasma (q(0){approx}1). The reference q profile was set to monotonic positive shear profile having qref(0)=1.3. The real-time q profile approached to the qref(r) during application of real-time control, and was sustained for 3s, which was limited by the duration of the injected LH power. Temporal evolution of current profile was consistent with relaxation of inductive electric field induced by theoretical LH driven current. An m/n=3/2 NTM that appeared at {beta}N{approx}3 was completely stabilized by ECCD applied to a fully-developed NTM. Precise ECCD at NTM island was essential for the stabilization. ECCD that was applied to resonant rational surface (q=3/2) before an NTM onset suppressed appearance of NTM. In order to keep NTM intensity below a

  17. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-evident (general anesthetics, drug metabolism). (3) The method of selection of subjects provides adequate... respect to pertinent variables such as age, sex, severity of disease, duration of disease, and use of... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies....

  18. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  19. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  20. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky's State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional--"all of its parts and parcels". The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including:…

  1. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a)...

  2. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending Veterinarian and Adequate Veterinary Care §...

  3. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  4. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  5. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  6. Pathways and factors for food safety and food security at PFOS contaminated sites within a problem based learning approach.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; D'Hollander, Wendy; Oliaei, Fardin; Stahl, Thorsten; Weber, Roland

    2015-06-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and related substances have been listed in Annex B of the Stockholm Convention. The implementation requires inventories of use, stockpiles, and environmental contamination including contaminated sites and measures for (risk) reduction and phase out. In most countries monitoring capacity is not available and therefore other approaches for assessment of contaminated sites are needed. Available informations about PFOS contamination in hot spot areas and its bio-accumulation in the food webs have been merged to build up a worst-case scenario We model PFOS transfer from 1 to 100ngL(-1) range in water to extensive and free-range food producing animals, also via the spread of contaminated sludges on agriculture soils. The modeling indicates that forages represented 78% of the exposure in ruminants, while soil accounted for >80% in outdoor poultry/eggs and pigs. From the carry-over rates derived from literature, in pork liver, egg, and feral fish computed concentration falls at 101, 28 and 2.7ngg(-1), respectively, under the 1ngL(-1) PFOS scenario. Assuming a major consumption of food produced from a contaminated area, advisories on egg and fish, supported by good agriculture/farming practices could abate 75% of the human food intake. Such advisories would allow people to become resilient in a PFOS contaminated area through an empowerment of the food choices, bringing the alimentary exposure toward the current Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 150ngkg(-1)bodyweightd(-1) proposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). PMID:25439130

  7. Safety of a non-viral plasmid-encoding dual isoforms of hepatocyte growth factor in critical limb ischemia patients: a phase I study.

    PubMed

    Henry, T D; Hirsch, A T; Goldman, J; Wang, Y L; Lips, D L; McMillan, W D; Duval, S; Biggs, T A; Keo, H H

    2011-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate in a phase I dose-escalation study, the safety of intramuscular injections of a novel non-viral plasmid DNA expressing two isoforms of human hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) (VM202) in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). In total, 12 patients with CLI and unsuitable for revascularization were consecutively assigned to increasing doses (2 to 16 mg) of VM202 administered into the ischemic calf muscle at days 1 and 15. Patients were evaluated for safety and tolerability, changes in ankle- and toe brachial index (ABI and TBI), and pain severity score using a visual analog scale (VAS) throughout a 12-month follow-up period. Median age was 72 years and 53% of the patients were male. VM202 was safe and well tolerated with no death during the 12-month follow-up. Median ABI and TBI significantly increased from 0.35 to 0.52 (P=0.005) and from 0.15 to 0.24 (P=0.01) at 12 months follow-up. Median VAS decreased from 57.5 to 16.0 mm at 6 months follow-up (P=0.03). In this first human clinical trial, VM202, which expresses two isoforms of human HGF, appear to be safe and well tolerated with encouraging clinical results and thus supports the performance of a phase II randomized controlled trial. PMID:21430785

  8. Bovine hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron does not support adequate iron status in copper-adequate or copper-deficient rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was designed to determine whether hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron (Fe) could sustain normal Fe status in growing rats. Because adequate copper (Cu) status is required for efficient Fe absorption in the rat, we also determined the effects of Cu deficiency on Fe status of...

  9. [Efficacy and Safety of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Containing Nanoparticle Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel (NabPTX) in Operable Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Breast Cancer].

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Shoko; Ota, Chika; Moriguchi, Yoshio

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy and safety of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nabPTX)-containing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) were investigated in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancers. Thirteen HER2-positive patients received NAC containing nabPTX or paclitaxel between June 2008 and December 2014. Of 13 HER2-positive patients, those who received nabPTX-containing NAC showed an 85.7% (6/7) pathological complete response (pCR) rate, whereas those who received paclitaxel-containing NAC showed a pCR rate of 50.0% (3/6). While 5 of 7 patients who received nabPTX-containing NAC developed Grade 3/4 neutropenia, none of them developed febrile neutropenia. Grade 1/2 peripheral neuropathy developed in all 7 patients who received nabPTX-containing NAC. This therapy may be a safe and effective treatment for HER2-positive breast cancer patients. PMID:27210086

  10. Dependence of Bootstrap Current, Stability, and Transport on the Safety Factor Profile in DIII-D Steady-state Scenario Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcomb, C. T.; Ferron, J. R.; Luce, T. C.; Politzer, P. A.; Deboo, J. C.; Petrie, T. W.; Petty, C. C.; La Haye, R. J.; White, A. E.; Turco, F.; Doyle, E. J.; Rhodes, T. L.; Zeng, L.

    2009-11-01

    A high beta, high gain steady state tokamak scenario with large bootstrap current fraction will have strong coupling between the current density and the pressure gradient through turbulent transport and the bootstrap current. To address this coupling experimentally, a scan of the safety factor minimum (qmin, from 1.1 to over 2) and edge value (q95, from 4.5 to 6.5) was performed. The bootstrap current fraction increases with qmin and q95 by virtue of increasing density gradients. Compared to lower qmin, qmin>2 has lower n=1 stability limits, enhanced drift wave growth rates, higher low-k density fluctuations, and lower confinement. At qmin>2 and q95=4.5 the unsustainable condition JBS> JTotal occurs near the axis. These considerations suggest intermediate q is the optimal operating point.

  11. [Rhythmic nuclear growth of adequately stimulated ganglia cells of acoustic nuclei (rat)].

    PubMed

    Köpf-Maier, P; Wüstenfeld, E

    1975-01-01

    Ganglia cells of the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei of white rats were irritated adequately for different periods or left untreated, respectively, and investigated karyometrically. The frequency distribution curves of the nuclear volumes were separated by means of an electronic curve resolver into the component curves, i.e. into groups of nuclei obeying exactly a Gaussian normal distribution and thus representing biologically uniform populations. The analysis of the mean values of the component curves led to the following results: 1. The mean values of the component curves can be arranged in 2 series having the pattern V1, V1 square root 2, V2, V2 square root 2, V4, V4 square root 2...2. The series V1, V1 square root 2, V2, V2 square root 2...is based on a geometrical series of the general formula an = k-qn. 3. It follows from these results that the nuclear volumes grow rhythmically by a factor of square root 2 and, consequently, that there is a periodical doubling in in the growth of the surface. PMID:1200386

  12. [Adequate attention is required to the diagnosis and treatment of mild-symptom erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Deng, Chun-hua; Zhang, Ya-dong; Chen, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Mild-symptom erectile dysfunction (MSED) is commonly seen in clinical practice, but receives inadequate attention from both the patients and clinicians. Increasing researches have indicated that MSED is associated with not only unhealthy living habits and psychological factors but also the early progression of endothelial, metabolic and endocrine diseases. The diagnosis and treatment of MSED should be based on the relevant guidelines, with consideration of both its specific and common features. The therapeutic principle is a combination of integrated and individual solutions aimed at the causes of the disease. Drug intervention should be initiated if psychological therapy fails. Negligence of MSED may affect the quality of life of the patients and their partners, and what's more, might delay the management of some other severe underlying diseases. Adequate attention to the early diagnosis and treatment for MSED is of great significance for a deeper insight into the etiology of ED, the prevention of potential cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, and the improvement of the overall health of males. PMID:25707132

  13. A grounded theory of female adolescents' dating experiences and factors influencing safety: the dynamics of the Circle

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, Sharyl E

    2007-01-01

    Background This paper describes the nature and characteristics of the dating relationships of adolescent females, including any of their experiences of abuse. Methods A grounded theory approach was used with 22 theoretically sampled female adolescents ages 15–18. Results Several important themes emerged: Seven stages of dating consistently described the relationships of female adolescents. A circle consisting of two interacting same sex peer groups provided structure for each teen as they navigated the dating course. The circle was the central factor affecting a female adolescent's potential for risk or harm in dating relationships. Teens defined abuse as an act where the intention is to hurt. Having once succumbed to sexual pressure, teens felt unable to refuse sex in subsequent situations. Conclusion An awareness of both the stages of dating and the dynamics of the circle will assist health care providers to plan and implement interventions in the female adolescent population. Study findings on factors and influences that support non-abusive versus abusive relationship might help identify female teens at risk and/or support interventions aimed at preventing dating violence. PMID:17883833

  14. A Risk Analysis Methodology to Address Human and Organizational Factors in Offshore Drilling Safety: With an Emphasis on Negative Pressure Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabibzadeh, Maryam

    According to the final Presidential National Commission report on the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, there is need to "integrate more sophisticated risk assessment and risk management practices" in the oil industry. Reviewing the literature of the offshore drilling industry indicates that most of the developed risk analysis methodologies do not fully and more importantly, systematically address the contribution of Human and Organizational Factors (HOFs) in accident causation. This is while results of a comprehensive study, from 1988 to 2005, of more than 600 well-documented major failures in offshore structures show that approximately 80% of those failures were due to HOFs. In addition, lack of safety culture, as an issue related to HOFs, have been identified as a common contributing cause of many accidents in this industry. This dissertation introduces an integrated risk analysis methodology to systematically assess the critical role of human and organizational factors in offshore drilling safety. The proposed methodology in this research focuses on a specific procedure called Negative Pressure Test (NPT), as the primary method to ascertain well integrity during offshore drilling, and analyzes the contributing causes of misinterpreting such a critical test. In addition, the case study of the BP Deepwater Horizon accident and their conducted NPT is discussed. The risk analysis methodology in this dissertation consists of three different approaches and their integration constitutes the big picture of my whole methodology. The first approach is the comparative analysis of a "standard" NPT, which is proposed by the author, with the test conducted by the DWH crew. This analysis contributes to identifying the involved discrepancies between the two test procedures. The second approach is a conceptual risk assessment framework to analyze the causal factors of the identified mismatches in the previous step, as the main contributors of negative pressure test

  15. A Risk Analysis Methodology to Address Human and Organizational Factors in Offshore Drilling Safety: With an Emphasis on Negative Pressure Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabibzadeh, Maryam

    According to the final Presidential National Commission report on the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, there is need to "integrate more sophisticated risk assessment and risk management practices" in the oil industry. Reviewing the literature of the offshore drilling industry indicates that most of the developed risk analysis methodologies do not fully and more importantly, systematically address the contribution of Human and Organizational Factors (HOFs) in accident causation. This is while results of a comprehensive study, from 1988 to 2005, of more than 600 well-documented major failures in offshore structures show that approximately 80% of those failures were due to HOFs. In addition, lack of safety culture, as an issue related to HOFs, have been identified as a common contributing cause of many accidents in this industry. This dissertation introduces an integrated risk analysis methodology to systematically assess the critical role of human and organizational factors in offshore drilling safety. The proposed methodology in this research focuses on a specific procedure called Negative Pressure Test (NPT), as the primary method to ascertain well integrity during offshore drilling, and analyzes the contributing causes of misinterpreting such a critical test. In addition, the case study of the BP Deepwater Horizon accident and their conducted NPT is discussed. The risk analysis methodology in this dissertation consists of three different approaches and their integration constitutes the big picture of my whole methodology. The first approach is the comparative analysis of a "standard" NPT, which is proposed by the author, with the test conducted by the DWH crew. This analysis contributes to identifying the involved discrepancies between the two test procedures. The second approach is a conceptual risk assessment framework to analyze the causal factors of the identified mismatches in the previous step, as the main contributors of negative pressure test

  16. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  17. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Faria-Schützer, Débora Bicudo; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani de Castro; Alves, Vera Lucia Pereira; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control. Methods and Findings Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1) The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2) The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3) The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4) The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant. Conclusions During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman. PMID:26529600

  18. Strengthening the safety net for online seniors: factors influencing differences in health information seeking among older internet users.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Sally J; Macias, Wendy

    2008-12-01

    Earlier studies clearly have shown that older adults are going online and accessing health information, but they are not a monolithic group. The goal of this study is to identify different types of older online Americans and to examine their online health information attitudes and behaviors. A total of 424 individuals age 55+ responded to an online survey. Three types of users were found based on demographic and computer-use factors: power users, well-to-do, and older men. Two types were found based on health attitudes and behaviors: health traditionalists and health technologists. The study found interesting relationships among these groups and also explored their use and evaluation of specific types of health-related websites and their motivations for going online. Suggestions are made for extending this research to other populations and further exploring the theoretical model of senior's online health interactions (SOHI) that drives the study. PMID:19051113

  19. Thermal reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport.

  20. Telotristat etiprate, a novel serotonin synthesis inhibitor, in patients with carcinoid syndrome and diarrhea not adequately controlled by octreotide.

    PubMed

    Kulke, Matthew H; O'Dorisio, Thomas; Phan, Alexandria; Bergsland, Emily; Law, Linda; Banks, Phillip; Freiman, Joel; Frazier, Kenny; Jackson, Jessica; Yao, James C; Kvols, Larry; Lapuerta, Pablo; Zambrowicz, Brian; Fleming, Douglas; Sands, Arthur

    2014-10-01

    Serotonin produced by neuroendocrine tumors is believed to be a principal cause of the diarrhea in carcinoid syndrome. We assessed the safety and efficacy of telotristat etiprate, an oral serotonin synthesis inhibitor, in patients with diarrhea associated with carcinoid syndrome. In this prospective, randomized study, patients with evidence of carcinoid tumor and ≥4 bowel movements (BMs)/day despite stable-dose octreotide LAR depot therapy were enrolled in sequential, escalating, cohorts of four patients per cohort. In each cohort, one patient was randomly assigned to placebo and three patients to telotristat etiprate, at 150, 250, 350, or 500 mg three times a day (tid). In a subsequent cohort, one patient was assigned to placebo and six patients to telotristat etiprate 500 mg tid. Patients were assessed for safety, BM frequency (daily diary), 24 h urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (u5-HIAA), and adequate relief of carcinoid gastrointestinal symptoms (using a weekly questionnaire). Twenty-three patients were treated: 18 received telotristat etiprate and five received placebo. Adverse events were generally mild. Among evaluable telotristat etiprate-treated patients, 5/18 (28%) experienced a ≥30% reduction in BM frequency for ≥2 weeks, 9/16 (56%) experienced biochemical response (≥50% reduction or normalization in 24-h u5-HIAA) at week 2 or 4, and 10/18 (56%) reported adequate relief during at least 1 of the first 4 weeks of treatment. Similar activity was not observed in placebo-treated patients. Telotristat etiprate was well tolerated. Our observations suggest that telotristat etiprate has activity in controlling diarrhea associated with carcinoid syndrome. Further studies confirming these findings are warranted. PMID:25012985

  1. Telotristat Etiprate, a Novel Serotonin Synthesis Inhibitor, in Patients with Carcinoid Syndrome and Diarrhea Not Adequately Controlled by Octreotide

    PubMed Central

    Kulke, Matthew H.; O’Dorisio, Thomas; Phan, Alexandria; Bergsland, Emily; Law, Linda; Banks, Phillip; Freiman, Joel; Frazier, Kenny; Jackson, Jessica; Yao, James C.; Kvols, Larry; Lapuerta, Pablo; Zambrowicz, Brian; Fleming, Douglas; Sands, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin produced by neuroendocrine tumors is believed to be a principal cause of the diarrhea in carcinoid syndrome. We assessed the safety and efficacy of telotristat etiprate, an oral serotonin synthesis inhibitor, in patients with diarrhea associated with carcinoid syndrome. In this prospective, randomized study, patients with evidence of carcinoid tumor and ≥4 bowel movements (BMs)/day despite stable-dose octreotide LAR depot therapy were enrolled in sequential, escalating, cohorts of 4 patients/cohort. In each cohort, 1 patient was randomly assigned to placebo and 3 patients to telotristat etiprate, at 150, 250, 350, or 500 mg 3x/day (tid). In a subsequent cohort, 1 patient was assigned to placebo and 6 patients to telotristat etiprate 500 mg tid. Patients were assessed for safety, BM frequency (daily diary), 24-hour urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (u5-HIAA), and adequate relief of carcinoid gastrointestinal symptoms (using a weekly questionnaire). Twenty-three patients were treated; 18 received telotristat etiprate and 5 received placebo. Adverse events were generally mild. Among evaluable telotristat etiprate-treated patients, 5/18 (28%) experienced a ≥30% reduction in BM frequency for ≥2 weeks, 9/16 (56%) experienced biochemical response (≥50% reduction or normalization in 24-hour u5-HIAA) at Week 2 or 4, and 10/18 (56%) reported adequate relief during at least 1 of the first 4 weeks of treatment. Similar activity was not observed in placebo-treated patients. Telotristat etiprate was well tolerated. Our observations suggest that telotristat etiprate has activity in controlling diarrhea associated with carcinoid syndrome. Further studies confirming these findings are warranted. PMID:25012985

  2. Safety and Efficacy of Prophylactic Amiodarone in Preventing Early Junctional Ectopic Tachycardia (JET) in Children After Cardiac Surgery and Determination of Its Risk Factor.

    PubMed

    Amrousy, Doaa El; Elshehaby, Walid; Feky, Wael El; Elshmaa, Nagat S

    2016-04-01

    Postoperative arrhythmia is a common complication after open heart surgery in children. JET is the most common and dangerous arrhythmia. We aimed to assess safety and efficacy of prophylactic amiodarone in preventing JET in children underwent cardiac surgery and to assess risk factors for JET among our patients. In total, 117 children who underwent cardiac surgery for CHD at Tanta University Hospital from October 2011 to April 2015 were divided in two groups; amiodarone group (65 patients) was given prophylactic amiodarone intraoperatively and placebo group (52 patients). Amiodarone is started as loading dose of 5 mg/kg IV in the operating room after induction of anesthesia and continued for 3 days as continuous infusion 10-15 μg/kg/min. Primary outcome and secondary outcomes of amiodarone administration were reported. We studied pre-, intra- and postoperative factors to determine risk factors for occurrence of JET among these children. Prophylactic amiodarone was found to significantly decrease incidence of postoperative JET from 28.9 % in placebo group to 9.2 % in amiodarone group, and symptomatic JET from 11.5 % in placebo group to 3.1 % in amiodarone group, and shorten postoperative intensive care unit and hospital stay without significant side effects. Risk factors for occurrence of JET were younger age, lower body weight, longer cardiopulmonary bypass, aortic cross-clamp time, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, acidosis and high dose of inotropes. JET was more associated with surgical repair of right ventricular outlet obstruction as in case of tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary stenosis. Most of JET 15/21 (71.4 %) occurred in the first day postoperatively, and 6/21 occurred in the second day (28.6 %). Prophylactic amiodarone is safe and effective in preventing early JET in children after open heart surgery. PMID:26818850

  3. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David J.; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6–12 (n = 1203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in comprehension. Results suggest that there is considerable growth across the middle and high school years, particularly for adequate comprehenders in those text integration processes that maintain local coherence. Accuracy in text consistency judgments accounted for significant unique variance for passage-level, but not sentence-level comprehension, particularly for adequate comprehenders. PMID:26166946

  4. Safety and efficacy of anti-tumor necrosis factors α in patients with psoriasis and chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Monica; Macaluso, Laura; Luci, Cecilia; Mattozzi, Carlo; Paolino, Giovanni; Aprea, Yvonne; Calvieri, Stefano; Richetta, Antonio Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Up to date, in literature, it is still debated the role of anti-tumor necrosis factors (TNF)-α treatments in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. TNF-α performs a lot of functions, it is an important pro-inflammatory cytokine and it is involved in the host’s immunity. Since TNF-α is implicated in the apoptotic signaling pathway of hepatocytes infected by HCV, anti TNF-α therapy may increase the risk of viral replication or their reactivation. However the treatment of anti TNF-α could have a healthful role because TNF-α appears to be engaged in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, inducing apoptotic pathways. We describe the case of a patient with plaque-type psoriasis and concomitant chronic HCV, who was treated successfully with anti-TNF agents simultaneously to cyclosporine without sign of reactivation of HCV and increase of liver enzymes. Our personal experience shows that anti-TNF-α agents are not only effective but also safe. Furthermore the combination therapy of cyclosporine and anti-TNF-α appears to be well-tolerated and able to reduce the amount of liver enzymes as well as HCV-viral-load. However systematic, large-scale studies with long follow-ups will be needed to confirm our results, in association with close liver function monitoring. PMID:26881191

  5. Summertime Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Violence & Safety Life Stages & Populations Travelers' Health Workplace Safety & Health Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Summertime Safety Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The feature ...

  6. Drug Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  7. Safety Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, James H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five articles in this issue focus on safety education in agricultural laboratories. Topics discussed include teacher liability; elements of a safety instruction program; state and federal safety standards; ground fault current protection; and eye protection requirements and equipment. (SK)

  8. A model for determining when an analysis contains sufficient detail to provide adequate NEPA coverage for a proposed action

    SciTech Connect

    Eccleston, C.H.

    1994-11-01

    Neither the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) nor its subsequent regulations provide substantive guidance for determining the Level of detail, discussion, and analysis that is sufficient to adequately cover a proposed action. Yet, decisionmakers are routinely confronted with the problem of making such determinations. Experience has shown that no two decisionmakers are Likely to completely agree on the amount of discussion that is sufficient to adequately cover a proposed action. one decisionmaker may determine that a certain Level of analysis is adequate, while another may conclude the exact opposite. Achieving a consensus within the agency and among the public can be problematic. Lacking definitive guidance, decisionmakers and critics alike may point to a universe of potential factors as the basis for defending their claim that an action is or is not adequately covered. Experience indicates that assertions are often based on ambiguous opinions that can be neither proved nor disproved. Lack of definitive guidance slows the decisionmaking process and can result in project delays. Furthermore, it can also Lead to inconsistencies in decisionmaking, inappropriate Levels of NEPA documentation, and increased risk of a project being challenged for inadequate coverage. A more systematic and less subjective approach for making such determinations is obviously needed. A paradigm for reducing the degree of subjectivity inherent in such decisions is presented in the following paper. The model is specifically designed to expedite the decisionmaking process by providing a systematic approach for making these determination. In many cases, agencies may find that using this model can reduce the analysis and size of NEPA documents.

  9. Pharmacokinetics and safety of a novel recombinant human von Willebrand factor manufactured with a plasma-free method: a prospective clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Kempton, Christine; Millar, Carolyn; Romond, Edward; Shapiro, Amy; Birschmann, Ingvild; Ragni, Margaret V.; Gill, Joan Cox; Yee, Thynn Thynn; Klamroth, Robert; Wong, Wing-Yen; Chapman, Miranda; Engl, Werner; Turecek, Peter L.; Suiter, Tobias M.

    2013-01-01

    Safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) of recombinant von Willebrand factor (rVWF) combined at a fixed ratio with recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) were investigated in 32 subjects with type 3 or severe type 1 von Willebrand disease (VWD) in a prospective phase 1, multicenter, randomized clinical trial. rVWF was well tolerated and no thrombotic events, inhibitors, or serious adverse events were observed. The PK of rVWF ristocetin cofactor activity, VWF antigen, and collagen-binding activity were similar to those of the comparator plasma-derived (pd) VWF-pdFVIII. In vivo cleavage of ultra-large molecular-weight rVWF multimers by ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13; the endogenous VWF protease) and generation of characteristic satellite bands were demonstrated. In 2 subjects with specific nonneutralizing anti-VWF–binding antibodies already detectable before rVWF infusion, a reduction in VWF multimers and VWF activity was observed. Stabilization of endogenous FVIII was enhanced following post–rVWF-rFVIII infusion as shown by the difference in area under the plasma concentration curve compared with pdVWF-pdFVIII (AUC0-∞) (P < .01). These data support the concept of administering rVWF alone once a therapeutic level of endogenous FVIII is achieved. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00816660. PMID:23777763

  10. Safety-factor profile tailoring by improved electron cyclotron system for sawtooth control and reverse shear scenarios in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Zucca, C.; Sauter, O.; Fable, E.; Henderson, M. A.; Polevoi, A.; Saibene, G.

    2008-11-01

    The effect of the predicted local electron cyclotron current driven by the optimized electron cyclotron system on ITER is discussed. A design variant was recently proposed to enlarge the physics program covered by the upper and equatorial launchers. By extending the functionality range of the upper launcher, significant control capabilities of the sawtooth period can be obtained. The upper launcher improvement still allows enough margin to exceed the requirements for neoclassical tearing mode stabilization, for which it was originally designed. The analysis of the sawtooth control is carried on with the ASTRA transport code, coupled with the threshold model by Por-celli, to study the control capabilities of the improved upper launcher on the sawtooth instability. The simulations take into account the significant stabilizing effect of the fusion alpha particles. The sawtooth period can be increased by a factor of 1.5 with co-ECCD outside the q = 1 surface, and decreased by at least 30% with co-ECCD inside q = 1. The present ITER base-line design has the electron cyclotron launchers providing only co-ECCD. The variant for the equatorial launcher proposes the possibility to drive counter-ECCD with 1 of the 3 rows of mirrors: the counter-ECCD can then be balanced with co-ECCD and provide pure ECH with no net driven current. The difference between full co-ECCD off-axis using all 20MW from the equatorial launcher and 20MW co-ECCD driven by 2/3 from the equatorial launcher and 1/3 from the upper launcher is shown to be negligible. Cnt-ECCD also offers greater control of the plasma current density, therefore this analysis addresses the performance of the equatorial launcher to control the central q profile. The equatorial launcher is shown to control very efficiently the value of q{sub 0.2}-q{sub min} in advanced scenarios, if one row provides counter-ECCD.

  11. ‘Tempos’ management in primary care: a key factor for classifying adverse events, and improving quality and safety

    PubMed Central

    Brami, J

    2012-01-01

    Background The role of time management in safe and efficient medicine is important but poorly incorporated into the taxonomies of error in primary care. This paper addresses the lack of time management, presenting a framework integrating five time scales termed ‘Tempos’ requiring parallel processing by GPs: the disease's tempo (unexpected rapid evolutions, slow reaction to treatment); the office's tempo (day-to-day agenda and interruptions); the patient's tempo (time to express symptoms, compliance, emotion); the system's tempo (time for appointments, exams, and feedback); and the time to access to knowledge. The art of medicine is to control all of these tempos in parallel and simultaneously. Method Two qualified physicians reviewed a sample of 1046 malpractice claims from one liability insurer to determine whether a medical injury had occurred and, if so, whether it was due to one or more tempo-related problems. 623 of these reports were analysed in greater detail to identify the prevalence and characteristics of claims and related time management errors. Results The percentages of contributing factors were as follows: disease tempo, 37.9%; office tempo, 13.2%; patient tempo, 13.8%; out-of-office coordination tempo, 22.6%; and GP's access to knowledge tempo, 33.2%. Conclusion Although not conceptualised in most error taxonomies, the disease and patient tempos are cornerstones in risk management in primary care. Traditional taxonomies describe events from an analytical perspective of care at the system level and offer opportunities to improve organisation, process, and evidence-based medicine. The suggested classification describes events in terms of (unsafe) dynamic control of parallel constraints from the carer's perspective, namely the GP, and offers improvement on how to self manage and coordinate different contradictory tempos and day-to-day activities. Further work is needed to test the validity and usefulness of this approach. PMID:22927486

  12. Safety climate and attitude as evaluation measures of organizational safety.

    PubMed

    Isla Díaz, R; Díaz Cabrera, D

    1997-09-01

    The main aim of this research is to develop a set of evaluation measures for safety attitudes and safety climate. Specifically it is intended: (a) to test the instruments; (b) to identify the essential dimensions of the safety climate in the airport ground handling companies; (c) to assess the quality of the differences in the safety climate for each company and its relation to the accident rate; (d) to analyse the relationship between attitudes and safety climate; and (e) to evaluate the influences of situational and personal factors on both safety climate and attitude. The study sample consisted of 166 subjects from three airport companies. Specifically, this research was centered on ground handling departments. The factor analysis of the safety climate instrument resulted in six factors which explained 69.8% of the total variance. We found significant differences in safety attitudes and climate in relation to type of enterprise. PMID:9316712

  13. Labor unions and safety climate: perceived union safety values and retail employee safety outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Robert R; Martin, James E; Sears, Lindsay E

    2010-09-01

    Although trade unions have long been recognized as a critical advocate for employee safety and health, safety climate research has not paid much attention to the role unions play in workplace safety. We proposed a multiple constituency model of workplace safety which focused on three central safety stakeholders: top management, ones' immediate supervisor, and the labor union. Safety climate research focuses on management and supervisors as key stakeholders, but has not considered whether employee perceptions about the priority their union places on safety contributes contribute to safety outcomes. We addressed this gap in the literature by investigating unionized retail employee (N=535) perceptions about the extent to which their top management, immediate supervisors, and union valued safety. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that perceived union safety values could be distinguished from measures of safety training, workplace hazards, top management safety values, and supervisor values. Structural equation analyses indicated that union safety values influenced safety outcomes through its association with higher safety motivation, showing a similar effect as that of supervisor safety values. These findings highlight the need for further attention to union-focused measures related to workplace safety as well as further study of retail employees in general. We discuss the practical implications of our findings and identify several directions for future safety research. PMID:20538104

  14. BAY 81-8973, a full-length recombinant factor VIII: Human heat shock protein 70 improves the manufacturing process without affecting clinical safety.

    PubMed

    Maas Enriquez, Monika; Thrift, John; Garger, Stephen; Katterle, Yvonne

    2016-11-01

    BAY 81-8973 is a full-length, unmodified recombinant human factor VIII (FVIII) approved for the treatment of hemophilia A. BAY 81-8973 has the same amino acid sequence as the currently marketed sucrose-formulated recombinant FVIII (rFVIII-FS) product and is produced using additional advanced manufacturing technologies. One of the key manufacturing advances for BAY 81-8973 is introduction of the gene for human heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) into the rFVIII-FS cell line. HSP70 facilitates proper folding of proteins, enhances cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis, and potentially impacts rFVIII glycosylation. HSP70 expression in the BAY 81-8973 cell line along with other manufacturing advances resulted in a higher-producing cell line and improvements in the pharmacokinetics of the final product as determined in clinical studies. HSP70 protein is not detected in the harvest or in the final BAY 81-8973 product. However, because this is a new process, clinical trial safety assessments included monitoring for anti-HSP70 antibodies. Most patients, across all age groups, had low levels of anti-HSP70 antibodies before exposure to the investigational product. During BAY 81-8973 treatment, 5% of patients had sporadic increases in anti-HSP70 antibody levels above a predefined threshold (cutoff value, 239 ng/mL). No clinical symptoms related to anti-HSP70 antibody development occurred. In conclusion, addition of HSP70 to the BAY 81-8973 cell line is an innovative technology for manufacturing rFVIII aimed at improving protein folding and expression. Improved pharmacokinetics and no effect on safety of BAY 81-8973 were observed in clinical trials in patients with hemophilia A. PMID:27436242

  15. CRITICALITY SAFETY POSTING GUIDELINES

    SciTech Connect

    JENSEN, M.A.

    2001-11-01

    This document provides a set of guidelines in the preparation of criticality safety postings. Guidance is provided in word choice, word arrangement, common human factors considerations. and use of color to highlight limits, cautions, and permissives.

  16. Efficacy and safety of nedaplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy for FIGO Stage IB2–IVA cervical cancer and its clinical prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Masateru; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Mabuchi, Seiji; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Seo, Yuji; Suzuki, Osamu; Sumida, Iori; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Kimura, Tadashi; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is a standard treatment for cervical cancer, but nedaplatin-based CCRT is not routinely administered. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of nedaplatin-based CCRT (35 mg/m2 weekly) and analyzed prognostic factors for survival among 52 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage IB2–IVA cervical cancer treated from 1999 to 2009. Patients were treated with a combination of external beam radiotherapy of 40–56 Gy (in 20–28 fractions) and 13.6–28.8 Gy (in 2–4 fractions) of high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy or 18 Gy (in 3 fractions) of HDR interstitial brachytherapy. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and local control (LC) were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. The Cox proportional hazard model was used for multivariate analysis. Acute and late toxicities were evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. The median follow-up period was 52 months. The median patient age was 63 years. The 5-year OS, PFS and LC rates were 78%, 57% and 73%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that histologic type, maximum tumor diameter, and pretreatment hemoglobin level were independent risk factors for PFS. Regarding adverse effects, 24 patients (46%) had acute Grade 3–4 leukopenia and 5 (10%) had late Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicities. No patient experienced renal toxicity. Nedaplatin-based CCRT for FIGO Stage IB2–IVA cervical cancer was efficacious and safe, with no renal toxicity. Histologic type, maximum tumor diameter, and pretreatment hemoglobin level were statistically significant prognostic factors for PFS. PMID:25428244

  17. Factors to consider in the use of stem cells for pharmaceutic drug development and for chemical safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Trosko, James Edward; Chang, Chia-Cheng

    2010-03-30

    Given the reality of the inadequacies of current concepts of the mechanisms of chemical toxicities, of the various assays to predict toxicities from current molecular, biochemical, in vitro and animal bioassays, and of the failure to generate efficacious and safe chemicals for medicines, food supplements, industrial, consumer and agricultural chemicals, the recent NAS Report, "Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy", has drawn attention to a renewed examination of what needs to be done to improve our current approach for better assessment of potential risk to human health. This "Commentary" provides a major paradigm challenge to the current concepts of how chemicals induce toxicities and how these various mechanisms of toxicities can contribute to the pathogenesis of some human diseases, such as birth defects and cancer. In concordance with the NAS Report to take "... advantage of the on-going revolution in biology and biotechnology", this "Commentary" supports the use of human embryonic and adult stem cells, grown in vitro under simulated "in vivo niche conditions". The human being should be viewed "as greater than the sum of its parts". Homeostatic control of the "emergent properties" of the human hierarchy, needed to maintain human health, requires complex integration of endogenous and exogenous signaling molecules that control cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and senescence of stem, progenitor and differentiated cells. Currently, in vitro toxicity assays (mutagenesis, cytotoxicity, epigenetic modulation), done on 2-dimensional primary rodent or human cells (which are always mixtures of cells), on immortalized or tumorigenic rodent or human cell lines do not represent normal human cells in vivo [which do not grow on plastic and which are in micro-environments representing 3 dimensions and constantly interacting factors]. In addition, with the known genetic, gender, and developmental state of cells in vivo, any in vitro

  18. Exploring the transferability of safety performance functions.

    PubMed

    Farid, Ahmed; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Jaeyoung; Eluru, Naveen; Wang, Jung-Han

    2016-09-01

    Safety performance functions (SPFs), by predicting the number of crashes on roadway facilities, have been a vital tool in the highway safety area. The SPFs are typically applied for identifying hot spots in network screening and evaluating the effectiveness of road safety countermeasures. The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) provides a series of SPFs for several crash types by various roadway facilities. The SPFs, provided in the HSM, were developed using data from multiple states. In regions without local jurisdiction based SPFs it is common practice to adopt national SPFs for crash prediction. There has been little research to examine the viability of such national level models for local jurisdictions. Towards understanding the influence of SPF transferability, we examine the rural divided multilane highway models from Florida, Ohio, and California. Traffic, roadway geometry and crash data from the three states are employed to estimate single-state SPFs, two-state SPFs and three-state SPFs. The SPFs are estimated using the negative binomial model formulation for several crash types and severities. To evaluate transferability of models, we estimate a transfer index that allows us to understand which models transfer adequately to other regions. The results indicate that models from Florida and California seem to be more transferable compared to models from Ohio. More importantly, we observe that the transfer index increases when we used pooled data (from two or three states). Finally, to assist in model transferability, we propose a Modified Empirical Bayes (MEB) measure that provides segment specific calibration factors for transferring SPFs to local jurisdictions. The proposed measure is shown to outperform the HSM calibration factor for transferring SPFs. PMID:27322637

  19. Barriers to help-seeking, detection, and adequate treatment for anxiety and mood disorders: implications for health care policy.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, David

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the focus of health policies and initiatives has been directed toward mental health. More precisely, depressive and anxiety disorders have received particular attention because of their disabling outcomes and prevalence among most populations. Despite this increased interest, numerous issues regarding patients' willingness to seek treatment and the adequate recognition and treatment of these disorders by clinicians remain to be addressed. This article considers the factors that influence patients and physicians in their reticence to acknowledge and adequately treat depression and anxiety disorders. It also reviews the impact of society and the media, together with other factors relating to health care organization and administration that affect the treatment of depression and anxiety. In view of the multifaceted challenge involved, efforts to achieve a consensus in determining treatment for those with depressive and anxiety disorders are essential. A consensus will require easy, measurable, and reliable disability indicators; evidence that treatment of patients with varying levels of need is cost effective; and that persons who most need and would benefit from care can be reliably identified among the highly prevalent population of persons with more transient symptoms. Governments and other policymakers should be encouraged to provide appropriate coverage for access to primary and secondary care, the treatments required, and sufficient resources so that care is available when necessary. An important aspect of the challenge is to incorporate these efforts within the realistic constraints of primary care. PMID:17288503

  20. CFD [computational fluid dynamics] And Safety Factors. Computer modeling of complex processes needs old-fashioned experiments to stay in touch with reality.

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Poirier, Michael R.; Steeper, Timothy J.; Ervin, Robert C.; Giddings, Billy J.; Stefanko, David B.; Harp, Keith D.; Fowley, Mark D.; Van Pelt, William B.

    2012-10-07

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is recognized as a powerful engineering tool. That is, CFD has advanced over the years to the point where it can now give us deep insight into the analysis of very complex processes. There is a danger, though, that an engineer can place too much confidence in a simulation. If a user is not careful, it is easy to believe that if you plug in the numbers, the answer comes out, and you are done. This assumption can lead to significant errors. As we discovered in the course of a study on behalf of the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina, CFD models fail to capture some of the large variations inherent in complex processes. These variations, or scatter, in experimental data emerge from physical tests and are inadequately captured or expressed by calculated mean values for a process. This anomaly between experiment and theory can lead to serious errors in engineering analysis and design unless a correction factor, or safety factor, is experimentally validated. For this study, blending times for the mixing of salt solutions in large storage tanks were the process of concern under investigation. This study focused on the blending processes needed to mix salt solutions to ensure homogeneity within waste tanks, where homogeneity is required to control radioactivity levels during subsequent processing. Two of the requirements for this task were to determine the minimum number of submerged, centrifugal pumps required to blend the salt mixtures in a full-scale tank in half a day or less, and to recommend reasonable blending times to achieve nearly homogeneous salt mixtures. A full-scale, low-flow pump with a total discharge flow rate of 500 to 800 gpm was recommended with two opposing 2.27-inch diameter nozzles. To make this recommendation, both experimental and CFD modeling were performed. Lab researchers found that, although CFD provided good estimates of an average blending time, experimental blending times varied

  1. Comparative limb bone loading in the humerus and femur of the tiger salamander: testing the 'mixed-chain' hypothesis for skeletal safety factors.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Sandy M; Economy, D Ross; Kennedy, Marian S; Dean, Delphine; Blob, Richard W

    2016-02-01

    Locomotion imposes some of the highest loads upon the skeleton, and diverse bone designs have evolved to withstand these demands. Excessive loads can fatally injure organisms; however, bones have a margin of extra protection, called a 'safety factor' (SF), to accommodate loads that are higher than normal. The extent to which SFs might vary amongst an animal's limb bones is unclear. If the limbs are likened to a chain composed of bones as 'links', then similar SFs might be expected for all limb bones because failure of the system would be determined by the weakest link, and extra protection in other links could waste energetic resources. However, Alexander proposed that a 'mixed-chain' of SFs might be found amongst bones if: (1) their energetic costs differ, (2) some elements face variable demands, or (3) SFs are generally high. To test whether such conditions contribute to diversity in limb bone SFs, we compared the biomechanical properties and locomotor loading of the humerus and femur in the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum). Despite high SFs in salamanders and similar sizes of the humerus and femur that would suggest similar energetic costs, the humerus had lower bone stresses, higher mechanical hardness and larger SFs. SFs were greatest in the anatomical regions where yield stresses were highest in the humerus and lowest in the femur. Such intraspecific variation between and within bones may relate to their different biomechanical functions, providing insight into the emergence of novel locomotor capabilities during the invasion of land by tetrapods. PMID:26596535

  2. Adenoviral-mediated gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor in critical limb ischemia: safety results from a phase I trial.

    PubMed

    Mohler, Emile R; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Olin, Jeffrey W; Trachtenberg, Jeffrey D; Rasmussen, Henrik; Pak, Raphael; Crystal, Ronald G

    2003-01-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is typified by rest pain and/or tissue necrosis secondary to advanced peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and is characterized by diminution in limb perfusion at rest. We tested the safety of an angiogenic strategy with CI-1023 (Ad(GV)VEGF121.10), a replication-deficient adenovirus encoding human vascular endothelial growth factor isoform 121 in patients with CLI as part of a phase I trial. Fifteen subjects >35 years of age with CLI and angiographic disease involving the infra-inguinal vessels underwent intramuscular injection of CI-1023 (4 x 10(8) to 4 x 10(10) particle units, n = 13) or placebo (n = 2). All of the patients tolerated the injection well and there were no serious complications related to the procedure. Transient edema was noted in one patient. A total of 79 adverse events were reported over the course of one year. One death (day 136) and one malignancy (day 332) occurred in the CI-1023 group. CI-1023 appears to be well tolerated and safe for single-dose administration in patients with critical limb ischemia due to PAD. Further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of this form of therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:12866606

  3. 43 CFR 3162.5-3 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety precautions. 3162.5-3 Section 3162... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.5-3 Safety precautions. The operator shall perform... necessary to provide adequate protection for the health and safety of life and the protection of...

  4. 43 CFR 3162.5-3 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety precautions. 3162.5-3 Section 3162... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.5-3 Safety precautions. The operator shall perform... necessary to provide adequate protection for the health and safety of life and the protection of...

  5. 43 CFR 3162.5-3 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety precautions. 3162.5-3 Section 3162... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.5-3 Safety precautions. The operator shall perform... necessary to provide adequate protection for the health and safety of life and the protection of...

  6. 43 CFR 3162.5-3 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety precautions. 3162.5-3 Section 3162... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.5-3 Safety precautions. The operator shall perform... necessary to provide adequate protection for the health and safety of life and the protection of...

  7. Safety Second: the NRC and America's nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Adato, M.; MacKenzie, J.; Pollard, R.; Weiss, E.

    1987-01-01

    In 1975, Congress created the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Its primary responsibility was to be the regulation of the nuclear power industry in order to maintain public health and safety. On March 28, 1979, in the worst commercial nuclear accident in US history, the plant at Three Mile Island began to leak radioactive material. How was Three Mile Island possible. Where was the NRC. This analysis by the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) of the NRC's first decade, points specifically to the factors that contributed to the accident at Three Mile Island. The NRC, created as a watchdog of the nuclear power industry, suffers from problems of mindset, says the UCS. The commission's problems are political, not technical; it repeatedly ranks special interests above the interest of public safety. This book critiques the NRC's performance in four specific areas. It charges that the agency has avoided tackling the most pervasive safety issues; has limited public participation in decision making and power plant licensing; has failed to enforce safety standards or conduct adequate regulation investigations; and, finally, has maintained a fraternal relationship with the industry it was created to regulate, serving as its advocate rather than it adversary. The final chapter offers recommendations for agency improvement that must be met if the NRC is to fulfill its responsibility for safety first.

  8. A method for determining adequate resistance form of complete cast crown preparations.

    PubMed

    Weed, R M; Baez, R J

    1984-09-01

    A diagram with various degrees of occlusal convergence, which takes into consideration the length and diameter of complete crown preparations, was designed as a guide to assist the dentist to obtain adequate resistance form. To test the validity of the diagram, five groups of complete cast crown stainless steel dies were prepared (3.5 mm long, occlusal convergence 10, 13, 16, 19, and 22 degrees). Gold copings were cast for each of the 50 preparations. Displacement force was applied to the casting perpendicularly to a simulated 30-degree cuspal incline until the casting was displaced. Castings were deformed at margins except for the 22-degree group. Castings from this group were displaced without deformation, and it was concluded that there was a lack of adequate resistance form as predicted by the diagram. The hypothesis that the diagram could be used to predict adequate or inadequate resistance form was confirmed by this study. PMID:6384470

  9. Impact of the World Health Organization's Surgical Safety Checklist on safety culture in the operating theatre: a controlled intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Haugen, A. S.; Søfteland, E.; Eide, G. E.; Sevdalis, N.; Vincent, C. A.; Nortvedt, M. W.; Harthug, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Positive changes in safety culture have been hypothesized to be one of the mechanisms behind the reduction in mortality and morbidity after the introduction of the World Health Organization's Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC). We aimed to study the checklist effects on safety culture perceptions in operating theatre personnel using a prospective controlled intervention design at a single Norwegian university hospital. Methods We conducted a study with pre- and post-intervention surveys using the intervention and control groups. The primary outcome was the effects of the Norwegian version of the SSC on safety culture perceptions. Safety culture was measured using the validated Norwegian version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Descriptive characteristics of operating theatre personnel and checklist compliance data were also recorded. A mixed linear regression model was used to assess changes in safety culture. Results The response rate was 61% (349/575) at baseline and 51% (292/569) post-intervention. Checklist compliance ranged from 77% to 85%. We found significant positive changes in the checklist intervention group for the culture factors ‘frequency of events reported’ and ‘adequate staffing’ with regression coefficients at −0.25 [95% confidence interval (CI), −0.47 to −0.07] and 0.21 (95% CI, 0.07–0.35), respectively. Overall, the intervention group reported significantly more positive culture scores—including at baseline. Conclusions Implementation of the SSC had rather limited impact on the safety culture within this hospital. PMID:23404986

  10. Comparison of four standards for determining adequate water intake of nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Phyllis M

    2011-01-01

    Adequate hydration for nursing home residents is problematic. The purpose of this study was to compare four standards used to determine a recommended water intake among nursing home residents. Inconsistencies in the amount of water intake recommended based on the standards compared were identified. The standard based on height and weight provides the most individualized recommendation. An individualized recommendation would facilitate goal setting for the care plan of each older person and assist in the prevention of dehydration. It is essential that a cost-effective and clinically feasible approach to determine adequate water intake be determined for this population to prevent the adverse outcomes associated with dehydration. PMID:21469538

  11. Efficacy and safety of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of advanced thyroid cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Yimaer, Wufuer; Abudouyimu, Aizizi; Tian, Ye; Magaoweiya, Sailike; Bagedati, Duman; Wen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Background We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the efficacy and safety of the US Food and Drug Administration approved vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFR-TKIs) in the treatment of advanced thyroid cancer. Patients and methods We included prospective randomized controlled trials that compared VEGFR-TKIs with placebo for advanced thyroid cancer. The endpoints included safety (fatal adverse events [FAEs], treatment discontinuation, and any severe [grade 3 or 4] adverse events [AEs]) and efficacy (objective response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival). The pooled relative risk (RR) or hazard ratio (HR) was calculated by using either random-effects or fixed-effects models according to the heterogeneity of included studies. Results A total of 1,614 advanced thyroid cancer patients from five randomized controlled trials were identified for analysis. Compared with placebo alone, VEGFR-TKIs significantly increased the risk of treatment discontinuation (RR: 3.80, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.56–5.65, P<0.001) and any severe AEs (RR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.72–4.03, P<0.001), but not of FAEs (RR: 1.24, 95% CI: 0.65–2.39, P=0.52). The use of VEGFR-TKIs in advanced thyroid cancer was associated with a significant improvement in objective response rate (RR: 8.73, 95% CI: 1.72–44.4, P=0.009) and progression-free survival (HR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.27–0.61, P<0.001), with a tendency to improve overall survival (HR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.68–1.01, P=0.06). Conclusion The use of small-molecule VEGFR-TKIs in advanced thyroid cancer did significantly increase the risk of treatment discontinuation and any severe AEs, but not of FAEs, compared with placebo alone. It is important for physicians to weigh the risk of toxicities as well as the potential survival benefits associated with VEGFR-TKI treatment in advanced thyroid cancer patients. PMID:27022276

  12. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  13. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  14. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  15. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  16. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  17. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  18. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  19. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  20. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Adequate Yearly Progress among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…

  1. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared. PMID:16315443

  2. Calculating and Reducing Errors Associated with the Evaluation of Adequate Yearly Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Richard

    In the Spring, 1996, issue of "CRESST Line," E. Baker and R. Linn commented that, in efforts to measure the progress of schools, "the fluctuations due to differences in the students themselves could conceal differences in instructional effects." This is particularly true in the context of the evaluation of adequate yearly progress required by…

  3. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  4. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  5. 75 FR 5893 - Suspension of Community Eligibility for Failure To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no policies that have ] federalism....C. 4001 et seq., Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management Regulations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management...

  6. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provide for a variable rate of interest. For purposes of the adequate interest test under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, if a section 467 rental agreement provides for variable interest, the rental... date as the issue date) for the variable rates called for by the rental agreement. For purposes of...

  7. The Unequal Effect of Adequate Yearly Progress: Evidence from School Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abigail B.; Clift, Jack W.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report insights, based on annual site visits to elementary and middle schools in three states from 2004 to 2006, into the incentive effect of the No Child Left Behind Act's requirement that increasing percentages of students make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in every public school. They develop a framework, drawing on the physics…

  8. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  9. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  10. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to failure to…

  11. A Model for Touch Technique and Computation of Adequate Cane Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plain-Switzer, Karen

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a model for the motion of a long-cane executing the touch technique and presents formulas for the projected length of a cane adequate to protect an individual with blindness against wall-type and pole-type hazards. The paper concludes that the long-cane should reach from the floor to the user's armpit. (JDD)

  12. Towards Defining Adequate Lithium Trials for Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Use of lithium with mentally retarded individuals with psychiatric conditions and/or behavior disturbances is discussed. The paper describes components of an adequate clinical trial and reviews case studies and double-blind cases. The paper concludes that aggression is the best indicator for lithium use, and reviews treatment parameters and…

  13. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4) Guidance to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  14. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  15. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  16. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  17. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4) Guidance to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  18. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  19. Special or Not so Special: Special Education Background Experiences of Principals and Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-methods study researched the special education background experience of principals and the effect on students in the subgroup of Students with Disabilities in making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). In the state of Ohio, schools and districts are expected to make AYP as a whole and additionally make AYP for each subgroup (various…

  20. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6-12 (n = 1,203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in…

  1. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with the State's requirements for availability of services, as set forth in § 438.206. (e) CMS' right... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and Performance... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services....

  2. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) Offers an appropriate range of preventive, primary care, and specialty services that is adequate for the anticipated number of enrollees for the service area. (2) Maintains a network of providers... enrollment in its service area in accordance with the State's standards for access to care under this...

  3. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) Offers an appropriate range of preventive, primary care, and specialty services that is adequate for the anticipated number of enrollees for the service area. (2) Maintains a network of providers... enrollment in its service area in accordance with the State's standards for access to care under this...

  4. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) Offers an appropriate range of preventive, primary care, and specialty services that is adequate for the anticipated number of enrollees for the service area. (2) Maintains a network of providers... enrollment in its service area in accordance with the State's standards for access to care under this...

  5. Effect of tranquilizers on animal resistance to the adequate stimuli of the vestibular apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maksimovich, Y. B.; Khinchikashvili, N. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of tranquilizers on vestibulospinal reflexes and motor activity was studied in 900 centrifuged albino mice. Actometric studies have shown that the tranquilizers have a group capacity for increasing animal resistance to the action of adequate stimuli to the vestibular apparatus.

  6. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conducting clinical investigations of a drug is to distinguish the effect of a drug from other influences... recognized by the scientific community as the essentials of an adequate and well-controlled clinical... randomization and blinding of patients or investigators, or both. If the intent of the trial is to...

  7. Final 2004 Report on Adequate Yearly Progress in the Montgomery County Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jose W.

    2005-01-01

    The vast majority of Montgomery County public schools made sufficient progress on state testing and accountability standards in 2004 to comply with the adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements under the "No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001." Information released by the Maryland State Department of Education (MSDE) in October 2004 shows that…

  8. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  9. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  10. Estimates of Adequate School Spending by State Based on National Average Service Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Jerry

    1983-01-01

    Proposes a method for estimating expenditures per student needed to provide educational adequacy in each state. Illustrates the method using U.S., Arkansas, New York, Texas, and Washington State data, covering instruction, special needs, operations and maintenance, administration, and other costs. Estimates ratios of "adequate" to actual spending…

  11. Leadership Style and Adequate Yearly Progress: A Correlational Study of Effective Principal Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leapley-Portscheller, Claudia Iris

    2008-01-01

    Principals are responsible for leading efforts to reach increasingly higher levels of student academic proficiency in schools associated with adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements. The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to identify the degree to which perceptions of principal transformational, transactional, and…

  12. Percentage of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels Are Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels are Adequately Controlled High cholesterol can double a ... with High Cholesterol that is Controlled by Education Level 8k4c-k22f Download these data » Click on legends ...

  13. 42 CFR 413.24 - Adequate cost data and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adequate cost data and cost finding. 413.24 Section 413.24 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY...

  14. Principals' Perceptions of Effective Strategies in Meeting Adequate Yearly Progress in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jadie K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of principals who have met Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) with the special education subgroup. This was a qualitative study, utilizing interviews to answer the research questions. The first three research questions analyzed the areas of assessment, building-level leadership, and curriculum…

  15. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The ...

  16. Evaluating Rural Progress in Mathematics Achievement: Threats to the Validity of "Adequate Yearly Progress"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung

    2003-01-01

    This article examines major threats to the validity of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in the context of rural schools. Although rural students and their schools made significant academic progress in the past on national and state assessments, the current goal of AYP turns out to be highly unrealistic for them unless states set far lower…

  17. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION...

  18. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION...

  19. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION...

  20. What Is the Cost of an Adequate Vermont High School Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, Frank D.

    2010-01-01

    Access to an adequate education has been widely considered an undeniable right since Chief Justice Warren stated in his landmark decision that "Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments...it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an…

  1. Vaccine Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  2. Safety and Efficacy of Trastuzumab Emtansine in Advanced Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Breast Cancer: a Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kai; Ma, Xuelei; Zhu, Chenjing; Wu, Xin; Jia, Hongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Advanced or metastatic breast cancer is an incurable disease with high mortality rate worldwide and about 20% of breast cancers overexpress and amplify the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Achievements in targeted therapy have benefited people during the past decades. Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), a novel antibody-drug conjugate playing a powerful role in anti-tumor activity, not only blocks the HER2 signaling pathways, but also disturbs the microtubule dynamics. To access the efficacy and safety of T-DM1, we analyzed 9 clinical trials on T-DM1. Results showed that fatigue (0.604, 95% CI 0.551, 0.654), nausea (0.450, 95% CI 0.365, 0.537), increased transaminases (0.425, 95% CI 0.353, 0.500) and thrombocytopenia (0.383, 95% CI 0.322, 0.448) occurred more frequently in participants with single T-DM1. In controlled trials, increased transaminases (OR = 4.040, 95% CI 1.429, 11.427), thrombocytopenia (OR = 8.500, 95% CI 3.964, 18.226) and fatigue (OR = 1.288, 95% CI 1.041, 1.593) were statistically significant. Only thrombocytopenia appeared as severe adverse event (grade ≥ 3) in single-arm and control-arm studies. Meanwhile, T-DM1 stabilized cancer and prolonged life with notable improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In conclusion, it is a safe and effective agent in advanced or metastatic breast cancer, but should be carefully applied on patients with severe hepatic and neurological disease. PMID:26979925

  3. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of recombinant factor VIII (REFACTO) in patients with haemophilia A: interim data from a postmarketing surveillance study in Germany and Austria.

    PubMed

    Pollmann, H; Externest, D; Ganser, A; Eifrig, B; Kreuz, W; Lenk, H; Pabinger, I; Schramm, W; Schwarz, T F; Zimmermann, R; Zavazava, N; Oldenburg, J; Klamroth, R

    2007-03-01

    An open-label, multicentre, postmarketing surveillance study conducted in Germany and Austria with recombinant factor VIII (REFACTO) has enrolled 217 patients (mean age 26.3 years) from 38 haemophilia centres during the first 4.8 years. Most patients (188/217; 86.6%) had severe to moderately severe haemophilia A, of whom 153 completed sufficient diary information for the main efficacy analysis. These 153 patients experienced a median of 6.6 (interquartile range 1.4-18.6) bleeding episodes per year. Patients treated with prophylaxis experienced a median of 4.4 (1.1-9.3) bleeds per year, while patients treated on-demand experienced a median of 22.8 (11.3-29.0) bleeds per year. Overall, most physicians (41/43 [95.3%]) were 'very satisfied' or 'satisfied' with the efficacy of REFACTO in the treatment of bleeding episodes. A total of 137 non-serious adverse events have been reported in 52/217 patients (24.0%) to date. In addition, 129 serious adverse events in 87 patients (40%) were reported, including 41 cases of 'less than expected therapeutic effect' (LETE). Of these, 39 LETE cases were reported in one centre; however, patients in this centre experienced considerably fewer bleeding episodes per year than patients outside this centre. Overall, six patients (2.8%) have developed de novo inhibitors, three of which were considered high titre. Four of these patients were at high risk (0-50 exposure days [ED]) of inhibitor formation, one was at intermediate risk (51-100 ED) and one was at low risk (>100 ED). These results emphasize the benefit of postmarketing surveillance and, overall, this study confirms the efficacy, safety and tolerability of REFACTO in the treatment of patients with haemophilia A. PMID:17286765

  4. Efficacy, safety and administration timing of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive breast cancer patients: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, YUAN-YUAN; WANG, LIN-WEI; CHEN, FANG-FANG; WU, BI-BO; XIONG, BIN

    2016-01-01

    Trastuzumab has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) positive breast cancer (BC); however, inconsistent results with regards to the long-term survival benefits, safety and optimal administration timing of trastuzumab exist. The present meta-analysis investigated these inconsistencies in patients with HER-2 positive BC that received adjuvant or neoadjuvant trastuzumab. Computerized and manual searches were used to identify eligible randomized control trials (RCTs) to include in the analysis. Based on a fixed or random effects model, hazard and risk ratios were calculated and used to assess the survival advantages and risks of trastuzumab. A total of 14,546 patients from 13 RCTs were included in the analysis; 9 RCTs used an adjuvant setting and 4 RCTs used a neoadjuvant setting. Analysis of RCTs with an adjuvant setting demonstrated that treatment with trastuzumab and chemotherapy in patients with HER-2 positive BC, in comparison with patients receiving chemotherapy alone, improved disease-free survival, overall survival and overall response. However, a higher incidence of neutropenia (P<0.0001), leukopenia (P<0.0001), diarrhea (P=0.002), skin/nail change (P=0.02), left ventricular ejection fraction reduction (P=0.007) and congestive heart failure (P<0.00001) was observed. Notably, the incidence of mortality and cardiac toxicity following concurrent and weekly use of trastuzumab was significantly lower compared to treatment with trastuzumab sequentially and every 3 weeks, respectively. Additionally, trastuzumab improved the pathologic complete response with no additional toxicity in the neoadjuvant setting. The present meta-analysis summarizes that trastuzumab is efficacious in patients with HER-2 positive BC in adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings. Thus, concurrent and weekly administration of trastuzumab is preferable to treatment with trastuzumab sequentially and every 3 weeks. These findings

  5. Safety and Efficacy of Trastuzumab Emtansine in Advanced Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2–Positive Breast Cancer: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Kai; Ma, Xuelei; Zhu, Chenjing; Wu, Xin; Jia, Hongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Advanced or metastatic breast cancer is an incurable disease with high mortality rate worldwide and about 20% of breast cancers overexpress and amplify the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Achievements in targeted therapy have benefited people during the past decades. Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), a novel antibody-drug conjugate playing a powerful role in anti-tumor activity, not only blocks the HER2 signaling pathways, but also disturbs the microtubule dynamics. To access the efficacy and safety of T-DM1, we analyzed 9 clinical trials on T-DM1. Results showed that fatigue (0.604, 95% CI 0.551, 0.654), nausea (0.450, 95% CI 0.365, 0.537), increased transaminases (0.425, 95% CI 0.353, 0.500) and thrombocytopenia (0.383, 95% CI 0.322, 0.448) occurred more frequently in participants with single T-DM1. In controlled trials, increased transaminases (OR = 4.040, 95% CI 1.429, 11.427), thrombocytopenia (OR = 8.500, 95% CI 3.964, 18.226) and fatigue (OR = 1.288, 95% CI 1.041, 1.593) were statistically significant. Only thrombocytopenia appeared as severe adverse event (grade ≥ 3) in single-arm and control-arm studies. Meanwhile, T-DM1 stabilized cancer and prolonged life with notable improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In conclusion, it is a safe and effective agent in advanced or metastatic breast cancer, but should be carefully applied on patients with severe hepatic and neurological disease. PMID:26979925

  6. Correction of murine hemophilia A following nonmyeloablative transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells engineered to encode an enhanced human factor VIII variant using a safety-augmented retroviral vector

    PubMed Central

    Ramezani, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Insertional mutagenesis by retroviral vectors is a major impediment to the clinical application of hematopoietic stem cell gene transfer for the treatment of hematologic disorders. We recently developed an insulated self-inactivating gammaretroviral vector, RMSinOFB, which uses a novel enhancer-blocking element that significantly decreases genotoxicity of retroviral integration. In this study, we used the RMSinOFB vector to evaluate the efficacy of a newly bioengineered factor VIII (fVIII) variant (efVIII)—containing a combination of A1 domain point mutations (L303E/F309S) and an extended partial B domain for improved secretion plus A2 domain mutations (R484A/R489A/P492A) for reduced immunogenicity—toward successful treatment of murine hemophilia A. In cell lines, efVIII was secreted at up to 6-fold higher levels than an L303E/F309S A1 domain–only fVIII variant (sfVIIIΔB). Most important, when compared with a conventional gammaretroviral vector expressing sfVIIIΔB, lower doses of RMSin-efVIII-OFB–transduced hematopoietic stem cells were needed to generate comparable curative fVIII levels in hemophilia A BALB/c mice after reduced-intensity total body irradiation or nonmyeloablative chemotherapy conditioning regimens. These data suggest that the safety-augmented RMSin-efVIII-OFB platform represents an encouraging step in the development of a clinically appropriate gene addition therapy for hemophilia A. PMID:19470695

  7. Physics-model-based nonlinear actuator trajectory optimization and safety factor profile feedback control for advanced scenario development in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, J. E.; Boyer, M. D.; Shi, W.; Wehner, W. P.; Schuster, E.; Ferron, J. R.; Walker, M. L.; Humphreys, D. A.; Luce, T. C.; Turco, F.; Penaflor, B. G.; Johnson, R. D.

    2015-09-01

    DIII-D experimental results are reported to demonstrate the potential of physics-model-based safety factor profile control for robust and reproducible sustainment of advanced scenarios. In the absence of feedback control, variability in wall conditions and plasma impurities, as well as drifts due to external disturbances, can limit the reproducibility of discharges with simple pre-programmed scenario trajectories. The control architecture utilized is a feedforward + feedback scheme where the feedforward commands are computed off-line and the feedback commands are computed on-line. In this work, a first-principles-driven (FPD), physics-based model of the q profile and normalized beta ({β\\text{N}} ) dynamics is first embedded into a numerical optimization algorithm to design feedforward actuator trajectories that steer the plasma through the tokamak operating space to reach a desired stationary target state that is characterized by the achieved q profile and {β\\text{N}} . Good agreement between experimental results and simulations demonstrates the accuracy of the models employed for physics-model-based control design. Second, a feedback algorithm for q profile control is designed following an FPD approach, and the ability of the controller to achieve and maintain a target q profile evolution is tested in DIII-D high confinement (H-mode) experiments. The controller is shown to be able to effectively control the q profile when {β\\text{N}} is relatively close to the target, indicating the need for integrated q profile and {β\\text{N}} control to further enhance the ability to achieve robust scenario execution. The ability of an integrated q profile + {β\\text{N}} feedback controller to track a desired target is demonstrated through simulation.

  8. Efficacy and safety of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor application for the treatment of malignant pleural effusion caused by lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Sun, Wenkui; Yuan, Dongmei; Lv, Tangfeng; Yin, Jie; Cao, Ehong; Xiao, Xinwu; Song, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) signifies a poor prognosis for patients with lung cancer. For treating physicians, the primary goals are to achieve sufficient control of MPE and minimize invasive intervention. Recombinant human mutant tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rhu-TNF) has been used in the treatment of MPE. The aim of our research was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rhu-TNF application via ultrasound-guided chest tube for the treatment of MPE. rhu-TNF was administered as a single dose to 102 patients with MPE caused by lung cancer, and dexamethasone (Dxm, 5 mg) was administered 30 minutes before rhu-TNF in 35 randomly selected patients in order test its ability to prevent side effects. The primary endpoint was the efficacy of the rhu-TNF treatment (disease response rate) and side effects (pain, fever, and flu-like symptoms), evaluated four weeks after instillation. The disease response rate of rhu-TNF treatment was 81.37%. Side effects included 13 (12.75%) patients complaining of flu-like symptoms, 15 (14.71%) with fever/chill, and 14 (13.73%) with chest pain. A significantly higher efficacy was observed for treatment with 3 MU versus 2 MU of rhu-TNF (P = 0.036), while the adverse effects were similar. There was no significant association between the dose of rhu-TNF and progression-free survival (P = 0.752). In conclusion, our study shows that intra-pleural instillation of rhu-TNF achieves sufficient control of MPE and minimizes invasive intervention. PMID:26816548

  9. Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Safety policies, procedures, and related information are presented in this manual to assist school personnel in a continuing program of accident prevention. Chapter 1 discusses safety education and accident prevention in general. Chapter 2 covers traffic regulations relating to school safety patrols, school bus transportation, bicycles, and…

  10. Minimally adequate mental health care and latent classes of PTSD symptoms in female Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

    PubMed

    Hebenstreit, Claire L; Madden, Erin; Koo, Kelly H; Maguen, Shira

    2015-11-30

    Female veterans of Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom, and Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) represent a growing segment of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care users. A retrospective analysis used national VA medical records to identify factors associated with female OEF/OIF/OND veterans' completion of minimally adequate care (MAC) for PTSD, defined as the completion of at least nine mental health outpatient visits within a 15-week period or at least twelve consecutive weeks of medication use. The sample included female OEF/OIF/OND veterans with PTSD who initiated VA health care between 2007-2013, and were seen in outpatient mental health (N=2183). Multivariable logistic regression models examined factors associated with completing MAC for PTSD, including PTSD symptom expression (represented by latent class analysis), sociodemographic, military, clinical, and VA access factors. Within one year of initiating mental health care, 48.3% of female veterans completed MAC. Race/ethnicity, age, PTSD symptom class, additional psychiatric diagnoses, and VA primary care use were significantly associated with completion of MAC for PTSD. Results suggest that veterans presenting for PTSD treatment should be comprehensively evaluated to identify factors associated with inadequate completion of care. Treatments that are tailored to PTSD symptom class may help to address potential barriers. PMID:26330305

  11. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-02-11

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser safety audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe use of Lasers references this requirement in several sections: (1) Section 1.3.2 LSO Specific Responsibilities states under Hazard Evaluation, ''The LSO shall be responsible for hazards evaluation of laser work areas''; (2) Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''; and (3) Appendix D, under Survey and Inspections, it states, ''the LSO will survey by inspection, as considered necessary, all areas where laser equipment is used''. Therefore, for facilities using Class 3B and or Class 4 lasers, audits for laser safety compliance are expected to be conducted. The composition, frequency and rigueur of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms. In many institutions, a sole Laser Safety Officer (LSO) or a number of Deputy LSO's perform these audits. For that matter, there are institutions that request users to perform a self-assessment audit. Many items on the common audit list and the associated findings are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the LSO or auditor in particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage is an example; to one set of eyes a particular arrangement might be completely adequate, while to another the installation may be inadequate. In order to provide more consistency, the National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (NIF-LLNL) has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. These criteria are distributed to laser users, and they serve two broad purposes: first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor, and second, it is an

  12. IMPORTANCE OF SAFETY CULTURE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Spitalnik, J.

    2004-10-06

    Safety Management has lately been considered by some Nuclear Regulatory agencies as the tool on which to concentrate their efforts to implement modern regulation structures, because Safety Culture was said to be difficult to monitor. However, Safety Culture can be assessed and monitored even if it is problematical to make Safety Culture the object of regulation. This paper stresses the feasibility and importance of Safety Culture Assessment based on self-assessment applications performed in several nuclear organizations in Latin America. Reasons and ownership for assessing Safety Culture are discussed, and relevant aspects considered for setting up and programming such an assessment are shown. Basic principles that were taken into account, as well as financial and human resources used in actual self-assessments are reviewed, including the importance of adequate statistical analyses and the necessity of proper feed-back of results. The setting up of action plans to enhance Safety Culture is the final step of the assessment program that once implemented will enable to establish a Safety Culture monitoring process within the organization.

  13. The concept of adequate causation and Max Weber's comparative sociology of religion.

    PubMed

    Buss, A

    1999-06-01

    Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, studied in isolation, shows mainly an elective affinity or an adequacy on the level of meaning between the Protestant ethic and the 'spirit' of capitalism. Here it is suggested that Weber's subsequent essays on 'The Economic Ethics of World Religions' are the result of his opinion that adequacy on the level of meaning needs and can be verified by causal adequacy. After some introductory remarks, particularly on elective affinity, the paper tries to develop the concept of adequate causation and the related concept of objective possibility on the basis of the work of v. Kries on whom Weber heavily relied. In the second part, this concept is used to show how the study of the economic ethics of India, China, Rome and orthodox Russia can support the thesis that the 'spirit' of capitalism, although it may not have been caused by the Protestant ethic, was perhaps adequately caused by it. PMID:15260028

  14. Organizational culture, safety culture, and safety performance at research facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, William S.

    2000-07-30

    Organizational culture surveys of research facilities conducted several years ago and archival occupational injury reports were used to determine whether differences in safety performance are related to general organizational factors or to ''safety culture'' as reflected in specific safety-related dimensions. From among the organizations surveyed, a pair of facilities was chosen that were similar in size and scientific mission while differing on indices of work-related injuries. There were reliable differences in organizational style between the facilities, especially among workers in environment, safety, and health functions; differences between the facilities (and among job categories) on the safety scale were more modest and less regular.

  15. A novel strategy to overcome resistance in stent placement at lesion site after adequate predilatation.

    PubMed

    Jain, D; Tolg, R; Katus, H A; Richardt, G

    2000-12-01

    Resistance was encountered in passing a 3 x 18 mm stent across a lesion in the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery. Successive changes in stent with repeated balloon dilatations did not succeed. Finally, a 9 mm stent was passed across the lesion and deployed at the site of maximal resistance. The 18 mm stent was then placed through this stent. A novel strategy to overcome resistance in the stent passage through the lesion after an adequate balloon predilatation is reported. PMID:11103034

  16. Myth 19: Is Advanced Placement an Adequate Program for Gifted Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Shelagh A.

    2009-01-01

    Is it a myth that Advanced Placement (AP) is an adequate program for gifted students? AP is so covered with myths and assumptions that it is hard to get a clear view of the issues. In this article, the author finds the answer about AP by looking at current realties. First, AP is hard for gifted students to avoid. Second, AP never was a program…

  17. Safety in Children's Formal Play Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Paul F.; Lockhart, Robert

    This study was designed to examine the issue of the safety of children's formal play environments. Safety was defined in terms of morbidity and mortality data. Protection and safety education were considered the prime factors in accident prevention while the goal of a safety program was considered to be the minimizing of injuries. Several data…

  18. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  19. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  20. Self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction differences in women with adequate and inadequate prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Higgins, P; Murray, M L; Williams, E M

    1994-03-01

    This descriptive, retrospective study examined levels of self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction with prenatal care in 193 low-risk postpartal women who obtained adequate and inadequate care. The participants were drawn from a regional medical center and university teaching hospital in New Mexico. A demographic questionnaire, the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory, the personal resource questionnaire part 2, and the prenatal care satisfaction inventory were used for data collection. Significant differences were found in the level of education, income, insurance, and ethnicity between women who received adequate prenatal care and those who received inadequate care. Women who were likely to seek either adequate or inadequate prenatal care were those whose total family income was $10,000 to $19,999 per year and high school graduates. Statistically significant differences were found in self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction between the two groups of women. Strategies to enhance self-esteem and social support have to be developed to reach women at risk for receiving inadequate prenatal care. PMID:8155221

  1. National Safety Council

    MedlinePlus

    ... Introduction Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Journey to Safety Excellence Join the ... Safety Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Journey to Safety Excellence Join the ...

  2. Physics-based control-oriented modeling and robust feedback control of the plasma safety factor profile and stored energy dynamics in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Justin E.; Besseghir, Karim; Lister, Jo; Schuster, Eugenio

    2015-11-01

    Many challenging plasma control problems still need to be addressed in order for the ITER plasma control system (PCS) to be able to maintain the plasma within a predefined operational space and optimize the plasma state evolution in the tokamak, which will greatly aid in the successful achievement of ITER’s goals. Firstly in this work, a general control-oriented, physics-based modeling approach is developed to obtain first-principles-driven (FPD) models of the plasma magnetic profile and stored energy evolutions valid for high performance, high confinement (H-mode) scenarios, with the goal of developing model-based closed-loop algorithms to control the safety factor profile (q profile) and stored energy evolutions in the tokamak. The FPD model is tailored to H-mode burning plasma scenarios in ITER by employing the DINA-CH & CRONOS free-boundary tokamak simulation code, and the FPD model’s prediction capabilities are demonstrated by comparing the prediction to data obtained from DINA-CH & CRONOS. Secondly, a model-based feedback control algorithm is designed to simultaneously track target q profile and stored energy evolutions in H-mode burning plasma scenarios in ITER by embedding the developed FPD model of the magnetic profile evolution into the control design process. The feedback controller is designed to ensure that the closed-loop system is robust to uncertainties in the electron density, electron temperature and plasma resistivity, and is tested in simulations with the developed FPD model. The effectiveness of the controller is demonstrated by first tracking nominal q profile and stored energy target evolutions, and then modulating the generated fusion power while maintaining the q profile in a stationary condition. In the process, many key practical issues for plasma profile control in ITER are investigated, which will be useful for the development of the ITER PCS that has recently been initiated. Some of the more pertinent investigated issues are the

  3. Retrospective Analysis of the Efficacy and Safety of Sorafenib in Chinese Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma and Prognostic Factors Related to Overall Survival

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaoteng; Guo, Gang; Li, Xuesong; Zhang, Cuijian; Huang, Lihua; Fang, Dong; Song, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Liqun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sorafenib has been recommended as first- or second-line treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) by several guidelines. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of sorafenib monotherapy in Chinese patients with mRCC and determine the prognostic clinicopathologic factors associated with survival in these patients. This is a single-arm retrospective study conducted in 2 tertiary medical centers; 140 mRCC patients were enrolled between January 2007 and June 2014. Sorafenib was administered at a dose of 400 mg twice daily, and continued until disease progression, at which point the dose was increased to 600 or 800 mg twice daily, or the onset of an intolerable adverse drug event (ADE) that required dose reduction or temporary suspension of treatment. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), and the secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), and safety. The median follow-up time was 32 months. The median OS and PFS were 24 months (range, 3–88 months) and 16 months (range, 0–88 months), respectively. Patients with clear cell carcinoma had a greater OS (P = 0.001) whereas sarcomatoid differentiation (P = 0.045) and disease progression (P = 0.010) negatively impacted OS; time from kidney surgery or biopsy to initiation of sorafenib treatment was associated with PFS (P = 0.027). Efficacy analysis revealed that 3 (2.1%) patients achieved complete responses, 28 (20.0%) patients experienced partial responses, 88 (62.9%) patients had stable disease, and 21 (15.0%) patients developed progressive disease. Moreover, the ORR was 22.1%, and the DCR was 85.0%. Most ADEs were classified as grades 1 or 2 with only 14 (10.0%) patients experiencing a severe ADE (grade 3). Sorafenib monotherapy can achieve promising OS and PFS for Chinese patients with mRCC, especially in those with clear cell carcinoma, with manageable adverse events. PMID

  4. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of fulranumab, an anti-nerve growth factor antibody, in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe osteoarthritis pain.

    PubMed

    Sanga, Panna; Katz, Nathaniel; Polverejan, Elena; Wang, Steven; Kelly, Kathleen M; Haeussler, Juergen; Thipphawong, John

    2013-10-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is increased in chronic pain conditions. This study examined analgesic efficacy and safety of fulranumab, a fully human monoclonal anti-NGF antibody, in adults with chronic osteoarthritis pain. Patients (n=466, intent-to-treat) were randomized to receive, in addition to their current pain therapy, subcutaneous injections in 1 of 6 parallel treatment groups: placebo (n=78), fulranumab 1 mg (n=77) or 3 mg (n=79) every 4 weeks (Q4wk), 3 mg (n=76), 6 mg (n=78), or 10 mg (n=78) every 8 weeks (Q8wk). Primary efficacy results showed that fulranumab significantly reduced the average pain intensity score (P < or = 0.030) from baseline to week 12 compared with placebo in the 3mgQ4wk, 6mgQ8wk, and 10mgQ8wk groups. Secondary efficacy outcomes indicated that significant improvement occurred compared with placebo at week 12 on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index subscales of pain, stiffness, and physical function (P < 0.040) across all fulranumab groups except 1mgQ4wk, on the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form subscales of pain intensity (P < or = 0.016) and pain interference (P < or = 0.030) in the 3mgQ4wk and 10mgQ8wk groups, and on the Patient Global Assessment score (P < or = 0.040) in the 3mgQ4wk, 6mgQ8wk, and 10mgQ8wk groups. The most common (> or = 5% of patients) treatment-emergent adverse events in overall fulranumab groups during the first 12weeks included paresthesia (7%), headache (5%), and nasopharyngitis (5%). Most neurologic-related treatment-emergent adverse events were mild or moderate and resolved at the end of week 12. Serious adverse events occurred in 3 patients, but they were not neurologically related and resolved before study completion. Fulranumab treatment resulted in statistically significant efficacy in pain measures and physical function versus placebo and was generally well tolerated. PMID:23748114

  5. Patient Safety in Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Makary, Martin A.; Sexton, J Bryan; Freischlag, Julie A.; Millman, E Anne; Pryor, David; Holzmueller, Christine; Pronovost, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Improving patient safety is an increasing priority for surgeons and hospitals since sentinel events can be catastrophic for patients, caregivers, and institutions. Patient safety initiatives aimed at creating a safe operating room (OR) culture are increasingly being adopted, but a reliable means of measuring their impact on front-line providers does not exist. Methods: We developed a surgery-specific safety questionnaire (SAQ) and administered it to 2769 eligible caregivers at 60 hospitals. Survey questions included the appropriateness of handling medical errors, knowledge of reporting systems, and perceptions of safety in the operating room. MANOVA and ANOVA were performed to compare safety results by hospital and by an individual's position in the OR using a composite score. Multilevel confirmatory factor analysis was performed to validate the structure of the scale at the operating room level of analysis. Results: The overall response rate was 77.1% (2135 of 2769), with a range of 57% to 100%. Factor analysis of the survey items demonstrated high face validity and internal consistency (α = 0.76). The safety climate scale was robust and internally consistent overall and across positions. Scores varied widely by hospital [MANOVA omnibus F (59, 1910) = 3.85, P < 0.001], but not position [ANOVA F (4, 1910) = 1.64, P = 0.16], surgeon (mean = 73.91), technician (mean = 70.26), anesthesiologist (mean = 71.57), CRNA (mean = 71.03), and nurse (mean = 70.40). The percent of respondents reporting good safety climate in each hospital ranged from 16.3% to 100%. Conclusions: Safety climate in surgical departments can be validly measured and varies widely among hospitals, providing the opportunity to benchmark performance. Scores on the SAQ can serve to evaluate interventions to improve patient safety. PMID:16632997

  6. Impact of Passive Safety on FHR Instrumentation Systems Design and Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs) will rely more extensively on passive safety than earlier reactor classes. 10CFR50 Appendix A, General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, establishes minimum design requirements to provide reasonable assurance of adequate safety. 10CFR50.69, Risk-Informed Categorization and Treatment of Structures, Systems and Components for Nuclear Power Reactors, provides guidance on how the safety significance of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) should be reflected in their regulatory treatment. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) has provided 10 CFR 50.69 SSC Categorization Guideline (NEI-00-04) that factors in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model insights, as well as deterministic insights, through an integrated decision-making panel. Employing the PRA to inform deterministic requirements enables an appropriately balanced, technically sound categorization to be established. No FHR currently has an adequate PRA or set of design basis accidents to enable establishing the safety classification of its SSCs. While all SSCs used to comply with the general design criteria (GDCs) will be safety related, the intent is to limit the instrumentation risk significance through effective design and reliance on inherent passive safety characteristics. For example, FHRs have no safety-significant temperature threshold phenomena, thus enabling the primary and reserve reactivity control systems required by GDC 26 to be passively, thermally triggered at temperatures well below those for which core or primary coolant boundary damage would occur. Moreover, the passive thermal triggering of the primary and reserve shutdown systems may relegate the control rod drive motors to the control system, substantially decreasing the amount of safety-significant wiring needed. Similarly, FHR decay heat removal systems are intended to be running continuously to minimize the amount of safety-significant instrumentation needed to initiate

  7. Efficacy and Tolerability of Telmisartan Plus Amlodipine in Asian Patients Not Adequately Controlled on Either Monotherapy or on Low-Dose Combination Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dingliang; Gao, Pingjin; Yagi, Nobutaka

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the telmisartan plus amlodipine (T/A) single-pill combination (SPC) in Asian patients with hypertension whose blood pressure (BP) was not adequately controlled on either monotherapy or on low-dose combination therapy. Patients and Methods. Data are presented from five Boehringer Ingelheim-sponsored phase 3, double-blind, 8-week, studies: two studies in nonresponders to amlodipine (data pooled for amlodipine), two studies on nonresponders to telmisartan (pooled data), and one on nonresponders to low-dose T/A SPC. Results. After 8 weeks' treatment, mean reductions from the reference baseline in diastolic BP (DBP; primary endpoint), systolic BP (SBP), and SBP, DBP goal, and response rates were higher with the T/A SPC than respective monotherapies. The T80/A5 SPC resulted in greater reductions in DBP and SBP, and higher DBP goal and response rate than the low-dose T40/A5 SPC. Peripheral edema incidence was low (amlodipine 0.5%, telmisartan 0.0%, and T/A SPC 0.7%). Discussion and Conclusion. In Asian patients whose BP is not adequately controlled with telmisartan or amlodipine monotherapy, T/A SPC treatment results in greater BP reduction, and higher DBP and SBP goal and response rates. The safety and tolerability of the T/A SPC are comparable to those of the respective monotherapies and consistent with those reported in previous studies. PMID:24719757

  8. A comparison of dose and dose-rate conversion factors from the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, US Department of Energy, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, A.S.; Abbott, M.L.

    1991-12-01

    Several independent data sets of radiological dose and dose-rate conversion factors (DCF/DRCF) have been tabulated or developed by the international community both for fission and fusion safety purposes. This report compares sets from the US Department of Energy, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom with those calculated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program. The objectives were to identify trends and potential outlying values for specific radionuclides and contribute to a future benchmark evaluation of the CARR computer code. Fifty-year committed effective dose equivalent factors were compared for the inhalation and ingestion pathways. External effective dose equivalent rates were compared for the air immersion and ground surface exposure pathways. Comparisons were made by dividing dose factors in the different data bases by the values in the FSP data base. Differences in DCF/DRCF values less than a factor of 2 were considered to be in good agreement and are likely due to the use of slightly different decay data, variations in the number of organs considered for calculating CEDE, and rounding errors. DCF/DRCF values that differed by greater than a factor of 10 were considered to be significant. These differences are attributed primarily to the use of different radionuclide decay data, selection and nomenclature for different isomeric states, treatment of progeny radionuclides, differences in calculational methodology, and assumptions on a radionuclide`s chemical form.

  9. A comparison of dose and dose-rate conversion factors from the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, US Department of Energy, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, A.S.; Abbott, M.L.

    1991-12-01

    Several independent data sets of radiological dose and dose-rate conversion factors (DCF/DRCF) have been tabulated or developed by the international community both for fission and fusion safety purposes. This report compares sets from the US Department of Energy, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom with those calculated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program. The objectives were to identify trends and potential outlying values for specific radionuclides and contribute to a future benchmark evaluation of the CARR computer code. Fifty-year committed effective dose equivalent factors were compared for the inhalation and ingestion pathways. External effective dose equivalent rates were compared for the air immersion and ground surface exposure pathways. Comparisons were made by dividing dose factors in the different data bases by the values in the FSP data base. Differences in DCF/DRCF values less than a factor of 2 were considered to be in good agreement and are likely due to the use of slightly different decay data, variations in the number of organs considered for calculating CEDE, and rounding errors. DCF/DRCF values that differed by greater than a factor of 10 were considered to be significant. These differences are attributed primarily to the use of different radionuclide decay data, selection and nomenclature for different isomeric states, treatment of progeny radionuclides, differences in calculational methodology, and assumptions on a radionuclide's chemical form.

  10. Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, W. J.

    2014-05-01

    Wim J. de Lange, Geert F. Prinsen, Jacco H. Hoogewoud, Ab A Veldhuizen, Joachim Hunink, Erik F.W. Ruijgh, Timo Kroon Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses

  11. Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, Wim; Prinsen, Geert.; Hoogewoud, Jacco; Veldhuizen, Ab; Ruijgh, Erik; Kroon, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with? by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses. Regional expertise is welcomed in the calibration phase of NHI. It aims to reduce uncertainties by improving the

  12. Using Addenda in Documented Safety Analysis Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas S. Swanson; Michael A. Thieme

    2003-06-01

    This paper discusses the use of addenda to the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Addenda were prepared for several systems and processes at the facility that lacked adequate descriptive information and hazard analysis in the DSA. They were also prepared for several new activities involving unreviewed safety questions (USQs). Ten addenda to the RWMC DSA have been prepared since the last annual update.

  13. Using Addenda in Documented Safety Analysis Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.S.; Thieme, M.A.

    2003-06-16

    This paper discusses the use of addenda to the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Addenda were prepared for several systems and processes at the facility that lacked adequate descriptive information and hazard analysis in the DSA. They were also prepared for several new activities involving unreviewed safety questions (USQs). Ten addenda to the RWMC DSA have been prepared since the last annual update.

  14. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-06-13

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe Use of Lasers references this requirement through several sections. One such reference is Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''. The composition, frequency and rigor of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms It is common for audit findings from one inspector or inspection to the next to vary even when reviewing the same material. How often has one heard a comment, ''well this area has been inspected several times over the years and no one ever said this or that was a problem before''. A great number of audit items, and therefore findings, are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the auditor to particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage, to one set of eyes might be completely adequate, while to another, inadequate. In order to provide consistency, the Laser Safety Office of the National Ignition Facility Directorate has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. The criteria are distributed to laser users. It serves two broad purposes; first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor. Second, it is an opportunity to explain audit items to the laser user and thus the reasons for some of these items, such as labelling of beam blocks.

  15. Supplemental Escherichia coli phytase and strontium enhance bone strength of young pigs fed a phosphorus-adequate diet.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Angela R; Yasuda, Koji; Roneker, Karl R; Crenshaw, Thomas D; Lei, Xin Gen

    2007-07-01

    Young pigs represent an excellent model of youth to assess potentials of dietary factors for improving bone structure and function. We conducted 2 experiments to determine whether adding microbial phytase (2,000 U/kg, OptiPhos, JBS United) and Sr (50 mg/kg, SrCO3 Alfa Aesar) into a P-adequate diet further improved bone strength of young pigs. In Expt. 1, 24 gilts (8.6 +/- 0.1 kg body wt) were divided into 2 groups (n = 12), and fed a corn-soybean-meal basal diet (BD, 0.33% available P) or BD + phytase for 6 wk. In Expt. 2, 32 pigs (11.4 +/- 0.2 kg) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8), and fed BD, BD + phytase, BD + Sr, or BD + phytase and Sr for 5 wk. Both supplemental phytase and Sr enhanced (P < 0.05) breaking strengths (11-20%), mineral content (6-15%), and mineral density (6-11%) of metatarsals and femurs. Supplemental phytase also resulted in larger total bone areas (P < 0.05) and a larger cross-sectional area of femur (P = 0.06). Concentrations of Sr were elevated 4-fold (P < 0.001) in both bones by Sr, and moderately increased (P = 0.05-0.07) in metatarsal by phytase. In conclusion, supplemental phytase at 2000 U/kg of P-adequate diets enhanced bone mechanical function of weanling pigs by modulating both geometrical and chemical properties of bone. The similar benefit of supplemental Sr was mainly due to an effect on bone chemical properties. PMID:17585033

  16. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  17. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8-10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100-199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  18. Nuclear safety as applied to space power reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Current space nuclear power reactor safety issues are discussed with respect to the unique characteristics of these reactors. An approach to achieving adequate safety and a perception of safety is outlined. This approach calls for a carefully conceived safety program which makes uses of lessons learned from previous terrestrial power reactor development programs. This approach includes use of risk analyses, passive safety design features, and analyses/experiments to understand and control off-design conditions. The point is made that some recent accidents concerning terrestrial power reactors do not imply that space power reactors cannot be operated safety.

  19. Organizational Culture and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Catherine A.

    2003-01-01

    '..only a fool perseveres in error.' Cicero. Humans will break the most advanced technological devices and override safety and security systems if they are given the latitude. Within the workplace, the operator may be just one of several factors in causing accidents or making risky decisions. Other variables considered for their involvement in the negative and often catastrophic outcomes include the organizational context and culture. Many organizations have constructed and implemented safety programs to be assimilated into their culture to assure employee commitment and understanding of the importance of everyday safety. The purpose of this paper is to examine literature on organizational safety cultures and programs that attempt to combat vulnerability, risk taking behavior and decisions and identify the role of training in attempting to mitigate unsafe acts.

  20. Chronic leg ulcer: does a patient always get a correct diagnosis and adequate treatment?

    PubMed

    Mooij, Michael C; Huisman, Laurens C

    2016-03-01

    Patients with chronic leg ulcers have severely impaired quality of life and account for a high percentage of annual healthcare costs. To establish the cause of a chronic leg ulcer, referral to a center with a multidisciplinary team of professionals is often necessary. Treating the underlying cause diminishes healing time and reduces costs. In venous leg ulcers adequate compression therapy is still a problem. It can be improved by training the professionals with pressure measuring devices. A perfect fitting of elastic stockings is important to prevent venous leg ulcer recurrence. In most cases, custom-made stockings are the best choice for this purpose. PMID:26916772

  1. Determining Adequate Margins in Head and Neck Cancers: Practice and Continued Challenges.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle D

    2016-09-01

    Margin assessment remains a critical component of oncologic care for head and neck cancer patients. As an integrated team, both surgeons and pathologists work together to assess margins in these complex patients. Differences in method of margin sampling can impact obtainable information and effect outcomes. Additionally, what distance is an "adequate or clear" margin for patient care continues to be debated. Ultimately, future studies and potentially secondary modalities to augment pathologic assessment of margin assessment (i.e., in situ imaging or molecular assessment) may enhance local control in head and neck cancer patients. PMID:27469263

  2. Working group on the “adequate minimum” V=volcanic observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, R.I.

    1982-01-01

    A working group consisting of R. I. Tilling (United States, Chairman), M. Espendola (Mexico), E. Malavassi (Costa Rica), L. Villari (Italy), and J.P Viode (France) met on the island of Guadeloupe on February 20, 1981, to discuss informally the requirements for a "Minimum" volcano observatory, one which would have the essential monitoring equipment and staff to provide reliable information on the state of an active volcno. Given the premise that any monitoring of a volcano is better than none at all, the owrking group then proceeded to consider the concept of an "adequate minimum" observatory. 

  3. Safety Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  4. Solidifying Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covault, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Solidifying Safety: NASA s new safety organization spools up, as the 1SS program grapples with long-term risk. 2. Earth to Orbit O'Keefe telling skeptical lawmakers Orbital Space Plan (OSP) will cover exploration vision. China's rapid pace.

  5. Safety First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Ned Miller does not take security lightly. As director of campus safety and emergency management at the Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC), any threat requires serious consideration. As community college administrators adopt a more proactive approach to campus safety, many institutions are experimenting with emerging technologies, including…

  6. AFR-100 safety analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Sumner, T.; Moisseytsev, A.; Wei, T. Y. C.

    2012-07-01

    The Advanced Fast Reactor-100 (AFR-100) is Argonne National Laboratory's 250 MWth metal-fueled modular sodium-cooled pool-type fast reactor concept. [1] A series of accident sequences that focused on the AFR-100's ability to provide protection against reactor damage during low probability accident sequences resulting from multiple equipment failures were examined. Protected and Unprotected Loss of Flow (PLOF and ULOF) and Unprotected Transient Over-Power (UTOP) accidents were simulated using the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 safety analysis code. The large heat capacity of the sodium in the pool-type reactor allows the AFR-100 to absorb large amounts of energy during a PLOF with relatively small temperature increases throughout the system. During a ULOF with a 25-second flow halving time, coolant and cladding temperatures peak around 720 deg. C within the first minute before reactivity feedback effects decrease power to match the flow. Core radial expansion and fuel Doppler provide the necessary feedback during the UTOP to bring the system back to critical before system temperatures exceed allowable limits. Simulation results indicate that adequate ULOF safety margins exist for the AFR-100 design with flow halving times of twenty-five seconds. Significant safety margins are maintained for PLOF accidents as well as UTOP accidents if a rod stop is used. (authors)

  7. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing. 1

  8. Adequate Systemic Perfusion Maintained by a CentriMag during Acute Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Favaloro, Roberto R.; Bertolotti, Alejandro; Diez, Mirta; Favaloro, Liliana; Gomez, Carmen; Peradejordi, Margarita; Trentadue, Julio; Hellman, Lorena; Arzani, Yanina; Otero, Pilar Varela

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical circulatory support during severe acute heart failure presents options for myocardial recovery or cardiac replacement. Short-term circulatory support with the newest generation of magnetically levitated centrifugal-flow pumps affords several potential advantages. Herein, we present our experience with such a pump—the CentriMag® (Levitronix LLC; Waltham, Mass) centrifugal-flow ventricular assist device—in 4 critically ill patients who were in cardiogenic shock. From November 2007 through March 2008, 3 patients were supported after cardiac surgery, and 1 after chronic heart failure worsened. Two patients were bridged to heart transplantation, and 2 died during support. Perfusion during support was evaluated in terms of serum lactic acid levels and oxygenation values. In all of the patients, the CentriMag's pump flow was adequate, and continuous mechanical ventilation support was provided. Lactic acid levels substantially improved with CentriMag support and were maintained at near-normal levels throughout. At the same time, arterial pH, PO2, and carbon dioxide levels remained within acceptable ranges. No thromboembolic events or mechanical failures occurred. Our experience indicates that short-term use of the CentriMag ventricular assist device during acute heart failure can restore and adequately support circulation until recovery or until the application of definitive therapy. PMID:18941648

  9. The Evolution of System Safety at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Everett, Chris; Groen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The NASA system safety framework is in the process of change, motivated by the desire to promote an objectives-driven approach to system safety that explicitly focuses system safety efforts on system-level safety performance, and serves to unify, in a purposeful manner, safety-related activities that otherwise might be done in a way that results in gaps, redundancies, or unnecessary work. An objectives-driven approach to system safety affords more flexibility to determine, on a system-specific basis, the means by which adequate safety is achieved and verified. Such flexibility and efficiency is becoming increasingly important in the face of evolving engineering modalities and acquisition models, where, for example, NASA will increasingly rely on commercial providers for transportation services to low-earth orbit. A key element of this objectives-driven approach is the use of the risk-informed safety case (RISC): a structured argument, supported by a body of evidence, that provides a compelling, comprehensible and valid case that a system is or will be adequately safe for a given application in a given environment. The RISC addresses each of the objectives defined for the system, providing a rational basis for making informed risk acceptance decisions at relevant decision points in the system life cycle.

  10. The two-layer geochemical structure of modern biogeochemical provinces and its significance for spatially adequate ecological evaluations and decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    Contamination of the environment has reached such a scale that ecogeochemical situation in any area can be interpreted now as a result of the combined effect of natural and anthropogenic factors. The areas that appear uncomfortable for a long stay can have natural and anthropogenic genesis, but the spatial structure of such biogeochemical provinces is in any case formed of a combination of natural and technogenic fields of chemical elements. Features of structural organization and the difference in factors and specific time of their formation allow their separation on one hand and help in identification of areas with different ecological risks due to overlay of the two structures on the other. Geochemistry of soil cover reflects the long-term result of the naturally balanced biogeochemical cycles, therefore the soil geochemical maps of the undisturbed areas may serve the basis for evaluation of the natural geochemical background with due regard to the main factors of geochemical differentiation in biosphere. Purposeful and incidental technogenic concentrations and dispersions of chemical elements of specific (mainly mono- or polycentric) structure are also fixed in soils that serve as secondary sources of contamination of the vegetation cover and local food chains. Overlay of the two structures forms specific heterogeneity of modern biogeochemical provinces with different risk for particular groups of people, animals and plants adapted to specific natural geochemical background within particular concentration interval. The developed approach is believed to be helpful for biogeochemical regionalizing of modern biosphere (noosphere) and for spatially adequate ecogeochemical evaluation of the environment and landuse decisions. It allows production of a set of applied geochemical maps such as: 1) health risk due to chemical elements deficiency and technogenic contamination accounting of possible additive effects; 2) adequate soil fertilization and melioration with due

  11. Obstacles to Laser Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-04-25

    The growth of laser development & technology has been remarkable. Unfortunately, a number of traps or obstacles to laser safety have also developed with that growth. The goal of this article is to highlight those traps, in the hope that an aware laser user will avoid them. These traps have been the cause or contributing factor of many a preventable laser accident.

  12. [Evaluation of the risk of delayed adverse effects of chronic combined exposure to radiation and chemical factors with the purpose to ensure safety in orbital and exploration space missions].

    PubMed

    Shafirkin, A V; Mukhamedieva, L N; Tatarkin, S V; Barantseva, M Iu

    2012-01-01

    The work had the aim to anatomize the existing issues with providing safety in extended orbital and exploration missions for ensuing estimation of actual values of the total radiation risk for the crew, and risks of other delayed effects of simultaneous exposure to ionizing radiation and chemical pollutants in cabin air, and a number of other stressful factors inevitable in space flight. The flow of chronic experiments for separate and combined studies with reproduction of air makeup and radiation doses in actual orbital and predicted exploration missions is outlined. To set safety limits, new approaches should be applied to the description of gradual norm degradation to pathologies in addition to several generalized quantitative indices of adaptation and straining of the regulatory systems, as well as of effectiveness of the compensatory body reserve against separate and combined exposure. PMID:22624477

  13. Software safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.

  14. Safety climate and self-reported injury: assessing the mediating role of employee safety control.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Ho, Michael; Smith, Gordon S; Chen, Peter Y

    2006-05-01

    To further reduce injuries in the workplace, companies have begun focusing on organizational factors which may contribute to workplace safety. Safety climate is an organizational factor commonly cited as a predictor of injury occurrence. Characterized by the shared perceptions of employees, safety climate can be viewed as a snapshot of the prevailing state of safety in the organization at a discrete point in time. However, few studies have elaborated plausible mechanisms through which safety climate likely influences injury occurrence. A mediating model is proposed to link safety climate (i.e., management commitment to safety, return-to-work policies, post-injury administration, and safety training) with self-reported injury through employees' perceived control on safety. Factorial evidence substantiated that management commitment to safety, return-to-work policies, post-injury administration, and safety training are important dimensions of safety climate. In addition, the data support that safety climate is a critical factor predicting the history of a self-reported occupational injury, and that employee safety control mediates the relationship between safety climate and occupational injury. These findings highlight the importance of incorporating organizational factors and workers' characteristics in efforts to improve organizational safety performance. PMID:16442068

  15. 49 CFR 228.331 - First aid and life safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false First aid and life safety. 228.331 Section 228.331... First aid and life safety. (a) An adequate first aid kit must be maintained and made available for occupants of a camp car for the emergency treatment of an injured person. (b) The contents of the first...

  16. 49 CFR 228.331 - First aid and life safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false First aid and life safety. 228.331 Section 228.331... First aid and life safety. (a) An adequate first aid kit must be maintained and made available for occupants of a camp car for the emergency treatment of an injured person. (b) The contents of the first...

  17. 49 CFR 228.331 - First aid and life safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false First aid and life safety. 228.331 Section 228.331... First aid and life safety. (a) An adequate first aid kit must be maintained and made available for occupants of a camp car for the emergency treatment of an injured person. (b) The contents of the first...

  18. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The human factors frequency considered a cause of or contributor to hazardous events onboard air carriers are examined with emphasis on distractions. Safety reports that have been analyzed, processed, and entered into the aviation safety reporting system data base are discussed. A sampling of alert bulletins and responses to them is also presented.

  19. Esmolol in a case of severe tetanus. Adequate haemodynamic control achieved despite markedly elevated catecholamine levels.

    PubMed

    Beards, S C; Lipman, J; Bothma, P A; Joynt, G M

    1994-03-01

    A patient with severe tetanus, who had a sympathetic crisis while sedated with 30 mg/h diazepam and 30 mg/h morphine, is described. Satisfactory control of the haemodynamic crisis was achieved with bolus doses of esmolol to a total of 180 mg. A disturbing finding was that although there was adequate control of the tachycardia and hypertension, arterial catecholamine levels remained markedly elevated. Adrenaline levels of 531 pg/ml (normal 10-110 pg/ml) and noradrenaline levels of 1,036 pg/ml (normal 100-500 pg/ml) were recorded when the patient had a systolic arterial pressure of 110 mmHg and a heart rate of 97/min. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:11218441

  20. Overcome of Carbon Catabolite Repression of Bioinsecticides Production by Sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis through Adequate Fermentation Technology.

    PubMed

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    The overcoming of catabolite repression, in bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain S22 was investigated into fully controlled 3 L fermenter, using glucose based medium. When applying adequate oxygen profile throughout the fermentation period (75% oxygen saturation), it was possible to partially overcome the catabolite repression, normally occurring at high initial glucose concentrations (30 and 40 g/L glucose). Moreover, toxin production yield by sporeless strain S22 was markedly improved by the adoption of the fed-batch intermittent cultures technology. With 22.5 g/L glucose used into culture medium, toxin production was improved by about 36% when applying fed-batch culture compared to one batch. Consequently, the proposed fed-batch strategy was efficient for the overcome of the carbon catabolite repression. So, it was possible to overproduce insecticidal crystal proteins into highly concentrated medium. PMID:25309756