Science.gov

Sample records for adequate safety precautions

  1. 43 CFR 3162.5-3 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety precautions. 3162.5-3 Section 3162... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.5-3 Safety precautions. The operator shall perform... necessary to provide adequate protection for the health and safety of life and the protection of...

  2. 43 CFR 3162.5-3 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety precautions. 3162.5-3 Section 3162... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.5-3 Safety precautions. The operator shall perform... necessary to provide adequate protection for the health and safety of life and the protection of...

  3. 43 CFR 3162.5-3 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety precautions. 3162.5-3 Section 3162... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.5-3 Safety precautions. The operator shall perform... necessary to provide adequate protection for the health and safety of life and the protection of...

  4. 43 CFR 3162.5-3 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety precautions. 3162.5-3 Section 3162... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.5-3 Safety precautions. The operator shall perform... necessary to provide adequate protection for the health and safety of life and the protection of...

  5. Safety Precautions in Fiber Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Marcia

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses the potential hazards of working with fibers, dyes, and wax in textile art projects: bacteria, dust, poisons, allergies, and fumes. Safety precautions for working with dyes are listed. This article is one of seven in this issue on fiber arts. (SJL)

  6. Safety Precautions for Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folks, John; And Others

    Safety information is discussed and outlined in this guide. Areas include: (1) general laboratory safety rules; (2) general rules and guidelines for animals in the elementary classroom; (3) general guidelines for the physical sciences; (4) general rules for using animals in investigations, with specifics on the care and handling of mammals,…

  7. 10 CFR 35.415 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.415 Section 35.415 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35.415 Safety precautions. (a... following removal of the source applicators. (c) A licensee shall notify the Radiation Safety Officer,...

  8. 10 CFR 35.415 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.415 Section 35.415 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35.415 Safety precautions. (a... following removal of the source applicators. (c) A licensee shall notify the Radiation Safety Officer,...

  9. 10 CFR 35.415 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.415 Section 35.415 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35.415 Safety precautions. (a... following removal of the source applicators. (c) A licensee shall notify the Radiation Safety Officer,...

  10. 10 CFR 35.415 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.415 Section 35.415 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35.415 Safety precautions. (a... following removal of the source applicators. (c) A licensee shall notify the Radiation Safety Officer,...

  11. 10 CFR 35.415 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.415 Section 35.415 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35.415 Safety precautions. (a... following removal of the source applicators. (c) A licensee shall notify the Radiation Safety Officer,...

  12. 10 CFR 35.315 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.315 Section 35.315 Energy NUCLEAR... Required § 35.315 Safety precautions. (a) For each patient or human research subject who cannot be released... handle the material and items as radioactive waste. (b) A licensee shall notify the Radiation...

  13. 10 CFR 35.315 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.315 Section 35.315 Energy NUCLEAR... Required § 35.315 Safety precautions. (a) For each patient or human research subject who cannot be released... handle the material and items as radioactive waste. (b) A licensee shall notify the Radiation...

  14. 10 CFR 35.315 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.315 Section 35.315 Energy NUCLEAR... Required § 35.315 Safety precautions. (a) For each patient or human research subject who cannot be released... handle the material and items as radioactive waste. (b) A licensee shall notify the Radiation...

  15. 10 CFR 35.315 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.315 Section 35.315 Energy NUCLEAR... Required § 35.315 Safety precautions. (a) For each patient or human research subject who cannot be released... handle the material and items as radioactive waste. (b) A licensee shall notify the Radiation...

  16. 10 CFR 35.315 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.315 Section 35.315 Energy NUCLEAR... Required § 35.315 Safety precautions. (a) For each patient or human research subject who cannot be released... handle the material and items as radioactive waste. (b) A licensee shall notify the Radiation...

  17. Safety Precautions. Child Health and Safety Series (Module I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iscoe, Louise; And Others

    This manual for parents and child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides guidelines and information on indoor and outdoor safety precautions, emergency preparation and first aid. Contents focus on monitoring arrivals and departures, prevention of suffocation and strangulation, control of pets and other animals, preventing and…

  18. Key Rules of the Safety Precautions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In research on phytochemical investigations, we use some equipment and materials which can be hazardous to employees or our environment if suitable precautions are not taken. Certain hazards exist and risks must be carefully considered and examined. The objective of this chapter is to minimize or ...

  19. 48 CFR 252.236-7005 - Airfield safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airfield safety precautions. 252.236-7005 Section 252.236-7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses...

  20. 48 CFR 223.370 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Hazardous Material Identification and Material Safety Data 223.370 Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives....

  1. Safety first: precautions for the massive weight loss patient.

    PubMed

    Davison, Steven P; Clemens, Mark W

    2008-01-01

    A significant increase in bariatric procedures has led to success in maintaining long-term weight loss. The increasing population of patients who have lost massive amounts of weight also has led to a growing responsibility placed on body-contouring surgeons to perform safe and cautious procedures in this inherently difficult patient population. We stratify risk groups and present several case reports and a systematic review of safety precautions. The risks and complications of body contouring can be minimized by a team approach with a meticulous attention to patient evaluation, preoperative planning, safe detailed operative measures, and thorough postoperative care. PMID:18061812

  2. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions. 75.1903 Section 75.1903 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment...

  3. 48 CFR 223.370 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives. 223.370 Section 223.370 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY...

  4. 10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.615 Section 35.615 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units,...

  5. 10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.615 Section 35.615 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units,...

  6. 10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.615 Section 35.615 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units,...

  7. 10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.615 Section 35.615 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units,...

  8. 10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.615 Section 35.615 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units,...

  9. Analysis of safety precautions for coal and gas outburst-hazardous strata

    SciTech Connect

    Hudecek, V.

    2008-09-15

    The author analyses coal and gas outbursts and generalizes the available data on the approaches to solving the problematics of these gas-dynamic events in the framework of Czech Republic Grant 'Estimate of the Safety Precautions for Coal and Gas Outburst Hazardous Strata'.

  10. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  11. Isolation precautions

    MedlinePlus

    ... is also important to properly clean up afterward . Transmission-based Precautions Transmission-based precautions are extra steps to follow for illnesses that are caused by certain germs. Transmission-based precautions are followed in addition to standard ...

  12. 75 FR 69648 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... SAFETY BOARD Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers... TO THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the... safety analysis, or DSA, is to be prepared for every DOE nuclear facility. This DSA, once approved by...

  13. Less restrictive patient-specific radiation-safety precautions can be safely prescribed after permanent seed implantation

    PubMed Central

    Dauer, Lawrence T.; Kollmeier, Marisa A.; Williamson, Matthew J.; St. Germain, Jean; Altamirano, Joaquin; Yamada, Yoshiya; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To utilize radiation exposure-rate measurements to determine patient-specific radiation-safety instructions with the aim of reducing unnecessary precaution times and to evaluate potential doses to members of the public. Materials and Methods Radiation exposure-rate measurements were obtained from 1279 patients with stage T1-2 prostate cancer who underwent transperineal I-125 or Pd-103 seed implantation from January 1995 through July 2008. An algorithm was developed from these measurements to determine required precaution times needed to maintain public effective doses below 50% of the limits for specific exposure situations. Results The median air kerma rates at 30 cm from the anterior skin surface were 4.9 μGy/h (range: 0.1-31.5) for I-125 and 1.5 μGy/h (range: 0.02-14.9) for Pd-103. Derived algorithms depended primarily upon the half-life, Tp, the measured exposure rate at 30 cm, and specific exposure situation factors. For the typical Pd-103 patient, no radiation-safety precautions are required. For the typical I-125 patient, no precautions are required for co-workers, nonpregnant adults that do not sleep with the family member, or nonpregnant adults that sleep with the patient. Typical I-125 patients should only need to avoid sleeping in the “spoon” position (i.e., in contact) with pregnant adults and avoid holding a child for long periods of time in the lap for about 2 months. Conclusions The large number of cases available for this study permitted the development of an algorithm to simply determine patient-specific radiation-safety instructions. Resulting precaution times are significantly less restrictive than precaution times generally prescribed currently. PMID:19853532

  14. Fingolimod for multiple sclerosis and emerging indications: appropriate patient selection, safety precautions, and special considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ayzenberg, Ilya; Hoepner, Robert; Kleiter, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Fingolimod (FTY720), an immunotherapeutic drug targeting the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor, is a widely used medication for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Apart from the pivotal Phase III trials demonstrating efficacy against placebo and interferon-β-1a once weekly, sufficient clinical data are now available to assess its real-world efficacy and safety profile. Approved indications of fingolimod differ between countries. This discrepancy, to some extent, reflects the intermediate position of fingolimod in the expanding lineup of MS medications. With individualization of therapy, appropriate patient selection gets more important. We discuss various scenarios for fingolimod use in relapsing-remitting MS and their pitfalls: as first-line therapy, as escalation therapy after failure of previous immunotherapies, and as de-escalation therapy following highly potent immunotherapies. Potential side effects such as bradycardia, infections, macular edema, teratogenicity, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy as well as appropriate safety precautions are outlined. Disease reactivation has been described upon fingolimod cessation; therefore, patients should be closely monitored for MS activity for several months after stopping fingolimod. Finally, we discuss preclinical and clinical data indicating neuroprotective effects of fingolimod, which might open the way to future indications such as stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26929636

  15. Fingolimod for multiple sclerosis and emerging indications: appropriate patient selection, safety precautions, and special considerations.

    PubMed

    Ayzenberg, Ilya; Hoepner, Robert; Kleiter, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Fingolimod (FTY720), an immunotherapeutic drug targeting the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor, is a widely used medication for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Apart from the pivotal Phase III trials demonstrating efficacy against placebo and interferon-β-1a once weekly, sufficient clinical data are now available to assess its real-world efficacy and safety profile. Approved indications of fingolimod differ between countries. This discrepancy, to some extent, reflects the intermediate position of fingolimod in the expanding lineup of MS medications. With individualization of therapy, appropriate patient selection gets more important. We discuss various scenarios for fingolimod use in relapsing-remitting MS and their pitfalls: as first-line therapy, as escalation therapy after failure of previous immunotherapies, and as de-escalation therapy following highly potent immunotherapies. Potential side effects such as bradycardia, infections, macular edema, teratogenicity, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy as well as appropriate safety precautions are outlined. Disease reactivation has been described upon fingolimod cessation; therefore, patients should be closely monitored for MS activity for several months after stopping fingolimod. Finally, we discuss preclinical and clinical data indicating neuroprotective effects of fingolimod, which might open the way to future indications such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26929636

  16. 75 FR 74022 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... November 15, 2010 (75 FR 69648). The corrected text of the recommendation approved by the Board is below... or telephone number (202) 694-7000. Correction: In the Federal Register of November 15, 2010 (75 FR... SAFETY BOARD Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the...

  17. Isolation precautions

    MedlinePlus

    ... the anticipated exposure, types of PPE required include: Gloves Masks and goggles Aprons, gowns, and shoe covers ... in the room should wear a gown and gloves. Droplet precautions are used to prevent contact with ...

  18. Precautions for Workers 1

    PubMed Central

    Guest, G. H.

    1948-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes are now available from Chalk River for use by Canadian biologists. Experience has shown that the handling of radioactive isotopes may involve health hazards unless adequate precautions are taken. The nature of these hazards and the type of precautions which must be taken when working with radioactive isotopes are considered. Successful work with radioactive isotopes other than in the smallest tracer amounts requires the use of laboratories and equipment especially designed for the purpose and this is dealt with briefly. The operation of a radioactive laboratory requires certain auxiliary equipment and services, such as health instruments, film monitoring, special laboratory clothing, special cleanable surfaces and disposal of radioactive waste materials. These topics are discussed briefly. Handling of radioactive isotopes involves certain special precautions and a few of these, such as protection of hands, cleaning of glassware, handling of solutions, etc. are reviewed. In addition to protecting all personnel in a laboratory from harmful amounts of radiation, it is necessary to keep the laboratory and the building in which it is housed as free as possible from radioactive substances and this important fact has been stressed. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 4.Fig. 6. PMID:17648375

  19. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  20. 78 FR 28495 - Safety Zone; Safety Precautions to Protect the Public from the Effects of a Potential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... Illinois River, and the potential structural concerns regarding the Marseilles Dam. This safety zone is... structural survey of the dam is being conducted. On April 29, 2013, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...

  1. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  2. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  3. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  4. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  5. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  6. Fall Risk Awareness and Safety Precautions Taken by Older Community-Dwelling Women and Men—A Qualitative Study Using Focus Group Discussions

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Petra; Sandlund, Marlene; Ahlgren, Christina; Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor; Wikman, Anita Melander

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Daily life requires frequent estimations of the risk of falling and the ability to avoid a fall. The objective of this study was to explore older women’s and men’s understanding of fall risk and their experiences with safety precautions taken to prevent falls. Methods A qualitative study with focus group discussions was conducted. Eighteen community-dwelling people [10 women and 8 men] with and without a history of falls were purposively recruited. Participants were divided into two groups, and each group met four times. A participatory and appreciative action and reflection approach was used to guide the discussions. All discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis, and categories were determined inductively. Findings Three categories describing the process of becoming aware of fall risks in everyday life were identified: 1] Facing various feelings, 2] Recognizing one’s fall risk, and 3] Taking precautions. Each category comprised several subcategories. The comprehensive theme derived from the categories was “Safety precautions through fall risk awareness”. Three strategies of ignoring [continuing a risky activity], gaining insight [realizing the danger in a certain situation], and anticipating [thinking ahead and acting in advance] were related to all choices of actions and could fluctuate in the same person in different contexts. Conclusions The fall risk awareness process might be initiated for various reasons and can involve different feelings and precautions as well as different strategies. This finding highlights that there are many possible channels to reach older people with information about fall risk and fall prevention, including the media and their peers. The findings offer a deeper understanding of older peoples’ conceptualizations about fall risk awareness and make an important contribution to the development and implementation of fall prevention programmes. PMID

  7. Pitfalls and Precautions When Using Predicted Failure Data for Quantitative Analysis of Safety Risk for Human Rated Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Glen S.; Hark, Frank; Stott, James

    2016-01-01

    Launch vehicle reliability analysis is largely dependent upon using predicted failure rates from data sources such as MIL-HDBK-217F. Reliability prediction methodologies based on component data do not take into account risks attributable to manufacturing, assembly, and process controls. These sources often dominate component level reliability or risk of failure probability. While consequences of failure is often understood in assessing risk, using predicted values in a risk model to estimate the probability of occurrence will likely underestimate the risk. Managers and decision makers often use the probability of occurrence in determining whether to accept the risk or require a design modification. Due to the absence of system level test and operational data inherent in aerospace applications, the actual risk threshold for acceptance may not be appropriately characterized for decision making purposes. This paper will establish a method and approach to identify the pitfalls and precautions of accepting risk based solely upon predicted failure data. This approach will provide a set of guidelines that may be useful to arrive at a more realistic quantification of risk prior to acceptance by a program.

  8. Pitfalls and Precautions When Using Predicted Failure Data for Quantitative Analysis of Safety Risk for Human Rated Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Glen S.; Hark, Frank; Stott, James

    2016-01-01

    Launch vehicle reliability analysis is largely dependent upon using predicted failure rates from data sources such as MIL-HDBK-217F. Reliability prediction methodologies based on component data do not take into account system integration risks such as those attributable to manufacturing and assembly. These sources often dominate component level risk. While consequence of failure is often understood, using predicted values in a risk model to estimate the probability of occurrence may underestimate the actual risk. Managers and decision makers use the probability of occurrence to influence the determination whether to accept the risk or require a design modification. The actual risk threshold for acceptance may not be fully understood due to the absence of system level test data or operational data. This paper will establish a method and approach to identify the pitfalls and precautions of accepting risk based solely upon predicted failure data. This approach will provide a set of guidelines that may be useful to arrive at a more realistic quantification of risk prior to acceptance by a program.

  9. 29 CFR 1915.503 - Precautions for hot work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions for hot work. 1915.503 Section 1915.503 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment § 1915.503 Precautions...

  10. Standardising infection control precautions.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Lisa; McIntyre, Jackie

    To minimise the risk of infection transmission, standard infection control precautions must be practised whether a patient is known to have an infection. The main aim of any infection control guideline or policy should, therefore, be to make it easy for staff to do the right thing at the right time. This article outlines standard precautions, explains their importance and presents the critical elements that should be applied in all care settings. PMID:26513984

  11. Safety and Efficacy of Rivastigmine in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease Not Responding Adequately to Donepezil: An Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Figiel, Gary S.; Sadowsky, Carl H.; Strigas, John; Koumaras, Barbara; Meng, Xiangyi; Gunay, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Switching patients with Alzheimer's disease from one cholinesterase inhibitor to another represents a viable option for patients not responding to current therapy. The objective of this large U.S.-based study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a treatment switch to rivastigmine in patients not responding adequately to or declining on treatment with donepezil. Method: In this 26-week, prospective, open-label, single-arm, multicenter study conducted from April 24, 2003, to June 25, 2004, patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (DSM-IV-TR criteria) who were not responding to donepezil were treated with rivastigmine 3–12 mg/day. Safety and tolerability were measured by the occurrence of adverse events and patient disposition. Treatment effects on global functioning were assessed using the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) scale. Results: Two hundred seventy patients with a mean age of 78.5 (SD = 7.56) years and a mean duration of dementia of 3.5 (SD = 2.06) years were included in the study. Sixty-nine percent of patients completed the study with 17.8% discontinuing due to adverse events. Eighty-three percent of patients reported at least 1 adverse event, with the most frequently occurring adverse events affecting the gastrointestinal system (54%). The majority of patients were reported to have either improvement or no decline on the CGIC. A limitation of the study is that the interpretation of the results is based on an overall completion rate of 69%. Conclusion: Immediately switching patients from donepezil to rivastigmine without a washout period was safe and well tolerated in the current study. Additionally, these results suggest that patients not responding adequately to or declining while taking donepezil may improve or stabilize after switching to rivastigmine. PMID:18787673

  12. 10 CFR 39.31 - Labels, security, and transportation precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labels, security, and transportation precautions. 39.31 Section 39.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.31 Labels, security, and transportation precautions. (a) Labels. (1) The licensee may not use a source, source holder,...

  13. Prudent precaution in clinical trials of nanomedicines.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Gary E; Lindor, Rachel A

    2012-01-01

    Clinical trials of nanotechnology medical products present complex risk management challenges that involve many uncertainties and important risk-risk trade-offs. This paper inquires whether the precautionary principle can help to inform risk management approaches to nanomedicine clinical trials. It concludes that prudent precaution may be appropriate for ensuring the safety of such trials, but that the precautionary principle itself, especially in its more extreme forms, does not provide useful guidance for specific safety measures. PMID:23289685

  14. The precaution adoption process.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, N D

    1988-01-01

    This article presents a critique of current models of preventive behavior. It discusses a variety of factors that are usually overlooked-including the appearance of costs and benefits over time, the role of cues to action, the problem of competing life demands, and the ways that actual decision behavior differs from the rational ideal implicit in expectancy-value and utility theories. Such considerations suggest that the adoption of new precautions should be viewed as a dynamic process with many determinants. The framework of a model that is able to accommodate these additional factors is described. This alternative model portrays the precaution adoption process as an orderly sequence of qualitatively different cognitive stages. Data illustrating a few of the suggestions made in the article are presented, and implications for prevention programs are discussed. PMID:3049068

  15. Influencing factors on use of standard precautions against occupational exposures to blood and body fluids among nurses in China

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Mingtao; Wang, Xuyao; Wu, Hualian; Yuan, Xiaoli; Lei, Dan; Jiang, Zhixia; Li, Lezhi

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To investigate how specific factors, including knowledge, attitude, use of protective devices, safety climate, workload, and nurses’ behaviors can influence standard precautions in China through structural equation modeling techniques. Background: Although a number of empirical studies have been conducted, an investigation of how multiple variables influence behaviors of standard precautions among the nurses is still needed. Methods: The study was conducted by selecting registered nurses from 25 public hospitals that operate approximately 500 beds located in different areas of Guizhou Province in China. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1000 nurses, and 964 (96.4%) completed questionnaires were returned. exploratory factor analysis was employed to examine associations of attitudes, protective devices, safety climate, workload, and nurses’ behaviors with standard precautions. The identified factors were integrated in the proposed structural equation model. Findings: Protective devices had a positive and major influence on nurses’ use of standard precautions. Knowledge had a positive impact on the use of standard precautions through attitude mediation, and the safety climate had a positive impact on the use of standard precautions. In contrast, increasing workload had a negative effect on the use of standard precautions. The factors affecting the use of standard precautions among nurses in order of decreasing effect size were: protective devices, knowledge, attitude, safety climate, and workload. Conclusions: This study offer valuable information for healthcare management regarding the use of standard precautions to reduce occupational exposure among nurses. PMID:26885227

  16. 29 CFR 1915.131 - General precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment..., shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a) Hand lines, slings, tackles of adequate strength, or carriers such as tool bags with shoulder straps shall be provided and used to handle tools, materials, and equipment so...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.131 - General precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment..., shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a) Hand lines, slings, tackles of adequate strength, or carriers such as tool bags with shoulder straps shall be provided and used to handle tools, materials, and equipment so...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.131 - General precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment..., shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a) Hand lines, slings, tackles of adequate strength, or carriers such as tool bags with shoulder straps shall be provided and used to handle tools, materials, and equipment so...

  19. Validation of an instrument to assess factors associated with adherence to standard precautions among dentists in primary healthcare.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Patrícia H V; Gir, Elucir; Santos, Claudia B; Ribeiro, Renata P; Hayashida, Miyeko; Malaguti-Toffano, Silmara E; da Silva, Adriana M

    2014-01-01

    Accidents with biological material are a reality in dental practice. The use of preventive measures such as the adoption of Standard Precautions (SP) is essential, thus this study aims to validate an instrument to check factors associated with adherence to SP among dentists. The scales of psychosocial and organizational factors that influence adherence to SP were the starting point. These scales have already been nationally validated for doctors and nurses. The instrument consisted of 49 items divided into five dimensions. The process of instrument validation involved the following steps: its adaptation for situations that pose risks to dentists; content and semantic analysis by a committee of judges, and application to dentists. The adapted instrument was applied to 224 dentists who provided primary healthcare in the north region of Paraná State. After the application of scales, the psychometric properties were analyzed using the factor analysis technique and a reliability test. The factor analysis confirmed three domains: Obstacles to following standard precautions; Knowledge of occupational transmission of HIV and Safety climate. The reliability of the domains was considered adequate (Cronbach's alpha between 0.73 and 0.88.). The instrument demonstrated adequate psychometric properties to assess factors that influence adherence to SP among dentists. PMID:25335360

  20. 14 CFR 121.221 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire precautions. 121.221 Section 121.221..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.221 Fire precautions. (a... the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a fire hazard in...

  1. 14 CFR 121.221 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire precautions. 121.221 Section 121.221..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.221 Fire precautions. (a... the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a fire hazard in...

  2. 14 CFR 121.221 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire precautions. 121.221 Section 121.221..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.221 Fire precautions. (a... the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a fire hazard in...

  3. 14 CFR 125.119 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... draft control so that the extinguishing agent provided can control any fire that may start in the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire precautions. 125.119 Section 125.119....119 Fire precautions. (a) Each compartment must be designed so that, when used for storing cargo...

  4. 14 CFR 121.221 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... extinguishing agent provided can control any fire that may start in the compartment. (5) It must be lined with... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire precautions. 121.221 Section 121.221..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.221 Fire precautions....

  5. Fillers: Contraindications, Side Effects and Precautions

    PubMed Central

    Lafaille, Philippe; Benedetto, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Fillers are generally considered safe. However side effects may happen and hence a practicing dermatologist need to be aware of such side effects, contraindicatons and precaution to be adopted while using fillers. PMID:20606987

  6. Factors Influencing Nurses’ Use of Hazardous Drug Safe-Handling Precautions

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Nancy J.; Manning, Mary Lou; Touchton-Leonard, Kate; Yang, Li; Wallen, Gwenyth R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To identify factors associated with oncology nurses’ use of hazardous drug (HD) safe-handling precautions in inpatient clinical research units. Design Descriptive, cross-sectional. Setting The National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland. Sample 115 RNs working on high-volume HD administration units. Methods Survey data were collected online using the Hazardous Drug Handling Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. Main Research Variables Exposure knowledge, self-efficacy, barriers to personal protective equipment use, perceived risk, conflict of interest, interpersonal influences, workplace safety climate, and total mean HD precaution use. Findings Participants demonstrated high exposure knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived risk, interpersonal influences, and workplace safety climate. Participants demonstrated moderate barriers and conflict of interest. Total mean HD precaution use proved highest during HD administration and lowest for handling excreta at 48 hours. Average patients per day significantly influenced total HD precaution: nurses exhibited more HD precaution use when assigned fewer patients. Conclusions Despite high exposure knowledge, barriers to personal protective equipment use and conflict of interest may contribute to reduced adoption of personal protective practices among oncology nurses. Implications for Nursing Hospital and unit-specific factors captured by the predictor variables could contribute to institutional HD policy. PMID:27105195

  7. 14 CFR 125.119 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire precautions. 125.119 Section 125.119...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Airworthiness Requirements §...

  8. 14 CFR 125.119 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire precautions. 125.119 Section 125.119...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Airworthiness Requirements §...

  9. 14 CFR 125.119 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire precautions. 125.119 Section 125.119...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Airworthiness Requirements §...

  10. Validity and reliability of the Questionnaire for Compliance with Standard Precaution

    PubMed Central

    Valim, Marília Duarte; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Hayashida, Miyeko; Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Questionnaire for Compliance with Standard Precaution for nurses. METHODS : This methodological study was conducted with 121 nurses from health care facilities in Sao Paulo’s countryside, who were represented by two high-complexity and by three average-complexity health care facilities. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha and stability was calculated by the intraclass correlation coefficient, through test-retest. Convergent, discriminant, and known-groups construct validity techniques were conducted. RESULTS : The questionnaire was found to be reliable (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.80; intraclass correlation coefficient: (0.97) In regards to the convergent and discriminant construct validity, strong correlation was found between compliance to standard precautions, the perception of a safe environment, and the smaller perception of obstacles to follow such precautions (r = 0.614 and r = 0.537, respectively). The nurses who were trained on the standard precautions and worked on the health care facilities of higher complexity were shown to comply more (p = 0.028 and p = 0.006, respectively). CONCLUSIONS : The Brazilian version of the Questionnaire for Compliance with Standard Precaution was shown to be valid and reliable. Further investigation must be conducted with nurse samples that are more representative of the Brazilian reality. The use of the questionnaire may support the creation of educational measures considering the possible gaps that can be identified, focusing on the workers’ health and on the patients’ safety. PMID:26759967

  11. 32 CFR 700.923 - Precautions for health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Precautions for health. 700.923 Section 700.923... Contents § 700.923 Precautions for health. The senior officer present shall take precautions to preserve the health of the persons under his or her authority. He or she shall obtain information regarding...

  12. 32 CFR 700.923 - Precautions for health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Precautions for health. 700.923 Section 700.923... Contents § 700.923 Precautions for health. The senior officer present shall take precautions to preserve the health of the persons under his or her authority. He or she shall obtain information regarding...

  13. 32 CFR 700.923 - Precautions for health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions for health. 700.923 Section 700.923... Contents § 700.923 Precautions for health. The senior officer present shall take precautions to preserve the health of the persons under his or her authority. He or she shall obtain information regarding...

  14. 32 CFR 700.923 - Precautions for health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Precautions for health. 700.923 Section 700.923... Contents § 700.923 Precautions for health. The senior officer present shall take precautions to preserve the health of the persons under his or her authority. He or she shall obtain information regarding...

  15. 32 CFR 700.923 - Precautions for health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Precautions for health. 700.923 Section 700.923... Contents § 700.923 Precautions for health. The senior officer present shall take precautions to preserve the health of the persons under his or her authority. He or she shall obtain information regarding...

  16. Laser tattoo removal, precautions, and unwanted effects.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Yvonne; Rubin, Agneta Troilius

    2015-01-01

    Laser tattoo removal uses the physical properties of photoselective thermolysis in order to remove tattoo pigment. The technique has gradually improved over the years with the development of Q-switched lasers, with overall good results and a relatively low degree of adverse effects. However, lasers cannot always erase the unwanted tattoo completely, and there are still risks of unwanted effects such as scarring, pigment changes, ink darkening, and potential aggravation of latent skin conditions. This chapter will discuss the precautions that have to be taken and what pitfalls to avoid before starting the procedure of laser tattoo removal. PMID:25833629

  17. Can there be science-based precaution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Charles

    2006-10-01

    'Science-based precaution' is possible in logic if not in politics, and should be a normal part of risk management. It should balance the risks and benefits of innovation, or equivalently, specify the price one is willing to pay to avoid risk. The Precaution Principle states that the absence of scientific proof does not preclude precautionary action—or, in its stronger version, that it requires such action. This principle is a useful counterweight to the insistence on rigorous scientific proof, but focuses on costs and risks to the exclusion of benefits. It expresses 'look before you leap', but not 'nothing ventured, nothing gained'. To facilitate adaptive management, we propose a complementary principle: 'precautionary action should not unreasonably interfere with innovation that promises major benefits, until its dangers and benefits are well understood'. In international trade law, we propose that scientific evidence presented in support of discriminatory measures that would otherwise violate the world trade regime—such as the de facto European Union moratorium on importing genetically modified crops—be required to suffice to support a 'reasonable belief' of danger to human health or the environment.

  18. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire precautions and firefighting. 176.164 Section... Fire precautions and firefighting. (a) Matches, lighters, fire, and other ignition sources are... by a fixed fire extinguishing installation or must be accessible for firefighting operations. (e)...

  19. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire precautions and firefighting. 176.164 Section... Fire precautions and firefighting. (a) Matches, lighters, fire, and other ignition sources are... by a fixed fire extinguishing installation or must be accessible for firefighting operations. (e)...

  20. 45 CFR 17.3 - Precautions to be taken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Precautions to be taken. 17.3 Section 17.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.3 Precautions to be taken. The issuing organization shall take reasonable...

  1. 45 CFR 17.3 - Precautions to be taken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Precautions to be taken. 17.3 Section 17.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.3 Precautions to be taken. The issuing organization shall take reasonable...

  2. 45 CFR 17.3 - Precautions to be taken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Precautions to be taken. 17.3 Section 17.3 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.3 Precautions to be taken. The issuing organization shall take reasonable...

  3. 30 CFR 57.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 57.6604 Section 57... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm— (a) Surface blasting operations shall be suspended and persons...

  4. 30 CFR 57.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 57.6604 Section 57... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm— (a) Surface blasting operations shall be suspended and persons...

  5. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a...

  6. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a...

  7. 30 CFR 57.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 57.6604 Section 57... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm— (a) Surface blasting operations shall be suspended and persons...

  8. 30 CFR 57.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 57.6604 Section 57... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm— (a) Surface blasting operations shall be suspended and persons...

  9. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a...

  10. 30 CFR 57.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 57.6604 Section 57... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm— (a) Surface blasting operations shall be suspended and persons...

  11. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a...

  12. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a...

  13. 33 CFR 6.16-3 - Precautions against sabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Precautions against sabotage. 6... GENERAL PROTECTION AND SECURITY OF VESSELS, HARBORS, AND WATERFRONT FACILITIES Sabotage and Subversive Activity § 6.16-3 Precautions against sabotage. The master, owner, agent, or operator of a vessel...

  14. 33 CFR 6.16-3 - Precautions against sabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Precautions against sabotage. 6... GENERAL PROTECTION AND SECURITY OF VESSELS, HARBORS, AND WATERFRONT FACILITIES Sabotage and Subversive Activity § 6.16-3 Precautions against sabotage. The master, owner, agent, or operator of a vessel...

  15. 33 CFR 6.16-3 - Precautions against sabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions against sabotage. 6... GENERAL PROTECTION AND SECURITY OF VESSELS, HARBORS, AND WATERFRONT FACILITIES Sabotage and Subversive Activity § 6.16-3 Precautions against sabotage. The master, owner, agent, or operator of a vessel...

  16. 33 CFR 6.16-3 - Precautions against sabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Precautions against sabotage. 6... GENERAL PROTECTION AND SECURITY OF VESSELS, HARBORS, AND WATERFRONT FACILITIES Sabotage and Subversive Activity § 6.16-3 Precautions against sabotage. The master, owner, agent, or operator of a vessel...

  17. 12 CFR 555.210 - What precautions must I take?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What precautions must I take? 555.210 Section... precautions must I take? If you use electronic means and facilities under this subpart, your management must... requirements of part 568 of this chapter....

  18. 45 CFR 17.3 - Precautions to be taken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Precautions to be taken. 17.3 Section 17.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.3 Precautions to be taken. The issuing organization shall take reasonable...

  19. 45 CFR 17.3 - Precautions to be taken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Precautions to be taken. 17.3 Section 17.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.3 Precautions to be taken. The issuing organization shall take reasonable...

  20. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire precautions and firefighting. 176.164 Section... Fire precautions and firefighting. (a) Matches, lighters, fire, and other ignition sources are... handled except in places designated by the master or the COTP. (b) A fire hose of sufficient length...

  1. Adolescents' attitudes towards AIDS precautions and intention to use condoms.

    PubMed

    Barling, N R; Moore, S M

    1990-12-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward AIDS precautions of 370 15- and 16-yr.-old secondary school students. Attitudes reflected levels of apathy, denial, and confusion high enough to lead to concern for this potentially high-risk group. Intention to use condoms in future sexual encounters was related to sex, conflict and confusion about AIDS precautions, plus other attitudinal variables. PMID:2287679

  2. [Adherence to standard precautions by the public pre-hospital health team in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza; Oliveira, Adriana Cristina; Silva, Jussara Teixeira; Paiva, Maria Henriqueta Rocha Siqueira

    2008-06-01

    This was a cross-sectional study of workers in the pre-hospital care team in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, aimed at evaluating adherence to precautions. The study instrument included questions on knowledge, attitudes, and facilitating factors for adherence to standard precautions. Adherence was verified by percentage of adequacy: > 75% correct answers. Drivers showed the lowest degree of knowledge and physicians the highest. In self-reported answers, none of the workers demonstrated adequate use of face masks, goggles, or personal protective equipment (PPE), and drivers reported inadequate attitudes on all the items. In the univariate analysis, job position, gender, and specific rescue unit were associated with adoption of precautions. Meanwhile, in the multivariate analysis, only job position was related (drivers and nurse technicians/aides). The most frequently cited facilitating factors for improvement of adherence were: training focusing on infections, occupational risks, and use of PPE; periodic team meetings; and creation of a central unit for cleaning, disinfecting, and sterilizing equipment and materials. Workers in the pre-hospital care service demonstrated attitudes that were compatible with knowledge, but professional class affected knowledge on standard precautions and self-reported adequate attitudes. PMID:18545764

  3. Health Precautions. Child Health and Safety Series (Module II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iscoe, Louise; And Others

    This manual for child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides guidelines on developing and maintaining health records and permission forms, establishing daily cleanliness routines, making daily health checks, and conducting periodic screening to identify children with problems requiring professional help. Section I focuses on…

  4. 48 CFR 252.236-7005 - Airfield safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... runway centerline extended. (A) The inclined plane (glide angle) begins in the clear zone 200 feet past... inclined plane (glide angle) and ending there. (B) The width of the surface at the beginning of the inclined plane (glide angle) is the same as the width of the clear zone. It then flares uniformly,...

  5. 48 CFR 252.236-7005 - Airfield safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... runway centerline extended. (A) The inclined plane (glide angle) begins in the clear zone 200 feet past... inclined plane (glide angle) and ending there. (B) The width of the surface at the beginning of the inclined plane (glide angle) is the same as the width of the clear zone. It then flares uniformly,...

  6. 48 CFR 252.236-7005 - Airfield safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... runway centerline extended. (A) The inclined plane (glide angle) begins in the clear zone 200 feet past... inclined plane (glide angle) and ending there. (B) The width of the surface at the beginning of the inclined plane (glide angle) is the same as the width of the clear zone. It then flares uniformly,...

  7. 48 CFR 252.236-7005 - Airfield safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... runway centerline extended. (A) The inclined plane (glide angle) begins in the clear zone 200 feet past... inclined plane (glide angle) and ending there. (B) The width of the surface at the beginning of the inclined plane (glide angle) is the same as the width of the clear zone. It then flares uniformly,...

  8. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  9. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  10. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  11. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  12. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  13. Compliance with universal precautions in correctional health care facilities.

    PubMed

    Gershon, R R; Karkashian, C D; Vlahov, D; Kummer, L; Kasting, C; Green-McKenzie, J; Escamilla-Cejudo, J A; Kendig, N; Swetz, A; Martin, L

    1999-03-01

    There were three main objectives of this cross-sectional study of Maryland State correctional health care workers. The first was to evaluate compliance with work practices designed to minimize exposure to blood and body fluids; the second, to identify correlates of compliance with universal precautions (UPs); and the third was to determine the relationship, if any, between compliance and exposures. Of 216 responding health care workers, 34% reported overall compliance across all 15 items on a compliance scale. Rates for specific items were particularly low for use of certain types of personal protective equipment, such as protective eyewear (53.5%), face mask (47.2%) and protective clothing (33.9%). Compliance rates were highest for glove use (93.2%) waste disposal (89.8%), and sharps disposal (80.8%). Compliance rates were generally not associated with demographic factors, except for age; younger workers were more likely to be compliant with safe work practices than were older workers (P < 0.05). Compliance was positively associated with several work-related variables, including perceived safety climate (i.e., management's commitment to infection control and the overall safety program) and job satisfaction, and was found to be inversely associated with security-related work constraints, job/task factors, adverse working conditions, workplace discrimination, and perceived work stress. Bloodborne exposures were not uncommon; 13.8% of all respondents had at least one bloodborne exposure within the previous 6 months, and compliance was inversely related to blood and body fluid exposures. This study identified several potentially modifiable correlates of compliance, including factors unique to the correctional setting. Infection-control interventional strategies specifically tailored to these health care workers may therefore be most effective in reducing the risk of bloodborne exposures. PMID:10091141

  14. 14 CFR 25.1360 - Precautions against injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Precautions against injury. (a) Shock. The electrical system must be designed to minimize risk of electric shock to crew, passengers, and servicing personnel and to maintenance personnel using normal...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1360 - Precautions against injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Precautions against injury. (a) Shock. The electrical system must be designed to minimize risk of electric shock to crew, passengers, and servicing personnel and to maintenance personnel using normal...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1360 - Precautions against injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Precautions against injury. (a) Shock. The electrical system must be designed to minimize risk of electric shock to crew, passengers, and servicing personnel and to maintenance personnel using normal...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1360 - Precautions against injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Precautions against injury. (a) Shock. The electrical system must be designed to minimize risk of electric shock to crew, passengers, and servicing personnel and to maintenance personnel using normal...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1360 - Precautions against injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Precautions against injury. (a) Shock. The electrical system must be designed to minimize risk of electric shock to crew, passengers, and servicing personnel and to maintenance personnel using normal...

  19. Art Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCATA Journal for Art Teachers, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Advocating that Canadian art programs should use and model environmentally safe practices, the articles in this journal focus on issues of safe practices in art education. Articles are: (1) "What is WHMIS?"; (2) "Safety Precautions for Specific Art Processes"; (3) "Toxic Substances"; (4) "Using Clay, Glazes, and Kilns Safely in the Classroom"…

  20. Infection Control and Practice of Standard Precautions Among Healthcare Workers in Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Amoran, OE; Onwube, OO

    2013-01-01

    products, 12.6% reported wash their hand before wearing the gloves, 10.7% washed hands after removal of gloves, and 72.4% changed gloves after each patient. Only 3.3% had a sharp disposal system in their various workplaces. Majority (98.6%) of the respondents reported that the major reason for noncompliance to universal precautions is the nonavailability of the equipments. There was a statistically significant difference in the practice of standard precaution among those that were exposed to blood products and body fluid compared to those that had not been exposed in the last 6 months (χ2 = 3.96, P = 0.03), public healthcare providers when compared to private health workers (χ2 = 22.32, P = 0.001), among those working in secondary and tertiary facilities compared to primary healthcare centers (χ2 = 14.64, P = 0.001) and urban areas when compared to rural areas (χ2 = 4.06, P = 0.02). The only predictor of practice of standard precaution was exposure to blood and body fluid in the last 6 months odds ratio (OR) = 4.56 (confidence interval (CI) = 1.00-21.28). Conclusions: This study implies that inadequate workers’ knowledge and environment related problems, including the lack of protective materials and other equipments and utilities required to ensure safety of HCWs is a crucial issue that need urgent attention. Institution of a surveillance system for hospital acquired infection to improve consistent use of standard precautions among health workers is recommended in Nigeria and other low income countries in Africa. PMID:24672178

  1. HIV/AIDS Universal Precaution Practices in Sun Dance Ceremonies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Jennifer; Takehara, Joan; Asetoyer, Charon; Welty, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The Aberdeen (South Dakota) Area Indian Health Service has sponsored educational projects to reduce risk of HIV transmission via skin piercing and flesh offerings during traditional Sun Dance ceremonies. Projects emphasized universal precautions, provided medical supplies, and respected the sacredness of the ceremony. Evaluation indicates that…

  2. Preventing Infection in the Classroom: The Use of Universal Precautions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edens, Retha M.; Murdick, Nikki L.; Gartin, Barbara C.

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews the universal precautions for appropriate infection control, including the proper method for putting on gloves and removing gloves, hand washing, and blood/bodily fluid clean up. A sample school board policy and kindergarten health core curriculum is provided, along with a kindergarten classroom illustration. (Contains…

  3. Radiological Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    Written to be used concurrently with the U.S. Army's Radiological Safety Course, this publication discusses the causes, sources, and detection of nuclear radiation. In addition, the transportation and disposal of radioactive materials are covered. The report also deals with the safety precautions to be observed when working with lasers, microwave…

  4. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  5. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular...

  6. 29 CFR 98.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Adequate evidence. 98.900 Section 98.900 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a...

  7. Scoping in environmental impact assessment: Balancing precaution and efficiency?

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Tim . E-mail: t.snell@adamshendry.co.uk; Cowell, Richard . E-mail: cowellrj@cardiff.ac.uk

    2006-05-15

    Scoping is a crucial yet under-researched stage of environmental impact assessment, in which practice falls well behind conceptual ideals. We argue that such 'implementation deficits' reflect dilemmas between two key rationales for scoping - environmental precaution and decision-making efficiency - and between technical and participatory conceptions of the decision-making process. We use qualitative research to understand how scoping practice in the UK reconciles these competing imperatives. Our findings suggest that practitioners mainly rationalise their approach in terms of decision-making efficiency, while justifying excluding the public from scoping on grounds of prematurity, delay and risks of causing confusion. The tendency to scope issues in rather than exclude them reflects a pervasive concern for legal challenge, rather than environmental precaution, but this reinforces standard lists of environmental considerations rather than the investigation of novel, cumulative or indirect risks.

  8. Framework for controlling infection through isolation precautions in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Kazumi; Misao, Hanako

    2014-03-01

    In Japan, nurses certified in infection control face organizational and structural challenges to the implementation of the recommended isolation precautions. In this study, we developed a conceptual framework for the problem-solving process of certified nurses in infection control when implementing appropriate isolation-precaution measures. We conducted a qualitative, descriptive study using directed content analysis. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 40 nurses who had over five years' experience in infection control. Factors assessing the risk of infection in patients were identified, including microorganism characteristics, patient characteristics, and risk of infection to the entire unit. The nurses also assessed the risk of infection in institutions from the following perspectives: organizational culture, infection control system, human resources, environment surrounding the facility, ethical issues, and external factors. Individual characteristics, such as attributes, knowledge, expertise, and job function, were identified as major influencing factors in the problem-solving process. These findings could be useful for newly-certified nurses in infection control and provide recommendations on implementing isolation-precaution measures. PMID:24635895

  9. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to... donor safety and blood availability, and potential measures to maintain adequate iron stores in...

  10. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular act or omission has occurred. Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235); 20 U.S.C. 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec....

  11. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  12. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  13. The experience of Ugandan nurses in the practice of universal precautions.

    PubMed

    Nderitu, Esther Wanjiku; Mill, Judy; Richter, Solina

    2015-01-01

    In Uganda, nurses do not always practice universal precautions unless they know the patients' HIV status. In our study, focused ethnography was used to explore the experiences of Ugandan nurses in the practice of universal precautions while caring for persons living with HIV. In-depth interviews were completed with 16 participants from a variety of units at a large teaching hospital in Uganda. Although participants were knowledgeable about universal precautions, the primary challenge to the practice of universal precautions was the inadequate supply of resources, both material and human. Despite challenges, the nurses displayed an enthusiasm for their work and a dedication to provide the best possible care for patients. The findings highlight the urgent need for governments and institutions, particularly in resource-constrained countries, to develop and implement policies related to universal precaution practice and to provide a consistent supply of protective equipment to ensure that universal precautions are consistently used. PMID:25769751

  14. Safety in the Weightroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Balboa, Juan-Miguel

    1993-01-01

    Secondary level physical educators must be sure to instruct their weight lifters in proper spotting and lifting procedures, because weight training carries a high risk of injury. The article explains how to check the equipment, spot properly for specific exercises, and take general safety precautions in the weight room. (SM)

  15. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  16. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  17. Swine Worker Precautions During Suspected Outbreaks of Influenza in Swine.

    PubMed

    Paccha, Blanca; Neira-Ramirez, Victor; Gibbs, Shawn; Torremorell, Montserrat; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2016-05-01

    To assess the behavior and precautions that swine workers take during suspected influenza outbreaks in swine, six commercial swine farms in the Midwest U.S. region were visited when influenza outbreaks were suspected in herds during the fall/winter of 2012-2013. Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and type of task performed by swine workers were recorded based on farm representative reports. Between one to two workers were working on the day of each visit and spent approximately 25 minutes performing work-related tasks that placed them in close contact with the swine. The most common tasks reported were walking the aisles (27%), handling pigs (21%), and handling equipment (21%). The most common PPE were boots (100%), heavy rubber gloves (75%), and dedicated nondisposable clothing (74%). Use of N95 respirators was reported at three farms. Hand hygiene practices were common in most of the farms, but reportedly performed for only 20% to 25% of tasks. PMID:27263180

  18. An evaluation of hospital emergency department (HED) adherence to universal precautions.

    PubMed

    Rydman, R J; Tannebaum, R D; Zalenski, R J

    1994-08-01

    A longitudinal cross sectional study of Hospital Emergency Department (HED) procedures over a nine month period was conducted. A total of 1,541 procedures were observed on 56 randomly selected 8-h work shifts. Shifts were distributed: 34% day shift; 34% evening shift; and 32% on the night shift. Observations on the evening shift were oversampled to capture an adequate number of trauma patients. Observations were distributed: 33% day shift; 39% evening shift; and 28% on the night shift. Measurements included: type of procedure; adherence to specific barrier technique, i.e., use of gloves, gowns, masks, and eye protection; and occurrence of adverse exposure. Ten types of HED procedures were documented and analyzed. Computerized tracking of study observations established periodic rates of HED health care worker (HCW) adherence to universal precautions. These data are important for internal quality control/assurance programs and rate comparisons within and across institutions over time. The longitudinal evaluation of the database revealed that glove compliance increased over the period of the study and adverse exposure decreased. Conducting ongoing or periodic observational studies of this kind are important and necessary in order to gauge HED response to the epidemiologic challenges of urban society. PMID:7829982

  19. Factors Affecting Cervical Cancer Screening Behaviors Based on the Precaution Adoption Process Model: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bahmani, Afshin; Baghianimoghadam, Mohammad Hossein; Enjezab, Behnaz; Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy; Askarshahi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    One of the most preventable cancers in women is cervical cancer. Pap smear test is an effective screening program; however, it is not conducted very frequently. The aim of this study is explaining the determinants affecting women’s participation in the Pap smear test based on precaution adoption process model with a qualitative approach. This study was a qualitative approach using a Directed Content Analysis methodology which was conducted in 2014. Participants were 30 rural women who participated in this study voluntarily in sarvabad, Iran. Purposive sampling was initiated and continued until data saturation. Semi-structured interviews were the primary method of data collection. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and continuous comparisons. Women`s information and awareness about cervical cancer and Pap smear is insufficient and most of them believed that they were not at risk; however, they perceived the severity of the disease. Some of them had no adequate understanding of the test benefits. They pointed to the lack of time, financial difficulties, fear of test result and lack of awareness as the main barriers against the Pap smear test; however, they did not say that they were not willing to do the test. Findings could help health policy makers to find the right area and purpose to facilitate the participation of women in the Pap smear test. PMID:26755465

  20. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  1. 48 CFR 1252.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 1252.236-70 Special precautions for work at operating airports. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1236.570, insert the following clause: Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports (OCT... work at operating airports. 1252.236-70 Section 1252.236-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  2. 48 CFR 1252.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 1252.236-70 Special precautions for work at operating airports. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1236.570, insert the following clause: Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports (OCT... work at operating airports. 1252.236-70 Section 1252.236-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  3. 21 CFR 111.365 - What precautions must you take to prevent contamination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contamination? 111.365 Section 111.365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... contamination? You must take all the necessary precautions during the manufacture of a dietary supplement to prevent contamination of components or dietary supplements. These precautions include: (a)...

  4. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  5. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  6. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  7. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  8. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  9. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  10. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  11. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  12. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  13. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  14. 21 CFR 111.365 - What precautions must you take to prevent contamination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contamination? 111.365 Section 111.365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... contamination? You must take all the necessary precautions during the manufacture of a dietary supplement to prevent contamination of components or dietary supplements. These precautions include: (a)...

  15. 21 CFR 111.365 - What precautions must you take to prevent contamination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contamination? 111.365 Section 111.365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... contamination? You must take all the necessary precautions during the manufacture of a dietary supplement to prevent contamination of components or dietary supplements. These precautions include: (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 111.365 - What precautions must you take to prevent contamination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contamination? 111.365 Section 111.365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... contamination? You must take all the necessary precautions during the manufacture of a dietary supplement to prevent contamination of components or dietary supplements. These precautions include: (a)...

  17. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  18. Adequate supervision for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Anderst, James; Moffatt, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Primary care providers (PCPs) have the opportunity to improve child health and well-being by addressing supervision issues before an injury or exposure has occurred and/or after an injury or exposure has occurred. Appropriate anticipatory guidance on supervision at well-child visits can improve supervision of children, and may prevent future harm. Adequate supervision varies based on the child's development and maturity, and the risks in the child's environment. Consideration should be given to issues as wide ranging as swimming pools, falls, dating violence, and social media. By considering the likelihood of harm and the severity of the potential harm, caregivers may provide adequate supervision by minimizing risks to the child while still allowing the child to take "small" risks as needed for healthy development. Caregivers should initially focus on direct (visual, auditory, and proximity) supervision of the young child. Gradually, supervision needs to be adjusted as the child develops, emphasizing a safe environment and safe social interactions, with graduated independence. PCPs may foster adequate supervision by providing concrete guidance to caregivers. In addition to preventing injury, supervision includes fostering a safe, stable, and nurturing relationship with every child. PCPs should be familiar with age/developmentally based supervision risks, adequate supervision based on those risks, characteristics of neglectful supervision based on age/development, and ways to encourage appropriate supervision throughout childhood. PMID:25369578

  19. Small Rural Schools CAN Have Adequate Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Martha

    The small rural school's foremost and largest problem is providing an adequate curriculum for students in a changing world. Often the small district cannot or is not willing to pay the per-pupil cost of curriculum specialists, specialized courses using expensive equipment no more than one period a day, and remodeled rooms to accommodate new…

  20. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  1. Safety in the scanning electron microscopy laboratory--1984 update.

    PubMed

    Barber, V C

    1984-01-01

    Recent information on hazards as they relate to safety in the SEM laboratory has been compiled. The paper concentrates on recent information on formaldehyde, embeddants, and a reminder of the possible hazards of photographic chemicals. A review of formaldehyde does not substantiate it as a human carcinogen or mutagen. However, the other hazards associated with it suggest that formaldehyde needs to be handled with care. The recent substantiation of epoxy resins as mutagens suggests that all operations involving embeddants should be undertaken in an effective fume hood. Other precautions are also important. The hazards of photographic chemicals need to be reiterated. It should also be pointed out that adequate ventilation of dark rooms would do a lot to reduce this hazard. PMID:6529456

  2. Contact Precautions for Multidrug-Resistant Organisms (MDROs): Current Recommendations and Actual Practice

    PubMed Central

    Clock, Sarah A.; Cohen, Bevin; Behta, Maryam; Ross, Barbara; Larson, Elaine L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Contact precautions are recommended for interactions with patients colonized/infected with multidrug-resistant organisms; however, rates of contact precautions practice are unknown. Methods Observers recorded the availability of supplies and staff/visitor adherence to contact precautions at rooms of patients indicated for contact precautions. Data were collected at three sites in a New York City hospital network. Results Contact precautions signs were present for 85.4% of indicated patients. The largest proportions were indicated for isolation for vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cultures. Isolation carts were available outside 93.7-96.7% of rooms displaying signs, and personal protective equipment was available at rates of 49.4-72.1% for gloves (all sizes: small, medium, and large) and 91.7-95.2% for gowns. Overall adherence rates upon room entry and exit, respectively, were 19.4% and 48.4% for hand hygiene, 67.5% and 63.5% for gloves, and 67.9% and 77.1% for gowns. Adherence was significantly better in intensive care units (p<0.05) and by patient-care staff (p<0.05), and patient-care staff compliance with one contact precautions behavior was predictive of adherence to additional behaviors (p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings support the recommendation that methods to monitor contact precautions and identify and correct non-adherent practices should be a standard component of infection prevention and control programs. PMID:19913329

  3. Validity and reliability assessment of the Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale Arabic version in Saudi nursing students.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Jonas P; Colet, Paolo C; Al-Otaibi, Jazi H; Soriano, Shiela S; Cacho, Gabby M; Cruz, Charlie P

    2016-01-01

    Strict compliance with standard precautions (SPs) is warranted to ensure the safety of patients in healthcare facilities. Nursing students (NSs), who are regarded as nurses in training, potentially play a role in cross-contamination in the hospital. NSs are also at high risk of acquiring infections in cases of ineffective compliance with SPs. Thus, an assessment of NSs' compliance with SPs should be conducted on a regular basis, which necessitates a valid and reliable tool. This study was conducted to assess the validity and reliability of the Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale Arabic version (CSPS-A) in Saudi NSs. A convenient sample of 230 respondents (158 NSs and 72 staff nurses) was included in this descriptive, cross-sectional study. The CSPS English version was translated into the Arabic language following a recommended guideline from cross-cultural adaptation and translation instruments. The Cronbach's alpha, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of the test-retest scores, and the item-total correlations (ITC) were computed to establish the reliability. Content validity and construct validity by the known-groups method and hypothesis testing method were performed. The CSPS-A exhibited good internal consistency and reliability (Cronbach's alpha, 0.89; ICC, 0.88; ITCs, 0.325-0.728). A satisfactory content and construct validity was also reported. The CSPS-A is a valid and reliable tool that can measure the compliance to SPs among NSs in Saudi Arabia. PMID:26947548

  4. Precautions surrounding blood transfusion in autoimmune haemolytic anaemias are overestimated

    PubMed Central

    Yürek, Salih; Mayer, Beate; Almahallawi, Mohammed; Pruss, Axel; Salama, Abdulgabar

    2015-01-01

    Background It is very evident that many precautions are taken regarding transfusion of red blood cells in patients with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. Frequently, considerable efforts are made to examine the indication and serological compatibility prior to transfusion in such patients. However, at times, this may unnecessarily jeopardize patients who urgently require a red blood cell transfusion. Materials and methods Thirty-six patients with warm-type autoimmune haemolytic anaemia were included in this study. All patients had reactive serum autoantibodies and required blood transfusion. Standard serological assays were employed for the detection and characterization of antibodies to red blood cells. Results A positive direct antiglobulin test was observed in all 36 patients, in addition to detectable antibodies in both the eluate and serum. Significant alloantibodies were detected in the serum samples of three patients (anti-c, anti-JKa, and anti-E). In 32 patients, red blood cell transfusion was administered with no significant haemolytic transfusion reactions due to auto- and/or allo-antibodies. Due to overestimation of positive cross-matches three patients received no transfusion or delayed transfusion and died, and one patient died due to unrecognised blood loss and anaemia which was attributed to an ineffective red blood cell transfusion. Discussion Many of the reported recommendations regarding transfusion of red blood cells in autoimmune haemolytic anaemia are highly questionable, and positive serological cross-matches should not result in a delay or refusal of necessary blood transfusions. PMID:26192772

  5. Scientists versus regulators: precaution, novelty & regulatory oversight as predictors of perceived risks of engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Beaudrie, Christian E H; Satterfield, Terre; Kandlikar, Milind; Harthorn, Barbara H

    2014-01-01

    Engineered nanoscale materials (ENMs) present a difficult challenge for risk assessors and regulators. Continuing uncertainty about the potential risks of ENMs means that expert opinion will play an important role in the design of policies to minimize harmful implications while supporting innovation. This research aims to shed light on the views of 'nano experts' to understand which nanomaterials or applications are regarded as more risky than others, to characterize the differences in risk perceptions between expert groups, and to evaluate the factors that drive these perceptions. Our analysis draws from a web-survey (N = 404) of three groups of US and Canadian experts: nano-scientists and engineers, nano-environmental health and safety scientists, and regulatory scientists and decision-makers. Significant differences in risk perceptions were found across expert groups; differences found to be driven by underlying attitudes and perceptions characteristic of each group. Nano-scientists and engineers at the upstream end of the nanomaterial life cycle perceived the lowest levels of risk, while those who are responsible for assessing and regulating risks at the downstream end perceived the greatest risk. Perceived novelty of nanomaterial risks, differing preferences for regulation (i.e. the use of precaution versus voluntary or market-based approaches), and perceptions of the risk of technologies in general predicted variation in experts' judgments of nanotechnology risks. Our findings underscore the importance of involving a diverse selection of experts, particularly those with expertise at different stages along the nanomaterial lifecycle, during policy development. PMID:25222742

  6. Sternal Precautions: Is It Time for Change? Precautions versus Restrictions – A Review of Literature and Recommendations for Revision

    PubMed Central

    LaPier, Tanya Kinney; Shaw, Donald K.

    2011-01-01

    The processes that occur with normal sternal healing and potential complications related to median sternotomy are of particular interest to physical therapists. The premise of patients following sternal precautions (SP) or specific activity restrictions is the belief that avoiding certain movements will reduce risk of sternal complications. However, current research has identified that many patients remain functionally impaired long after cardiothoracic surgery. It is possible that some SP may contribute to such functional impairments. Currently, SP have several limitations including that they: (1) have no universally accepted definition, (2) are often based on anecdotal/expert opinion or at best supported by indirect evidence, (3) are mostly applied uniformly for all patients without regard to individual differences, and (4) may be overly restrictive and therefore impede ideal recovery. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of current research and commentary on median sternotomy procedures and activity restrictions. We propose that the optimal degree and duration of SP should be based on an individual patient's characteristics (eg, risk factors, comorbidities, previous activity level) that would enable physical activity to be targeted to particular limitations rather than restricting specific functional tasks and physical activity. Such patient-specific SP focusing on function may be more likely to facilitate recovery after median sternotomy and less likely to impede it. PMID:21448343

  7. Life stages and risk-avoidance: status- and context-sensitivity in precaution systems.

    PubMed

    Lienard, Pierre

    2011-03-01

    Human typical life history involves specific tradeoffs, resulting in the selection of specific cognitive adaptations, among which a suite of age- and gender-specific precaution systems sensitive to variations in the physical and social environment. Precaution systems take into account the individual's status and life-stage, information about specific threats, as well as the fact that the organism can or cannot address those threats unassisted. Systematic variation in individual decision-making and behavior in risky situations provide insights into the operation of those precaution systems. The literature survey is completed by data gathered among the pastoral Turkana of Kenya showing how variations in precautions and risk avoidance correlate with age, sex, and social conditions. PMID:20883720

  8. 48 CFR 1252.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) 48 CFR 1236.570, insert the following clause: Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports (OCT... Contractor. The maximum speed allowed at the airport shall be established by airport management....

  9. Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

  10. The Impact of Discontinuing Contact Precautions for VRE and MRSA on Device-Associated Infections.

    PubMed

    Edmond, Michael B; Masroor, Nadia; Stevens, Michael P; Ober, Janis; Bearman, Gonzalo

    2015-08-01

    The impact of discontinuing contact precautions for patients with MRSA and VRE colonization/infection on device-associated hospital-acquired infection rates at an academic medical center was investigated in this before-and-after study. In the setting of a strong horizontal infection prevention platform, discontinuation of contact precautions had no impact on device-associated hospital-acquired infection rates. PMID:25915205

  11. The Elementary Science Safety Manual. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of General Academic Education.

    Based on the principle that safety education should be a vital component in science instruction, this manual was designed to assist elementary teachers in doing more experiments and activities more confidently by making them aware of dangers and precautions. It also aims to make students aware that safety is a lifetime process and responsibility.…

  12. Cold, Ice, and Snow Safety (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Cold, Ice, and Snow Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Cold, Ice, and Snow Safety Print A A A Text Size What's ... a few. Plus, someone has to shovel the snow, right? Once outdoors, however, take precautions to keep ...

  13. Investigating Compliance with Standard Precautions During Residency Physicians in Gynecology and Obstetrics

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Milton Jorge; Pereira, Fernanda Maria Vieira; Gir, Elucir; Lam, Simon Ching; Barbosa, Caio Parente

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Physician compliance with standard precautions is important in the specialty of gynecology and obstetrics because of the high frequency of invasive procedures. The current study investigated compliance with standard precautions among resident physicians working in gynecology and obstetrics. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted among resident physicians in gynecology and obstetrics in their first (R1), second (R2) and third (R3) years of residency at a teaching hospital in a city in São Paulo. A structured questionnaire that included demographic and professional aspects and the Standard Precautions Adherence Scale were used to collect data. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM® SPSS version 20. Ethical aspects were considered. RESULTS: Fifty-eight resident physicians participated in the study. Of the enrolled participants, 27 (46.6%) were in R1, 12 (20.7%) were in R2 and 19 (32.8%) were in R3. The standard precautions compliance score was 4.1, which was classified as intermediate. There were no significant differences in the compliance scores of the resident physicians across the three years of residency (H=2.34, p=0.310). CONCLUSION: Compliance with standard precautions among resident physicians was intermediate. Preventive measures in clinical practice are not fully adopted in the specialty of gynecology and obstetrics. More important, many professionals claimed lack of sufficient training in standard precautions in the workplace. Such circumstances should draw the attention of hospital management with regard to occupational health risks. PMID:27464295

  14. Purchasing a cycle helmet: are retailers providing adequate advice?

    PubMed Central

    Plumridge, E.; McCool, J.; Chetwynd, J.; Langley, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the selling of cycle helmets in retail stores with particular reference to the adequacy of advice offered about the fit and securing of helmets. METHODS: All 55 retail outlets selling cycle helmets in Christchurch, New Zealand were studied by participant observation. A research entered each store as a prospective customer and requested assistance to purchase a helmet. She took detailed field notes of the ensuing encounter and these were subsequently transcribed, coded, and analysed. RESULTS: Adequate advice for helmet purchase was given in less than half of the stores. In general the sales assistants in specialist cycle shops were better informed and gave more adequate advice than those in department stores. Those who have good advice also tended to be more good advice also tended to be more active in helping with fitting the helmet. Knowledge about safety standards was apparent in one third of sales assistants. Few stores displayed information for customers about the correct fit of cycle helmets. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the advice and assistance being given to ensure that cycle helmets fit properly is often inadequate and thus the helmets may fail to fulfil their purpose in preventing injury. Consultation between retailers and policy makers is a necessary first step to improving this situation. PMID:9346053

  15. Defibrillation safety in emergency helicopter transport.

    PubMed

    Dedrick, D K; Darga, A; Landis, D; Burney, R E

    1989-01-01

    Rotary aircraft play a growing role in the transport of critically ill patients who may require emergency treatment, including defibrillation, during transport. The close quarters and proximity of vital electronic equipment have generated concern among personnel carrying out defibrillation in the air. We address the chief safety issues in helicopter defibrillation by providing measurements of the transient leakage current resulting from contact with a paddle and tested in-flight electronic interference and survey the defibrillation experience of helicopter programs. Our data show that airborne defibrillation is safe. A maximum of 1.5 mA of transient leakage current was measured from a standard battery-powered defibrillator, well within the accepted safety standard of 50 mA. In flight, there was no interference with the avionics or medical equipment, and adequate clearance was available for personnel. Of the helicopter programs surveyed, 69 (87%) had defibrillated in flight without incident. We conclude that defibrillation can be performed in the helicopter without hesitation whether on the ground or in the air, provided standard defibrillation precautions are observed. PMID:2910165

  16. Safety and Sex Practices among Nebraska Adolescents. Technical Report 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ian M.; Perry-Hunnicutt, Christina

    This report describes a range of adolescent behaviors related to their safety and the safety of others. The behaviors reported here range from ordinary safety precautions such as only swimming in supervised areas and wearing helmets when riding a motorcycle to less talked about behaviors such as using condoms during sexual intercourse and carrying…

  17. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise. PMID:9670174

  18. Machine and Woodworking Tool Safety. Module SH-24. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on machine and woodworking tool safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module discusses specific practices and precautions concerned with the efficient operation and use of most machine and woodworking tools in use today. Following the introduction, 13 objectives (each keyed to a page in the…

  19. 10 CFR 39.31 - Labels, security, and transportation precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accompanied with appropriate shipping papers in accordance with regulations set out in 10 CFR part 71. (b... Section 39.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL... radiation symbol specified in § 20.1901(a), without the conventional color requirements, and the...

  20. 10 CFR 39.31 - Labels, security, and transportation precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accompanied with appropriate shipping papers in accordance with regulations set out in 10 CFR part 71. (b... Section 39.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL... radiation symbol specified in § 20.1901(a), without the conventional color requirements, and the...

  1. 10 CFR 39.31 - Labels, security, and transportation precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accompanied with appropriate shipping papers in accordance with regulations set out in 10 CFR part 71. (b... Section 39.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL... radiation symbol specified in § 20.1901(a), without the conventional color requirements, and the...

  2. 10 CFR 39.31 - Labels, security, and transportation precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accompanied with appropriate shipping papers in accordance with regulations set out in 10 CFR part 71. (b... Section 39.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL... radiation symbol specified in § 20.1901(a), without the conventional color requirements, and the...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.503 - Precautions for hot work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... energizing and energy release are covered by 29 CFR 1915.181, Subpart L. Exposure to toxic and hazardous substances is covered in 29 CFR 1915.1000 through 1915.1450, subpart Z. (2) Fuel gas and oxygen supply lines... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.503 - Precautions for hot work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... energizing and energy release are covered by 29 CFR 1915.181, Subpart L. Exposure to toxic and hazardous substances is covered in 29 CFR 1915.1000 through 1915.1450, subpart Z. (2) Fuel gas and oxygen supply lines... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.503 - Precautions for hot work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... energizing and energy release are covered by 29 CFR 1915.181, Subpart L. Exposure to toxic and hazardous substances is covered in 29 CFR 1915.1000 through 1915.1450, subpart Z. (2) Fuel gas and oxygen supply lines... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.503 - Precautions for hot work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... energizing and energy release are covered by 29 CFR 1915.181, Subpart L. Exposure to toxic and hazardous substances is covered in 29 CFR 1915.1000 through 1915.1450, subpart Z. (2) Fuel gas and oxygen supply lines... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in...

  7. Poverty, human development, environmental and health risks: the role of precaution and cautionary policies.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    First of all a definition is given of "poverty" and "precaution". A short, by no means comprehensive, presentation of some especially relevant recent publications on both topics is included, with a view to offering also readers who are not familiar with these issues a broad overview of the specialised literature available. This is followed by a description of the solidarity concept, following various philosophical, cultural and religious trends, analysing their relationship with precaution. An attempt is then made to show how solidarity and precaution could help counteract poverty, the risks for the environment and health, with the ensuing social and health damage. Reasons are outlined which support the adoption of the precaution principle in economics, as well as some arguments which could be put forward to oppose these views. The final remarks are a reply to such criticisms with a view to showing how precaution could be an effective economic tool, as well as a way to tackle those health-related and environmental problems that are also associated with poverty. PMID:18209266

  8. Communication interventions to improve adherence to infection control precautions: a randomised crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ineffective communication of infection control requirements during transitions of care is a potential cause of non-compliance with infection control precautions by healthcare personnel. In this study, interventions to enhance communication during inpatient transfers between wards and radiology were implemented, in the attempt to improve adherence to precautions during transfers. Methods Two interventions were implemented, comprising (i) a pre-transfer checklist used by radiology porters to confirm a patient’s infectious status; (ii) a coloured cue to highlight written infectious status information in the transfer form. The effectiveness of the interventions in promoting adherence to standard precautions by radiology porters when transporting infectious patients was evaluated using a randomised crossover trial at a teaching hospital in Australia. Results 300 transfers were observed over a period of 4 months. Compliance with infection control precautions in the intervention groups was significantly improved relative to the control group (p < 0.01). Adherence rate in the control group was 38%. Applying the coloured cue resulted in a compliance rate of 73%. The pre-transfer checklist intervention achieved a comparable compliance rate of 71%. When both interventions were applied, a compliance rate of 74% was attained. Acceptability of the coloured cue was high, but adherence to the checklist was low (40%). Conclusions Simple measures to enhance communication through the provision of a checklist and the use a coloured cue brought about significant improvement in compliance with infection control precautions by transport personnel during inpatient transfers. The study underscores the importance of effective communication in ensuring compliance with infection control precautions during transitions of care. PMID:23388051

  9. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... percent of the maximum capacity of the fuel storage system; and (7) Provided with a competent concrete...) When it is necessary to weld, cut, or solder pipelines, tanks, or other containers that may have..., tanks, or containers that have been welded, soldered, brazed, or cut until the metal has cooled...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... percent of the maximum capacity of the fuel storage system; and (7) Provided with a competent concrete...) When it is necessary to weld, cut, or solder pipelines, tanks, or other containers that may have..., tanks, or containers that have been welded, soldered, brazed, or cut until the metal has cooled...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with at least 240 pounds of rock dust and provided with two portable multipurpose dry chemical type... laboratory and have a 10A:60B:C or higher rating. Both fire extinguishers must be easily accessible to... of the facility, in intake air; or (2) Provided with three portable multipurpose dry chemical...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with at least 240 pounds of rock dust and provided with two portable multipurpose dry chemical type... laboratory and have a 10A:60B:C or higher rating. Both fire extinguishers must be easily accessible to... of the facility, in intake air; or (2) Provided with three portable multipurpose dry chemical...

  13. 48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... propellants and explosives, pyrotechnics, incendiaries and smokes in the following forms: (i) Bulk, (ii... components containing no explosives, propellants, or pyrotechnics; (ii) Flammable liquids; (iii) Acids;...

  14. 48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... propellants and explosives, pyrotechnics, incendiaries and smokes in the following forms: (i) Bulk, (ii... components containing no explosives, propellants, or pyrotechnics; (ii) Flammable liquids; (iii) Acids;...

  15. 48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... propellants and explosives, pyrotechnics, incendiaries and smokes in the following forms: (i) Bulk, (ii... components containing no explosives, propellants, or pyrotechnics; (ii) Flammable liquids; (iii) Acids;...

  16. 48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... propellants and explosives, pyrotechnics, incendiaries and smokes in the following forms: (i) Bulk, (ii... components containing no explosives, propellants, or pyrotechnics; (ii) Flammable liquids; (iii) Acids;...

  17. 48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... propellants and explosives, pyrotechnics, incendiaries and smokes in the following forms: (i) Bulk, (ii... components containing no explosives, propellants, or pyrotechnics; (ii) Flammable liquids; (iii) Acids;...

  18. Lithium/sulfur dioxide cell and battery safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Anderson, A.

    1982-01-01

    The new high-energy lithium/sulfur dioxide primary electrochemical cell, having a number of advantages, has received considerable attention as a power source in the past few years. With greater experience and improved design by the manufacturers, this system can be used in a safe manner provided the guidelines for use and safety precautions described herein are followed. In addition to a description of cell design and appropriate definitions, there is a safety precautions checklist provided to guide the user. Specific safety procedures for marking, handling, transportation, and disposal are also given, as is a suggested series of tests, to assure manufacturer conformance to requirements.

  19. Dietary supplements and hypertension: potential benefits and precautions.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Carly B; Glisson, James K; Minor, Deborah S

    2012-07-01

    Dietary supplements (DSs) are used extensively in the general population and many are promoted for the natural treatment and management of hypertension. Patients with hypertension often choose to use these products either in addition to or instead of pharmacologic antihypertensive agents. Because of the frequent use of DS, both consumers and health care providers should be aware of the considerable issues surrounding these products and factors influencing both efficacy and safety. In this review of the many DSs promoted for the management of hypertension, 4 products with evidence of possible benefits (coenzyme Q10, fish oil, garlic, vitamin C) and 4 that were consistently associated with increasing blood pressure were found (ephedra, Siberian ginseng, bitter orange, licorice). The goals and objectives of this review are to discuss the regulation of DS, evaluate the efficacy of particular DS in the treatment of hypertension, and highlight DS that may potentially increase blood pressure. PMID:22747620

  20. Development of a guide to applying precaution in local public health

    PubMed Central

    Hau, Monica; Cole, Donald; Vanderlinden, Loren; MacFarlane, Ronald; Mee, Carol; Archbold, Josephine; Campbell, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The precautionary principle (PP) urges actions to prevent harm even in the face of scientific uncertainty. Members of Toronto Public Health (TPH) sought guidance on applying precaution. Methods: We searched five bibliographic databases (yield 60 articles from 1996 to 2009 and 8 from 2009 to 2011) and Google (yield 11 gray literature sources) for material relevant to local public health. From these sources, we extracted questions until saturation was reached (n = 55). We applied these questions retrospectively to eight case studies where TPH felt precaution was applied. We ranked questions for their importance in applying precaution. Results: Our final guide included 35 questions in five domains: context, assessment, alternative interventions, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. Importance rankings varied across cases, but the role of stakeholders in driving precautionary action was consistent. Monitoring and evaluation components could have been strengthened across cases. Conclusion: The TPH guide can assist municipal environmental health practitioners in applying precaution in a more transparent manner. PMID:24999853

  1. 48 CFR 3052.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... work at operating airports. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3036.570, insert the following clause: Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports (DEC 2003) (a) When work is to be performed at an... work at operating airports. 3052.236-70 Section 3052.236-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  2. 48 CFR 3052.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... work at operating airports. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3036.570, insert the following clause: Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports (DEC 2003) (a) When work is to be performed at an... work at operating airports. 3052.236-70 Section 3052.236-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  3. Improving Anesthesia Nurse Compliance with Universal Precautions Using Group Goals and Public Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Sara D.; Ludwig, Timothy D.

    2005-01-01

    Universal Precautions (UPs), procedures to reduce the likelihood of accidental exposure to blood-borne pathogens, were observed among seven Certified Nurse Anesthetists and one anesthesia technician during intravenous line procedures. After six weeks of baseline measures, nurses participated in training, goal setting, and feedback targeting hand…

  4. HIV, AIDS, and Universal Precautions: The Optometry Curriculum's Effect on Students' Knowledge, Attitudes and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengren, Kenneth J.; Zoltoski, Rebecca K.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed entering optometry students (n=404) and again during their fourth year (n=314) for knowledge about and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. Analysis indicated significant improvement from pre- to post-test for general HIV/AIDS knowledge and optometric-specific HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes. For universal precautions implementation, no change in…

  5. 48 CFR 3036.570 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... clause at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.236-70, Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports, in solicitations... work at operating airports. 3036.570 Section 3036.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SPECIAL CATEGORIES...

  6. Universal Precautions: An Instructional Module for Nurses and Other Allied Health Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Marilee A.; Moseley, James L.

    This self-instructional module is designed to inform health care providers about the concept of universal precautions, which has been recommended by the U.S. Public Health Department as a way of minimizing the risk of occupationally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), infections, and the potential development of acquired immunodeficiency…

  7. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  8. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  9. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200.14 Section 200.14 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and...

  10. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  11. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  12. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200....14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure...

  13. DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.

  14. Splenic autotransplantation and the immune system. Adequate testing required for evaluation of effect.

    PubMed Central

    Timens, W; Leemans, R

    1992-01-01

    The risk of severe infections after splenectomy, even after many years, is now well established. In attempts to prevent these infections, spleen-saving techniques, including autotransplantation of spleen fragments, have been performed, when possible in combination with vaccination. The problem in autotransplantation is the evaluation of functional activity. The results of the tests used until now often do not seem to correlate very well with the risk of developing an overwhelming postsplenectomy infection (OPSI). This may be related to the fact that the tests used evaluate general functions, and not specific spleen-related functions, such as the capacity to mount a primary response to certain polysaccharide antigens present in the capsule of bacteria known to cause OPSI. In this review, the significance of the spleen in the human immune system is discussed and the effects of splenectomy are described, including the precautions that can be taken to diminish the risk of postsplenectomy infections and sepsis. It appears that postsplenectomy vaccination is more successful when recently developed protein-conjugated polysaccharide vaccines are used. Because the present testing of the function of spleen autotransplants is not adequate, we suggest that new tests should be developed, employing appropriate polysaccharide antigens. PMID:1543398

  15. Fire Safety. Managing School Facilities, Guide 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This booklet discusses how United Kingdom schools can manage fire safety and minimize the risk of fire. The guide examines what legislation school buildings must comply with and covers the major risks. It also describes training and evacuation procedures and provides guidance on fire precautions, alarm systems, fire fighting equipment, and escape…

  16. Safety in School Science: Possible Carcinogenic Hazards in School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of articles concerned with safety in school science. This article presents some facts about eight types of carcinogenic chemicals and suggests precautions in their use in British schools. A safety bibliography is also included. (HM)

  17. Safety of peripheral administration of phenylephrine in a neurologic intensive care unit: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Tim; Wolfe, Brianne; Davis, Gary; Ansari, Safdar

    2016-08-01

    Integral to the management of the neurocritically injured patient are the prevention and treatment of hypotension, maintenance of cerebral perfusion pressure, and occasionally blood pressure augmentation. When adequate volume resuscitation fails to meet perfusion needs, vasopressors are often used to restore end-organ perfusion. This has historically necessitated central venous access given well-documented incidence of extravasation injuries associated with peripheral administration of vasopressors. In this pilot study, we report our 6-month experience with peripheral administration of low-concentration phenylephrine (40 μg/mL) in our neurocritical care unit. We were able to administer peripheral phenylephrine, up to a dose of 2 μg/(kg min), for an average of 14.29hours (1-54.3) in 20 patients with only 1 possible minor complication and no major complications. This was achieved by adding additional safety measures in our computerized physician order entry system and additional nurse-driven safety protocols. Thus, with careful monitoring and safety precautions, peripheral administration of phenylephrine at an optimized concentration appears to have an acceptable safety profile for use in the neurocritical care unit up to a mean infusion time of 14hours. PMID:27288620

  18. An alternative approach to prescribing sternal precautions after median sternotomy, "Keep Your Move in the Tube".

    PubMed

    Adams, Jenny; Lotshaw, Ana; Exum, Emelia; Campbell, Mark; Spranger, Cathy B; Beveridge, Jim; Baker, Shawn; McCray, Stephanie; Bilbrey, Tim; Shock, Tiffany; Lawrence, Anne; Hamman, Baron L; Schussler, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    Traditional sternal precautions, given to sternotomy patients as part of their discharge education, are intended to help prevent sternal wound complications. They vary widely but generally include arbitrary load and time restrictions (lifting no more than a specified weight for up to 12 weeks) and may prohibit common shoulder joint and shoulder girdle movements. Having observed the negative effects of restrictive sternal precautions for many years, our research team performed a series of studies that measured the forces exerted during various common activities and their relationship to the sternum. The results, though informative, led us to realize that the goal of identifying "the" appropriate load restriction to prescribe for sternotomy patients was futile. The alternative approach that we introduce applies standard kinesiological principles and teaches patients how to perform load-bearing movements in a way that avoids excessive stress to the sternum. PMID:26722187

  19. New insights into in vitro amyloidogenic properties of human serum albumin suggest considerations for therapeutic precautions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neetu; Sivalingam, Vishwanath; Maurya, Sonalika; Prasad, Archana; Khandelwal, Puneet; Yadav, Subhash Chandra; Patel, Basant K

    2015-12-21

    Amyloid aggregates display striking features of detergent stability and self-seeding. Human serum albumin (HSA), a preferred drug-carrier molecule, can also aggregate in vitro. So far, key amyloid properties of stability against ionic detergents and self-seeding, are unclear for HSA aggregates. Precautions against amyloid contamination would be required if HSA aggregates were self-seeding. Here, we show that HSA aggregates display detergent sarkosyl stability and have self-seeding potential. HSA dimer is preferable for clinical applications due to its longer retention in circulation and lesser oedema owing to its larger molecular size. Here, HSA was homodimerized via free cysteine-34, without any potentially immunogenic cross-linkers that are usually pre-requisite for homodimerization. Alike the monomer, HSA dimers also aggregated as amyloid, necessitating precautions while using for therapeutics. PMID:26554815

  20. [Contact precautions in intensive care units: facilitating and inhibiting factors for professionals' adherence].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Adriana Cristina; Cardoso, Clareci Silva; Mascarenhas, Daniela

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify facilitating and limiting factors for professionals' compliance with contact precautions in an intensive care unit of a general hospital. This cross-sectional study was performed from May to October 2007, using a semi-structured questionnaire for data collection. Participants were 102 professionals, as follows: nursing technician (54.9%), nurse (12.7%), preceptor physician (10.8%), apprentice physiotherapist (8.8%), preceptor physiotherapist (7.8%) and resident physician (4.9%). The limiting factors for compliance with hand cleansing were forgetting, lack of knowledge, distance from sink, skin irritation, and lack of materials. The use of scrubs presented the most difficulty (45%) because they were not available at the shower box, were inappropriately stored, and due to the heat and collective use. Glove use was the practice most easily conducted in everyday practice. Results show the need to implement precaution measures to minimize the dissemination of resistant microorganisms. PMID:20394234

  1. Difference in compliance with Standard Precautions by nursing staff in Brazil versus Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Fernanda Maria Vieira; Lam, Simon Ching; Chan, Jackie Hoi Man; Malaguti-Toffano, Silmara Elaine; Gir, Elucir

    2015-07-01

    The Standard Precautions (SP) are measures to reduce the risk of transmission of bloodborne and other pathogens, and should be used by health professionals in the care of all patients regardless of their condition of infection. However, suboptimal compliance with SP has been consistently reported in the nursing literature. This study evaluated the differences of compliance with SP among nurses from Brazil and Hong Kong. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 countries-Hong Kong and Brazil-with nurses working in hospitals who responded to a self-administered questionnaire with demographic data and responses to a 20-item Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale. The compliance rate of 560 nurses was 69.4% for the Brazilian sample and 57.4% for the Hong Kong sample. The additional clinical experience of the Brazilian nurses versus those in Hong Kong may be related to differences in compliance with SP between nurses. PMID:25934059

  2. Occupational injury history and universal precautions awareness: a survey in Kabul hospital staff

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Health staff in Afghanistan may be at high risk of needle stick injury and occupational infection with blood borne pathogens, but we have not found any published or unpublished data. Methods Our aim was to measure the percentage of healthcare staff reporting sharps injuries in the preceding 12 months, and to explore what they knew about universal precautions. In five randomly selected government hospitals in Kabul a total of 950 staff participated in the study. Data were analyzed with Epi Info 3. Results Seventy three percent of staff (72.6%, 491/676) reported sharps injury in the preceding 12 months, with remarkably similar levels between hospitals and staff cadres in the 676 (71.1%) people responding. Most at risk were gynaecologist/obstetricians (96.1%) followed by surgeons (91.1%), nurses (80.2%), dentists (75.4%), midwives (62.0%), technicians (50.0%), and internist/paediatricians (47.5%). Of the injuries reported, the commonest were from hollow-bore needles (46.3%, n = 361/780), usually during recapping. Almost a quarter (27.9%) of respondents had not been vaccinated against hepatitis B. Basic knowledge about universal precautions were found insufficient across all hospitals and cadres. Conclusion Occupational health policies for universal precautions need to be implemented in Afghani hospitals. Staff vaccination against hepatitis B is recommended. PMID:20113517

  3. Risk factors and precautions of inpatient suicide from the perspective of nurses: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hu, De-ying; Huang, Di; Xiong, Yu; Lu, Cai-hong; Han, Yan-hong; Ding, Xiao-ping; Wang, Shu-jie; Liu, Yi-lan

    2015-04-01

    The risk factors and precautions of inpatient suicide were explored. Thirty suicide victims were drawn from the adverse event reports of suicidal act during hospitalization in a general hospital from 2008 to 2014. Data were gathered from the focus group interviews of twelve nurses who had experienced inpatient suicide. The data were analyzed by using analytical technique based on grounded theory, and software QSR NVIVO8 was used to aid the collation of data. Three main themes of risk factors about inpatient suicide emerged from the analysis: individual value, social factors and environmental factors. The individual value was categorized into different groups such as sense of guilt, hopelessness and low self-esteem. Social factors included two aspects of negative life events and social support. Three themes of precautions about inpatient suicide appeared in this study: evaluation, nursing and information exchange. Evaluation was elaborated from both physical and psychological assessments. This finding extends existing work of risk factors and precautions about inpatient suicide and brings new knowledge about the reasons why inpatients commit suicide. PMID:25877368

  4. An evaluation of precaution-based approaches as EMF policy tools in community environments.

    PubMed Central

    Sahl, J; Dolan, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the use of precaution-based approaches as policy tools when responding to concerns about power-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF) in community environments. The combination of public concern and scientific uncertainty about potential health impacts from exposure to EMF challenges society to adopt EMF policies that balance the benefits of electric power against the possibility that some aspect of the use of electricity may be harmful. Inappropriate policy responses can undermine the economics of society's use of electricity and have other adverse consequences on public health. These adverse consequences result from the inappropriate diversion of scarce public and private resources. Precaution-based approaches are rooted in individual concepts of common sense and can be an effective component of a comprehensive set of EMF policy options. Precaution-based approaches do not replace science-based policy options and should only be used when the available science-based guidelines are not applicable. The application of these approaches should balance the real and expected costs and benefits of taking or not taking action. Given our current scientific knowledge, actions taken to reduce EMF exposure should necessarily be low cost because the expected benefits are uncertain. Society also needs to avoid adopting EMF policies that could incur high costs from distorting resources from other, more important, personal and public health priorities. PMID:8899365

  5. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  6. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  7. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  8. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  9. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  10. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  11. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  12. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  13. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  14. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  15. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  16. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  17. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  18. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  19. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  20. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  1. Launch Services Safety Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    NASA/KSC Launch Services Division Safety (SA-D) services include: (1) Assessing the safety of the launch vehicle (2) Assessing the safety of NASA ELV spacecraft (S/C) / launch vehicle (LV) interfaces (3) Assessing the safety of spacecraft processing to ensure resource protection of: - KSC facilities - KSC VAFB facilities - KSC controlled property - Other NASA assets (4) NASA personnel safety (5) Interfacing with payload organizations to review spacecraft for adequate safety implementation and compliance for integrated activities (6) Assisting in the integration of safety activities between the payload, launch vehicle, and processing facilities

  2. Efficacy and Safety of Alirocumab as Add-on Therapy in High–Cardiovascular-Risk Patients With Hypercholesterolemia Not Adequately Controlled With Atorvastatin (20 or 40 mg) or Rosuvastatin (10 or 20 mg): Design and Rationale of the ODYSSEY OPTIONS Studies

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jennifer G; Colhoun, Helen M; Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Du, Yunling; Hanotin, Corinne; Donahue, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The phase 3 ODYSSEY OPTIONS studies (OPTIONS I, NCT01730040; OPTIONS II, NCT01730053) are multicenter, multinational, randomized, double-blind, active-comparator, 24-week studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of alirocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, as add-on therapy in ∼ 650 high-cardiovascular (CV)-risk patients whose low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are ≥100 mg/dL or ≥70 mg/dL according to the CV-risk category, high and very high CV risk, respectively, with atorvastatin (20–40 mg/d) or rosuvastatin (10–20 mg/d). Patients are randomized to receive alirocumab 75 mg via a single, subcutaneous, 1-mL injection by prefilled pen every 2 weeks (Q2W) as add-on therapy to atorvastatin (20–40 mg) or rosuvastatin (10–20 mg); or to receive ezetimibe 10 mg/d as add-on therapy to statin; or to receive statin up-titration; or to switch from atorvastatin to rosuvastatin (OPTIONS I only). At week 12, based on week 8 LDL-C levels, the alirocumab dose may be increased from 75 mg to 150 mg Q2W if LDL-C levels remain ≥100 mg/dL or ≥70 mg/dL in patients with high or very high CV risk, respectively. The primary efficacy endpoint in both studies is difference in percent change in calculated LDL-C from baseline to week 24 in the alirocumab vs control arms. The studies may provide guidance to inform clinical decision-making when patients with CV risk require additional lipid-lowering therapy to further reduce LDL-C levels. The flexibility of the alirocumab dosing regimen allows for individualized therapy based on the degree of LDL-C reduction required to achieve the desired LDL-C level. PMID:25269777

  3. Chemical Safety Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the need to enhance understanding of chemical safety in educational facilities that includes adequate staff training and drilling requirements. The question of what is considered proper training is addressed. (GR)

  4. Demonstration of the Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit: Lessons for Quality Improvement.

    PubMed

    Mabachi, Natabhona M; Cifuentes, Maribel; Barnard, Juliana; Brega, Angela G; Albright, Karen; Weiss, Barry D; Brach, Cindy; West, David

    2016-01-01

    The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit was developed to help primary care practices assess and make changes to improve communication with and support for patients. Twelve diverse primary care practices implemented assigned tools over a 6-month period. Qualitative results revealed challenges practices experienced during implementation, including competing demands, bureaucratic hurdles, technological challenges, limited quality improvement experience, and limited leadership support. Practices used the Toolkit flexibly and recognized the efficiencies of implementing tools in tandem and in coordination with other quality improvement initiatives. Practices recommended reducing Toolkit density and making specific refinements. PMID:27232681

  5. Arabidopsis: An Adequate Model for Dicot Root Systems?

    PubMed

    Zobel, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to eight different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of these classes of root. This then suggests that Arabidopsis root research can be considered an adequate model for dicot plant root systems. PMID:26904040

  6. Research and Development of Region Power Grid Wind Hazard Precaution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Xiong; Han, Lin; Qinghua, Wang; Junjia, He

    The severe wind is one of the most threatening natural disasters for power grid operation. To solve the problem of the wind hazard assessment of power grid, a region power grid wind hazard precaution system is proposed in this paper by using weather and power grid data and geographical information. This system consists of two forecast models that the first is the statistical diagnosis model based on Partial least-squares and Model Output Statistics (PLS-MOS) method, and the second is the numerical forecasting model by the combination of mesoscale numerical model and microscale boundary layer model (MM5-CALMAT). Finally, according to the wind-resistant design parameters of transmission towers, a precaution information management platform based on the grid disaster prevention and reduction system (GDPRS) is supplied in order to remind the relevant operator for their decision-making and emergency treatment through real-time SMS and GIS location display. It is of important practical significance and application value for power grid disaster prevention and reduction.

  7. Safety Awareness and Preparedness in Secondary Schools in Kenya: A Case of Turkana District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipngeno, Ronoh Richard; Benjamin, Kyalo Wambua

    2009-01-01

    Safety for students and staff from hazards that can be created by unsafe conditions, behaviour, disasters or emergencies in schools cannot be guaranteed. This is because of inadequate preparedness and awareness programs for safety needs. This study investigated the adequacy of procedures, precautions and infrastructure to respond to fire outbreaks…

  8. 48 CFR 2052.235-71 - Safety, health, and fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety, health, and fire....235-71 Safety, health, and fire protection. As prescribed in 2035.70(a)(2), the contracting officer..., Health, and Fire Protection (JAN 1993) The contractor shall take all reasonable precautions in...

  9. Is the Marketing Concept Adequate for Continuing Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittenburg, Terri L.

    1984-01-01

    Because educators have a social responsibility to those they teach, the marketing concept may not be adequate as a philosophy for continuing education. In attempting to broaden the audience for continuing education, educators should consider a societal marketing concept to meet the needs of the educationally disadvantaged. (SK)

  10. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  11. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation Rates.…

  12. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  13. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  14. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED...

  15. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  16. Maintaining adequate hydration and nutrition in adult enteral tube feeding.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the nutritional and fluid requirements of enterally-fed patients can be challenging and the practicalities of ensuring adequate delivery must be taken into consideration. Patients who are enterally fed can be more reliant on clinicians, family members and carers to meet their nutrition and hydration needs and identify any deficiencies, excesses or problems with delivery. Estimating a patient's requirements can be challenging due to the limitations of using predictive equations in the clinical setting. Close monitoring by all those involved in the patient's care, as well as regular review by a dietitian, is therefore required to balance the delivery of adequate feed and fluids to meet each patient's individual needs and prevent the complications of malnutrition and dehydration. Increasing the awareness of the signs of malnutrition and dehydration in patients receiving enteral tube feeding among those involved in a patient's care will help any deficiencies to be detected early on and rectified before complications occur. PMID:26087203

  17. Assessing juvenile sex offenders to determine adequate levels of supervision.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, K E; Gourley, M M; Cash, M C

    1995-08-01

    The present study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories currently being used by probation officers in the state of Utah to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. The internal consistency or reliability of the inventories ranged from moderate to good. Factor analysis was utilized to significantly increase the reliability of the four inventories by collapsing them into the following three factors: (a) Custodian's and Juvenile's Attitude Toward Intervention; (b) Offense Characteristics; and (c) Historical Risk Factors. These three inventories/factors explained 41.2% of the variance in the combined inventories' scores. Suggestions are made regarding the creation of an additional inventory. "Characteristics of the Victim" to account for more of the variance. In addition, suggestions as to how these inventories can be used by probation officers to make objective and consistent decisions about adequate supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders are discussed. PMID:7583754

  18. Ethical acceptability, health policy and foods biotechnology based foods: is there a third way between the precaution principle and an overly enthusiastic dissemination of GMO?

    PubMed

    Meningaud, J P; Moutel, G; Hervé, C

    2001-01-01

    The demand for consumer safety with regard to the food-processing industry is becoming, legitimately, more and more urgent. If ingested drugs can carry deleterious effects that exceed the beneficial effect that the research was initially undertaken for, then the same can only be the case for foods that stem from the same new biotechnologies, zero risk being non existent. There are two conflicting viewpoints about the possible risks linked to genetically modified organisms: a posteriori protection (based on vigilance once the product is on the market) and an a priori protection (at present usually supported by the precaution principle). We suggest a third way, which ensures consumer safety, but doesn't hinder scientific progress. Just as there are regulations for the protection of human subjects in biomedical research and regulations for the use of drugs after they are marketed, so should such regulations be introduced in the domains of food production that use biotechnologies. We therefore suggest that the scientific community and the food-processing industry develop evaluation protocols for new foods like the ones that exist for drugs. We thus offer thirteen regulations, based on the Helsinki declaration, in order to establish these protocols. These proposals, applied to food-processing research, would enable the industry to return confidence to consumers and thus avoid the random blocking of scientific progress, which is a source of health for the greater population. PMID:11401233

  19. Risk management and precaution: insights on the cautious use of evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Hrudey, Steve E; Leiss, William

    2003-01-01

    Risk management, done well, should be inherently precautionary. Adopting an appropriate degree of precaution with respect to feared health and environmental hazards is fundamental to risk management. The real problem is in deciding how precautionary to be in the face of inevitable uncertainties, demanding that we understand the equally inevitable false positives and false negatives from screening evidence. We consider a framework for detection and judgment of evidence of well-characterized hazards, using the concepts of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value that are well established for medical diagnosis. Our confidence in predicting the likelihood of a true danger inevitably will be poor for rare hazards because of the predominance of false positives; failing to detect a true danger is less likely because false negatives must be rarer than the danger itself. Because most controversial environmental hazards arise infrequently, this truth poses a dilemma for risk management. PMID:14527835

  20. Adequation of mini satellites to oceanic altimetry missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellaieche, G.; Aguttes, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Association of the mini satellite concept and oceanic altimetry missions is discussed. Mission definition and most constraining requirements (mesoscale for example) demonstrate mini satellites to be quite adequate for such missions. Progress in altimeter characteristics, orbit determination, and position reporting allow consideration of oceanic altimetry missions using low Earth orbit satellites. Satellite constellation, trace keeping and orbital period, and required payload characteristics are exposed. The mission requirements covering Sun synchronous orbit, service area, ground system, and launcher characteristics as well as constellation maintenance strategy are specified. Two options for the satellite, orbital mechanics, propulsion, onboard power and stabilizing subsystems, onboard management, satellite ground linkings, mechanical and thermal subsystems, budgets, and planning are discussed.

  1. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  2. Adequate drainage system design for heap leaching structures.

    PubMed

    Majdi, Abbas; Amini, Mehdi; Nasab, Saeed Karimi

    2007-08-17

    The paper describes an optimum design of a drainage system for a heap leaching structure which has positive impacts on both mine environment and mine economics. In order to properly design a drainage system the causes of an increase in the acid level of the heap which in turn produces severe problems in the hydrometallurgy processes must be evaluated. One of the most significant negative impacts induced by an increase in the acid level within a heap structure is the increase of pore acid pressure which in turn increases the potential of a heap-slide that may endanger the mine environment. In this paper, initially the thickness of gravelly drainage layer is determined via existing empirical equations. Then by assuming that the calculated thickness is constant throughout the heap structure, an approach has been proposed to calculate the required internal diameter of the slotted polyethylene pipes which are used for auxiliary drainage purposes. In order to adequately design this diameter, the pipe's cross-sectional deformation due to stepped heap structure overburden pressure is taken into account. Finally, a design of an adequate drainage system for the heap structure 2 at Sarcheshmeh copper mine is presented and the results are compared with those calculated by exiting equations. PMID:17321044

  3. 76 FR 16758 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2010-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Response to Recommendation 2010-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Safety Analysis... Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers was...) Recommendation 2010-1, Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and...

  4. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  5. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ...

  6. Are PPS payments adequate? Issues for updating and assessing rates

    PubMed Central

    Sheingold, Steven H.; Richter, Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    Declining operating margins under Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS) have focused attention on the adequacy of payment rates. The question of whether annual updates to the rates have been too low or cost increases too high has become important. In this article we discuss issues relevant to updating PPS rates and judging their adequacy. We describe a modification to the current framework for recommending annual update factors. This framework is then used to retrospectively assess PPS payment and cost growth since 1985. The preliminary results suggest that current rates are more than adequate to support the cost of efficient care. Also discussed are why using financial margins to evaluate rates is problematic and alternative methods that might be employed. PMID:10127450

  7. Using the Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit to Improve the Quality of Patient Materials.

    PubMed

    Brega, Angela G; Freedman, Megan A G; LeBlanc, William G; Barnard, Juliana; Mabachi, Natabhona M; Cifuentes, Maribel; Albright, Karen; Weiss, Barry D; Brach, Cindy; West, David R

    2015-01-01

    Patient materials are often written above the reading level of most adults. Tool 11 of the Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit ("Design Easy-to-Read Material") provides guidance on ensuring that written patient materials are easy to understand. As part of a pragmatic demonstration of the Toolkit, we examined how four primary care practices implemented Tool 11 and whether written materials improved as a result. We conducted interviews to learn about practices' implementation activities and assessed the readability, understandability, and actionability of patient education materials collected during pre- and postimplementation site visits. Interview data indicated that practices followed many action steps recommended in Tool 11, including training staff, assessing readability, and developing or revising materials, typically focusing on brief documents such as patient letters and information sheets. Many of the revised and newly developed documents had reading levels appropriate for most patients and--in the case of revised documents--better readability than the original materials. In contrast, the readability, understandability, and actionability of lengthier patient education materials were poor and did not improve over the 6-month implementation period. Findings guided revisions to Tool 11 and highlighted the importance of engaging multiple stakeholders in improving the quality of patient materials. PMID:26513033

  8. Late Lessons from Early Warnings: Toward Realism and Precaution with Endocrine-Disrupting Substances

    PubMed Central

    Gee, David

    2006-01-01

    The histories of selected public and environmental hazards, from the first scientifically based early warnings about potential harm to the subsequent precautionary and preventive measures, have been reviewed by the European Environment Agency. This article relates the “late lessons” from these early warnings to the current debates on the application of the precautionary principle to the hazards posed by endocrine-disrupting substances (EDSs). Here, I summarize some of the definitional and interpretative issues that arise. These issues include the contingent nature of knowledge; the definitions of precaution, prevention, risk, uncertainty, and ignorance; the use of differential levels of proof; and the nature and main direction of the methodological and cultural biases within the environmental health sciences. It is argued that scientific methods need to reflect better the realities of multicausality, mixtures, timing of dose, and system dynamics, which characterize the exposures and impacts of EDSs. This improved science could provide a more robust basis for the wider and wise use of the precautionary principle in the assessment and management of the threats posed by EDSs. The evaluation of such scientific evidence requires assessments that also account for multicausal reality. Two of the often used, and sometimes misused, Bradford Hill “criteria,” consistency and temporality, are critically reviewed in light of multicausality, thereby illustrating the need to review all of the criteria in light of 40 years of progress in science and policymaking. PMID:16818262

  9. Nurses' knowledge of and compliance with universal precautions in an acute care hospital.

    PubMed

    Chan, Regina; Molassiotis, Alexander; Chan, Eunice; Chan, Virene; Ho, Becky; Lai, Chit-ying; Lam, Pauline; Shit, Frances; Yiu, Ivy

    2002-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the nurses' knowledge of and compliance with Universal Precautions (UP) in an acute hospital in Hong Kong. A total of 450 nurses were randomly selected from a population of acute care nurses and 306 were successfully recruited in the study. The study revealed that the nurses' knowledge of UP was inadequate. In addition, UP was not only insufficiently and inappropriately applied, but also selectively practiced. Nearly all respondents knew that used needles should be disposed of in a sharps' box after injections. However, nurses had difficulty in distinguishing between deep body fluids and other general body secretions that are not considered infectious in UP. A high compliance was reported regarding hand-washing, disposal of needles and glove usage. However, the use of other protective wear such as masks and goggles was uncommon. The results also showed no significant relationships between the nurses' knowledge and compliance with UP. It is recommended that UP educational programmes need to consider attitudes in conjunction with empirical knowledge. Nurse managers and occupational health nurses should take a leadership role to ensure safe practices are used in the care of patients. PMID:11755446

  10. An alternative approach to prescribing sternal precautions after median sternotomy, “Keep Your Move in the Tube”

    PubMed Central

    Lotshaw, Ana; Exum, Emelia; Campbell, Mark; Spranger, Cathy B.; Beveridge, Jim; Baker, Shawn; McCray, Stephanie; Bilbrey, Tim; Shock, Tiffany; Lawrence, Anne; Hamman, Baron L.; Schussler, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional sternal precautions, given to sternotomy patients as part of their discharge education, are intended to help prevent sternal wound complications. They vary widely but generally include arbitrary load and time restrictions (lifting no more than a specified weight for up to 12 weeks) and may prohibit common shoulder joint and shoulder girdle movements. Having observed the negative effects of restrictive sternal precautions for many years, our research team performed a series of studies that measured the forces exerted during various common activities and their relationship to the sternum. The results, though informative, led us to realize that the goal of identifying “the” appropriate load restriction to prescribe for sternotomy patients was futile. The alternative approach that we introduce applies standard kinesiological principles and teaches patients how to perform load-bearing movements in a way that avoids excessive stress to the sternum. PMID:26722187

  11. Prospective Validation of Cessation of Contact Precautions for Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–Producing Escherichia coli1

    PubMed Central

    Frei, Reno; Schwahn, Friedbert; Tomic, Milanka; Conzelmann, Martin; Stranden, Anne; Widmer, Andreas F.

    2016-01-01

    After contact precautions were discontinued, we determined nosocomial transmission of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Escherichia coli by screening hospital patients who shared rooms with ESBL-producing E. coli–infected or –colonized patients. Transmission rates were 2.6% and 8.8% at an acute-care and a geriatric/rehabilitation hospital, respectively. Prolonged contact was associated with increased transmission. PMID:27191171

  12. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  13. Adequate peritoneal dialysis: theoretical model and patient treatment.

    PubMed

    Tast, C

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adequate PD with sufficient weekly Kt/V (2.0) and Creatinine clearance (CCR) (60l) and necessary daily dialysate volume. This recommended parameter was the result of a recent multi-centre study (CANUSA). For this there were 40 patients in our hospital examined and compared in 1996, who carried out PD for at least 8 weeks and up to 6 years. These goals (CANUSA) are easily attainable in the early treatment of many individuals with a low body surface area (BSA). With higher BSA or missing RRF (Residual Renal Function) the daily dose of dialysis must be adjusted. We found it difficult to obtain the recommended parameters and tried to find a solution to this problem. The simplest method is to increase the volume or exchange rate. The most expensive method is to change from CAPD to APD with the possibility of higher volume or exchange rates. Selection of therapy must take into consideration: 1. patient preference, 2. body mass, 3. peritoneal transport rates, 4. ability to perform therapy, 5. cost of therapy and 6. risk of peritonitis. With this information in mind, an individual prescription can be formulated and matched to the appropriate modality of PD. PMID:10392062

  14. Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckenbaugh, Raymond W.

    1996-11-01

    Each organic chemistry student should become familiar with the educational and governmental laboratory safety requirements. One method for teaching laboratory safety is to assign each student to locate safety resources for a specific class laboratory experiment. The student should obtain toxicity and hazardous information for all chemicals used or produced during the assigned experiment. For example, what is the LD50 or LC50 for each chemical? Are there any specific hazards for these chemicals, carcinogen, mutagen, teratogen, neurotixin, chronic toxin, corrosive, flammable, or explosive agent? The school's "Chemical Hygiene Plan", "Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory" (National Academy Press), and "Laboratory Standards, Part 1910 - Occupational Safety and Health Standards" (Fed. Register 1/31/90, 55, 3227-3335) should be reviewed for laboratory safety requirements for the assigned experiment. For example, what are the procedures for safe handling of vacuum systems, if a vacuum distillation is used in the assigned experiment? The literature survey must be submitted to the laboratory instructor one week prior to the laboratory session for review and approval. The student should then give a short presentation to the class on the chemicals' toxicity and hazards and describe the safety precautions that must be followed. This procedure gives the student first-hand knowledge on how to find and evaluate information to meet laboartory safety requirements.

  15. Constrained Mathematics for Calculating Logical Safety and Reliability Probabilities with Uncertain Inputs

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, D.K.; Cooper, J.A.; Ferson, S.

    1999-01-21

    Calculating safety and reliability probabilities with functions of uncertain variables can yield incorrect or misleading results if some precautions are not taken. One important consideration is the application of constrained mathematics for calculating probabilities for functions that contain repeated variables. This paper includes a description of the problem and develops a methodology for obtaining an accurate solution.

  16. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  17. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. PMID:26068436

  18. Programmable Electronic Safety Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, R.

    1993-05-01

    Traditionally safety systems intended for protecting personnel from electrical and radiation hazards at particle accelerator laboratories have made extensive use of electromechanical relays. These systems have the advantage of high reliability and allow the designer to easily implement failsafe circuits. Relay based systems are also typically simple to design, implement, and test. As systems, such as those presently under development at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL), increase in size, and the number of monitored points escalates, relay based systems become cumbersome and inadequate. The move toward Programmable Electronic Safety Systems is becoming more widespread and accepted. In developing these systems there are numerous precautions the designer must be concerned with. Designing fail-safe electronic systems with predictable failure states is difficult at best. Redundancy and self-testing are prime examples of features that should be implemented to circumvent and/or detect failures. Programmable systems also require software which is yet another point of failure and a matter of great concern. Therefore the designer must be concerned with both hardware and software failures and build in the means to assure safe operation or shutdown during failures. This paper describes features that should be considered in developing safety systems and describes a system recently installed at the Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) facility of the SSCL.

  19. ["Standard precautions" practices among nurses in a university hospital in Western Algeria].

    PubMed

    Beghdadli, Benali; Belhadj, Zora; Chabane, Walid; Ghomari, Omar; Kandouci, Abdelkader Baderdine; Fanello, Serge

    2008-01-01

    Health care workers are exposed daily to blood borne injury and infection with a high risk of hepatitis B or C and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. In the 1980s, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed a set of protocols and guidelines known as standard precautions (SP) to prevent accidental transmission of pathogens. The SP should be followed for each intervention or delivery of care in order to protect health care workers from risks associated with contact with blood and other biological liquids. A survey was conducted in a Western Algerian university hospital to assess nurses' adherence to SP practices. A questionnaire was administered to 450 nurses in the hospital workplace setting. A field survey was also conducted in order to take into account the means and support available to the nurses in these hospital departments, namely to determine availability of hand washing and drying facilities. A total of 133 nurses, 81 women and 52 men, participated in the survey. Personal and professional data, hand-washing frequency, glove wearing practices were collected as data. A large majority (95%) of nurses reported washing their hands after removing their gloves, and 69% of them reported washing their hands between two patients. Male nurses wear gloves more often than females (respectively 77% and 53%). Sharp instruments were correctly disposed of in a puncture-resistant container more of the time. Recapping needles has been reported by two-thirds of survey respondents. Lack of liquid soap and alcohol-based washing solution were noted as major deficiencies as well as the lack of means to properly dry hands in many health care wards. Lack of SP adherence is primarily due to the lack of awareness and knowledge as well as insufficient supply of equipment and materials for good hand hygiene maintenance. This study highlights the urgent need to implement a programme to improve SP adherence among nurses and to increase the supply of

  20. Mental health. The safety scandal.

    PubMed

    Dent, Emma

    2007-11-01

    *Sexual safety incidents are treated as part of mental health inpatient life. *Disbelief is built into the system. There is an attitude that patients cannot be believed because they are ill. *A lack of adequately trained and experienced staff can exacerbate poor levels of safety. PMID:18159890

  1. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  2. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease ... Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q- ...

  3. 78 FR 41853 - Safety Advisory Guidance: Heating Rail Tank Cars To Prepare Hazardous Material for Unloading or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ...This guidance provides safety precautions and recommended guidance for persons responsible for unloading or transloading \\1\\ hazardous materials from rail tank cars, specifically those persons heating a rail tank car to prepare its hazardous material contents for unloading or transloading. Further, this guidance reminds such persons of current regulatory requirements addressing this type of......

  4. Discontinuation of Systematic Surveillance and Contact Precautions for Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and Its Impact on the Incidence of VRE faecium Bacteremia in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Almyroudis, Nikolaos G; Osawa, Ryosuke; Samonis, George; Wetzler, M; Wang, Eunice S; McCarthy, Philip L; Segal, Brahm H

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the effect of discontinuation of systematic surveillance for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and contact isolation of colonized patients on the incidence of VRE bacteremia SETTING A hematology-oncology unit with high prevalence of VRE colonization characterized by predominantly sporadic molecular epidemiology PARTICIPANTS Inpatients with hematologic malignancies and recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation METHODS The incidence of VRE bacteremia was measured prospectively during 2 different 3-year time periods; the first during active VRE surveillance and contact precautions and the second after discontinuation of these policies. We assessed the collateral impact of this policy change on the incidence of bacteremia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium difficile infection even though we maintained contact precautions for these organisms. Incidence of infectious events was measured as number of events per 1,000 patients days per month. Time series analysis was used to evaluate trends. RESULTS The incidence of VRE bacteremia remained stable after discontinuation of VRE surveillance and contact precautions. The incidence of MRSA bacteremia and Clostridium difficile infection for which we continued contact precautions also remained stable. Aggregated antibiotic utilization and nursing hours per patient days were similar between the 2 study periods. CONCLUSION Active surveillance and contact precautions for VRE colonization did not appear to prevent VRE bacteremia in patients with hematologic malignancies and recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with high prevalence of VRE characterized by predominantly sporadic molecular epidemiology. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(4):398-403. PMID:26750087

  5. Risk Amid Recovery: Occupational Health and Safety of Latino Day Laborers in the Aftermath of the Gulf Coast Hurricanes

    PubMed Central

    Delp, Linda; Podolsky, Laura; Aguilar, Tomás

    2011-01-01

    After Katrina, the Bush administration suspended Department of Labor workplace regulations throughout the Gulf, a move consistent with their general emphasis on voluntary workplace protection programs rather than government oversight. This approach left many workers in hurricane reconstruction jobs unprotected, especially Latino immigrant day laborers who, facing language barriers and legal constraints, were least able to negotiate workplace safety or other labor conditions. Fifty-three immigrant workers and 28 key informants from community, union, church, and relief organizations in Louisiana and Mississippi were interviewed at job hiring sites and relief organizations using an inductive, exploratory approach. In this multihazard and changing work environment with a new and fluctuating workforce, enforceable policies mandating worker protection and education were sorely lacking. Free market conditions, driven by incentives to work as fast as possible, and the preponderance of unregulated small contractors and individual home owners as employers contributed to the unsafe environment. Although workers and home owners attempted to take precautions, they usually lacked adequate education about hazards, access to protective equipment, and training in its proper use. However, the labor conditions during the hurricane recovery in the Gulf Coast are likely to be duplicated throughout the country in workplaces employing Latino day laborers unless workers' health is given greater priority by regulatory agencies. PMID:21394225

  6. Risk Amid Recovery: Occupational Health and Safety of Latino Day Laborers in the Aftermath of the Gulf Coast Hurricanes.

    PubMed

    Delp, Linda; Podolsky, Laura; Aguilar, Tomás

    2009-10-01

    After Katrina, the Bush administration suspended Department of Labor workplace regulations throughout the Gulf, a move consistent with their general emphasis on voluntary workplace protection programs rather than government oversight. This approach left many workers in hurricane reconstruction jobs unprotected, especially Latino immigrant day laborers who, facing language barriers and legal constraints, were least able to negotiate workplace safety or other labor conditions. Fifty-three immigrant workers and 28 key informants from community, union, church, and relief organizations in Louisiana and Mississippi were interviewed at job hiring sites and relief organizations using an inductive, exploratory approach. In this multihazard and changing work environment with a new and fluctuating workforce, enforceable policies mandating worker protection and education were sorely lacking. Free market conditions, driven by incentives to work as fast as possible, and the preponderance of unregulated small contractors and individual home owners as employers contributed to the unsafe environment. Although workers and home owners attempted to take precautions, they usually lacked adequate education about hazards, access to protective equipment, and training in its proper use. However, the labor conditions during the hurricane recovery in the Gulf Coast are likely to be duplicated throughout the country in workplaces employing Latino day laborers unless workers' health is given greater priority by regulatory agencies. PMID:21394225

  7. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  8. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  9. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  10. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  11. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  12. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  13. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  14. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  15. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  16. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  17. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  18. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  19. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  20. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  1. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  2. The Effects of Safety Behavior Directed Towards a Safety Cue on Perceptions of Threat.

    PubMed

    Engelhard, Iris M; van Uijen, Sophie L; van Seters, Niels; Velu, Nicolette

    2015-09-01

    Safety behavior involves precautions to prevent or minimize a feared outcome, and is involved in the maintenance of anxiety disorders. Earlier research has shown that safety behavior prevents the extinction of conditioned fear and maintains threat expectations. This study tested whether safety behavior directed towards an objectively safe stimulus increases the perceived threat of that stimulus when it is subsequently experienced in the absence of the safety measure. In a conditioning task, participants first learned that one "danger" cue (A) was followed by shock and two "safety" cues (B, C) were not. Then they learned to apply safety behavior during A trials, which prevented the shock. Next, the experimental group, and not the control group, was given the opportunity to display safety behavior to C trials, which had never been coupled with the shock. In a subsequent test phase, A, B, and C were presented without the opportunity for participants to engage in safety behavior. Results showed that safety behavior increased shock expectancy to C in the test phase and maintained a preexisting shock expectancy in the experimental group, but not in the control group. This is the first study to show that safety behavior can maintain threat appraisal to stimuli that only ever acquired threat indirectly. This may be a possible mechanism for the origin of biased threat beliefs, superstitious behaviors, and irrational fears. It is also practically relevant: safety behavior reduces actual danger, but in relatively safe situations, its potential costs may outweigh the benefits. PMID:26459841

  3. Improved ASTM G72 Test Method for Ensuring Adequate Fuel-to-Oxidizer Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susana A.

    2016-01-01

    The ASTM G72/G72M-15 Standard Test Method for Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in a High-Pressure Oxygen-Enriched Environment is currently used to evaluate materials for the ignition susceptibility driven by exposure to external heat in an enriched oxygen environment. Testing performed on highly volatile liquids such as cleaning solvents has proven problematic due to inconsistent test results (non-ignitions). Non-ignition results can be misinterpreted as favorable oxygen compatibility, although they are more likely associated with inadequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios. Forced evaporation during purging and inadequate sample size were identified as two potential causes for inadequate available sample material during testing. In an effort to maintain adequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios within the reaction vessel during test, several parameters were considered, including sample size, pretest sample chilling, pretest purging, and test pressure. Tests on a variety of solvents exhibiting a range of volatilities are presented in this paper. A proposed improvement to the standard test protocol as a result of this evaluation is also presented. Execution of the final proposed improved test protocol outlines an incremental step method of determining optimal conditions using increased sample sizes while considering test system safety limits. The proposed improved test method increases confidence in results obtained by utilizing the ASTM G72 autogenous ignition temperature test method and can aid in the oxygen compatibility assessment of highly volatile liquids and other conditions that may lead to false non-ignition results.

  4. HSE's safety assessment principles for criticality safety.

    PubMed

    Simister, D N; Finnerty, M D; Warburton, S J; Thomas, E A; Macphail, M R

    2008-06-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) published its revised Safety Assessment Principles for Nuclear Facilities (SAPs) in December 2006. The SAPs are primarily intended for use by HSE's inspectors when judging the adequacy of safety cases for nuclear facilities. The revised SAPs relate to all aspects of safety in nuclear facilities including the technical discipline of criticality safety. The purpose of this paper is to set out for the benefit of a wider audience some of the thinking behind the final published words and to provide an insight into the development of UK regulatory guidance. The paper notes that it is HSE's intention that the Safety Assessment Principles should be viewed as a reflection of good practice in the context of interpreting primary legislation such as the requirements under site licence conditions for arrangements for producing an adequate safety case and for producing a suitable and sufficient risk assessment under the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (SI1999/3232 www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si1999/uksi_19993232_en.pdf). PMID:18495990

  5. Safety system status monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Rideout, T.H.; Cowley, P.J.

    1984-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has studied the safety aspects of monitoring the preoperational status of safety systems in nuclear power plants. The goals of the study were to assess for the NRC the effectiveness of current monitoring systems and procedures, to develop near-term guidelines for reducing human errors associated with monitoring safety system status, and to recommend a regulatory position on this issue. A review of safety system status monitoring practices indicated that current systems and procedures do not adequately aid control room operators in monitoring safety system status. This is true even of some systems and procedures installed to meet existing regulatory guidelines (Regulatory Guide 1.47). In consequence, this report suggests acceptance criteria for meeting the functional requirements of an adequate system for monitoring safety system status. Also suggested are near-term guidelines that could reduce the likelihood of human errors in specific, high-priority status monitoring tasks. It is recommended that (1) Regulatory Guide 1.47 be revised to address these acceptance criteria, and (2) the revised Regulatory Guide 1.47 be applied to all plants, including those built since the issuance of the original Regulatory Guide.

  6. 76 FR 37799 - DOE Final Decision in Response to Recommendation 2010-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ..., Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers AGENCY... reaffirmed their Recommendation 2010-1, Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the... Board (Board) Recommendation 2010-1, Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection...

  7. Evaluation of the contribution of isolation precautions in prevention and control of multi-resistant bacteria in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Eveillard, M; Eb, F; Tramier, B; Schmit, J L; Lescure, F X; Biendo, M; Canarelli, B; Daoudi, F; Laurans, G; Rousseau, F; Thomas, D

    2001-02-01

    From February 1999 to January 2000, a control programme to prevent the spread multi-resistant bacteria (MRB) was implemented in a French teaching hospital. This programme focused on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), and was based on the application of barrier precautions (washing hands with antiseptic soaps, wearing disposable gloves and gowns, identifying MRB carriers). No changes in antibiotic policy occurred during the year. Our aim was to conduct an evaluation of this programme by measuring incidence rates. Concurrently, the effect of barrier precautions was estimated in an indirect way, by documenting the availability of barrier precautions in MRB carriers' rooms and by analysing the monthly correlation between the supply of such material and the theoretical cumulated length of MRB carriers' isolation in six randomized wards. All MRB isolated in hospitalized patients were recorded, and differentiated between acquisition in our hospital or from elsewhere. For the analysis of trends, the year was divided in three periods of four months. Over the year, the global MRB incidence was 1.26 per 1000 patient-days (PD) [95% confidence interval (95%CI)=1.16-1.36]. The MRSA incidence was 0.89 per 1000 PD (95%CI=0.81- 0.97) and the ESBL incidence was 0.38 per 1000 PD (95% CI=0.33-0.43). The MRB incidence decreased significantly in all types of specialties except for surgical wards. The incidence decreased by 17.9% for MRSA, 54.9% for ESBL and 34.8% for both MRB. Concurrently, the proportion of strains acquired in our hospital decreased for MRSA (P for trend > or = 0.05) and ESBL (P for trend > or = 0.01), whereas the incidence of imported strains increased slightly. The proportion of multiresistant strains in S. aureus (36.8%) and Enterobacter aerogenes (37.0%) remained similar throughout the year. Thus, the decrease of the incidence concerned both resistant and susceptible strains

  8. Microwave and Man—The Direct and Indirect Hazards, and the Precautions

    PubMed Central

    Merckel, Charles

    1972-01-01

    Microwave-radar is a form of electromagnetic energy with potential hazards to human health and safety. Its lethal and non-lethal harmful effects have been demonstrated in experimental animals. Lethal effects upon humans from exposure to microwave have not been proved. Alleged non-lethal effects have been limited primarily to cataractogenesis. Increasing use of microwave commercially in communications and domestically, as in micro-ovens, increases the hazard of exposure to microwave. Increasing use of devices which are at risk from microwave, such as implanted cardiac pacemakers and metal surgical appliances and electronic monitoring devices in operating rooms and clinics, present increasing environmental hazards. PMID:5039801

  9. Evolving societal risks and necessary precautions in the age of nuclear power and therapeutic radiation: an American perspective.

    PubMed

    Pham, Martin H; Yu, Cheng; Rusch, Mairead; Holloway, Charles; Chang, Eric; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2014-12-01

    Terrorism involving nuclear or radiologic weapons can devastate populations, city infrastructures, and entire sociopolitical systems. In our age of nuclear medicine and therapeutic radiation delivery, the unauthorized and illegal acquisition of radioactive materials needed for such an attack is always a possibility and risk. Physicians handling high-energy isotopes for medical radiotherapy must be aware of the basic security requirements as outlined by the Nuclear Regulation Commission, which include background checks and authorized access, physical protection during radionuclide use, and physical protection during its transit. The Leksell Gamma Knife and its Category 1 cobalt-60 radioactive source are discussed because of their significant potential for deployment in a weaponized device. Although this article presents a perspective relating to American rules and regulations, these precautions are applicable anywhere that similar situations exist. Understanding these materials and the security they require is essential to preventing the disastrous outcomes should these isotopes fall into terrorists' hands. PMID:25218709

  10. Early interactions between animal psychologists and animal activists and the founding of the APA Committee on Precautions in Animal Experimentation.

    PubMed

    Dewsbury, D A

    1990-03-01

    The current conflict between animal psychologists and animal rights activists often is presented as a recent and unique phenomenon. Although its scope may be unprecedented, the fundamental issues are longstanding. Early criticisms of animal psychologists are viewed in the context of the broader Victorian antivivisectionist movement and are seen as similar to those of the present time. Various attitudes toward animals and research were expressed by individuals such as Charles Darwin, George John Romanes, William James, and John Dewey. Media attacks on animal research were directed at psychologists such as G. Stanley Hall, John B. Watson, Ivan P. Pavlov, and Edward L. Thorndike. The American Psychological Association Committee on Precautions in Animal Experimentation was founded in 1925 at the instigation of Walter B. Cannon, with Robert M. Yerkes as the first chair. PMID:2178508

  11. Precaution, governance and the failure of medical implants: the ASR((TM)) hip in the UK.

    PubMed

    Wienroth, Matthias; McCormack, Pauline; Joyce, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Hip implants have provided life-changing treatment, reducing pain and improving the mobility and independence of patients. Success has encouraged manufacturers to innovate and amend designs, engendering patient hopes in these devices. However, failures of medical implants do occur. The failure rate of the Articular Surface Replacement metal-on-metal hip system, implanted almost 100,000 times world-wide, has re-opened debate about appropriate and timely implant governance. As commercial interests, patient hopes, and devices' governance converge in a socio-technical crisis, we analyse the responses of relevant governance stakeholders in the United Kingdom between 2007 and 2014. We argue that there has been a systemic failure of the governance system entrusted with the safety of patients fitted with medical implants. Commercial considerations of medical implants and the status quo of medical implant governance have been given priority over patient safety despite the availability of significant failure data in an example of uncertainty about what constitutes appropriate precautionary action. PMID:26573983

  12. Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Olson, Christine K; Iwamoto, Martha; Perkins, Kiran M; Polen, Kara N D; Hageman, Jeffrey; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Igbinosa, Irogue I; Khan, Sumaiya; Honein, Margaret A; Bell, Michael; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus transmission was detected in the Region of the Americas (Americas) in Brazil in May 2015, and as of March 21, 2016, local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus had been reported in 32 countries and territories in the Americas, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.* Most persons infected with Zika virus have a mild illness or are asymptomatic. However, increasing evidence supports a link between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes (1), and a possible association between recent Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome has been reported (2). Although Zika virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of Aedes species of mosquitoes, sexual transmission also has been documented (3). Zika virus RNA has been detected in a number of body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, and amniotic fluid (3-5), and whereas transmission associated with occupational exposure to these body fluids is theoretically possible, it has not been documented. Although there are no reports of transmission of Zika virus from infected patients to health care personnel or other patients, minimizing exposures to body fluids is important to reduce the possibility of such transmission. CDC recommends Standard Precautions in all health care settings to protect both health care personnel and patients from infection with Zika virus as well as from blood-borne pathogens (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]) (6). Because of the potential for exposure to large volumes of body fluids during the labor and delivery process and the sometimes unpredictable and fast-paced nature of obstetrical care, the use of Standard Precautions in these settings is essential to prevent possible transmission of Zika virus from patients to health care personnel. PMID:27010422

  13. Archetypes for Organisational Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marais, Karen; Leveson, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a framework using system dynamics to model the dynamic behavior of organizations in accident analysis. Most current accident analysis techniques are event-based and do not adequately capture the dynamic complexity and non-linear interactions that characterize accidents in complex systems. In this paper we propose a set of system safety archetypes that model common safety culture flaws in organizations, i.e., the dynamic behaviour of organizations that often leads to accidents. As accident analysis and investigation tools, the archetypes can be used to develop dynamic models that describe the systemic and organizational factors contributing to the accident. The archetypes help clarify why safety-related decisions do not always result in the desired behavior, and how independent decisions in different parts of the organization can combine to impact safety.

  14. Maintaining Adequate Carbon Dioxide Washout for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Korona, Adam; McMillin, Summer; Norcross, Jason; Swickrath, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in technology development that is aimed at the production of an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU). Of the many functions provided by the spacesuit and portable life support subsystem within the AEMU, delivering breathing gas to the astronaut along with removing the carbon dioxide (CO2) remains one of the most important environmental functions that the AEMU can control. Carbon dioxide washout is the capability of the ventilation flow in the spacesuit helmet to provide low concentrations of CO2 to the crew member to meet breathing requirements. CO2 washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and sufficient designs in a spacesuit and in vehicle applications such as sleep stations and hygiene compartments. Human testing to fully evaluate and validate CO2 washout performance is necessary but also expensive due to the levied safety requirements. Moreover, correlation of math models becomes challenging because of human variability and movement. To supplement human CO2 washout testing, a breathing capability will be integrated into a suited manikin test apparatus to provide a safe, lower cost, stable, easily modeled alternative to human testing. Additionally, this configuration provides NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) the capability to evaluate CO2 washout under off-nominal conditions that would otherwise be unsafe for human testing or difficult due to fatigue of a test subject. Testing has been under way in-house at JSC and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides sufficient performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an extravehicular activity. This paper will review recent CO2 washout testing and analysis activities, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work

  15. 49 CFR 385.107 - The safety audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... will remain provisional and the carrier's on-highway performance will continue to be closely monitored... on the safety audit, that the Mexico-domiciled carrier has adequate basic safety management controls... on the safety audit, that the Mexico-domiciled carrier's basic safety management controls...

  16. 49 CFR 385.107 - The safety audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... will remain provisional and the carrier's on-highway performance will continue to be closely monitored... on the safety audit, that the Mexico-domiciled carrier has adequate basic safety management controls... on the safety audit, that the Mexico-domiciled carrier's basic safety management controls...

  17. 49 CFR 385.107 - The safety audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... will remain provisional and the carrier's on-highway performance will continue to be closely monitored... on the safety audit, that the Mexico-domiciled carrier has adequate basic safety management controls... on the safety audit, that the Mexico-domiciled carrier's basic safety management controls...

  18. 49 CFR 385.107 - The safety audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... will remain provisional and the carrier's on-highway performance will continue to be closely monitored... on the safety audit, that the Mexico-domiciled carrier has adequate basic safety management controls... on the safety audit, that the Mexico-domiciled carrier's basic safety management controls...

  19. Health Care Workers and Standard Precautions: Perceptions and Determinants of Compliance in the Emergency and Trauma Triage of a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India

    PubMed Central

    Punia, Sangini; Nair, Suma; Shetty, Ranjitha S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Careful adherence to standard precautions can protect both health care workers (HCWs) and patients from infections. The present study identified the perceptions and compliance with the use of standard precautions and assessed the determinants of noncompliance among the HCWs in an emergency and trauma triage centre. Methods. A cross-sectional study using a semistructured questionnaire was carried out to collect the relevant information from the study participants. Results. A total of 162 HCWs were recruited into the study, who reported varying degrees of compliance with standard precautions. While most of them declared the use of hand rub (95%) and gloves (77%), reported use of protective eye gear and outer protective clothing was very low (22 and 28%, resp.). Despite a perceived risk of exposure to blood-borne infections, 8% of the HCWs had not completed the hepatitis B vaccination schedule. About 17% reported at least one needle stick injury in the past year but only 5.6% received medical attention. Conclusion. Inadequate adherence to standard precautions among health care providers warrants new training and monitoring strategies. Establishment of an effective occupational health cell incorporating these elements including periodic surveillance could be the way forward.

  20. Sharps safety.

    PubMed

    Fluke, C

    1992-10-01

    All employees need to be very careful handling sharps to minimize risks to themselves and coworkers. The attention, awareness and attitude that lend themselves to safe practice can only be developed through thorough training and following correct procedures. If you have an accident/injury, report it immediately and follow your hospital's Exposure Control Plan. Many resources are available to further your learning in this area. If you are uncomfortable with your knowledge of infection control, Universal Precautions, sharps handling, etc., check with your supervisor, hospital library, and infection control staff for reference materials to increase your level of understanding. PMID:10121533

  1. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-evident (general anesthetics, drug metabolism). (3) The method of selection of subjects provides adequate... respect to pertinent variables such as age, sex, severity of disease, duration of disease, and use of... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies....

  2. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  3. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  4. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky's State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional--"all of its parts and parcels". The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including:…

  5. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a)...

  6. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending Veterinarian and Adequate Veterinary Care §...

  7. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  8. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  9. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  10. Bovine hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron does not support adequate iron status in copper-adequate or copper-deficient rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was designed to determine whether hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron (Fe) could sustain normal Fe status in growing rats. Because adequate copper (Cu) status is required for efficient Fe absorption in the rat, we also determined the effects of Cu deficiency on Fe status of...

  11. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  12. Telotristat etiprate, a novel serotonin synthesis inhibitor, in patients with carcinoid syndrome and diarrhea not adequately controlled by octreotide.

    PubMed

    Kulke, Matthew H; O'Dorisio, Thomas; Phan, Alexandria; Bergsland, Emily; Law, Linda; Banks, Phillip; Freiman, Joel; Frazier, Kenny; Jackson, Jessica; Yao, James C; Kvols, Larry; Lapuerta, Pablo; Zambrowicz, Brian; Fleming, Douglas; Sands, Arthur

    2014-10-01

    Serotonin produced by neuroendocrine tumors is believed to be a principal cause of the diarrhea in carcinoid syndrome. We assessed the safety and efficacy of telotristat etiprate, an oral serotonin synthesis inhibitor, in patients with diarrhea associated with carcinoid syndrome. In this prospective, randomized study, patients with evidence of carcinoid tumor and ≥4 bowel movements (BMs)/day despite stable-dose octreotide LAR depot therapy were enrolled in sequential, escalating, cohorts of four patients per cohort. In each cohort, one patient was randomly assigned to placebo and three patients to telotristat etiprate, at 150, 250, 350, or 500 mg three times a day (tid). In a subsequent cohort, one patient was assigned to placebo and six patients to telotristat etiprate 500 mg tid. Patients were assessed for safety, BM frequency (daily diary), 24 h urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (u5-HIAA), and adequate relief of carcinoid gastrointestinal symptoms (using a weekly questionnaire). Twenty-three patients were treated: 18 received telotristat etiprate and five received placebo. Adverse events were generally mild. Among evaluable telotristat etiprate-treated patients, 5/18 (28%) experienced a ≥30% reduction in BM frequency for ≥2 weeks, 9/16 (56%) experienced biochemical response (≥50% reduction or normalization in 24-h u5-HIAA) at week 2 or 4, and 10/18 (56%) reported adequate relief during at least 1 of the first 4 weeks of treatment. Similar activity was not observed in placebo-treated patients. Telotristat etiprate was well tolerated. Our observations suggest that telotristat etiprate has activity in controlling diarrhea associated with carcinoid syndrome. Further studies confirming these findings are warranted. PMID:25012985

  13. Telotristat Etiprate, a Novel Serotonin Synthesis Inhibitor, in Patients with Carcinoid Syndrome and Diarrhea Not Adequately Controlled by Octreotide

    PubMed Central

    Kulke, Matthew H.; O’Dorisio, Thomas; Phan, Alexandria; Bergsland, Emily; Law, Linda; Banks, Phillip; Freiman, Joel; Frazier, Kenny; Jackson, Jessica; Yao, James C.; Kvols, Larry; Lapuerta, Pablo; Zambrowicz, Brian; Fleming, Douglas; Sands, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin produced by neuroendocrine tumors is believed to be a principal cause of the diarrhea in carcinoid syndrome. We assessed the safety and efficacy of telotristat etiprate, an oral serotonin synthesis inhibitor, in patients with diarrhea associated with carcinoid syndrome. In this prospective, randomized study, patients with evidence of carcinoid tumor and ≥4 bowel movements (BMs)/day despite stable-dose octreotide LAR depot therapy were enrolled in sequential, escalating, cohorts of 4 patients/cohort. In each cohort, 1 patient was randomly assigned to placebo and 3 patients to telotristat etiprate, at 150, 250, 350, or 500 mg 3x/day (tid). In a subsequent cohort, 1 patient was assigned to placebo and 6 patients to telotristat etiprate 500 mg tid. Patients were assessed for safety, BM frequency (daily diary), 24-hour urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (u5-HIAA), and adequate relief of carcinoid gastrointestinal symptoms (using a weekly questionnaire). Twenty-three patients were treated; 18 received telotristat etiprate and 5 received placebo. Adverse events were generally mild. Among evaluable telotristat etiprate-treated patients, 5/18 (28%) experienced a ≥30% reduction in BM frequency for ≥2 weeks, 9/16 (56%) experienced biochemical response (≥50% reduction or normalization in 24-hour u5-HIAA) at Week 2 or 4, and 10/18 (56%) reported adequate relief during at least 1 of the first 4 weeks of treatment. Similar activity was not observed in placebo-treated patients. Telotristat etiprate was well tolerated. Our observations suggest that telotristat etiprate has activity in controlling diarrhea associated with carcinoid syndrome. Further studies confirming these findings are warranted. PMID:25012985

  14. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David J.; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6–12 (n = 1203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in comprehension. Results suggest that there is considerable growth across the middle and high school years, particularly for adequate comprehenders in those text integration processes that maintain local coherence. Accuracy in text consistency judgments accounted for significant unique variance for passage-level, but not sentence-level comprehension, particularly for adequate comprehenders. PMID:26166946

  15. Summertime Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Violence & Safety Life Stages & Populations Travelers' Health Workplace Safety & Health Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Summertime Safety Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The feature ...

  16. Drug Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  17. Safety Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, James H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five articles in this issue focus on safety education in agricultural laboratories. Topics discussed include teacher liability; elements of a safety instruction program; state and federal safety standards; ground fault current protection; and eye protection requirements and equipment. (SK)

  18. Barriers and Facilitators of Compliance with Universal Precautions at First Level Health Facilities in Northern Rural Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Yousafzai, Mohammad Tahir; Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Siddiqui, Amna Rehana; Rozi, Shafquat

    2015-01-01

    Aim We assessed the compliance at first level care facilities (FLCF) with universal precautions (UP) and its behavioral predictors using Health Belief Model (HBM). Methods A sample of FLCF from public clinic (PC), privately owned licensed practitioners’ clinic (LPC) and non-licensed practitioners’ clinic (NLPC) was obtained. Health Care Workers (HCW) who diagnose and prescribe medication was termed as Prescriber and that carries out prescriber’s order was defined Assistant. Compliance to UP was measured on 11 items Likert scale. HCW responded “always” or “often” to all items of UP were added to compute a binary variable of overall compliance. We used linear regression to assess association between HBM and UP score. Results We interviewed 485 HCW (75% prescribers) from 365 clinics; mean age 38±10.4 years. Overall, compliance to UP was 6.6%; 11.6% LPC, 5.3% PC, and 4.4% NLPC. Prescribers were less compliant than Assistants. Compliance with not recapping contaminated needle was poor (PC=32%, LPC=33%, NLPC=15%). Compliance with wearing gloves during blood or body fluid exposure was lowest (30%) at PC. Modes of transmission knowledge, self-efficacy and perceived benefits of safe practice, and susceptibility to blood borne infections were positively associated with UP score. Conclusion Higher perception of barriers and severity of blood borne infection result in lower compliance. PMID:26715918

  19. Using the Precaution Adoption Process model to describe a disaster preparedness intervention among low-income Latinos.

    PubMed

    Glik, Deborah C; Eisenman, David P; Zhou, Qiong; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Asch, Steven M

    2014-04-01

    Only 40-50% of households in the United States are currently disaster prepared. In this intervention study, respondent-driven sampling was used to select a sample (n = 187) of low income, Latino residents of Los Angeles County, randomly assigned into two treatment conditions: (i) household preparedness education received through 'promotora' (community health worker) led small group meetings, and (ii) household preparedness education received through print media. Weinstein's Precaution Adoption Process, a stage model appropriate for risk communication guided the intervention. Outcomes are conceptualized as stages of decision making linked to having disaster supplies and creating a family communication plan. Quantitative results showed a significant shift over time from awareness to action and maintenance stages for disaster communication plans and supplies in both study arms; however, the shift in stage for a communication plan for those in the 'platica' study arm was (P < 0.0001) than for those in the media arm. For changes in stage linked to disaster supplies, people in both media and 'platica' study arms improved at the same rate. Simple media-based communications may be sufficient to encourage disadvantaged households to obtain disaster supplies; however, adoption of the more complex disaster family communication requires interpersonal education. PMID:24399266

  20. Laser safety eyewear.

    PubMed

    1993-04-01

    In spite of repeated warnings about laser safety practices, as well as the availability of laser safety eyewear (LSE), eye injuries continue to occur during use of surgical lasers, as discussed in the Clinical Perspective, "Laser Energy and Its Dangers to Eyes," preceding this Evaluation. We evaluated 48 models of LSE, including goggles, spectacles, and wraps, from 11 manufacturers. The evaluated models are designed with absorptive lenses that provide protection from CO2 (carbon dioxide), Nd:YAG (neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet), and 532 (frequency-doubled Nd:YAG) surgical laser wavelengths; several models provide multiwavelength protection. (Refer to ECRI's Product Comparison System report on LSE for specifications of other models.) Although most of the evaluated models can adequately protect users from laser energy--provided that the eyewear is used--many models of LSE, especially goggles, are designed with little regard for the needs of actual use (e.g., adequate labeling, no alteration of color perception, sufficient field of vision [FOV], comfort). Because these factors can discourage people from using LSE, we encourage manufacturers to develop new and improved models that will be worn. We based our ratings primarily on the laser protection provided by the optical density (OD) of the lenses; we acknowledge the contribution of Montana Laser Optics Inc., of Bozeman, Montana, in performing our OD testing. We also considered actual-use factors, such as those mentioned above, to be significant. Among the models rated Acceptable is one whose labeled OD is lower than the level we determined to be adequate for use during most laser surgery; however, this model offers protection under specific conditions of use (e.g., for use by spectators some distance from the surgical site, for use during endoscopic procedures) that should be determined by the laser safety officer (LSO). LSE that would put the wearer at risk are rated Unacceptable (e.g., some models are not

  1. Resource burden associated with contact precautions for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus: the patient access managers' perspective.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Erica S; Walensky, Rochelle P; Lee, Hang; Orcutt, Benjamin; Hooper, David C

    2012-08-01

    We surveyed patient access managers on the impact of contact precautions (CP) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) on time to bed assignment, and we investigated the factors influencing infection control policies allowing for discontinuation of CP. The majority of respondents reported an increase in time to bed assignment for patients with a history of MRSA and/or VRE infection or colonization. PMID:22759555

  2. Coping strategy in adolescents with premenstrual syndrome: application of the construal level theory and the precaution adoption process model.

    PubMed

    Delara, Mahin; Ghofranipour, Fazllollah; Fallah, Parviz Azad; Tavafian, Sedighe Sadat; Kazemnejad, Anoushirvan; Montazeri, Ali; Sani, Abolfazl Rahmani; Kooshki, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to apply the construal level theory (CLT) to increase the relaxation adoption as a coping behavior in adolescents with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). The theory offers a framework that assumes decision-making about adoption of any given behavior depends on perceived temporal distance from the desired or recommended behavior and thus individual might perceive any information or intervention, at two levels (low or high). In doing so, a trial was conducted on 1578 high school students suffering from PMS. The precaution adoption process model was applied to categorize students in six stages, based on their intention to adopt a behavior. The focus of this study was on students who were in stage 3 of the model (undecided to adopt a behavior that was relaxation). Overall, 411 students were identified and randomly assigned to the three study groups: group 1 (n = 98) who received a CLT-driven intervention containing detailed information about relaxation (low-level construal, LLC); group 2 (n = 150) who received a CTL-driven intervention containing general information about relaxation (high-level construal, HLC); and group 3 (n = 163) who received nothing (control group). The progression from stage 3 toward stage 6 (action) was considered as the desired outcome and it was hypothesized that LLC intervention would be more effective than HLC intervention. Compared to participants in the control group, participants in the high and low construal groups were significantly more likely to advance to the action stage (P < 0.001). In addition, students in the low construal group had made an apparent higher stage progression as compared to the high construal group, although this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.33). The findings suggest that, for people who are undecided to adopt a new health action, LLC intervention might be more effective. PMID:22788244

  3. [Construction of a tool for risk assessment of infectious diseases in a workplace--as a primary precaution].

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Mayumi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Suzuka; Kajiki, Shigeyuki; Ishimatsu, Sumiyo; Ogawa, Midori; Mori, Koji; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2008-12-01

    We describe here a tool for risk assessment and management of infectious diseases in a workplace. This was constructed as a primary precaution for the prevention of infectious diseases in a workplace, not to be used as a countermeasure of diseases in the time of or after an occurrence. The tool grades risk levels of each of the factors influencing infectious diseases in the workplace and an assessment based on the total point are given. Ordinary workplaces should be chosen, such as factories and office buildings, not places where medical experts or hygienists work, such as hospitals, schools and concessionaries, etc. Three risk factors for infection are pathogens, route and human host. The factor of a pathogen is divided into two groups, spreadable (from human to human) and non-spreadable. The risk of spreadable pathogens is assessed by the ages of workers, CO2 concentration and air volume, and the combination of the existence of common places and collaborative work. The risk of non spreadable pathogens is evaluated by the ages of workers, air current and air volume, and existence of equipment generating aerosol. In cases where the total point is over 7, the risk is assessed as high level (group A) and daily measures must be taken, such as ensuring proper operation of the infection control committee, education, management of working conditions and management of working environments. In cases where the score is 5 or 6, the risk is assessed as intermediate level (group B) and daily measures are recommended, such as ensuring proper operation of the infection control committee and education. In the case of a score less than 4, the risk is assessed as low level (group C) and these daily measures are not necessary. Instead, an infection control committee should be organized and concrete measures should be taken upon an outbreak of an infectious disease. PMID:19086704

  4. Safety against lightning for linemen working on de-energized power lines

    SciTech Connect

    Mousa, A.M.; Srivastava, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    Where the risk of accidental power-frequency energization is concerned, the safety ground has a short-circuit discharge duty determined by the configuration and parameters of the power system. Safety is thus assured by selecting a safety ground having a short-circuit safety rating which matches the duty imposed by the power system. Up to now, a similar matching for lightning currents has not been possible. This paper addresses this problem by: 1. Determining the lightning current rating of typical safety grounds. 2. Calculating the lightning current discharge duty of safety grounds in terms of the insulatuon level of the line and the distance from the location of the thunderstorm. The analysis shows that special precautions are needed when working on power lines of voltage classes above 360 kV.

  5. A method for determining adequate resistance form of complete cast crown preparations.

    PubMed

    Weed, R M; Baez, R J

    1984-09-01

    A diagram with various degrees of occlusal convergence, which takes into consideration the length and diameter of complete crown preparations, was designed as a guide to assist the dentist to obtain adequate resistance form. To test the validity of the diagram, five groups of complete cast crown stainless steel dies were prepared (3.5 mm long, occlusal convergence 10, 13, 16, 19, and 22 degrees). Gold copings were cast for each of the 50 preparations. Displacement force was applied to the casting perpendicularly to a simulated 30-degree cuspal incline until the casting was displaced. Castings were deformed at margins except for the 22-degree group. Castings from this group were displaced without deformation, and it was concluded that there was a lack of adequate resistance form as predicted by the diagram. The hypothesis that the diagram could be used to predict adequate or inadequate resistance form was confirmed by this study. PMID:6384470

  6. [Hemostasis-altering drugs and regional anesthetic techniques: safety guidelines].

    PubMed

    Llau Pitarch, J V; De Andrés Ibáñez, J; Gomar Sancho, C; Gómez Luque, A; Hidalgo Martínez, F; Torres Morera, L M

    2004-03-01

    New developments--in the form of emerging clinical settings for regional anesthesia as well as problems arising with the concomitant use of regional techniques and hemostasis-altering drugs--require the ongoing revision of safety guidelines. The annual meeting of ESRA held in Spain in 2003 saw the discussion and clarification of a variety of issues of current concern, including conclusions reached on the estimated risk of spinal hematoma when published safety guidelines are followed or not, precautions to take in epidural anesthesia during cardiac surgery, guidelines for using fondaparinux for thromboprophylaxis, the circumstances under which neuroaxial techniques can be used safely in patients under the effects of platelet aggregation inhibitors such as thienopyridine, and the application of epidural anesthesia in parturients with eclampsia who have received platelet aggregation inhibitors. Conclusions drawn at the meeting enrich and clarify certain important safety issues related to local and regional anesthesia in patients receiving antiplatelet drugs and/or anticoagulants. PMID:15200185

  7. Comparison of four standards for determining adequate water intake of nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Phyllis M

    2011-01-01

    Adequate hydration for nursing home residents is problematic. The purpose of this study was to compare four standards used to determine a recommended water intake among nursing home residents. Inconsistencies in the amount of water intake recommended based on the standards compared were identified. The standard based on height and weight provides the most individualized recommendation. An individualized recommendation would facilitate goal setting for the care plan of each older person and assist in the prevention of dehydration. It is essential that a cost-effective and clinically feasible approach to determine adequate water intake be determined for this population to prevent the adverse outcomes associated with dehydration. PMID:21469538

  8. Mercury contamination study for flight system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorzynski, C. S., Jr.; Maycock, J. N.

    1972-01-01

    The effects and prevention of possible mercury pollution from the failure of solar electric propulsion spacecraft using mercury propellant were studied from tankage loading of post launch trajector injection. During preflight operations and initial flight mode there is little danger of mercury pollution if proper safety precautions are taken. Any spillage on the loading, mating, transportation, or launch pad areas is obvious and can be removed by vacuum cleaning soil and chemical fixing. Mercury spilled on Cape Kennedy ground soil will be chemically complexed and retained by the sandstone subsoil. A cover layer of sand or gravel on spilled mercury which has settled to the bottom of a water body adjacent to the system operation will control and eliminate the formation of toxic organic mercurials. Mercury released into the earth's atmosphere through leakage of a fireball will be diffused to low concentration levels. However, gas phase reactions of mercury with ozone could cause a local ozone depletion and result in serious ecological hazards.

  9. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  10. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  11. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  12. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  13. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  14. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  15. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  16. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  17. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Adequate Yearly Progress among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…

  18. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared. PMID:16315443

  19. Calculating and Reducing Errors Associated with the Evaluation of Adequate Yearly Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Richard

    In the Spring, 1996, issue of "CRESST Line," E. Baker and R. Linn commented that, in efforts to measure the progress of schools, "the fluctuations due to differences in the students themselves could conceal differences in instructional effects." This is particularly true in the context of the evaluation of adequate yearly progress required by…

  20. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  1. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  2. 75 FR 5893 - Suspension of Community Eligibility for Failure To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no policies that have ] federalism....C. 4001 et seq., Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management Regulations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management...

  3. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provide for a variable rate of interest. For purposes of the adequate interest test under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, if a section 467 rental agreement provides for variable interest, the rental... date as the issue date) for the variable rates called for by the rental agreement. For purposes of...

  4. The Unequal Effect of Adequate Yearly Progress: Evidence from School Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abigail B.; Clift, Jack W.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report insights, based on annual site visits to elementary and middle schools in three states from 2004 to 2006, into the incentive effect of the No Child Left Behind Act's requirement that increasing percentages of students make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in every public school. They develop a framework, drawing on the physics…

  5. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  6. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  7. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to failure to…

  8. A Model for Touch Technique and Computation of Adequate Cane Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plain-Switzer, Karen

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a model for the motion of a long-cane executing the touch technique and presents formulas for the projected length of a cane adequate to protect an individual with blindness against wall-type and pole-type hazards. The paper concludes that the long-cane should reach from the floor to the user's armpit. (JDD)

  9. Towards Defining Adequate Lithium Trials for Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Use of lithium with mentally retarded individuals with psychiatric conditions and/or behavior disturbances is discussed. The paper describes components of an adequate clinical trial and reviews case studies and double-blind cases. The paper concludes that aggression is the best indicator for lithium use, and reviews treatment parameters and…

  10. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4) Guidance to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  11. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  12. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  13. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  14. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4) Guidance to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  15. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  16. Special or Not so Special: Special Education Background Experiences of Principals and Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-methods study researched the special education background experience of principals and the effect on students in the subgroup of Students with Disabilities in making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). In the state of Ohio, schools and districts are expected to make AYP as a whole and additionally make AYP for each subgroup (various…

  17. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6-12 (n = 1,203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in…

  18. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with the State's requirements for availability of services, as set forth in § 438.206. (e) CMS' right... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and Performance... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services....

  19. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) Offers an appropriate range of preventive, primary care, and specialty services that is adequate for the anticipated number of enrollees for the service area. (2) Maintains a network of providers... enrollment in its service area in accordance with the State's standards for access to care under this...

  20. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) Offers an appropriate range of preventive, primary care, and specialty services that is adequate for the anticipated number of enrollees for the service area. (2) Maintains a network of providers... enrollment in its service area in accordance with the State's standards for access to care under this...

  1. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) Offers an appropriate range of preventive, primary care, and specialty services that is adequate for the anticipated number of enrollees for the service area. (2) Maintains a network of providers... enrollment in its service area in accordance with the State's standards for access to care under this...

  2. Effect of tranquilizers on animal resistance to the adequate stimuli of the vestibular apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maksimovich, Y. B.; Khinchikashvili, N. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of tranquilizers on vestibulospinal reflexes and motor activity was studied in 900 centrifuged albino mice. Actometric studies have shown that the tranquilizers have a group capacity for increasing animal resistance to the action of adequate stimuli to the vestibular apparatus.

  3. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conducting clinical investigations of a drug is to distinguish the effect of a drug from other influences... recognized by the scientific community as the essentials of an adequate and well-controlled clinical... randomization and blinding of patients or investigators, or both. If the intent of the trial is to...

  4. Final 2004 Report on Adequate Yearly Progress in the Montgomery County Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jose W.

    2005-01-01

    The vast majority of Montgomery County public schools made sufficient progress on state testing and accountability standards in 2004 to comply with the adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements under the "No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001." Information released by the Maryland State Department of Education (MSDE) in October 2004 shows that…

  5. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  6. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  7. Estimates of Adequate School Spending by State Based on National Average Service Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Jerry

    1983-01-01

    Proposes a method for estimating expenditures per student needed to provide educational adequacy in each state. Illustrates the method using U.S., Arkansas, New York, Texas, and Washington State data, covering instruction, special needs, operations and maintenance, administration, and other costs. Estimates ratios of "adequate" to actual spending…

  8. Leadership Style and Adequate Yearly Progress: A Correlational Study of Effective Principal Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leapley-Portscheller, Claudia Iris

    2008-01-01

    Principals are responsible for leading efforts to reach increasingly higher levels of student academic proficiency in schools associated with adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements. The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to identify the degree to which perceptions of principal transformational, transactional, and…

  9. Percentage of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels Are Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels are Adequately Controlled High cholesterol can double a ... with High Cholesterol that is Controlled by Education Level 8k4c-k22f Download these data » Click on legends ...

  10. 42 CFR 413.24 - Adequate cost data and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adequate cost data and cost finding. 413.24 Section 413.24 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY...

  11. Principals' Perceptions of Effective Strategies in Meeting Adequate Yearly Progress in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jadie K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of principals who have met Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) with the special education subgroup. This was a qualitative study, utilizing interviews to answer the research questions. The first three research questions analyzed the areas of assessment, building-level leadership, and curriculum…

  12. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The ...

  13. Evaluating Rural Progress in Mathematics Achievement: Threats to the Validity of "Adequate Yearly Progress"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung

    2003-01-01

    This article examines major threats to the validity of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in the context of rural schools. Although rural students and their schools made significant academic progress in the past on national and state assessments, the current goal of AYP turns out to be highly unrealistic for them unless states set far lower…

  14. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION...

  15. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION...

  16. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION...

  17. What Is the Cost of an Adequate Vermont High School Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, Frank D.

    2010-01-01

    Access to an adequate education has been widely considered an undeniable right since Chief Justice Warren stated in his landmark decision that "Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments...it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an…

  18. Nuclear safety technology and public acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienle, F.

    1985-11-01

    In the years 1976 to 1982 officialdom intensified the safety regulations in German nuclear power plants out of all proportion, without actually bringing about a recognizable plus in safety or indeed a greater acceptance by the public of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Although the risk to employees of nuclear power plants and to the population living in their vicinity is substantially smaller than the dangers of modern civilization, the general public still regards with concern the consequences of radioactive exposure and the hazards to later generations from long-life radionuclides. The task for the coming years must be to maintain the safety standard now attained, while simultaneously reducing those exaggerated individual requirements in order to establish a balance in safety precautions. Additionally, a proposal put forward by Sir Walter Marshall, Chairman of the CEGB, should be pursued, i.e., to put the presumed risks of nuclear energy into their correct perspective in the public eye using comprehensible comparisons such as the risks from active or passive smoking. This cannot be accomplished by quoting abstract statistics.

  19. Vaccine Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  20. Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Safety policies, procedures, and related information are presented in this manual to assist school personnel in a continuing program of accident prevention. Chapter 1 discusses safety education and accident prevention in general. Chapter 2 covers traffic regulations relating to school safety patrols, school bus transportation, bicycles, and…

  1. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-02-11

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser safety audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe use of Lasers references this requirement in several sections: (1) Section 1.3.2 LSO Specific Responsibilities states under Hazard Evaluation, ''The LSO shall be responsible for hazards evaluation of laser work areas''; (2) Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''; and (3) Appendix D, under Survey and Inspections, it states, ''the LSO will survey by inspection, as considered necessary, all areas where laser equipment is used''. Therefore, for facilities using Class 3B and or Class 4 lasers, audits for laser safety compliance are expected to be conducted. The composition, frequency and rigueur of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms. In many institutions, a sole Laser Safety Officer (LSO) or a number of Deputy LSO's perform these audits. For that matter, there are institutions that request users to perform a self-assessment audit. Many items on the common audit list and the associated findings are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the LSO or auditor in particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage is an example; to one set of eyes a particular arrangement might be completely adequate, while to another the installation may be inadequate. In order to provide more consistency, the National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (NIF-LLNL) has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. These criteria are distributed to laser users, and they serve two broad purposes: first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor, and second, it is an

  2. Fusion reactor breeder material safety compatibility studies

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W.; Cohen, S.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1983-09-01

    Tritium breeder material selection for fusion reactors is strongly influenced by the desire to minimize safety and environmental concerns. Breeder material safety compatibility studies are being conducted to identify and characterize breeder-coolant-material interactions under postulated reactor accident conditions. Recently completed scoping compatibility tests indicate the following. 1. Ternary oxides (LiAlO/sub 2/, Li/sub 2/ZrO/sub 3/, Li/sub 2/SiO/sub 3/, Li/sub 4/SiO/sub 4/, and LiTiO/sub 3/) at postulated blanket operating temperatures are chemically compatible with water coolant, while liquid lithium and Li/sub 7/Pb/sub 2/ reactions with water generate heat, aerosol, and hydrogen. 2. Lithium oxide and 17Li-83Pb alloy react mildly with water requiring special precautions to control hydrogen release. 3. Liquid lithium reacts substantially, while 17Li83Pb alloy reacts mildly with concrete to produce hydrogen. 4. Liquid lithium-air reactions may present some major safety concerns. Additional scoping tests are needed, but the ternary oxides, lithium oxide, and 17Li-83Pb have definite safety advantages over liquid lithium and Li/sub 7/Pb/sub 2/. The ternary oxides present minimal safetyrelated problems when used with water as coolant, air or concrete; but they do require neutron multipliers, which may have safety compatibility concerns with surrounding materials. The combined favorable neutronics and minor safety compatibility concerns of lithium oxide and 17Li-83Pb make them prime candidates as breeder materials. Current safety efforts are directed toward assessing the compatibility of lithium oxide and the lithium-lead alloy with coolants and other materials.

  3. Worker health and safety in concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Mitloehner, F M; Calvo, M S

    2008-04-01

    A trend in consolidating livestock and poultry operations into concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) potentially increases farm worker exposure to the hazards associated with high animal density conditions. The two main contributors of documented injury (fatal and non-fatal) are related to accidents with machinery and animals. Tractor rollovers are the leading accident in the area of farming machinery issues; kicks, bites, and workers being pinned between animals and fixed objects are non-machinery issues typically caused by inadequate precautions taken in the vicinity of livestock. These types of accidents are well documented; however, recommended safety strategies continue to be studied to reduce the risks and numbers of injuries associated with both machines and animals. Unlike accidents involving machinery and animals, air emission exposure and potential health effects from CAFOs are not well documented. CAFOs have the potential to show higher gaseous and particulate matter emissions compared to smaller farms. Pollutants like hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, and endotoxin are emitted on CAFOs and can potentially affect worker health. These specific air emissions, their sources, and some of their harmful capabilities have been identified, and regulations have been implemented to create improved work environments on CAFOs. Despite such precautions, farm workers continue to report respiratory health symptoms related to their work environment. Air pollutant exposure and its health effects on farm workers require focused research to arrive at improved safety strategies that include mitigation techniques and protective gear to minimize adverse effects of working in CAFOs. PMID:18524283

  4. IMPORTANCE OF SAFETY CULTURE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Spitalnik, J.

    2004-10-06

    Safety Management has lately been considered by some Nuclear Regulatory agencies as the tool on which to concentrate their efforts to implement modern regulation structures, because Safety Culture was said to be difficult to monitor. However, Safety Culture can be assessed and monitored even if it is problematical to make Safety Culture the object of regulation. This paper stresses the feasibility and importance of Safety Culture Assessment based on self-assessment applications performed in several nuclear organizations in Latin America. Reasons and ownership for assessing Safety Culture are discussed, and relevant aspects considered for setting up and programming such an assessment are shown. Basic principles that were taken into account, as well as financial and human resources used in actual self-assessments are reviewed, including the importance of adequate statistical analyses and the necessity of proper feed-back of results. The setting up of action plans to enhance Safety Culture is the final step of the assessment program that once implemented will enable to establish a Safety Culture monitoring process within the organization.

  5. The concept of adequate causation and Max Weber's comparative sociology of religion.

    PubMed

    Buss, A

    1999-06-01

    Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, studied in isolation, shows mainly an elective affinity or an adequacy on the level of meaning between the Protestant ethic and the 'spirit' of capitalism. Here it is suggested that Weber's subsequent essays on 'The Economic Ethics of World Religions' are the result of his opinion that adequacy on the level of meaning needs and can be verified by causal adequacy. After some introductory remarks, particularly on elective affinity, the paper tries to develop the concept of adequate causation and the related concept of objective possibility on the basis of the work of v. Kries on whom Weber heavily relied. In the second part, this concept is used to show how the study of the economic ethics of India, China, Rome and orthodox Russia can support the thesis that the 'spirit' of capitalism, although it may not have been caused by the Protestant ethic, was perhaps adequately caused by it. PMID:15260028

  6. A novel strategy to overcome resistance in stent placement at lesion site after adequate predilatation.

    PubMed

    Jain, D; Tolg, R; Katus, H A; Richardt, G

    2000-12-01

    Resistance was encountered in passing a 3 x 18 mm stent across a lesion in the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery. Successive changes in stent with repeated balloon dilatations did not succeed. Finally, a 9 mm stent was passed across the lesion and deployed at the site of maximal resistance. The 18 mm stent was then placed through this stent. A novel strategy to overcome resistance in the stent passage through the lesion after an adequate balloon predilatation is reported. PMID:11103034

  7. Myth 19: Is Advanced Placement an Adequate Program for Gifted Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Shelagh A.

    2009-01-01

    Is it a myth that Advanced Placement (AP) is an adequate program for gifted students? AP is so covered with myths and assumptions that it is hard to get a clear view of the issues. In this article, the author finds the answer about AP by looking at current realties. First, AP is hard for gifted students to avoid. Second, AP never was a program…

  8. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  9. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  10. Self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction differences in women with adequate and inadequate prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Higgins, P; Murray, M L; Williams, E M

    1994-03-01

    This descriptive, retrospective study examined levels of self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction with prenatal care in 193 low-risk postpartal women who obtained adequate and inadequate care. The participants were drawn from a regional medical center and university teaching hospital in New Mexico. A demographic questionnaire, the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory, the personal resource questionnaire part 2, and the prenatal care satisfaction inventory were used for data collection. Significant differences were found in the level of education, income, insurance, and ethnicity between women who received adequate prenatal care and those who received inadequate care. Women who were likely to seek either adequate or inadequate prenatal care were those whose total family income was $10,000 to $19,999 per year and high school graduates. Statistically significant differences were found in self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction between the two groups of women. Strategies to enhance self-esteem and social support have to be developed to reach women at risk for receiving inadequate prenatal care. PMID:8155221

  11. National Safety Council

    MedlinePlus

    ... Introduction Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Journey to Safety Excellence Join the ... Safety Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Journey to Safety Excellence Join the ...

  12. Biotechnology-based foods: is there a third way between the precaution principle and an overly enthusiastic dissemination of GMO?

    PubMed

    Meningaud, J P; Moutel, G; Herv, C

    2000-01-01

    The demand for consumer safety with regard to the food-processing industry is becoming, legitimately, more and more urgent. If ingested drugs can carry deleterious effects that exceed the beneficial effect that the research was initially undertaken for, then the same can only be the case for foods that stem from the same new biotechnologies, zero risk being non existent. PMID:11289641

  13. Falls and Fear of Falling among Community-Dwelling Seniors: The Dynamic Tension between Exercising Precaution and Striving for Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Hobson, Sandra; Melles, Pauline; Kloseck, Marita; Vandervoort, Anthony; Crilly, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the everyday experience of community-dwelling elders, with particular attention to seniors' perceptions of safety, fear of falling, independence, and quality of life. We also aimed to identify contextual factors that influence the health of elders who had fallen and/or had a fear of…

  14. Efficacy and Tolerability of Telmisartan Plus Amlodipine in Asian Patients Not Adequately Controlled on Either Monotherapy or on Low-Dose Combination Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dingliang; Gao, Pingjin; Yagi, Nobutaka

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the telmisartan plus amlodipine (T/A) single-pill combination (SPC) in Asian patients with hypertension whose blood pressure (BP) was not adequately controlled on either monotherapy or on low-dose combination therapy. Patients and Methods. Data are presented from five Boehringer Ingelheim-sponsored phase 3, double-blind, 8-week, studies: two studies in nonresponders to amlodipine (data pooled for amlodipine), two studies on nonresponders to telmisartan (pooled data), and one on nonresponders to low-dose T/A SPC. Results. After 8 weeks' treatment, mean reductions from the reference baseline in diastolic BP (DBP; primary endpoint), systolic BP (SBP), and SBP, DBP goal, and response rates were higher with the T/A SPC than respective monotherapies. The T80/A5 SPC resulted in greater reductions in DBP and SBP, and higher DBP goal and response rate than the low-dose T40/A5 SPC. Peripheral edema incidence was low (amlodipine 0.5%, telmisartan 0.0%, and T/A SPC 0.7%). Discussion and Conclusion. In Asian patients whose BP is not adequately controlled with telmisartan or amlodipine monotherapy, T/A SPC treatment results in greater BP reduction, and higher DBP and SBP goal and response rates. The safety and tolerability of the T/A SPC are comparable to those of the respective monotherapies and consistent with those reported in previous studies. PMID:24719757

  15. Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, W. J.

    2014-05-01

    Wim J. de Lange, Geert F. Prinsen, Jacco H. Hoogewoud, Ab A Veldhuizen, Joachim Hunink, Erik F.W. Ruijgh, Timo Kroon Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses

  16. Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, Wim; Prinsen, Geert.; Hoogewoud, Jacco; Veldhuizen, Ab; Ruijgh, Erik; Kroon, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with? by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses. Regional expertise is welcomed in the calibration phase of NHI. It aims to reduce uncertainties by improving the

  17. Using Addenda in Documented Safety Analysis Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas S. Swanson; Michael A. Thieme

    2003-06-01

    This paper discusses the use of addenda to the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Addenda were prepared for several systems and processes at the facility that lacked adequate descriptive information and hazard analysis in the DSA. They were also prepared for several new activities involving unreviewed safety questions (USQs). Ten addenda to the RWMC DSA have been prepared since the last annual update.

  18. Using Addenda in Documented Safety Analysis Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.S.; Thieme, M.A.

    2003-06-16

    This paper discusses the use of addenda to the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Addenda were prepared for several systems and processes at the facility that lacked adequate descriptive information and hazard analysis in the DSA. They were also prepared for several new activities involving unreviewed safety questions (USQs). Ten addenda to the RWMC DSA have been prepared since the last annual update.

  19. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-06-13

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe Use of Lasers references this requirement through several sections. One such reference is Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''. The composition, frequency and rigor of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms It is common for audit findings from one inspector or inspection to the next to vary even when reviewing the same material. How often has one heard a comment, ''well this area has been inspected several times over the years and no one ever said this or that was a problem before''. A great number of audit items, and therefore findings, are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the auditor to particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage, to one set of eyes might be completely adequate, while to another, inadequate. In order to provide consistency, the Laser Safety Office of the National Ignition Facility Directorate has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. The criteria are distributed to laser users. It serves two broad purposes; first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor. Second, it is an opportunity to explain audit items to the laser user and thus the reasons for some of these items, such as labelling of beam blocks.

  20. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  1. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8-10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100-199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  2. Nuclear safety as applied to space power reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Current space nuclear power reactor safety issues are discussed with respect to the unique characteristics of these reactors. An approach to achieving adequate safety and a perception of safety is outlined. This approach calls for a carefully conceived safety program which makes uses of lessons learned from previous terrestrial power reactor development programs. This approach includes use of risk analyses, passive safety design features, and analyses/experiments to understand and control off-design conditions. The point is made that some recent accidents concerning terrestrial power reactors do not imply that space power reactors cannot be operated safety.

  3. Chronic leg ulcer: does a patient always get a correct diagnosis and adequate treatment?

    PubMed

    Mooij, Michael C; Huisman, Laurens C

    2016-03-01

    Patients with chronic leg ulcers have severely impaired quality of life and account for a high percentage of annual healthcare costs. To establish the cause of a chronic leg ulcer, referral to a center with a multidisciplinary team of professionals is often necessary. Treating the underlying cause diminishes healing time and reduces costs. In venous leg ulcers adequate compression therapy is still a problem. It can be improved by training the professionals with pressure measuring devices. A perfect fitting of elastic stockings is important to prevent venous leg ulcer recurrence. In most cases, custom-made stockings are the best choice for this purpose. PMID:26916772

  4. Determining Adequate Margins in Head and Neck Cancers: Practice and Continued Challenges.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle D

    2016-09-01

    Margin assessment remains a critical component of oncologic care for head and neck cancer patients. As an integrated team, both surgeons and pathologists work together to assess margins in these complex patients. Differences in method of margin sampling can impact obtainable information and effect outcomes. Additionally, what distance is an "adequate or clear" margin for patient care continues to be debated. Ultimately, future studies and potentially secondary modalities to augment pathologic assessment of margin assessment (i.e., in situ imaging or molecular assessment) may enhance local control in head and neck cancer patients. PMID:27469263

  5. Family Structure Types and Adequate Utilization of Antenatal Care in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Hsu, Yi-Hsin Elsa; Huang, Nicole; Chien, Li-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Features of the health care delivery system may not be the only expounding factors of adequate utilization of antenatal care among women. Other social factors such as the family structure and its environment contribute toward pregnant women's utilization of antenatal care. An understanding of how women in different family structure types and social groups use basic maternal health services is important toward developing and implementing maternal health care policy in the post-Millennium Development Goal era, especially in the sub-Saharan Africa where maternal mortality still remains high. PMID:27214674

  6. Working group on the “adequate minimum” V=volcanic observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, R.I.

    1982-01-01

    A working group consisting of R. I. Tilling (United States, Chairman), M. Espendola (Mexico), E. Malavassi (Costa Rica), L. Villari (Italy), and J.P Viode (France) met on the island of Guadeloupe on February 20, 1981, to discuss informally the requirements for a "Minimum" volcano observatory, one which would have the essential monitoring equipment and staff to provide reliable information on the state of an active volcno. Given the premise that any monitoring of a volcano is better than none at all, the owrking group then proceeded to consider the concept of an "adequate minimum" observatory. 

  7. Safety Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  8. Solidifying Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covault, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Solidifying Safety: NASA s new safety organization spools up, as the 1SS program grapples with long-term risk. 2. Earth to Orbit O'Keefe telling skeptical lawmakers Orbital Space Plan (OSP) will cover exploration vision. China's rapid pace.

  9. Safety First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Ned Miller does not take security lightly. As director of campus safety and emergency management at the Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC), any threat requires serious consideration. As community college administrators adopt a more proactive approach to campus safety, many institutions are experimenting with emerging technologies, including…

  10. AFR-100 safety analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Sumner, T.; Moisseytsev, A.; Wei, T. Y. C.

    2012-07-01

    The Advanced Fast Reactor-100 (AFR-100) is Argonne National Laboratory's 250 MWth metal-fueled modular sodium-cooled pool-type fast reactor concept. [1] A series of accident sequences that focused on the AFR-100's ability to provide protection against reactor damage during low probability accident sequences resulting from multiple equipment failures were examined. Protected and Unprotected Loss of Flow (PLOF and ULOF) and Unprotected Transient Over-Power (UTOP) accidents were simulated using the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 safety analysis code. The large heat capacity of the sodium in the pool-type reactor allows the AFR-100 to absorb large amounts of energy during a PLOF with relatively small temperature increases throughout the system. During a ULOF with a 25-second flow halving time, coolant and cladding temperatures peak around 720 deg. C within the first minute before reactivity feedback effects decrease power to match the flow. Core radial expansion and fuel Doppler provide the necessary feedback during the UTOP to bring the system back to critical before system temperatures exceed allowable limits. Simulation results indicate that adequate ULOF safety margins exist for the AFR-100 design with flow halving times of twenty-five seconds. Significant safety margins are maintained for PLOF accidents as well as UTOP accidents if a rod stop is used. (authors)

  11. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing. 1

  12. Adequately-Sized Nanocarriers Allow Sustained Targeted Drug Delivery to Neointimal Lesions in Rat Arteries.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Ryosuke; Miura, Yutaka; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Chida, Tsukasa; Anraku, Yasutaka; Kishimura, Akihiro; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Kataoka, Kazunori; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2016-06-01

    In atherosclerotic lesions, the endothelial barrier against the bloodstream can become compromised, resulting in the exposure of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and intimal cells beneath. In theory, this allows adequately sized nanocarriers in circulation to infiltrate into the intimal lesion intravascularly. We sought to evaluate this possibility using rat carotid arteries with induced neointima. Cy5-labeled polyethylene glycol-conjugated polyion complex (PIC) micelles and vesicles, with diameters of 40, 100, or 200 nm (PICs-40, PICs-100, and PICs-200, respectively) were intravenously administered to rats after injury to the carotid artery using a balloon catheter. High accumulation and long retention of PICs-40 in the induced neointima was confirmed by in vivo imaging, while the accumulation of PICs-100 and PICs-200 was limited, indicating that the size of nanocarriers is a crucial factor for efficient delivery. Furthermore, epirubicin-incorporated polymeric micelles with a diameter similar to that of PICs-40 showed significant curative effects in rats with induced neointima, in terms of lesion size and cell number. Specific and effective drug delivery to pre-existing neointimal lesions was demonstrated with adequate size control of the nanocarriers. We consider that this nanocarrier-based drug delivery system could be utilized for the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:27183493

  13. Adequate Systemic Perfusion Maintained by a CentriMag during Acute Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Favaloro, Roberto R.; Bertolotti, Alejandro; Diez, Mirta; Favaloro, Liliana; Gomez, Carmen; Peradejordi, Margarita; Trentadue, Julio; Hellman, Lorena; Arzani, Yanina; Otero, Pilar Varela

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical circulatory support during severe acute heart failure presents options for myocardial recovery or cardiac replacement. Short-term circulatory support with the newest generation of magnetically levitated centrifugal-flow pumps affords several potential advantages. Herein, we present our experience with such a pump—the CentriMag® (Levitronix LLC; Waltham, Mass) centrifugal-flow ventricular assist device—in 4 critically ill patients who were in cardiogenic shock. From November 2007 through March 2008, 3 patients were supported after cardiac surgery, and 1 after chronic heart failure worsened. Two patients were bridged to heart transplantation, and 2 died during support. Perfusion during support was evaluated in terms of serum lactic acid levels and oxygenation values. In all of the patients, the CentriMag's pump flow was adequate, and continuous mechanical ventilation support was provided. Lactic acid levels substantially improved with CentriMag support and were maintained at near-normal levels throughout. At the same time, arterial pH, PO2, and carbon dioxide levels remained within acceptable ranges. No thromboembolic events or mechanical failures occurred. Our experience indicates that short-term use of the CentriMag ventricular assist device during acute heart failure can restore and adequately support circulation until recovery or until the application of definitive therapy. PMID:18941648

  14. The Evolution of System Safety at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Everett, Chris; Groen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The NASA system safety framework is in the process of change, motivated by the desire to promote an objectives-driven approach to system safety that explicitly focuses system safety efforts on system-level safety performance, and serves to unify, in a purposeful manner, safety-related activities that otherwise might be done in a way that results in gaps, redundancies, or unnecessary work. An objectives-driven approach to system safety affords more flexibility to determine, on a system-specific basis, the means by which adequate safety is achieved and verified. Such flexibility and efficiency is becoming increasingly important in the face of evolving engineering modalities and acquisition models, where, for example, NASA will increasingly rely on commercial providers for transportation services to low-earth orbit. A key element of this objectives-driven approach is the use of the risk-informed safety case (RISC): a structured argument, supported by a body of evidence, that provides a compelling, comprehensible and valid case that a system is or will be adequately safe for a given application in a given environment. The RISC addresses each of the objectives defined for the system, providing a rational basis for making informed risk acceptance decisions at relevant decision points in the system life cycle.

  15. Software safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.

  16. 49 CFR 228.331 - First aid and life safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false First aid and life safety. 228.331 Section 228.331... First aid and life safety. (a) An adequate first aid kit must be maintained and made available for occupants of a camp car for the emergency treatment of an injured person. (b) The contents of the first...

  17. 49 CFR 228.331 - First aid and life safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false First aid and life safety. 228.331 Section 228.331... First aid and life safety. (a) An adequate first aid kit must be maintained and made available for occupants of a camp car for the emergency treatment of an injured person. (b) The contents of the first...

  18. 49 CFR 228.331 - First aid and life safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false First aid and life safety. 228.331 Section 228.331... First aid and life safety. (a) An adequate first aid kit must be maintained and made available for occupants of a camp car for the emergency treatment of an injured person. (b) The contents of the first...

  19. Do measures commonly used in body image research perform adequately with African American college women?

    PubMed

    Kashubeck-West, Susan; Coker, Angela D; Awad, Germine H; Stinson, Rebecca D; Bledman, Rashanta; Mintz, Laurie

    2013-07-01

    This study examines reliability and validity estimates for 3 widely used measures in body image research in a sample of African American college women (N = 278). Internal consistency estimates were adequate (α coefficients above .70) for all measures, and evidence of convergent and discriminant validity was found. Confirmatory factor analyses failed to replicate the hypothesized factor structures of these measures. Exploratory factor analyses indicated that 4 factors found for the Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire were similar to the hypothesized subscales, with fewer items. The factors found for the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scales and the Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory-3 were not similar to the subscales developed by the scale authors. Validity and reliability evidence is discussed for the new factors. PMID:23731233

  20. Esmolol in a case of severe tetanus. Adequate haemodynamic control achieved despite markedly elevated catecholamine levels.

    PubMed

    Beards, S C; Lipman, J; Bothma, P A; Joynt, G M

    1994-03-01

    A patient with severe tetanus, who had a sympathetic crisis while sedated with 30 mg/h diazepam and 30 mg/h morphine, is described. Satisfactory control of the haemodynamic crisis was achieved with bolus doses of esmolol to a total of 180 mg. A disturbing finding was that although there was adequate control of the tachycardia and hypertension, arterial catecholamine levels remained markedly elevated. Adrenaline levels of 531 pg/ml (normal 10-110 pg/ml) and noradrenaline levels of 1,036 pg/ml (normal 100-500 pg/ml) were recorded when the patient had a systolic arterial pressure of 110 mmHg and a heart rate of 97/min. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:11218441

  1. Overcome of Carbon Catabolite Repression of Bioinsecticides Production by Sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis through Adequate Fermentation Technology.

    PubMed

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    The overcoming of catabolite repression, in bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain S22 was investigated into fully controlled 3 L fermenter, using glucose based medium. When applying adequate oxygen profile throughout the fermentation period (75% oxygen saturation), it was possible to partially overcome the catabolite repression, normally occurring at high initial glucose concentrations (30 and 40 g/L glucose). Moreover, toxin production yield by sporeless strain S22 was markedly improved by the adoption of the fed-batch intermittent cultures technology. With 22.5 g/L glucose used into culture medium, toxin production was improved by about 36% when applying fed-batch culture compared to one batch. Consequently, the proposed fed-batch strategy was efficient for the overcome of the carbon catabolite repression. So, it was possible to overproduce insecticidal crystal proteins into highly concentrated medium. PMID:25309756

  2. Adequate bases of phase space master integrals for gg → h at NNLO and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höschele, Maik; Hoff, Jens; Ueda, Takahiro

    2014-09-01

    We study master integrals needed to compute the Higgs boson production cross section via gluon fusion in the infinite top quark mass limit, using a canonical form of differential equations for master integrals, recently identified by Henn, which makes their solution possible in a straightforward algebraic way. We apply the known criteria to derive such a suitable basis for all the phase space master integrals in afore mentioned process at next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD and demonstrate that the method is applicable to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order as well by solving a non-planar topology. Furthermore, we discuss in great detail how to find an adequate basis using practical examples. Special emphasis is devoted to master integrals which are coupled by their differential equations.

  3. Safety Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Miriam C., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Outlines a cooperative effort in Iowa to eliminate dangerous or unwanted chemicals from school science storerooms. Also reviews the Council of State Science Supervisor's safety program and discusses how to prevent cuts and punctures from jagged glass tubing. (JN)

  4. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... are four basic steps to food safety at home: Clean - always wash your fruits and vegetables, hands, counters, and cooking utensils. Separate - keep raw foods to themselves. Germs can spread from one food ...

  5. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapic Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently enough and the ventilation flow is adequate enough to maintain CO2 1 Project Engineer, Space Suit and Crew Survival Systems Branch, Crew and Thermal Systems Division, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058/EC5. washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, the testing results performed in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing.

  6. Are the Psychological Needs of Adolescent Survivors of Pediatric Cancer Adequately Identified and Treated?

    PubMed Central

    Kahalley, Lisa S.; Wilson, Stephanie J.; Tyc, Vida L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Stancel, Heather H.; Hinds, Pamela S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe the psychological needs of adolescent survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or brain tumor (BT), we examined: (a) the occurrence of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional concerns identified during a comprehensive psychological evaluation, and (b) the frequency of referrals for psychological follow-up services to address identified concerns. Methods Psychological concerns were identified on measures according to predetermined criteria for 100 adolescent survivors. Referrals for psychological follow-up services were made for concerns previously unidentified in formal assessment or not adequately addressed by current services. Results Most survivors (82%) exhibited at least one concern across domains: behavioral (76%), cognitive (47%), and emotional (19%). Behavioral concerns emerged most often on scales associated with executive dysfunction, inattention, learning, and peer difficulties. CRT was associated with cognitive concerns, χ2(1,N=100)=5.63, p<0.05. Lower income was associated with more cognitive concerns for ALL survivors, t(47)=3.28, p<0.01, and more behavioral concerns for BT survivors, t(48)=2.93, p<0.01. Of survivors with concerns, 38% were referred for psychological follow-up services. Lower-income ALL survivors received more referrals for follow-up, χ2(1,N=41)=8.05, p<0.01. Referred survivors had more concerns across domains than non-referred survivors, ALL: t(39)=2.96, p<0.01, BT: t(39)=3.52, p<0.01. Trends suggest ALL survivors may be at risk for experiencing unaddressed cognitive needs. Conclusions Many adolescent survivors of cancer experience psychological difficulties that are not adequately managed by current services, underscoring the need for long-term surveillance. In addition to prescribing regular psychological evaluations, clinicians should closely monitor whether current support services appropriately meet survivors’ needs, particularly for lower-income survivors and those treated with CRT. PMID:22278930

  7. 41 CFR 102-75.150 - What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determines that the report of excess is adequate? 102-75.150 Section 102-75.150 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Utilization of Excess Real Property Examination for Acceptability § 102-75.150 What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate? When GSA...

  8. 41 CFR 102-75.150 - What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... determines that the report of excess is adequate? 102-75.150 Section 102-75.150 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Utilization of Excess Real Property Examination for Acceptability § 102-75.150 What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate? When GSA...

  9. 41 CFR 102-75.150 - What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... determines that the report of excess is adequate? 102-75.150 Section 102-75.150 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Utilization of Excess Real Property Examination for Acceptability § 102-75.150 What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate? When GSA...

  10. 41 CFR 102-75.150 - What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determines that the report of excess is adequate? 102-75.150 Section 102-75.150 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Utilization of Excess Real Property Examination for Acceptability § 102-75.150 What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate? When GSA...

  11. 41 CFR 102-75.150 - What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... determines that the report of excess is adequate? 102-75.150 Section 102-75.150 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Utilization of Excess Real Property Examination for Acceptability § 102-75.150 What happens when GSA determines that the report of excess is adequate? When GSA...

  12. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  13. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  14. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  15. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  16. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food... failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? (a) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of...

  17. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food... failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? (a) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of...

  18. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food... failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? (a) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of...

  19. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food... failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? (a) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of...

  20. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  1. NASA System Safety Handbook. Volume 2: System Safety Concepts, Guidelines, and Implementation Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Benjamin, Allan; Everett, Christopher; Feather, Martin; Rutledge, Peter; Sen, Dev; Youngblood, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This is the second of two volumes that collectively comprise the NASA System Safety Handbook. Volume 1 (NASASP-210-580) was prepared for the purpose of presenting the overall framework for System Safety and for providing the general concepts needed to implement the framework. Volume 2 provides guidance for implementing these concepts as an integral part of systems engineering and risk management. This guidance addresses the following functional areas: 1.The development of objectives that collectively define adequate safety for a system, and the safety requirements derived from these objectives that are levied on the system. 2.The conduct of system safety activities, performed to meet the safety requirements, with specific emphasis on the conduct of integrated safety analysis (ISA) as a fundamental means by which systems engineering and risk management decisions are risk-informed. 3.The development of a risk-informed safety case (RISC) at major milestone reviews to argue that the systems safety objectives are satisfied (and therefore that the system is adequately safe). 4.The evaluation of the RISC (including supporting evidence) using a defined set of evaluation criteria, to assess the veracity of the claims made therein in order to support risk acceptance decisions.

  2. Safety analysis report for the Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bengston, S.J.

    1994-05-01

    This safety analysis report outlines the safety concerns associated with the Waste Storage Facility located in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The three main objectives of the report are: define and document a safety basis for the Waste Storage Facility activities; demonstrate how the activities will be carried out to adequately protect the workers, public, and environment; and provide a basis for review and acceptance of the identified risk that the managers, operators, and owners will assume.

  3. System safety education focused on flight safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  4. The rat adequately reflects human responses to exercise in blood biochemical profile: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Goutianos, Georgios; Tzioura, Aikaterini; Kyparos, Antonios; Paschalis, Vassilis; Margaritelis, Nikos V; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Dipla, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2015-02-01

    Animal models are widely used in biology and the findings of animal research are traditionally projected to humans. However, recent publications have raised concerns with regard to what extent animals and humans respond similar to physiological stimuli. Original data on direct in vivo comparison between animals and humans are scarce and no study has addressed this issue after exercise. We aimed to compare side by side in the same experimental setup rat and human responses to an acute exercise bout of matched intensity and duration. Rats and humans ran on a treadmill at 86% of maximal velocity until exhaustion. Pre and post exercise we measured 30 blood chemistry parameters, which evaluate iron status, lipid profile, glucose regulation, protein metabolism, liver, and renal function. ANOVA indicated that almost all biochemical parameters followed a similar alteration pattern post exercise in rats and humans. In fact, there were only 2/30 significant species × exercise interactions (in testosterone and globulins), indicating different responses to exercise between rats and humans. On the contrary, the main effect of exercise was significant in 15/30 parameters and marginally nonsignificant in other two parameters (copper, P = 0.060 and apolipoprotein B, P = 0.058). Our major finding is that the rat adequately mimics human responses to exercise in those basic blood biochemical parameters reported here. The physiological resemblance of rat and human blood responses after exercise to exhaustion on a treadmill indicates that the use of blood chemistry in rats for exercise physiology research is justified. PMID:25677548

  5. Aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis for scattered sound in auditoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Molly K.; Xiang, Ning; Kleiner, Mendel

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this work was to apply an aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis technique to the analysis of sound scattering effects in auditoria. Time-frequency representations were developed as a motivated effort that takes into account binaural hearing, with a specific implementation of interaural cross-correlation process. A model of the human auditory system was implemented in the MATLAB platform based on two previous models [A. Härmä and K. Palomäki, HUTear, Espoo, Finland; and M. A. Akeroyd, A. Binaural Cross-correlogram Toolbox for MATLAB (2001), University of Sussex, Brighton]. These stages include proper frequency selectivity, the conversion of the mechanical motion of the basilar membrane to neural impulses, and binaural hearing effects. The model was then used in the analysis of room impulse responses with varying scattering characteristics. This paper discusses the analysis results using simulated and measured room impulse responses. [Work supported by the Frank H. and Eva B. Buck Foundation.

  6. [Rhythmic nuclear growth of adequately stimulated ganglia cells of acoustic nuclei (rat)].

    PubMed

    Köpf-Maier, P; Wüstenfeld, E

    1975-01-01

    Ganglia cells of the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei of white rats were irritated adequately for different periods or left untreated, respectively, and investigated karyometrically. The frequency distribution curves of the nuclear volumes were separated by means of an electronic curve resolver into the component curves, i.e. into groups of nuclei obeying exactly a Gaussian normal distribution and thus representing biologically uniform populations. The analysis of the mean values of the component curves led to the following results: 1. The mean values of the component curves can be arranged in 2 series having the pattern V1, V1 square root 2, V2, V2 square root 2, V4, V4 square root 2...2. The series V1, V1 square root 2, V2, V2 square root 2...is based on a geometrical series of the general formula an = k-qn. 3. It follows from these results that the nuclear volumes grow rhythmically by a factor of square root 2 and, consequently, that there is a periodical doubling in in the growth of the surface. PMID:1200386

  7. A test of the cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia in adequate and inadequate responders to reading intervention

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Denton, Carolyn A.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Cirino, Paul T.; Francis, David J.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia posits that cerebellar deficits are associated with reading disabilities and may explain why some individuals with reading disabilities fail to respond to reading interventions. We tested these hypotheses in a sample of children who participated in a grade 1 reading intervention study (n = 174) and a group of typically achieving children (n = 62). At posttest, children were classified as adequately responding to the intervention (n = 82), inadequately responding with decoding and fluency deficits (n = 36), or inadequately responding with only fluency deficits (n = 56). Based on the Bead Threading and Postural Stability subtests from the Dyslexia Screening Test-Junior, we found little evidence that assessments of cerebellar functions were associated with academic performance or responder status. In addition, we did not find evidence supporting the hypothesis that cerebellar deficits are more prominent for poor readers with “specific” reading disabilities (i.e., with discrepancies relative to IQ) than for poor readers with reading scores consistent with IQ. In contrast, measures of phonological awareness, rapid naming, and vocabulary were strongly associated with responder status and academic outcomes. These results add to accumulating evidence that fails to associate cerebellar functions with reading difficulties. PMID:20298639

  8. The placental pursuit for an adequate oxidant balance between the mother and the fetus

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Emilio A.; Krause, Bernardo; Ebensperger, German; Reyes, Roberto V.; Casanello, Paola; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Llanos, Anibal J.

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is the exchange organ that regulates metabolic processes between the mother and her developing fetus. The adequate function of this organ is clearly vital for a physiologic gestational process and a healthy baby as final outcome. The umbilico-placental vasculature has the capacity to respond to variations in the materno-fetal milieu. Depending on the intensity and the extensity of the insult, these responses may be immediate-, mediate-, and long-lasting, deriving in potential morphostructural and functional changes later in life. These adjustments usually compensate the initial insults, but occasionally may switch to long-lasting remodeling and dysfunctional processes, arising maladaptation. One of the most challenging conditions in modern perinatology is hypoxia and oxidative stress during development, both disorders occurring in high-altitude and in low-altitude placental insufficiency. Hypoxia and oxidative stress may induce endothelial dysfunction and thus, reduction in the perfusion of the placenta and restriction in the fetal growth and development. This Review will focus on placental responses to hypoxic conditions, usually related with high-altitude and placental insufficiency, deriving in oxidative stress and vascular disorders, altering fetal and maternal health. Although day-to-day clinical practice, basic and clinical research are clearly providing evidence of the severe impact of oxygen deficiency and oxidative stress establishment during pregnancy, further research on umbilical and placental vascular function under these conditions is badly needed to clarify the myriad of questions still unsettled. PMID:25009498

  9. A negative cranial computed tomographic scan is not adequate to support a diagnosis of pseudotumor cerebri.

    PubMed

    Said, Rana R; Rosman, N Paul

    2004-08-01

    A 10-year-old boy with daily headache for 1 month and intermittent diplopia for 1 week was found to have a unilateral partial abducens palsy and bilateral papilledema; otherwise, his neurologic examination showed no abnormalities. A cranial computed tomographic (CT) scan was normal. Lumbar puncture disclosed a markedly elevated opening pressure of > 550 mm of cerebrospinal fluid with normal cerebrospinal fluid. Medical therapy with acetazolamide for presumed pseudotumor cerebri was begun. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, done several days later because of continuing symptoms, unexpectedly showed multiple hyperintensities of cerebral white matter on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. Despite high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone for possible demyelinating disease, he failed to improve. A left temporal brain biopsy followed and disclosed an anaplastic oligodendroglioma. In a patient with features indicating pseudotumor cerebri, a negative cranial CT scan is not adequate to rule out underlying pathology; thus, MRI of the brain should probably always be performed. A revised definition of pseudotumor cerebri could better include "normal MRI of the brain" rather than "normal neuroimaging." PMID:15605471

  10. Cardiac catecholamines in rats fed copper deficient or copper adequate diets containing fructose or starch

    SciTech Connect

    Scholfield, D.J.; Fields, M.; Beal, T.; Lewis, C.G.; Behall, K.M. )

    1989-02-09

    The symptoms of copper (Cu) deficiency are known to be more severe when rats are fed a diet with fructose (F) as the principal carbohydrate. Mortality, in males, due to cardiac abnormalities usually occurs after five weeks of a 62% F, 0.6 ppm Cu deficient diet. These effects are not observed if cornstarch (CS) is the carbohydrate (CHO) source. Studies with F containing diets have shown increased catecholamine (C) turnover rates while diets deficient in Cu result in decreased norepinephrine (N) levels in tissues. Dopamine B-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.17.1) is a Cu dependent enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine (D) to N. An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of CHO and dietary Cu on levels of three C in cardiac tissue. Thirty-two male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Cu deficient or adequate diets with 60% of calories from F or CS for 6 weeks. N, epinephrine (E) and D were measured by HPLC. Statistical analysis indicates that Cu deficiency tends to decrease N levels, while having the reverse effect on E. D did not appear to change. These findings indicate that Cu deficiency but not dietary CHO can affect the concentration of N and E in rat cardiac tissue.

  11. Determination of the need for selenium by chicks fed practical diets adequate in vitamin E

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Su, Q.; Liu, C.H.; Sinisalo, M.; Combs, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the dietary needs for selenium (Se) by chicks fed either purified (amino acid-based) or practical (corn- and soy-based) diets that were adequate with respect to vitamin E (i.e., contained 100 IU/kg) and all other known nutrients with the single exception of Se (i.e., contained only 0.10 ppm Se). Studies were conducted in Ithaca using Single Comb White Leghorn chicks fed the purified basal diet and in Beijing using chicks of the same breed fed either the same purified basal diet or the practical diet formulated to be similar to that used in poultry production in some parts of China and the US. Results showed that each basal diet produced severe depletion of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) in plasma, liver and pancreas according to the same time-course, but that other consequences of severe uncomplicated Se deficiency were much more severe among chicks fed the purified diet (e.g., growth depression, pancreatic dysfunction as indicated by elevated plasma amylase and abnormal pancreatic histology). Chicks fed the practical Se-deficient diet showed reduced pancreas levels of copper, zinc and molybdenum and elevated plasma levels of iron; they required ca. 0.10 ppm dietary Se to sustain normal SeGSHpx in several tissues and to prevent elevated amylase in plasma. The dietary Se requirement of the chick is, therefore, estimated to be 0.10 ppm.

  12. [Level of awareness and the adequate application of sunscreen by beauticians].

    PubMed

    Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Machado, Érica Simionato; Vermelho, Sonia Cristina Soares Dias; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Cortez, Lucia Elaine Ranieri

    2016-06-01

    The scope of this research was to establish the level of awareness of beauticians regarding the importance of the application of sunscreen and to identify whether their patients had been properly instructed by these professionals. It involved a descriptive and exploratory study with interviews applying qualitative methodology among 30 beauticians. Data were gathered using the semi-structured interview technique in Maringá, in the southern state of Paraná. The data were analyzed using Atlas.ti software after applying quantitative analysis and response classification. Of those interviewed, 83.33% had a degree in Aesthetics, 20% attended ongoing training activities on sunscreen and 73.17% acquired sunscreen for its quality, though 86.67% were not familiar with sunscreens with natural anti-free radical components. Of those interviewed, 80% had never treated patients with skin cancer, though they reported having knowledge of care in relation to sun exposure and how to use the sunscreen and the relationship of these practices with the disease. The results showed that the recommendations and use of sunscreen by beauticians and users has been conducted in an adequate and conscientious manner. PMID:27383359

  13. The menopause, hormone replacement therapy and informed consent: are women in an underresourced country adequately aware?

    PubMed

    Maharaj, N R; Gangaram, R; Moodley, J

    2007-04-01

    Recent evidence on the long-term effects of HRT have resulted in increased emphasis being placed on individualised counselling, patient choice and informed consent when managing the menopause. We assessed whether women in an underresourced country have adequate knowledge of the menopause/HRT to engage in patient - provider discussions and provide full informed consent for HRT. Specific 'knowledge scores' for the menopause and HRT were developed and utilised in structured questionnaires to determine the existing levels of knowledge in 150 women from different racial, educational and occupational backgrounds. Some 92% were aware of the menopause and 54% were aware of HRT. Specific knowledge about the menopause and HRT overall was low (39% and 38%, respectively). There was a significant association between higher education levels, race and occupational status on the knowledge of the menopause but not of HRT. Television, radio and pamphlets were the preferred sources to gain further information. There is a need to create awareness and provide further education to women in underresourced countries about the menopause and HRT to empower them to make informed choices about their health during this period. PMID:17464817

  14. A high UV environment does not ensure adequate Vitamin D status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimlin, M. G.; Lang, C. A.; Brodie, A.; Harrison, S.; Nowak, M.; Moore, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    Queensland has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world and due to the high levels of solar UV in this region it is assumed that incidental UV exposure should provide adequate vitamin D status for the population. This research was undertaken to test this assumption among healthy free-living adults in south-east Queensland, Australia (27°S), at the end of winter. This research was approved by Queensland University of Technology Human Research Ethics Committee and conducted under the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki. 10.2% of the sample had serum vitamin D levels below 25nm/L (deficiency) and a further 32.3% had levels between 25nm/L and 50nm/L (insufficiency). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency can occur at the end of winter, even in sunny climates. The wintertime UV levels in south-east Queensland (UV index 4-6) are equivalent to summertime UV levels in northern regions of Europe and the USA. These ambient UV levels are sufficient to ensure synthesis of vitamin D requirements. We investigated individual UV exposure (through a self reported sun exposure questionnaire) and found correlations between exposure and Vitamin D status. Further research is needed to explore the interactions between the solar UV environment and vitamin D status, particularly in high UV environments, such as Queensland.

  15. [Adequate attention is required to the diagnosis and treatment of mild-symptom erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Deng, Chun-hua; Zhang, Ya-dong; Chen, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Mild-symptom erectile dysfunction (MSED) is commonly seen in clinical practice, but receives inadequate attention from both the patients and clinicians. Increasing researches have indicated that MSED is associated with not only unhealthy living habits and psychological factors but also the early progression of endothelial, metabolic and endocrine diseases. The diagnosis and treatment of MSED should be based on the relevant guidelines, with consideration of both its specific and common features. The therapeutic principle is a combination of integrated and individual solutions aimed at the causes of the disease. Drug intervention should be initiated if psychological therapy fails. Negligence of MSED may affect the quality of life of the patients and their partners, and what's more, might delay the management of some other severe underlying diseases. Adequate attention to the early diagnosis and treatment for MSED is of great significance for a deeper insight into the etiology of ED, the prevention of potential cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, and the improvement of the overall health of males. PMID:25707132

  16. Salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: what is the most adequate preventive strategy? A Swiss perspective

    PubMed Central

    Burnier, Michel; Wuerzner, Gregoire; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-01-01

    Among the various strategies to reduce the incidence of non-communicable diseases reduction of sodium intake in the general population has been recognized as one of the most cost-effective means because of its potential impact on the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Yet, this strategic health recommendation of the WHO and many other international organizations is far from being universally accepted. Indeed, there are still several unresolved scientific and epidemiological questions that maintain an ongoing debate. Thus what is the adequate low level of sodium intake to recommend to the general population and whether national strategies should be oriented to the overall population or only to higher risk fractions of the population such as salt-sensitive patients are still discussed. In this paper, we shall review the recent results of the literature regarding salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk and we present the recommendations recently proposed by a group of experts of Switzerland. The propositions of the participating medical societies are to encourage national health authorities to continue their discussion with the food industry in order to reduce the sodium intake of food products with a target of mean salt intake of 5–6 grams per day in the population. Moreover, all initiatives to increase the information on the effect of salt on health and on the salt content of food are supported. PMID:26321959

  17. Evaluation of catheter-manometer systems for adequate intravascular blood pressure measurements in small animals.

    PubMed

    Idvall, J; Aronsen, K F; Lindström, K; Ulmsten, U

    1977-09-30

    Various catheter-manometer systems possible for intravascular blood pressure measurments on rats have been elaborated and tested in vitro and in vivo. Using a pressure-step calibrator, it was observed from in vitro studies that microtransducers had superior frequency response compared to conventional transducers. Of the catheters tested, Pe-90 tapered to a 40 mm tip with an inner diameter of 0.3 mm had the best frequency response as judged from fall and settling times. Because of the damping effect, tapering increased fall time to 1.8 ms, which was still quite acceptable. By the same token settling time was minimized to 22.4 ms. With a special calculation method the theoretical percentile fault of the recordings was estimated to be 9.66%. When the measurement error was calculated from the actual in vivo recordings, it was found to be no more than 2.7%. These results show that the technique described is adequate for continuous intravascular blood pressure recordings on small animals. Finally it is emphasized that careful handling of the catheters and avoidance of stopcocks and air bubbles are essential for obtaining accurate and reproducible values. PMID:928971

  18. Is reimbursement for childhood immunizations adequate? evidence from two rural areas in colorado.

    PubMed Central

    Glazner, J. E.; Steiner, J. F.; Haas, K. J.; Renfrew, B.; Deutchman, M.; Berman, S.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess adequacy of reimbursement for childhood vaccinations in two rural regions in Colorado, the authors measured medical practice costs of providing childhood vaccinations and compared them with reimbursement. METHODS: A "time-motion" method was used to measure labor costs of providing vaccinations in 13 private and public practices. Practices reported non-labor costs. The authors determined reimbursement by record review. RESULTS: The average vaccine delivery cost per dose (excluding vaccine cost) ranged from $4.69 for community health centers to $5.60 for private practices. Average reimbursement exceeded average delivery costs for all vaccines and contributed to overhead in private practices. Average reimbursement was less than total cost (vaccine-delivery costs + overhead) in private practices for most vaccines in one region with significant managed care penetration. Reimbursement to public providers was less than the average vaccine delivery costs. CONCLUSIONS: Current reimbursement may not be adequate to induce private practices to provide childhood vaccinations, particularly in areas with substantial managed care penetration. PMID:12034911

  19. Adequate Vitamin D3 Supplementation During Pregnancy: Decreasing the Prevalence of Asthma and Food Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Jonathan; Cira, Courtney; Mazzella, Leanne; Bartyzel, Jim; Ramanna, Annisce; Strimel, Kayla; Waturuocha, Amara; Musser, Nathan; Burress, James; Brammer, Sarah; Wetzel, Robert; Horzempa, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is a secosterol that is naturally synthesized in the skin upon contact with ultraviolet rays. This vitamin can also be acquired from dietary and nutritional supplements. The active form, vitamin D3, is primarily responsible for calcium homeostasis and bone health. However, many recent studies have associated low levels of vitamin D3 with asthma and food allergies. In this review, we discuss literature to explore the potential that vitamin D3 deficiency may be contributing toward the development of asthma and food allergies. These studies indicate that mothers who supplement with doses of vitamin D3 recommended for daily consumption (400 IU) by the United States Food and Drug Administration is not enough to deliver adequate levels to breastfed infants. Because sufficient vitamin D3 serum levels correlate with a low incidence of asthma and food allergies, high dose vitamin D3 supplementation (4000 IU) by pregnant and breastfeeding women may limit the development of asthma and food allergies in newborns. PMID:27213185

  20. A test of the cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia in adequate and inadequate responders to reading intervention.

    PubMed

    Barth, Amy E; Denton, Carolyn A; Stuebing, Karla K; Fletcher, Jack M; Cirino, Paul T; Francis, David J; Vaughn, Sharon

    2010-05-01

    The cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia posits that cerebellar deficits are associated with reading disabilities and may explain why some individuals with reading disabilities fail to respond to reading interventions. We tested these hypotheses in a sample of children who participated in a grade 1 reading intervention study (n = 174) and a group of typically achieving children (n = 62). At posttest, children were classified as adequately responding to the intervention (n = 82), inadequately responding with decoding and fluency deficits (n = 36), or inadequately responding with only fluency deficits (n = 56). Based on the Bead Threading and Postural Stability subtests from the Dyslexia Screening Test-Junior, we found little evidence that assessments of cerebellar functions were associated with academic performance or responder status. In addition, we did not find evidence supporting the hypothesis that cerebellar deficits are more prominent for poor readers with "specific" reading disabilities (i.e., with discrepancies relative to IQ) than for poor readers with reading scores consistent with IQ. In contrast, measures of phonological awareness, rapid naming, and vocabulary were strongly associated with responder status and academic outcomes. These results add to accumulating evidence that fails to associate cerebellar functions with reading difficulties. PMID:20298639

  1. Neurocysticercosis, familial cerebral cavernomas and intracranial calcifications: differential diagnosis for adequate management.

    PubMed

    Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Alves-Leon, Soniza; Domingues, Flavio Sampaio; Frossard, João Thiago; Lopes, Selva Paraguassu; Souza, Jorge Marcondes de

    2016-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an endemic disease and important public health problem in some areas of the World and epilepsy is the most common neurological manifestation. Multiple intracranial lesions, commonly calcified, are seen on cranial computed tomography (CT) in the chronic phase of the disease and considered one of the diagnostic criteria of the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the test that better depicts the different stages of the intracranial cysts but does not show clearly calcified lesions. Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM), also known as cerebral cavernomas, are frequent vascular malformations of the brain, better demonstrated by MRI and have also epilepsy as the main form of clinical presentation. When occurring in the familial form, cerebral cavernomas typically present with multiple lesions throughout the brain and, very often, with foci of calcifications in the lesions when submitted to the CT imaging. In the countries, and geographic areas, where NCC is established as an endemic health problem and neuroimaging screening is done by CT scan, it will be important to consider the differential diagnosis between the two diseases due to the differences in adequate management. PMID:27332076

  2. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...

  3. System Design and the Safety Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, Darrel

    2008-05-06

    The objective of this paper is to present the Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC (BJC) Lessons Learned for system design as it relates to safety basis documentation. BJC has had to reconcile incomplete or outdated system description information with current facility safety basis for a number of situations in recent months. This paper has relevance in multiple topical areas including documented safety analysis, decontamination & decommissioning (D&D), safety basis (SB) implementation, safety and design integration, potential inadequacy of the safety analysis (PISA), technical safety requirements (TSR), and unreviewed safety questions. BJC learned that nuclear safety compliance relies on adequate and well documented system design information. A number of PIS As and TSR violations occurred due to inadequate or erroneous system design information. As a corrective action, BJC assessed the occurrences caused by systems design-safety basis interface problems. Safety systems reviewed included the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Fluorination System, K-1065 fire alarm system, and the K-25 Radiation Criticality Accident Alarm System. The conclusion was that an inadequate knowledge of system design could result in continuous non-compliance issues relating to nuclear safety. This was especially true with older facilities that lacked current as-built drawings coupled with the loss of 'historical knowledge' as personnel retired or moved on in their careers. Walkdown of systems and the updating of drawings are imperative for nuclear safety compliance. System design integration with safety basis has relevance in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the BJC Lessons Learned in this area. It will be of benefit to DOE contractors that manage and operate an aging population of nuclear facilities.

  4. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation safety concerns: a lesson from the Tuberculosis Ultraviolet Shelter Study: Murphy's Law affirmed.

    PubMed

    Brickner, Philip W; Vincent, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about the safety of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI) applications on human beings have been an issue at least since the introduction of this technology for practical use in the 1930s. The resurgence of tuberculosis (TB) in the United States in the mid-1980s led to a revival of interest in UV technology, a focus that had almost disappeared because alternate means of controlling TB had inaccurately been deemed successful. These failures in TB control led to a revival of UVGI use. And with that revival grew necessary and appropriate concerns about attempts to eliminate human overexposure. For all those working in the field of UVGI, safety issues must be a concern because when UVGI fixtures are placed improperly, or precautions ignored, room occupants are placed at risk of photokeratoconjunctivitis and photodermatitis. If safety is so prominent a concern, why do incidents of UV side effects continue to occur? See Murphy's Law. PMID:23278626

  5. Playground Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipes, James L.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the issues of risk, liability, and fun when landscaping playgrounds with safety in mind. The importance of playground surfaces and several preventive measures landscapers can use to reduce the risk of injury are discussed. Concluding comments address playground design features and liability. (GR)

  6. School Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Newsletter of the Comprehensive Center-Region VI, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The articles in this issue dealing with school safety discusses what rural and small urban settings are doing to prevent violence and to educate young people about prosocial alternatives to violence. The research is quite clear that female, minority, and gay students are the targets of a disproportionate amount of harassment and violence, both in…

  7. Safety First!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longfield, Judith

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how a hands-on chemistry investigation provided her the inspiration to develop an effective safety lesson for her third grade chemistry class. She began the lesson by demonstrating the use of pH indicator paper to show that ordinary household (white) vinegar was an acid. With the students, she wondered aloud…

  8. 45 CFR 2508.10 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and automatic record..., and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and...

  9. Prioritising pharmaceuticals for environmental risk assessment: Towards adequate and feasible first-tier selection.

    PubMed

    Roos, V; Gunnarsson, L; Fick, J; Larsson, D G J; Rudén, C

    2012-04-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment, and the concerns for negative effects on aquatic organisms, has gained increasing attention over the last years. As ecotoxicity data are lacking for most active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), it is important to identify strategies to prioritise APIs for ecotoxicity testing and environmental monitoring. We have used nine previously proposed prioritisation schemes, both risk- and hazard-based, to rank 582 APIs. The similarities and differences in overall ranking results and input data were compared. Moreover, we analysed how well the methods ranked seven relatively well-studied APIs. It is concluded that the hazard-based methods were more successful in correctly ranking the well-studied APIs, but the fish plasma model, which includes human pharmacological data, also showed a high success rate. The results of the analyses show that the input data availability vary significantly; some data, such as logP, are available for most API while information about environmental concentrations and bioconcentration are still scarce. The results also suggest that the exposure estimates in risk-based methods need to be improved and that the inclusion of effect measures at first-tier prioritisation might underestimate risks. It is proposed that in order to develop an adequate prioritisation scheme, improved data on exposure such as degradation and sewage treatment removal and bioconcentration ability should be further considered. The use of ATC codes may also be useful for the development of a prioritisation scheme that includes the mode of action of pharmaceuticals and, to some extent, mixture effects. PMID:22361586

  10. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Faria-Schützer, Débora Bicudo; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani de Castro; Alves, Vera Lucia Pereira; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control. Methods and Findings Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1) The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2) The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3) The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4) The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant. Conclusions During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman. PMID:26529600

  11. The rat adequately reflects human responses to exercise in blood biochemical profile: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Goutianos, Georgios; Tzioura, Aikaterini; Kyparos, Antonios; Paschalis, Vassilis; Margaritelis, Nikos V; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Dipla, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are widely used in biology and the findings of animal research are traditionally projected to humans. However, recent publications have raised concerns with regard to what extent animals and humans respond similar to physiological stimuli. Original data on direct in vivo comparison between animals and humans are scarce and no study has addressed this issue after exercise. We aimed to compare side by side in the same experimental setup rat and human responses to an acute exercise bout of matched intensity and duration. Rats and humans ran on a treadmill at 86% of maximal velocity until exhaustion. Pre and post exercise we measured 30 blood chemistry parameters, which evaluate iron status, lipid profile, glucose regulation, protein metabolism, liver, and renal function. ANOVA indicated that almost all biochemical parameters followed a similar alteration pattern post exercise in rats and humans. In fact, there were only 2/30 significant species × exercise interactions (in testosterone and globulins), indicating different responses to exercise between rats and humans. On the contrary, the main effect of exercise was significant in 15/30 parameters and marginally nonsignificant in other two parameters (copper, P = 0.060 and apolipoprotein B, P = 0.058). Our major finding is that the rat adequately mimics human responses to exercise in those basic blood biochemical parameters reported here. The physiological resemblance of rat and human blood responses after exercise to exhaustion on a treadmill indicates that the use of blood chemistry in rats for exercise physiology research is justified. PMID:25677548

  12. The adequate stimulus for avian short latency vestibular responses to linear translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Jones, S. M.; Colbert, S.

    1998-01-01

    Transient linear acceleration stimuli have been shown to elicit eighth nerve vestibular compound action potentials in birds and mammals. The present study was undertaken to better define the nature of the adequate stimulus for neurons generating the response in the chicken (Gallus domesticus). In particular, the study evaluated the question of whether the neurons studied are most sensitive to the maximum level of linear acceleration achieved or to the rate of change in acceleration (da/dt, or jerk). To do this, vestibular response thresholds were measured as a function of stimulus onset slope. Traditional computer signal averaging was used to record responses to pulsed linear acceleration stimuli. Stimulus onset slope was systematically varied. Acceleration thresholds decreased with increasing stimulus onset slope (decreasing stimulus rise time). When stimuli were expressed in units of jerk (g/ms), thresholds were virtually constant for all stimulus rise times. Moreover, stimuli having identical jerk magnitudes but widely varying peak acceleration levels produced virtually identical responses. Vestibular response thresholds, latencies and amplitudes appear to be determined strictly by stimulus jerk magnitudes. Stimulus attributes such as peak acceleration or rise time alone do not provide sufficient information to predict response parameter quantities. Indeed, the major response parameters were shown to be virtually independent of peak acceleration levels or rise time when these stimulus features were isolated and considered separately. It is concluded that the neurons generating short latency vestibular evoked potentials do so as "jerk encoders" in the chicken. Primary afferents classified as "irregular", and which traditionally fall into the broad category of "dynamic" or "phasic" neurons, would seem to be the most likely candidates for the neural generators of short latency vestibular compound action potentials.

  13. Operation QUICKSILVER. Onsite radiological safety report, October 1978-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, O.W.; Eubank, B.F.

    1980-02-01

    QUICKSILVER was the name assigned to the series of underground nuclear experiments conducted at the Nevada Test Site from October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979. Remote radiation measurements were taken during and after each nuclear experiment by a telemetry system. Monitors with portable radiation detection instruments surveyed reentry routes into ground zeroes before other planned entries were made. Continuous surveillance was provided while personnel were in radiation areas and appropriate precautions were taken to protect persons from unnecessary exposure to radiation and toxic gases. Protective clothing and equipment were issued as needed. Complete radiological safety and industrial hygiene coverage was provided during drilling and mineback operations. Telemetered and portable radiation detector measurements are listed. Detection instrumentation used is described and specific optional procedures are defined.

  14. Mechanical Demolition of Buildings with Concrete Asbestos Board Siding: Methodology, Precautions, and Results at the Hanford Central Plateau - 12417

    SciTech Connect

    Kehler, Kurt

    2012-07-01

    Since the start of its contract in 2008, the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) has demolished 25 buildings with concrete asbestos board (CAB) siding using mechanical means. While the asbestos contained in CAB siding is not friable in its manufactured form, concerns persist that mechanical methods of demolition have the potential to render the asbestos friable and airborne, therefore posing a health risk to demolition workers and the public. CH2M HILL's experience demonstrates that when carefully managed, mechanical demolition of CAB siding can be undertaken safely, successfully, and in compliance with regulatory requirements for the disposal of Class II Asbestos-Containing Material (ACM). While the number of buildings demolished at Hanford and the number of samples collected does not make a conclusive argument that CAB cannot be made friable with normal demolition techniques, it certainly provides a significant body of evidence for the success of the approach. Of course, there are many factors that affect how to demolish a structure and dispose of the waste. These factors will impact the success depending on each site. The most obvious factors which contribute to this success at Hanford are: 1. The availability of onsite waste disposal where the handling and cost of asbestos-containing waste is not much different than other potentially contaminated waste. Therefore, segregation of demolition debris from the potential asbestos contamination is not necessary from a debris handling or asbestos disposal aspect. 2. The space between structures is typically significant enough to allow for large exclusion zones. There are not many restrictions due to cohabitation issues or potential contamination of adjacent facilities. 3. The willingness of the regulators and client to understand the industrial safety issues associated with manual CAB removal. (authors)

  15. Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T'ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Jomaas, Grunde

    2014-01-01

    An international collaborative program is underway to address open issues in spacecraft fire safety. Because of limited access to long-term low-gravity conditions and the small volume generally allotted for these experiments, there have been relatively few experiments that directly study spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample sizes and environment conditions typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. The major constraint has been the size of the sample, with prior experiments limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. This lack of experimental data forces spacecraft designers to base their designs and safety precautions on 1-g understanding of flame spread, fire detection, and suppression. However, low-gravity combustion research has demonstrated substantial differences in flame behavior in low-gravity. This, combined with the differences caused by the confined spacecraft environment, necessitates practical scale spacecraft fire safety research to mitigate risks for future space missions. To address this issue, a large-scale spacecraft fire experiment is under development by NASA and an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status, and concept of this collaborative international project (Saffire). The project plan is to conduct fire safety experiments on three sequential flights of an unmanned ISS re-supply spacecraft (the Orbital Cygnus vehicle) after they have completed their delivery of cargo to the ISS and have begun their return journeys to earth. On two flights (Saffire-1 and Saffire-3), the experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter-scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. On one of the flights (Saffire-2), 9 smaller (5 x 30 cm) samples will be tested to evaluate NASAs material flammability screening tests

  16. Laboratory testing in management of patients with suspected Ebolavirus disease: infection control and safety.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, G L

    2015-08-01

    If routine laboratory safety precautions are followed, the risk of laboratory-acquired infection from handling specimens from patients with Ebolavirus disease (EVD) is very low, especially in the early 'dry' stage of disease. In Australia, border screening to identify travellers returning from EVD-affected west African countries during the 2014-2015 outbreak has made it unlikely that specimens from patients with unrecognised EVD would be sent to a routine diagnostic laboratory. Australian public health and diagnostic laboratories associated with hospitals designated for the care of patients with EVD have developed stringent safety precautions for EVD diagnostic and other tests likely to be required for supportive care of the sickest (and most infectious) patients with EVD, including as wide a range of point-of-care tests as possible. However, it is important that the stringent requirements for packaging, transport and testing of specimens that might contain Ebolavirus--which is a tier 1 security sensitive biology agent--do not delay the diagnosis and appropriate management of other potentially serious but treatable infectious diseases, which are far more likely causes of a febrile illness in people returning from west Africa. If necessary, urgent haematology, biochemistry and microbiological tests can be performed safely, whilst awaiting the results of EVD tests, in a PC-2 laboratory with appropriate precautions including: use of recommended personal protective equipment (PPE) for laboratory staff; handling any unsealed specimens in a class 1 or II biosafety cabinet; using only centrifuges with sealed rotors; and safe disposal or decontamination of all used equipment and laboratory waste. PMID:26132899

  17. HRET patient safety leadership fellowship: the role of "community" in patient safety.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Kathryn Kraft

    2010-01-01

    Community engagement is widely endorsed but poorly defined as a strategy to improve patient safety. With strong evidence that engaging patients can positively influence health outcomes, it is presumed that community engagement could improve patient safety. Leaning on the models from other disciplines such as public health, the adequate knowledge and application of the principles of community engagement are critical for this approach to be effective. This article provides a description of the theories supporting patient partnership and community engagement, reviews critical elements of successful community-based programs, and identifies the potential for empowering communities to improve patient safety. PMID:20354232

  18. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    PubMed

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  19. Can loss of balance from mesoscale eddies adequately power deep ocean mixing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. D.; Haine, T. W.; Read, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    The global ocean thermohaline circulation is partly composed of the sinking of dense surface waters at high latitudes. But in order to close the circulation and maintain the abyssal stratification, the dense waters must rise up again through vertical mixing. This process requires a source of energy roughly estimated to be 2 TW. Previous work has concluded that tides and winds may adequately supply the required power, but the conceivable role of loss of balance from mesoscale eddies, resulting in the generation of internal inertia-gravity waves and associated vertical mixing, has hitherto been considered to be 'of unknown importance' (Wunsch and Ferrari, 2004). We investigate the potential role of loss of balance, by studying the generation of internal inertia-gravity waves by balanced flow in a rotating two-layer annulus laboratory experiment (Williams et al., 2008). A photograph from the experiment is shown in the figure. As the Rossby number of the balanced flow decreases, the amplitude of the emitted inertia-gravity waves also decreases, but much less rapidly than is predicted by several dynamical theories. This finding suggests that inertia-gravity waves might be far more energised than previously thought. The balanced flow leaks roughly one per cent of its energy each rotation period into internal inertia-gravity waves at the peak of their generation. Crude extrapolation of this result to the global ocean suggests that the flux of energy from mesoscale eddies into internal waves may be as large as 1.5 TW. We claim no accuracy for this figure which is only indicative. Nevertheless, we are persuaded that generation of inertia-gravity waves from the balanced mesoscale flow may be an important source of energy for deep interior mixing, and deserves further study. Reference Williams, PD, Haine, TWN and Read, PL (2008) Inertia-Gravity Waves Emitted from Balanced Flow: Observations, Properties, and Consequences. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 65(11), pp 3543

  20. Planning 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography (4DCT) Cannot Adequately Represent Daily Intrafractional Motion of Abdominal Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Jiajia; Santanam, Lakshmi; Noel, Camille; Parikh, Parag J.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate whether planning 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) can adequately represent daily motion of abdominal tumors in regularly fractionated and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) patients. Methods and Materials: Intrafractional tumor motion of 10 patients with abdominal tumors (4 pancreas-fractionated and 6 liver-stereotactic patients) with implanted fiducials was measured based on daily orthogonal fluoroscopic movies over 38 treatment fractions. The needed internal margin for at least 90% of tumor coverage was calculated based on a 95th and fifth percentile of daily 3-dimensional tumor motion. The planning internal margin was generated by fusing 4DCT motion from all phase bins. The disagreement between needed and planning internal margin was analyzed fraction by fraction in 3 motion axes (superior-inferior [SI], anterior-posterior [AP], and left-right [LR]). The 4DCT margin was considered as an overestimation/underestimation of daily motion when disagreement exceeded at least 3 mm in the SI axis and/or 1.2 mm in the AP and LR axes (4DCT image resolution). The underlying reasons for this disagreement were evaluated based on interfractional and intrafractional breathing variation. Results: The 4DCT overestimated daily 3-dimensional motion in 39% of the fractions in 7 of 10 patients and underestimated it in 53% of the fractions in 8 of 10 patients. Median underestimation was 3.9 mm, 3.0 mm, and 1.7 mm in the SI axis, AP axis, and LR axis, respectively. The 4DCT was found to capture irregular deep breaths in 3 of 10 patients, with 4DCT motion larger than mean daily amplitude by 18 to 21 mm. The breathing pattern varied from breath to breath and day to day. The intrafractional variation of amplitude was significantly larger than intrafractional variation (2.7 mm vs 1.3 mm) in the primary motion axis (ie, SI axis). The SBRT patients showed significantly larger intrafractional amplitude variation than fractionated patients (3.0 mm vs 2